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Sample records for north queensland wet

  1. A Survey of Zoonotic Pathogens Carried by Non-Indigenous Rodents at the Interface of the Wet Tropics of North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chakma, S; Picard, J; Duffy, R; Constantinoiu, C; Gummow, B

    2017-02-01

    In 1964, Brucella was isolated from rodents trapped in Wooroonooran National Park (WNP), in Northern Queensland, Australia. Genotyping of bacterial isolates in 2008 determined that they were a novel Brucella species. This study attempted to reisolate this species of Brucella from rodents living in the boundary area adjacent to WNP and to establish which endo- and ecto-parasites and bacterial agents were being carried by non-indigenous rodents at this interface. Seventy non-indigenous rodents were trapped [Mus musculus (52), Rattus rattus (17) and Rattus norvegicus (1)], euthanized and sampled on four properties adjacent to the WNP in July 2012. Organ pools were screened by culture for Salmonella, Leptospira and Brucella species, real-time PCR for Coxiella burnetii and conventional PCR for Leptospira. Collected ecto- and endo-parasites were identified using morphological criteria. The percentage of rodents carrying pathogens were Leptospira (40%), Salmonella choleraesuis ssp. arizonae (14.29%), ectoparasites (21.42%) and endoparasites (87%). Brucella and C. burnetii were not identified, and it was concluded that their prevalences were below 12%. Two rodent-specific helminthic species, namely Syphacia obvelata (2.86%) and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis (85.71%), were identified. The most prevalent ectoparasites belonged to Laelaps spp. (41.17%) followed by Polyplax spp. (23.53%), Hoplopleura spp. (17.65%), Ixodes holocyclus (17.64%) and Stephanocircus harrisoni (5.88%), respectively. These ectoparasites, except S. harrisoni, are known to transmit zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia spp. from rat to rat and could be transmitted to humans by other arthropods that bite humans. The high prevalence of pathogenic Leptospira species is of significant public health concern. This is the first known study of zoonotic agents carried by non-indigenous rodents living in the Australian wet-tropical forest interface.

  2. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery.

  3. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia.

  4. Epithermal sinters of Paleozoic age in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, N. C.; Wood, D. G.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-08-01

    Silica sinters deposited from hot springs have been found associated with volcanic rocks of Late Devonian to late Carboniferous age in north Queensland, Australia. These deposits have many features in common with modern hot-spring sinters, such as those of the Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand. They occur associated with subaerial volcanic rocks and are locally found with air-fall tuffs and fluvial and lake deposits in which hydrothermal eruption breccias are common. The associated rocks are extensively hydrothermally altered and are cut by silica veins showing characteristic epithermal vein textures; the silica veins contain low-salinity fluid inclusions trapped at epithermal temperatures, and there is evidence of boiling. Textures preserved in the sinters are identical to those found in modern sinters; they include columnar structures similar to bacterial stromatolites described from Yellowstone National Park, as well as striated surfaces apparently resulting from silica deposition on filamentous algae. Plant fossils, including Oxroadia gracilis, are abundant. Criteria applied to identify these ancient sinters may be applied to other possible sinter deposits and may provide evidence indicating the level of exposure of the former geothermal system, which may be an important guide in exploration for epithermal precious-metal deposits.

  5. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldi sp. n., Austrarchaea hoskini sp. n., Austrarchaea karenae sp. n., Austrarchaea tealei sp. n., Austrarchaea thompsoni sp. n., Austrarchaea wallacei sp. n., Austrarchaea westi sp. n. and Austrarchaea woodae sp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  6. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  7. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  8. The epidemiology and clinical features of melioidosis in Far North Queensland: Implications for patient management

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, James D.; Smith, Simon; Binotto, Enzo; McBride, William J.; Currie, Bart J.; Hanson, Josh

    2017-01-01

    Background The epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of melioidosis vary around the world. It is essential to define the disease’s local features to optimise its management. Principal findings Between 1998 and 2016 there were 197 cases of culture confirmed melioidosis in Far North Queensland; 154 (78%) presented in the December-April wet season. 145 (74%) patients were bacteraemic, 58 (29%) were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and 27 (14%) died; nine (33%) of these deaths occurred within 48 hours of presentation. Pneumonia was the most frequent clinical finding, present in 101 (61%) of the 166 with available imaging. A recognised risk factor for melioidosis (diabetes, hazardous alcohol use, chronic renal disease, chronic lung disease, immunosuppression or malignancy) was present in 148 (91%) of 162 patients with complete comorbidity data. Despite representing only 9% of the region’s population, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Island (ATSI) people comprised 59% of the cases. ATSI patients were younger than non-ATSI patients (median (interquartile range): 46 (38–56) years versus 59 (43–69) years (p<0.001) and had a higher case-fatality rate (22/117 (19%) versus 5/80 (6.3%) (p = 0.01)). In the 155 patients surviving the initial intensive intravenous phase of treatment, eleven (7.1%) had disease recurrence, despite the fact that nine (82%) of these patients had received prolonged intravenous therapy. Recurrence was usually due to inadequate source control or poor adherence to oral eradication therapy. The case fatality rate declined from 12/44 (27%) in the first five years of the study to 7/76 (9%) in the last five (p = 0.009), reflecting national improvements in sepsis management. Conclusions Melioidosis in Far North Queensland is a seasonal, opportunistic infection of patients with specific comorbidities. The ATSI population bear the greatest burden of disease. Although the case-fatality rate is declining, deaths frequently occur early after

  9. Origin of north Queensland Cenozoic volcanism: Relationships to long lava flow basaltic fields, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, F. L.

    1998-11-01

    A plume model proposed for north Queensland late Cenozoic volcanism and long lava flow distribution combines basalt ages with recent seismic studies of Australia's mantle, regional stress fields, and plate motion. Several basalt fields overlie mantle "thermal" anomalies, and other fields outside these anomalies can be traced to them through past lithospheric motion. Elsewhere, anomalies close to Australia's eastern rift margin show little volcanism, probably due to gravity-enhanced compression. Since final collision of north Queensland with New Guinea, areas of basaltic volcanism have developed over 10 Myr, and episodes appear to migrate southward from 15° to 20°S. Long lava flows increase southward as area/volume of fields increases, but topography, vent distributions, and uplifts play a role. This is attributed to magmatic plume activation within a tensional zone, as lithosphere moves over mantle thermal anomalies. The plume model predicts peak magmatism under the McBride field, coincident with the Undara long lava flow and that long lava flow fields will erupt for another 5-10 Myr. Queensland's movement over a major N-S thermal system imparts a consistent isotopic signature to its northern younger basalts, distinct to basalts from older or more southern thermal systems. Australia's motion toward this northern thermal system will give north Queensland fields continued vigorous volcanism, in contrast to the Victorian field which is leaving its southern thermal system.

  10. Causes of morbidity and mortality of wild aquatic birds at Billabong Sanctuary, Townsville, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Greenhil, A R; Hedlefs, R; Skerratt, L F

    2012-03-01

    Infectious diseases are common causes of significant morbidity and mortality events of wild aquatic birds (WABs) worldwide. Reports of Australian events are infrequent. A 3-yr passive surveillance program investigating the common causes of morbidity and mortality of WABs was conducted at Billabong Sanctuary near Townsville, North Queensland, from April 2007 to March 2010. Forty-two carcasses were obtained and evaluated by clinico-pathologic, histologic, bacteriologic, and virologic (molecular) examinations. Morbidity and mortality were sporadic and more commonly observed in chicks and juvenile birds in April than other months of the year. Morbid birds were frequently unable to walk. Hemorrhagic lesions and infiltration of lymphocytes in various organs were the most common findings in dead birds. Identified bacterial diseases that could cause bird mortality were colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, and salmonellosis. Salmonella serotypes Virchow and Hvittingfoss were isolated from an Australian white ibis (Threskiornis molucca) chick and two juvenile plumed whistling ducks (Dendrocygna eytoni) in April 2007. These strains have been previously isolated from humans in North Queensland. A multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) detected Newcastle disease viral RNA (class 2 type) in one adult Australian pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) and a juvenile plumed whistling duck. No avian influenza viral RNA was detected from any sampled birds by the rRT-PCR for avian influenza. This study identified the public health importance of Salmonella in WABs but did not detect the introduction of the high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus in the population. A successful network was established between the property owner and the James Cook University research team through which dead birds, with accompanying information, were readily obtained for analysis. There is an opportunity for establishing a long-term passive disease surveillance program for WABs in North

  11. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  12. Going the distance--experiences of women with gynaecological cancer residing in rural remote north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele E; Usher, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Women who are diagnosed with gynaecological cancer face a difficult journey. For women residing in areas geographically removed from major health providers the journey can be much more difficult. While they 'make do' and 'struggle on', their lived experiences can provide valuable insight into the complex issues surrounding a cancer diagnosis in rural areas. This study aimed to understand their experiences through the women's stories and sought to identify the major themes impacting on these stories. This qualitative phenomenological study undertook interviews with seven women with gynaecological cancer who reside in rural and remote north Queensland. Analysis of the data collected revealed three themes: seeking answers at a distance; sharing information within a small community; and experiences of navigating the health system. The results show the inherent difficulties in accessing support in rural areas and the difficulties associated with travelling considerable distances to undergo treatment.

  13. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland.

  14. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  15. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  16. The 1993 dengue 2 epidemic in Charters Towers, North Queensland: clinical features and public health impact.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, W. J.; Mullner, H.; LaBrooy, J. T.; Wronski, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 an epidemic caused by dengue virus type 2 occurred in several North Queensland population centres. Charters Towers, estimated population 10,000, had 155 officially notified cases. An analysis of symptoms was undertaken using a random sample of 1000 residents to determine specificity of symptoms, the subclinical infection rate, and to establish the true extent of the epidemic. Retrospective diagnoses of dengue fever were based on the presence of both serum dengue 2 neutralizing antibody and presence of symptoms. An estimated 20% of the population had dengue fever. The rate of subclinical infections in this epidemic was 14.6%. There were no symptoms that were specific for dengue fever. Bleeding occurred more frequently in people who recalled a previous dengue infection during a dengue 1 epidemic 12 years earlier (55.6% vs. 16.8%, P = 0.003). Surveillance for future epidemics should be based on serological and virological confirmation of dengue virus infection amongst symptomatic patient. PMID:9747766

  17. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  18. Characterization of novel Brucella strains originating from wild native rodent species in North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tiller, Rebekah V; Gee, Jay E; Frace, Michael A; Taylor, Trevor K; Setubal, Joao C; Hoffmaster, Alex R; De, Barun K

    2010-09-01

    We report on the characterization of a group of seven novel Brucella strains isolated in 1964 from three native rodent species in North Queensland, Australia, during a survey of wild animals. The strains were initially reported to be Brucella suis biovar 3 on the basis of microbiological test results. Our results indicated that the rodent strains had microbiological traits distinct from those of B. suis biovar 3 and all other Brucella spp. To reinvestigate these rodent strains, we sequenced the 16S rRNA, recA, and rpoB genes and nine housekeeping genes and also performed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). The rodent strains have a unique 16S rRNA gene sequence compared to the sequences of the classical Brucella spp. Sequence analysis of the recA, rpoB, and nine housekeeping genes reveals that the rodent strains are genetically identical to each other at these loci and divergent from any of the currently described Brucella sequence types. However, all seven of the rodent strains do exhibit distinctive allelic MLVA profiles, although none demonstrated an amplicon for VNTR 07, whereas the other Brucella spp. did. Phylogenetic analysis of the MLVA data reveals that the rodent strains form a distinct clade separate from the classical Brucella spp. Furthermore, whole-genome sequence comparison using the maximal unique exact matches index (MUMi) demonstrated a high degree of relatedness of one of the seven rodent Brucella strains (strain NF 2653) to another Australian rodent Brucella strain (strain 83-13). Our findings strongly suggest that this group of Brucella strains isolated from wild Australian rodents defines a new species in the Brucella genus.

  19. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  20. Monitoring of wild birds for Newcastle disease virus in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M A; Burgess, G W; Karo-Karo, D; Cheam, A L; Skerratt, L F

    2012-01-01

    Wild aquatic birds (WABs) are considered as reservoir hosts for Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs) and may act as vectors for transferring these viruses to poultry, causing outbreaks of disease. A 3-year epidemiological study was conducted on WABs of north Queensland from April 2007 to March 2010. Swab and fresh moist faecal samples of WABs were screened to detect Newcastle disease viral (NDV) RNA by one-step real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in multiplex primers, targeting the matrix gene. The potential reactor samples in rRT-PCR were processed for sequencing of the different NDV genes using conventional PCR. The overall NDV RNA prevalence was 3.5% for live bird samples (N=1461) and 0.4% for faecal samples (N=1157). Plumed whistling ducks (PWDs) had a higher prevalence (4.2%) than Pacific black ducks (PBDs) (0.9%) (χ(2) test, p=0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between the proportion of reactor and non-reactor NDV RNA samples of PWDs and potential risk factors. The odds of reactor samples were 2.7 (95% Confidence Interval 1.5-4.9) times more likely in younger than older ducks (p=0.001) (data set B, multivariate analysis). Both NDV RNA class-one and class-two types were identified in samples of WABs (12 and 59, respectively) (Supplementary Table 1). Phylogenetic analysis of the matrix gene identified two reactor sequences of class-one type NDV RNA (PWD-48 and 55) which were closely related to the sequences of Australian Ibis and duck isolates (Fig. 2). Another reactor sample sequence was determined as class-two type NDV RNA (PWD-46, avirulent) based on analysis of the matrix and fusion genes which was more similar to the sequences of Australian I-2 progenitor virus and vaccine strain virus (Figs. 3 and 4). Our findings of higher prevalence in PWDs along with confirmation of class-one and class-two type NDV RNAs will significantly contribute to the design of

  1. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  2. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Misting for Control of Aedes in Cryptic Ground Containers in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Jacups, Susan P.; Rapley, Luke P.; Johnson, Petrina H.; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance. PMID:23358637

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis misting for control of Aedes in cryptic ground containers in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Jacups, Susan P; Rapley, Luke P; Johnson, Petrina H; Benjamin, Seleena; Ritchie, Scott A

    2013-03-01

    In Australia, dengue is not endemic, although the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti is established in far north Queensland (FNQ). Aedes albopictus has recently invaded the Torres Strait region, but is not established on mainland Australia. To maintain dengue-free, public health departments in FNQ closely monitor introduced dengue infections and confine outbreaks through rigorous vector control responses. To safeguard mainland Australia from Ae. albopictus establishment, pre-emptive strategies are required to reduce its breeding in difficult to access habitats. We compare the residual efficacy of VectoBac WDG, Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) formulation, as a residual treatment when misted across a typical FNQ bushland using a backpack mister (Stihl SR 420 Mist Blower) at two dose rates up to 16 m. Semi-field condition results, over 16 weeks, indicate that Bti provided high mortality rates (> 80%) sustained for 11 weeks. Mist application penetrated 16 m of dense bushland without efficacy decline over distance.

  4. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic wrench tectonics in eastern Australia: Insights from the North Pine Fault System (southeast Queensland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Rosenbaum, G.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pine Fault System (NPFS) in SE Queensland belongs to a series of NNW-striking sinistral faults that displaced Paleozoic to Cenozoic rock units in eastern Australia. We have studied the geometry and kinematics of the NPFS by utilizing gridded aeromagnetic data, digital elevation models, and field observations. The results indicate that all segments of the NPFS were subjected to sinistral reverse strike-slip faulting. Restorations of displaced magnetic anomalies indicate sinistral offsets ranging from ˜3.4 to ˜8.2 km. The existence of a (possibly) Late Triassic granophyre dyke parallel to one of the fault segments, and the occurrence of NNW-striking steeply dipping strike-slip and normal faults in the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous Maryborough Basin, indicate that the NPFS has likely been active during the Mesozoic. We propose that from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene, NNW-striking faults in eastern Australia, including the NPFS, were reactivated with oblique sinistral-normal kinematics in response to regional oblique extension associated with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. This interpretation is consistent with the modeled dominant NNE- to NNW-directed horizontal tensional stress in the Eocene. The latest movements along the NPFS involved sinistral transpressional kinematics, which was possibly related to far-field contractional stresses from collisional tectonics at the eastern and northern boundaries of the Australian plate in the Cenozoic. This sinistral-reverse oblique kinematics of the NPFS in the Cenozoic is in line with ˜ESE to ENE orientations of the modeled maximum horizontal stress in SE Queensland.

  5. The use of transplanted cultured tropical oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) to monitor Cd levels in North Queensland coastal waters (Australia).

    PubMed

    Olivier, Frédérique; Ridd, Michael; Klumpp, David

    2002-10-01

    Bivalves are commonly used to detect metal pollution in the marine environment. Commercially cultured Milky oysters (Saccostrea commercialis) were transplanted in various sites along the North Queensland coast and analyzed for two metals of potentially anthropogenic origin (Cd, Zn). To provide additional information, naturally occurring Black Lip oysters (Saccostrea echinata) were also collected at the transplantation sites. The study demonstrated that the oysters species transplanted are good bioindicators of these metal concentrations in tropical waters, sensitive to variations in the environment at concentrations which are much smaller than pollution signals commonly reported for temperate waters. Three transplant experiments were carried out from May 1999 to February 2000. Milky oysters transplanted to offshore areas (Orpheus Is., Kelso Reef) accumulated Cd in the soft parts whereas oysters sampled from cages placed in Ross Creek and the Herbert River estuaries showed a decrease in Cd concentration, which resulted from an increase in dry weight. Dry weight appeared to be an important covariant affecting Cd concentration in the oysters whereas it does not unambiguously affect Zn concentrations. For the duration of the experiments, oysters sampled from the Magnetic Is. reference site showed effectively constant Cd concentrations and total Cd contents which indicates that any seasonal cycle affecting metal concentration is weak. It was found that Cd accumulation in oysters increased as ambient dissolved Cd concentration decreased, from which it was concluded that for these oysters, the predominant source of Cd was from the particulate phase rather than the dissolved phase.

  6. Regional-scale investigation of the spatial distribution and origin of soluble salts in central north Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bui, Elisabeth N.; Moran, Christopher J.

    2000-02-01

    A method for regional assessment of the distribution of saline outbreaks is demonstrated for a large area (68 000 km2) in north Queensland, Australia. Soil samples were used in conjunction with a digital elevation model and a map of potentially saline discharge zones to examine the landscape distribution of soluble salts in the region. The hypothesis of atmospheric accession of salt was tested for the topographically defined catchment regions feeding into each potentially saline discharge area. Most catchments showed a salt distribution consistent with this hypothesis, i.e. %TSS was large near the discharge areas and decreased rapidly with distance uphill from the discharge areas. In some catchments, however, local saline outbreaks were apparent at significant distances uphill from discharge areas. The possibility of geological sources of this salt was examined by comparing random point distributions with the location of saline points with distance downhill from geological units (excluding points near discharge zones). The distribution of some saline outbreaks was consistent with the occurrence of Cambro-Ordovician metasediments, Devonian limestone, Upper Devonian-Lower Carboniferous volcanics, and Triassic sediments.

  7. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions.

  8. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  9. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem.

  10. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  11. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  12. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  13. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  14. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.

  15. Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Trout, M I; Henson, G; Senthuran, S

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort analysis of an admission database for the intensive care unit at The Townsville Hospital was undertaken to describe the characteristics and short-term outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The Townsville Hospital is the tertiary referral centre for Northern Queensland and services a region in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constitute 9.6% of the population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients were significantly younger and had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation, emergency admissions and transfers from another hospital. Despite these factors, intensive care mortality did not differ between groups (9.4% versus 7.7%, P=0.1). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III-j scores were noted in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population requiring emergency admission (65 versus 60, P=0.022) but were lower for elective admission (38 versus 42, P <0.001). Despite higher predicted hospital mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring emergency admission, no significant difference was observed (20.1% versus 19.1%, P=0.656). In a severity adjusted model, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status did not statistically significantly alter the risk of death (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 1.2, P=0.398). Though Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring intensive care differed in admission characteristics, mortality was comparable to other critically ill patients.

  16. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  17. An Analysis of Simulated Wet Deposition of Mercury from the North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous intercomparison of atmospheric mercury models in North America has been extended to compare simulated and observed wet deposition of mercury. Three regional-scale atmospheric mercury models were tested; CMAQ, REMSAD and TEAM. These models were each employed using thr...

  18. The geochemical and Srsbnd Nd isotopic characteristics of Paleozoic fractionated S-types granites of north Queensland: Implications for S-type granite petrogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champion, David C.; Bultitude, Robert J.

    2013-03-01

    Moderately to strongly fractionated S-type granites crop out extensively (> 2500 km2) in the central and eastern parts of the Hodgkinson Province, north Queensland, Australia. The granites have been subdivided in two major supersuites: the garnet-bearing Whypalla and cordierite-bearing Cooktown Supersuites; and a number of minor suites—including the extremely fractionated Wangetti and Mount Alto Suites. Early formed magmatic tourmaline is a feature of the Wangetti and Mount Alto granites. Almost all of the S-type granites contain metasedimentary enclave material, while microdioritic enclaves are mostly notably absent. The S-type granites are felsic with a moderate SiO2 range (68-77%). Most elements are negatively correlated with increasing differentiation, including TiO2, FeOtot, MgO, CaO, Ba, Sr, Th, LREE, Eu, Zr, Hf, and ratios such as K/Rb; many decrease to very low levels. There are very few positively correlated elements: Rb, U, and to some extent Na2O. Geochemical differences between supersuites include higher CaO, Ba, Sr, Pb, and lower Rb, Sn, B, V in the Whypalla Supersuite. Geochemical variation within the granites is largely due to extensive crystal fractionation. Some of the S-type granites have FeO* and MgO contents of 2.5-3.0% or more indicating they do not represent simple sedimentary melts, but rather represent the presence of both cumulate and restitic material. Variable Nd and Sr signatures (ɛNd between - 2 and - 6.5; initial Sr ratios between 0.709 and 0.715), suggest multiple components. The S-type granites intrude a very extensive, siliciclastic turbidite sequence that is isotopically evolved (e.g., ɛNd mostly - 12.0 to - 15.0 at 270 Ma), and generally too mature (too CaO poor) to produce S-type granites. Isotopic and chemical modeling show that although magma-mixing is permissible, the levels permissible (< ca. 20-25% basaltic input), are not large enough to explain the signature of the granites. Instead the data suggest that the S

  19. Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and

  20. Declines of seagrasses in a tropical harbour, North Queensland, Australia, are not the result of a single event.

    PubMed

    McKENNA, Skye; Jarvis, Jessie; Sankey, Tonia; Reason, Carissa; Coles, Robert; Rasheed, Michael

    2015-06-01

    A recent paper inferred that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour, tropical north-eastern Australia, had undergone 'complete and catastrophic loss' as a result of tropical cyclone Yasi in 2011. While we agree with the concern expressed, we would like to correct the suggestion that the declines were the result of a single climatic event and that all seagrass in Cairns Harbour were lost. Recent survey data and trend analysis from an on-ground monitoring program show that seagrasses in Cairns Harbour do remain, albeit at low levels, and the decline in seagrasses occurred over several years with cyclone Yasi having little additional impact. We have conducted annual on-ground surveys of seagrass distribution and the above-ground meadow biomass in Cairns Harbour and Trinity Inlet since 2001. This has shown a declining trend in biomass since a peak in 2004 and in area since it peaked in 2007. In 2012, seagrass area and above-ground biomass were significantly below the long-term (12 year) average but seagrass was still present. Declines were associated with regional impacts on coastal seagrasses from multiple years of above-average rainfall and severe storm and cyclone activity, similar to other nearby seagrass areas, and not as a result of a single event.

  1. School of the Air by Satellite. A Study of the Improvement of Distance Education in North-west Queensland Using the Australian Communications Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitt, John; And Others

    As part of an assessment of the educational uses of the Australian Communications Satellite System to be launched in mid-1985, this report focuses on the Mount Isa School of the Air. A general discussion assesses the mechanisms for delivery of distance education for isolated students in Northwest Queensland and considers possible functional…

  2. [Atmospheric dry and wet nitrogen deposition in typical agricultural areas of North Shaanxi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Tong, Yan-An; Duan, Min; Qiao, Li; Tian, Hong-Wei; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Wen-Juan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the farmland soil nitrogen input from atmospheric dry and wet deposition, a 1-year observation was conducted in the Yulin and Luochuan areas of North Shaanxi Province from June 2007 to May 2008. The total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) deposition in Yulin and Luochuan was 22.17 and 16.95 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), among which, wet deposition accounted for 95.1% and 90.4%, while dry deposition accounted for 4.9% and 9.6%, respectively, illustrating that the nitrogen deposition in both Yulin and Luochuan was mainly come from wet deposition. In the TIN deposition, the amount of nitrate in Yulin and Luochuan was 12.22 and 9.24 kg x hm(-2) xa(-1), accounting for 55.1% and 54.5%, respectively. The amount of wet deposition and the percentage of nitrate in TIN deposition were higher in Yulin than in Luochuan, because of the differences in pollution level, weather condition, and underlying surface characteristics.

  3. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  4. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  5. Timing and causes of North African wet phases during the last glacial period and implications for modern human migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Rogerson, Mike; Spötl, Christoph; Luetscher, Marc; Vance, Derek; Osborne, Anne H.; Fello, Nuri M.; Moseley, Gina E.

    2016-11-01

    We present the first speleothem-derived central North Africa rainfall record for the last glacial period. The record reveals three main wet periods at 65-61 ka, 52.5-50.5 ka and 37.5-33 ka that lead obliquity maxima and precession minima. We find additional minor wet episodes that are synchronous with Greenland interstadials. Our results demonstrate that sub-tropical hydrology is forced by both orbital cyclicity and North Atlantic moisture sources. The record shows that after the end of a Saharan wet phase around 70 ka ago, North Africa continued to intermittently receive substantially more rainfall than today, resulting in favourable environmental conditions for modern human expansion. The encounter and subsequent mixture of Neanderthals and modern humans – which, on genetic evidence, is considered to have occurred between 60 and 50 ka – occurred synchronously with the wet phase between 52.5 and 50.5 ka. Based on genetic evidence the dispersal of modern humans into Eurasia started less than 55 ka ago. This may have been initiated by dry conditions that prevailed in North Africa after 50.5 ka. The timing of a migration reversal of modern humans from Eurasia into North Africa is suggested to be coincident with the wet period between 37.5 and 33 ka.

  6. Timing and causes of North African wet phases during the last glacial period and implications for modern human migration

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Dirk L.; Rogerson, Mike; Spötl, Christoph; Luetscher, Marc; Vance, Derek; Osborne, Anne H.; Fello, Nuri M.; Moseley, Gina E.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first speleothem-derived central North Africa rainfall record for the last glacial period. The record reveals three main wet periods at 65-61 ka, 52.5-50.5 ka and 37.5-33 ka that lead obliquity maxima and precession minima. We find additional minor wet episodes that are synchronous with Greenland interstadials. Our results demonstrate that sub-tropical hydrology is forced by both orbital cyclicity and North Atlantic moisture sources. The record shows that after the end of a Saharan wet phase around 70 ka ago, North Africa continued to intermittently receive substantially more rainfall than today, resulting in favourable environmental conditions for modern human expansion. The encounter and subsequent mixture of Neanderthals and modern humans – which, on genetic evidence, is considered to have occurred between 60 and 50 ka – occurred synchronously with the wet phase between 52.5 and 50.5 ka. Based on genetic evidence the dispersal of modern humans into Eurasia started less than 55 ka ago. This may have been initiated by dry conditions that prevailed in North Africa after 50.5 ka. The timing of a migration reversal of modern humans from Eurasia into North Africa is suggested to be coincident with the wet period between 37.5 and 33 ka. PMID:27808237

  7. Water quality in sugar catchments of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rayment, G E

    2003-01-01

    Water quality condition and trend are important indicators of the impact of land use on the environment, as degraded water quality causes unwelcome changes to ecosystem composition and health. These concerns extend to the sea, where discharges of nutrients, sediments and toxicants above natural levels are unwelcome, particularly when they drain to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area and other coastal waters of Queensland. Sugarcane is grown in 26 major river catchments in Queensland, most in environmentally sensitive areas. This puts pressure on the Queensland Sugar Industry to manage the land in ways that have minimum adverse off-site impacts. Sugar researchers including CRC Sugar have been associated with water quality studies in North Queensland. These include investigations and reviews to assess the role of groundwater as a pathway for nitrate loss from canelands in the Herbert Catchment, to find causes of oxygen depletion in water (including irrigation runoff) from Ingham to Mackay, to use residues of superseded pesticides as indicators of sediment loss to the sea, and to assemble information on water quality pressure and status in sugar catchments. Key findings, plus information on input pressures are described in this paper, and areas of concern and opportunities discussed.

  8. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils.

  9. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hassenkam, T.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pore surface properties control oil recovery. This is especially true for chalk reservoirs, where pores are particularly small. Wettability, the tendency for a surface to cover itself with fluid, is traditionally defined by the angle a droplet makes with a surface, but this macroscopic definition is meaningless when the particles are smaller than even the smallest droplet. Understanding surface wetting, at the pore scale, will provide clues for more effective oil recovery. We used a special mode of atomic force microscopy and a hydrophobic tip to collect matrices of 10,000 force curves over 5- × 5-μm2 areas on internal pore surfaces and constructed maps of topography, adhesion, and elasticity. We investigated chalk samples from a water-bearing formation in the Danish North Sea oil fields that had never seen oil. Wettability and elasticity were inhomogeneous over scales of 10s of nanometers, smaller than individual chalk particles. Some areas were soft and hydrophobic, whereas others showed no correlation between hardness and adhesion. We conclude that the macroscopic parameter, “wetting,” averages the nanoscopic behavior along fluid pathways, and “mixed-wet” samples have patches with vastly different properties. Development of reservoir hydrophobicity has been attributed to infiltrating oil, but these new results prove that wettability and elasticity are inherent properties of chalk. Their variability, even on single particles, must result from material originally present during sedimentation or material sorbed from the pore fluid some time later. PMID:19321418

  10. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice

  11. Wet phases in the Sahara/Sahel region and human migration patterns in North Africa.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, Isla S; Mulitza, Stefan; Schefuss, Enno; Lopes dos Santos, Raquel A; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Schouten, Stefan

    2009-12-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of individual plant leaf waxes (a proxy for C(3) vs. C(4) vegetation) in a marine sediment core collected from beneath the plume of Sahara-derived dust in northwest Africa reveals three periods during the past 192,000 years when the central Sahara/Sahel contained C(3) plants (likely trees), indicating substantially wetter conditions than at present. Our data suggest that variability in the strength of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a main control on vegetation distribution in central North Africa, and we note expansions of C(3) vegetation during the African Humid Period (early Holocene) and within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 ( approximately 50-45 ka) and MIS 5 ( approximately 120-110 ka). The wet periods within MIS 3 and 5 coincide with major human migration events out of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results thus suggest that changes in AMOC influenced North African climate and, at times, contributed to amenable conditions in the central Sahara/Sahel, allowing humans to cross this otherwise inhospitable region.

  12. Changes in duration and intensity of the wet spells of different intensity over Northern Eurasia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gulev, S. K.; Zolina, O. G.; Wang, X. L.; Bulygina, O. N.; Knight, R. W.

    2012-04-01

    (1) According to the 20th Century Reanalysis data, there is a general century-long increase in an intensity and frequency of extratropical cyclones over the northern extratropics and an increase in their average duration, i.e., lengthening of the mean lifespan of storms. These conclusions however, have notable regional and seasonal differences (i.e., there are regions and seasons where opposite statements are true). Furthermore, all these conclusions are trustworthy only for the regions with reliable long-term synoptic information (large Europe, Northern Atlantic, the central parts of the North American continent and Northern Eurasia (Wang et al. 2012, manuscript in preparation). (2) There are indications that in the post World War II period over Europe the frequency and duration of the wet spells have changed and the occurrence of the prolonged wet spells have increased (Zolina et al. 2010). (3) At the same period over most of North America and Northern Eurasia, an increase of intense precipitation including the multi-day events was documented (Groisman et al. 2005, 2012; USCCSP 2009). Having the above as a rationale for further research, we (a) expanded the initial wet spells study into the northern extratropics and (b) estimated the frequency and duration of the wet spells of different intensity (e.g., by looking for the wet spells constructed from the days with intense precipitation only). The results of temporal changes (time series and trends) and distribution (mean values and the upper percentiles) of frequency, duration, and intensity of these wet spells will be presented at the Session for the regions of North America, Europe, and Northern Asia that are well covered by the dense networks of long-term daily and sub-daily precipitation observations.

  13. Wet, Dry, Dim, or Bright? The Future of Water Resources in North Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Future water resource availability in North Texas (Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex) is likely to be limited by the combined impact of decadal-scale and longer term climate changes. Two decadal precipitation anomalies are statistically distinguishable in the historical record (dry/wet, Table 1). These correspond temporally with the onset of global dimming/brightening events (hydrologic cycle retardation/acceleration) respectively (Table 1). Surface water hydrologic parameters are variably correlated with these events, depending on the degree of time-integration of each process. Precipitation correlates most strongly with the decadal anomalies. Runoff changes during these periods were magnified relative to precipitation changes, presumably an effect of soil moisture changes, and over the basin as a whole correlate best with the global events. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) attempts to capture such effects, and also correlates most strongly with the global events. The most important time-integrators of the system, reservoirs, show mixed correlation in terms of total storage with the decadal and longer term climate periods. Reservoir flood releases (excess storage) correlate with decadal precipitation anomalies, in part reflecting short-term consumption influences. Major reservoirs in the area post-date the dry period, precluding direct evaluation of sustainability from historical records. Historical correlations versus PDSI can be combined with climate-model based PDSI projections to evaluate future sustainability. Climate projections based on a mean of 19 IPCC intermediate scenario (SRESa1b) models indicate an approximately 10% reduction in mean annual precipitation, and warming of 2oC by 2050 in this region. Steady lowering of mean annual PDSI results, with a 50% probability that annual PDSI will average -0.5 by 2050. Average climate will move from humid (Aridity Index=35) to semi-humid (AI=27), and runoff can be expected to decline accordingly. Probability of a

  14. School-based vaccinations delivered by general practice in rural north Queensland: an evaluation of a new human papilloma virus vaccination program.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Carole; De La Rue, Stephanie; Pashen, Dennis; Culpan, Margaret; Cheffins, Tracy

    2008-03-01

    A local general practice was contracted to provide the school-based immunisation program over two years in Mount Isa, Queensland. The schedule was for female Year 10, 11 and 12 students to receive three doses of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination (Gardasil). This was provided as part of the broader immunisation program that involved providing Year 8 students with two doses of hepatitis B vaccination and one dose of varicella-zoster, and Year 10 students with one dose of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTPa). Data were collected on the number of consent forms returned and how many declined vaccination, how many students were vaccinated and those requiring catch-up vaccinations, as well as the total number completing the full course of immunisations. Adverse events were also recorded. The total cohort of girls eligible for HPV vaccination was 304 (consented to vaccination--275 (90%), declined vaccination--13 (4%), coverage for first HPV dose--89%, coverage for second HPV dose--88%, coverage for third HPV dose--79%). When compared with other adolescent vaccinations given concurrently as part of the broader vaccination program, HPV coverage was higher. There were only three significant adverse events. Three girls fainted at the time of immunisation but recovered immediately. The HPV immunisation had a good uptake and was well tolerated. Integrating school immunisation provision with general practice provides continuity with preschool immunisations and provides a convenient location for parents to bring children who have missed out on immunisations or would like to discuss the immunisation program

  15. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  16. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  17. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  18. Large-scale circulation departures related to wet episodes in north-east Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sikdar, Dhirendra N.; Elsner, James B.

    1987-01-01

    Large scale circulation features are presented as related to wet spells over northeast Brazil (Nordeste) during the rainy season (March and April) of 1979. The rainy season is divided into dry and wet periods; the FGGE and geostationary satellite data was averaged; and mean and departure fields of basic variables and cloudiness were studied. Analysis of seasonal mean circulation features show: lowest sea level easterlies beneath upper level westerlies; weak meridional winds; high relative humidity over the Amazon basin and relatively dry conditions over the South Atlantic Ocean. A fluctuation was found in the large scale circulation features on time scales of a few weeks or so over Nordeste and the South Atlantic sector. Even the subtropical High SLPs have large departures during wet episodes, implying a short period oscillation in the Southern Hemisphere Hadley circulation.

  19. Physico-chemical composition of urban wet weather discharges in Seybous Watershed (North Eastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadri, Samira; Laraba, Abd ElAziz; Haied, Nadjib

    2017-02-01

    Seybous Watershed is one of the largest basins in Algeria. It is characterized by a large urban and industrial activity presented on both banks of the river and tributaries Seybous. It daily receives discharged without treatment. This work provides an overview of the quality of urban wet weather discharges; this study is based on several morphological parameters Hydrometeorological basin. During the year 2012, two samples were performed (in August and September). These have worn on urban waste and the waters of Seybous Wadi. The analysis results indicate that urban waste are characterized by high pollutant load varies with the rain and the influence of these releases is visually along the rivers and waters of the different stations are between the classes of poor quality very bad.

  20. Three long lava flows in north Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, P. J.; Burch-Johnston, A. T.; Stanton, D.; Whitehead, P. W.

    1998-11-01

    The Kinrara, Toomba, and Undara basaltic lava flows are from 55 to 160 km long and range in age from 13 to 190 ka. The lavas were emplaced down low gradients (0.2° to 0.4°) with volumes ranging up to 30 km3. They were not unusually hot at eruption (1130°-1160°) nor unusually fluid. Gentle topography controlled the flows, and shallow drainage lines captured them. Lava tubes operated in places, and some drained to form caves. Injection under surface crust was widespread, producing inflation features ranging from tumuli and low plateaus to extensive ridges. Sustained eruption was essential for the development of the long flows, but each is composite, with pauses between successive pulses that partially covered the earlier, longer flows. The lava structures are mainly pahoehoe but some 'a'a lavas are present. Of the three volcanoes involved, Undara is a simple low-angle lava cone with a 200-m-wide crater, Toomba is a low-angled cone with several eruption centers, and Kinrara has a deep crater with evidence of strong fountaining. Effusion rates are not known but may have been relatively low, similar to those observed in Hawaiian volcanoes. Lava tubes, most of which remained undrained, are believed to have been of major importance in flow emplacement. Given the evidence of successive flows and the time needed to develop widespread inflation, it is suggested that the two long flows over 100 km involved many decades of eruption.

  1. Decadal Drought and Wetness Reconstructed for Subtropical North America in the Mexican Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D. J.; Stahle, D. W.; Cook, E. R.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Griffin, D.; Cook, B.

    2014-12-01

    A new drought atlas has been developed for subtropical North America, including the entire Republic of Mexico. This Mexican Drought Atlas (MXDA) is based on 251 tree-ring chronologies, including 82 from Mexico and another 169 from the southern U.S. and western Guatemala. Point-by-point principal components regression was used to reconstruct the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June-August. Calibration and verification statistics were improved over what was previously possible with the North American Drought Atlas, which was based on fewer chronologies only in Mexico. The MXDA will be served on the web with analytical tools for composite, correlation, and congruence analyses. The new PDSI reconstructions provide a more detailed estimation of decadal moisture regimes over the past 2000 years, but are most robust after 1400 AD, when several chronologies are available across Mexico. Droughts previously identified in a subset of chronologies are confirmed and their spatial impact quantified in the new reconstructions. This includes the intense drought of the mid-15th Century described in Aztec legend, the 16th Century megadrought, and "El Año del Hambre", one of the worst famines in Mexican history. We also use the best replicated portion of the MXDA in the 18th and 19th Centuries to reconstruct moisture anomalies during key time periods of Mexican turmoil (e.g., the Mexican War of Independence).

  2. Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.K.; Vanarsdale, A.; Keeler, G.J.; Chalmers, A.; Poissant, L.; Kamman, N.C.; Brulotte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative risk for ecosystems to exhibit excessive biotic mercury contamination. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in aerosol, vapor, and liquid phases from four observation networks were used to estimate regional surface concentration fields. Statistical models were developed to relate sparsely measured mercury vapor and aerosol concentrations to the more commonly measured mercury concentration in precipitation. High spatial resolution deposition velocities for different phases (precipitation, cloud droplets, aerosols, and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) were computed using inferential models. An empirical model was developed to estimate gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition. Spatial patterns of estimated total mercury deposition were complex. Generally, deposition was higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Elevation, land cover, and proximity to urban areas modified the general pattern. The estimated net GEM and RGM fluxes were each greater than or equal to wet deposition in many areas. Mercury assimilation by plant foliage may provide a substantial input of methyl-mercury (MeHg) to ecosystems. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  3. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement.

  4. Wet early to middle Holocene conditions on the upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goman, Michelle; Leigh, David S.

    2004-05-01

    A peat core from a cutoff paleochannel of Little River on the upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina provides a continuous pollen record of environmental change for the past 10,500 years and includes a sedimentary record of overbank floods. Palynological and sedimentary data indicate that the early to middle Holocene was wetter than previously suggested from lake sites in the southeastern United States. The period from 9000 to 6100 cal yr B.P. is characterized by high pollen percentages of Nyssa and Quercus, but low percentages of Pinus. Fifteen large overbank flood events are present within this period (5 floods/1000 yr). In contrast, only 6 large overbank flood events occurred since 6100 cal yr B.P. (1 flood/1000 yr). The increases in moisture and flood events probably were controlled by changes in atmospheric circulation related to shifts in the position of the Bermuda High, sea surface temperatures, and El Niño activity that together may have affected the frequency of large floods generated from tropical storms in the region.

  5. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  6. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  7. Queensland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... waters exhibit a murky appearance due to a large amount of sediment being discharged from a river mouth. The Fitzroy River shown in this ... available at JPL November 19, 2001 - Sediment, hydroxides of iron, and vegetation. project:  MISR ...

  8. Legitimating and Contesting the Commodification of Schooling: The Case of Teachers' Learning in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon research into the nature of teachers' learning practices in the context of current policy conditions in the state of Queensland, Australia. The research explores how teachers in one school in the north of the state responded to policy pressure to adopt a specific standardised approach to "explicit teaching",…

  9. Cairns and Townsville area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Cairns and Townsville area, on the northeast coast of Queensland, Australia (17.0S, 146.0E) is one of the best sport diving localities in the world where divers can explore the rich and varied flora and fauna of the nearby Great Barrier Reef. Onshore, the timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range, seen as dark green areas, separate the semi arid interior of Queensland.

  10. The influence of boreal winter extratropical North Pacific Oscillation on Australian spring rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Li, Yun; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-08-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a key atmospheric intrinsic mode. This study concerns mechanisms that the NPO influences Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies after several months. It is found that the boreal wintertime NPO has a significant negative connection with austral spring rainfall anomalies in Australia, particularly in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. A positive NPO phase tends to be followed by dry conditions, while a negative phase by wet conditions in austral spring over much of northern and eastern Australia. The physical mechanism by which the boreal winter NPO affects Australian rainfall arises from the NPO seasonal footprinting mechanism that generates significant tropical central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies during austral spring. Then, the positive NPO-related SST warming anomalies over the tropical central-eastern Pacific further induce a weakened Walker circulation, with its western subsiding branch over Australia, suppressing convection and thereby reducing rainfall. Furthermore, the NPO plays an important role in contributing to the significant long-term trends of the Northern Territory and Queensland rainfalls. The decreasing amplitude of the NPO contributes much of the observed rainfall wetting trends in the Northern Territory (~50 %) and Queensland (~60 %) regions during 1951-2010. Noted that caution is recommended regarding the Australian spring rainfall trend results obtained in this study as the austral spring rainfall trends may be sensitive to the choice of the selected time period.

  11. Atmospheric wet deposition of dissolved trace elements to Jiaozhou Bay, North China: Fluxes, sources and potential effects on aquatic environments.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jianwei; Song, Jinming; Yuan, Huamao; Wang, Qidong; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin; Qu, Baoxiao

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the fluxes, seasonal variations, sources and potential ecological effects of dissolved trace elements (TEs) in atmospheric wet deposition (AWD), one-year wet precipitation samples were collected and determined for nine TEs in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) between June 2015 and May 2016. Both the volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration and flux sequence for the measured TEs was Al > Mn > Zn > Fe > Pb > Se > Cr > Cd > Co. Al was the most abundant TE with a VWM concentration and wet flux of 33.8 μg L(-1) and 29.2 mg m(-2) yr(-1), which were 2 and 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of Co, respectively. The emission intensities of pollutants, rainfall amount and wind speed were the dominating factors influencing seasonal variations of TEs in AWD. Based on enrichment factors, correlation analysis and principal component analysis, most of the TEs in AWD were primarily originated from anthropogenic activities except for Al and Fe, which are typically derived from re-suspended soil dusts. Although the TE inputs by AWD were significantly lower than those by rivers, the TE inputs via short-term heavy rains would distinctly increase surface seawater TE concentrations and then pollute the marine environment of JZB. AWD would have both profound impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of TEs and dual ecological effects (nutrient and toxicity) on aquatic organisms.

  12. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graves, Jennifer A M; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north-south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas.

  13. CLIL in Queensland: The Evolution of "Immersion"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Queensland second language immersion programs have been in existence for three decades, and are part of a growing number of additive bilingual education programs in Australia. Most prominently, many new Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) programs have been established particularly in Victoria over the past few years. This focus on…

  14. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  15. A new species of Neorhaphiomidas Norris (Diptera: Mydidae) from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2013-02-14

    Neorhaphiomidas Norris, with 7 species, is an endemic genus and the only Australian representative of the mydid subfamily Megascelinae. The genus was for many years considered to be restricted to Western Australia but the range of the genus was extended to the eastern part of South Australia with Paramonov's (1961) description of N. inermis. The new species described here, the first record of the genus from Queensland, extends the known distribution of the genus some 1500 km to the north-east.

  16. Timing and Nature of Wet Climatic Periods in North Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula: Inferences from Isotopic, Chronologic, and Remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Farag, A. Z. A.; Abouelmagd, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    The wet climatic periods in the Quaternary in north Africa and in Arabia were traditionally attributed to intensification of paleo-monsoons during interglacial periods and progressive northward migration of monsoonal front. In N Africa, the monsoonal model could not account for: (1) progressive W to E depletion (Morocco: -20 to -40‰; ; Libya: -70 to -80‰; Egypt: -80 to -83‰) in isotopic composition of fossil groundwater ; (2) observed high lake levels during glacial periods (e.g., Lake Lisan: 160 m bmsl during glacial period MIS2); (3) the depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater compared to modern precipitation (e.g., d2H: Morocco: - 25.8‰; ; Libya: -17.7; Egypt: -11.7‰) is consistent with deposition during relatively cool periods; (4) ages (Cl-36 : 170ka to 1000ka) of groundwater in the Empty Quarter are consistent with deposition in glacial periods; and (5) low recharge temperatures (e.g., 2-6 °C below average annual temperatures). Intensification of the paleo-westerlies during previous glacial periods can account for these observations. We propose a similar model for northern and central Arabia and probably the northern sectors of the Empty Quarter. Our reasoning: (1) a progressive north to south depletion in groundwater composition (north & center: d2H :-26.6 to -2.5‰, south: d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) is inconsistent with a paleo-monsoon origin; (2) ages of sediments in paleo-lakes (e.g., lake Mundafan: OSL ages: 88 to 147ka) favor deposition during glacial periods; (3) depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater (d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) compared to modern precipitation (d2H: -22 to -45‰); (4) Cl-36 ages of groundwater (170ka to 1000ka ) are consistent with precipitation during glacial periods; (5) well documented records of monsoon-related wet events in Oman are not well developed northwards; and (6) well developed paleo-channels and theater-headed valleys in north and central Arabia compared to southern Arabia.

  17. Modelling wet and dry spells for daily rainfall data series: an application to irrigation management in North-West Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall time variability is relevant for agricultural production. The daily time scale is often used in modelling crop and soil water balance. In this work a novel statistical analysis of wet and dry spells is presented, together with an application in an Italian area characterised by a relevant climate spatial variability, due to the presence of both high mountains (e.g.: Mont Blanc) and of the Mediterranean Sea. Statistical analysis of the sequences of rainy days, wet spells (WS), and that of no-rainy days, dry spells (DS), could be carried out separately (as widely applied in the past) or jointly, by introducing the inter-arrival time (IT), representing the time elapsed between two subsequent rainy days. Investigating on daily rainfall data series recorded in Sicily, Agnese et al. (2014) found that IT statistics can be described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution; in turn, WS and DS distributions can be easily derived from IT distribution. Alternatively, the knowledge of both WS and DS distributions allow deriving IT distribution; in this case, WScan be described by the well-accepted geometric distribution, whereas the 2-parameter polylogarithm distribution can be used for DS, as recently suggested (Agnese et al., 2012) in place of the previously used 1-parameter logarithmic distribution (Chatfield, 1966). In this work, by using some daily rainfall data series recorded in Alpine and Sub-Alpine Areas, the equivalence between the above-mentioned approaches is showed. Furthermore, some interesting relationships between respective parameters are also illustrated. A simple soil water model is then used, using this rainfall statistical model, in order to evaluate the irrigation efficiency as a consequence of variations in the timing of surface irrigation, following the approach described in the paper of Canone et al. (2015). Agnese C., Baiamonte G., Cammalleri C., Cat Berro D., Ferraris S., Mercalli L. (2012). "Statistical analysis of inter-arrival times of

  18. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) From Queensland Are Genetically Distinct From 2 Populations in Victoria

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T.; Ishida, Yasuko; Murray, Neil D.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Graves, Jennifer A. M.; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2016-01-01

    The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) suffered population declines and local extirpation due to hunting in the early 20th century, especially in southern Australia. Koalas were subsequently reintroduced to the Brisbane Ranges (BR) and Stony Rises (SR) by translocating individuals from a population on French Island descended from a small number of founders. To examine genetic diversity and north–south differentiation, we genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 46 wild koalas from the BR and SR, and 27 Queensland koalas kept at the US zoos. The Queensland koalas displayed much higher heterozygosity (H O = 0.73) than the 2 southern Australian koala populations examined: H O = 0.49 in the BR, whereas H O = 0.41 in the SR. This is consistent with the historical accounts of bottlenecks and founder events affecting the southern populations and contrasts with reports of high genetic diversity in some southern populations. The 2 southern Australian koala populations were genetically similar (F ST = 0.018, P = 0.052). By contrast, northern and southern Australian koalas were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.27, P < 0.001), thereby suggesting that geographic structuring should be considered in the conservation management of koalas. Sequencing of 648bp of the mtDNA control region in Queensland koalas found 8 distinct haplotypes, one of which had not been previously detected among koalas. Queensland koalas displayed high mitochondrial haplotype diversity (H = 0.753) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.0072), indicating along with the microsatellite data that North American zoos have maintained high levels of genetic diversity among their Queensland koalas. PMID:27515769

  19. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  20. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  1. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  2. Micorbial Colonization of Materials at Innisfail, Queensland.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    on the material or when sporing structures were observed on colonies derived * 4 from mycelium on the material . After about 6 months exposure, the...AD-AOB4 229 MATERIALS RESEARCH LABS ASCOT VALE (AUSTRALIA) F/S /3 MICORBIAL COLONIZATION OF MATERIALS AT INNISFAIL, QUEENSLANDO.(U) AUG 79 F J UPSIER... MATERIALS LI B AT IlIiSFAIL, QUEENSLAND I F. John Upsher ApprvedforPublic Release DTIC ~, C ~MAY 19 198 ©COMMONWEALTH OF AUSIHALIA 1979 AUGUST, 1979 - ~ ~ O

  3. Whiplash rove beetle dermatitis in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Banney, L A; Wood, D J; Francis, G D

    2000-08-01

    Vesicular dermatitis due to contact with Coleoptera (beetles) is common worldwide, although the condition has been infrequently described in Australia. We document the largest outbreak recognized so far in Australia with a conservative estimate of 250 cases. This occurred in central coastal Queensland over several weeks in late 1998. A survey of the medical practitioners in this district is presented, along with clinical and histopathological illustrations. Our research found that knowledge of the condition was limited even in this region where cases occur each year. This condition is an important differential diagnosis in acute blistering disorders.

  4. Local Area Initiatives, 1986. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    The Priority Country Area Program is a Rural Education Program funded by the Commonwealth Schools Commission and jointly administered by the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education and the Queensland Catholic Education Office. The program develops educational strategies to address problems engendered by the social and geographical nature of…

  5. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  6. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications.

  7. View of portion of Queensland, Australia from Skylab space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of a portion of the State of Queensland, Australia, (17.0S, 140.0E) as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. The body of water is the southeastern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. This picture was taken in support studies of the north Australian drought region. The largest island seen is Mornington. The town of Normanton can also be seen. Of interest here is the sediment-laden waters at the perimeter of the Gulf showing how rains at the end of the drought are washing the top soil into the sea after the drought killed the covering vegatation. Also noted is that the vegetation patterns tend more toward those of other arid regions (i.e. they follow topographic and hydrographic patterns) rather than those in other parts of Australia (i.e. more convenient and easier to see, rectilinear patterns which are prevalent in less arid areas.)

  8. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in North Queensland: the paediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Claire L; Parsonson, Fiona; Gray, Lawrence Ek; Heyer, Adele; Donohue, Steven; Wiseman, Greg; Norton, Robert

    2016-10-03

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate. Clinical features are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, but it does not respond to standard therapy and rapid progression to death occurs in most cases. Some survivors have been reported; these patients received early treatment with amphotericin B in combination with a variety of other medications. Our review describes the local and worldwide experience of this disease and its clinical features, and discusses the associated diagnostic challenges. We hope that by detailing the local response to a recent case, and the outcomes of our public health campaign, we can improve the knowledge of this rare disease for doctors working in rural and remote Australia.

  9. Central nervous system nocardiosis in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rafiei, Nastaran; Peri, Anna Maria; Righi, Elda; Harris, Patrick; Paterson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nocardia infection of the central nervous system (CNS) is an uncommon but clinically important disease, often occurring in immunocompromised individuals and carrying a high mortality rate. We present 20 cases of microbiologically proven CNS nocardiosis diagnosed in Queensland from 1997 to 2015 and review the literature from 1997 to 2016. Over 50% of cases occurred in immunocompromised individuals, with corticosteroid use posing a particularly significant risk factor. Nine (45%) patients were immunocompetent and 3 had no comorbidities at time of diagnosis. Nocardia farcinica was the most frequently isolated species (8/20) and resistance to trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) was found in 2 isolates. Overall, 35% of our patients died within 1 year, with the majority of deaths occurring in the first month following diagnosis. Interestingly, of the 7 deaths occurring at 1 year, 6 were attributed to N farcinica with the seventh isolate being unspeciated, suggesting the virulence of the N farcinica strain. PMID:27861348

  10. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  11. Status of marine turtle rehabilitation in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Flint, Jaylene; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin James; Mills, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Rehabilitation of marine turtles in Queensland has multifaceted objectives. It treats individual animals, serves to educate the public, and contributes to conservation. We examined the outcome from rehabilitation, time in rehabilitation, and subsequent recapture and restranding rates of stranded marine turtles between 1996 and 2013 to determine if the benefits associated with this practice are cost-effective as a conservation tool. Of 13,854 marine turtles reported as stranded during this 18-year period, 5,022 of these turtles were stranded alive with the remainder verified as dead or of unknown condition. A total of 2,970 (59%) of these live strandings were transported to a rehabilitation facility. Overall, 1,173/2,970 (39%) turtles were released over 18 years, 101 of which were recaptured: 77 reported as restrandings (20 dead, 13 alive subsequently died, 11 alive subsequently euthanized, 33 alive) and 24 recaptured during normal marine turtle population monitoring or fishing activities. Of the turtles admitted to rehabilitation exhibiting signs of disease, 88% of them died, either unassisted or by euthanasia and 66% of turtles admitted for unknown causes of stranding died either unassisted or by euthanasia. All turtles recorded as having a buoyancy disorder with no other presenting problem or disorder recorded, were released alive. In Queensland, rehabilitation costs approximately $1,000 per animal per year admitted to a center, $2,583 per animal per year released, and $123,750 per animal per year for marine turtles which are presumably successfully returned to the functional population. This practice may not be economically viable in its present configuration, but may be more cost effective as a mobile response unit. Further there is certainly benefit giving individual turtles a chance at survival and educating the public in the perils facing marine turtles. As well, rehabilitation can provide insight into the diseases and environmental stressors causing

  12. Counting (green) jobs in Queensland's waste and recycling sector.

    PubMed

    Davis, Georgina

    2013-09-01

    The waste and recycling sector has been identified as a green industry and, as such, jobs within this sector may be classed as 'green jobs'. Many governments have seen green jobs as a way of increasing employment, particularly during the global financial crisis. However, the methods used to define and quantify green jobs directly affect the quantification of these green jobs. In December 2010, Queensland introduced a waste strategy that stated intent to increase green jobs within the waste sector. This article discusses the milieu and existing issues associated with quantifying green jobs within Queensland's waste and recycling sector, and provides a review of the survey that has sought to quantify the true size of the Queensland industry sector. This research has identified nearly 5500 jobs in Queensland's private waste management and recycling sector, which indicates that official data do not accurately reflect the true size of the sector.

  13. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  14. Prevalence and clustering of louse infestation in Queensland sheep flocks.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P; Armstrong, R T

    1999-04-12

    Information provided by wool growers in Queensland, Australia between 1995 and 1997 was used to assess the prevalence and spatial distribution of louse (Bovicola ovis) infestation in sheep flocks. The estimated prevalence of louse-infested flocks was 40% (95% confidence interval, 35-46%). Although the prevalence of infestation was higher in western regions (41-50%) compared to the south region of Queensland (31%), the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Significant (P = 0.02) clustering of infested flocks was detected in the south region where two foci were apparent. We conclude that Queensland sheep flocks have a moderate prevalence of louse infestation, and that clustering of infestation is not strong. The control of lice is an industry-wide issue that needs to be addressed by most wool growers in Queensland.

  15. Climate change impacts on the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2012-12-01

    SummaryHow the water balance of coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland could change in response to climate change was examined using physically based models of interception and transpiration along with long term weather records. Future rainfall and temperature changes were based on the most recent climate modelling for the region and were assumed to fall within the range ±20% for rainfall with a temperature increase of 1-3 K. Climate change will affect the water balance of Australian rainforests primarily via rainfall changes rather than temperature. Any given change in rainfall produces a greater change in downstream runoff, the amplification ranging from 1.1 to 1.5 in the wet season to a factor of 12 in the dry season. Changes in wet season rainfall (80% of the annual total) dominate the total annual amount of water released for downstream flow, but dry season rainfall (20% of the annual total) changes are also very important as they affect onset and the duration of the period when there is no runoff. This period is currently ˜110 days and this would change by ±30 days under the above climate scenarios. There are also potential in situ impacts of climate change that affect how long the rainforest canopy is wet, which may have important implications for the epiphytes and mosses that depend on these wet canopy conditions. Similarly there may be significant impacts on downstream freshwater species whose life cycles are adapted to the current dry season flow regime.

  16. Historical emissions of octachlorodibenzodioxin in a watershed in Queensland, Australia: estimation from field data and an environmental fate model.

    PubMed

    Camenzuli, Louise; Scheringer, Martin; Gaus, Caroline; Grant, Sharon; Zennegg, Markus; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    An octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD)-dominated contamination is present along the coast of Queensland, Australia. Several findings indicate that this contamination originates from pesticide use, although due to limited information on OCDD levels in the pesticides used, estimating past and current emissions of OCDD solely from pesticide use data is unfeasible. We used all the qualitative and quantitative information available on OCDD in pesticides together with a previously validated chemical fate model for a catchment in the Queensland Wet Tropics to back-calculate the emissions of OCDD from measured soil concentrations. We estimate that under different emission scenarios an average of 2,500 kg of OCDD was emitted within the modelled 1,685 km2 (Tully river) catchment between 1950 and 2010. Because this catchment represents only approximately 0.85% of the whole coast of Queensland under a similar contamination, the total amount of OCDD released in this region is considerably larger. For all emission scenarios, we could show that the OCDD currently present in agricultural soil is a result of historical emissions, and current-day emissions are less important in comparison to past emissions. Overall 18% was lost by degradation and 62% was buried below the agricultural surface soil, as a result of facilitated transport.

  17. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Gay, David A.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Keeler, Gerard J.; Backus, Sean M.; Blanchard, Pierrette; Barres, James A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Annual and weekly mercury (Hg) concentrations, precipitation depths, and Hg wet deposition in the Great Lakes region were analyzed by using data from 5 monitoring networks in the USA and Canada for a 2002-2008 study period. High-resolution maps of calculated annual data, 7-year mean data, and net interannual change for the study period were prepared to assess spatial patterns. Areas with 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations higher than the 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion were mapped in 4 states. Temporal trends in measured weekly data were determined statistically. Monitoring sites with significant 7-year trends in weekly Hg wet deposition were spatially separated and were not sites with trends in weekly Hg concentration. During 2002-2008, Hg wet deposition was found to be unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions. Any small decreases in Hg concentration apparently were offset by increases in precipitation.

  18. Water quality assessment for sustainable agriculture in the Wet Tropics--a community-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Faithful, John; Finlayson, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies in north Queensland over the past two decades have concluded that large amounts of nutrients and sediments are exported from agricultural watersheds, particularly during wet season rainfall events. With the co-operation of a number of growers, runoff from Queensland Wet Tropics banana and cane farm paddocks in two distinct tropical river catchments was examined to provide an estimate of nutrient and sediment concentrations and export, with comparison to water quality of flow through a small urban lakes system. Median total nitrogen concentrations in cane drainage runoff (3110 microg N/L) were higher than for banana paddock drainage (2580 microg N/L), although the maximum concentration was recorded from a banana paddock (20,900 microg N/L). Nitrogen losses during post-event drainage flow were supplemented by high proportions of NO(X) (nitrate + nitrite) sourced from groundwater inputs. Banana paddocks had the highest maximum and median total phosphorus and TSS concentrations (5120 and 286 microg P/L, and 7250 and 75 mg/L respectively) compared to the cane farms (1430 and 50 microg P/L, and 1840 and 14 mg/L respectively). The higher phosphorus and TSS concentrations in the banana runoff were attributed to higher paddock slopes and a greater proportion of exposed ground surface during the wet season. Highest nutrient and TSS concentrations corresponded with samples collected near the peak discharge periods; however, the rising stage of the drainage flows, where the highest nutrient and TSS concentrations are often reported, were difficult to target because of the manual sampling strategy used. This study shows that high concentrations of nutrients and TSS occur in the runoff from cane and banana paddocks. Median total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TSS concentrations in flow through the urban lakes were 369 microg N/L, 16 microg P/L and 11 mg/L, respectively. Flux estimates of 9.2 kg N, 0.8 kg P and 126 kg TSS/ha were determined for drainage runoff

  19. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  20. Candida orba sp. nov., a new cactus-specific yeast species from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Starmer, W T; Phaff, H J; Ganter, P F; Lachance, M A

    2001-03-01

    A new species of yeast from decaying cladodes of Opuntia cactus, Candida orba, is described. This species is a member of a four-species clade of cactophilic yeasts. The new species has only been found in one region of Queensland, Australia, where it was presumably introduced during attempts to eradicate prickly pear cactus. DNA-DNA relatedness, phylogenetic analysis, physiological differences, killer-sensitivity profiles and mating reactions establish the distinctness of the taxon as a new species. C. orba is most closely related to Phaffomyces thermotolerans, a species found associated with columnar cacti in the North American Sonoran Desert. The type strain of C. orba, isolated from rotting cladodes of Opuntia stricta in the State of Queensland, Australia, is strain UCD-FST 84-833.1T (= CBS 8782T = NRRL Y-27336T = ATCC MYA-341). Only the h- mating type of the species has been recovered. The lack of the opposite mating type could be the result of a bottleneck during its introduction to Australia. The original geographic/host distribution of this species in the Americas is unknown.

  1. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  2. Resource Allocation Procedure at Queensland University: A Dynamic Modelling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter L.; Carss, Brian W.

    A structural reorganization of the University of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to promote efficient resource management, and a resource allocation model was developed to aid in policy evaluation and planning. The operation of the restructured system was based on creating five resource groups to manage the distribution of academic resources…

  3. CORRELATIONS OF RESULTS IN MATRICULATION GERMAN IN QUEENSLAND.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DIEFENBACH, H. J.

    TO FIND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FINAL RESULTS AND MARKS GAINED IN THE WRITTEN AND ORAL PARTS OF THE 1964 SENIOR GERMAN EXAMINATION, THE RESULTS OF THE TESTS OF 674 CANDIDATES WERE EXAMINED. THIS EXAMINATION, HELD AFTER THE FOURTH YEAR OF SECONDARY SCHOOLING AND USED AS A BASIS FOR UNIVERSITY OF QUEENSLAND MATRICULATION, CONSISTED OF--(1) THE ORAL…

  4. Leading or Managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Ray; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Iyer, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Education reform aimed at achieving improved student learning is a demanding challenge for leaders and managers at all levels of education across the globe. In 2010, the position of Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance (ARD-SP), was established to positively impact upon student learning across public schools in Queensland,…

  5. The New Sexuality Education Curriculum for Queensland Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to children and young people. This lacuna in…

  6. The Itinerant Teacher Service, Queensland 1901-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, M.

    The monograph reports on research from primary sources about Queensland's Itinerant Teacher Service from 1901 to 1930. Chapter One traces its history and shows that the Service was inaugurated in 1901 with 1 teacher visiting 103 homesteads having 319 children, reached its peak in 1921 with 18 teachers visiting 1,889 children, and declined until…

  7. Description of a new Tiporus Watts, 1985 from northern Queensland, Australia (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydroporinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Balke, Michael; Watts, Chris H S

    2016-11-09

    Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is described from NE Queensland. The new species is similar to T. undecimmaculatus (Clark, 1862) and T. giuliani (Watts, 1978) from the Northern Territory and north-western Australia but well characterized by its larger size, more elongate habitus, and form of median lobe and parameres. Tiporus queenslandicus sp. n. is a lotic species being collected from rest pools of intermittent creeks and rivers with a sandy bottom. Important species-defining characters (habitus, median lobe, paramere, protibia of male) are illustrated. Together with T. queenslandicus sp. n. the genus comprises now 13 species.

  8. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  9. Wet Macular Degeneration

    MedlinePlus

    Wet macular degeneration Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Wet macular degeneration is a chronic eye disease that causes blurred vision ... of the retina responsible for central vision. Wet macular degeneration is one of two types of age-related ...

  10. Vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy in South Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fong, Choong Yi; Riney, Catherine J

    2014-03-01

    This study evaluated prevalence and risk factors for vitamin D deficiency among children with epilepsy on long-term antiepileptic drugs treated in South Queensland, Australia. Children with epilepsy seen in a tertiary neurology clinic were contacted requesting bone health blood tests during winter of 2011. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels <20 ng/mL, and insufficiency between 21 and 29 ng/mL. One hundred thirty letters were sent, with 111 (85%) subsequently having blood tests performed. Vitamin D deficiency was identified in 24 (22%) of 111 and an additional 45 (41%) of 111 had vitamin D insufficiency. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified children on >2 antiepileptic drugs or with underlying genetic etiologies were more likely to have vitamin D deficiency. High proportion of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs in Queensland risk vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency despite living in the subtropics. Vitamin D monitoring and supplementation is important in the management of children on long-term antiepileptic drugs requiring tertiary care in Queensland.

  11. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  12. Queensland 2010-2011: A Summer of Extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroulis, J.

    2012-04-01

    "I love a sunburnt country, A land of sweeping plains, Of ragged mountain ranges, Of droughts and flooding rains. I love her far horizons, I love her jewel-sea, Her beauty and her terror, The wide brown land for me." (Dorothea Mackellar OBE, 1885-1968). This second stanza from Mackellar's famous poem "My Country", beautifully sums up the Australian environment. In late 2010-early 2011, the "droughts and flooding rains" were the perfect terms to describe the climatic variability and the resulting flooding impacts experienced in many parts of Queensland under an enhanced La Niña as part of the ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) climate pattern, with over 75% of Queensland being declared a disaster zone. This contrasts with the severe drought that had gripped many parts of Australia over the previous 8 years which saw water storage levels plummet, and resulted in 35% of Queensland being 'drought declared' as at April 2010. On the Darling Downs in southern Queensland, over 100,000 ha of land was inundated by the Condamine River due to flooding in early 2011. The river which is generally <100 m wide was seven kilometres wide at the widest point during the floods. However, the erosive impacts of the floods on largely tilled floodplains was relatively low with most erosion confined to the bed and banks of the river. In Grantham, where 13 lives were lost, flooding was especially hazardous because of the combined depth and velocity of floodwaters and the rapid rise of floodwaters across the floodplain. Floodwaters were ~2.0-2.5 m deep across the northern parts of the floodplain with a maximum velocity of ~2-3 m/s. The rate of rise was estimated at ~12 m/hour, indicating that it would have taken only 10-15 minutes to rise to full depth. However, despite detailed river and flood gauging in the more urbanised catchments such as the Brisbane River valley, this is by far the exception rather than the rule throughout mainland Australia. The Queensland floods highlight the

  13. A North and Far North Queensland Initiative: Rethinking the "Why" When Promoting Languages Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulard, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent Australian Government commitment to supporting schools in growing students into global citizens, language educators cannot rely on this alone to attract new language students. The Young Language Ambassador Program is a new initiative that started in August 2014. The Young Language Ambassador Program is a partnership between…

  14. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.

  15. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance.

  16. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  17. Modelling interception in coastal and montane rainforests in northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jim; McJannet, Dave

    2008-01-01

    SummaryThis paper reports a comparison of measured and modelled interception for three different forest types at six rainforest locations in northern Queensland. The Gash interception model was able to reproduce cumulative interception at the sites accurately, provided an appropriate value of canopy storage capacity ( S) was used, 2.0-3.6 mm. These values are significantly higher than S values generally reported in other rainforest studies (˜1 mm) and the reason may be that Australian rainforests contain many epiphytes and mosses, which can trap significant quantities of water within the canopy. There is also some evidence of a seasonal variation in S and wet canopy evaporation rate ( E), both being lower in the dry season than the wet season. However, although the rainfall rate ( R), S and E all affect the seasonal value of interception, the changes in these three parameters tend to compensate and so the biggest factor affecting seasonal variations in interception is the number of small storms. The consequence of this is that it is still possible to get good estimates of seasonal and annual interception using R, S and E values that are fixed for the entire year. Values of E fell in the range 0.35-0.81 mm h -1, which are 1.4-9 times the concurrent rates estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. This implies that either our rainforests received very large amounts of advected energy during rain storms, or the Penman-Monteith E values are too low. Some advection of energy to our sites is quite feasible given their proximity to the ocean and generally well exposed locations. However, most of the above discrepancy is probably due to underestimation of the Penman-Monteith values of E, because of errors in the estimation of the above canopy relative humidity, due to the use of weather data adjacent to rather than above the forests and inherent difficulties of measuring the very high humidity's that occur during rainfall.

  18. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  19. School Experience in Queensland Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs. 2. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duck, Greg, Ed.; Cunningham, Debra, Ed.

    This report discusses the third major stage of the Queensland Board of Teacher Education's investigation into the nature of school experiences in preservice teacher education programs in Queensland, Australia. An account is presented of the proceedings of a statewide conference held in September 1984 to discuss results of the survey research…

  20. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  1. Homesteading on the Web: The Queensland Department of Education Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer; Allison, Myrl

    1996-01-01

    The Queensland Department of Education (Australia) developed a homesteading model as an alternative to the urban-built environment model of large multi-purpose networks. This resulted in the in-house development of a low-cost, stand-alone server and homepage. The charette technique was used to plan and design the Queensland Department of Education…

  2. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  3. Managing health impacts of heat in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Schuch, Gemma; Serrao-Neumann, Silvia; Choy, Darryl Low

    2014-01-01

    Heatwaves kill more people than any other natural hazard in Australia. Current literature on managing health risks of heatwaves highlights the importance of implementing urban planning measures, and engaging with vulnerable groups on a local level to better understand perceptions of risk and tailor health protection measures. This paper reviews arrangements to reduce heatwave health risks in South East Queensland in response to these themes. A literature search and document analysis, stakeholder interviews, and multi-stakeholder cross-sectoral workshops revealed that although heatwave management is not always considered by local government and disaster management stakeholders, many urban planning measures to minimize urban heat have been pursued. However, greater information from vulnerable groups is still needed to better inform heatwave management measures. PMID:28229002

  4. Potential exposure to Australian bat lyssavirus, Queensland, 1996-1999.

    PubMed Central

    McCall, B. J.; Epstein, J. H.; Neill, A. S.; Heel, K.; Field, H.; Barrett, J.; Smith, G. A.; Selvey, L. A.; Rodwell, B.; Lunt, R.

    2000-01-01

    Two human deaths caused by Australian bat lyssavirus (ABL) infection have been reported since 1996. Information was obtained from 205 persons (mostly adults from south Brisbane and the South Coast of Queensland), who reported potential ABL exposure to the Brisbane Southside Public Health Unit from November 1,1996, to January 31, 1999. Volunteer animal handlers accounted for 39% of potential exposures, their family members for 12%, professional animal handlers for 14%, community members who intentionally handled bats for 31%, and community members with contacts initiated by bats for 4%. The prevalence of Lyssavirus detected by fluorescent antibody test in 366 sick, injured, or orphaned bats from the area was 6%. Sequelae of exposure, including the requirement for expensive postexposure prophylaxis, may be reduced by educating bat handlers and the public of the risks involved in handling Australian bats. PMID:10827115

  5. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  6. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland.

  7. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of SS220 and Deet Against Mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    eucalypt and mangrove wetlands, where mosquitoes are commonly found in the summer from September to April each year. The current field trial was...LABORATORY AND FIELD EVALUATION OF SS220 AND DEET AGAINST MOSQUITOES IN QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA4 STEPHEN P. FRANCES,1 DONNA O. MACKENZIE,1 JEROME A...methylpiperindinyl-3-cyclohexen-1-carboxamide] against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia, were conducted. In the laboratory, both compounds provided

  8. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  9. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  10. Very, Very Fast Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

  11. Dental education in Queensland: II. Principles of curriculum design.

    PubMed

    Walsh, L J; Seymour, G J

    2001-03-01

    A modern dental curriculum must produce graduates who are competent to practise in a variety of settings immediately upon graduation; cognisant of community needs and the social milieu in which they serve their patients' health needs; able to anticipate and cope with changes following graduation; committed to self-improvement, willing to change to reflect best clinical practice; and equipped with skills for self-assessment and lifelong learning. This requires the appropriate balance of emphasis on educational content and educational process. This paper outlines the design considerations underlying the new BDSc curriculum at the University of Queensland. This curriculum uses an integrated rather than subject-based approach, with student-centred modes of learning as the principal learning style. Active learning strategies develop critical thinking and clinical problem-solving skills. Learning occurs in the context of a clinical situation (either overt or implied). Year 2 provides the major scientific foundations, and later years build upon this base, particularly through problem-based learning. Senior clinical staff involved in teaching in earlier parts of the course, help provide an overt clinical context to learning activities. The integrated curriculum model provides clinically relevant education in basic sciences and scientifically based education in clinical care. The curriculum has a focus on outcomes and on preparation for general practice. Importantly, it has an open and transparent structure, and each component is linked explicitly with the competencies expected of the new dental graduate.

  12. Observational study of compliance with Queensland bicycle helmet laws.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Haworth, Narelle; Schramm, Amy; Williamson, Amy

    2016-12-01

    Mandatory bicycle helmet laws have been found to increase helmet wearing rates in Australia and internationally. However, much of the research on factors influencing compliance with the Australian helmet laws is dated or focuses on commuters and city areas only. To address this gap, video recordings of bicycle riders were undertaken at 17 sites across Queensland, Australia, representing a mixture of on- and off-road locations, speed limits and regions. Helmet status was able to be determined for 98% of riders observed. The level of compliance with the laws was very high, with 98.3% of the more than 27,000 riders observed wearing helmets. Riders riding on roads were less compliant than those riding on bicycle paths, but no significant differences were observed between the school-holiday and school-term periods. Among the on-road riders, boys were less compliant than girls and overall children were less compliant than adults. Higher compliance levels were found for group riders, road bike riders, lycra-clad riders, during morning hours, and on 50km/h or lower speed limit roads. While the overall level of compliance was very high, certain subgroups were identified as a possible focus for interventions to further improve the compliance level, for example children (particularly boys) riding mountain bikes away from groups during the afternoon hours on 60km/h roads.

  13. Queensland public sector nurse executives: professional development needs.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Mary; Yacopetti, Jane; James, Catherine; Walsh, Anne; Montgomery, Mary

    2002-01-01

    In a time of health care reform and rapid change, nurse executives need effective leadership skills to be able to respond to a challenging environment, provide quality cost-effective care and promote the professional development of nursing. This research aimed to provide an understanding of nursing executives' roles and professional development needs and obtain concise information for the development of strategies and professional development programs to enhance the effectiveness of the present and future roles of nursing executives. A descriptive cross-sectional postal survey was sent to all public sector Level 4 and 5 nursing executives in Queensland (n = 281), with a response rate of 52.3% (n = 147). Financial management, human resource management and information technologies were identified as the areas where professional development was most needed. Structured educational activities such as short courses or seminars covering information technology, financial and budget management and general business management were identified as the type of activities best suited to nurse executives' needs. The most frequently reported barriers to professional development were difficulties obtaining relief staff, inadequate time, financial cost and inadequate district manager and regional support to enable access to professional development programs.

  14. Submarine Landslide Morphology of Box Slides Present on the Continental Slope Offshore Fraser Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, M. J. A.; Hubble, T.; Clarke, S. L.; Airey, D.; Yu, P. W. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser Island slide complex is located on eastern Australia's continental slope. Two potentially tsunamigenic submarine landslides identified here as the 'North Fraser Island Upper Slope Slide' (25km2 in area, 100m thick) and the 'Middle Fraser Island Middle Slope Slide' (12km2 in area, 50m thick) are described. Morphologic, sedimentologic and geomechanical properties for these slides are compared to data reported for existing submarine landslides located to the south in New South Wales (NSW). The two Fraser Island slides are translational, box-shaped, slab slides. We suspect that the slabs remained intact during downslope transport. The upper slope slide is situated at a water depth of approximately 750m at the northern end of the Fraser Canyon complex. The head of this slide has apparently detached from a structural surface comprised of a Miocene reef complex located beneath the continental shelf edge. The middle slope slide is situated on a large plateau to the south of the Fraser Canyon complex in 1500m of water. Cores taken in the continental slope within both slides are long and present hemipelagic muds. Cores taken adjacent to both slides are short and terminate in stiff muds of suspected Miocene or Pliocene age. Additionally, the core adjacent to the upper slope slide presents a near surface layer of upper-fining of coarse to fine shelly sand which we interpret to be a turbidite deposit. This layer was deposited above hemipelagic muds which are ubiquitously present on the upper eastern Australian continental slope in NSW and Southern Queensland.

  15. Lower crustal xenoliths from Queensland, Australia: Evidence for deep crustal assimilation and fractionation of continental basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.; McCulloch, M. T.; Taylor, S. R.

    1986-06-01

    A suite of mafic, granulite facies xenoliths from north Queensland possesses petrographic and geochemical features of basaltic cumulates crystallized at lower crustal pressures. Negative correlations between incompatible trace elements and Mg# and positive correlations between compatible trace elements and Mg# suggest the xenoliths are genetically related and crystallized from a continuously evolving melt. Zr, Hf, Y, HREE, Ti and V do not correlate with Mg#, but show excellent negative correlations with Al 2O 3 content, reflecting the proportion of cumulate plagioclase to clinopyroxene. These chemical trends also suggest the trace element concentrations have not been affected by subsolidus recrystallization. The xenoliths have a large range in Sr and Nd isotopic compositions ( 87Sr /86Sr = 0.70239 to 0.71467 , ɛNd = +9.5 to -6.1) which cannot be produced by crystal fractionation alone, and excellent correlations between isotope ratios and Mg# suggest the variable isotope compositions are not due to mantle source heterogeneities. These mafic xenoliths are proposed to be cumulate products from a melt undergoing simultaneous assimilation and fractional crystallization (AFC). The data illustrate that only a few percent AFC in lower crustal environments can dramatically change the Sr and Nd isotopic composition of a basaltic melt, and suggest the use of caution when inferring mantle source isotopic compositions from continental basalts. Additionally, the Nd isotopic data plot on a positive trend on an Sm-Nd isochron diagram with an age of ~570 Ma. However, if these xenoliths formed by AFC, the positive trend reflects mixing between two isotopic end members and has no age significance. The correlations between Sr and Nd isotopic compositions with Mg# degrade as the isotopic ratios are back-calculated to earlier times, suggesting the xenoliths are relatively young; the xenoliths may be related to the Cenozoic igneous activity which occurs throughout eastern Australia.

  16. Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) describes the aggregate toxic effect of an aqueous sample (e.g., whole effluent wastewater discharge) as measured by an organism's response upon exposure to the sample (e.g., lethality, impaired growth, or reproduction).

  17. On the prevailing construction waste recycling practices: a South East Queensland study.

    PubMed

    Tam, Vivian W Y; Kotrayothar, Duangthidar; Loo, Yew-Chaye

    2009-03-01

    Waste generated from construction and building demolition work constitutes about 68% of all solid waste generated each year in South East Queensland. Consequently, it has created a serious waste management problem. The State Governments of Victoria and New South Wales have been encouraging the use of recycled materials from construction and related waste; they have also promulgated specifications for their use. In Queensland, however, similar regulations are not anticipated in the near future, which explains the lack of funded research conducted in this important arena. This paper presents an evaluation of the prevailing waste recycling practices in Queensland. Nine sites were visited, including two construction sites, three demolition sites, three recycling plants and one landfill in South East Queensland. The difficulties encountered by the recycling programme operators and their associates at these sites are described and the benefits of recycling construction materials are presented. One of the major barriers is that the local councils disallow the use of recycled materials in new construction work. To help rectify these impediments to recycling, recommendations are given to increase the use of recycled construction waste in South East Queensland.

  18. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  19. WetNet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, H. Michael; Smith, Matt; Lafontaine, Vada; Lafontaine, Frank; Moss, Don

    1991-01-01

    WetNet is an interdisciplinary Earth science data analysis and research project with an emphasis on the study of the global hydrological cycle. The project goals are to facilitate scientific discussion, collaboration, and interaction among a selected group of investigators by providing data access and data analysis software on a personal computer. The WetNet system fulfills some of the functionality of a prototype Product Generation System (PGS), Data Archive and Distribution System (DADS), and Information Management System for the Distributed Active Archive Center. The PGS functionality is satisfied in WetNet by processing the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data into a standard format (McIDAS) data sets and generating geophysical parameter Level II browse data sets. The DADS functionality is fulfilled when the data sets are archived on magneto optical cartridges and distributed to the WetNet investigators. The WetNet data sets on the magneto optical cartridges contain the complete WetNet processing, catalogue, and menu software in addition to SSM/I orbit data for the respective two week time period.

  20. Hydrologic pathways and stormflow hydrochemistry at South Creek, northeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsenbeer, Helmut; West, Adam; Bonell, Mike

    1994-10-01

    Earlier investigations at South Creek in northeastern Queensland established the importance of overland flow as a hydrologic pathway in this tropical rainforest environment. Since this pathway is 'fast', transmitting presumably 'new' water, its importance should be reflected in the stormflow chemistry of South Creek: the greater the volumentric contribution to the stormflow hydrograph, the more similarity between the chemical composition of streamwater and of overland flow is to be expected. Water samples were taken during two storm events in an ephemeral gully (gully A), an intermittent gully (gully B) and at the South Creek catchment outlet; additional spot checks were made in several poorly defined rills. The chemical composition of 'old' water was determined from 45 baseflow samples collected throughout February. The two events differed considerably in their magnitudes, intensities and antecedent moisture conditions. In both events, the stormflow chemistry in South Creek was characterized by a sharp decrease in Ca, Mg, Na, Si, Cl, EC, ANC, alkalinity and total inorganic carbon. pH remained nearly constant with discharge, whereas K increased sharply, as did sulfate in an ill-defined manner. In event 1, this South Creek stormflow pattern was closely matched by the pattern in gully A, implying a dominant contribution of 'new' water. This match was confirmed by the spot samples from rills. Gully B behaved like South Creek itself, but with a dampened 'new' water signal, indicating less overland flow generation in its subcatchment. In event 2, which occurred five days later, the initial 'new' water signal in gully A was rapidly overwhelmed by a different signal which is attributed to rapid drainage from a perched water table. This study shows that stormflow in this rainforest catchment consists predominantly of 'new' water which reaches the stream channel via 'fast' pathways. Where the ephemeral gullies delivering overland flow are incised deeply enough to intersect

  1. Advanced tests of wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Pachniuk, I.; Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R.; Szelagowski, P.; Drews, O.

    1994-12-31

    Wet Welding has in former times only been applied to secondary structural components. Nowadays wet welding has become an upcoming repair process due to high process flexibility, its low investment costs and its high versatility. Even the quality of the wet welded joints has been improved remarkably due to intensive and concentrated development activities. However, especially in the North Sea regions owners of offshore structures and classifying authorities still hesitate to recognize the process as a reliable alternative to dry hyperbaric welding repair methods. It therefore requires further activities especially in the field of data development for life prediction of such repaired components. Advanced testing methods are necessary, additional design criteria are to be developed and achievable weldment quality data are to be included in acknowledged and approved standards and recommendations to improve the credibility of the process and to solve the problem of quality assurance for wet welded joints. A comprehensive project, sponsored by the European Community under the Thermie Programme, is in progress to develop new testing procedures to generate the required data and design criteria for the future application of the wet welding process to main components of offshore structures. It is the aim of the project to establish additional fitness for purpose data for this process.

  2. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  3. A new blind snake (Serpentes: Typhlopidae) from an endangered habitat in south-eastern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Venchi, Alberto; Wilson, Steve K; Borsboom, Adrian C

    2015-07-24

    A new species of blind snake is described from south-eastern Queensland, eastern Australia. Anilios insperatus sp. nov. differs from all of its congeners in having:16 scales around the body; 442 paravertebral scales; snout slightly trilobed from above and bluntly angular in profile; small, inconspicuous eyes, located within the ocular scale at its junction with the preocular and the supraocular scales; and uniform light colouration. The unique specimen was collected from pasture that was formally Queensland regional ecosystem 12.8.24, a eucalypt dominated ecosystem currently listed as endangered. The site is less than 100 km from Queensland's capital, Brisbane. Given the locality, habitat and absence of additional specimens, the species is probably of conservation concern.

  4. Parasites of QX-resistant and wild-type Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) in Moreton Bay, SE Queensland, Australia: diversity and host response.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Cribb, Thomas H; Cutmore, Scott C; Chan, Janlin; Hénault, Olivier; Barnes, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    Wild caught (WC) and QX resistant (QXR) Sydney rock oysters were introduced at North Stradbroke Island and Pimpama River, SE Queensland, Australia, and sampled monthly during 1 year. Three groups of parasites/diseases were identified by observation of histological sections: (1) Marteilia sydneyi (Queensland unknown (QX) disease) and Steinhausia sp. (Microsporidia) characterized by a high prevalence and deleterious impact on the host; (2) disseminated neoplasia and the trematode Proctoeces sp. characterized by low prevalence but deleterious effects on the host; (3) parasites or symbionts with no detectable effect on the host: trematodes, ciliates, turbellarians and metacestodes. Mortality rates were similar between both oyster lines but higher at Pimpama River (reaching around 90%) than Stradbroke Island, mostly because of QX disease and, to a lesser extent, to the unfavourable environmental conditions of the summer 2010-2011. Lower prevalences of QX disease at Stradbroke Island probably related to the relative lack of intermediate hosts of the parasite and to lower freshwater input. Surprisingly, no difference in prevalence of QX disease was observed between the two oyster lines.

  5. Interannual variability in chlorophyll-a on the southern Queensland continental shelf and its relationship to ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dien V.; Gabric, Albert; Cropp, Roger

    2015-12-01

    significant physical driver of the upwelling system. Our results suggest that variability in phytoplankton biomass on the southern Queensland continental shelf is driven by upwelling of nutrients during the spring dry season and fluvial nutrient loads during the summer and autumn wet seasons. Seasonal change is the primary factor controlling the variability of Chl-a and SST while climate variability (ENSO) and upwelling are secondary but significant factors.

  6. Postmortem findings from Dugong (Dugong dugon) submissions to the University of Queensland: 1997-2010.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen; Gillespie, Alison; Wilkie, Ian

    2012-10-01

    To better record and characterize mortality in the declining population of dugong (Dugong dugon) in southeast Queensland, Australia, animals were collected and brought to the University of Queensland for postmortem examination. Fifty-five animals were examined over a 14-yr period. Human activities commonly caused the animal death. Several deaths were attributed to primary or secondary infections and idiopathic and degenerative diseases. A significant proportion of animals were found to have nonspecific signs of chronic debility, but the causes of disease and mortality in these cases remains to be identified.

  7. Vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women with diabetes attending for antenatal care in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hon C; de Costa, Caroline; McLean, Anna; Woods, Cindy

    2014-06-01

    Serum concentrations of vitamin D were measured in 101 pregnant women with diabetes, both pre-existing and gestational, who attended for antenatal care in Cairns Base Hospital. Eighty-two (81.2%) had sufficient concentrations of vitamin D, 12 (11.9%) had levels indicating insufficiency and 7 (6.9%) were deficient. These findings contrast with those in the general population of pregnant women in the region, among whom 93.1% have been shown to have sufficient levels. The study contributes to the ongoing debate around the need for universal antenatal vitamin D screening in Australia.

  8. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent with Pangaea B-type reconstructions of Gondwana and Laurussia than with the Pangaea A2 configuration. This may be partly an artefact of reconstruction problems within Gondwana, as systematic differences between approximately coeval, apparently reliable, Permo-Carboniferous poles from Africa, South America and Australia are evident in standard Gondwana reconstructions. These discordances require a tighter fit of the southern continents, suggesting that some attenuation of continental margins, not accounted for in the reconstructions, has occurred during breakup of Gondwana, or that the fit between East and West Gondwana needs to be substantially modified. If stretching of continental margins during breakup of supercontinents is a general phenomenon, it may help to ameliorate, but not solve, the long-standing controversy regarding Pangaea reconstructions. Although alternative Pangaea reconstructions, such as Pangaea B, may reconcile poles from Laurussia with Australian poles in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian, no plausible reconstruction can bring the Early Triassic poles into agreement. This suggests that persistent departures from a pure dipole field may have been present in the Early Triassic. Lesser, but still significant, non-dipole effects may also have been present during the Late Carboniferous and Permian, and may help resolve the Pangaea A versus B controversy, without requiring substantial attenuation of continental margins or intracontinental deformation. We suggest that the most parsimonious interpretation of the palaeomagnetic and geological information is that Laurussia and Gondwana remained in a Pangaea A2-type configuration through the Permian and Triassic. Discordance between the APWPs for these two supercontinents is attributable mainly to persistent non-dipole components of the geomagnetic field, which were most important in the Early Triassic.

  9. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  10. Frequency of Cyanogenesis in Tropical Rainforests of Far North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, REBECCA E.; JENSEN, RIGEL; WOODROW, IAN E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant cyanogenesis is the release of toxic cyanide from endogenous cyanide-containing compounds, typically cyanogenic glycosides. Despite a large body of phytochemical, taxonomic and ecological work on cyanogenic species, little is known of their frequency in natural plant communities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanogenesis in Australian tropical rainforests. Secondary aims were to quantify the cyanogenic glycoside content of tissues, to investigate intra-plant and intra-population variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration and to appraise the potential chemotaxonomic significance of any findings in relation to the distribution of cyanogenesis in related taxa. • Methods All species in six 200 m2 plots at each of five sites across lowland, upland and highland tropical rainforest were screened for cyanogenesis using Feigl–Anger indicator papers. The concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides were accurately determined for all cyanogenic individuals. • Key Results Over 400 species from 87 plant families were screened. Overall, 18 species (4·5 %) were cyanogenic, accounting for 7·3 % of total stem basal area. Cyanogenesis has not previously been reported for 17 of the 18 species, 13 of which are endemic to Australia. Several species belong to plant families or orders in which cyanogenesis has been little reported, if at all (e.g. Elaeocarpaceae, Myrsinaceae, Araliaceae and Lamiaceae). A number of species contained concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest ever reported for mature leaves—up to 5·2 mg CN g−1 d. wt, for example, in leaves of Elaeocarpus sericopetalus. There was significant variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration within individuals; young leaves and reproductive tissues typically had higher cyanogen content. In addition, there was substantial variation in cyanogenic glycoside content within populations of single species. • Conclusions This study expands the limited knowledge of the frequency of cyanogenesis in natural plant communities, includes novel reports of cyanogenesis among a range of taxa and characterizes patterns in intra-plant and intra-population variation of cyanogensis. PMID:16520340

  11. Lava rise ridges of the Toomba basalt flow, north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehead, P. W.; Stephenson, P. J.

    1998-11-01

    Unusually long lava rises occur in the distal portion of the Toomba basalt flow, up to 120 km from the source. In the Lolworth creek region, three parallel lava rise ridges occur over a 6 km section. Two of these ridges are continuous for the entire 6 km. The ridges average 7 m in height and range from 35 m to 300 m in width. Lava inflation clefts are numerous, and lava rise pits also occur. Down flow, a single lava rise ridge, averaging 18 m high and up to 500 m wide, extends for a further 10 km. This ridge has a generally level surface with abrupt edges sloping between 45° and 90°. Accurate surveys across the ridges show that in some cases there has been some stretching of the surface, presumably prior to the formation of the prominent clefts. The ridges were formed from an initially thin flow that was inflated by a continuous layer of lava that underlay almost the entire width of each ridge, rather than by a system of lava tubes of more limited dimensions. Inflated material represents over 90% of the volume of the distal parts of the flow. Estimates of the time required to inflate the lava rise ridges range from 60 days to a year.

  12. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    Increased sediment and nutrient losses resulting from unsustainable grazing management in the Burdekin River catchment are major threats to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. To test the effects of grazing management on soil and nutrient loss, five 1 ha mini-catchments were established in 1999 under different grazing strategies on a sedimentary landscape near Charters Towers. Reference samples were also collected from watercourses in the Burdekin catchment during major flow events. Soil and nutrient loss were relatively low across all grazing strategies due to a combination of good cover, low slope and low rainfall intensities. Total soil loss varied from 3 to 20 kg ha(-1) per event while losses of N and P ranged from 10 to 1900 g ha(-1) and from 1 to 71 g ha(-1) per event respectively. Water quality of runoff was considered moderate across all strategies with relatively low levels of total suspended sediment (range: 8-1409 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 101-4000 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 14-609 microg l(-1)). However, treatment differences are likely to emerge with time as the impacts of the different grazing strategies on land condition become more apparent. Samples collected opportunistically from rivers and creeks during flow events displayed significantly higher levels of total suspended sediment (range: 10-6010 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 650-6350 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 50-1500 microg l(-1)) than those collected at the grazing trial. These differences can largely be attributed to variation in slope, geology and cover between the grazing trial and different catchments. In particular, watercourses draining hillier, grano-diorite landscapes with low cover had markedly higher sediment and nutrient loads compared to those draining flatter, sedimentary landscapes. These preliminary data suggest that on relatively flat, sedimentary landscapes, extensive cattle grazing is compatible with achieving water quality targets, provided high levels of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment.

  13. Biologically active triterpenoids of Syncarpia glomulifera bark extract from Paluma, north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Setzer, W N; Setzer, M C; Bates, R B; Jackes, B R

    2000-03-01

    The crude chloroform bark extract of Syncarpia glomulifera (Myrtaceae) shows antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Bioactivity-directed separation led to the isolation of oleanolic acid-3-acetate, ursolic acid-3-acetate and betulinic acid. The relatively large abundance (10% of the crude extract) and high degree of activity of betulinic acid are responsible for the bioactivity of the crude bark extract.

  14. Rapid wetting dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2010-11-01

    Contact lines between solids and liquid or gas interfaces appear in very many instances of fluid flows. This could be coffee stains, water-oil mixtures in oil recovery, hydrophobic feet of insects or leaves in nature. In the present work we elucidate some of the wetting physics governing the very rapid wetting. Experimental and numerical results of spontaneously spreading droplets are presented, where focus is directed towards understanding the very rapid flow regime and highly dynamic initial wetting phase, where the contact line speed is limited by dissipative processes on a molecular scale occurring at the contact line. In particular we show the influence of the surface wettability and the liquid viscosity on the spreading dynamics, such as the contact line motion and dynamic contact angle in time.

  15. Wet storage integrity update

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    This report includes information from various studies performed under the Wet Storage Task of the Spent Fuel Integrity Project of the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An overview of recent developments in the technology of wet storage of spent water reactor fuel is presented. Licensee Event Reports pertaining to spent fuel pools and the associated performance of spent fuel and storage components during wet storage are discussed. The current status of fuel that was examined under the CSFM Program is described. Assessments of the effect of boric acid in spent fuel pool water on the corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel and the stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel piping containing stagnant water at spent fuel pools are discussed. A list of pertinent publications is included. 84 references, 21 figures, 11 tables.

  16. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  17. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  18. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-03-30

    The elastic modulus E of wet granular material was found to be of the order of 0.25 MPa, this value does not compare well with the value predicted for a cubic array of spheres under Hertzian contact were the predicted values were in the order of 250 MPa . The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained. New information was found to support the experimental finding and a first theory to explain the very small elastic modulus is presented. A new model based on the used of the finite element method is being developed.

  19. Wetting transparency of graphene.

    PubMed

    Rafiee, Javad; Mi, Xi; Gullapalli, Hemtej; Thomas, Abhay V; Yavari, Fazel; Shi, Yunfeng; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Koratkar, Nikhil A

    2012-01-22

    We report that graphene coatings do not significantly disrupt the intrinsic wetting behaviour of surfaces for which surface-water interactions are dominated by van der Waals forces. Our contact angle measurements indicate that a graphene monolayer is wetting-transparent to copper, gold or silicon, but not glass, for which the wettability is dominated by short-range chemical bonding. With increasing number of graphene layers, the contact angle of water on copper gradually transitions towards the bulk graphite value, which is reached for ~6 graphene layers. Molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical predictions confirm our measurements and indicate that graphene's wetting transparency is related to its extreme thinness. We also show a 30-40% increase in condensation heat transfer on copper, as a result of the ability of the graphene coating to suppress copper oxidation without disrupting the intrinsic wettability of the surface. Such an ability to independently tune the properties of surfaces without disrupting their wetting response could have important implications in the design of conducting, conformal and impermeable surface coatings.

  20. "I Just Want to Teach": Queensland Independent School Teachers and Their Workload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timms, Carolyn; Graham, Deborah; Cottrell, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The present study seeks to elucidate observed mismatches with workload in teacher respondents to a survey exploring aspects of the work environment. Design/methodology/approach: This phase of the study constituted a pen and paper survey of 298 currently serving teachers in independent schools in Queensland, Australia. Measures used in the…

  1. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  2. Diagnosis of Queensland tick typhus and African tick bite fever by PCR of lesion swabs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin Mei; Hudson, Bernard J; Watts, Matthew R; Karagiannis, Tom; Fisher, Noel J; Anderson, Catherine; Roffey, Paul

    2009-06-01

    We report 3 cases of Queensland tick typhus (QTT) and 1 case of African tick bite fever in which the causative rickettsiae were detected by PCR of eschar and skin lesions in all cases. An oral mucosal lesion in 1 QTT case was also positive.

  3. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  4. Effective Implementation of Online Learning: A Case Study of the Queensland Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Diane; Hase, Stewart; Ellis, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with key stakeholders in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia, identified six factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning: external influences, organizational culture, organizational structures, training environment, learners' needs, and the learning environment. (Contains 54 references.) (JOW)

  5. Insights into the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Challenges for Implementing Technology Education: Case Studies of Queensland Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Houguet, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    This study, embedded within the "Researching School Change in Technology Education" (RSCTE) project in Queensland, Australia, aimed to gain insights into the intrinsic and extrinsic challenges experienced by teachers during the implementation of technology education within primary school settings. The official publication and launch of…

  6. The Experiences of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students at a Queensland University: 1985-2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Merv; Punch, Renee; Power, Des; Hartley, Judy; Neale, Jennifer; Brennan, Lesleigh

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the experiences of deaf and hard of hearing students at a Queensland university, which offers an extensive deaf student support program. Seventy-two current students and graduates since the program's inception twenty years ago completed a survey about their experiences, highlights, challenges and use of communication tools…

  7. Contesting Education Policy in the Public Sphere: Media Debates over Policies for the Queensland School Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Sue

    2002-01-01

    Explores public discourses in education; employs critical-discourse analysis to investigate newspaper debates over the inclusion of Health and Physical Education in Queensland secondary school curriculum; discusses the authoritative voice of sports stars who supported inclusion; recommends that educators develop an authoritative voice in public…

  8. Public health response to a measles outbreak in a large correctional facility, Queensland, 2013.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Madhumati; Baldwin, Anne M; Prakash, Rajendra; Vlack, Susan A; Lambert, Stephen B

    2014-12-31

    This report documents the prompt, co-ordinated and effective public health response to a measles outbreak in Queensland in 2013. There were 17 cases in a large, high-security, regional correctional facility, a setting with unique challenges. Recommendations are provided to reduce the likelihood and magnitude of measles outbreaks in correctional facilities.

  9. The Prevalence and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse in Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of undergraduates (N=427) in Queensland (Australia) found child sexual abuse prevalence rates of 19% for males and 45% for females, with incestuous abuse reported by 9% of males and 19% of females. Other findings addressed age at onset of abuse, gender, types of unwanted sexual experiences, and media exposure. (DB)

  10. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients.

  11. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  12. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  13. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  14. Patterns of Computer Usage among Medical Practitioners in Rural and Remote Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola

    2002-01-01

    As part of a study examining continuing medical education, computer usage was investigated among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). Surveys of 131 rural doctors showed that they used computers more than their urban counterparts and more than previously estimated. A majority of respondents considered Internet delivery…

  15. Palaeomagnetic results from the Palaeozoic basement of the southern Drummond Basin, central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Kari L.; Lackie, Mark A.; Clark, David A.

    2004-11-01

    Palaeomagnetic results from the Theresa Creek Volcanics and the Middle Devonian (~380 Ma) Retreat Batholith, located in the southern Drummond Basin, central Queensland, Australia, reveal up to three components of magnetization. Component 1 is characteristically of reversed polarity with a mean palaeopole at 64.0°S, 79.7°E (N= 7, A95= 11.5°), possibly reflecting a remagnetization event associated with the Middle Carboniferous Alice Springs Orogeny, is found in both units. A shallow to very shallow roughly north-south direction, Component 2, was isolated in seven sites, predominantly within the Retreat Batholith, D= 345.8°, I=-6.7° (α95= 10.1°, k= 36.8). The corresponding palaeomagnetic pole lies at 66.0°S, 290.7°E (A95= 9.1°). This pole is consistent with the Middle Devonian segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and is thought to reflect a primary magnetization related to the emplacement and cooling of the batholith. Component 3 is found exclusively within the Theresa Creek Volcanics and is characterized by east-west directions with moderate to steep inclinations, D= 62.4°, I= 59.5° (α95= 10.5°, k= 25.0). A consistent set of site level virtual geomagnetic pole (VGPs) yield a palaeopole at 4.1°N, 188.9°E (N= 9, A95= 14.0°). The presumed Middle Devonian age for the volcanics is at odds with this direction, with respect to the Australian Early to Middle Palaeozoic APWP, suggesting the characteristic direction found in the volcanics reflects an Ordovician or possibly Early Silurian magnetization age. A pre-Middle Devonian magnetization age for the Theresa Creek Volcanics is supported by a positive contact test between the volcanics and the hornfelsing Retreat Batholith as both units are characterized by stable magnetizations whose palaeopoles are dissimilar from each other and younger segments of Australia's APWP.

  16. Occurrence of Ross River virus and Barmah Forest virus in mosquitoes at Shoalwater Bay military training area, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Cooper, R D; Rowcliffe, K L; Chen, N; Cheng, Q

    2004-01-01

    Shoalwater Bay military training area (SWBTA), 2,713 km2 of land located 50-80 km north of Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia, is used by Australian and allied forces for training purposes. Between March 1998 and February 2000, monthly collections of mosquitoes at 15 sites were conducted using carbon dioxide-baited traps to study the seasonal occurrence of mosquitoes and Ross River virus (RRV) and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) in mosquitoes. A total of 72,616 mosquitoes, comprising 3,897 pools were collected, and 2,428 pools were tested using a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. A total of 15 pools of mosquitoes were positive for virus, 10 RRV and five BFV. Blood meals from an additional 763 mosquitoes were tested by a gel diffusion assay, and the majority (96%) of those identified were from kangaroo, which was the most common mammal in the study area. The results indicate that Culex annulirostris Skuse and Ochlerotatus vigilax (Skuse) are the main vectors of RRV at SWBTA.

  17. Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz, a new member of the Tarassovi serogroup isolated from a bovine source in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Corney, B G; Slack, A T; Symonds, M L; Dohnt, M F; McClintock, C S; McGowan, M R; Smythe, L D

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports on a Leptospira isolate of bovine origin and its identification as belonging to a previously unknown serovar, for which the name Topaz is proposed. The isolate (94-79970/3) was cultured from bovine urine from a north Queensland dairy farm in Australia. Strain 94-79970/3 grew at 30 degrees C in Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium but failed to grow at 13 degrees C in EMJH medium or in the presence of 8-azaguanine. Serologically, strain 94-79970/3 produced titres against the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Tarassovi, the reference strain for the Tarassovi serogroup; however, no significant titres to any other serovars within the serogroup were obtained. Using 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B gene analysis, strain 94-79970/3 was identified as a member of the species Leptospira weilii. We propose that the serovar be named Topaz, after the location where the original isolate was obtained. The reference strain for this serovar is 94-79970/3 (=KIT 94-79970/3=LT722).

  18. Mapping biodiversity and setting conservation priorities for SE Queensland's rainforests using DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Shapcott, Alison; Forster, Paul I; Guymer, Gordon P; McDonald, William J F; Faith, Daniel P; Erickson, David; Kress, W John

    2015-01-01

    Australian rainforests have been fragmented due to past climatic changes and more recently landscape change as a result of clearing for agriculture and urban spread. The subtropical rainforests of South Eastern Queensland are significantly more fragmented than the tropical World Heritage listed northern rainforests and are subject to much greater human population pressures. The Australian rainforest flora is relatively taxonomically rich at the family level, but less so at the species level. Current methods to assess biodiversity based on species numbers fail to adequately capture this richness at higher taxonomic levels. We developed a DNA barcode library for the SE Queensland rainforest flora to support a methodology for biodiversity assessment that incorporates both taxonomic diversity and phylogenetic relationships. We placed our SE Queensland phylogeny based on a three marker DNA barcode within a larger international rainforest barcode library and used this to calculate phylogenetic diversity (PD). We compared phylo- diversity measures, species composition and richness and ecosystem diversity of the SE Queensland rainforest estate to identify which bio subregions contain the greatest rainforest biodiversity, subregion relationships and their level of protection. We identified areas of highest conservation priority. Diversity was not correlated with rainforest area in SE Queensland subregions but PD was correlated with both the percent of the subregion occupied by rainforest and the diversity of regional ecosystems (RE) present. The patterns of species diversity and phylogenetic diversity suggest a strong influence of historical biogeography. Some subregions contain significantly more PD than expected by chance, consistent with the concept of refugia, while others were significantly phylogenetically clustered, consistent with recent range expansions.

  19. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  20. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  1. EPRI wet stacks design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Weilert, C.V.; Pattison, D.C.; Richart, S.D.

    1995-06-01

    Because of the high cost of reheat, wet stacks are being considered for new or retrofit applications of wet FGD systems in the United States. All retrofit systems designed for compliance with Phase I of the Acid Rain Control program under the Clean Air Act have utilized wet stacks. For Phase II, utilities with existing wet FGD systems would benefit from overscrubbing. For those units which currently use bypass reheat, this could be accomplished by closing the bypass to treat the entire boiler flue gas stream. This would require conversion to wet stack operation. Due to the level of interest in these wet stack scenarios for future FGD applications, EPRI, in a tailored collaboration with NYSEG, retained Bums & McDonnell and DynaFlow Systems to prepare a design guide for wet stacks. This paper provides a brief summary of the wet stacks design guide.

  2. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  3. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  4. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  5. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  6. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-03-31

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids.

  7. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  8. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Wet-dog shake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Mills, Zack; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. We investigate experimentally the ability of hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  10. Flame retardants (PBDEs) in marine turtles, dugongs and seafood from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hermanussen, S; Matthews, V; Päpke, O; Limpus, C J; Gaus, C

    2008-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in numerous products. These compounds have been found to enter the marine environment where they have the potential to bioaccumulate in biota. Limited information is currently available concerning the levels of PBDEs in Australian marine wildlife. This study presents baseline information on PBDE levels in a variety of marine species from Queensland, Australia and considers the influence of species-specific factors on contaminant levels and tissue distribution in marine turtles. Overall, the PBDE levels measured in this study are relatively low compared to marine biota from the northern hemisphere, indicating low level input into the marine system of Queensland. This is in general agreement with global estimates which suggest low PBDE usage in Australia. Previous studies, however, have found relatively high PBDE levels in Australian human milk and sera. This discrepancy in contamination trends between terrestrial and marine biota suggests that future transport of PBDEs may occur to the marine system in Australia.

  11. New forearm elements discovered of holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis from Winton, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    White, Matt A; Cook, Alex G; Hocknull, Scott A; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H K; Elliott, David A

    2012-01-01

    New skeletal elements are reported of the holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis, from the type locality, near Winton, central western Queensland. New elements include left and right humeri, right radius, right radiale, right distal carpal 1, near complete right metacarpal I, left manual phalanx II-1, left manual phalanx II-2, near complete left manual phalanx II-3 and a left manual phalanx III-3. These new elements combined with those previously described are compared against other neovenatorids.

  12. Quantifying Queensland patients with cancer health service usage and costs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Callander, Emily; Topp, Stephanie M; Larkins, Sarah; Sabesan, Sabe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The overall mortality rate for cancer has declined in Australia. However, socioeconomic inequalities exist and the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients in Australia are high compared with some European countries. There is currently no readily available data set to provide a systematic means of measuring the out-of-pocket costs incurred by patients with cancer within Australia. The primary aim of the project is to quantify the direct out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of individuals in the state of Queensland, who are diagnosed with cancer. Methods and analysis This project will build Australia's first model (called CancerCostMod) of out-of-pocket healthcare expenditure of patients with cancer using administrative data from Queensland Cancer Registry, for all individuals diagnosed with any cancer in Queensland between 1 July 2011 and 30 June 2012, linked to their Admitted Patient Data Collection, Emergency Department Information System, Medicare Benefits Schedule and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme records from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2015. No identifiable information will be provided to the authors. The project will use a combination of linear and logistic regression modelling, Cox proportional hazards modelling and machine learning to identify differences in survival, total health system expenditure, total out-of-pocket expenditure and high out-of-pocket cost patients, adjusting for demographic and clinical confounders, and income group, Indigenous status and geographic location. Results will be analysed separately for different types of cancer. Ethics and dissemination Human Research Ethics approval has been obtained from the Townsville Hospital and Health Service Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/QTHS/110) and James Cook University Human Research Ethics Committee (H6678). Permission to waive consent has been sought from Queensland Health under the Public Health Act 2005. PMID:28119391

  13. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-03-15

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Barmah Forest Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Hu, Wenbiao; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2011-01-01

    Background Barmah Forest virus (BFV) disease is a common and wide-spread mosquito-borne disease in Australia. This study investigated the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease in Queensland, Australia using geographical information system (GIS) tools and geostatistical analysis. Methods/Principal Findings We calculated the incidence rates and standardised incidence rates of BFV disease. Moran's I statistic was used to assess the spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidences. Spatial dynamics of BFV disease was examined using semi-variogram analysis. Interpolation techniques were applied to visualise and display the spatial distribution of BFV disease in statistical local areas (SLAs) throughout Queensland. Mapping of BFV disease by SLAs reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time. Statistically significant differences in BFV incidence rates were identified among age groups (χ2 = 7587, df = 7327,p<0.01). There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of BFV incidence for all four periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.1506 to 0.2901 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the state. Conclusions/Significance This is the first study to examine spatial and temporal variation in the incidence rates of BFV disease across Queensland using GIS and geostatistics. The BFV transmission varied with age and gender, which may be due to exposure rates or behavioural risk factors. There are differences in the spatio-temporal patterns of BFV disease which may be related to local socio-ecological and environmental factors. These research findings may have implications in the BFV disease control and prevention programs in Queensland. PMID:22022430

  15. Astronomical Association of Queensland Program of Measurements of Seven Southern Multiple Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a mid-2014 program of the Astronomical Association of Queensland of photographic measurements of seven southern multiple stars. The images were obtained using a Meade DSI CCD camera in conjunction with an equatorially mounted 150mm F8 refractor. For each target pair, either a 2x or 5x barlow lens was used as required. Image processing was carried out using Losse's REDUC software.

  16. Wetness perception across body sites.

    PubMed

    Ackerley, Rochelle; Olausson, Håkan; Wessberg, Johan; McGlone, Francis

    2012-07-26

    Human skin is innervated with a variety of receptors serving somatosensation and includes the sensory sub-modalities of touch, temperature, pain and itch. The density and type of receptors differ across the body surface, and there are various body-map representations in the brain. The perceptions of skin sensations outside of the specified sub-modalities, e.g. wetness or greasiness, are described as 'touch blends' and are learned. The perception of wetness is generated from the coincident activation of tactile and thermal receptors. The present study aims to quantify threshold levels of wetness perception and find out if this differs across body sites. A rotary tactile stimulator was used to apply a moving, wetted stimulus over selected body sites at a precise force and velocity. Four wetness levels were tested over eight body sites. After each stimulus, the participant rated how wet the stimulus was perceived to be using a visual analogue scale. The results indicated that participants discriminated between levels of wetness as distinct percepts. Significant differences were found between all levels of wetness, apart from the lowest levels of comparison (20 μl and 40 μl). The perception of wetness did not, however, differ significantly across body sites and there were no significant interactions between wetness level and body site. The present study emphasizes the importance of understanding how bottom-up and top-down processes interact to generate complex perceptions.

  17. Epidemic Potential for Local Transmission of Zika Virus in 2015 and 2016 in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Viennet, Elvina; Mincham, Gina; Frentiu, Francesca D.; Jansen, Cassie C.; Montgomery, Brian L.; Harley, David; Flower, Robert L.P.; Williams, Craig R.; Faddy, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus could be transmitted in the state of Queensland, Australia, in parts of the state where the mosquito vectors are established. Methods: We assessed the epidemic potential of Zika in Queensland from January 2015 to August 2016, and estimate the epidemic potential from September to December 2016, by calculating the temperature-dependent relative vectorial capacity (rVc), based on empirical and estimated parameters. Results: Through 2015, we estimated a rVc of 0.119, 0.152, 0.170, and 0.175, respectively in the major cities of Brisbane, Rockhampton, Cairns, and Townsville. From January to August 2016, the epidemic potential trend was similar to 2015, however the highest epidemic potential was in Cairns. During September to November 2016, the epidemic potential is consistently the highest in Cairns, followed by Townsville, Rockhampton and Brisbane. Then, from November to December 2016, Townsville has the highest estimated epidemic potential. Discussion: We demonstrate using a vectorial capacity model that ZIKV could have been locally transmitted in Queensland, Australia during 2015 and 2016. ZIKV remains a threat to Australia for the upcoming summer, during the Brazilian Carnival season, when the abundance of vectors is relatively high. Understanding the epidemic potential of local ZIKV transmission will allow better management of threats to blood safety and assessment of public health risk. PMID:28123859

  18. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  19. Patterns of computer usage among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland.

    PubMed

    White, Col; Sheedy, Vicki; Lawrence, Nicola

    2002-06-01

    As part of a more detailed needs analysis, patterns of computer usage among medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland were investigated. Utilising a questionnaire approach, a response rate of 23.82% (n = 131) was obtained. Results suggest that medical practitioners in rural and remote Queensland are relatively sophisticated in their use of computer and information technologies and have embraced computerisation to a substantially higher extent compared with their urban counterparts and previously published estimates. Findings also indicate that a substantial number of rural and remote practitioners are utilising computer and information technologies for clinical purposes such as pathology, patient information sheets, prescribing, education, patient records and patient recalls. Despite barriers such as bandwidth limitations, cost and the sometimes unreliable quality of Internet service providers, a majority of rural and remote respondents rated an Internet site with continuing medical education information and services as being important or very important. Suggestions that "rural doctors are slow to adapt to new technologies" are questioned, with findings indicating that rural and remote medical practitioners in Queensland have adapted to, and utilise, information technology to a far higher extent than has been previously documented.

  20. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  1. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  2. Controlling conditions for wet welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.

    1985-11-01

    Wet welding is finding increased use for repairing and maintaining vessel hulls around the world. Users are developing new methods and procedures to expand the technology. A wet welded joint underwater can be made as strong as one welded in a dry habitat, but at a greatly reduced cost. The design of the joint for wet welding and the procedures that need to be followed are outlined. In designing for wet welding, high tensile strength, ease of access, and over-design should be considered.

  3. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  4. Surveillance snapshot of Clostridium difficile infection in hospitals across Queensland detects binary toxin producing ribotype UK 244.

    PubMed

    Huber, Charlotte A; Hall, Lisa; Foster, Nikki F; Gray, Mareeka; Allen, Michelle; Richardson, Leisha J; Robson, Jennifer; Vohra, Renu; Schlebusch, Sanmarie; George, Narelle; Nimmo, Graeme R; Riley, Thomas V; Paterson, David L

    2014-12-31

    In North America and Europe, the binary toxin positive Clostridium difficile strains of the ribotypes 027 and 078 have been associated with death, toxic megacolon and other adverse outcomes. Following an increase in C. difficile infections (CDIs) in Queensland, a prevalence study involving 175 hospitals was undertaken in early 2012, identifying 168 cases of CDI over a 2 month period. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were recorded, and C. difficile isolates were ribotyped and tested for the presence of binary toxin genes. Most patients (106/168, 63.1%) were aged over 60 years. Overall, 98 (58.3%) developed symptoms after hospitalisation; 89 cases (53.0%) developed symptoms more than 48 hours after admission. Furthermore, 27 of the 62 (67.7%) patients who developed symptoms in the community ad been hospitalised within the last 3 months. Thirteen of the 168 (7.7%) cases identified had severe disease, resulting in admission to the Intensive Care Unit or death within 30 days of the onset of symptoms. The 3 most common ribotypes isolated were UK 002 (22.9%), UK 014 (13.3%) and the binary toxin-positive ribotype UK 244 (8.4%). The only other binary toxin positive ribotype isolated was UK 078 (n = 1). Of concern was the detection of the binary toxin positive ribotype UK 244, which has recently been described in other parts of Australia and New Zealand. No isolates were of the international epidemic clone of ribotype UK 027, although ribotype UK 244 is genetically related to this clone. Further studies are required to track the epidemiology of ribotype UK 244 in Australia and New Zealand.

  5. An investigation into underwater wet welding using the flux cored arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Brydon, A.M.; Nixon, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For the last two years, Cranfield has been carrying out a program of process investigations into wet underwater welding (Graham and Nixon 1993, Nixon and Webb 1994), and has demonstrated that it is possible to markedly improve the stability and consistency of the process by using control techniques developed for hyperbaric welding. In the project reported below, an initial evaluation of wet flux cored arc welding was undertaken. Although there continues to be considerable resistance to the use of wet welding on structures in the North Sea, continued pressure to reduce repair and maintenance costs is causing the industry to re-examine techniques previously discounted, such as wet welding (Anon 1993).

  6. Wetting in Soldering and Microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.; Nogi, K.

    2008-08-01

    Wettability of solid metals by molten solders is reviewed. The contact angle and wetting force are tabulated for various combinations of solid metals and molten solders such as Sn-Pb base alloys, Sn-Ag base alloys, Sn-Zn base alloys, Sn-Cu base alloys, and Sn-Bi base alloys. Studies on the wetting rate are also discussed.

  7. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  8. Underwater wet welding of steel

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    Underwater wet welding is conducted directly in water with the shielded metal arc (SMA) and flux cored arc (FCA) welding processes. Underwater wet welding has been demonstrated as an acceptable repair technique down to 100 meters (325 ft.) in depth, but wet welds have been attempted on carbon steel structures down to 200 meters (650 ft.). The primary purpose of this interpretive report is to document and evaluate current understanding of metallurgical behavior of underwater wet welds so that new welding consumables can be designed and new welding practices can be developed for fabrication and repair of high strength steel structures at greater depths. First the pyrometallurgical and physical metallurgy behaviors of underwater weldments are discussed. Second, modifications of the welding consumables and processes are suggested to enhance the ability to apply wet welding techniques.

  9. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  10. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  11. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals.

  12. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  13. Three cases of ocular syphilis and the resurgence of the disease in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Sergio A; McAllister, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection. We describe a case series of ocular syphilis presentations in Queensland, Australia. PMID:27672343

  14. A review of environmental lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Malcolm; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The public health leadership and management of lead exposure in a lead mining and smelting community in Mount Isa is an ongoing issue. There exists deficiencies in public health and environmental legal frameworks that regulate lead exposure and management in Mount Isa, Queensland. Although some positive practical measures on lead containment have been implemented, evidence suggests they are currently inadequate. Greater investments in public health leadership at a local and state level are required to address the ongoing issue of lead in Mount Isa.

  15. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Little is understood about the overall success of current wildlife rehabilitation techniques and the implications of these as an effective conservation strategy. This study collated admission records from four major wildlife hospitals catering to sick and injured koalas across southeast Queensland from 2009 to 2014, and analyzed specific factors that may be important when quantifying the extent and effectiveness of this work. The study found koalas to be at an increased risk from urbanization and human disturbance, that various rehabilitation techniques are employed amongst the four wildlife hospitals, and that a majority of koalas are either euthanized or die whilst in care rather than being released back to the wild. These results provide an interesting insight into current koala rehabilitation practices and have important implications for further research to better understand the practice of rescue and rehabilitation as an effective conservation strategy for this species. Abstract Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b

  16. Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  18. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.897 Wet. Wet means that the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as...

  19. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Definitions § 51.897 Wet. Wet means that the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as...

  20. URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Provides the annual Urban Wet Weather Flow Literture Review for the calendar year 1998 conducted for the Water Environment Federation. It contains hundreds of citations covering the topics of characterization and effects, management, modeling, regulator policies and contol and t...

  1. Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.; Hassett, D.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.

  2. Reentrant Wetting of Network Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardino, N. R.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-09-01

    We use a simple mesoscopic Landau-Safran theory of network fluids to show that a reentrant phase diagram, in the “empty liquid” regime, leads to nonmonotonic surface tension and reentrant wetting, as previously reported for binary mixtures. One of the wetting transitions is of the usual kind, but the low temperature transition may allow the display of the full range of fluctuation regimes predicted by renormalization group theory.

  3. Seasonal reproduction in wild and captive male koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) populations in south-east Queensland.

    PubMed

    Allen, Camryn D; de Villiers, Deidré L; Manning, Brett D; Dique, David S; Burridge, Michelle; Chafer, Mandy L; Nicolson, Vere N; Jago, Sophia C; McKinnon, Allan J; Booth, Rosemary J; McKee, Jeff J; Pyne, Michael J; Zee, Yeng Peng; Lundie-Jenkins, Geoff; Theilemann, Peter; Wilson, Richard J; Carrick, Frank N; Johnston, Stephen D

    2010-01-01

    The effects of breeding season (late spring to early autumn) on south-east Queensland male koala fertility were examined to improve the efficacy of the AI procedure and to determine the practicality of using free-range animals as semen donors for a genome resource bank. Seasonal changes in male koala reproductive function were assessed in a wild free-range population (n = 14; obtained every 6 weeks from January to November 2005), a necropsied healthy wild population (n = 84; obtained monthly from September 2004 to August 2005) and a captive population (n = 7; obtained monthly from October 2005 to October 2006). Reproductive parameters investigated included bodyweight, coat score, sternal gland area and activity, testosterone secretion, reproductive anatomy volume and semen quality (before and after cryopreservation). Collectively, these findings show that reproduction in male koalas from south-east Queensland changes seasonally and that winter appears to be the optimal season in which to collect semen samples by electroejaculation. While it was possible to repeatedly collect semen from free-range koalas for future genetic management via potential storage in a genome resource bank, the survival of these spermatozoa after cryopreservation was poor and will require further improvement.

  4. SETAC-U.S. EPA WET INITIATIVES: ALL WET AND NOTHING BUT WET

    EPA Science Inventory

    To ensure that sould scientific principles and sound science are applied to the challenging issues in t he Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) process, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Foundation for Environmental Education was awarded a cooperative agreem...

  5. Investigating Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of and Practices in Education for Sustainability in Queensland: A Japan-Australia Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Michiko; O'Gorman, Lyndal; Davis, Julie

    2016-01-01

    In a study undertaken in Queensland, Australia, analysis of a survey that included both qualitative and quantitative questions revealed that, like their Japanese counterparts, early childhood teachers do not have well-developed ideas and practices in education for sustainability (EfS). Instead, they mainly practise traditional nature-based…

  6. Things Are Crook in the Bush: Report on a Needs Analysis Survey on a Selected Region, the Central Western Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, J.

    The rural Australian recession resulting from lower commodity prices and poor weather conditions raised concerns about how people were coping in the bush. A survey was distributed to all grazing properties in 10 shires of central western Queensland. Of 1,050 surveys distributed, 223 were returned representing 284 families and 914 individuals.…

  7. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  8. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  9. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  10. Developing a Cardiac Rehabilitation Education Resource for Rural Health Workers in Queensland: Reviewing the Process and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth; O'Connor-Fleming, M.; Tooth, L.; Humphries, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A resource manual on cardiac rehabilitation education was developed for health workers providing patient education in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). A process evaluation of the manual received feedback from 5 key informants and 31 rural health care workers following a 3-month trial. Overall, feedback was positive. Recommended content…

  11. A Measure of the Strength of the Relationship between the Indigenity and Desirability of Queensland State Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaelson, Matthew Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Education Queensland's Remote Area Incentives Scheme (RAIS) is intended to provide financial and other benefits to teachers who choose to accept employment in undesirable locations in the state. On paper, this scheme claims that remoteness from an urban centre is the foremost measure of a school's undesirability. However, the percentage of…

  12. Embedding EfS in Teacher Education through a Multi-Level Systems Approach: Lessons from Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Davis, Julie; Stevenson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the fourth stage of an evolving study to develop a systems model for embedding education for sustainability (EfS) into preservice teacher education. The fourth stage trialled the extension of the model to a comprehensive state-wide systems approach involving representatives from all eight Queensland teacher education…

  13. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  14. Queensland Seasons

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... through grassland areas toward the Murray-Darling river system. In several areas, particularly along the right-hand portion of the ... structure, terrain and soil type, and by the different solar illumination conditions on the two dates. In the near-infrared band ...

  15. Queensland Pastures

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active ... canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular ...

  16. Earliest known Carboniferous shallow-water reefs, Gudman Formation (Tn1b), Queensland, Australia: Implications for Late Devonian reef collapse and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. E.

    1998-10-01

    The Phanerozoic history of reefs extensively has been considered a direct reflection of the history of skeletal reef-building organisms. However, such a relationship does not characterize global mid-Paleozoic reef history. The extinction of most reef-building stromatoporoids and corals at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary correlates with the collapse of North American and European stromatoporoid-dominated reefs, but Western Australian, Russian, and Chinese reefs were much less severely affected until the late Famennian, when algae, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites (i.e., stromatolites, thrombolites) declined globally. Additionally, reef recovery was more rapid than previously thought. Small, early Tournaisian (Tn1b) shallow-water reefs in the Gudman Formation of eastern-central Queensland substantially reduce the duration of the “reefless lag time” following Late Devonian reef decline, essentially confining it to the Strunian. Gudman reefs are dominated by microbialite, but contain a diverse, although volumetrically insignificant, skeletal fauna and flora, including large colonial corals, bryozoans, crinoids, brachiopods, and calcareous algae. Hence, mid-Paleozoic reef collapse and recovery reflect an amalgam of more-or-less independent histories of skeletal organisms, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites, in response to regional and global environmental parameters. A better understanding of mid-Paleozoic reef history will require detailed local- and regional-scale studies to isolate global from nonglobal signals.

  17. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  18. Wetting Effect on Torricelli's Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrand, J.; Favreau, L.; Joubaud, S.; Freyssingeas, E.

    2016-12-01

    This Letter presents an experimental study on the effect of wetting on the draining of a tank through an orifice set at its bottom. The investigation focuses on flows of liquids in the inertial regime through an orifice the size on the order of magnitude of the capillary length. The results show that although the flows always follow a Torricelli-like behavior, wetting strongly affects the speed of drainage. Surprisingly, this speed goes through a minimum as the outside surface of the tank bottom plate changes from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. The maximum effect in slowing down the flows (up to 20%) is obtained for a static wetting angle θs of about 60°. Experiments suggest that the effect of wetting on the exit flows, very likely, is related to the meniscus that forms at the hole's outlet. A simple model is proposed that estimates the variation of kinetic energy within the meniscus. This model captures the main features of the experimental observations, particularly the nonmonotonic variation of the speed of drainage as a function of θs with a minimum for a static wetting angle of about 60°.

  19. Potential Exposures to Australian Bat Lyssavirus Notified in Queensland, Australia, 2009−2014

    PubMed Central

    Si, Damin; Marquess, John; Donnan, Ellen; Harrower, Bruce; McCall, Bradley; Bennett, Sonya; Lambert, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) belongs to the genus Lyssavirus which also includes classic rabies virus and the European lyssaviruses. To date, the only three known human ABLV cases, all fatal, have been reported from Queensland, Australia. ABLV is widely distributed in Australian bats, and any bite or scratch from an Australian bat is considered a potential exposure to ABLV. Methodology/Principal Findings Potential exposure to ABLV has been a notifiable condition in Queensland since 2005. We analysed notification data for potential exposures occurring between 2009 and 2014. There were 1,515 potential exposures to ABLV notified in Queensland, with an average annual notification rate of 5.6 per 100,000 population per year. The majority of notified individuals (96%) were potentially exposed to ABLV via bats, with a small number of cases potentially exposed via two ABLV infected horses and an ABLV infected human. The most common routes of potential exposure were through bat scratches (47%) or bites (37%), with less common routes being mucous membrane/broken skin exposure to bat saliva/brain tissue (2.2%). Intentional handling of bats by the general public was the major cause of potential exposures (56% of notifications). Examples of these potential exposures included people attempting to rescue bats caught in barbed wire fences/fruit tree netting, or attempting to remove bats from a home. Following potential exposures, 1,399 cases (92%) were recorded as having appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) as defined in national guidelines, with the remainder having documentation of refusal or incomplete PEP. Up to a quarter of notifications occurred after two days from the potential exposure, but with some delays being more than three weeks. Of 393 bats available for testing during the reporting period, 20 (5.1%) had ABLV detected, including four species of megabats (all flying foxes) and one species of microbats (yellow-bellied sheathtail bat). Conclusions

  20. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  1. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  2. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.

    PubMed

    Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2004-01-22

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  3. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n→n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  4. Conference on Aerospace Transparent Materials and Enclosures Held in Monterey, California on 16-20 January 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    environment in Queensland , Australia. Various properties were measured at laboratories in Australia, Canada, UK, and USA. The coating provides...Innisfail, Queensland , Australia, in the hot/wet cleared site. The sheets were supported at 450 facing north, coated side uppermost. Innisfail has a hot...of various acrylic materials at a tropical site in Queensland , Australia has shown that the laboratory results on craze resistance are realistic

  5. Kinetic Effects in Dynamic Wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprittles, James E.

    2017-03-01

    The maximum speed at which a liquid can wet a solid is limited by the need to displace gas lubrication films in front of the moving contact line. The characteristic height of these films is often comparable to the mean free path in the gas so that hydrodynamic models do not adequately describe the flow physics. This Letter develops a model which incorporates kinetic effects in the gas, via the Boltzmann equation, and can predict experimentally observed increases in the maximum speed of wetting when (a) the liquid's viscosity is varied, (b) the ambient gas pressure is reduced, or (c) the meniscus is confined.

  6. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay.

  7. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  8. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  9. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found.

  10. Efficacy of an advanced sewage treatment plant in southeast Queensland, Australia, to remove estrogenic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Chapman, Heather F; Korner, Wolfgang; Gooneratne, S Ravi; Tremblay, Louis A

    2005-08-01

    The estrogenicity profile of domestic sewage during treatment at a medium-sized (3800 EP) advanced biological nutrient removal plant in Queensland, Australia, was characterized using a sheep estrogen receptor binding assay (ERBA) and the MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay (E-Screen). The raw influent was highly estrogenic (20-54 ng/L EEq), and primary treatment resulted in a slight increase in estrogenicity that was detected in one of the assays (6-80 ng/L). Concurrent chemical analysis suggested that most of the estrogenicity in the influent was due to natural hormones (>48%). Secondary activated sludge treatment followed by nitrification/denitrification effectively removed > 95% of the estrogenic activity (to <0.75-2.6 ng/L), and estrogenicity of the final tertiary-treated effluent was below the detection limit of both assays (<0.75 ng/L).

  11. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  12. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  13. Characterisation of invasive clinical Haemophilus influenzae isolates in Queensland, Australia using whole-genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Staples, M; Graham, R M A; Jennison, A V

    2017-03-06

    Haemophilus influenzae is an important aetiological organism of both adult and child respiratory disease. The number of non-typeable (NTHi) invasive H. influenzae isolates referred to the Queensland (QLD) Public Health Microbiology laboratory has increased notably year-by-year. In this study we used whole-genome sequencing to molecularly characterise 100 referred invasive H. influenzae, including 74 NTHi isolates over a 15-year period, observing the carriage of capsular and putative virulence genes, including the major adhesins, antimicrobial resistance genes and population diversity. Encapsulated isolates were largely clonal, however NTHi isolates displayed high genetic variability by MLST and single nucleotide polymorphism typing with no dominant clone observed. The only mechanism for β-lactam resistance identified in the QLD isolates was β-lactamase production. No single set of virulence determinants was conclusively associated with invasive QLD NTHi isolates.

  14. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  15. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  16. Pliocene Paleoenvironments of Southeastern Queensland, Australia Inferred from Stable Isotopes of Marsupial Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ13C = −14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ13C = −10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought. PMID:23776636

  17. Experiences and Perspectives of Physical Therapists Managing Patients Covered by Workers' Compensation in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mandy; Corbière, Marc; Franche, Reneé-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical therapists have an active role in the rehabilitation of injured workers. However, regulations in Queensland, Australia, do not afford them the opportunity to participate in return-to-work (RTW) decisions in a standardized way. No prior research has explored the experiences and perceptions of therapists in determining work capacity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate physical therapists' experiences with and perspectives on their role in determining readiness for RTW and work capacity for patients receiving workers' compensation in Queensland. Design A qualitative design was used. Participants were physical therapists who manage injured workers. Methods Novice (n=5) and experienced (n=20) therapists managing patients receiving workers' compensation were selected through purposeful sampling to participate in a focus group or semistructured telephone interviews. Data obtained were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Physical therapists' confidence in making RTW decisions was determined with 1 question scored on a 0 to 10 scale. Results Themes identified were: (1) physical therapists believe they are important in RTW, (2) physical therapists use a variety of methods to determine work capacity, and (3) physical therapists experience a lack of role clarity. Therapists made recommendations for RTW using clinical judgment informed by subjective and objective information gathered from the injured worker. Novice therapists were less confident in making RTW decisions. Conclusion Therapists are well situated to gather and interpret the information necessary to make RTW recommendations. Strategies targeting the Australian Physiotherapy Association, physical therapists, and the regulators are needed to standardize assessment of readiness for RTW, improve role clarity, and assist novice practitioners. PMID:22745200

  18. Pliocene paleoenvironments of southeastern Queensland, Australia inferred from stable isotopes of marsupial tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ(13)C = -14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ(13)C = -10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought.

  19. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  20. Factors Contributing to Extremely Wet Winters in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, B. T.; Ting, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    As California continues to battle the severe drought conditions, it becomes increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that may possible break this ongoing drought. Is a strong El Niño, such as the 2015/16 event, enough to break the drought? We examine in this study the possible factors that lead to extremely wet winters (the wettest 15%) in both Northern and Southern CA. The relationships between CA winter precipitation and sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific, as well as atmospheric circulation are determined by using observational and reanalysis data from 1901 to 2010. One of the key features of the atmospheric circulation is the location of the low pressure anomaly, whether caused by El Niño or other factors. If the anomaly locates right off the US west coast, CA tends to be wet, and vice versa. Furthermore, the duration of the circulation anomaly seems to be crucial. During wet El Niño winters, the peak of the circulation anomaly is in the late winter, whereas, during non-wet El Niño winters, the peak of the anomaly is in the early winter. Thus, an El Niño that can last to late winter is more likely to cause an extremely wet winter in the state. The intensity of El Niño is another critical factor. In the wettest tercile late winter, a strong El Niño can bring about 200% of climatological precipitation to CA, while a weak El Niño can bring only less than 150% of climatology. In combination, only a strong El Niño that can last to late winter may make extremely wet winters very likely in CA. To explore the other factors, composites of circulation anomaly during wet & non-El Niño winters were also analyzed. The results show that a zonally propagating wave train, originating from western North Pacific, contributes to low pressure center and wet winter conditions in the state. Thus, coastal low pressure anomaly is a consistent feature for an extremely wet winters in California, but the origin of forcing can

  1. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  2. 29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO SEPARATE SLIMES FROM SANDS TO PREPARE THE WET ORE PULP FOR CYANIDE PROCESSING. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Solidification of underwater wet welds

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, A.M.; Medeiros, R.C. de; Liu, S.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the shape of a weld pool can influence the microstructure and segregation pattern of the final solidified weld metal. Mechanical properties and susceptibility to defects are consequently affected by the solidification mode of the weld. In this work the solidification behavior of weld beads deposited in air and underwater wet welding using rutile electrodes were compared. The welds were deposited by gravity feed, on low carbon, manganese steel plates using similar welding conditions. Macroscopic observation of the weld craters showed that welds deposited in air presented an elliptical weld pool. The underwater wet welds, on the other hand, solidified with a tear drop shape. Although the welds differed in shape, their lengths were approximately the same. Microscopic examinations carried out on transverse, normal and longitudinal sections revealed a coarser columnar grain structure in the underwater welds. These results suggest that the tear-drop shaped pool induced solidification in a preferred orientation with segregation more likely in welds deposited under wet conditions. This change in weld pool geometry can be explained by the surface heat loss conditions that occur in a wet weld: slower when covered by the steam bubble and faster in the region in contact with water behind the pool.

  4. Inhibiting Wet Oxidation of Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onisko, D. B. L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple modification of wet-oxidation process for treating organicwaste reduces loss of fixed nitrogen, potentially valuable byproduct of process. Addition of sufficient sulfuric acid to maintain reaction pH below 3 greatly reduces oxidation of ammonia to free nitrogen. No equipment modification required.

  5. The influence of a season of extreme wet weather events on exposure of the World Heritage Area Great Barrier Reef to pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Karen; Devlin, Michelle; Bentley, Christie; Lee-Chue, Kristie; Paxman, Chris; Carter, Steve; Lewis, Stephen E; Brodie, Jon; Guy, Ellia; Vardy, Suzanne; Martin, Katherine C; Jones, Alison; Packett, Robert; Mueller, Jochen F

    2012-07-01

    The 2010-2011 wet season was one of extreme weather for the State of Queensland, Australia. Major rivers adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were discharging at rates 1.5 to >3 times higher than their long term median. Exposure to photosystem II herbicides has been routinely monitored over a period of up to 5 years at 12 inshore GBR sites. The influence of this wet season on exposure to photosystem II herbicides was examined in the context of this long-term monitoring record and during flood plume events in specific regions. Median exposures expressed as diuron equivalent concentration were an average factor of 2.3 times higher but mostly not significantly different (p<0.05) to the median for the long-term monitoring record. The herbicides metolachlor and tebuthiuron were frequently detected in flood plume waters at concentrations that reached or exceeded relevant water quality guidelines (by up to 4.5 times).

  6. Relations between Teachers' Classroom Goals and Values: A Case Study of High School Teachers in Far North Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pudelko, Claudia E.; Boon, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    To date, there is an empirical gap in the evidence of the relations between teachers' classroom goals and values, two key variables linked to students' achievement motivation. The purpose of this study was to investigate this relationship in an Australian teacher sample. We surveyed 102 high school teachers from seven schools in Cairns, Queensland…

  7. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  8. Manufacturing mental illness (and lawful abortion): doctors' attitudes to abortion law and practice in new South Wales and Queensland.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Heather; Black, Kirsten; de Costa, Caroline

    2013-03-01

    Around one-quarter of Australian women will have an abortion during their lifetime but access is affected by the way health care providers interpret the law about abortion. In Queensland and New South Wales abortion is a criminal offence although it is defensible in certain circumstances. Drawing on interviews with 22 doctors who provide abortion services to women in New South Wales and Queensland, this article examines doctors' responses to two common scenarios in which women may request an abortion. The two scenarios discussed in this article are a request for a first trimester abortion in circumstances where the woman does not feel ready to have a baby; and a request for abortion in the second trimester where the fetus has been diagnosed with an abnormality. This article explores doctors' understanding of the law related to the provision of abortion in these two States and their views about the effect of the law on their practice.

  9. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    DOE PAGES

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  10. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. The microrheology of wet forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kraynik, A.M.; Reinelt, D.A.

    1996-05-01

    The Kelvin cell is the only known topology for stable, perfectly ordered, dry foams. During topological transitions (T1s) associated with large elastic-plastic deformations, these cells switch neighbors and some faces gain or lose two sides, but the resulting bubbles with different shape are still Kelvin cells. The bubbles in a stable, perfectly ordered. wet foam are not limited to one topology (or even the two described here). The topological transitions considered here result in gain or loss of two dry films per bubble. The transition from Kelvin to RD topology is triggered by films shrinking in area, as in the dry case. However, the reverse transition from RD to Kelvin topology involves a different mechanism--opposite interfaces of an eight-way vertex touch and a new film grows from the point of contact as the foam is compressed. Microrheological analysis based on 2D models of foam structure has been useful preparation for 3D, despite obvious differences between 2D and 3D. Linear elastic behavior is anisotropic for perfectly ordered 3D foams--nonlinear elastic behavior is isotropic for 2D foams with polydisperse hexagonal structure. The shear moduli of a wet Kelvin foam decrease with increasing {phi}--the shear modulus of a wet 2D foam (with three-way Plateau borders) does not depend on {phi} at all. The effective isotropic shear moduli G of perfectly ordered wet foams tend to decrease with increasing {phi} but do not exhibit linear dependence, which may stem from the disorder of real systems.

  12. Formative Assessment Probes: Wet Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    Picture a wet towel or a puddle of water on a hot, sunny day. An hour later, the towel is dry and the puddle no longer exists. What happened to the water? Where did it go? These are questions that reveal myriad interesting student ideas about evaporation and the water cycle--ideas that provide teachers with a treasure trove of data they can use to…

  13. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles.

  14. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  15. Eight new species of Australian stiletto flies in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart (Diptera: Therevidae) from South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David J; Lambkin, Christine L; Yeates, David K

    2014-05-28

    We describe, diagnose and illustrate eight new species in the genus Anabarhynchus Macquart, 1848 as follows: Anabarhynchus cretatus sp. n., Anabarhynchus darembal sp. n., Anabarhynchus iancommoni sp. n., Anabarhynchus longiseta sp. n. Anabarhynchus lyncurium sp. n., Anabarhynchus moretonensis sp. n., Anabarhynchus neboensis sp. n. and Anabarhynchus wintertoni sp. n. These represent all new species in collections from south east Queensland. These new species bring the total number of described Australian species in the genus to 112.

  16. Adhesion and wetting: Similarities and differences

    SciTech Connect

    Shanahan, M.E.R. )

    1991-10-01

    This article examines what is understood about adhesion and wetting both from the historical and scientific perspectives. Topics covered include mechanical adhesion, specific adhesion, chemical adhesion, adhesion by diffusion, the adsorption or wetting theory, bulk adhesion, the rheological theory, hysteresis effects in rubber adhesion, and hysteresis of wetting.

  17. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  18. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  19. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    , biomass burning and biofuel combustions. The second highest contribution is the calcium ion (13.3 μeq·L-1), characteristic of dust aerosols from terrigenous sources, Calcium contributes up to 46% of the precipitation chemistry in Djougou. Finally, these results are compared to those obtained for other selected African sites representative of other main natural ecosystems: dry savanna and forest. The study of the African ecosystem transect indicates a pH gradient with more acidic pH in the forested ecosystem. Nitrogenous contribution to the chemical composition of rain in Lamto, wet savanna, (24%) is equivalent to the one estimated in Djougou (24%). The last contribution concerns organic acidity, which represents 7% of total ionic content of precipitation at Djougou. The relative particulate contribution PC and the relative gaseous contribution GC are calculated using the mean chemical composition measured in Djougou for the studied period. The comparison with other African sites gives 40% and 43% PC in wet savannas of Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire) and Djougou (Benin) respectively, 20% PC in the equatorial forest of Zoetele (Cameroon) and 80% PC in dry savanna of Banizoumbou (Niger). The results shown here indicate the existence of a North-South gradients of organic, marine, terrigenous and nitrogenous contributions along the transect in West and Central Africa.

  20. Monitoring temporal changes in use of two cathinones in a large urban catchment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Edirisinghe, Methsiri; Hall, Wayne; Bruno, Raimondo; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater analysis was used to examine prevalence and temporal trends in the use of two cathinones, methylone and mephedrone, in an urban population (>200,000 people) in South East Queensland, Australia. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the sewage treatment plant that serviced the catchment from 2011 to 2013. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mephedrone and methylone in wastewater sample using direct injection mode. Mephedrone was not detected in any samples while methylone was detected in 45% of the samples. Daily mass loads of methylone were normalized to the population and used to evaluate methylone use in the catchment. Methylone mass loads peaked in 2012 but there was no clear temporal trend over the monitoring period. The prevalence of methylone use in the catchment was associated with the use of MDMA, the more popular analogue of methylone, as indicated by other complementary sources. Methylone use was stable in the study catchment during the monitoring period whereas mephedrone use has been declining after its peak in 2010. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics of emerging illicit drugs to improve the applicability of wastewater analysis in monitoring their use in the population.

  1. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  2. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a New Attractant for the Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera Tryoni (Froggatt).

    PubMed

    Siderhurst, Matthew S; Park, Soo J; Buller, Caitlyn N; Jamie, Ian M; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Jang, Eric B; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-02-01

    Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Q-fly), is a major pest of horticultural crops in eastern Australia. Lures that attract male Q-fly are important for detection of incursions and outbreaks, monitoring of populations, and control by mass trapping and male annihilation. Cuelure, an analog of naturally occurring raspberry ketone, is the standard Q-fly lure, but it has limited efficacy compared with lures that are available for some other fruit flies such as methyl eugenol for B. dorsalis. Melolure is a more recently developed raspberry ketone analog that has shown better attraction than cuelure in some field studies but not in others. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroacetate (RKTA), has been developed as a potential improvement on cuelure and melolure. RKTA placed on laboratory cages containing 2-week-old Q-flies elicited strong behavioral responses from males. Quantification of Q-fly responses in these cages, using digital images to estimate numbers of flies aggregated near different lures, showed RKTA attracted and arrested significantly more flies than did cuelure or melolure. RKTA shows good potential as a new lure for improved surveillance and control of Q-fly.

  3. Assessing the effect of the Queensland "Summer of Disasters" on perceptions of collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Fay-Ramirez, Suzanna; Antrobus, Emma; Piquero, Alex R

    2015-11-01

    The collective efficacy literature suggests that neighborhoods with higher collective efficacy have fewer problems of disorder, increased volunteerism, and higher levels of life satisfaction and wellbeing, along with the increased potential for resilience in the face of a disaster. Although perceptions of collective efficacy typically remain stable over time, rapid or sudden social change, such as experiencing a natural disaster, has the potential to disrupt the neighborhood and the individuals within - including their perceptions of the regulatory mechanisms of collective efficacy. Still, the effect of a major disaster on perceptions of collective efficacy remains relatively unexamined. Longitudinal survey data collected before and after the Queensland flood and cyclone disasters permit a unique investigation of the impact of the disaster on perceptions of social control and social cohesion before and after the disaster. Results show that after this major natural disaster, respondents who were proximately affected reported decreased levels of collective efficacy. Also, persons who experienced the biggest decrease in perceived collective efficacy were those that had lower levels of collective efficacy prior to the disaster. We discuss the mechanisms surrounding disaster preparedness, response, and recovery that may contribute to changing perceptions of collective efficacy.

  4. Cost of reproduction in the Queensland fruit fly: Y-model versus lethal protein hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Fanson, Kerry V; Taylor, Phillip W

    2012-12-22

    The trade-off between lifespan and reproduction is commonly explained by differential allocation of limited resources. Recent research has shown that the ratio of protein to carbohydrate (P : C) of a fly's diet mediates the lifespan-reproduction trade-off, with higher P : C diets increasing egg production but decreasing lifespan. To test whether this P : C effect is because of changing allocation strategies (Y-model hypothesis) or detrimental effects of protein ingestion on lifespan (lethal protein hypothesis), we measured lifespan and egg production in Queensland fruit flies varying in reproductive status (mated, virgin and sterilized females, virgin males) that were fed one of 18 diets varying in protein and carbohydrate amounts. The Y-model predicts that for sterilized females and for males, which require little protein for reproduction, there will be no effect of P : C ratio on lifespan; the lethal protein hypothesis predicts that the effect of P : C ratio should be similar in all groups. In support of the lethal protein hypothesis, and counter to the Y-model, the P : C ratio of the ingested diets had similar effects for all groups. We conclude that the trade-off between lifespan and reproduction is mediated by the detrimental side-effects of protein ingestion on lifespan.

  5. The Development of an Ecosystem Services Framework for South East Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynard, Simone; James, David; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted globally into conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services, the most notable being the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being; a framework for assessment. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, pp 51, 53-55, 2005). The South East Queensland (SEQ) Ecosystem Services Framework (Australia) aims to provide the tools to enable government, industry, business, researchers, non-government organizations and land managers to apply the concept of ecosystem services in their planning and management practices. This article describes the Framework and the process that has produced matrices and maps that identify and illustrate the linkages between ecosystems, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and the community’s well-being. The matrices and maps derived can identify areas in the region where the most ecosystem services are generated. This allows areas to be considered as valuable natural assets of the region, deserving appropriate protection measures or significant offsets if they are diminished or degraded in any way. Although the Framework requires further refinement and ongoing development, the process applied and the products produced has enabled decision makers to turn the concept of ecosystem services into practical application in SEQ.

  6. A parvo-like virus in cultured redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, Rachel O; Wingfield, Max; Fisk, Andrew; Condon, Kelly M L; Reid, Angela; Prior, Howard; Kulpa, Elizabeth C

    2002-07-08

    In the summer of 1999/2000, an epizootic occurred in cultured juvenile redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus on one commercial crayfish farm in northern Queensland, Australia. Mortalities occurred over 4 wk, with up to 96% cumulative mortalities in 2 earthen ponds stocked with juveniles. The crayfish were weak, anorexic and lethargic. A transmission trial was conducted, using filtered, cell-free extract prepared from infected crayfish as inoculum. The disease was reproduced, with on-going mortalities occurring in inoculated crayfish over 55 d. Experimentally inoculated crayfish showed gross signs of malaise, anorexia and disorientation before dying. Two types of intranuclear inclusion bodies (INIBs) were seen in tissues of endodermal, ectodermal and mesodermal origin by light microscopy with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained sections. 'Early'-stage INIBs were eosinophilic, rounded and located centrally within slightly enlarged nuclei while 'late'-stage INIBs were well-rounded and deeply basophilic. The gills, cuticular epithelium and epithelial cells of the foregut, midgut and hindgut were the most heavily infected tissues. By transmission electron microscopy, virions with an average diameter of 19.5 nm were seen within electron-dense granular inclusion bodies within enlarged nuclei of both naturally and experimentally infected crayfish. The size of the virions and cytopathology are consistent with characteristics of viruses in the Family Parvoviridae. This is the first reported case of mass mortality caused by a parvo-like virus infection in C. quadricarinatus.

  7. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  8. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Prenatal maternal stress shapes children's theory of mind: the QF2011 Queensland Flood Study.

    PubMed

    Simcock, G; Kildea, S; Elgbeili, G; Laplante, D P; Cobham, V; King, S

    2017-03-24

    Research shows that stress in pregnancy has powerful and enduring effects on many facets of child development, including increases in behavior problems and neurodevelopmental disorders. Theory of mind is an important aspect of child development that is predictive of successful social functioning and is impaired in children with autism. A number of factors related to individual differences in theory of mind have been identified, but whether theory of mind development is shaped by prenatal events has not yet been examined. In this study we utilized a sudden onset flood that occurred in Queensland, Australia in 2011 to examine whether disaster-related prenatal maternal stress predicts child theory of mind and whether sex of the child or timing of the stressor in pregnancy moderates these effects. Higher levels of flood-related maternal subjective stress, but not objective hardship, predicted worse theory of mind at 30 months (n=130). Further, maternal cognitive appraisal of the flood moderated the effects of stress in pregnancy on girls' theory of mind performance but not boys'. These results illuminate how stress in pregnancy can shape child development and the findings are discussed in relation to biological mechanisms in pregnancy and stress theory.

  10. Secondary welding of submarine, pumice-lithic breccia at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPhie, Jocelyn; Hunns, Steven R.

    1995-06-01

    Very thick units of massive pumice and lithic clast-rich breccia in the Early Permian Berserker beds at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, are deposits from cold, water-supported, volcaniclastic mass flows emplaced in a below-wave base submarine setting. Adjacent to syn-volcanic andesitic and rhyolitic sills and dykes, the pumice-lithic breccia shows a well-developed eutaxitic texture. The eutaxitic foliation is parallel to intrusive contacts and extends as far as a few metres away from the contact. At these sites, pumice clasts are strongly flattened and tube vesicles within the pumice clasts are compacted and aligned parallel to the direction of flattening. Some lenticular pumice clasts contain small (≤2 mm), round, quartz-filled amygdales and spherulites. Further away from the sills and dykes, the pumice clasts have randomly oriented, delicate tube vesicle structure and are blocky or lensoid in shape. Round amygdales were generated by re-vesiculation of the glass and the spherulites indicate devitrification of the glass at relatively high temperatures. The eutaxitic texture is therefore attributed to re-heating and welding compaction of glassy pumice-lithic breccia close to contacts with intrusions. In cases involving sills, secondary welding along the contacts formed extensive, conformable, eutaxitic zones in the pumice-lithic breccia that could be mistaken for primary welding compaction in a hot, primary pyroclastic deposit.

  11. Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

  12. A comparison of greenhouse gas emissions from inputs into farm enterprises in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Apan, Armando

    2007-01-01

    One of the assumptions underlying efforts to convert cropping land, especially marginal crop land, to plantations is that there will be a net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, with a gas "sink" replacing a high energy system in which the breakdown of biomass is routinely accelerated to prepare for new crops. This research, based on case studies in Kingaroy in southeast Queensland, compares the amount of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions from a peanut/maize crop rotation, a pasture system for beef production and a spotted gum (Corymbia citriodora) timber plantation. Three production inputs, fuel, farm machinery and agrochemicals (fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides) are considered. The study extends beyond the farm gate to include packing and transportation and the time period is 30 years. The results suggest that replacing the crops with plantations would indeed reduce emissions but that a pasture system would have even lower net emissions. These findings cast some doubt on the case for farm forestry as a relatively effective means of ameliorating greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethane formation and minimisation in Southeast Queensland drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Nicole; Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Shaw, Glen

    2012-07-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in some Southeast Queensland drinking water sources by conducting formation potential experiments for the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA formation potentials were consistently low (<5-21 ng/L), and total THM (tTHM) formation potentials were consistently below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (250 μg/L). NDMA concentration of finished drinking waters was also monitored and found to be <5 ng/L in all cases. The effect of coagulation and advanced oxidation on the formation of NDMA and THMs is also reported. UV/H(2)O(2) pre-treatment was effective in producing water with very low THMs concentrations, and UV irradiation was an effective method for NDMA degradation. H(2)O(2) was not required for the observed NDMA degradation to occur. Coagulation using alum, ferric chloride or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) was ineffective in removing DBPs precursors from the source water studied, irrespective of the low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) attained. Rather, coagulation with polyDADMAC caused an increase in NDMA formation potential upon chloramination, and all coagulants led to an increased tTHM formation potential upon chlorination due to the high bromide concentration of the source water studied.

  14. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  15. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  16. The incidence of melanocytic naevi in adolescent children in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Green, A; Siskind, V; Green, L

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess longitudinally the development of melanocytic naevi in children around the time of their puberty. In Queensland, Australia, 102 schoolchildren born mostly in 1977 or 1978, were examined annually on four occasions from 1990. All naevi on the body except for the scalp and parts covered by a bathing suit were counted by an experienced research nurse or trained assistant according to a set protocol. In addition, each subject's pigmentary characteristics were recorded and height, weight and pubertal status were assessed annually. The findings confirmed that the average number of naevi and average density of naevi (count per m2) on the whole body in boys and girls increase significantly with increasing age and increases were also seen on each of the following anatomic sites: face and neck, back and shoulders, and upper and lower limbs. Children who had a high baseline naevus count, or a large increase in skin surface area during the 3-year follow-up period had the highest absolute increases in naevus count but the smallest proportionate increases. Associations between baseline naevus counts and male sex, light brown or blonde hair, blue or hazel eyes, facial freckling and a tendency to sunburn, which have been previously reported, were also found. However, the independent relations of each of these factors to the increase in new naevi were more complex, once the effects of high naevus counts at baseline and increases in skin surface area were taken into account.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Two new species of fossil Leggadina (Rodentia: Muridae) from Northwestern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Godthelp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Only three species of fossil murine have been described to date in Australia even though they are often found in fossil deposits and can be highly useful in understanding environmental change over time. Until now the genus Leggadina, a group of short-tailed mice that is particularly well adapted to an arid environment, was only known from two extant species: L. forresti and L. lakedownensis. Here two new fossil species of the genus are described from sites in northwestern Queensland. Leggadina gregoriensis sp. nov. comes from the Early Pleistocene Rackham’s Roost Site in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and Leggadina macrodonta sp. nov. is from the Plio-Pleistocene Site 5C at Floraville Station. The evolution of the genus Leggadina and the lineage’s response to palaeoecological factors is considered. Taphonomy of the two fossil deposits is examined and shows marked differences in both faunal composition of the assemblages and preservation. Description of L. gregoriensis and L. macrodonta extends the known temporal range of the Leggadina lineage by over 2 million years. PMID:26207193

  18. On measuring wealth: a case study on the state of Queensland.

    PubMed

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Brown, Richard; Straton, Anna

    2005-04-01

    In order for policy makers to plan effectively for sustainable development, there is a need for measures of welfare that consider changes in the natural capital stock. Current measures based on conventional national accounting are flawed because they are based solely on flow measures and do not account for environmental effects. In this paper, we use an expanded measure of wealth to estimate the value of natural capital for Queensland. The state's stock of natural capital is valued at A dollar 355.6 billion, of which non-timber forest resources account for 45.3%, ecosystem services 20.0%, and mineral resources 17.6%. This figure is a conservative estimate of the true value since some significant components such as the ecological and life-support functions of the environment are excluded. The estimates highlight the relative importance of different forms of natural capital and can be used to draw the attention of policymakers to the need to give adequate weight to the value of such services in decision-making processes.

  19. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of volcanogenic sandstones - Cretaceous of the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Surat basin are characterized by abundant volcanogenic detritus in the form of rock-fragments and feldspars derived from an andesitic magmatic arc coincident with the present Great Barrier Reef in offshore Queensland. These compositionally immature sandstones are not regarded as favorable exploration targets because of their labile nature, their shallow burial depths, and hence the low thermal maturity of the intercalated mudrocks that might have constituted hydrocarbon source rocks. However, petrographic and petrophysical examinations show that significant primary and early diagenetic secondary dissolution porosity and permeability exist in some of these stratigraphic units that under certain circumstances could be the host for hydrocarbons and may become the future exploration targets. Flushing by CO{sub 2}-charged meteoric water after the inception of the Great Artesian basin (of which the Surat basin is a component) in the Tertiary is likely to have been the principal agent of secondary porosity development in these sandstones. Additionally, products of microbial degradation of organic matter (in the intercalated mudstones) and/or maturation products from the deeply buried part of the basin might have assisted in the dissolution of framework grains and previously deposited cement.

  20. 'My beloved chloroform'. Attitudes to childbearing in colonial Queensland: a case study.

    PubMed

    Woolcock, H R; Thearle, M J; Saunders, K

    1997-12-01

    In 1847 the anaesthetic and analgesic properties of chloroform were discovered. This technology generated a new era for midwifery: mothers could be relieved of pain in childbirth. The introduction of chloroform for childbirth saw increasing medical dominance in obstetrics, traditionally in the hands of the midwife. At the same time the use of chloroform sparked a medical and moral controversy which lasted for several decades. On the one hand women were destined by the 'curse of Eve' to experience pain during childbirth; on the other, medical humanitarians and practitioners believed that there were technical and moral reasons for alleviating pain in childbirth. In concentrating on the debate historians have largely ignored the reactions of mothers to the introduction of the technology. This paper explores changing attitudes to childbearing within the context of colonial Queensland society, 1860-90, by examining the correspondence of an upper-class mother. Her education and liberal outlook, and a certain ambivalence towards motherhood, all influenced her attitude to the use of chloroform and the process of childbirth.

  1. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission.

  2. Prioritising Carbon Sequestration Areas in Southern Queensland using Time Series MODIS Net Primary Productivity (NPP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apan, A.; Suarez Cadavid, L. A.; Richardson, L.; Maraseni, T.

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method that will use satellite imagery to identify areas of high forest growth and productivity, as a primary input in prioritising revegetation sites for carbon sequestration. Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, this study analysed the annual net primary production (NPP) values (gC/m2) of images acquired from 2000 to 2013, covering the Condamine Catchment in southeast Queensland, Australia. With the analysis of annual rainfall data during the same period, three transitions of "normal to dry" years were identified to represent the future climate scenario considered in this study. The difference in the corresponding NPP values for each year was calculated, and subsequently averaged to the get the "Mean of Annual NPP Difference" (MAND) map. This layer identified the areas with increased net primary production despite the drought condition in those years. Combined with key thematic maps (i.e. regional ecosystems, land use, and tree canopy cover), the priority areas were mapped. The results have shown that there are over 42 regional ecosystem (RE) types in the study area that exhibited positive vegetation growth and productivity despite the decrease in annual rainfall. However, seven (7) of these RE types represents the majority (79 %) of the total high productivity area. A total of 10,736 ha were mapped as priority revegetation areas. This study demonstrated the use of MODIS-NPP imagery to map vegetation with high carbon sequestration rates necessary in prioritising revegetation sites.

  3. Evaluation of bifenthrin and permethrin as barrier treatments for military tents against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P

    2007-06-01

    A study comparing the effectiveness of barrier treatment of military tents with bifenthrin and permethrin in preventing entry of mosquitoes was conducted at Wide Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia. Five military tents were erected at a site in bushland at Mosquito Creek, about 2 km from the coast. Two tents were sprayed with bifenthrin (Bistar 80SC, 0.1% mix, 12.5 ml/liter) and 2 with permethrin (Perigen 500, 1.2%, 24 ml/liter). One was left untreated and served as a control. Carbon dioxide-baited traps were placed inside each tent 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk after treatment, and a single trap was placed in forest 50 m from the tents. The predominant mosquito species collected was Aedes vigilax (78% of collection). Compared to the untreated control, protection against mosquitoes entering treated tents was initially 78.6% for bifenthrin-treated tents and 84.3% for permethrin. At 4 wk, protection was 68.6% for bifenthrin and 50.7% for permethrin. After 6 wk, less than 34% protection was provided by either insecticide. There was no significant difference between the protection provided by either insecticide treatment. The study showed that barrier tent treatments provide a reasonable increase in preventing the entry of mosquitoes for at least 4 wk.

  4. High-resolution record of Early to Middle Miocene climate variability from Site 1195, Marion Plateau, NE Queensland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, C.; Browning, E.; Leckie, R. M.; John, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Constraining and quantifying eustatic variations has been a priority for stratigraphers since the publication of the first global sea level curves by the Exxon research group in the late 1970s. Quantifying the glacio-eustatic component of sea level signals has become a greater focus as more recent work has demonstrated that far-field effects like ice-sheet gravitation and isostasy imprint on the "true" eustatic signal of waxing and waning ice sheets so that coeval signals from disparate sites may show significantly different local sea level variations. To this end, the Miocene sediments on the Marion Plateau, a drowned carbonate platform on the Queensland margin of Australia, were drilled by ODP Leg 194 to provide an independent, southern hemisphere test of the sea level record of the New Jersey Margin of North America, the most complete and oft-cited record of Cenozoic sea level variability. A high-resolution record is critical to compare sea level variations across hemispheres. Natural Gamma Ray (NGR) logs of core holes can provide a complete, high-resolution record independent of any problems with core recovery or sampling interval. We here present a NGR record of ODP Site 1195 tied to recently completed nannofossil assemblage data, planktic/benthic foraminiferal ratios, sedimentary particle counts, and benthic foraminifera stable isotopes. Peaks in glauconite and clay content correspond to peaks in NGR. The largest of these peaks correspond to sequence boundaries (lowstands), as glauconite accumulates during periods of low sedimentation along this carbonate-dominated margin. These sequence boundaries, in turn, are each associated with marine oxygen isotope events ("Mi Events") and correlate to sequences on the New Jersey margin, the Gulf of Papua, Great Australian Bight, and McMurdo Sound, indicating that these sequences are eustatically controlled. Although sedimentary particle counts only show strong peaks of glauconite at sequence boundaries, the NGR record

  5. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  6. Mold management of wetted carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Dixit, Anupma; Lewis, Roger D; MacDonald Perkins, Maureen; Backer, Denis; Condoor, Sridhar; Emo, Brett; Yang, Mingan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and removal of fungi on wetted carpet using newly designed technologies that rely on physical principles of steam, heat, and fluid flow. Sixty samples of carpet were embedded with heat-treated house dust, followed by embedding, wearing with a hexapod, and wetting. Samples were inoculated using a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum prior to placement over a water-saturated foam pad. Incubation times were 24 hr, 7 days, and 30 days. Cleaning was performed using three methods; high-flow hot water extraction, hot water and detergent, and steam. Fungal loading increased from approximately 1500 colony forming units per area (CFU/cm(2)) in 24 hr to a maximum of approximately 10,200 CFU/cm(2) after 7 days with a slight decline to 9700 CFU/cm(2) after 30 days incubation. Statistically significant differences were found among all three methods for removal of fungi for all three time periods (p < 0.05). Steam-vapor was significantly better than the alternative methods (p <0.001) with over 99% efficiency in mold spore decline from wetted carpet after 24 hr and 30 days, and over 92% efficiency after 7 days. The alternative methods exhibited lower efficiencies with a decline over time, from a maximum of 82% and 81% at 24 hr down to 60% and 43% at 30 days for detergent-hot water and high-flow, hot water extraction, respectively. The net effect of the mold management study demonstrates that while steam has a consistent fungal removal rate, the detergent and high-flow, hot water methods decline in efficiency with increasing incubation time.

  7. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  8. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Dynamics of wet granular hexagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baur, Manuel; Huang, Kai

    2017-03-01

    The collective behavior of vibrated hexagonal disks confined in a monolayer is investigated experimentally. Due to the broken circular symmetry, hexagons prefer to rotate upon sufficiently strong driving. Due to the formation of liquid bridges, short-ranged cohesive interactions are introduced upon wetting. Consequently, a nonequilibrium stationary state with the rotating disks self-organized in a hexagonal structure arises. The bond length of the hexagonal structure is slightly smaller than the circumdiameter of a hexagon, indicating geometric frustration. This investigation provides an example where the collective behavior of granular matter is tuned by the shape of individual particles.

  10. Wet/Dry Vacuum Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold; Andampour, Jay; Kunitser, Craig; Thomas, Ike

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum cleaner collects and retains dust, wet debris, and liquids. Designed for housekeeping on Space Station Freedom, it functions equally well in normal Earth Gravity or in microgravity. Generates acoustic noise at comfortably low levels and includes circuitry that reduces electromagnetic interference to other electronic equipment. Draws materials into bag made of hydrophobic sheet with layers of hydrophilic super-absorbing pads at downstream end material. Hydrophilic material can gel many times its own weight of liquid. Blower also provides secondary airflow to cool its electronic components.

  11. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  12. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  13. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  14. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  15. Patterns of tidal flooding within a mangrove forest: Coombabah Lake, Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, J. M.; Dale, P. E. R.; Dunn, R. J. K.; Broadbent, G. J.; Lemckert, C. J.

    2008-02-01

    Tidal flooding and surface drainage patterns have often been used to describe mangrove species zonation. However, in mangrove forests exhibiting little topography, ambiguous species distributions and/or few species, such approaches are ineffective. We identified four physiognomic mangrove forest types (Riverine, Fringing, Overwash and Basin) at Coombabah Lake, a tidal lake in southeast Queensland, Australia and investigated tidal flooding patterns using synoptic surveys of tidal observations at the local Standard Port combined with local water depth observation. Subsequently three sub-types of the basin forest type were identified: (1) Deep Basin Forest with mature trees, ˜50 cm standing water and ˜3 tides per year; (2) Medium Depth Basin Forest with intermediate tree development, ˜15-30 cm standing water and 20-40 tides per year; and (3) Shallow Basin Forest with relatively recent mangrove establishment, 5-15 cm standing water and ˜80 tides per year. These three basin sub-types were found to flood at different tide heights with the Shallow Basin flooding for tides above mean high water springs and the Deep Basin flooding only for tide heights approaching the highest astronomical tide. We propose that these basin types represent a succession in mangrove forest development that corresponds with increasing water depth and tree maturation over time. The succession not only represents increasing age but also change in basin substrate composition. This is manifest as increasing pneumatophore density and an increasing area of basin surface occupied by contiguous pneumatophore cover. As a result, it seems that mangrove development is able to modify tidal flooding into the basin by increasingly impeding water movement.

  16. Fluidal-clast breccia generated by submarine fire fountaining, Trooper Creek Formation, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, K.; McPhie, J.

    2001-09-01

    A distinctive monomictic breccia, composed of fluidal and blocky basaltic andesite clasts, occurs in a Cambro-Ordovician submarine volcanic succession in northern Queensland, Australia. Associated with this fluvial-clast buccia facies are coherent facies and coarse and fine breccia facies of the same composition. The fluidal-clast breccia facies is internally massive and >250 m thick, varying only in the ratio of fluidal clasts to blocky clasts. Fluidal clasts range in size from 2 cm to 170 cm, and have moderately to highly vesicular cores and thick (up to 1 cm), non-vesicular, formerly glassy rims. Blocky clasts are highly vesicular to non-vesicular, <2 cm, angular, dominantly equant or splintery in shape and identical in composition to the fluidal clasts. The fluidal clasts strongly resemble subaerial volcanic bombs and are interpreted to be the products of submarine fire fountaining of relatively low-viscosity lava. The blocky clasts were mainly derived from disintegration of the fluidal clasts, by means of quench fragmentation. Coherent basaltic andesite intercalated with the fluidal-clast breccia represents co-genetic lavas, dykes and irregular shallow intrusions. The coarse and fine breccia facies is very thickly bedded, monomictic (basaltic andesite), poorly sorted and clast supported. This facies is interpreted to have been generated by periodic gravitational collapse of unstable accumulations of the fluidal-clast breccia facies. Subaqueous fire-fountain breccias are distinguished from subaerial fire-fountain breccias by thick glassy margins on fluidal clasts, the lack of welding and agglutination, and the distinctive association of highly vesicular, fluidal clasts with non-vesicular, angular, blocky clasts. Recognition of submarine fire-fountain breccias in volcanic successions constrains the eruption style, proximity (tens of metres) to source and environment of deposition.

  17. Early tectonic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland inferred from constrained magnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Giovanni P. T.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Armit, Robin J.

    2015-05-01

    The crustal architecture as well as the kinematic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland is poorly resolved because the region is concealed under thick Phanerozoic sedimentary basins and the basement geology is known from limited drill holes. Combined potential field and seismic interpretation indicates that the Thomson Orogen is characterized by prominent regional NE- and NW-trending structural grain defined by long wavelength and low amplitude geophysical anomalies. The 'smooth' magnetic signature is interpreted to reflect deeply buried source bodies in the mid- to lower crust. Short wavelength positive magnetic features that correlate with negative gravity anomalies are interpreted to represent shallower granitic intrusions. They appear to be focused along major fault zones that might have controlled the locus for magmatism. The eastern Thomson Orogen is characterized by a prominent NE structural grain and orthogonal faults and fold interference patterns resulting in a series of troughs and highs. The western Thomson Orogen consists of a series of NW-trending structures interpreted to reflect reverse faults. Sedimentation and basin development are interpreted to have initiated in the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian during E-W- to ENE-WSW extension, possibly related to the Rodinia break-up. This extensional event was followed by Late Cambrian shortening recorded in the Maneroo Platform and the Diamantina River Domain which possibly correlates with the Delamerian Orogeny. Renewed deposition and volcanism occurred during the Ordovician and may have continued until Late Silurian, resulting in thinned Proterozoic basement crust and extensive basin systems that formed in a distal continental back-arc environment. Our interpretation places the Thomson Orogen to the west of the Neoproterozoic passive margin preserved in the Anakie Inlier. The region is likely to represent the internal extensional architecture during the Rodinia break-up that has been

  18. Petrogenesis of peralkaline rhyolites in an intra-plate setting: Glass House Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Fengli; Niu, Yaoling; Regelous, Marcel; Zhu, Di-Cheng

    2015-02-01

    We report petrological and geochemical data on coeval trachybasalts, syenites with enclaves, trachytes, peralkaline rhyolites and peraluminous rhyolites from the Glass House Mountains-Maleny-Noosa area, southeast Queensland, Australia. This rock association and the unique characteristics of the peralkaline rhyolites offer convincing lines of evidence that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites is a straightforward consequence of protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic melts of alkali-rich composition. Compared to the common peraluminous rhyolites elsewhere, the peralkaline rhyolites here are characterized by elevated abundances of most incompatible elements, especially the very high Nb (vs. Th) and Ta (vs. U), the very low Ba, Sr and Eu and the extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio. The high Nb and Ta are inherited from the parental alkali basaltic melts. The low Ba, Sr and Eu result from removal of plagioclase during the protracted fractional crystallization. These rocks altogether define a Rb-Sr isochron of ~ 28 Ma, which is similar to Ar-Ar age data on these rocks in the literature. The extremely high 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the peralkaline rhyolites (up to 1.88) is actually characteristic of peralkaline rhyolites because of extreme Sr (also Eu and Ba) depletion and thus the very high Rb/Sr ratio. That is, the Sr in these rocks is essentially radiogenic 87Sr accumulated from the 87Rb decay since the volcanism. We suggest that the petrogenesis of the peralkaline rhyolites from the Glass House Mountain area may be of general significance globally. The coeval peraluminous rhyolites apparently result from crustal anatexis in response to the basaltic magma underplating. The small "Daly Gap" exhibited in this rock association is anticipated during the protracted fractional crystallization from basaltic parent to the more evolved felsic varieties.

  19. Can stormwater harvesting restore pre-development flows in urban catchments in South East Queensland?

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, S; Aryal, S; Petrone, K; McIntosh, B S; Maheepala, S; Chowdhury, R; Gardner, T

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the impervious area due to urbanisation have been shown to have negative impacts on the physical and ecological condition of streams, primarily through increased volume and frequency of runoff. The harvesting and detention of runoff has a potential to decrease this impact. This paper describes the effects of urbanisation on catchment flow and of stormwater harvesting on reducing those adverse impacts on a stream in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. A largely undeveloped catchment located southeast of Brisbane city was calibrated and validated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). This model was used to investigate the effect of a range of future increases in urbanisation (represented by impervious area) on stream hydrology as well as the potential of stormwater harvesting to return the catchments to predevelopment flow conditions. Stormwater harvesting was modelled according to flow frequency measures specified in current SEQ development guidelines. These guidelines stipulate the capture of the first 10 mm of runoff from impervious areas of 0-40% and the first 15 mm from impervious areas of 40% or greater for urban developments. We found that increases in the impervious area resulted in increases in the mean, frequency and duration of high flows, and an increase in the mean rate of rise and fall for storm events in the catchment. However, the predevelopment (non-urbanised) flow distribution was very flashy in comparison with all urbanised scenarios; i.e. it had the quickest response to rainfall indicated by a high rate of rise to and fall from peak flow volume, followed by a return to zero flow conditions. Capturing the runoff according to the development guidelines resulted in a reduction in flow towards the flow distribution of a lower impervious area, however this was insufficient to meet predevelopment conditions. This suggests a stronger influence of impervious areas in this catchment on the volume of runoff than flow frequency

  20. Wet comet model: Rosetta redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    The wet-comet model (WCM) of the structure and composition of comets was developed in 2005 to replace the "dirty-snowball" model (DSM) of Fred Whipple, because the first comet flybys of P/Halley "armada" revealed a very different landscape. Subsequent flybys of P/Borrelly, P/Wild-2, P/Hartley, P/Tempel-1 have confirmed and refined the model, so that we confidently predicted that the Rosetta mission would encounter a prolate, tumbling, concrete-encrusted, black comet: P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Unfortunately, the Philae lander team was preparing for a DSM and the anchors bounced off the concrete surface, but the orbiter has returned spec- tacular pictures of every crevice, which confirm and extend the WCM yet a sixth time. We report of what we predicted, what was observed, and several unexpected results from the ROSETTA mission.

  1. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-06

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation.

  2. Wet quenching of incandescent coke

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, R.W.

    1981-04-21

    Method for the reduction of emissions from the wet quenching of incandescent coke in a quenching tower adapted to receive in its base a quench car containing the coke which comprises positioning the car with the coke in the quenching chamber of the tower, effecting a gas seal to substantially prevent air from infiltrating the quenching chamber and ascending the tower, quenching the coke with the resultant generation of steam and other quenching emissions, cooling and cleaning the emissions with water sprays, demisting the cooled emissions, sensing the external and internal pressures of the tower during the quenching process, maintaining a substantially zero gauge internal pressure by controlling the emissions flow exiting the tower and collecting, cooling and recycling the quenching and cooling waters. Apparatus for practicing the method is also disclosed.

  3. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.

  4. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    DOEpatents

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  5. Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfuss, M. J.; Connolly, R. M.; Dale, P. E. R.

    2003-03-01

    The saltmarsh-mangrove interface generally constitutes the landward boundary for the grey mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica, the most widespread species on southeast Queensland shores. A. marina produces buoyant propagules, which are dispersed by tidal waters, only infrequently transported to saltmarsh by the highest spring tides. We predicted that runnelling, a form of habitat modification for mosquito control, transports and deposits mangrove propagules to saltmarsh because the runnels carry low-amplitude tides that would not normally inundate higher regions of the marsh. To test this, groups of marked A. marina propagules were released at three runnelled saltmarshes in southeast Queensland during high-amplitude, flooding and low-amplitude, non-flooding tidal events. The distance propagules were transported from their original starting positions on the saltmarsh-mangrove interface was measured and analysed to detect differences among groups at different distances from runnels. Groups of propagules released within 10 m of a runnel were always transported significantly further from the starting position and further up the saltmarsh shore after both flooding and non-flooding tides than any other groups. In addition, the pattern of stranding on saltmarsh for significantly different groups was closely associated with the path of runnel construction so that propagules were located either in the runnel or in depressions linked to the runnel that had been isolated mosquito-breeding pools prior to runnelling. Observations of A. marina plants at other runnelled sites suggest that propagules transported by runnels can establish and develop to maturity, at least in depressions and runnels, in saltmarsh. The fact that runnels transport propagules to regions of the saltmarsh beyond their normal limits of dispersion suggests a possible advantage for landward extension of the intertidal distribution of A. marina at runnelled sites and should be considered in saltmarsh

  6. Screening for drugs in oral fluid: illicit drug use and drug driving in a sample of Queensland motorists.

    PubMed

    Davey, J; Leal, N; Freeman, J

    2007-05-01

    Police Services in a number of Australian states have indicated random roadside drug testing will be implemented to target drug driving. This paper outlines research conducted to provide an estimate of the prevalence of drug driving in a sample of Queensland drivers. Oral fluid samples were collected from 781 drivers who volunteered to participate at Random Breath Testing (RBT) sites in a large Queensland regional area. Illicit substances tested for included cannabis (delta 9 tetrahydrocannibinol [THC]), amphetamine type substances, heroin and cocaine. Drivers also completed a self-report questionnaire regarding their drug-related driving behaviour. Samples that were drug-positive at initial screening were sent to a government laboratory for confirmation. Oral fluid samples from 27 participants (3.5%) were confirmed positive for at least one illicit substance. The most common drugs detected in oral fluid were cannabis (delta 9 THC) (n = 13) followed by amphetamine type substances (n = 11). A key finding was that cannabis was also confirmed as the most common self-reported drug combined with driving and that individuals who tested positive to any drug through oral fluid analysis were also more likely to report the highest frequency of drug driving. Furthermore, a comparison between drug vs drink driving detection rates for the study period revealed a higher detection rate for drug driving (3.5%) vs drink driving (0.8%). This research provides evidence that drug driving is relatively prevalent on Queensland Roads. The paper will further outline the study findings and present possible directions for future drug driving research.

  7. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  8. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  9. Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov., a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Kazuo; Makimura, Koichi

    2008-12-01

    Three strains (JCM 15063(T), JCM 15098 and JCM 15099) of a novel basidiomycetous yeast species belonging to the genus Sporobolomyces were isolated from nasal smears of Queensland koalas kept in a Japanese zoological park. Analyses of sequences of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region and the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and morphological studies indicated that these strains represent a novel species with a close phylogenetic relationship to Sporobolomyces carnicolor and Sporobolomyces japonicus in the Sporidiobolus lineage, for which the name Sporobolomyces koalae sp. nov. is proposed (type strain JCM 15063(T) =CBS 10914(T) =DSM 19992(T)).

  10. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  11. Meeting local complex health needs by building the capacity of general practice: the University of Queensland GP super clinic model.

    PubMed

    Dart, Jared M; Jackson, Claire L; Chenery, Helen J; Shaw, Paul N; Wilkinson, David

    2010-07-19

    The GP Super Clinics Program is a highly topical and controversial initiative with varying levels of support within the policy, consumer and health care communities. Here, we describe the GP super clinic initiative of the University of Queensland (UQ), and how it aims to enhance primary-care capacity in the regions where clinics are based. The UQ GP super clinic model has considered the concerns of general practitioners, patients and other stakeholders, and addresses the needs of these groups while providing an excellent opportunity for the university to be involved in innovative service delivery, community-based education, primary-care service design and evaluation.

  12. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  13. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and paracetamol use in Queensland and in the whole of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Barozzi, Nadia; Tett, Susan E

    2008-01-01

    Background Cross national drug utilization studies can provide information about different influences on physician prescribing. This is important for medicines with issues around safety and quality of use, like non selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ns-NSAIDs) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors. To enable comparison of prescription medicine use across different jurisdictions with a range of population sizes, data first need to be compared within Australia to understand whether use in a smaller sub-population may be considered as representative of the total use within Australia. The aim of this study was to compare the utilization of non selective NSAID, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol between Queensland and Australia. Method Dispensing data were obtained for concession beneficiaries for Australia for ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol subsidized by the PBS over the period 1997–2003. The same data were purchased for Queensland. Data were converted to Defined Daily Dose (DDD)/1000 beneficiaries/day (World Health Organization anatomical therapeutic chemical classification, 2005). Results Total NSAID and paracetamol consumption were similar in Australia and Queensland. Ns-NSAID use decreased sharply with the introduction of COX-2 inhibitors (from approximately 80 to 40 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). Paracetamol was constant (approximately 45 DDD/1000 beneficiaries/day). COX-2 inhibitors consumption was initially higher in Queensland than in the whole of Australia. Conclusion Despite initial divergence in celecoxib use between Queensland and Australia, the use of ns-NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors and paracetamol overall, in concession beneficiaries, was comparable in Australia and Queensland. PMID:18816393

  14. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  15. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Hugall, Andrew F.; McDonald, Keith R.; Jamieson, Barrie G. M.; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity. PMID:26366862

  16. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Corrie S; Hugall, Andrew F; McDonald, Keith R; Jamieson, Barrie G M; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity.

  17. Pumiceous peperite in a submarine volcanic succession at Mount Chalmers, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunns, Steven R.; McPhie, Jocelyn

    1999-03-01

    Pumiceous peperite comprising irregularly shaped apophyses of feldspar-phyric rhyolitic tube pumice and siltstone occurs within well-bedded volcaniclastic sandstone and siltstone facies of the Early Permian Berserker beds at Mount Chalmers, Australia. The tube pumice structure is preserved where sericite or silica have replaced the glass of vesicle walls and vesicles have been infilled by silica. In some instances, the peperite occurs gradationally above or below intervals of coherent feldspar-phyric rhyolite that are also predominantly pumiceous. The siltstone in the pumiceous peperite is texturally homogeneous, locally vesicular and contains shards and crystals derived from disintegration of the pumiceous rhyolite. Pumiceous rhyolite and peperite occur at various positions in the stratigraphy and may represent interconnected intrusive digits or lobes. Intrusion of the lobes was accommodated by expansion of the pore water and possible fluidisation of the host sediment, resulting in local destruction of bedding. The lobes developed chilled margins at contacts with wet sediment and inflated in response to vesiculation and the supply of new magma. Cooling of the lobes was possibly accompanied by development of microfractures in the glassy vesicle walls. Rupture of the chilled margin and propagation of fractures into the interior could have temporarily and locally depressurised the lobes, resulting in failure, disintegration and mixing with the adjacent wet and/or steam-rich sediment. Hot pumiceous rhyolite in lobe interiors may have interacted directly with the wet sediment and been dismembered by quench fragmentation and/or steam explosions. Bubbles of magmatic gas and/or steam were trapped in the sediment that mixed with the pumiceous rhyolite. The development of pumiceous texture in the sills was favoured by emplacement beneath a thin cover of wet sediment in a relatively shallow, submarine shelf setting in which the confining pressure was sufficiently low to

  18. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  19. Landsat Based Woody Vegetation Loss Detection in Queensland, Australia Using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, K.; Phinn, S. R.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land clearing detection and woody Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) monitoring at the state and national level in Australia has mainly been undertaken by state governments and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) because of the considerable expense, expertise, sustained duration of activities and staffing levels needed. Only recently have services become available, providing low budget, generalized access to change detection tools suited to this task. The objective of this research was to examine if a globally available service, Google Earth Engine Beta, could be used to predict woody vegetation loss with accuracies approaching the methods used by TERN and the government of the state of Queensland, Australia. Two change detection approaches were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper time series and the Google Earth Engine Application Programming Interface: (1) CART and Random Forest classifiers; and (2) a normalized time series of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and NDVI combined with a spectral index. The CART and Random Forest classifiers produced high user's and producer's mapping accuracies of clearing (77-92% and 54-77%, respectively) when detecting change within epochs for which training data were available, but extrapolation to epochs without training data reduced the mapping accuracies. The use of FPC and NDVI time series provided a more robust approach for calculation of a clearing probability, as it did not rely on training data but instead on the difference of the normalized FPC / NDVI mean and standard deviation of a single year at the change point in relation to the remaining time series. However, the FPC and NDVI time series approach represented a trade-off between user's and producer's accuracies. Both change detection approaches explored in this research were sensitive to ephemeral greening and drying of the landscape. However, the developed normalized FPC and NDVI time series approach can be tuned to provide automated alerts for large

  20. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  1. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  2. A survey of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasses processed for human consumption in two processing plants in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Huang, Bixing; Stuttard, Ed

    2007-05-01

    An investigation of the microbiological quality of kangaroo carcasses at two Queensland processing plants was carried out. A total of 836 whole muscle samples were taken, 801 from plant A and 35 from plant B. Samples were analyzed for aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The mean adjusted aerobic plate count (APC) was 2.8 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 4.2, 4.9, and 6.4 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria recovered was 6.5 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 13.9% of samples, for which the adjusted mean was 0.7 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 1.4, 2.0, and 3.0 log CFU/g, respectively. Salmonella was detected in 0.84% of samples. There was no significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and APC or E. coli count. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.001) between Salmonella prevalence and summer. The microbiological quality of Queensland kangaroo carcasses is similar to that obtained during other excision-based studies of kangaroo, wild boar, and beef carcasses.

  3. At the heart of the industrial boom: Australian snubfin dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, need urgent conservation action.

    PubMed

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km(2) respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km(2), respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as "Endangered" is appropriate.

  4. At the Heart of the Industrial Boom: Australian Snubfin Dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, Need Urgent Conservation Action

    PubMed Central

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225

  5. Decadal variability in European wet and dry phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsel, Stephanie; Miketta, Wiebke; Matschullat, Jörg

    2013-04-01

    century - were noticed for Central Europe and the Mediterranean area. Besides those long-term trends exists a strong inter-decadal variability of the spatial coverage of dry and wet phases, respectively, within all sub-regions, indicating a relation of decile phase occurrence to long-term variations in atmospheric circulation. We explored the relationship between dry and wet phase occurrence and large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, e.g., Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of circulation types (GWT), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and found some links depending on the particular sub-region. Yet, the observed links cannot simply be reduced to simple cause-effect relationships.

  6. Forced wetting of a reactive surface.

    PubMed

    Blake, T D

    2012-11-01

    The dynamic wetting of water on gelatin-coated poly(ethylene terephthalate) (GC-PET) has been investigated by forced wetting over a wide speed range and compared with earlier data obtained with unmodified PET. The results were analysed according to the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting (MKT). Both substrates show complex behaviour, with separate low- and high-speed modes. For the GC-PET, this is attributed to a rapid change in the wettability of the substrate on contact with water, specifically a surface molecular transformation from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This results in a smooth wetting transition from one mode to the other. For the PET, the bimodal behaviour is attributed to surface heterogeneity, with the low-speed dynamics dominated by interactions with polar sites on the substrate that become masked at higher speeds. In this case, the transition is discontinuous. The study has general ramifications for the investigation of any wetting processes in which a physicochemical transformation takes place at the solid surface on contact with the liquid. In particular, it shows how forced wetting, combined with the MKT, can reveal subtle details of the processes involved. It is unlikely that similar insight could be gained from spontaneous wetting studies, such as spreading drops.

  7. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  8. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  9. Corrosive Wear in Wet Ore Grinding Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Denny A.

    1985-06-01

    Wear processes in ball and rod mills have recently received increased attention in order to increase efficiency and conserve grinding media. Direct removal of metal from the grinding media surface by abrasive wear occurs in both dry and wet grinding. Additional corrosive wear is apparent during wet grinding, in which less resistant corrosion product films are abraded away. Inhibitors and higher pH solutions, in which corrosion product films are more tenacious, improve wear resistance during wet grinding. Softer surfaces are less resistant to corrosive wear, suggesting that film formation and subsequent film abrasion on newly furrowed surfaces must be a factor.

  10. Our experience with wet-wrap treatment.

    PubMed

    Albarrán-Planelles, C; Jiménez-Gallo, D; Linares-Barrios, M; Martínez-Rodríguez, A

    2014-04-01

    A wide range of treatments are currently available for severe atopic dermatitis, including systemic therapies such as ciclosporin, corticosteroids, azathioprine, methotrexate, mofetil mycophenolate, and omalizumab. In patients who can no longer take systemic drugs or who need a dose reduction, wet-wrap treatment can be an excellent option. To date, wet wraps have mostly been used in severe cases of childhood atopic dermatitis. We report our experience with wet-wrap treatment in 5 adults with atopic dermatitis and 2 with nodular prurigo. The results were satisfactory and there were few adverse effects.

  11. A climatology of leaf surface wetness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemm, O.; Milford, C.; Sutton, M. A.; Spindler, G.; van Putten, E.

    The wetness of plant leaf surfaces is an important parameter in the deposition process of atmospheric trace gases. Particularly gases with high water solubility tend to deposit faster to a wet surface, compared to a dry one. Further, drying up of a wet leaf surface may lead to revolatilization of previously deposited gases. Despite the high importance of leaf surface wetness in biosphere/atmosphere exchange, there is no quantitative description of this parameter on the ecosystem scale, quantifying its initiation, duration, dissipation, correlation with parameters such as air humidity, turbulence, vegetation type, plant physiology, and others. This contribution is a first step towards a climatology of leaf surface wetness, based on a large data basis from various ecosystems. Leaf surface wetness was monitored at two grassland and two forest research sites in NW and central Europe throughout the vegetation period of 1998. It was sensed through measurement of the electrical conductivity between two electrodes that were clipped to the living plant leaf surfaces. This yields a relative signal that responds promptly to the presence of leaf wetness. A routine is presented that combines the data from several sensors to the dimensionless leaf wetness, LW, with values between zero and one. Periods of high leaf wetness (LW>0.9) were in most cases triggered by precipitation events. After termination of rain, LW decreased quickly at the forest sites and dropped to values below 0.1 within less than 24 hours in most cases. At the grassland sites, the formation of dew led to a more complex pattern, with the occurrence of diurnal cycles of LW. Although periods of low relative air humidity (e.g., rH<50%) are normally associated with periods of low leaf wetness, the extent of correlation between these two parameters at rH>60% varies between the different sites. The grassland sites show very similar distributions of the LW data with rH, indicating a positive correlation between LW and

  12. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  13. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  14. Dodgy Data, Language Invisibility and the Implications for Social Inclusion: A Critical Analysis of Indigenous Student Language Data in Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Sally; Angelo, Denise

    2014-01-01

    As part of the "Bridging the Language Gap" project undertaken with 86 State and Catholic schools across Queensland, the language competencies of Indigenous students have been found to be "invisible" in several key and self-reinforcing ways in school system data. A proliferation of inaccurate, illogical and incomplete data…

  15. Megadrymus brigalow n.sp. (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae: Drymini), a diminutive new species of seed bug from semi-evergreen vine thicket of the Queensland Brigalow Belt.

    PubMed

    Cassis, Gerasimos; Symonds, Celia L

    2014-03-14

    Megadrymus brigalow n. sp., a new species of seed bug, is described from semi-evergreen vine thicket in the Brigalow Belt region of Queensland, Australia. This species has the smallest body in the genus Megadrymus Gross and has a number of vestigial characters.

  16. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  17. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  18. Mapping of Assessment Procedures in Schools: A Study of Assessment Procedures in Three Subject Areas at Year 12 Level in Queensland State Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Bruce; Lamont, Ann

    In the light of recommendations for future directions in secondary education made by the Review of School Based Assessment in Queensland Secondary Schools, this study aimed to systematically map current internal assessment practices for grade 12, and to determine the degree of satisfaction in schools with these practices. The study was performed…

  19. "Push-Me" or "Pull-You"? An Opportunity for Early Childhood Leadership in the Implementation of Queensland's Early Years Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Louise; O'Gorman, Lyndal

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in the Queensland early childhood context have seen the phased-in introduction of a full-time Preparatory Year to replace current part-time preschool provision. Surrounding this development has been discussion of the potential role of the play-based Early Years Curriculum in shaping the implementation of early primary…

  20. The Development of a White Water Rafting Code of Practice in Response to Multiple Fatalities in Queensland: How Will It Impact the Commercial and Educational Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this article I review lessons to be learned from five commercial rafting participant fatalities in Northern Queensland between 2007 and 2009, and examine some implications of the coroner's recommendations from an outdoor education perspective. I aim both to help prevent future fatalities and to contribute to discussion about how best to achieve…

  1. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. The influence of geological fabric and scale on drainage pattern analysis in a catchment of metamorphic terrain: Laceys Creek, southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, Jane Helen; McLoughlin, Stephen; Cox, Malcolm

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between geological fabric and drainage patterns in the 81.8 km 2 Laceys Creek sub-catchment of the North Pine River catchment, southeast Queensland, Australia, is analysed using a new channel-ordination system. The Laceys Creek catchment is situated on the South D'Aguilar Block, which underwent metamorphism, faulting and uplift from the Late Carboniferous to Late Triassic. The catchment drains exposures of two main rock units, the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds and the Bunya Phyllite. Both units are composed of metamorphosed deep-sea sediments that accumulated as an accretionary wedge during late Palaeozoic subduction of the palaeo-Pacific plate under the eastern margin of the Australian craton. The new channel ordination system used in this study allows improved classification of stream segments of equal prominence or rank in comparison to previous schemes. A 10 m contour digital elevation model (DEM) was produced within which drainage channels were digitised. Planar geological features, including bedding, faults, joints and cleavage, were mapped in the field and collated with data from previous geological mapping programs. Regional and local trends of geological fabric are reflected in the variable orientation of channels of different rank in the catchment. Cleavage and fractures are the dominant planar features of the Bunya Phyllite and these correlate most closely with the orientation of middle-order incised stream segments. In contrast, middle-order channels on the Neranleigh-Fernvale Beds most closely correlate with bedding, which dominates the fabric of this unit. Although anthropogenic factors exert local influence and climatic processes exert broad influence on the catchment, this study focuses on structural and lithological fabrics, which are the apparent dominant controls on middle-order channel orientations. Identification of congruent patterns between bedrock fabric and channel ranks is variable, depending on the scale and number of channels

  3. Benchmarking Teacher Practice in Queensland Transition Programs for Youth with Intellectual Disability and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamish, Wendi; Meadows, Denis; Davies, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has been done in North America to examine practices recommended to facilitate postschool transitions for youth with disabilities. Few studies in Australia, however, have investigated these practices. This study drew on the Taxonomy for Transition Programming developed by Kohler to benchmark practice at government and nongovernment…

  4. Adult Bed-Wetting: A Concern?

    MedlinePlus

    ... D. Bed-wetting that starts in adulthood (secondary enuresis) is uncommon and requires medical evaluation. Causes of ... Erik P. Castle, M.D. References Adult nocturnal enuresis. National Association for Continence. http://www.nafc.org/ ...

  5. Making and Experimenting with a Wet Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the physical and chemical changes that occur during the operation of a wet cell battery as it produces an electrical current. Provides instructions for the lesson. (MDH)

  6. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  7. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  8. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  9. Snow wetness measurements for melt forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Clapp, F. D.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A microwave technique for directly measuring snow pack wetness in remote installations is described. The technique, which uses satellite telemetry for data gathering, is based on the attenuation of a microwave beam in transmission through snow.

  10. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as that resulting from removing grapes from...

  11. 7 CFR 51.897 - Wet.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the grapes are wet from moisture from crushed, leaking, or decayed berries or from rain. Grapes which are moist from dew or other moisture condensation such as that resulting from removing grapes from...

  12. Thermodynamics of wetting by liquid metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, F. G.; Romig, A. D., Jr.

    The wetting of metal surfaces by molten solder is usually considered to be driven solely by an interfacial energy imbalance. The effect of chemical reactions on the wetting process is neglected, although the growth of an intermetallic layer in the wetted interface is commonly observed. In this work, the energy release during the incremental advance of a spreading solder droplet due to the interfacial energy imbalance and the formation of the intermetallic layer is calculated. The free energy of formation, (DELTA)G, of the intermetallic layer is shown to be an important driving force for solder wetting. This approach to setting has been applied to three systems, Cu-Sn, Cu-Sb and Cu-Cd. Liquid Sn, Sb and Cd react with solid Cu to form Cu6Sn5(eta), Cu2Sb(GAMMA) and CuCd3(epsilon), respectively.

  13. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  14. Chlorine Disinfection of Wet Weather Managed Flows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to deal with wet weather events when the hydraulic capacity of the treatment facility could be compromised. Blending consists of primary wastewater treatment plant effluent, partially bypassing secondary treatment, and then ...

  15. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  16. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  17. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  18. Complete wetting of graphene by biological lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-03-01

    Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a graphene sheet.Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a

  19. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  20. Combinatorial wetting in colour: an optofluidic nose.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Kevin P; Burgess, Ian B; Kinney, Mackenzie H; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-10-07

    We present a colourimetric litmus test for simple differentiation of organic liquids based on wetting, which achieves chemical specificity without a significant sacrifice in portability or ease-of-use. Chemical specificity is derived from the combination of colourimetric wetting patterns produced by liquids in an array of inverse opal films, each having a graded wettability, but using different surface groups to define that gradient.

  1. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  2. Marathon readies for North Brae development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes Marathon Oil UK Ltd.'s development of the North Brae field--the first gas condensate field developed by recycling in the UK sector of the north Sea. The author explains how produced gas from the field will yield condensate and associated gas liquids. The remaining dry gas will be returned to the reservoir through gas injection facilities. The reinjected gas will displace the reservoir's rich, wet gas, and eventually a mixture of the two gases will be produced at the surface. Marathon estimates recoverable reserves to be 200 million bbl of condensate and over 680 bef of dry gas.

  3. Taxonomic revision of Australian Platynectes Régimbart, 1879 (Part I)-four new species from Queensland (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Agabinae).

    PubMed

    Hendrich, Lars; Sťastný, Jaroslav

    2014-05-09

    Four species of the genus Platynectes subgenus Gueorguievtes Vazirani, 1976 are described from Queensland, Australia: Platynectes brancuccii sp. n. (Atherton Tableland), P. larsoni sp. n. (Mulgrave Range and Windsor Tableland), P. ponderi sp. n. (Carnarvon Range) and Platynectes weiri sp. n. (White Mountains National Park and Hope Vale Mission). The latter two are the first species of the genus with striae on elytra and the informal P. weiri-species group is established for them. Platynectes brancuccii sp. n. and P. larsoni sp. n. belong to the P. decempunctatus-species group. All four species were collected from small rain forest streams or rest pools of intermittent creeks. Important species characters (median lobes, parameres and colour patterns) of all species are figured, and notes on their distribution and ecology are given. Altogether 17 species of the genus are now known from Australia.

  4. Operator error and system deficiencies: analysis of 508 mining incidents and accidents from Queensland, Australia using HFACS.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Jessica M; Shappell, Scott A

    2010-07-01

    Historically, mining has been viewed as an inherently high-risk industry. Nevertheless, the introduction of new technology and a heightened concern for safety has yielded marked reductions in accident and injury rates over the last several decades. In an effort to further reduce these rates, the human factors associated with incidents/accidents needs to be addressed. A modified version of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System was used to analyze incident and accident cases from across the state of Queensland to identify human factor trends and system deficiencies within mining. An analysis of the data revealed that skill-based errors were the most common unsafe act and showed no significant differences across mine types. However, decision errors did vary across mine types. Findings for unsafe acts were consistent across the time period examined. By illuminating human causal factors in a systematic fashion, this study has provided mine safety professionals the information necessary to reduce mine incidents/accidents further.

  5. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  6. Enhanced surveillance for gonorrhoea in two diverse settings in Queensland in the 2000s: comparative epidemiology and selected management outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Patricia S; Downing, Sandra G; McCall, Bradley; Carroll, Heidi J; Howard, Therese M; Palmer, Cheryn M

    2013-09-30

    Gonorrhoea is an important sexually transmitted notifiable condition. This paper describes findings from two gonorrhoea enhanced surveillance programs operating during the 2000s in Queensland: one in the remote Torres and Northern Peninsula Area (T&NPA); the other in an urban region. The overall response rate in the T&NPA (2006-2011) was 82% (723 of 879), and in Brisbane Southside and West Moreton (BSWM) (2003-2011), it was 62% (1,494 of 2,401 notifications). In the T&NPA, cases were young (80% <25 years), Indigenous (97%) and 44% were male. In the BSWM, cases were predominantly male (76%), non-Indigenous (92%) and 42% were aged less than 25 years. Co-infection with chlamydia was found in 54% of males and 60% of females in the Torres, and in 18% of males and 35% of females in the BSWM. In the BSWM 35% of the men without a syphilis test recorded had reported sexual contact with men; similarly 34% of the men without an HIV test recorded had reported sexual contact with men. Compliance with recommended treatment (ceftriaxone) was greater than 90% in all years except 2008 (84%) in the T&NPA. Treatment compliance increased significantly, from 40% in 2003 to 84.4% in 2011 (P<0.0001) in the BSWM cohort. The proportion of contacts with a documented treatment date increased significantly in the T&NPA from 56% in 2009 to 76% in 2011 (P=0.019), after a system for follow-up with the clinician became routine. Gonorrhoea epidemiology and management challenges vary across Queensland populations. Enhanced surveillance allows public health authorities to monitor epidemiology and reminds clinicians to prioritise effective sexually transmitted infection treatment for their clients.

  7. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  8. Investigating snow wetness using dual polarization advanced synthetic aperture radar imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkataraman, G.; Singh, Gulab; Kumar, V.; Mohite, Kishor; Rao, Y. S.

    2007-09-01

    The main objective of the study is to estimate snow wetness using ENVISAT ASAR data. Snow surface backscattering can be expressed as a function of permittivity of snow. Coding has been done for backscattering coefficient image generation using ENVISAT- Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR), single look complex (SLC) data with dual (HH and VV) polarization as well as single (HH) polarization data. Incidence angle images were extracted from the ASAR header data using interpolation method. These mages were multi-looked 5 times in azimuth and 1 time in range direction. ASAR backscattering coefficient images have been calibrated and processed into terrain corrected images in Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM), zone 43 north and WGS-84 datum map projection using ERDAS Imagine software. Corrected backscattering images are despeckled using Frost filter technique. For this study Integral equation method (IEM) for first order surface scattering based inversion model has been used. A Software has been developed using integral equation method (IEM) based inversion model to estimate snow permittivity, which can be further related to estimating snow wetness. A comparison was done between inversion model estimated snow wetness and field values of snow wetness in the study region. Comparison with field measurement showed that the correlation coefficient for snow wetness estimated from ASAR data was observed to be 0.94 at 95% confidence interval and standard error is observed as 1.28% by volume at 95% confidence interval. The comparison of ASAR derived snow wetness with ground measurements shows the average absolute error at 95% confidence interval as 2.8%. The snow wetness range varies from 0-15% by volume.

  9. Removal of atmospheric ethanol by wet deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felix, J. David; Willey, Joan D.; Thomas, Rachel K.; Mullaugh, Katherine M.; Avery, G. Brooks; Kieber, Robert J.; Mead, Ralph N.; Helms, John; Giubbina, Fernanda F.; Campos, M. Lucia A. M.; Cala, John

    2017-02-01

    The global wet deposition flux of ethanol is estimated to be 2.4 ± 1.6 Tg/yr with a conservative range of 0.2-4.6 Tg/yr based upon analyses of 219 wet deposition samples collected at 12 locations globally. This estimate calculated by using observed wet deposition ethanol concentrations is in agreement with previous models (1.4-5 Tg/yr) predicting the wet deposition sink using Henry's law coefficients and atmospheric ethanol concentrations. Wet deposition is estimated to remove between 6 and 17% of the total ethanol emitted to the atmosphere on an annual basis. The concentration of ethanol in marine rain (25 ± 6 nM) is an order of magnitude less than in the majority of terrestrial rains (345 ± 280 nM). Terrestrial rain samples collected in locations impacted by high local sources of biofuel usage and locations downwind from ethanol distilleries were an order of magnitude higher in ethanol concentration (3090 ± 448 nM) compared to rain collected in terrestrial locations not impacted by these sources. These results indicate that wet deposition of ethanol is heavily influenced by local sources. Results of this study are important because they suggest that as biofuel production and usage increase, the concentration of ethanol in the atmosphere will increase as well the wet deposition flux. Additional research constraining the sources, sinks, and atmospheric impacts of ethanol is necessary to better assist in the debate as whether or not to increase consumption of the alcohol as a biofuel.

  10. A combination of remote sensing data and topographic attributes for the spatial and temporal monitoring of soil wetness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temimi, M.; Leconte, R.; Chaouch, N.; Sukumal, P.; Khanbilvardi, R.; Brissette, F.

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThis work presents a methodology for soil wetness monitoring over the Peace Athabasca Delta, PAD, a northern watershed located in the Mackenzie River Basin in North-Western Canada. The approach is based on the use of a combination of passive microwave data from AMSR-E instrument, data in the visible wavelengths from MODIS sensor and topographic attributes derived from the SRTM Digital Elevation Model. Classic topography-based wetness indices are static and unable to capture the temporal variability of soil moisture. Also, they do not account for vegetation effect on the spatial organisation of soil wetness. We therefore suggest overcoming these limitations by assessing the temporal variability of soil wetness using passive microwave data and introducing vegetation parameters into a new topography-based wetness index (TWI). The proposed approach is an improvement in a dynamic sense over classic topographic indices. It also distinguishes between wetness and open waterbodies contributions to the passive microwave signal. AMSR-E 37 GHz data have been used to regularly assess total soil wetness in the PAD. MODIS images have been used to develop a rating curve relationship between discharge observations and the extent of flooded areas. A basin wetness index (BWI) has been calculated as the difference between total wetness fraction from AMSR-E and inundated surface fraction retrieved from MODIS images. The new topographic wetness index disaggregates BWI values and distinguishes between inundated areas and wet soils responses in the passive microwave signal. Results were compared to those derived from the classic and static index. The proposed index has provided a better estimation of the wetness over the basin with respect to the classic wetness index. The correlation coefficients between the disaggregated wetness index and observed precipitations at Fort Chipewayn A station were 0.7 and 0.69 for 2003 and 2002 respectively. The obtained map of waterbodies in the

  11. Design consideration for wet welded joints

    SciTech Connect

    Szelagowski, P.; Osthus, V.; Petershagen, H.; Pohl, R.; Lafaye, G.

    1996-12-01

    Wet welding has become a joining technique that under certain circumstances can provide results which cannot be distinguished between wet or dry production and the achievable mechanical quality is comparable to dry atmospheric welds. Wet welding is not a process which can be applied easily and which can be properly handled by untrained diver welders. Wet welding is more than any other kind of welding process or procedure a joining technique that requires the full job-concentration and -knowledge of an excellent trained and skilled diver welder throughout the whole production time, who is 100% identifying himself with his task. Furthermore he must be fully aware of the production requirements and possible metallurgical/environmental reactions and outcomes. He must be able to be fully concentrated on the process performance throughout his total work shift. In short: he must be an outstanding expert in his field. The following paper will highlight these subjects and show the necessity of their exact observation to achieve excellent quality in wet welding.

  12. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Epimacular brachytherapy for wet AMD: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Giralt, Joan; Farah, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the over-60 age group in developed countries. There are basically two forms of presentation: geographic (dry or atrophic) and wet (neovascular or exudative). Geographic atrophy accounts for approximately 85%–90% of ophthalmic frames and leads to a progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Wet AMD causes the highest percentage of central vision loss secondary to disease. This neovascular form involves an angiogenic process in which newly formed choroidal vessels invade the macular area. Today, intravitreal anti-angiogenic drugs attempt to block the angiogenic events and represent a major advance in the treatment of wet AMD. Currently, combination therapy for wet AMD includes different forms of radiation delivery. Epimacular brachytherapy (EMBT) seems to be a useful approach to be associated with current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, presenting an acceptable efficacy and safety profile. However, at the present stage of research, the results of the clinical trials carried out to date are insufficient to justify extending routine use of EMBT for the treatment of wet AMD. PMID:25210436

  14. Epimacular brachytherapy for wet AMD: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Alforja, Socorro; Giralt, Joan; Farah, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is considered the most common cause of blindness in the over-60 age group in developed countries. There are basically two forms of presentation: geographic (dry or atrophic) and wet (neovascular or exudative). Geographic atrophy accounts for approximately 85%-90% of ophthalmic frames and leads to a progressive degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptors. Wet AMD causes the highest percentage of central vision loss secondary to disease. This neovascular form involves an angiogenic process in which newly formed choroidal vessels invade the macular area. Today, intravitreal anti-angiogenic drugs attempt to block the angiogenic events and represent a major advance in the treatment of wet AMD. Currently, combination therapy for wet AMD includes different forms of radiation delivery. Epimacular brachytherapy (EMBT) seems to be a useful approach to be associated with current anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents, presenting an acceptable efficacy and safety profile. However, at the present stage of research, the results of the clinical trials carried out to date are insufficient to justify extending routine use of EMBT for the treatment of wet AMD.

  15. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation.

    PubMed

    Bayless, David J; Shi, Liming; Kremer, Gregory; Stuart, Ben J; Reynolds, James; Caine, John

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or water-based) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at FirstEnergy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with approximately 15% less collecting area.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  17. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  18. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563....1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury....

  19. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy soft rot, leak, or wet breakdown following freezing injury, scald, or other injury....

  20. A new dasyurid marsupial from Kroombit Tops, south-east Queensland, Australia: the Silver-headed Antechinus, Antechinus argentus sp. nov. (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B

    2013-12-11

    Antechinus argentus sp. nov. is currently only known from the plateau at the eastern escarpment of Kroombit Tops National Park, about 400km NNW of Brisbane and 60km SSW of Gladstone, south-east Queensland, Australia. Antechinus flavipes (Waterhouse) is also known from Kroombit Tops NP, 4.5km W of the nearest known population of A. argentus; A. mysticus Baker, Mutton and Van Dyck has yet to be found within Kroombit Tops, but is known from museum specimens taken at Bulburin NP, just 40km ESE, as well as extant populations about 400km to both the south-east and north-west of Kroombit NP. A. argentus can be easily distinguished in the field, having an overall silvery/grey appearance with much paler silver feet and drabber deep greyish-olive rump than A. flavipes, which has distinctive yellow-orange toned feet, rump and tail-base; A. argentus fur is also less coarse than that of A. flavipes. A. argentus has a striking silver-grey head, neck and shoulders, with pale, slightly broken eye-rings, which distinguish it from A. mysticus which has a more subtle greyish-brown head, pale buff dabs of eyeliner and more colourful brownish-yellow rump. Features of the dentary can also be used for identification: A. argentus differs from A. flavipes in having smaller molar teeth, as well as a narrower and smaller skull and from A. mysticus in having on average a narrower snout, smaller skull and dentary lengths and smaller posterior palatal vacuities in the skull. A. argentus is strongly divergent genetically (at mtDNA) from both A. flavipes (9.0-11.2%) and A. mysticus (7.2-7.5%), and forms a very strongly supported clade to the exclusion of all other antechinus species, in both mtDNA and combined (mtDNA and nDNA) phylogenies inferred here. We are yet to make detailed surveys in search of A. argentus from forested areas to the immediate east and north of Kroombit Tops. However, A. mysticus has only been found at these sites in low densities in decades past and not at all in several

  1. Experimental investigation of the link between static and dynamic wetting by forced wetting of nylon filament.

    PubMed

    Vega, M J; Gouttière, C; Seveno, D; Blake, T D; Voué, M; De Coninck, J; Clarke, A

    2007-10-09

    Forced wetting experiments with various liquids were conducted to study the dynamic wetting properties of nylon filament. The molecular-kinetic theory of wetting (MKT) was used to interpret the dynamic contact angle data and evaluate the contact-line friction zeta0 at the microscopic scale. By taking account of the viscosity of the liquid, zeta0 could be related exponentially to the reversible work of adhesion. This clearly establishes an experimental link between the static and dynamic wetting properties of the material. Moreover, statistical analysis of the equilibrium molecular displacement frequency K0 and the length of the displacements lambda reveals that these two fundamental parameters of the MKT are strongly correlated, not only in the linearized form of the theory (valid close to equilibrium) but also when the nonlinear form of the equations has to be considered at higher wetting speeds.

  2. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  3. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  4. Wet welding qualification trials at 35 MSW

    SciTech Connect

    Dos Santos, V.R.; Teixeira, C.J.

    1993-12-31

    Wet welding is gaining increased attention and attraction for application on marine buildings and offshore structures all over the world because of its versatility, flexibility and mobility in combination with low investment costs. In a common research and development project between PETROBRAS/CENPES, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil and GKSS Research Centre, Geesthacht, Germany wet welding qualification trials have been performed in different water depths up to 35 msw. The tests have been performed with newly developed electrodes in two different wet welding procedures. The experiments have been carried out on SS- as well as on 5F-specimens acc. ANSI/AWS D 3.6-89. Results will be presented in respect to the performance of the two welding procedures especially with regard to the avoidance of hydrogen induced cold cracking and high hardness values.

  5. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  6. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.; Gray, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R&D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station.

  7. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  8. A snow wetness retrieval algorithm for SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate the backscattering signals response to snow wetness; and (2) to develop an algorithm for snow wetness measurement using C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In hydrological investigations, modeling and forecasting of snowmelt runoff requires information about snowpack properties and their spatial variability. In particular, timely measurement of snow parameters is needed for operational hydrology. The liquid water content of snowpack is one of the important parameters. Active microwave sensors are highly sensitive to liquid water in the snowpack because of the large dielectric contrast between ice and water in the microwave spectrum. They are not affected by weather and have a spatial resolution compatible with the topographic variation in alpine regions. However, a quantitative algorithm for retrieval snow wetness has not yet been developed.

  9. Wetting of polymers by their solvents.

    PubMed

    Lequeux, François; Talini, Laurence; Verneuil, Emilie; Delannoy, Guillaume; Valois, Pauline

    2016-02-01

    We review the studies on the wetting of soluble polymeric substrates by their solvents, both in the literature and conducted in our group in the past decade. When a droplet of solvent spreads on a soluble polymer layer, its wetting angle can strongly vary with the contact line velocity even at capillary numbers smaller than unity, in contrast to non-soluble substrates. The solvent content in the polymer is a key parameter for the spreading dynamics; that content is set by the initial conditions, but also by the transfers occurring from the droplet to the polymer layer during spreading. We focus on hydrophilic amorphous polymers that are glassy at room temperature, and we discuss the consequences on wetting of the very large changes in the polymer physical properties induced by solvent sorption. We finally present new results on polymers of varying molar masses, and show how they open new perspectives for a better understanding of powder dissolution.

  10. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand.

    PubMed

    Marston, J O; Vakarelski, I U; Thoroddsen, S T

    2012-08-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  11. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, I. U.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  12. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  13. Equilibrating Nanoparticle Monolayers Using Wetting Films

    SciTech Connect

    Pontoni, D.; Alvine, K; Checco, A; Gang, O; Ocko, B; Pershan, P

    2009-01-01

    Monolayers of bimodal gold nanoparticles on silicon are investigated by a combination of microscopy (dry monolayers) and x-ray diffraction (dry and wet monolayers). In the presence of an excess of small particles, the nanoscale packing structure closely resembles the small-particle-rich scenario of the structural crossover transition that has been predicted and also observed with micron-scale hard-sphere colloids. Structural morphology is monitored in situ during monolayer dissolution and reassembly within the thin liquid wetting film. This approach allows investigation of size and solvent effects on nanoparticles in quasi-two-dimensional confinement.

  14. Imperfect wetting of hydrogen in zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.S.; Rall, M.

    1995-11-01

    We have considered the theoretical dependencies of the amount of supercooling of liquid hydrogen as a function of pore size for constrained geometries in order to compare the different mechanisms for supercooling that can be observed: notably the inhibition of nucleation in small geometries and the use of surfaces for which there is imperfect wetting. Analysis of the dependence of the observed supercooling reported elsewhere for molecular hydrogen and hydrogen deuteride on the pore size in zeolites supports the view that imperfect wetting occurs for small pores that have rough surfaces and dimension less than approximately 10{angstrom}.

  15. Century-scale causal relationships between global dry/wet conditions and the state of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; AghaKouchak, Amir; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-06-01

    The Granger causality test is used to examine the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on global dry/wet conditions. The results show robust relationships between dry/wet conditions and the ocean states, as assessed through a multi-index (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and standardized precipitation index) and multiscale (3 months and 12 months) evaluation. The influence of ENSO events is widespread, dominating about 38% of the global land surface (excluding Antarctica). Southern and western North America, northern South America, and eastern Russia are influenced by the PDO. The NAO influences not only dry/wet conditions in Europe but also dry/wet conditions in northern Africa. Similarly, climate variability in southern Europe and northern Africa may be due to the concurrence of the ENSO and the NAO. Knowledge of the spatial influence of ocean states on global dry/wet conditions is valuable for improving drought and flood forecasting.

  16. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  17. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-03-17

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given.

  18. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  19. Turbulent flow over wetted and non-wetted superhydrophobic counterparts with random structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vajdi Hokmabad, B.; Ghaemi, S.

    2016-01-01

    The turbulent structure of a channel flow over a non-wetted superhydrophobic (SHO) surface is experimentally investigated at Re = 9600 (based on channel width) at the region of y+ > 10 within the buffer and logarithmic layers. The SHO surface has a random pattern produced by spray coating and is compared with a wetted counterpart and also a smooth surface. Two planar particle image velocimetry measurements are carried out in the streamwise/spanwise and streamwise/wall-normal planes. The vector fields are obtained from both ensemble averaging and individual cross-correlations of double-frame images. The results showed a small increase (˜5%) of the mean velocity profile at y+ = 10 over the non-wetted surface in comparison with the wetted and the smooth surfaces. Up to 15% reduction of normal and shear Reynolds stresses is observed in the inner layer over the non-wetted SHO surface. The wetted SHO counterpart demonstrates no effect on the mean velocity and Reynolds stresses in comparison with the smooth surface. The result confirms the comment of Gad-el-Hak ["Experimental study of skin friction drag reduction on superhydrophobic flat plates in high Reynolds number boundary layer flow," Phys. Fluids 25, 025103 (2013)] that the wetted SHO is hydrodynamically smooth if the surface pores are smaller than the viscous sublayer thickness. A noticeable suppression of the sweep and ejection events, increase of the spanwise spacing of the low and high speed streaks, and attenuation of vortical structures are observed over the non-wetted SHO. These indicate attenuation of the turbulence regeneration cycle due to the slip boundary condition over the non-wetted SHO surfaces with random texture.

  20. Amoco Trinidad selects wet welding repair option

    SciTech Connect

    Ibarra, S.J.; Reynolds, T.J.; Gabriel, V.; Haymaker, G.A.

    1996-12-01

    A recent underwater inspection of Amoco Trinidad Oil Company`s Samaan A Production platform revealed a separated horizontal brace at a water depth of 125 feet (38.1 m). A closer inspection showed that the 16 in (.4 m) diameter horizontal brace had completely separated from the Leg on the member side. A drilling program scheduled to commence from the Samaan A platform was to begin in about two months. A fast track analysis of the structure and a subsequent repair plan was immediately organized. A computer aided structural analysis was completed for the structure with the horizontal brace removed. Structural engineers decided that the brace must be reinstalled before being loaded with a drilling unit. A clamped brace repair assembly was not practical due to a multi member node at one of the legs. Wet welding was selected over dry hyperbaric welding as the best, safest, most cost effective and quickest option. A wet welding procedure and welder divers were qualified at depth according to AWS D3.6. A repair assembly was designed and fabricated. Personnel, wet welding equipment and the fabrication were shipped by air from New Iberia, LA to Galeota Point, Trinidad. This is the first time that wet welding techniques were employed for structural repairs directly to the leg of an offshore structure at any Amoco location.

  1. OVERVIEW OF WET-WEATHER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of EPA,s wet-weather flow (WWF) research program, which was expanded in October 1995 with the establishment of the Urban Watershed Management Branch at Edison, New Jersey. Research priorities for 1998-1999 are presented as well as efforts to col...

  2. Nematic wetting and filling of crenellated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, N. M.; Eskandari, Z.; Patrício, P.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Telo da Gama, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    We investigate nematic wetting and filling transitions of crenellated surfaces (rectangular gratings) by numerical minimization of the Landau-de Gennes free energy as a function of the anchoring strength, for a wide range of the surface geometrical parameters: depth, width, and separation of the crenels. We have found a rich phase behavior that depends in detail on the combination of the surface parameters. By comparison to simple fluids, which undergo a continuous filling or unbending transition, where the surface changes from a dry to a filled state, followed by a wetting or unbinding transition, where the thickness of the adsorbed fluid becomes macroscopic and the interface unbinds from the surface, nematics at crenellated surfaces reveal an intriguingly rich behavior: in shallow crenels only wetting is observed, while in deep crenels, only filling transitions occur; for intermediate surface geometrical parameters, a new class of filled states is found, characterized by bent isotropic-nematic interfaces, which persist for surfaces structured on large scales, compared to the nematic correlation length. The global phase diagram displays two wet and four filled states, all separated by first-order transitions. For crenels in the intermediate regime re-entrant filling transitions driven by the anchoring strength are observed.

  3. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  4. Wet sand flows better than dry sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Wet sand that does not contain too much water is known to be stiff enough to build sand castles or in physical words has a significant yield stress. However, we could recently show that there are quite a few conditions under which such wet sand opposes less resistant to flow than its dry counterpart. This effect might have been already known to the old Egyptians: The Ancient painting of El Bersheh at the tomb of Tehutihetep shows that there was liquid poured in front of the sledge that was used to transport heavy weight stones and statues. While archeologist have attributed this to a sacral ceremony, our data clearly show that wetting the sand ground drastically decreases the effective sliding friction coefficient. We first study the stress-strain behavior of sand with and without small amounts of liquid under steady and oscillatory shear. Using a technique to quasistatically push the sand through a tube with an enforced parabolic (Poiseuille-like) profile, we minimize the effect of avalanches and shear localization. We observe that the resistance against deformation of the wet (partially saturated) sand is much smaller than that of the dry sand, and that the latter dissipates more energy under flow. Second we show experimentally that the sliding friction on sand is greatly reduced by the addition of some--but not too much--water. The formation of capillary water bridges increases the shear modulus of the sand, which facilitates the sliding.

  5. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R and D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station. The LS-2 system features cost savings and performance improvements never before demonstrated in wet FGD systems. The cost level of the LS-2 system will make it a clear alternative to fuel switching when applied in a manner similar to the installation at Niles. The economics of the LS-2 system is discussed in some detail.

  6. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  7. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  8. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946..., excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial...

  9. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946..., excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial...

  10. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  11. Aqueous Wetting Films on Fused Quartz.

    PubMed

    Mazzoco; Wayner

    1999-06-15

    Using an image analyzing interferometer, IAI, the interfacial characteristics of an isothermal constrained vapor bubble, CVB, in a quartz cuvette were studied as a precursor to heat transfer research. The effects of pH and electrolyte concentration on the meniscus properties (curvature and adsorbed film thickness) and the stability of the aqueous wetting films were evaluated. The surface potential in the electric double layer was a function of the cleaning and hydroxylation of the quartz surface. The disjoining pressure isotherm for pure water was very close to that predicted by the Langmuir equation. For aqueous solutions of moderate electrolyte concentration, the Gouy-Chapman theory provided a good representation of the electrostatic effects in the film. The effect of temperature on the film properties of aqueous solutions and pure water was also evaluated: The meniscus curvature decreased with increasing temperature, while Marangoni effects, intermolecular forces, and local evaporation and condensation enhanced waves on the adsorbed film layer. Pure water wetting films were mechanically metastable, breaking into droplets and very thin films (less than 10 nm) after a few hours. Aqueous wetting films with pH 12.4 proved to be stable during a test of several months, even when subjected to temperature and mechanical perturbations. The mechanical stability of wetting films can explain the reported differences between the critical heat fluxes of pure water and aqueous solutions. The IAI-CVB technique is a simple and versatile experimental technique for studying the characteristics of interfacial systems. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  12. Continental-scale variation in chloride/bromide ratios of wet deposition.

    PubMed

    Short, M A; de Caritat, P; McPhail, D C

    2017-01-01

    Chlorine and bromine play crucial roles in atmospheric element cycles and are important environmental tracers in catchment investigations, so understanding their distribution at the Earth's near-surface is imperative for deciphering their behaviour. This study presents the first continental-scale analysis of Cl(-) and Br(-) concentrations of wet deposition, based on six and half years of weekly samples collected across North America. A recently developed imputation algorithm was applied to estimate the high proportion of censored Br(-) values, as well as the other eight analytes, based on the multivariate relationships of nine analytes. The results are consistent with previous studies that have found that the concentrations of these two ions in wet deposition, and the Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition decrease with distance inland. Close to the coast, Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition are similar to the ratio found in seawater (~288 by mass), rapidly decrease to approximately a third of the seawater ratio at ~200km inland, and then decrease at a much lesser rate to reach mass-ratios of 20 to 10 at ~1500km inland, following a logarithmic regression. The Niagara Falls and the Great Salt Lake are identified as localised sources of atmospheric solutes based on elevated Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition at proximal sites. Our observations provide further confidence in the findings presented in previous studies that have shown that Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios systematically decrease with increasing distance from the coast, despite the potential confounding impact of other processes, such as weather patterns, chemical behaviour and anthropogenic activity. Our results provide improved estimates of Cl(-)/Br(-) ratios of wet deposition source water in the absence of site-specific data.

  13. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  14. A new estimate for the composition of weathered young upper continental crust from alluvial sediments, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamber, Balz S.; Greig, Alan; Collerson, Kenneth D.

    2005-02-01

    We present new major element, trace element and Nd-isotope data for 30 alluvial sediments collected from 25 rivers in Queensland, E Australia. Samples were chosen to represent drainage from the region's most important lithologies, including Tertiary intraplate volcanic rocks, a Cretaceous igneous province (and sedimentary rocks derived thereof) as well as Proterozoic blocks. In most chemical and isotopic aspects, the alluvial sediments represent binary or ternary mixing relationships, with absolute abundances implied to reflect the proportion of lithologies in the catchments. When averaged, the studied sediments differ from other proxies of upper continental crust (UCC) mainly in their relative middle rare earth element enrichment (including an elevated Sm/Nd ratio), higher relative Eu abundance and higher Nb/Ta ratio. These features are inherited from eroded Tertiary intraplate basalts, which commonly form topographic highs in the studied region. Despite the high degree of weathering strong to excellent coherence between similarly incompatible elements is found for all samples. From this coherence, we suggest revisions of the following upper crustal element ratios: Y/Ho = 26.2, Yb/Tm = 6.37, Th/W = 7.14, Th/Tl = 24 and Zr/Hf = 36.9. Lithium, Rb, Cs and Be contents do not seem depleted relative to UCC, which may reflect paucity of K-feldspar in the eroded catchments. Nickel, Cr, Pb, Cu and Zn concentrations are elevated in polluted rivers surrounding the state capital. River sediments in the Proterozoic Georgetown Inlier are elevated in Pb, Cu and Zn but this could be a natural phenomenon reflecting abundant sulphide mineralisation in the area. Except for relative Sr concentrations, which broadly anticorrelate with mean annual rainfall in catchments, there is no obvious relationship between the extent of weathering and climate types, which range from arid to tropical. The most likely explanation for this observation is that the weathering profiles in many

  15. Pollutant removal efficacy of three wet detention ponds.

    PubMed

    Mallin, Michael A; Ensign, Scott H; Wheeler, Tracey L; Mayes, David B

    2002-01-01

    Monthly inflow and outflow data were collected from three wet detention ponds in Wilmington, North Carolina, for a 29-mo period. Two ponds drained urban areas consisting primarily of residential, mixed services, and retail usage, while the third mainly drained residential and golf course areas. One of the urban ponds achieved significant reductions in total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, and fecal coliform bacterial counts. This pond was characterized by a high length to width ratio, with most inputs directed into the upper area, and extensive coverage by a diverse community of aquatic macrophyte vegetation. The second urban pond achieved significant reductions in turbidity and fecal coliform bacterial counts, but there were no significant differences between inflowing and outflowing water nutrient concentrations. There were substantial suburban runoff inputs entering the mid- and lower-pond areas that short-circuited pollutant removal contact time. The golf course pond showed significant increases in nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate in the outflow relative to the inflow, probably as a result of course fertilization. However, nutrient concentrations in the outflow water were low compared with discharges from a selection of other area golf courses, possibly a result of the outflow passing through a wooded wetland following pond discharge. To achieve good reduction in a variety of pollutants, wet pond design should include maximizing the contact time of inflowing water with rooted vegetation and organic sediments. This can be achieved through a physical pond design that provides a high length to width ratio, and planting of native macrophyte species.

  16. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  17. Atmospheric wet and litterfall mercury deposition at urban and rural sites in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Yang, Xu; Lang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Ben; Yan, Haiyu; Lin, Che-Jen; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations and deposition fluxes in precipitation and litterfall were measured at multiple sites (six rural sites and an urban site) across a broad geographic area in China. The annual deposition fluxes of Hg in precipitation at rural sites and an urban site were 2.0 to 7.2 and 12.6 ± 6.5 µg m-2 yr-1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites showed a clear regional difference with elevated deposition fluxes in the subtropical zone, followed by the temporal zone and arid/semi-arid zone. Precipitation depth is the primary influencing factor causing the variation of wet deposition. Hg fluxes through litterfall ranged from 22.8 to 62.8 µg m-2 yr-1, higher than the wet deposition fluxes by a factor of 3.9 to 8.7 and representing approximately 75 % of the total Hg deposition at the forest sites in China. This suggests that uptake of atmospheric Hg by foliage is the dominant pathway to remove atmospheric Hg in forest ecosystems in China. Wet deposition fluxes of Hg at rural sites of China were generally lower compared to those in North America and Europe, possibly due to a combination of lower precipitation depth, lower GOM concentrations in the troposphere and the generally lower cloud base heights at most sites that wash out a smaller amount of GOM and PBM during precipitation events.

  18. Annual variations in wet-deposition chemistry related to changes in climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Mast, M. Alisa

    2016-11-01

    National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP)/National Trends Network precipitation type, snow-season duration, and annual timing of selected chemical wet-deposition maxima vary with latitude and longitude within a 35-year (1979-2013) data record for the contiguous United States and Alaska. From the NADP data collected within the region bounded by 35.6645°-48.782° north latitude and 124°-68° west longitude, similarities in latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of changing snow-season duration, fraction of annual precipitation recorded as snow, and the timing of chemical wet-deposition maxima, suggest that the chemical climate of the atmosphere is linked to physical changes in climate. Total annual precipitation depth has increased 4-6 % while snow season duration has decreased from approximately 7 to 21 days across most of the USA, except in higher elevation regions where it has increased by as much as 21 days. Snow-season precipitation is increasingly comprised of snow, but annually total precipitation is increasingly comprised of liquid precipitation. Meanwhile, maximum ammonium deposition occurs as much as 27 days earlier, and the maximum nitrate: sulfate concentration ratio in wet-deposition occurs approximately 10-21 days earlier in the year. The maximum crustal (calcium + magnesium + potassium) cation deposition occurs 2-35 days earlier in the year. The data suggest that these shifts in the timing of atmospheric wet deposition are linked to a warming climate, but the ecological consequences are uncertain.

  19. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas. PMID:28218272

  20. Who is in control of road safety? A STAMP control structure analysis of the road transport system in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Paul M; Read, Gemma J M; Stevens, Nicholas J

    2016-11-01

    Despite significant progress, road trauma continues to represent a global safety issue. In Queensland (Qld), Australia, there is currently a focus on preventing the 'fatal five' behaviours underpinning road trauma (drug and drink driving, distraction, seat belt wearing, speeding, and fatigue), along with an emphasis on a shared responsibility for road safety that spans road users, vehicle manufacturers, designers, policy makers etc. The aim of this article is to clarify who shares the responsibility for road safety in Qld and to determine what control measures are enacted to prevent the fatal five behaviours. This is achieved through the presentation of a control structure model that depicts the actors and organisations within the Qld road transport system along with the control and feedback relationships that exist between them. Validated through a Delphi study, the model shows a diverse set of actors and organisations who share the responsibility for road safety that goes beyond those discussed in road safety policies and strategies. The analysis also shows that, compared to other safety critical domains, there are less formal control structures in road transport and that opportunities exist to add new controls and strengthen existing ones. Relationships that influence rather than control are also prominent. Finally, when compared to other safety critical domains, the strength of road safety controls is brought into question.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Phoebe A; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J; Cribb, Thomas H; Mills, Paul C

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species-one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics.

  2. Molecular Characterization of Coccidia Associated with an Epizootic in Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Phoebe A.; Owen, Helen; Flint, Mark; Traub, Rebecca J.; Cribb, Thomas H.; Mills, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    In the spring of 2014, mass mortalities among wild green sea turtles occurred off the coast of south-east Queensland, Australia. The suspected causative agent was Caryospora cheloniae, an eimeriid coccidian implicated in previous epizootics. Necropsies were undertaken on a subset of 11 dead turtles, with subsequent histopathology and molecular analyses. All turtles returned positive PCR results for coccidial infection in various tissues; these included the brain, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and thyroid. Granulomatous encephalitis was consistently observed, as well as enteritis and, less frequently, thyroiditis and nephritis. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses indicated the presence of two distinct coccidian genotypes, presumably separate species—one associated with the brain, gastrointestinal tract and lung, and the second with the thyroid and kidney. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses placed the first genotype closest to the lankesterellid genus Schellackia, rather than in the Eimeriidae, while the second was paraphyletic to the eimeriids. Presence of coccidial stages in extra-intestinal tissues of the primary host raises questions about the potential presence of intermediate or paratenic hosts within the life cycles, as well as their current placement relative to the genus Caryospora. This study represents the first genetic characterization of this emerging disease agent in green sea turtles, an endangered species, and has relevance for life-cycle elucidation and future development of diagnostics. PMID:26901786

  3. Comparative morphology of the egg cases of Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani (Carcharhiniformes: Scyliorhinidae) from southern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, C; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2013-07-01

    Descriptions of the egg cases of three catsharks, Asymbolus analis, Asymbolus rubiginosus and Figaro boardmani, are provided from 65 egg cases obtained from fishing surveys carried out on the continental shelf of southern Queensland, Australia. Egg cases of A. analis, A. rubiginosus and F. boardmani have the same basic morphology; they are typically vase-shaped, dorso-ventrally flattened and yellow and brown-tan in colour. The shape of the posterior border in terms of horn length and tendril thickness is the specific characteristic discriminating these three catsharks: enclosed horns in F. boardmani, short horns and tendrils in A. rubiginosus and long, coiled tendrils in A. analis. A non-parametric statistical approach was used as an exploratory tool for egg case identification in which six proportional measurements were sufficient to discriminate between species. Three egg cases of F. boardmani were recovered from the stomachs of three A. rubiginosus, which provided the first evidence of catshark-catshark predator-prey interaction.

  4. Quantifying the effect of a community‐based injury prevention program in Queensland using a generalized estimating equation approach

    PubMed Central

    Yorkston, Emily; Turner, Catherine; Schluter, Philip J; McClure, Rod

    2007-01-01

    Objective To develop a generalized estimating equation (GEE) model of childhood injury rates to quantify the effectiveness of a community‐based injury prevention program implemented in 2 communities in Australia, in order to contribute to the discussion of community‐based injury prevention program evaluation. Design An ecological study was conducted comparing injury rates in two intervention communities in rural and remote Queensland, Australia, with those of 16 control regions. A model of childhood injury was built using hospitalization injury rate data from 1 July 1991 to 30 June 2005 and 16 social variables. The model was built using GEE analysis and was used to estimate parameters and to test the effectiveness of the intervention. Results When social variables were controlled for, the intervention was associated with a decrease of 0.09 injuries/10 000 children aged 0–4 years (95% CI −0.29 to 0.11) in logarithmically transformed injury rates; however, this decrease was not significant (p = 0.36). Conclusions The evaluation methods proposed in this study provide a way of determining the effectiveness of a community‐based injury prevention program while considering the effect of baseline differences and secular changes in social variables. PMID:17567977

  5. Real-time PCR detection of pathogenic microorganisms in roof-harvested rainwater in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Huygens, F; Goonetilleke, A; Gardner, T

    2008-09-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of roof-harvested rainwater was assessed by monitoring the concentrations of Escherichia coli, enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and Bacteroides spp. in rainwater obtained from tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Samples were also tested using real-time PCR (with SYBR Green I dye) for the presence of potential pathogenic microorganisms. Of the 27 rainwater samples tested, 17 (63%), 21 (78%), 13 (48%), and 24 (89%) were positive for E. coli, enterococci, C. perfringens, and Bacteroides spp., respectively. Of the 27 samples, 11 (41%), 7 (26%), 4 (15%), 3 (11%), and 1 (4%) were PCR positive for the Campylobacter coli ceuE gene, the Legionella pneumophila mip gene, the Aeromonas hydrophila lip gene, the Salmonella invA gene, and the Campylobacter jejuni mapA gene. Of the 21 samples tested, 4 (19%) were positive for the Giardia lamblia beta-giardin gene. The binary logistic regression model indicated a positive correlation (P < 0.02) between the presence/absence of enterococci and A. hydrophila. In contrast, the presence/absence of the remaining potential pathogens did not correlate with traditional fecal indicators. The poor correlation between fecal indicators and potential pathogens suggested that fecal indicators may not be adequate to assess the microbiological quality of rainwater and consequent health risk.

  6. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hanssen, Benjamin L.; Jamie, Joanne F.; Jamie, Ian M.; Siderhurst, Matthew S.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated. PMID:27196605

  7. How does chytrid infection vary among habitats? The case of Litoria wilcoxii (Anura, Hylidae) in SE Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Van Sluys, Monique; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2009-12-01

    Most analyses dealing with the geographical distribution of the chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) have been performed on large geographical scales and data on more localized distribution of the chytrid within catchments are scarce. In this study, we compare the prevalence and intensity of infection of chytrid within and outside rainforest habitats at five independent catchments in southeast Queensland. In each catchment, we sampled adult Litoria wilcoxii along two transects on the same stream: one in forested areas, and the other in open nearby farmland. We analyzed swabs using quantitative PCR techniques. Male frogs were in higher densities in open habitats compared with the nearby forested areas. Infected male frogs were found in all catchments surveyed; however, prevalence of B. dendrobatidis in adult males was higher in the forested habitats than in the open habitats in four of the catchments. There was no significant difference in intensity of infection between forested and open habitats. For adult females and juveniles, sample sizes were not high enough for comparisons. Our results suggest that habitat influences chytrid prevalence and open areas may provide refuge from chytrid-induced population declines.

  8. Nature Bank and the Queensland Compound Library: unique international resources at the Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Camp, David; Newman, Stuart; Pham, Ngoc B; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-03-01

    The Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery is home to two unique resources, Nature Bank and the Queensland Compound Library (QCL), that differentiate it from many other academic institutes pursuing chemical biology or early phase drug discovery. Nature Bank is a comprehensive collection of plants and marine invertebrates that have been subjected to a process which aligns downstream extracts and fractions with lead- and drug-like physicochemical properties. Considerable expertise in screening natural product extracts/fractions was developed at Eskitis over the last two decades. Importantly, biodiscovery activities have been conducted from the beginning in accordance with the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to ensure compliance with all international and national legislative requirements. The QCL is a compound management and logistics facility that was established from public funds to augment previous investments in high throughput and phenotypic screening in the region. A unique intellectual property (IP) model has been developed in the case of the QCL to stimulate applied, basic and translational research in the chemical and life sciences by industry, non-profit, and academic organizations.

  9. Raspberry Ketone Analogs: Vapour Pressure Measurements and Attractiveness to Queensland Fruit Fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Soo J; Morelli, Renata; Hanssen, Benjamin L; Jamie, Joanne F; Jamie, Ian M; Siderhurst, Matthew S; Taylor, Phillip W

    2016-01-01

    The Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) (Q-fly), is a major horticultural pest in Eastern Australia. Effective monitoring, male annihilation technique (MAT) and mass trapping (MT) are all important for control and require strong lures to attract flies to traps or toxicants. Lure strength is thought to be related in part to volatility, but little vapour pressure data are available for most Q-fly lures. Raspberry ketone (4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone) and analogs that had esters (acetyl, difluoroacetyl, trifluoroacetyl, formyl, propionyl) and ethers (methyl ether, trimethylsilyl ether) in replacement of the phenolic group, and in one case also had modification of the 2-butanone side chain, were measured for their vapour pressures by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and their attractiveness to Q-fly was assessed in small cage environmentally controlled laboratory bioassays. Maximum response of one category of compounds, containing both 2-butanone side chain and ester group was found to be higher than that of the other group of compounds, of which either of 2-butanone or ester functionality was modified. However, linear relationship between vapour pressure and maximum response was not significant. The results of this study indicate that, while volatility may be a factor in lure effectiveness, molecular structure is the dominating factor for the series of molecules investigated.

  10. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-20

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997-2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of 'dead on arrival', 'euthanized', or 'released' for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  11. Effect of temperature and precipitation on salmonellosis cases in South-East Queensland, Australia: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Adrian Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Objective Foodborne illnesses in Australia, including salmonellosis, are estimated to cost over $A1.25 billion annually. The weather has been identified as being influential on salmonellosis incidence, as cases increase during summer, however time series modelling of salmonellosis is challenging because outbreaks cause strong autocorrelation. This study assesses whether switching models is an improved method of estimating weather–salmonellosis associations. Design We analysed weather and salmonellosis in South-East Queensland between 2004 and 2013 using 2 common regression models and a switching model, each with 21-day lags for temperature and precipitation. Results The switching model best fit the data, as judged by its substantial improvement in deviance information criterion over the regression models, less autocorrelated residuals and control of seasonality. The switching model estimated a 5°C increase in mean temperature and 10 mm precipitation were associated with increases in salmonellosis cases of 45.4% (95% CrI 40.4%, 50.5%) and 24.1% (95% CrI 17.0%, 31.6%), respectively. Conclusions Switching models improve on traditional time series models in quantifying weather–salmonellosis associations. A better understanding of how temperature and precipitation influence salmonellosis may identify where interventions can be made to lower the health and economic costs of salmonellosis. PMID:26916693

  12. Oviposition and larval habitat preferences of the saltwater mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a subtropical mangrove forest in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins.

  13. Geothermal profile and crust-mantle transition beneath east-central Queensland: Volcanology, xenolith petrology and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, W. L.; Sutherland, F. L.; Hollis, J. D.

    1987-04-01

    Geothermobarometry of garnet granulite and garnet websterite xenoliths in basalts from numerous localities in east-central Queensland gives P-T points that fall along the geotherm previously defined for southeastern Australia. This elevated geotherm is ascribed to the advective transport of heat by Tertiary-Recent magmas ponded at the crust-mantle boundary. The lower crust in this region consists dominantly of mafic granulites, representing frozen basaltic melts and cumulates. Spinel lherzolite becomes a dominant rock type at depths of ca. 30 km, and persists, interlayered with pyroxenites, to depths of ca. 55 km. Seismic reflection profiles show a "layered lower crust" between depths of 20 and 36 km depth. The lithologically defined crust-mantle boundary lies within this zone, at least 6 km above the seismically defined Moho. This interpretation is consistent with the observed velocity ( Vp) gradient downward through the layered zone. The constructed geotherm implies that the bottom of the lithosphere beneath eastern Australia is shallower than ca. 100 km. This makes it unlikely that the diamonds of eastern Australia are derived from local intrusions, unless these are > 200 Ma old.

  14. Greenschist facies regional and contact metamorphism of the Thalanga volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulick, Holger; Franz, Gerhard

    2001-12-01

    The conditions of two separate greenschist facies metamorphic events have been reconstructed at the syn-genetic Thalanga massive sulfide deposit (northern Queensland, Australia) using scarce garnet-biotite- and garnet-chlorite-bearing samples from the felsic volcano-sedimentary host-rock succession. Regional metamorphism (peak temperature: 440 to 480 °C) generated a foliation defined by aligned chlorite, muscovite and biotite, and rare, euhedral spessartine-almandine(-grossular)-rich garnets. The emplacement of a post-tectonic diorite pluton was associated with contact metamorphism and scarce anhedral spessartine-almandine-rich garnet poikiloblasts crystallized within a ~650-m wide aureole at temperatures of ~500 °C. Both metamorphic stages occurred under pressure conditions of ≤3.5 kbar. Our study documents a useful method for geothermobarometric reconstruction of metamorphosed, syn-genetic ore deposits where calculations based on sulfide assemblages failed to produce unequivocal constraints. Furthermore, we show that hydrothermally altered footwall rhyolite have higher than unaltered rocks, which may help to identify fossil, metamorphosed, hydrothermal systems associated with massive sulfide deposits similar to Thalanga.

  15. Oviposition and Larval Habitat Preferences of the Saltwater Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in a Subtropical Mangrove Forest in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Jon; Griffin, Lachlan; Dale, Pat; Phinn, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate the oviposition and larval habitats of the saltwater mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in a mangrove forest system in subtropical Queensland, Australia. Eggshells (indicators of oviposition) and larvae were sampled in three habitat classes that were depicted in a schematic model. Two classes were in depressions or basins, either with hummocks or dense pneumatophore substrates, both of which retained water after tidal flooding. The third class was in freely flushed mangroves that corresponded with more frequent tidal connections than the depression classes. ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer tests were used to analyze the data. The null hypotheses were rejected: the hummock class was a significant habitat based on both eggshell and larval data. The conclusion was that mosquito production in the mangrove system was distributed unevenly between habitat classes, and that the hummock class had conditions suited to the requirements of the immature stages of Ae. vigilax. This research has the potential to inform mosquito management strategies by focusing treatment on the problem habitats and underpinning habitat modifications including reducing water retention in the basins. PMID:22938052

  16. Who Leaves Suicide Notes? An Exploration of Victim Characteristics and Suicide Method of Completed Suicides in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Belinda; Bond, Christine; Tait, Gordon; Wilson, Moira; White, Kris

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to address the question: are those who leave suicide notes representative of the larger population of those who commit suicide? The method involves an analysis of a full population of suicides by residents of Queensland, Australia for the full year of 2004, with the information drawn from Coronial files. Our overall results suggest that, and in support of previous research, the population who leaves suicide notes are remarkably similar to those who do not. Differences are identified in four areas: first, and in contrast to prior research, females are less likely to leave a suicide note; second, and in support of previous research, Aboriginal Australians are less likely to leave suicide notes; third, and in support of some previous research, those who use gas as a method of suicide are more likely to leave notes, while those who use a vehicle or a train are less likely to leave notes; finally, our findings lend support to research which finds that those with a diagnosed mental illness are less likely to leave notes. The discussion addresses some of the reasons these disparities may have occurred, and continues the debate over the degree to which suicide notes give insight into the larger suicide population.

  17. Clinical and Pathological Findings in Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) from Gladstone, Queensland: Investigations of a Stranding Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Flint, Mark; Eden, Paul A; Limpus, Colin J; Owen, Helen; Gaus, Caroline; Mills, Paul C

    2015-06-01

    An investigation into the health of green turtles was undertaken near Gladstone, Queensland, in response to a dramatic increase in stranding numbers in the first half of 2011. A total of 56 live turtles were subject to clinical examination and blood sampling for routine blood profiles, and 12 deceased turtles underwent a thorough necropsy examination. This population of green turtles was found to be in poor body condition and a range of infectious and non-infectious conditions were identified in the unhealthy turtles, including hepato-renal insufficiency (up to 81%, 27/33 based on clinical pathology), cachexia (92%, 11/12), parasitism (75%, 9/12), cardiopulmonary anomalies (42%, 5/12), gastroenteritis (25%, 3/12), masses (25%, 3/12) and mechanical impediments (17%, 2/12 based on necropsy). Overall, there was no evidence to indicate a unifying disease as a primary cause of the mass mortality. Recent adverse weather events, historic regional contamination and nearby industrial activities are discussed as potential causative factors.

  18. Back to the future: prohibiting surrogacy for singles, same-sex and shorter-term heterosexual couples in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm K; Willmott, Lindy; Trowse, Pip; White, Ben

    2013-03-01

    This article considers the regulatory position concerning altruistic surrogacy in Queensland, focusing on the intended changes to the current legal framework announced by the government in June 2012. The previous government had made significant progress by reforming surrogacy laws in 2010. However, that progress is at risk of being reversed. The proposed changes to the law would make it a criminal offence to enter into an altruistic surrogacy arrangement for certain individuals or couples. If enacted, the offence would only apply in altruistic surrogacy cases where the intended parent or parents are either single, in a same-sex relationship, or are in a heterosexual relationship of less than two years. Moreover, if enacted, the offence would apply extra-territorially. The authors argue that these changes represent a retrograde step for the law and urge the government to reconsider. This is based on the fact that they are out of step with current social attitudes, are contrary to the spirit of anti-discrimination laws, and that they are unjustified in terms of child welfare concerns.

  19. Organochlorine and heavy metal concentrations in blubber and liver tissue collected from Queensland (Australia) dugong (Dugong dugon).

    PubMed

    Haynes, David; Carter, Steve; Gaus, Caroline; Müller, Jochen; Dennison, William

    2005-01-01

    Tissue samples of liver and blubber were salvaged from fifty-three dugong (Dugong dugon) carcasses stranded along the Queensland coast between 1996 and 2000. Liver tissue was analysed for a range of heavy metals and blubber samples were analysed for organochlorine compounds. Metal concentrations were similar in male and female animals and were generally highest in mature animals. Liver concentrations of arsenic, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel in a number of individual animals were elevated in comparison to concentrations previously reported in Australian dugong. Dieldrin, DDT (and its breakdown products) and/or heptachlor epoxide were detected in 59% of dugong blubber samples. In general, concentrations of organochlorines were similar to those reported in dugong 20 years earlier, and were low in comparison to concentrations recorded from marine mammal tissue collected elsewhere in the world. With the exception of lead, the extent of carcass decomposition, the presence of disease or evidence of animal starvation prior to death did not significantly affect dugong tissue concentrations of metals or organochlorines. The results of the study suggest that bioaccumulation of metals and organochlorine compounds (other than dioxins) does not represent a significant risk to Great Barrier Reef dugong populations, particularly in the context of other pressures associated with coastal development and other anthropogenic activities.

  20. Decline causes of Koalas in South East Queensland, Australia: a 17-year retrospective study of mortality and morbidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Astudillo, Viviana; Allavena, Rachel; McKinnon, Allan; Larkin, Rebecca; Henning, Joerg

    2017-02-01

    Koala populations are in catastrophic decline in certain eastern Australian regions. Spanning from 1997–2013, a database derived from wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland with N = 20,250 entries was classified by causes of morbidity and mortality. A total of 11 aetiologies were identified, with chlamydiosis, trauma, and wasting being most common. The clinical diagnosis at submission varied significantly over the observation period. Combinations of aetiologies were observed in 39% of koalas submitted, with chlamydiosis frequently co-occurring. Urogenital (cystitis 26.8%, bursitis 13.5%) and ocular (conjunctivitis 17.2%) chlamydiosis were the most frequently diagnosed representations of the infection. Approximately 26% of submissions comprised koalas involved in vehicle accidents that were otherwise healthy. Age and sex of the koala as well as season and submission period were compared for the case outcomes of ‘dead on arrival’, ‘euthanized’, or ‘released’ for the four most common clinical diagnoses using multinomial logistic regression models. Exploratory space-time permutation scans were performed and overlapping space-time clusters for chlamydiosis, motor vehicle traumas and wasting unveiled high risk areas for koala disease and injury. Our results suggest that these aetiologies are acting jointly as multifactorial determinants for the continuing decline of koalas.

  1. The Proterozoic, albitite-hosted, Valhalla uranium deposit, Queensland, Australia: a description of the alteration assemblage associated with uranium mineralisation in diamond drill hole V39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, Paul A.; Kyser, T. Kurt; Stanley, Cliff

    2009-01-01

    The Valhalla uranium deposit, located 40 km north of Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia, is an albitite-hosted, Mesoproterozoic U deposit similar to albitite-hosted uranium deposits in the Ukraine, Sweden, Brazil and Guyana. Uranium mineralisation is hosted by a thick package of interbedded fine-grained sandstones, arkoses and gritty siltstones that are bound by metabasalts belonging to the ca. 1,780 Ma Eastern Creek Volcanics in the Western Succession of the Mount Isa basin. Alteration associated with U mineralisation can be divided into an early, main and late stage. The early stage is dominated by laminated and intensely altered rock comprising albite, reibeckite, calcite, (titano)magnetite ± brannerite. The main stage of mineralisation is dominated by brecciated and intensely altered rocks that comprise laminated and intensely altered rock cemented by brannerite, apatite, (uranoan)-zircon, uraninite, anatase, albite, reibeckite, calcite and hematite. The late stage of mineralisation comprises uraninite, red hematite, dolomite, calcite, chlorite, quartz and Pb-, Fe-, Cu-sulfides. Brannerite has U-Pb and Pb-Pb ages that indicate formation between 1,555 and 1,510 Ma, with significant Pb loss evident at ca. 1,200 Ma, coincident with the assemblage of Rodinia. The oldest ages of the brannerite overlap with 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1,533 ± 9 Ma and 1,551 ± 7 Ma from early and main-stage reibeckite and are interpreted to represent the timing of formation of the deposit. These ages coincide with the timing of peak metamorphism in the Mount Isa area during the Isan Orogeny. Lithogeochemical assessment of whole rock data that includes mineralised and unmineralised samples from the greater Mount Isa district reveals that mineralisation involved the removal of K, Ba and Si and the addition of Na, Ca, U, V, Zr, P, Sr, F and Y. U/Th ratios indicate that the ore-forming fluid was oxidised, whereas the crystal chemistry of apatite and reibeckite within the ore zone suggests that F

  2. The treatment of wet AMD in Canada: access to therapy (policy review).

    PubMed

    Cruess, Alan; Maberley, David; Wong, David; Chen, John

    2009-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in North America, affecting 2 million Canadians older than age 50 years. AMD is subdivided into 2 types: an atrophic form, so-called "dry" AMD, and an exudative or "wet" form, characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since 2000, after decades with no effective therapy aside from thermal obliterative laser treatment of CNV, 3 new treatments have been approved, each offering significant therapeutic advances at increasingly higher prices, and in an increasingly cost-containment-oriented payer environment. Many of Canada's public drug plans have been relatively slow to fund evidence-based, approved treatments. This paper reviews the disease, as well as the current private and public coverage for wet AMD treatments.

  3. AmeriFlux US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra

    DOE Data Explorer

    Bret-Harte, Syndonia [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Euskirchen, Eugenie [University of Alaska Fairbanks; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-ICs Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra. Site Description - The Imnavait Creek Watershed Wet Sedge Tundra (Fen Station) is located near Imnavait Creek in Alaska, north of the Brooks Range in the Kuparuk basin near Lake Toolik and the Toolik Field Station. The Kuparuk River has its headwaters in the Brooks Range and drains through northern Alaska into the Arctic Ocean. Within these headwaters lies the Imnavait basin at an average elevation of 930 m. Water tracks run down the hill in parallel zones with a spacing of approximately 10 m. The Fen Station was deployed at the end of Summer 2007.

  4. Controlling Factors of Long-Term Trends in Mercury Wet Deposition and Precipitation Concentrations at Huntington Wildlife Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z.; Mao, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations from the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) at Huntington Wildlife Forest (HWF) suggested that a significant decline (r2 = 0.34, p = 0.03) from 2000 to 2013 in volume weighted mean (VWM) Hg concentrations in precipitation was linked to Hg emission decreases in the United States, especially in the Northeast and Midwest, and yet Hg wet deposition has remained fairly constant over the past two decades. The present study aimed to investigate the climatic, terrestrial, and anthropogenic factors that influenced the decadal pattern in Hg wet deposition in upstate NY. In spring and summer, when Hg wet deposition was the strongest, significant positive correlation (r2 = 0.89, p < 0.0001 in spring; r2 = 0.58, p = 0.002 in summer) of Hg wet deposition with precipitation was found. Increases in precipitation during these seasons could offset the decreasing of Hg concentration in precipitation. Besides, springtime positive correlation (r2 = 0.35, p = 0.02) between precipitation and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index together with geopotential height and wind speed analysis indicated that large-scale dynamical forcing was likely an important factor influencing the long term trend in springtime Hg wet deposition at HWF. To further quantify the roles of meteorological and anthropogenic factors in Hg wet deposition, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was employed using an algorithm depicting state-of-the-art Hg chemistry mechanism and up-to-date Hg emission inventories evaluated with MDN and Atmospheric Mercury Network (AMNet) measurement data. CMAQ simulations with a constant vs. realistic meteorological conditions for multiple warm seasons (including spring and summer) were used to characterize and quantify the impacts of inter-annual variability of precipitation and atmospheric circulation on Hg wet deposition. In addition, contributions to Hg wet deposition from decreases in anthropogenic emissions in NYS and nation-wide were quantified from

  5. The chemical composition and fluxes of atmospheric wet deposition at four sites in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conradie, E. H.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Pienaar, J. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Venter, A. D.; Mkhatshwa, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    South Africa is the economic hub of southern Africa and is regarded as an important source region of atmospheric pollutants. A nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hotspot is clearly visible from space over the South African Mpumalanga Highveld, while South Africa is also regarded as the 9th largest anthropogenic sulphur (S) emitting country. Notwithstanding the importance of South Africa with regard to nitrogen (N) and S emissions, very limited data has been published on the chemical composition of wet deposition for this region. This paper presents the concentrations of sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO42-) and water-soluble organic acids (OA) in the wet deposition samples collected between 2009 and 2014 at four South African IDAF (IGAC DEBITS Africa) sites, which are regarded as regional representatives of the north-eastern interior. Also, wet deposition fluxes of the ten ions are calculated and presented in this paper. The results show that the total ionic concentrations and fluxes of wet deposition were much higher at the two sites closer to anthropogenic emissions, while the pH of wet deposition at these two sites were lower compared to that of the two sites that were less impacted by anthropogenic emissions. . The major sources of the ten ions included marine, terrigenous (crust), fossil fuel combustion, agriculture and biomass burning. Significant contributions from fossil fuel combustion were determined for the two sites in close proximity to anthropogenic source regions. The results of back trajectory analysis, however, did indicate that the two remote sites are also affected by air masses passing over the source region through anti-cyclonic recirculation. The largest contributions at the two sites distant from the anthropogenic source regions were marine sources, while the impact of biomass burning was also more significant at the remote sites. Comparison to previous wet

  6. Underwater wet welding consumables for offshore applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Osio, A.; Liu, S.; Olson, D.L.; Ibarra, S.

    1993-12-31

    The use of underwater wet welding for offshore repairs has been limited mainly because of porosity in the resulting welds. With appropriate consumable design, however, it is possible to enhance weld metal toughness through microstructural refinement and to reduce porosity. New titanium and boron based consumables have been developed with which high toughness acicular ferrite can be produced in underwater wet welds. Titanium, by means of oxide formation, promoted an increase in weld metal acicular ferrite, while boron additions decreased the amount of grain boundary ferrite, further improving the microstructure. Porosity reduction was possible through the addition of calcium carbonate at approximately 13 wt. % in the coating. However, weld metal decarburization also resulted with the addition.

  7. Wet spinning of solid polyamic acid fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorogy, William E., Jr. (Inventor); St.clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a process for the production of solid aromatic polyamic acid and polyimide fibers from a wet gel or coagulation bath wet gel using N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) solutions of the polyamic acid derived from aromatic dianhydrides such as 3,3',4,4' benzophenonetetra carboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and aromatic diamines such as 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA). By utilizing the relationship among coagulation medium and concentration, resin inherent viscosity, resin percent solids, filament diameter, and fiber void content, it is possible to make improved polyamic acid fibers. Solid polyimide fibers, obtained by the thermal cyclization of the polyamic acid precursor, have increased tensile properties compared to fibers containing macropores from the same resin system.

  8. Erosion dynamics of a wet granular medium.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Jop, Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Liquid may give strong cohesion properties to a granular medium, and confer a solidlike behavior. We study the erosion of a fixed circular aggregate of wet granular matter subjected to a flow of dry grains inside a half-filled rotating drum. During the rotation, the dry grains flow around the fixed obstacle. We show that its diameter decreases linearly with time for low liquid content, as wet grains are pulled out of the aggregate. This erosion phenomenon is governed by the properties of the liquids. The erosion rate decreases exponentially with the surface tension while it depends on the viscosity to the power -1. We propose a model based on the force fluctuations arising inside the flow, explaining both dependencies: The capillary force acts as a threshold and the viscosity controls the erosion time scale. We also provide experiments using different flowing grains, confirming our model.

  9. Anisotropy in the wetting of rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; He, Bo; Lee, Junghoon; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2005-01-15

    Surface roughness amplifies the water-repellency of hydrophobic materials. If the roughness geometry is, on average, isotropic then the shape of a sessile drop is almost spherical and the apparent contact angle of the drop on the rough surface is nearly uniform along the contact line. If the roughness geometry is not isotropic, e.g., parallel grooves, then the apparent contact angle is no longer uniform along the contact line. The apparent contact angles observed perpendicular and parallel to the direction of the grooves are different. A better understanding of this problem is critical in designing rough superhydrophobic surfaces. The primary objective of this work is to determine the mechanism of anisotropic wetting and to propose a methodology to quantify the apparent contact angles and the drop shape. We report a theoretical and an experimental study of wetting of surfaces with parallel groove geometry.

  10. Compaction dynamics of wet granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandewalle, Nicolas; Ludewig, Francois; Fiscina, Jorge E.; Lumay, Geoffroy

    2013-03-01

    The extremely slow compaction dynamics of wet granular assemblies has been studied experimentally. The cohesion, due to capillary bridges between neighboring grains, has been tuned using different liquids having specific surface tension values. The characteristic relaxation time for compaction τ grows strongly with cohesion. A kinetic model, based on a free volume kinetic equations and the presence of a capillary energy barrier (due to liquid bridges), is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimental curves. This model allows one to describe the cohesion in wet granular packing. The influence of relative humidity (RH) on the extremely slow compaction dynamics of a granular assembly has also been investigated in the range 20 % - 80 % . Triboelectric and capillary condensation effects have been introduced in the kinetic model. Results confirm the existence of an optimal condition at RH ~ 45 % for minimizing cohesive interactions between glass beads.

  11. Versatile wetting measurement of microplate wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Enoch Ming Wei; Cheong, Brandon Huey-Ping; Yu, Yang; Liew, Oi Wah; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2016-11-01

    A method to measure the contact angle, which is indicative of wetting, using small liquid volumes dispensed directly on microplate wells is described and demonstrated. Experiments with enhanced green protein samples of volumes 4.4-6 μl showed no measured variance in the contact angle. Experiments with phosphate buffer solution with varied concentrations of a non-ionic detergent (Tween 20) dissolved, however, revealed smaller contact angles with increased detergent concentration. It is experimentally shown that drops can be located up to 7° from the lowest position of the well without affecting the accuracy of contact angle measurements. Numerical simulations confirm the ability of the drops to manifest the correct contact angle despite the lack of axis-symmetry in their shape while residing on a circular surface. This method offers a convenient means to determine the wetting characteristics of different liquid samples in different microplates.

  12. Trapping of drops by wetting defects

    PubMed Central

    't Mannetje, Dieter; Ghosh, Somnath; Lagraauw, Rudy; Otten, Simon; Pit, Arjen; Berendsen, Christian; Zeegers, Jos; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2014-01-01

    Controlling the motion of drops on solid surfaces is crucial in many natural phenomena and technological processes including the collection and removal of rain drops, cleaning technology and heat exchangers. Topographic and chemical heterogeneities on solid surfaces give rise to pinning forces that can capture and steer drops in desired directions. Here we determine general physical conditions required for capturing sliding drops on an inclined plane that is equipped with electrically tunable wetting defects. By mapping the drop dynamics on the one-dimensional motion of a point mass, we demonstrate that the trapping process is controlled by two dimensionless parameters, the trapping strength measured in units of the driving force and the ratio between a viscous and an inertial time scale. Complementary experiments involving superhydrophobic surfaces with wetting defects demonstrate the general applicability of the concept. Moreover, we show that electrically tunable defects can be used to guide sliding drops along actively switchable tracks—with potential applications in microfluidics. PMID:24721935

  13. 49 CFR 172.548 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 172.519, the background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...

  14. 49 CFR 172.548 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 172.519, the background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...

  15. 49 CFR 172.423 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET label must be blue. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.423 DANGEROUS WHEN WET label. (a) Except for size and color, the...

  16. 49 CFR 172.548 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... § 172.519, the background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...

  17. 49 CFR 172.548 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... § 172.519, the background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...

  18. 49 CFR 172.548 - DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 172.519, the background color on the DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard must be blue. The letters in the words... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.548 DANGEROUS WHEN WET placard. (a) Except for size and...

  19. INNOVATIVE URBAN WET-WEATHER FLOW MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes innovative methods to improve wet weather flow (WWF) management systems, that provide drainage services at the same time as decreasing stormwater pollutant discharges, for urban developments of the 21st century. Traditionally, wet-weather collection systems...

  20. Spall Repair of Wet Concrete Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    ILE COPY REPAIR, EVALUATION, MAINTENANCE, AND REHABILITATION RESEARCH PROGRAM TECHNICAL REPORT REMR-CS-25 SPALL REPAIR OF WET CONCRETE SURFACES by J...of the number designating technical reports of research published under the Repair, Evaluation. Maintenance. and Rehabilitation (REMR) Research ...Program identify the problem area under which the report was prepared Problem Area Problem Area CS Concrete and Steel Structures EM Electrical and

  1. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  2. Wet countdown demonstration and flight readiness firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The prelaunch tests for the Space Transportation System 1 flight are briefly described. Testing is divided into two major sections: the wet countdown demonstration test/flight readiness firing, which includes a 20 second test firing of the orbiter's three main engines, and a mission verification test, which is centered on flight and landing operations. The functions of the countdown sequence are listed and end of mission and mission abort exercises are described.

  3. A shortened intraplate rift system in the Proterozoic Mount Isa terrane, NW Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dea, Mark G.; Lister, Gordon S.; Betts, Peter G.; Pound, Katherine S.

    1997-06-01

    The Leichhardt River Fault Trough of the Mount Isa terrane developed a complex extensional architecture between approximately 1800 and 1600 Ma, forming the underlying template upon which compressional structures were superimposed during the 1590 to 1500 Ma Isan Orogeny. Basin-fill material accumulated during at least five multiphase periods of rifting and associated postrift subsidence forming a stacked succession of unconformity-bounded sequences. Initial E-W extension was associated with a massive magmatic event. Half graben greater than 50 km in width and of alternating asymmetry localized the extrusion of up to 4 km of continental tholeiites. Thereafter a period of N-S extension resulted in southward tapering north tilted half graben in which synrift basaltic and siliciclastic strata accumulated. N-S extension was followed by regional postrift subsidence and the deposition of a laterally continuous quartzite-carbonate package. A multiphase period of E-W to NW-SE extension ensued during which time two unconformity-bounded sequences accumulated. The stratal architectures of these sequences are strongly asymmetric in cross section, exhibiting a pronounced rotational thickening toward the east, consistent with their deposition in the hanging walls of east dipping tilt blocks between 15 and 40 km in width. Finally, a period of N-S extension resulted in the development of E-W trending F1 drag synclines in the highest level cover rocks. The association of angular unconformities and block-bounding faults, E-W trending synclines and E-W striking faults, and the unique internal fold geometries of fault blocks suggest that many fault-bounded blocks originated as coherent structural entities during rifting and continued to act as such during subsequent shortening.

  4. Asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere, Mount Isa terrane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, P. G.; Lister, G. S.; O'Dea, M. G.

    1998-11-01

    The Middle Proterozoic Mount Isa Basin, of the Mount Isa terrane, hosts several large Pb-Zn-Ag deposits and is arguably one of the richest mineral provinces in the world. The deformed remnants of this basin extend from the eastern margin of the Leichhardt River Fault Trough through to the Murphy Tectonic Ridge in the far north of the terrane. The Mount Isa Basin initially evolved in response to NW-SE-directed extension during the Mount Isa Rift Event. This event began before ˜1708 Ma and had ceased by ˜1653 Ma. A sag basin continued to evolve thereafter until ˜1595 Ma. Regional analysis of the highest level cover rocks of the Mount Isa Basin reveals a notable difference in the locus of syn-rift sedimentation, syn-rift magmatism, and post-rift subsidence. Although crustal extension was widespread across the Mount Isa Basin, tectonic subsidence was focussed along the ˜N-S-oriented Mount Isa Rift. Approximately 3-5 km of fluvial to shallow marine clastic sediments were deposited into isolated rift basins. Bimodal volcanism and emplacement of shallow level plutons occurred along the western and northwestern margins of the Mount Isa Rift. Magmatic provinces mark the locus of significant subcrustal lithospheric thinning, asthenospheric upwelling, and mafic underplating. Within these magmatic provinces the syn-rift sequences are fewer and thinner (750-2000 m) and were dominantly deposited in subaerial environments, suggesting a relatively stable uplift and subsidence history. The position of maximum subcrustal lithospheric extension is determined by the position of greatest post-rift subsidence. This occurred beneath the northern Mount Isa terrane where the thickest post-rift sequences are preserved and the depositional history is more protracted. We propose that the evolution of the Mount Isa Basin is a consequence of asymmetric extension of the Middle Proterozoic lithosphere.

  5. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Svoboda, Martin; Lísal, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr

    2015-09-14

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel’s law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  6. Wetting and spreading of individual latex particles

    SciTech Connect

    Unertl, W.N.; Luo, Y.; Woodland, D.; Bediwi, A.B.E.; Kamal, M.; El Farrash, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The wetting and spreading of individual latex particles is an important factor in controlling the mechanical properties of coatings such as those used on paper. The interactions between latex particles that lead to coalescence and film formation has been extensively studied and the basic mechanisms have been identified. Surface aspects of the coalescence and film formation for bulk films and dense monolayers have also been studied including the effects of surfactants. However, in many practical applications, including most paper coatings, latex is present in concentrations that are too small for latex-latex interactions to be important. In these applications, the wetting, spreading, and adhesion of individual latex particles on surfaces of the other constituents of the coating are most important. In spite of its importance, this topic has received little attention. This paper describes measurements of the contact angle {theta} and determination of the work of adhesion W of styrene-butadiene latex particles on calcite, mica, cellophane, and polystyrene surfaces. The effects of humidity and latex glass transition temperature on the wetting and spreading are also described. Some implications for the strength of coatings containing low levels of latex binders are also discussed.

  7. Wetting of topological nano-patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, O.; Alvine, K.; Black, C. T.

    2005-03-01

    We have investigated the evolution of simple hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon liquid films on nano-patterned surfaces of near-hexagonally packed 20 nm wide nano-cavities [1]. Our x-ray measurements show that the behavior of wetting films on patterned surfaces differs from the expected δμ-1/3 dependence found for the van der Waals interacting flat films [2]. Two different regimes (filling and growing) for the wetting film evolution were observed as a function of the chemical potential offset δμ. The filling regime exhibits a δμ-3/4 dependence for the adsorption of the liquid film into nanocavity; a significant enhancement compared to the flat surface. These results qualitatively confirm the theoretically predicted increase of the wetting exponent for the curved surface. However, quantitatively, the measured exponent for the paraboloid-like cavity is considerably lower than the predicted value [3]. *C. T. Black et al, Appl. Phys. Lett., 79, 409, (2001). *O. Gang et al, M. Fukuto, P.Huber, P.Pershan, Coll. and Surf. A 206, 293, 2002 *Rascon, C. and A.O. Parry, Nature, 407: p. 986 (2000); Robbins, M.O et al Phys. Rev. A, 43(8), 4344 (1991).

  8. Fluidization of wet granulates under shear.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S H Ebrahimnazhad; Vollmer, J; Herminghaus, S; Brinkmann, M

    2010-12-01

    Small amounts of a wetting liquid render sand a stiff and moldable material. The cohesive forces between the sand grains are caused by capillary bridges at the points of contact. Due to the finite strength of these bridges wet sand undergoes a transition from an arrested (i.e., solidified) to a fluidized state under an externally applied shear force. The transition between these two dynamic states is studied in a MD-type simulation of a two-dimensional assembly of bidisperse frictionless disks under the action of a cosine force profile. In addition to soft core repulsion the disks interact through a hysteretic and short ranged attractive force modeling the effect of the capillary bridges. In this model the transition between the fluidized and the arrested state is discontinuous and hysteretic. The parameter dependence of the critical force for solidification is modeled by combining theoretical arguments with a detailed numerical exploration of the transition. We address a range of densities from slightly below close packing until slightly above densities where the system approaches a shear-banded state. Differences and similarities of the transition in wet granulates to the jamming transition are also addressed.

  9. Wetting properties of molecularly rough surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, Martin; Malijevský, Alexandr; Lísal, Martin

    2015-09-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wettability of nanoscale rough surfaces in systems governed by Lennard-Jones (LJ) interactions. We consider both smooth and molecularly rough planar surfaces. Solid substrates are modeled as a static collection of LJ particles arranged in a face-centered cubic lattice with the (100) surface exposed to the LJ fluid. Molecularly rough solid surfaces are prepared by removing several strips of LJ atoms from the external layers of the substrate, i.e., forming parallel nanogrooves on the surface. We vary the solid-fluid interactions to investigate strongly and weakly wettable surfaces. We determine the wetting properties by measuring the equilibrium droplet profiles that are in turn used to evaluate the contact angles. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to Wenzel's law, suggest that surface roughness always amplifies the wetting properties of a lyophilic surface. However, our results indicate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., surface roughness deteriorates the substrate wettability. Adding the roughness to a strongly wettable surface shrinks the surface area wet with the liquid, and it either increases or only marginally affects the contact angle, depending on the degree of liquid adsorption into the nanogrooves. For a weakly wettable surface, the roughness changes the surface character from lyophilic to lyophobic due to a weakening of the solid-fluid interactions by the presence of the nanogrooves and the weaker adsorption of the liquid into the nanogrooves.

  10. Precipitation of suspended particles in wet-film cyclones

    SciTech Connect

    Val'dberg, A.Y.; Kirsanova, N.S.

    1986-07-01

    The fact that wet and dry mechanical centrifugal dust collectors operate on the same principle allowed the authors to make the calculations for wet cyclones with an equation similar to one used previously. A figure shows that the efficiency of wet cyclones is much higher (20% higher on the average) than that of dry cyclones under the same operating conditions. This improvement is due to a decrease in the secondary discharge of dust particles from the wet wall of the device.

  11. Profile of the liquid film wetting a channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile, J.; Casanova, F.; Tabuteau, H.; Emile, O.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a simple optical technique to investigate the characteristics of liquid films wetting solid surfaces. To validate this technique, we have studied the wetting film that separates a train of lamellas moving through a channel. Total reflection of the laser beam on the wetting film/air interface is used to extract the profile and the thickness of the wetting film. For quasistatic movement of lamellas, we show that the thickness is well described by a capillary number power law.

  12. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  13. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  15. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1582 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1582 Section 51.1582... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Potatoes Definitions § 51.1582 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1563 - Soft rot or wet breakdown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Soft rot or wet breakdown. 51.1563 Section 51.1563... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1563 Soft rot or wet breakdown. Soft rot or wet breakdown means any soft, mushy, or leaky condition of the tissue such as slimy...

  18. Carbon Burial Rates in Sediments and a Carbon Mass Balance for the Herbert River Region of the Great Barrier Reef Continental Shelf, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, G. J.; Zagorskis, I.; Pfitzner, J.

    2002-04-01

    The largest century scale carbon reservoir in the Herbert River sector of the Great Barrier Reef continental shelf is carbonate carbon. This carbonate carbon is produced by corals, coralline algae, and other benthic organisms, and is stored on less than 13% of the area of the shelf. Maximum organic carbon burial rates (1-28 mol m -2 yr -1) occur within a wind-protected <20 m water depth embayment (<1% area of the shelf), where the highest bulk sedimentation rates (1-12 kg m -2 yr -1) were determined from 210Pb and 137 Cs profiles in 1-4 m cores. Sediment, organic carbon (OC), and carbonate carbon (CC) accumulation rates are very low in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon shelf and slope, where most annual productivity (8-15 mol OC m -2 yr -1) is decomposed by algal and microbial respiration. A carbon mass balance indicated that approximately 1% of combined river and marine organic carbon production was preserved in across-shelf sedimentation, but 3% of river and mangrove organic carbon input was preserved in this small wind-protected embayment. An across-shelf carbon mass balance model predicted average shelf organic matter respiration correctly, and the ratio of organic carbon fixation to respiration (corrected for burial losses) was 1·06.

  19. North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The total area covered by petroleum rights in the six countries described in this paper increased by more than 17% in 1980 compared to 1979. Joint venture agreements were finalized for 19 blocks over 94,000 km/sup 2/ in the Algerian venture. Although official information is scarce for Algeria and Libya, seismic activity probably increased in 1980 compared to 1979. Exploration drilling activity increased with 121 wildcats drilled compared to 93 during the previous year. This effort led to 40 discoveries, a 34.5% success ratio. Chevron was especially successful in wildcatting, with 6 oil discoveries for 8 wells drilled in the interior basins of Sudan. One Moroccan discovery can be considered as a highlight: the BRPM Meskala 101 well in the Essaouira basin found an apparently large amount of gas in Triassic sandstones. This discovery deserves special attention, since the gas has been found in Triassic pays rather than in the usual Jurassic pays in the Essaouira basin. Oil production in North Africa decreased from about 13.5% in 1980, with about 3,405,000 barrels of oil per day compared to 3,939,500 barrels of oil per day in 1979. When oil output strongly decreased in Algeria (-16.4%) and Libya (-15.6%), Tunisian production peaked at 116,287 barrels of oil per day and Egypt production also peaked at 584,148 barrels of oil per day. Total gas production in 1980 strongly declined from 44%, mostly due to the decline of the Algerian gas production. 8 figures, 40 tables.

  20. Ozone production and transport over the Amazon Basin during the dry-to-wet and wet-to-dry transition seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bela, M. M.; Longo, K. M.; Freitas, S. R.; Moreira, D. S.; Beck, V.; Wofsy, S. C.; Gerbig, C.; Wiedemann, K.; Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.

    2014-06-01

    The Regional Carbon Balance in Amazonia (BARCA) campaign provided the first Amazon Basin-wide aircraft measurements of O3 during both the dry-to-wet (November and December 2008) and wet-to-dry (May 2009) transition seasons. Extremely low background values (<20 ppb) were observed to the west and north of Manaus in both seasons and in all regions during the wet-to-dry transition. On the other hand, elevated O3 levels (40-60 ppb) were seen during the dry-to-wet transition to the east and south of Manaus, where biomass burning emissions of O3 precursors were present. Chemistry simulations with the CCATT-BRAMS and WRF-Chem models are within the error bars of the observed O3 profiles in the boundary layer (0-3 km a.s.l.) in polluted conditions. However, the models overestimate O3 in the boundary layer in clean conditions, despite lacking the predominant NO source from soil. In addition, O3 simulated by the models was either within the error bars or lower than BARCA observations in mid-levels (3-5 km a.s.l.), indicating that the models do not represent the free troposphere - boundary layer gradient in O3. Total tropospheric O3 retrieved from OMI/MLS was higher than that simulated by the models, suggesting that the satellite observations are dominated by the middle troposphere and long-range processes and are not a~good indication of O3 conditions in the PBL. Additional simulations with WRF-Chem showed that the model O3 production is very sensitive to both the O3 deposition velocities, which were about one half of observed values, and the NOx emissions. These results have implications for the monitoring and prediction of increases in O3 production in the Amazon Basin as the regional population grows.