Science.gov

Sample records for north queensland wet

  1. Renal services disaster planning: lessons learnt from the 2011 Queensland floods and North Queensland cyclone experiences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Hayes, Bronwyn; Gray, Nicholas A; Hawley, Carmel; Hole, Janet; Mantha, Murty

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, Queensland dialysis services experienced two unprecedented natural disasters within weeks of each other. Floods in south-east Queensland and Tropical Cyclone Yasi in North Queensland caused widespread flooding, property damage and affected the provision of dialysis services, leading to Australia's largest evacuation of dialysis patients. This paper details the responses to the disasters and examines what worked and what lessons were learnt. Recommendations are made for dialysis units in relation to disaster preparedness, response and recovery.

  2. Queensland

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... of this and a few other nearby rivers is an endangered fish with a peculiar anatomical characteristic. The Queensland (or Australian) ... is unusual because of its possession of a single lung. This fish was restricted to the Mary and Burnett Rivers, but has recently been ...

  3. Alluvial terrace preservation in the Wet Tropics, northeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Kate; Croke, Jacky; Bartley, Rebecca; Thompson, Chris; Sharma, Ashneel

    2015-11-01

    Alluvial terraces provide a record of aggradation and incision and are studied to understand river response to changes in climate, tectonic activity, sea level, and factors internal to the river system. Terraces form in all climatic regions and in a range of geomorphic settings; however, relatively few studies have been undertaken in tectonically stable settings in the tropics. The preservation of alluvial terraces in a valley is driven by lateral channel adjustments, vertical incision, aggradation, and channel stability, processes that can be further understood through examining catchment force-resistance frameworks. This study maps and classifies terraces using soil type, surface elevation, sedimentology, and optically stimulated luminescence dating across five tropical catchments in northeast Queensland, Australia. This allowed for the identification of two terraces across the study catchments (T1, T2). The T1 terrace was abandoned ~ 13.9 ka with its subsequent removal occurring until ~ 7.4 ka. Abandonment of the T2 terrace occurred ~ 4.9 ka with removal occurring until ~ 1.2 ka. Differences in the spatial preservation of these terraces were described using an index of terrace preservation (TPI). Assessments of terrace remnant configuration highlighted three main types of terraces: paired, unpaired, and disconnected, indicating the importance of different processes driving preservation. Regional-scale variability in TPI was not strongly correlated with catchment-scale surrogate variables for drivers of terrace erosion and resistance. However, catchment-specific relationships between TPI and erosion-resistance variables were evident and are used here to explain the dominant processes driving preservation in these tropical settings. This study provides an important insight into terrace preservation in the tectonically stable, humid tropics and provides a framework for future research linking the timing of fluvial response to palaeoclimate change.

  4. Epidemiology of avian influenza in wild aquatic birds in a biosecurity hotspot, North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Ahasanul; Burgess, Graham William; Cheam, Ai Lee; Skerratt, Lee Francis

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds may introduce highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza from Southeast Asia into Australia via North Queensland, a key stopover along the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, with severe consequences for trade and human health. A 3-year repeated cross sectional study on the epidemiology of avian influenza in Australian nomadic wild aquatic birds was conducted in this potential biosecurity hotspot using molecular and serological techniques. Avian influenza virus subtypes H6 and H9 were commonly present in the studied population. It is likely that one of the H6 viruses was newly introduced through migratory birds confirming the perceived biosecurity risk. The matrix gene of another H6 virus was similar to the Australian H7 subtypes, which suggests the reassortment of a previously introduced H6 and local viruses. Similarly, a H9 subtype had a matrix gene similar to that found in Asian H9 viruses suggesting reassortment of viruses originated from Australia and Asia. Whilst H5N1 was not found, the serological study demonstrated a constant circulation of the H5 subtype in the sampled birds. The odds of being reactive for avian influenza viral antibodies were 13.1(95% CI: 5.9-28.9) for Pacific Black Ducks over Plumed Whistling Ducks, highlighting that some species of waterfowl pose a greater biosecurity risk. Antibody titres were slightly higher during warm wet compared with warm dry weather. Routine surveillance programmes should be established to monitor the introduction of avian influenza viruses from Asia and the interactions of the introduced viruses with resident viruses in order to better detect emerging pathogens in aquatic birds of North Queensland. Surveillance should be targeted towards highly susceptible species such as the Pacific Black Duck and carried out during favourable environmental conditions for viral transmission such as the wet season in northern Australia.

  5. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Rix, Michael G.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldi sp. n., Austrarchaea hoskini sp. n., Austrarchaea karenae sp. n., Austrarchaea tealei sp. n., Austrarchaea thompsoni sp. n., Austrarchaea wallacei sp. n., Austrarchaea westi sp. n. and Austrarchaea woodae sp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  6. Australian Assassins, Part III: A review of the Assassin Spiders (Araneae, Archaeidae) of tropical north-eastern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S

    2012-01-01

    The assassin spiders of the family Archaeidae from tropical north-eastern Queensland are revised, with eight new species described from rainforest habitats of the Wet Tropics bioregion and Mackay-Whitsundays Hinterland: Austrarchaea griswoldisp. n., Austrarchaea hoskinisp. n., Austrarchaea karenaesp. n., Austrarchaea tealeisp. n., Austrarchaea thompsonisp. n., Austrarchaea wallaceisp. n., Austrarchaea westisp. n. and Austrarchaea woodaesp. n. Specimens of the only previously described species, Austrarchaea daviesae Forster & Platnick, 1984, are redescribed from the southern Atherton Tableland. The rainforests of tropical eastern Queensland are found to be a potential hotspot of archaeid diversity and endemism, with the region likely to be home to numerous additional short-range endemic taxa. A key to species complements the taxonomy, with maps, natural history information and conservation assessments provided for all species. PMID:22977344

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: Risk Assessment in the Face of Controversy: Tree Clearing and Salinization in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Bui

    2000-10-01

    / Several lines of evidence were followed to assess the risk of salinization after tree clearing in the upper Burdekin River basin in north Queensland. Conceptual, biophysical process-based approaches (pedological interpretation, event tree analysis, one-dimensional water balance modeling, and Boolean spatial analysis) were compared to empirical methods and field evidence. The convergence of all lines of conceptual reasoning to the conclusion that there exists a risk of salinization in north Queensland, consistent with field evidence of naturally occurring waterlogging and salinity, strengthens the argument against tree clearing.

  8. Mobility and retention of trace elements in hardpan-cemented cassiterite tailings, north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Ashley, Paul M.

    2006-08-01

    This study reports on the mobility and retention of trace elements in cassiterite tailings at the inactive Jumna mill, tropical north Queensland. Since the 1980s, the uncapped tailings have developed laterally discontinuous Fe-rich hardpans, which are located in the higher parts of gently sloping tailings masses and at the top (<50 cm) of the tailings piles. Hardpan-cemented tailings comprise thin layers (typically ˜0.2-2 mm thick) of HFO (hydrous ferric oxides) and sulfate efflorescences cementing tailings grains. In comparison to the tailings, the hardpan-cemented tailings contain significantly higher median As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, In, Mn, Mo, Stotal, Th, U, Y and Zn values. Partial leaching studies of tailings and pond water analyses indicate that wetting and acidification of Fe-cemented tailings removes significant proportions of trace elements into pore and surface waters. Tin shows no mobility due to the presence of weathering-resistant cassiterite (SnO2) and, As and Pb display limited mobility possibly due to their coprecipitation with jarosite-type phases and HFO materials at the top of the tailings profile. By contrast, the trace elements Cd, Ce, Cu, La, Ni, Pb, U and Zn display the greatest mobility, possibly due to their incorporation in soluble sulfate efflorescences and sorption onto mineral and HFO surfaces. Hence, the Fe-rich hardpans do not protect the sulfidic tailings from further oxidation nor do they cause permanent sequestration of trace elements.

  9. Advice to travelers on topical insect repellent use against dengue mosquitoes in Far North Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cameron E; Russell, Richard C

    2011-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks occur annually in Far North Queensland, Australia. Advice on topical insect repellents provided by health authorities rarely addresses the wide range of formulations and active ingredients currently registered for use in Australia. Recommendations on the use of registered products require review. PMID:21722241

  10. Global Strategies for International Education Providers in Australia: A Case Study of Tropical North Queensland TAFE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Michelle; Haberman, Leigh

    2007-01-01

    The continuing growth of Australia's international education market is causing providers to consider moving from international business approaches to global strategies. This paper examines factors affecting a regional Australian educational provider's approach to the international student market, using Tropical North Queensland TAFE (TNQT) for…

  11. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Consequences for Indigenous Australians in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to examine risk and protective factors associated with the consequences of card gambling and commercial gambling for Indigenous Australians in north Queensland. With Indigenous Elders' approval and using qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Indigenous and 48 non-Indigenous…

  12. General practitioners' patterns of treatment of febrile travellers in north Queensland: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Engström, Kajsa L; Mills, Jane; McBride, William J H; Johansson, Caroline M

    2012-01-01

    In north Queensland, recurring epidemics of dengue fever are a public health concern. Each epidemic is initiated by an index case: an infected person arriving from an endemic country or region with dengue activity who then transmits the disease to local mosquitoes. A timely diagnosis of dengue in an index case and notification to public health services is essential to prevent epidemics. This qualitative study explores north Queensland general practitioners' experiences and patterns of treatment of febrile travellers. Individual, semi-structured interviews with 50 general practitioners working in north Queensland were conducted. Analysis of the data resulted in four themes for discussion: characteristics of febrile travellers presenting to local general practitioners, the cost of pathology tests as a barrier to diagnosis, appropriate pathology testing, and notifying tropical public health services. Recommendations from this study point to a need for ongoing education and training for general practitioners in best practice with regards pathology testing for suspected dengue fever cases. As well, there is a need to provide clearer guidelines to general practitioners on when to notify tropical public health services of suspicious diagnoses of dengue.

  13. Residual effectiveness of lambda-cyhalothrin harbourage sprays against foliage-resting mosquitoes in north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Muzari, Odwell M; Adamczyk, Rebecca; Davis, Joseph; Ritchie, Scott; Devine, Gregor

    2014-03-01

    The residual efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin sprayed on foliage was evaluated against various mosquito species in sections of forest in Cairns, Queensland, Australia Weekly sweep-net collections in treated and untreated areas before and after spraying showed 87-100% reductions in mosquito numbers for the first 9 wk postspray. After that period, reductions fluctuated but remained >71% up to 14 wk posttreatment. Mosquito mortality ranged from 96 to 100% in contact bioassays of treated leaves during the 14 wk study. Our results demonstrate that spraying harborage vegetation with lambda-cyhalothrin is an extremely effective strategy for the control of sylvan and peridomestic mosquito species in tropical north Queensland. PMID:24724295

  14. An Historical and Geographical Perspective on Providing Education to Children in Isolated Places (North Queensland, 1919-1939).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, A. H.

    This paper discusses how economic, social, and political factors influenced the provision of education in isolated areas of North Queensland (Australia) during 1919-1939. The educational system of that time was characterized by central control of the state that provided education and close supervision of the nongovernment schools. Technological…

  15. Barriers, Successes and Enabling Practices of Education for Sustainability in Far North Queensland Schools: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Whitehouse, Hilary; Gooch, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    There are many documented barriers to implementing school-based sustainability. This article examines a) the barriers faced by principals and staff in two regional primary schools in Far North Queensland, Australia, well known for their exemplary practice, and b) ways the barriers were overcome. Through interviews conducted with principals and key…

  16. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-01-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland. PMID:27395178

  17. A new species of gecko (Squamata: Diplodactylidae: Strophurus) from north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Vanderduys, Eric

    2016-06-01

    A new species of diplodactylid gecko in the genus Strophurus Fitzinger, from north Queensland, Australia, is described herein as Strophurus congoo sp. nov. It is a small, pale grey to tan, unpatterned or faintly striped gecko, resembling the phasmid geckos in appearance, habitat and behaviour. However, within Strophurus it is not closely related to the phasmid geckos. It is distinguished from all other Strophurus by a combination of even scalation, dull colouration, small size and short tail length. It is only known to occur in a restricted area of the northern Great Dividing Range, within the Einasleigh Uplands bioregion, in a relatively infertile area of rolling, largely granitic hills, and is only known from spinifex (Triodia) hummock grasslands in open woodland.

  18. The 1993 dengue 2 epidemic in Charters Towers, North Queensland: clinical features and public health impact.

    PubMed

    McBride, W J; Mullner, H; LaBrooy, J T; Wronski, I

    1998-08-01

    In 1993 an epidemic caused by dengue virus type 2 occurred in several North Queensland population centres. Charters Towers, estimated population 10,000, had 155 officially notified cases. An analysis of symptoms was undertaken using a random sample of 1000 residents to determine specificity of symptoms, the subclinical infection rate, and to establish the true extent of the epidemic. Retrospective diagnoses of dengue fever were based on the presence of both serum dengue 2 neutralizing antibody and presence of symptoms. An estimated 20% of the population had dengue fever. The rate of subclinical infections in this epidemic was 14.6%. There were no symptoms that were specific for dengue fever. Bleeding occurred more frequently in people who recalled a previous dengue infection during a dengue 1 epidemic 12 years earlier (55.6% vs. 16.8%, P = 0.003). Surveillance for future epidemics should be based on serological and virological confirmation of dengue virus infection amongst symptomatic patient.

  19. Going the distance--experiences of women with gynaecological cancer residing in rural remote north Queensland.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Adele E; Usher, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Women who are diagnosed with gynaecological cancer face a difficult journey. For women residing in areas geographically removed from major health providers the journey can be much more difficult. While they 'make do' and 'struggle on', their lived experiences can provide valuable insight into the complex issues surrounding a cancer diagnosis in rural areas. This study aimed to understand their experiences through the women's stories and sought to identify the major themes impacting on these stories. This qualitative phenomenological study undertook interviews with seven women with gynaecological cancer who reside in rural and remote north Queensland. Analysis of the data collected revealed three themes: seeking answers at a distance; sharing information within a small community; and experiences of navigating the health system. The results show the inherent difficulties in accessing support in rural areas and the difficulties associated with travelling considerable distances to undergo treatment.

  20. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (Far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-12-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. At a broad scale, it has long been recognised that the distributions of these two biomes are principally governed by precipitation and its seasonality, but with soil physical and chemical properties also potentially important. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical Far North Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ nitrogen (N) relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area or mass basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus (P) were relatively high (>20) at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P limitation of photosynthesis for either forest or savanna trees. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that, on a leaf-area basis, savanna trees of Far North Queensland, Australia, are capable of photosynthetically outperforming forest species at their common boundaries.

  1. Late Holocene and recent rainforest cultural landscapes of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberger, L. M.; Moss, P. T.; Haberle, S.; Cosgrove, R.; Ferrier

    2011-12-01

    The tropical rainforests of North Queensland, Australia, have been environments of significant human activity for several thousand years. Palaeoecological research has highlighted the long-term effects of Quaternary climate change on these environments at a broad spatial scale, including the expansion of tropical rainforest across the region following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum. However, identifying the effects of a hunter-gatherer Aboriginal population has been more difficult. Palaeoecological suggestions of Pleistocene Aboriginal burning, based on pollen and charcoal records, have relied on coincident timing with a general narrative of colonisation rather than direct links with archaeological evidence. Current research is explicitly examining the environmental consequences of human activity in North Queensland rainforests by producing local palaeoecological data directly linked to sites and periods of human occupation. Pollen, macrocharcoal and phytolith records have been produced from sites of human activity within the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest is demonstrated to have had significant cultural links to patches of open vegetation that existed within the rainforest. While these patches are likely to have originated as edaphically controlled remnants of Pleistocene vegetation, their expansion and maintenance in the late Holocene is associated with increasing intensity of Aboriginal occupation of the rainforest. Late Holocene Aboriginal rainforest occupation is also contrasted with the historical European colonisation of the rainforest in the late 19th century, which resulted in the most significant environmental changes in the region since the early Holocene. Historical and ethnographic records provide important cultural context for understanding the transition between Aboriginal and European cultural landscapes of the rainforest.

  2. Contrasting photosynthetic characteristics of forest vs. savanna species (far North Queensland, Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, K. J.; Domingues, T. F.; Saiz, G.; Bird, M. I.; Crayn, D. M.; Ford, A.; Metcalfe, D. J.; Farquhar, G. D.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-06-01

    Forest and savanna are the two dominant vegetation types of the tropical regions with very few tree species common to both. Aside from precipitation patterns, boundaries between these two vegetation types are strongly determined by soil characteristics and nutrient availability. For tree species drawn from a range of forest and savanna sites in tropical far north Queensland, Australia, we compared leaf traits of photosynthetic capacity, structure and nutrient concentrations. Area-based photosynthetic capacity was higher for the savanna species with a steeper slope to the photosynthesis ↔ Nitrogen relationship compared with the forest group. Higher leaf mass per unit leaf area for the savanna trees derived from denser rather than thicker leaves and did not appear to restrict rates of light-saturated photosynthesis when expressed on either an area- or mass-basis. Median ratios of foliar N to phosphorus were above 20 at all sites, but we found no evidence for a dominant P-limitation of photosynthesis for the forest group. A parsimonious mixed-effects model of area-based photosynthetic capacity retained vegetation type and both N and P as explanatory terms. Resulting model-fitted predictions suggested a good fit to the observed data (R2 = 0.82). The model's random component found variation in area-based photosynthetic response to be much greater among species (71% of response variance) than across sites (9%). These results suggest that in leaf area-based photosynthetic terms, savanna trees of far north Queensland, Australia are capable of out-performing forest species at their common boundaries1. 1 Adopted symbols and abbreviations are defined in Table 5.

  3. 1. WET SPOT NEAR NORTH PROJECT BOUNDARY, WHERE RHODES DITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WET SPOT NEAR NORTH PROJECT BOUNDARY, WHERE RHODES DITCH RECEIVES WATER FROM A NATURAL DRAINAGE. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Natomas Ditch System, Rhodes Ditch, West of Bidwell Street, north of U.S. Highway 50, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  4. The 1993 dengue 2 epidemic in Charters Towers, North Queensland: clinical features and public health impact.

    PubMed Central

    McBride, W. J.; Mullner, H.; LaBrooy, J. T.; Wronski, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1993 an epidemic caused by dengue virus type 2 occurred in several North Queensland population centres. Charters Towers, estimated population 10,000, had 155 officially notified cases. An analysis of symptoms was undertaken using a random sample of 1000 residents to determine specificity of symptoms, the subclinical infection rate, and to establish the true extent of the epidemic. Retrospective diagnoses of dengue fever were based on the presence of both serum dengue 2 neutralizing antibody and presence of symptoms. An estimated 20% of the population had dengue fever. The rate of subclinical infections in this epidemic was 14.6%. There were no symptoms that were specific for dengue fever. Bleeding occurred more frequently in people who recalled a previous dengue infection during a dengue 1 epidemic 12 years earlier (55.6% vs. 16.8%, P = 0.003). Surveillance for future epidemics should be based on serological and virological confirmation of dengue virus infection amongst symptomatic patient. PMID:9747766

  5. Cryptic diversity within the narrowly endemic Lerista wilkinsi group of north Queensland-two new species (Reptilia: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Couper, Patrick J; Amey, Andrew P; Wilmer, Jessica Worthington

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe two new species of the skink genus Lerista from north-eastern Queensland, based on morphological and genetic data.  Additionally, we redescribe L. cinerea as this species is morphologically more variable than previously suggested.  We allocate these three species to the L. wilkinsi group (Greer et al. 1983) which is here identified as an endemic Queensland radiation, comprising L. ameles, L. cinerea, L. hobsoni sp. nov., L. storri, L. vanderduysi sp. nov., L. vittata and L. wilkinsi.  A number of these species have strong associations with semi-evergreen vine thickets, listed as an endangered habitat under the Australian Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999). PMID:27615959

  6. 'Hero to Healing' drink-driving program for Indigenous communities in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Fitts, Michelle S; Palk, Gavan R

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Alcohol-related road crashes are a leading cause of the injury burden experienced by Indigenous Australians. Existing drink driving programs are primarily designed for the mainstream population. The 'Hero to Healing' program was specifically developed with Indigenous communities and is underpinned by the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). This paper reports on the formative evaluation of the program from delivery in two Far North Queensland communities. Methods Focus groups and semistructured interviews were conducted with drink driver participants (n=17) and other Elders and community members (n=8) after each program. Qualitative content analysis was used to categorise the transcripts. Results The CRA appealed to participants because of its flexible nature and encouragement of rearranging lifestyle factors, without specific focus on alcohol use. Participants readily identified with the social and peer-related risk and protective factors discussed. Cofacilitation of the program with Elders was identified as a key aspect of the program. More in-depth discussion about cannabis and driving, anger management skills and relationship issues are recommended. Conclusions Participants' recognition of content reinforced earlier project results, particularly the use of kinship pressure to motivate younger family members to drink drive. Study findings suggest that the principles of the CRA are useful; however, some amendments to the CRA components and program content were necessary. So what? Treating drink driving in regional and remote Indigenous Australian communities as a community and social issue, rather than an individual phenomenon, is likely to lead to a reduction in the number of road-related injuries Indigenous people experience.

  7. The Trophic Fate of Shrimp Farm Effluent in Mangrove Creeks of North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mckinnon, A. D.; Trott, L. A.; Cappo, M.; Miller, D. K.; Duggan, S.; Speare, P.; Davidson, A.

    2002-10-01

    Zooplankton and fish communities in mangrove creeks removed materials originating from the discharge of effluent from ponds used for shrimp aquaculture at two commercial farms in North Queensland, Australia. Undisturbed mangrove creeks were compared to creeks receiving effluent from shrimp farms. Shrimp farm effluent was rich in chlorophyll a (56 μg l -1) and bacteria (1·9×10 6 cells ml -1). The potential grazing impact of ciliates was higher than that of copepod nauplii or copepodids upstream. In contrast, copepods were more important downstream. Carbon removal by ciliates and copepods accounted for as much as 85% of primary production during non-discharge periods, but was less important during discharge periods. Direct measurement of microzooplankton grazing with the dilution method indicated that growth and grazing were usually in balance, but during pond discharge periods microzooplankton grazing removed >120% of primary production and 117-266% of bacterioplankton production in the mixed lower reaches of the creeks and immediately offshore. Grazing by bacterivores was saturated in the upper reaches of the creeks, but was very high near the creek mouths, where the range of specific grazing rates was 5·2-11·8 d -1. Baitfish juveniles were abundant in the creek systems, and fed either directly on macro-particulates by indiscriminate filter feeding, or by selective feeding on microfauna. Trophic processes and their associated respiratory losses are instrumental in the assimilation and dissipation of effluent materials within the creek system, and are responsible for returning concentrations of bio-available materials to ambient levels. The sustainable use of coastal environments depends to a large degree on understanding and regulating the impacts from activities within the catchment. This research provides environmental managers with direct evidence that, under certain conditions, perturbations in creek water quality and biota originating from shrimp farm

  8. The Reconstruction Potential of a 350 year-long, Mid-Elevation Proxy for PDSI in a Tree-Ring Record from Tropical North Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Duffy, R.; Balanzategui, D.; Baker, P. J.; Evans, M. N.

    2014-12-01

    In far northern Queensland (FNQ) there are only sporadic coral and speleothem precipitation proxy records, and only one annually resolved, terrestrial record of rainfall that predates 1850 CE. Black kauri pine, Agathis atropurpurea, is a large conifer present in isolated stands near 1000 masl in the wet tropical dividing range of FNQ. Little is known about its phenology or responses to climate, although its presence near the elevational limit of the dividing range may hinder its ability to respond to increased temperature or decreased precipitation through elevational migration. We hypothesize that in this energy-limited forest, increased (decreased) solar radiation leads to increased (decreased) ring widths, and higher (lower) evapotranspiration rates produce increases (decreases) in the oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the a-cellulose component of wood. To test this hypothesis, we collected over 60 cores from 21 large (dbh = 56 to 186 cm) A. atropurpurea trees from Spurgeon Peak National Park. The resulting tree-ring chronology extends from 2013 to 1438 CE and shows high average mean sensitivity (0.642) although expressed population signal drops off at 1650 CE as sample depth decreases. Comparison of the most recent 100 years of ring widths and direct climate observations show a significant positive relationship (r2 = 0.4, p < 0.01) to PDSI in December through March, coinciding with the austral rainy season associated with onset of the northern Australian Monsoon. Annualized δ18Oxygen (a-cellulose) maxima for 1983-2013 show strong and significant spatial positive relationships to Tmax and Pacific seasurface temperatures. Work to refine the interpretation of the data is onoing, but the resulting dataset may enable extension of the terrestrial climate record of north Queensland two centuries beyond current tree-ring proxies and historical observations.

  9. Diversity and composition of sediment bacteria in subtropical coastal wetlands of North Stradbroke Island, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvochina, Maria; Sampayo, Eugenia; Welti, Nina; Hayes, Matthew; Lu, Yang; Lovelock, Catherine; Lockington, David

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands provide a wide variety of important ecosystem services but continue to suffer disturbance, degradation and deforestation. Sediment bacteria are responsible for major nutrient transformation and recycling in these ecosystems. Insight into microbial community composition and the factors that determine them may improve our understanding of biogeochemical processes, food web dynamics, biodegradation processes and, thus, help to develop the management strategies for preserving the ecosystem health and services. Characterizing shifts in community taxa along environmental gradients has been shown to provide a useful tool for determining the major drivers affecting community structure and function. North Stradbroke Island (NSI) in Southern Queensland presents considerable habitat diversity including variety of groundwater dependent ecosystems such as lakes, swamps, sedge-like salt marshes and mangroves. Ecological responses of continuous groundwater extraction for municipal purposes and sand mining operations on NSI are still need to be assessed in order to protect its unique environment. Changes in coastal hydrology due to either climate change or human activity may directly affect microbial populations and, thus, biogeochemical cycles of nutrients. These may result in altering/losing some ecosystem services provided by coastal wetlands. In this study we examine microbial diversity and determine environmental controls on bacterial community structure along a natural transition from freshwater forested wetland (melaleuca woodland), sedge-like salt marsh and into mangroves located at NSI. The study area is characterized by significant groundwater flow, nutrient limitation and sharp transition from one ecosystem type to another. Sediment cores (0-5 cm and 20-25 cm depth) were collected from three representative sites of each zone (mangroves - salt marsh - freshwater wetland) along the salinity gradient in August 2012. Subsamples were set aside for use in

  10. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  11. Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Michael A; McKenna, Skye A; Carter, Alexandra B; Coles, Robert G

    2014-06-30

    Tropical seagrass decline and recovery from severe storm impacts was assessed via quarterly measurements of seagrass biomass, species composition and experimental investigations of recovery in north Queensland. Shallow and deep seagrass meadows suffered major declines. Significant recovery in the two years following loss only occurred at deeper sites. Halophila spp. in deep water areas had a high capacity for recovery through the availability of seed banks. In contrast, the shallow species did not recover quickly from experimental disturbance, had poor seed reserves and relied on asexual propagation. The potential for shallow species to recover rapidly from widespread losses was limited as seed banks were limited or non-existent. Understanding inter- and intra-specific differences in seagrass recovery and how this interacts with location is critical to predict the consequences of climate events to tropical seagrasses. This is especially important as more frequent severe storms are predicted as a consequence of climate change.

  12. A focal, rapidly-controlled outbreak of dengue fever in two suburbs in Townsville, north Queensland, 2001.

    PubMed

    Hills, Susan L; Piispanen, John P; Humphreys, Jan L; Foley, Peter N

    2002-01-01

    In April-May 2001 an outbreak of dengue fever occurred in two suburbs in Townsville, north Queensland. This was the first outbreak in the Townsville region since a very large outbreak in 1992-1993. Notification delays resulted in late detection of the outbreak. Once recognised, control measures were implemented and rapid control was achieved. Dengue serotype 2 was the causative virus and 9 cases of dengue fever were documented. The approach to management of dengue fever outbreaks and vector control strategies have been improved and refined in the years since the 1992-1993 outbreak. These measures, in addition to favourable weather conditions, were likely to have contributed to the successful containment of this outbreak.

  13. Contrasting recovery of shallow and deep water seagrass communities following climate associated losses in tropical north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Michael A; McKenna, Skye A; Carter, Alexandra B; Coles, Robert G

    2014-06-30

    Tropical seagrass decline and recovery from severe storm impacts was assessed via quarterly measurements of seagrass biomass, species composition and experimental investigations of recovery in north Queensland. Shallow and deep seagrass meadows suffered major declines. Significant recovery in the two years following loss only occurred at deeper sites. Halophila spp. in deep water areas had a high capacity for recovery through the availability of seed banks. In contrast, the shallow species did not recover quickly from experimental disturbance, had poor seed reserves and relied on asexual propagation. The potential for shallow species to recover rapidly from widespread losses was limited as seed banks were limited or non-existent. Understanding inter- and intra-specific differences in seagrass recovery and how this interacts with location is critical to predict the consequences of climate events to tropical seagrasses. This is especially important as more frequent severe storms are predicted as a consequence of climate change. PMID:24629380

  14. Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic wrench tectonics in eastern Australia: Insights from the North Pine Fault System (southeast Queensland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaahmadi, A.; Rosenbaum, G.

    2014-01-01

    The North Pine Fault System (NPFS) in SE Queensland belongs to a series of NNW-striking sinistral faults that displaced Paleozoic to Cenozoic rock units in eastern Australia. We have studied the geometry and kinematics of the NPFS by utilizing gridded aeromagnetic data, digital elevation models, and field observations. The results indicate that all segments of the NPFS were subjected to sinistral reverse strike-slip faulting. Restorations of displaced magnetic anomalies indicate sinistral offsets ranging from ˜3.4 to ˜8.2 km. The existence of a (possibly) Late Triassic granophyre dyke parallel to one of the fault segments, and the occurrence of NNW-striking steeply dipping strike-slip and normal faults in the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous Maryborough Basin, indicate that the NPFS has likely been active during the Mesozoic. We propose that from Late Cretaceous to early Eocene, NNW-striking faults in eastern Australia, including the NPFS, were reactivated with oblique sinistral-normal kinematics in response to regional oblique extension associated with the opening of the Tasman and Coral Seas. This interpretation is consistent with the modeled dominant NNE- to NNW-directed horizontal tensional stress in the Eocene. The latest movements along the NPFS involved sinistral transpressional kinematics, which was possibly related to far-field contractional stresses from collisional tectonics at the eastern and northern boundaries of the Australian plate in the Cenozoic. This sinistral-reverse oblique kinematics of the NPFS in the Cenozoic is in line with ˜ESE to ENE orientations of the modeled maximum horizontal stress in SE Queensland.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of two native fishes from tropical North Queensland as biological control agents of subterranean Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Russell, B M; Wang, J; Williams, Y; Hearnden, M N; Kay, B H

    2001-06-01

    The ability of 2 freshwater fishes, eastern rainbow fish Melanotaenia splendida splendida and fly-specked hardyhead Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum stercusmuscarum, native to North Queensland to prey on immature Aedes aegypti was evaluated under laboratory conditions. The predation efficiency of the 2 species was compared to the exotic guppy, Poecilia reticulata, which is commonly used as a biological control agent of mosquito larvae. Of the 3 fish species tested, M. s. splendida was shown to be the most promising agent for the biological control of Ae. aegypti that breed in wells. Melanotaenia s. splendida consumed significantly greater numbers of immature Ae. aegypti than P. reticulata, irrespective of developmental stage or light conditions. Unlike C s. stercusmuscarum, M. s. splendida could be handled, transported, and kept in captivity for extended periods with negligible mortality. However, M. s. splendida was also an efficient predator of Litoria caerulea tadpoles, a species of native frog found in wells during the dry season. This result may limit the usefulness of M. s. splendida as a biological control agent of well-breeding Ae. aegypti and suggests that predacious copepods, Mesocyclops spp., are more suitable. However, the use of M. s. splendida as a mosquito control agent in containers that are unlikely to support frog populations (e.g., aquaculture tanks and drinking troughs) should be given serious consideration. PMID:11480819

  16. Lifestyle changes as a treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a survey of general practitioners in North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Madeleine; Büttner, Petra; Raasch, Beverly; Daniell, Kym; McCutchan, Cindy; Harrison, Simone

    2005-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disorder in developed countries, with the usual treatment being medication. Previously, lifestyle modification was the only treatment for GERD; however, its effectiveness has not been assessed. Methods All practicing general practitioner (GP) members of two Divisions of General Practice (n = 193) in North Queensland, Australia, were surveyed in 2001 using a postal questionnaire to determine their views and practices relating to such treatment among adults with GERD. Results The response rate was 70.5%. Of those who responded, 17.6% recommended diet and postural advice as a first line of treatment, with postural advice (89.7%), avoid known precipitants (86.0%), reduce weight if overweight (79.4%), eat a low fat diet (45.6%), and stop smoking (17.6%) being the most common recommendations. Of the nine possible changes, the median number recommended was 3, interquartile range (IQR; 3, 4). Eighty-nine percent of GPs thought ≥ 10% of patients with GERD would benefit from lifestyle changes, but almost half thought ≤ 10% of patients would be prepared to change. Conclusion Most GPs thought lifestyle changes would be beneficial when treating GERD, but did not believe their patients would change. Most GPs recommended fewer than half the lifestyle changes their peers believed effective in treating GERD. PMID:18360562

  17. Dua sakit (double sick): trauma and the settlement experiences of West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Rees, Susan; Silove, Derrick; Kareth, Moses

    2009-08-01

    There is mounting evidence of systematic abuses, including torture, rape and extrajudicial killings directed against independence activists as well as the civilian population in Indonesian occupied West Papua. Refugees from West Papua have sought safety in neighbouring Australia, experiencing hazardous journeys during their flight. We report early observations from a mental health study among West Papuan refugees living in North Queensland, Australia. The project includes qualitative methods aimed at gathering histories of trauma and human rights violations as well as standard mental health assessments and indices of acculturation and resettlement stresses. We consider the emerging data from the vantage point of the Adaptation and Development After Persecution and Trauma model that identifies five psychosocial domains that require repair following exposure to gross human rights violations and refugee trauma. The model emphasizes the inter-relatedness of key challenges, the compounding of adversity, and the bivalent effects of complex experiences, with both positive and negative elements shaping the adaptive trajectory of displaced persons. Refugee groups have their own approaches to conceptualizing the complexity of their problems, with the term dua sakit representing the expression used by West Papuans to identify the multiple challenges they face. The study highlights the importance of assessing each refugee group within its unique social and cultural context, taking into account such diverse factors as geographical location, employment, and ongoing conflict in the homeland in designing appropriate interventions. PMID:19579126

  18. A tele-oncology model replacing face-to-face specialist cancer care: perspectives of patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Sabesan, Sabe; Kelly, Jenny; Evans, Rebecca; Larkins, Sarah

    2014-03-18

    We explored the experiences of patients using the Townsville Tele-oncology clinic, where most patients are no longer seen face-to-face. All medical oncology patients who received services via telehealth at the Townsville Cancer Centre in 2012 were invited to participate in an interview. None refused. Thirty two patients were interviewed by telephone and three via videoconference at their local health service facility. Data analysis identified five major themes (quality of the consultation; communication and relationships; familiarity with technology and initial fears; local services and support; and lack of coordination of services between the local rural hospital and the major regional hospital) and each major theme included a number of sub-themes. Most patients interviewed (69%) had not seen their oncology specialist face-to-face, but 86% of them found the video-consultation to be of high quality and were extremely satisfied with the interaction. The acceptance of teleconsultation appeared to be linked to the patients' trust with their local health system and staff. Overall, the tele-oncology model that replaced face-to-face care in North Queensland was accepted and welcomed by patients. PMID:24643950

  19. 1986 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, A.R.

    1989-07-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1986 and spatial patterns for 1986. The report provides statistical distribution summaries of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. The data in the report are from the Acid Depositing System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data. Isopleth maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1986 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 30 sites over an 8-year (1979-1986) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 5-year (1982-1986) period. The 8-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data unavailable that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. 19 refs., 105 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Atmospheric wet deposition of mercury in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, C.W.; Prestbo, E.; Brunette, B.

    1999-07-01

    Currently, 39 states in the US and 5 Canadian provinces have issued advisories about the dangers of eating mercury-contaminated fish taken from waters within their boundaries. The problem is most severe in the Great Lakes region, the Northeast US states, the Canadian maritime provinces, and in south Florida where many lakes and streams contain fish with concentrations of 1 ppm or higher. For many rural and remote locations, atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury. In 1995, the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) initiated a program to monitor total mercury and methylmercury (MMHg) in wet deposition (rain and snow) in North America. In this program, the Mercury Deposition Network (MDN), individual monitoring sites are funded and operated by a variety of local, state, and federal agencies. However, sampling and analysis are coordinated through a central laboratory so that all of the samples are collected and analyzed using the same protocols. Weekly wet-only precipitation samples are collected using an all-glass sampling train and special handling techniques. Analysis is by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry using USEPA Method 1631 for total mercury. Nearly 40 MDN sites are in operation in 1999. Most of the sites are in the eastern US and Canada. During 1996 and 1997, the volume-weighted mean concentration of total mercury in precipitation collected at 22 sites ranged from 6.0 to 18.9 ng/L. Annual deposition varied between 2.1 and 25.3 {micro} g/m{sup 2}. The average weekly wet deposition of total mercury is more than three times higher in the summer (June-August) than in the winter (December-February). This increase is due to both higher amounts of precipitation and higher concentrations of mercury in precipitation during the summer. The highest values for mercury concentration in precipitation and wet deposition of mercury were measured in the southeastern US.

  1. Bacteraemia caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci in North Queensland: changing trends over a 14-year period.

    PubMed

    Harris, P; Siew, D-A; Proud, M; Buettner, P; Norton, R

    2011-08-01

    Group A streptococci (GAS) are usually the predominant species in cases of bacteraemia caused by β haemolytic streptococci (BHS). An increasing worldwide incidence of invasive disease from non-group A BHS has been reported. Little is known about the changing trends in invasive disease caused by BHS in Australia. North Queensland has a relatively large indigenous population, who experience significantly higher rates of group A-related disease than the non-indigenous population. This prospective study examined changing trends of disease from large colony BHS that group with A, B, C and G antisera over a 14-year period at the single large tertiary referral hospital in the area. We identified 392 bacteraemic episodes caused by BHS. GAS were most commonly isolated (49%), with adjusted rates remaining stable over the period. There was a significant increase in the incidence of non-neonatal bacteraemia caused by group B streptococci (GBS) over the study period (r = 0.58; p 0.030), largely driven by infection in older, non-indigenous women. Rates of bacteraemia caused by group C streptococci also experienced a modest, but significant, increase over time (r = 0.67; p 0.009). GAS, which had no predominant emm type, were seen most commonly in indigenous subjects (52%). Mortality rates ranged from 3.2% (group G) to 10.3% (group C), with a rate of 7.9% associated with group A disease. The marked rise in GBS disease has been noted worldwide, but the relatively low incidence in indigenous Australian patients has not been described before, despite the burden of well-recognized risk factors for GBS disease within this group.

  2. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  3. Regional health workforce planning through action research: lessons for commissioning health services from a case study in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Panzera, Annette June; Murray, Richard; Stewart, Ruth; Mills, Jane; Beaton, Neil; Larkins, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Creating a stable and sustainable health workforce in regional, rural and remote Australia has long been a challenge to health workforce planners, policy makers and researchers alike. Traditional health workforce planning is often reactive and assumes continuation of current patterns of healthcare utilisation. This demonstration project in Far North Queensland exemplifies how participatory regional health workforce planning processes can accurately model current and projected local workforce requirements. The recent establishment of Primary Health Networks (PHNs) with the intent to commission health services tailored to individual healthcare needs underlines the relevance of such an approach. This study used action research methodology informed by World Health Organization (WHO) systems thinking. Four cyclical stages of health workforce planning were followed: needs assessment; health service model redesign; skills-set assessment and workforce redesign; and development of a workforce and training plan. This study demonstrated that needs-based loco-regional health workforce planning can be achieved successfully through participatory processes with stakeholders. Stronger health systems and workforce training solutions were delivered by facilitating linkages and planning processes based on community need involving healthcare professionals across all disciplines and sectors. By focusing upon extending competencies and skills sets, local health professionals form a stable and sustainable local workforce. Concrete examples of initiatives generated from this process include developing a chronic disease inter-professional teaching clinic in a rural town and renal dialysis being delivered locally to an Aboriginal community. The growing trend of policy makers decentralising health funding, planning and accountability and rising health system costs increase the future utility of this approach. This type of planning can also assist the new PHNs to commission health services

  4. Queensland Seasons

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-05-27

    ... in Queensland, Australia, are illustrated by these six image panels acquired by MISR on June 7 (left) and September 27 (right), 2003, during ... structure, terrain and soil type, and by the different solar illumination conditions on the two dates. In the near-infrared band ...

  5. Long-term frequent prescribed fire decreases surface soil carbon and nitrogen pools in a wet sclerophyll forest of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Muqaddas, Bushra; Zhou, Xiaoqi; Lewis, Tom; Wild, Clyde; Chen, Chengrong

    2015-12-01

    Prescribed fire is one of the most widely-used management tools for reducing fuel loads in managed forests. However the long-term effects of repeated prescribed fires on soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools are poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate how different fire frequency regimes influence C and N pools in the surface soils (0-10 cm). A prescribed fire field experiment in a wet sclerophyll forest established in 1972 in southeast Queensland was used in this study. The fire frequency regimes included long unburnt (NB), burnt every 2 years (2yrB) and burnt every 4 years (4yrB), with four replications. Compared with the NB treatment, the 2yrB treatment lowered soil total C by 44%, total N by 54%, HCl hydrolysable C and N by 48% and 59%, KMnO4 oxidizable C by 81%, microbial biomass C and N by 42% and 33%, cumulative CO2-C by 28%, NaOCl-non-oxidizable C and N by 41% and 51%, and charcoal-C by 17%, respectively. The 4yrB and NB treatments showed no significant differences for these soil C and N pools. All soil labile, biologically active and recalcitrant and total C and N pools were correlated positively with each other and with soil moisture content, but negatively correlated with soil pH. The C:N ratios of different C and N pools were greater in the burned treatments than in the NB treatments. This study has highlighted that the prescribed burning at four year interval is a more sustainable management practice for this subtropical forest ecosystem.

  6. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen's median trend estimate and Kendall's seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  7. 1988 Wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.; Bittner, E.A.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1988 and spatial patterns for 1988. It is the third in a series of reports that investigate the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1988 annual, winter, and summer periods. Temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 35 sites over a 10-year (1979--1988) period and an expanded subset of 137 sites, with greater spatial coverage, over a 7-year (1982--1988) period. The 10-year period represents the longest period with wet deposition monitoring data available that has a sufficient number of sites with data of known quality to allow a descriptive summary of annual temporal patterns. Sen`s median trend estimate and Kendall`s seasonal tau (KST) test are calculated for each ion species concentration and deposition at each site in both subsets.

  8. 1987 wet deposition temporal and spatial patterns in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Olsen, A.R.

    1990-03-01

    The focus of this report is on North American wet deposition temporal patterns from 1979 to 1987 and spatial patterns for 1987. The report investigates the patterns of annual precipitation-weighted average concentration and annual deposition for nine ion species: hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. Data are from the Acid Deposition System (ADS) for the statistical reporting of North American deposition data which includes the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN), the MAP3S precipitation chemistry network, the Utility Acid Precipitation Study Program (UAPSP), the Canadian Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN), and the daily and 4-weekly Acidic Precipitation in Ontario Study (APIOS-D and APIOS-C). Mosaic maps, based on surface estimation using kriging, display concentration and deposition spatial patterns of pH, hydrogen, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and calcium ion species for 1987 annual, winter, and summer periods. The temporal pattern analyses use a subset of 39 sites over a 9-year (1979--1987) period and an expanded subset of 140 sites with greater spatial coverage over a 6-year (1982--1987) period. 68 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs.

  9. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere.

  10. Tick paralysis in spectacled flying-foxes (Pteropus conspicillatus) in North Queensland, Australia: impact of a ground-dwelling ectoparasite finding an arboreal host.

    PubMed

    Buettner, Petra G; Westcott, David A; Maclean, Jennefer; Brown, Lawrence; McKeown, Adam; Johnson, Ashleigh; Wilson, Karen; Blair, David; Luly, Jonathan; Skerratt, Lee; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Richard

    2013-01-01

    When a parasite finds a new wildlife host, impacts can be significant. In the late 1980s populations of Spectacled Flying-foxes (SFF) (Pteropus conspicillatus), a species confined, in Australia, to north Queensland became infected by paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus), resulting in mortality. This Pteropus-tick relationship was new to Australia. Curiously, the relationship was confined to several camps on the Atherton Tableland, north Queensland. It was hypothesised that an introduced plant, wild tobacco (Solanum mauritianum), had facilitated this new host-tick interaction. This study quantifies the impact of tick paralysis on SFF and investigates the relationship with climate. Retrospective analysis was carried out on records from the Tolga Bat Hospital for 1998-2010. Juvenile mortality rates were correlated to climate data using vector auto-regression. Mortality rates due to tick paralysis ranged between 11.6 per 10,000 bats in 2003 and 102.5 in 2009; more female than male adult bats were affected. Juvenile mortality rates were negatively correlated with the total rainfall in January to March and July to September of the same year while a positive correlation of these quarterly total rainfalls existed with the total population. All tick affected camps of SFF were located in the 80% core range of S. mauritianum. This initial analysis justifies further exploration of how an exotic plant might alter the relationship between a formerly ground-dwelling parasite and an arboreal host. PMID:24066028

  11. Stages of change, smoking behaviour and readiness to quit in a large sample of indigenous Australians living in eight remote north Queensland communities.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sandra; Bohanna, India; Swinbourne, Anne; Cadet-James, Yvonne; McKeown, Dallas; McDermott, Robyn

    2013-04-16

    Tobacco smoking is a major health issue for Indigenous Australians, however there are few interventions with demonstrated efficacy in this population. The Transtheoretical Model may provide a useful framework for describing smoking behaviour and assessing readiness to quit, with the aim of developing better interventions. Interviews were conducted with 593 Indigenous Australians in eight rural and remote communities in north Queensland, to examine stages of change and smoking behaviour. Among current smokers, 39.6% and 43.4% were in Precontemplation and Contemplation stages respectively. A further 13.9% were making preparations to quit (Preparation) whilst only 3.2% said they were actively trying to quit (Action). When analysed by stage of change, the pattern of smoking-related behaviours conformed to the results of past research using the model. Importantly however, distribution of individuals across the stages opposes those observed in investigations of smoking behaviour in non-Indigenous Australian populations. The Transtheoretical Model can be used to meaningfully classify Indigenous smokers in remote north Queensland according to stages along the behaviour change continuum. Importantly, in this large sample across eight communities, most Indigenous smokers were not making preparations to change their smoking behaviour. This suggests that interventions should focus on promoting movement toward the Preparation and Action stages of change.

  12. Characteristics and outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander patients in North Queensland.

    PubMed

    Trout, M I; Henson, G; Senthuran, S

    2015-03-01

    A retrospective cohort analysis of an admission database for the intensive care unit at The Townsville Hospital was undertaken to describe the characteristics and short-term outcomes of critically ill Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients. The Townsville Hospital is the tertiary referral centre for Northern Queensland and services a region in which Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people constitute 9.6% of the population. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients were significantly younger and had higher rates of invasive mechanical ventilation, emergency admissions and transfers from another hospital. Despite these factors, intensive care mortality did not differ between groups (9.4% versus 7.7%, P=0.1). Higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III-j scores were noted in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population requiring emergency admission (65 versus 60, P=0.022) but were lower for elective admission (38 versus 42, P <0.001). Despite higher predicted hospital mortality for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring emergency admission, no significant difference was observed (20.1% versus 19.1%, P=0.656). In a severity adjusted model, Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander status did not statistically significantly alter the risk of death (odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.65, 1.2, P=0.398). Though Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander patients requiring intensive care differed in admission characteristics, mortality was comparable to other critically ill patients.

  13. Aedes aegypti population sampling using BG-Sentinel traps in north Queensland Australia: statistical considerations for trap deployment and sampling strategy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Long, Sharron A; Webb, Cameron E; Bitzhenner, Moritz; Geier, Martin; Russell, Richard C; Ritchie, Scott A

    2007-03-01

    BG-Sentinel mosquito traps were trialed as a tool for the rapid assessment (24-h collections) and routine monitoring (72-h collections) of adult Aedes aegypti L. populations in north Queensland. Analysis of Ae. aegypti collections using BG-Sentinels set in suburban Cairns for 24 h permitted the calculation of sample size for a range of precision levels. Clusters of houses with BG-Sentinels operating continuously for 15 d, with collections every 72 h, also permitted required sample size calculation. Evidence of Ae. aegypti spatial clustering at the house scale was revealed, with statistically significant effects detected for all collection days. Less variation was detected at each trap location, with only nine of 32 trap locations revealing significant clustering over time. Trap-out effects through continuous BG-Sentinel operation at a fixed location were absent. The findings support fixed position sampling at 72-h intervals for routine monitoring ofAe. aegypti populations in Cairns. Despite the relationship between collections of adult vectors and the incidence of disease remaining unknown, BG-Sentinel collections provide an alternative and less labor-intensive abundance measure for assessing risk of dengue virus transmission and success of dengue vector control programs. PMID:17427707

  14. Age and gender correlation of gonial angle, ramus height and bigonial width in dentate subjects in a dental school in Far North Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Leversha, Jodi; McKeough, Glen; Myrteza, Adriana; Skjellrup-Wakefiled, Hannah; Welsh, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine if mandibular parameters (gonial angle, bigonial width and ramus height) measured from panoramic radiographs, can be used to determine a correlation with an individual’s age and gender in dentate subjects in Far North Queensland. Material and Methods The study utilised 2699 randomly selected panoramic radiographs of patients between the ages of 19-69 years, from which 220 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Each panoramic radiograph was analysed and the above three parameters recorded and measured. These values were collated into appropriate age and gender groups and subjected to statistical analysis. Results The mean age of the participants was 44.1±14.41, with males being shown to have a statistically significant larger ramus height and bigonial width than females (P<0.0001 for both). Females, on the other hand, were shown to have a significantly larger gonial angle than males (P<0.0002). General trends revealed gonial angle to increase with age, whilst bigonial width and ramus height were shown to decrease with age. Conclusions The assessment of mandibular morphology through radiographic measurements may be useful in estimating an individual’s age and gender when comparing to a known population standard. Key words:Bigonial width, gonial angle, panoramic radiograph, ramus height. PMID:26855706

  15. An Analysis of Simulated Wet Deposition of Mercury from the North American Mercury Model Intercomparison Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    A previous intercomparison of atmospheric mercury models in North America has been extended to compare simulated and observed wet deposition of mercury. Three regional-scale atmospheric mercury models were tested; CMAQ, REMSAD and TEAM. These models were each employed using thr...

  16. Wet sulfate and nitrate deposition patterns in eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemba, S. G.; Golomb, D.; Fay, J. A.

    Four year (1982-1985) averaged acid deposition (sulfate and nitrate ion) data obtained at 77 stations of the Acid Deposition System in Eastern North America (ENA) are analyzed for seasonal and spatial variations. Average sulfate concentrations over most of ENA range from 1.5-3 mg l-1. Highest sulfate depositions (>35kg ha -1y -1) occur over west Pennsylvania, the Virginias, east Michigan, and southern Ontario between Lakes Huron and Erie. Sulfate isopleths generally stretch along a SW-NE axis. In the northeast quadrant of ENA, 65-70% of the annual sulfate depositions occur in the April-September half year; some regions in southern Canada experience as much as 75% in that period. Average nitrate concentrations range from 1-2mg l-1 throughout much of ENA. Peak nitrate depositions (>20kg ha -1 y -1) fall between Lakes Michigan and Ontario; 15 kg ha -1y -1 or more cover most of the Midwest, New York, New England and south Ontario. Nitrate depositions are more evenly distributed throughout the year, with 55-65% occurring in the April-September half year. The average annual molar ratio of SO 42- to NO 3- varies from 0.8-1.5 over ENA. The ratio is highest at south-central receptors and lower at northern latitudes. Implications of these findings on strategies to mitigate acid deposition are discussed.

  17. Preliminary results of the cruise dedicated to the bifurcation of the North Caledonian Jet onto the Queensland Plateau in the Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, C.; Marin, F.; Bonnet, S.; Desnues, A.; Finot, L.; Varillon, D.

    2012-12-01

    In this presentation, we intend to detail preliminary results and observations collected during the BIRFURCATION cruise, staged on board the R/V Alis of the IRD and operated under the auspices of SPICE (Southwest PacIfic Ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment). A specific effort during SPICE was made to establish an observational program to survey air-sea fluxes and currents in the Coral, Solomon, and Tasman Seas, and their inflows and outflows, with special attention to the strong boundary currents. During its transit into the Coral Sea, the southern branch of the Southern Equatorial Current is affected by the presence of many reefs and small islands of a coral archipelago that cause it to form intense fine-scale oceanic jets downstream of these topographic obstacles. The North Caledonian Jet formed at its entry into the Coral Sea is further separated into flows towards the South (feeding the East Australian Current) and towards the equator (through the Solomon Sea). The obstacle responsible for this separation is the plateau of Queensland, near 17°S-152°E, which is composed of a group of small islands and coral reefs that are distinct from the Great Barrier Reef. The precise pathways and the relative contributions of the various water masses that arrive at the base of this plateau are still unknown and represent the focus of BIFURCATION. This cruise should thus supplement our vision of the circulation of the North Caledonian Jet within the Coral Sea, and make it possible to test to what extent this water contributes to the composition of the current at the western edge of the New Guinea UnderCurrent which feeds the equatorial band and whose climatological mass transport is estimated in the literature to vary by a factor of 2. By determining the characteristics of these water masses before their final arrival at the Australian coast it will also be possible to estimate to what extent they undergo further mixing with yet other water masses within the Coral and

  18. School of the Air by Satellite. A Study of the Improvement of Distance Education in North-west Queensland Using the Australian Communications Satellite System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitt, John; And Others

    As part of an assessment of the educational uses of the Australian Communications Satellite System to be launched in mid-1985, this report focuses on the Mount Isa School of the Air. A general discussion assesses the mechanisms for delivery of distance education for isolated students in Northwest Queensland and considers possible functional…

  19. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  20. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  1. CMIP5 projected changes in spring and summer drought and wet conditions over North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, Sharmistha; Hayhoe, Katharine

    2015-05-01

    Climate change is expected to alter the mean and variability of future spring and summer drought and wet conditions during the twenty-first century across North America, as characterized by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Based on Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 simulations, statistically significant increases are projected in mean spring SPI over the northern part of the continent, and drier conditions across the southwest. Dry conditions in summer also increase, particularly throughout the central Great Plains. By end of century, greater changes are projected under a higher radiative forcing scenario (RCP 8.5) as compared to moderate (RCP 6.0) and lower (RCP 4.5). Analysis of projected changes standardized to a range of global warming thresholds from +1 to +4 °C reveals a consistent spatial pattern of wetter conditions in the northern and drier conditions in the southwestern part of the continent in spring that intensifies under increased warming, suggesting that the magnitude of projected changes in wetness and drought may scale with global temperature. For many regions, SPI interannual variability is also projected to increase (even for regions that are projected to become drier), indicating that climate may become more extreme under greater warming, with increased frequency of both extreme dry and wet seasons. Quantifying the direction and magnitude of projected future trends from global warming is key to informing strategies to mitigate human influence on climate and help natural and managed resources adapt.

  2. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils.

  3. Presence and absence of non-native fish species in the Wet Tropics region, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kroon, F; Phillips, S; Burrows, D; Hogan, A

    2015-03-01

    Distributional records of non-native fish species were identified in the Wet Tropics region, Far North Queensland, Australia, through a compilation of published records and expert knowledge. A total of 1106 records were identified comprising 346 presence and four uncertain records for at least 13 species, and 756 absence records. All current presence records consist of six species from the families Cichlidae and Poeciliidae with established self-sustaining populations in the region, probably affecting the highly diverse native fish fauna.

  4. Probing the intrinsically oil-wet surfaces of pores in North Sea chalk at subpore resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hassenkam, T.; Skovbjerg, L. L.; Stipp, S. L. S.

    2009-01-01

    Pore surface properties control oil recovery. This is especially true for chalk reservoirs, where pores are particularly small. Wettability, the tendency for a surface to cover itself with fluid, is traditionally defined by the angle a droplet makes with a surface, but this macroscopic definition is meaningless when the particles are smaller than even the smallest droplet. Understanding surface wetting, at the pore scale, will provide clues for more effective oil recovery. We used a special mode of atomic force microscopy and a hydrophobic tip to collect matrices of 10,000 force curves over 5- × 5-μm2 areas on internal pore surfaces and constructed maps of topography, adhesion, and elasticity. We investigated chalk samples from a water-bearing formation in the Danish North Sea oil fields that had never seen oil. Wettability and elasticity were inhomogeneous over scales of 10s of nanometers, smaller than individual chalk particles. Some areas were soft and hydrophobic, whereas others showed no correlation between hardness and adhesion. We conclude that the macroscopic parameter, “wetting,” averages the nanoscopic behavior along fluid pathways, and “mixed-wet” samples have patches with vastly different properties. Development of reservoir hydrophobicity has been attributed to infiltrating oil, but these new results prove that wettability and elasticity are inherent properties of chalk. Their variability, even on single particles, must result from material originally present during sedimentation or material sorbed from the pore fluid some time later. PMID:19321418

  5. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice

  6. Changes in duration and intensity of the wet spells of different intensity over Northern Eurasia and North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Y.; Gulev, S. K.; Zolina, O. G.; Wang, X. L.; Bulygina, O. N.; Knight, R. W.

    2012-04-01

    (1) According to the 20th Century Reanalysis data, there is a general century-long increase in an intensity and frequency of extratropical cyclones over the northern extratropics and an increase in their average duration, i.e., lengthening of the mean lifespan of storms. These conclusions however, have notable regional and seasonal differences (i.e., there are regions and seasons where opposite statements are true). Furthermore, all these conclusions are trustworthy only for the regions with reliable long-term synoptic information (large Europe, Northern Atlantic, the central parts of the North American continent and Northern Eurasia (Wang et al. 2012, manuscript in preparation). (2) There are indications that in the post World War II period over Europe the frequency and duration of the wet spells have changed and the occurrence of the prolonged wet spells have increased (Zolina et al. 2010). (3) At the same period over most of North America and Northern Eurasia, an increase of intense precipitation including the multi-day events was documented (Groisman et al. 2005, 2012; USCCSP 2009). Having the above as a rationale for further research, we (a) expanded the initial wet spells study into the northern extratropics and (b) estimated the frequency and duration of the wet spells of different intensity (e.g., by looking for the wet spells constructed from the days with intense precipitation only). The results of temporal changes (time series and trends) and distribution (mean values and the upper percentiles) of frequency, duration, and intensity of these wet spells will be presented at the Session for the regions of North America, Europe, and Northern Asia that are well covered by the dense networks of long-term daily and sub-daily precipitation observations.

  7. Trampling resistance of tropical rainforest soils and vegetation in the wet tropics of north east Australia.

    PubMed

    Talbot, L M; Turton, S M; Graham, A W

    2003-09-01

    Controlled trampling was conducted to investigate the trampling resistance of contrasting high fertility basaltic and low fertility rhyolitic soils and their associated highland tropical rainforest vegetation in north east Australia's Wet Tropics. Although this approach has been taken in numerous studies of trampling in a variety of ecosystem types (temperate and subtropical forest, alpine shrubland, coral reef and seagrass beds), the experimental method does not appear to have been previously applied in a tropical rainforest context. Ground vegetation cover and soil penetration resistance demonstrated variable responses to trampling. Trampling, most noticeably after 200 and 500 passes reduced organic litter cover. Bulk density increased with trampling intensity, particularly on basalt soils as rhyolite soils appeared somewhat resistant to the impacts of trampling. The permeability of the basalt and rhyolite soils decreased markedly with increased trampling intensity, even after only 75 passes. These findings suggest physical and hydrological changes may occur rapidly in tropical rainforest soils following low levels of trampling, particularly on basalt soils. PMID:12927152

  8. Wet, Dry, Dim, or Bright? The Future of Water Resources in North Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brikowski, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Future water resource availability in North Texas (Dallas-Ft. Worth Metroplex) is likely to be limited by the combined impact of decadal-scale and longer term climate changes. Two decadal precipitation anomalies are statistically distinguishable in the historical record (dry/wet, Table 1). These correspond temporally with the onset of global dimming/brightening events (hydrologic cycle retardation/acceleration) respectively (Table 1). Surface water hydrologic parameters are variably correlated with these events, depending on the degree of time-integration of each process. Precipitation correlates most strongly with the decadal anomalies. Runoff changes during these periods were magnified relative to precipitation changes, presumably an effect of soil moisture changes, and over the basin as a whole correlate best with the global events. Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) attempts to capture such effects, and also correlates most strongly with the global events. The most important time-integrators of the system, reservoirs, show mixed correlation in terms of total storage with the decadal and longer term climate periods. Reservoir flood releases (excess storage) correlate with decadal precipitation anomalies, in part reflecting short-term consumption influences. Major reservoirs in the area post-date the dry period, precluding direct evaluation of sustainability from historical records. Historical correlations versus PDSI can be combined with climate-model based PDSI projections to evaluate future sustainability. Climate projections based on a mean of 19 IPCC intermediate scenario (SRESa1b) models indicate an approximately 10% reduction in mean annual precipitation, and warming of 2oC by 2050 in this region. Steady lowering of mean annual PDSI results, with a 50% probability that annual PDSI will average -0.5 by 2050. Average climate will move from humid (Aridity Index=35) to semi-humid (AI=27), and runoff can be expected to decline accordingly. Probability of a

  9. Queensland Museum Online Learning Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Adriana

    2009-01-01

    This article evaluates three online educational resources on the Queensland Museum website in terms of their use of ICTs in science education; how they relate to the Queensland Middle School Science Curriculum and the Senior Biology, Marine Studies, Science 21 syllabuses; their visual appeal and level of student engagement; the appropriateness of…

  10. Wet deposition of fission-product isotopes to North America from the Fukushima Dai-ichi incident, March 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Gay, David A.; Debey, Timothy M.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Nilles, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Using the infrastructure of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP), numerous measurements of radionuclide wet deposition over North America were made for 167 NADP sites before and after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station incident of March 12, 2011. For the period from March 8 through April 5, 2011, wet-only precipitation samples were collected by NADP and analyzed for fission-product isotopes within whole-water and filterable solid samples by the United States Geological Survey using gamma spectrometry. Variable amounts of 131I, 134Cs, or 137Cs were measured at approximately 21% of sampled NADP sites distributed widely across the contiguous United States and Alaska. Calculated 1- to 2-week individual radionuclide deposition fluxes ranged from 0.47 to 5100 Becquerels per square meter during the sampling period. Wet deposition activity was small compared to measured activity already present in U.S. soil. NADP networks responded to this complex disaster, and provided scientifically valid measurements that are comparable and complementary to other networks in North America and Europe.

  11. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Along the coast of Queensland, Australia (18.0S, 147.5E), timbered foothills of the Great Dividing Range separate the semi-arid interior of Queensland from the farmlands of the coastal plains. Prominent cleared areas in the forest indicate deforestation for farm and pasture lands. Offshore, islands and the Great Barrier Reef display sand banks along the southern sides of the structures indicating a dominant southerly wind and current direction.

  12. Atmospheric wet deposition of soluble macro-nutrients in the Cilician Basin, north-eastern Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Ozsoy, Türkan

    2003-12-01

    In order to estimate wet deposition atmospheric fluxes of macro-nutrients into the eastern Mediterranean coastal waters, soluble inorganic phosphate (PO4(3-)), nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) concentrations in precipitation (from February 1996 to June 1997) have been measured at a coastal sampling site, Erdemli, Turkey. Water-soluble inorganic PO4(3)-P, a reactive, bioavailable, limiting macro-nutrient in the oligotrophic waters of the eastern Mediterranean was studied with respect to its contribution to biological productivity. Reactive PO4(3-)-P and NO2(-) + NO3(-)-N concentrations were found to be highly variable in rainwater samples. One of the aims of the study was to determine the contribution of dust transport to the soluble macro-nutrient budget of the eastern Mediterranean. No differences were found between the mean reactive P and NO(2-) + NO3(-)-N concentrations of "red rain" and normal rain events. Most likely as a result of low solubility of crustal phosphorus, dust episodes were not found to be important sources of reactive P, in terms of wet deposition. The annual wet deposition fluxes of reactive PO4(3-)-P and NO2(-) + NO3(-)-N into the Cilician Basin were respectively estimated to be 0.010 g P m(-2) per year and 0.23 g N m(-2) per year, which are comparable to the fluxes from land-based sources in the north-eastern Mediterranean. The incorporation of water soluble bioavailable PO4(3-)-P and NO2(-) + NO3(-)-N delivered via atmospheric wet deposition could be responsible for approximately 3.3% (0.40 g C m(-2) per year) and 11.0% (1.31 g C m(-2) per year) respectively, of the mean annual new production in the north-eastern Mediterranean.

  13. The prevalence of human melioidosis in Northern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Ashdown, L R; Guard, R W

    1984-05-01

    Sera from 9,047 individuals from Northern Queensland were examined for the presence of hemagglutinating antibodies to Pseudomonas pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, and 512 (5.7%) were found to have titers of 1:40 or greater. The distribution of positive reactors in various groups was uneven, and significantly higher prevalences of positive antibody titers were found in the sera from Aborigines (7.9-10.6%), Torres Strait Islanders (7.8%), Vietnamese refugees (29%) and from persons with certain medical conditions including chronic alcoholism (15%), chronic infections (14.8%), diabetes mellitus (8.6%) and liver disease (12.9%). There were significantly fewer positive reactors (1.4%) amongst the armed forces stationed in Northern Queensland. At present, the boundaries of the major endemic region of Australia extend north from Rockhampton along the coast to Darwin and inland, west from Rockhampton to Tennant Creek in central Australia. Townsville was found to have the highest prevalence (5.2%) of positive reactors of all urban populations of Northern Queensland. The extent of the disease is such that it can no longer be considered a rare infection in Northern Queensland.

  14. Three long lava flows in north Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, P. J.; Burch-Johnston, A. T.; Stanton, D.; Whitehead, P. W.

    1998-11-01

    The Kinrara, Toomba, and Undara basaltic lava flows are from 55 to 160 km long and range in age from 13 to 190 ka. The lavas were emplaced down low gradients (0.2° to 0.4°) with volumes ranging up to 30 km3. They were not unusually hot at eruption (1130°-1160°) nor unusually fluid. Gentle topography controlled the flows, and shallow drainage lines captured them. Lava tubes operated in places, and some drained to form caves. Injection under surface crust was widespread, producing inflation features ranging from tumuli and low plateaus to extensive ridges. Sustained eruption was essential for the development of the long flows, but each is composite, with pauses between successive pulses that partially covered the earlier, longer flows. The lava structures are mainly pahoehoe but some 'a'a lavas are present. Of the three volcanoes involved, Undara is a simple low-angle lava cone with a 200-m-wide crater, Toomba is a low-angled cone with several eruption centers, and Kinrara has a deep crater with evidence of strong fountaining. Effusion rates are not known but may have been relatively low, similar to those observed in Hawaiian volcanoes. Lava tubes, most of which remained undrained, are believed to have been of major importance in flow emplacement. Given the evidence of successive flows and the time needed to develop widespread inflation, it is suggested that the two long flows over 100 km involved many decades of eruption.

  15. Decadal Drought and Wetness Reconstructed for Subtropical North America in the Mexican Drought Atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnette, D. J.; Stahle, D. W.; Cook, E. R.; Villanueva Diaz, J.; Griffin, D.; Cook, B.

    2014-12-01

    A new drought atlas has been developed for subtropical North America, including the entire Republic of Mexico. This Mexican Drought Atlas (MXDA) is based on 251 tree-ring chronologies, including 82 from Mexico and another 169 from the southern U.S. and western Guatemala. Point-by-point principal components regression was used to reconstruct the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for June-August. Calibration and verification statistics were improved over what was previously possible with the North American Drought Atlas, which was based on fewer chronologies only in Mexico. The MXDA will be served on the web with analytical tools for composite, correlation, and congruence analyses. The new PDSI reconstructions provide a more detailed estimation of decadal moisture regimes over the past 2000 years, but are most robust after 1400 AD, when several chronologies are available across Mexico. Droughts previously identified in a subset of chronologies are confirmed and their spatial impact quantified in the new reconstructions. This includes the intense drought of the mid-15th Century described in Aztec legend, the 16th Century megadrought, and "El Año del Hambre", one of the worst famines in Mexican history. We also use the best replicated portion of the MXDA in the 18th and 19th Centuries to reconstruct moisture anomalies during key time periods of Mexican turmoil (e.g., the Mexican War of Independence).

  16. Estimation and mapping of wet and dry mercury deposition across northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, E.K.; Vanarsdale, A.; Keeler, G.J.; Chalmers, A.; Poissant, L.; Kamman, N.C.; Brulotte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas many ecosystem characteristics and processes influence mercury accumulation in higher trophic-level organisms, the mercury flux from the atmosphere to a lake and its watershed is a likely factor in potential risk to biota. Atmospheric deposition clearly affects mercury accumulation in soils and lake sediments. Thus, knowledge of spatial patterns in atmospheric deposition may provide information for assessing the relative risk for ecosystems to exhibit excessive biotic mercury contamination. Atmospheric mercury concentrations in aerosol, vapor, and liquid phases from four observation networks were used to estimate regional surface concentration fields. Statistical models were developed to relate sparsely measured mercury vapor and aerosol concentrations to the more commonly measured mercury concentration in precipitation. High spatial resolution deposition velocities for different phases (precipitation, cloud droplets, aerosols, and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM)) were computed using inferential models. An empirical model was developed to estimate gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) deposition. Spatial patterns of estimated total mercury deposition were complex. Generally, deposition was higher in the southwest and lower in the northeast. Elevation, land cover, and proximity to urban areas modified the general pattern. The estimated net GEM and RGM fluxes were each greater than or equal to wet deposition in many areas. Mercury assimilation by plant foliage may provide a substantial input of methyl-mercury (MeHg) to ecosystems. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  17. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef of Queensland, Australia extends for roughly 2,000 km along the northeast coast of Australia and is made up of thousands of individual reefs which define the edge of the Continental shelf. Swan Reef, the southern part of the reef system, is seen in this view. Water depths around the reefs are quite shallow (less than 1 to 36 meters) but only a few kilometers offshore, water depths can reach 1,000 meters.

  18. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  19. Analyses of NOx and wet depositions at Mühleggerkböpfl, North Tyrolean Limestone Alps.

    PubMed

    Smidt, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    The intensive investigation site 'Mühleggerkopfl' in the North Tyrolean Limestone Alps can be classified as a clean-air area site. The mean concentrations of NOx are far below the effect-related limit value of the WHO (30 microg NOx m(-3)). The gravitational depositions in the open field (bulk deposition) ranged from 10.8 to 14.7 kg N ha(-1) a(-1) (throughfall: 11.3 to 12.3 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)) in the measuring years 1998 to 2000. Compared to these data, depositions in other forested areas of the Austrian Alps amounted to up to 30 kg N ha(-1) a(-1). The gravitational depositions (bulk deposition) alone--without considering dry and occult deposition slightly exceeded the lower limit of Critical Loads for coniferous and deciduous forests (>10 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)), but were below the Critical Loads for calcareous forests (15-20 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)).

  20. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement. PMID:25898231

  1. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  2. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985–2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229–54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  3. Grade Repetition in Queensland State Prep Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The current study considers grade repetition rates in the early years of schooling in Queensland state schools with specific focus on the pre-schooling year, Prep. In particular, it provides empirical evidence of grade repetition in Queensland state schools along with groups of students who are more often repeated. At the same time, much of the…

  4. Legitimating and Contesting the Commodification of Schooling: The Case of Teachers' Learning in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws upon research into the nature of teachers' learning practices in the context of current policy conditions in the state of Queensland, Australia. The research explores how teachers in one school in the north of the state responded to policy pressure to adopt a specific standardised approach to "explicit teaching",…

  5. The influence of boreal winter extratropical North Pacific Oscillation on Australian spring rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Linye; Li, Yun; Duan, Wansuo

    2016-08-01

    The North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) is a key atmospheric intrinsic mode. This study concerns mechanisms that the NPO influences Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies after several months. It is found that the boreal wintertime NPO has a significant negative connection with austral spring rainfall anomalies in Australia, particularly in the Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria. A positive NPO phase tends to be followed by dry conditions, while a negative phase by wet conditions in austral spring over much of northern and eastern Australia. The physical mechanism by which the boreal winter NPO affects Australian rainfall arises from the NPO seasonal footprinting mechanism that generates significant tropical central and eastern Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) warming anomalies during austral spring. Then, the positive NPO-related SST warming anomalies over the tropical central-eastern Pacific further induce a weakened Walker circulation, with its western subsiding branch over Australia, suppressing convection and thereby reducing rainfall. Furthermore, the NPO plays an important role in contributing to the significant long-term trends of the Northern Territory and Queensland rainfalls. The decreasing amplitude of the NPO contributes much of the observed rainfall wetting trends in the Northern Territory (~50 %) and Queensland (~60 %) regions during 1951-2010. Noted that caution is recommended regarding the Australian spring rainfall trend results obtained in this study as the austral spring rainfall trends may be sensitive to the choice of the selected time period.

  6. Anatomy of sand beach ridges: Evidence from severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi and its predecessors, northeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nott, Jonathan; Chague-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Sloss, Craig; Riggs, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    Four well-identified tropical cyclones over the past century have been responsible for depositing distinct units of predominantly quartzose sand and gravel to form the most seaward beach ridge at several locations along the wet tropical coast of northeast Queensland, Australia. These units deposited by tropical cyclones display a key sedimentary signature characterized by a sharp basal erosional contact, a coarser grain size than the underlying facies and a coarse-skewed trend toward the base. Coarse-skewed distributions with minimal change in mean grain size also characterize the upper levels of the high-energy deposited units at locations within the zone of maximum onshore winds during the tropical cyclone. These same coarse skew distributions are not apparent in sediments deposited at locations where predominantly offshore winds occurred during the cyclone, which in the case of northeast Australia is north of the eye-crossing location. These sedimentary signatures, along with the geochemical indicators and the degraded nature of the microfossil assemblages, have proven to be useful proxies to identify storm-deposited units within the study site and can also provide useful proxies in older beach ridges where advanced pedogenesis has obscured visual stratigraphic markers. As a consequence, more detailed long-term histories of storms and tropical cyclones can now be developed.

  7. A new species of Neorhaphiomidas Norris (Diptera: Mydidae) from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2013-02-14

    Neorhaphiomidas Norris, with 7 species, is an endemic genus and the only Australian representative of the mydid subfamily Megascelinae. The genus was for many years considered to be restricted to Western Australia but the range of the genus was extended to the eastern part of South Australia with Paramonov's (1961) description of N. inermis. The new species described here, the first record of the genus from Queensland, extends the known distribution of the genus some 1500 km to the north-east.

  8. Advisory Teacher Service in Queensland Primary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varley, Peter J.; Cumming, Joy

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about how advisory teachers and persons within schools perceive the operation of the Advisory Teacher Service inaugurated in the Queensland State Department of Education in 1970. The service was provided so that advisory teachers would visit primary schools on invitation of the principal and help…

  9. Student Performance Standards and Queensland Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake, Andrew; Danaher, Patrick

    This paper considers the implementation of Student Performance Standards (SPS) in Queensland, Australia, and their implications for teacher education. Student testing procedures in various Australian states and territories are described. A theoretical framework, grounded in Australian educational history, is elaborated for understanding the…

  10. Library Research Support in Queensland: A Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Joanna; Nolan-Brown, Therese; Loria, Pat; Bradbury, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    University libraries worldwide are reconceptualising the ways in which they support the research agenda in their respective institutions. This paper is based on a survey completed by member libraries of the Queensland University Libraries Office of Cooperation (QULOC), the findings of which may be informative for other university libraries. After…

  11. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  12. Timing and Nature of Wet Climatic Periods in North Africa and in the Arabian Peninsula: Inferences from Isotopic, Chronologic, and Remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emil, M. K.; Sultan, M.; Farag, A. Z. A.; Abouelmagd, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2015-12-01

    The wet climatic periods in the Quaternary in north Africa and in Arabia were traditionally attributed to intensification of paleo-monsoons during interglacial periods and progressive northward migration of monsoonal front. In N Africa, the monsoonal model could not account for: (1) progressive W to E depletion (Morocco: -20 to -40‰; ; Libya: -70 to -80‰; Egypt: -80 to -83‰) in isotopic composition of fossil groundwater ; (2) observed high lake levels during glacial periods (e.g., Lake Lisan: 160 m bmsl during glacial period MIS2); (3) the depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater compared to modern precipitation (e.g., d2H: Morocco: - 25.8‰; ; Libya: -17.7; Egypt: -11.7‰) is consistent with deposition during relatively cool periods; (4) ages (Cl-36 : 170ka to 1000ka) of groundwater in the Empty Quarter are consistent with deposition in glacial periods; and (5) low recharge temperatures (e.g., 2-6 °C below average annual temperatures). Intensification of the paleo-westerlies during previous glacial periods can account for these observations. We propose a similar model for northern and central Arabia and probably the northern sectors of the Empty Quarter. Our reasoning: (1) a progressive north to south depletion in groundwater composition (north & center: d2H :-26.6 to -2.5‰, south: d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) is inconsistent with a paleo-monsoon origin; (2) ages of sediments in paleo-lakes (e.g., lake Mundafan: OSL ages: 88 to 147ka) favor deposition during glacial periods; (3) depleted isotopic compositions in the groundwater (d2H: -76.6 to -26.9‰) compared to modern precipitation (d2H: -22 to -45‰); (4) Cl-36 ages of groundwater (170ka to 1000ka ) are consistent with precipitation during glacial periods; (5) well documented records of monsoon-related wet events in Oman are not well developed northwards; and (6) well developed paleo-channels and theater-headed valleys in north and central Arabia compared to southern Arabia.

  13. Modelling wet and dry spells for daily rainfall data series: an application to irrigation management in North-West Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraris, Stefano; Agnese, Carmelo; Baiamonte, Giorgio; Cat Berro, Daniele; Mercalli, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall time variability is relevant for agricultural production. The daily time scale is often used in modelling crop and soil water balance. In this work a novel statistical analysis of wet and dry spells is presented, together with an application in an Italian area characterised by a relevant climate spatial variability, due to the presence of both high mountains (e.g.: Mont Blanc) and of the Mediterranean Sea. Statistical analysis of the sequences of rainy days, wet spells (WS), and that of no-rainy days, dry spells (DS), could be carried out separately (as widely applied in the past) or jointly, by introducing the inter-arrival time (IT), representing the time elapsed between two subsequent rainy days. Investigating on daily rainfall data series recorded in Sicily, Agnese et al. (2014) found that IT statistics can be described by the 3-parameter Lerch distribution; in turn, WS and DS distributions can be easily derived from IT distribution. Alternatively, the knowledge of both WS and DS distributions allow deriving IT distribution; in this case, WScan be described by the well-accepted geometric distribution, whereas the 2-parameter polylogarithm distribution can be used for DS, as recently suggested (Agnese et al., 2012) in place of the previously used 1-parameter logarithmic distribution (Chatfield, 1966). In this work, by using some daily rainfall data series recorded in Alpine and Sub-Alpine Areas, the equivalence between the above-mentioned approaches is showed. Furthermore, some interesting relationships between respective parameters are also illustrated. A simple soil water model is then used, using this rainfall statistical model, in order to evaluate the irrigation efficiency as a consequence of variations in the timing of surface irrigation, following the approach described in the paper of Canone et al. (2015). Agnese C., Baiamonte G., Cammalleri C., Cat Berro D., Ferraris S., Mercalli L. (2012). "Statistical analysis of inter-arrival times of

  14. Feral pig populations are structured at fine spatial scales in tropical Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jobina; Hurwood, David; Dryden, Bart; Fuller, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities.

  15. Feral Pig Populations Are Structured at Fine Spatial Scales in Tropical Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Jobina; Hurwood, David; Dryden, Bart; Fuller, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Feral pigs occur throughout tropical far north Queensland, Australia and are a significant threat to biodiversity and World Heritage values, agriculture and are a vector of infectious diseases. One of the constraints on long-lasting, local eradication of feral pigs is the process of reinvasion into recently controlled areas. This study examined the population genetic structure of feral pigs in far north Queensland to identify the extent of movement and the scale at which demographically independent management units exist. Genetic analysis of 328 feral pigs from the Innisfail to Tully region of tropical Queensland was undertaken. Seven microsatellite loci were screened and Bayesian clustering methods used to infer population clusters. Sequence variation at the mitochondrial DNA control region was examined to identify pig breed. Significant population structure was identified in the study area at a scale of 25 to 35 km, corresponding to three demographically independent management units (MUs). Distinct natural or anthropogenic barriers were not found, but environmental features such as topography and land use appear to influence patterns of gene flow. Despite the strong, overall pattern of structure, some feral pigs clearly exhibited ancestry from a MU outside of that from which they were sampled indicating isolated long distance dispersal or translocation events. Furthermore, our results suggest that gene flow is restricted among pigs of domestic Asian and European origin and non-random mating influences management unit boundaries. We conclude that the three MUs identified in this study should be considered as operational units for feral pig control in far north Queensland. Within a MU, coordinated and simultaneous control is required across farms, rainforest areas and National Park Estates to prevent recolonisation from adjacent localities. PMID:24614160

  16. Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation: special report.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Gerry; Codd, Catrina; Aitken, Peter; Sinnott, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Development of any new profession is dependent on the development of a special body of knowledge that is the domain of the profession. Key to this is research. Following sustained lobbying, the Queensland Government agreed to establish an emergency medicine research fund as part of an Enterprise Bargaining Agreement in 2006. That fund is managed by the Queensland Emergency Medicine Research Foundation. The present article describes the strategic approaches of the Foundation in its first 3 years, the application of research funds, and foreshadows an evaluative framework for determining the strategic value of this investment. The Foundation has developed a range of personnel and project support funding programmes, and competition for funding has increased. Ongoing evaluation will seek to determine the effectiveness of the current funding strategy on improving the effectiveness of research performance. It will also evaluate the clinical and organizational outcomes.

  17. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-01-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter.  PMID:25283915

  18. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  19. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  20. A field investigation into a suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicosis in horses in western Queensland.

    PubMed

    Robinson, B; Gummow, B

    2015-03-01

    A disease outbreak investigation was conducted in western Queensland to investigate a rare suspected outbreak of pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) toxicosis in horses. Thirty five of 132 horses depastured on five properties on the Mitchell grass plains of western Queensland died in the first six months of 2010. Clinical-pathological findings were consistent with PA toxicosis. A local variety of Crotalaria medicaginea was the only hepatotoxic plant found growing on affected properties. Pathology reports and departure and arrival dates of two brood mares provided evidence of a pre wet season exposure period. All five affected properties experienced a very dry spring and early summer preceded by a large summer wet season. The outbreak was characterised as a point epidemic with a sudden peak of deaths in March followed by mortalities steadily declining until the end of June. The estimated morbidity (serum IGG>50IU/L) rate was 76%. Average crude mortality was 27% but higher in young horses (67%) and brood mares (44%). Logistic regression analysis showed that young horses and brood mares and those grazing denuded pastures in December were most strongly associated with dying whereas those fed hay and/or grain based supplements were less likely to die. This is the first detailed study of an outbreak of PA toxicosis in central western Queensland and the first to provide evidence that environmental determinants were associated with mortality, that the critical exposure period was towards the end of the dry season, that supplementary feeding is protective and that denuded pastures and the horses physiological protein requirement are risk factors.

  1. Science Education: Innovation in Rural and Remote Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, David

    2008-01-01

    Outside its heavily-populated south-eastern corner, Queensland is a huge administrative area with many small, remote communities that can be separated by hundreds of kilometres of dirt road, or, in other areas, not accessible by road. In this study, parents, students and teachers in nine schools from rural and regional Queensland were interviewed…

  2. Local Area Initiatives, 1986. Priority Country Area Program, Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priority Country Area Program Office, Brisbane (Australia).

    The Priority Country Area Program is a Rural Education Program funded by the Commonwealth Schools Commission and jointly administered by the Queensland (Australia) Department of Education and the Queensland Catholic Education Office. The program develops educational strategies to address problems engendered by the social and geographical nature of…

  3. Sole Fighter Mentality: Stakeholder Agency in CLIL Programmes in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smala, Simone

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an insight into content and language integrated learning (CLIL) practices in the Australian state of Queensland. The article comprises four main sections. The first section outlines the context of CLIL in Australia and Queensland; there follows a brief review of the literature on stakeholders in CLIL programmes, such as…

  4. Leptospirosis following a major flood in Central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Smith, J K G; Young, M M; Wilson, K L; Craig, S B

    2013-03-01

    Throughout December 2010 and January 2011, Queensland experienced widespread flooding due to unusually protracted and heavy rainfalls. In mid-January 2011, four individuals from a small community in Central Queensland were hospitalized with leptospirosis. A further five cases were subsequently identified from around Central Queensland, bringing the total to nine. Microscopic agglutination testing found that serovar Arborea (Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Arborea) was presumptively responsible for leptospirosis in seven of nine confirmed cases. Serovars Hardjo and Australis were identified in samples from two remaining cases. All cases had exposure to flood water. No single exposure source was identified. This is the first reported outbreak of leptospirosis in Central Queensland and the first report of leptospirosis cases associated with flood water inundation in Queensland. Public health authorities should continue to promote awareness of leptospirosis in flood-affected populations. Healthcare providers must maintain a high level of suspicion for leptospirosis during and after flood events. PMID:22625176

  5. A spatial epidemiological analysis of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The epidemiology of infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been changing and the incidence has been increasing in some settings. The main route of transmission to humans is considered to be from the environment. We aimed to describe spatial clusters of cases of NTM infections and to identify associated climatic, environmental and socio-economic variables. Methods NTM data were obtained from the Queensland Mycobacterial Reference Laboratory for the period 2001–2011. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was constructed at the postcode level, with covariates including soil variables, maximum, mean and minimum rainfall and temperature, income (proportion of population earning < $32,000 and < $52,000) and land use category. Results Significant clusters of NTM infection were identified in the central Queensland region overlying the Surat sub-division of the Great Artesian Basin, as well as in the lower North Queensland Local Government Area known as the Whitsunday region. Our models estimated an expected increase of 21% per percentage increase of population earning < $52,000 (95% CI 9–34%) and an expected decrease of 13% for every metre increase of average topsoil depth for risk of Mycobacterium intracellulare infection (95% CI -3 – -22%). There was an estimated increase of 79% per mg/m3 increase of soil bulk density (95% CI 26–156%) and 19% decrease for every percentage increase in population earning < $32,000 for risk of M. kansasii infection (95% CI -3 – -49%). Conclusions There were distinct spatial clusters of M. kansasii, M. intracellulare and M. abscessus infections in Queensland, and a number of socio-ecological, economic and environmental factors were found to be associated with NTM infection risk. PMID:24885916

  6. Fine-suspended sediment and water budgets for a large, seasonally dry tropical catchment: Burdekin River catchment, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bainbridge, Zoë T.; Lewis, Stephen E.; Smithers, Scott G.; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Henderson, Brent L.; Brodie, Jon E.

    2014-11-01

    The Burdekin River catchment (˜130,400 km2) is a seasonally dry tropical catchment located in north-east Queensland, Australia. It is the single largest source of suspended sediment to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Fine sediments are a threat to ecosystems on the GBR where they contribute to elevated turbidity (reduced light), sedimentation stress, and potential impacts from the associated nutrients. Suspended sediment data collected over a 5 year period were used to construct a catchment-wide sediment source and transport budget. The Bowen River tributary was identified as the major source of end-of-river suspended sediment export, yielding an average of 530 t km-2 yr-1 during the study period. Sediment trapping within a large reservoir (1.86 million ML) and the preferential transport of clays and fine silts downstream of the structure were also examined. The data reveal that the highest clay and fine silt loads—which are of most interest to environmental managers of the GBR—are not always sourced from areas that yield the largest total suspended sediment load (i.e., all size fractions). Our results demonstrate the importance of incorporating particle size into catchment sediment budget studies undertaken to inform management decisions to reduce downstream turbidity and sedimentation. Our data on sediment source, reservoir influence, and subcatchment and catchment yields will improve understandings of sediment dynamics in other tropical catchments, particularly those located in seasonally wet-dry tropical savannah/semiarid climates. The influence of climatic variability (e.g., drought/wetter periods) on annual sediment loads within large seasonally dry tropical catchments is also demonstrated by our data.

  7. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in North Queensland: the paediatric experience.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Claire L; Parsonson, Fiona; Gray, Lawrence Ek; Heyer, Adele; Donohue, Steven; Wiseman, Greg; Norton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a fulminant, diffuse haemorrhagic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, with an almost invariably fatal outcome. In Australia and the developed world, PAM remains a rare disease, although it is very likely that large numbers of cases go undetected in developing countries. N. fowleri is a thermophilic, free-living amoeba with a worldwide distribution. It is acquired when contaminated fresh water is flushed into the nose and penetrates the central nervous system via the cribriform plate. Clinical features are similar to those of bacterial meningitis, but it does not respond to standard therapy and rapid progression to death occurs in most cases. Some survivors have been reported; these patients received early treatment with amphotericin B in combination with a variety of other medications. Our review describes the local and worldwide experience of this disease and its clinical features, and discusses the associated diagnostic challenges. We hope that by detailing the local response to a recent case, and the outcomes of our public health campaign, we can improve the knowledge of this rare disease for doctors working in rural and remote Australia. PMID:27681975

  8. View of portion of Queensland, Australia from Skylab space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of a portion of the State of Queensland, Australia, (17.0S, 140.0E) as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A Skylab 4 crewman used a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera to take this picture. The body of water is the southeastern part of the Gulf of Carpentaria. This picture was taken in support studies of the north Australian drought region. The largest island seen is Mornington. The town of Normanton can also be seen. Of interest here is the sediment-laden waters at the perimeter of the Gulf showing how rains at the end of the drought are washing the top soil into the sea after the drought killed the covering vegatation. Also noted is that the vegetation patterns tend more toward those of other arid regions (i.e. they follow topographic and hydrographic patterns) rather than those in other parts of Australia (i.e. more convenient and easier to see, rectilinear patterns which are prevalent in less arid areas.)

  9. Seasonal Fluxes and Cycling of Trace Metals in Semi-Arid Fluvial Systems: Leichhardt River, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, A. K.; Taylor, M. P.

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the storage and transfer of trace metal contaminants in water and sediment within the upper Leichhardt River Catchment (1,113 km2), Mount Isa, north-west Queensland. The Leichhardt River runs adjacent to Mount Isa City and the Cu and Pb-Zn-Ag Mount Isa Mine and smelter (MIM) and feeds Lake Moondarra, Mount Isa's potable water supply. The river flows only during the monsoonal wet season (December- March) and for the remainder of the year is characterised by a series of disconnected temporary and permanent pools ranging in length from 10 m to 1 km. These pools are significant because they act as storage zones for water-soluble and sediment-associated metals and serve as refugia for native and domestic fauna during protracted intervals between wet season flows. To recognise seasonal fluxes and cycling patterns of trace metal contaminants in the Leichhardt River system this study investigates the physico-chemical water quality of the wet season flows and the subsequent seasonal variations in the dry season pool water. In January 2007 two floods were studied using sixteen rising stage water quality samplers along the Leichhardt River. The samplers were placed above and below MIM, and within selected tributaries draining MIM to ascertain the specific impacts from mining activities on water quality. Grab samples were also collected during the floods and on the falling stages of flow within the river system. Following this, dry season water quality sampling commenced on eleven remnant pools over a period of 8 months. Overall 60 wet season and 34 dry season water samples were collected and analysed for physico-chemical (pH, EC, DO, TDS, SS) variables in the field and total and water soluble cations, trace elements of concern (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) and anions via ICP-MS and ion chromatography, respectively. In addition, mineralogical and geochemical analysis was undertaken on 34 bottom sediment samples collected from the pools. Analysis of the temporal metal

  10. Unexpected result of Hendra virus outbreaks for veterinarians, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana H; Judd, Jenni; Speare, Rick

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative study of equine veterinarians and allied staff from Queensland, Australia, showed that veterinarians are ceasing equine practice because of fears related to Hendra virus. Their decisions were motivated by personal safety and legal liability concerns.

  11. Hypocrealean fungi from a tropical rainforest in Queensland, Australia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a weeklong Mycoblitz in the Atherton Tablelands of Queensland, Australia, many hypocrealean fungi were collected. Preliminary identifications indicate that many of these specimens are part of the pantropical hypocrealean biota. Some of the common tropical species collected include: Bionectria...

  12. A characterization of cloud base aerosol and associated microphysics in southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessendorf, S. A.; Arnold, C.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Axisa, D.; Peter, J.; Wilson, L.; Siems, S.; Manton, M.; May, P. T.; Stone, R.

    2009-12-01

    each of our cloud base measurements and classified them into four regimes by similar trajectory path (whether it was over land or ocean and north or south of Brisbane). From this we have studied the characteristics of the cloud base aerosol and CCN in each regime. The aerosol measurements in the more maritime regimes are cleaner, less variable, and tend to have more robust coarse mode aerosol sizes than those from continental sources. Furthermore, our preliminary measurements of initial DSDs in each regime suggests that the continental regimes exhibit more narrow droplet spectra, while the maritime regimes exhibit broader, but more variable, droplet spectra. Nonetheless, the total droplet concentrations are similar among all regimes, ranging from 100-800/cc. This paper will present the cloud base aerosol and CCN climatology from the Queensland CSRP field program and the cloud base aerosol measurements will be related to the initial cloud droplet spectra under each observed regime to characterize the influence of the cloud base aerosol on the cloud microphysics.

  13. [Wet work].

    PubMed

    Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Krecisz, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Wet work is one of the most important risk factors of occupational skin diseases. Exposure of hands to the wet environment for more than 2 hours daily, wearing moisture-proof protective gloves for a corresponding period of time or necessity to wash hands frequently lead to the disruption of epidermal stratum corneum, damage to skin barrier function and induction of irritant contact dermatitis. It may also promote penetration of allergens into the skin and increase the risk of sensitization to occupational allergens. Exposure to wet work plays a significant role in occupations, such as hairdressers and barbers, nurses and other health care workers, cleaning staff, food handlers and metalworkers. It is more common among women because many occupations involving wet work are female-dominated. The incidence of wet-work-induced occupational skin diseases can be reduced by taking appropriate preventive measures. These include identification of high-risk groups, education of workers, organization of work enabling to minimize the exposure to wet work, use of personal protective equipment and skin care after work.

  14. Spatial patterns and temporal trends in mercury concentrations, precipitation depths, and mercury wet deposition in the North American Great Lakes region, 2002-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Gay, David A.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Keeler, Gerard J.; Backus, Sean M.; Blanchard, Pierrette; Barres, James A.; Dvonch, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Annual and weekly mercury (Hg) concentrations, precipitation depths, and Hg wet deposition in the Great Lakes region were analyzed by using data from 5 monitoring networks in the USA and Canada for a 2002-2008 study period. High-resolution maps of calculated annual data, 7-year mean data, and net interannual change for the study period were prepared to assess spatial patterns. Areas with 7-year mean annual Hg concentrations higher than the 12 ng per liter water-quality criterion were mapped in 4 states. Temporal trends in measured weekly data were determined statistically. Monitoring sites with significant 7-year trends in weekly Hg wet deposition were spatially separated and were not sites with trends in weekly Hg concentration. During 2002-2008, Hg wet deposition was found to be unchanged in the Great Lakes region and its subregions. Any small decreases in Hg concentration apparently were offset by increases in precipitation.

  15. Water quality assessment for sustainable agriculture in the Wet Tropics--a community-assisted approach.

    PubMed

    Faithful, John; Finlayson, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    A number of studies in north Queensland over the past two decades have concluded that large amounts of nutrients and sediments are exported from agricultural watersheds, particularly during wet season rainfall events. With the co-operation of a number of growers, runoff from Queensland Wet Tropics banana and cane farm paddocks in two distinct tropical river catchments was examined to provide an estimate of nutrient and sediment concentrations and export, with comparison to water quality of flow through a small urban lakes system. Median total nitrogen concentrations in cane drainage runoff (3110 microg N/L) were higher than for banana paddock drainage (2580 microg N/L), although the maximum concentration was recorded from a banana paddock (20,900 microg N/L). Nitrogen losses during post-event drainage flow were supplemented by high proportions of NO(X) (nitrate + nitrite) sourced from groundwater inputs. Banana paddocks had the highest maximum and median total phosphorus and TSS concentrations (5120 and 286 microg P/L, and 7250 and 75 mg/L respectively) compared to the cane farms (1430 and 50 microg P/L, and 1840 and 14 mg/L respectively). The higher phosphorus and TSS concentrations in the banana runoff were attributed to higher paddock slopes and a greater proportion of exposed ground surface during the wet season. Highest nutrient and TSS concentrations corresponded with samples collected near the peak discharge periods; however, the rising stage of the drainage flows, where the highest nutrient and TSS concentrations are often reported, were difficult to target because of the manual sampling strategy used. This study shows that high concentrations of nutrients and TSS occur in the runoff from cane and banana paddocks. Median total nitrogen, total phosphorus and TSS concentrations in flow through the urban lakes were 369 microg N/L, 16 microg P/L and 11 mg/L, respectively. Flux estimates of 9.2 kg N, 0.8 kg P and 126 kg TSS/ha were determined for drainage runoff

  16. The 2012 Total Eclipse Expeditions in Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Lucas, R.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Voulgaris, A.; Gaintatzis, P.; Steele, A.; Sterling, A. C.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.

    2013-07-01

    A total eclipse swept across Queensland and other sites in northeastern Australia on the early morning of 14 November 2012, local time. We mounted equipment to observe coronal images and spectra during the approximately 2 minutes of totality, the former for comparison with spacecraft images and to fill in the doughnut of imaging not well covered with space coronagraphs. Matching weather statistics, viewing was spotty, and our best observations were from a last-minute inland site on the Tablelands, with some observations from a helicopter at 9000 feet altitude over our original viewing site at Miallo. Only glimpses of the corona were visible at our Port Douglas and Trinity Beach, Cairns, locations, with totality obscured from our sites at Newell and Miallo, though some holes in the clouds provided coronal views from Palm Cove and elsewhere along the coast. Preliminary analysis of the spectra again shows Fe XIV stronger than Fe X, as in 2010 but not earlier, a sign of solar maximum, as was the coronal shape. An intriguing CME is discernible in the SE. Acknowledgments: We thank Terry Cuttle, Aram Friedman, Michael Kentrianakis, and Nicholas Weber for assistance and collaboration in Australia and Wendy Carlos for image processing. Our expedition was supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research of the Atmospheric and Geospace Sciences Division, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams College. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images.

  17. Dengue fever. Reappearance in northern Queensland after 26 years.

    PubMed

    Kay, B H; Barker-Hudson, P; Stallman, N D; Wiemers, M A; Marks, E N; Holt, P J; Muscio, M; Gorman, B M

    1984-03-01

    During March, 1981, a number of cases of dengue fever occurred in Cairns and Townsville, northern Queensland. From October, 1981, an outbreak of the infection was recognized on Thursday Island and, by May 1982, an estimated 38% of residents had been infected. Isolated cases were reported from other towns in northern Queensland and from other islands in the Torres Strait. Clinical presentation varied from that of severe incapacitating illness lasting up to seven days to infections which were confirmed by serological tests, but were not associated with apparent illness. No deaths were reported. Entomological surveys indicated that the domestic breeding vector of dengue, Aedes aegypti, is widely distributed throughout Queensland - southwards to Dirranbandi and westwards to Mornington Island. In some localities, the indices of Ae. aegypti abundance are alarmingly high, but at least in some suburbs of Townsville, it has been effectively controlled.

  18. Use of Queensland Hospital services by interstate and overseas visitors.

    PubMed

    Walker, S; Wilks, J; Ring, I; Nicol, J; Oldenburg, B; Mutzelburg, C

    1995-01-01

    In response to concerns about the number of interstate and overseas visitors using Queensland hospital services, the present study examined a sample of 1,295 hospital records to determine the proportion of patients who were incorrectly identified as Queensland residents. Across six hospitals the overall detection rate was 4.6%. Rates varied between hospitals, with the highest detection recorded for Goondiwindi near the Queensland/New South Wales border; and the lowest for Prince Charles in Brisbane. There were also important variations across hospitals based on specific holiday periods. In particular, Goondiwindi and the Gold Coast had substantially higher detection rates for the Christmas holiday period (December-January) than for the mid-year period (June-August). These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for hospital services, especially lost revenue and increased patient load. Health information managers are identified as a key group for addressing some of the current problems in this area.

  19. Accessing Queensland's soil information - an open data revolution!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Kelly; O'Brien, Lauren; Brough, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The Queensland government is the custodian of soil and land resource information with an estimated value of 75 million. The Soil and Land Information (SALI) system houses this data from over 600 distinct studies with some 96,000 soil observations dating back to the 1940s. This data is now not only used by government but by universities, councils, landowners, consultants and schools. Providing this information to the public in an easy and accessible way, with a focus towards online delivery is crucial. Previous issues with distribution of online soils information in Queensland have stemmed not only from limits to technology but also, changing departmental structures and multiple websites. The department which manages soils information in Queensland has undergone nine name changes in the last 12 years due to Machinery of Government (MoG) restructures. This constantly changing web presence and branding is as confusing for people sourcing soils information as it is for those providing it. The Queensland government has now moved to a whole of government online environment. This is a single website with no reference to the convoluted structures within government or department names. The aim is to prevent impacts from future MoG changes on the provision of data and information to the public. Queensland government soils now has a single dedicated website (qld.gov.au/environment/land/soil) which has allowed us to start to build a repository for soils information and is a single portal for people to access soils data. It has been demonstrated that this consistent approach to websites improves trust and confidence of users [1] and from this, confidence in using Queensland soils information and data and ultimately better land management decisions.

  20. Solar ultraviolet and the occupational radiant exposure of Queensland school teachers: A comparative study between teaching classifications and behavior patterns.

    PubMed

    Downs, Nathan J; Harrison, Simone L; Chavez, Daniel R Garzon; Parisi, Alfio V

    2016-05-01

    Classroom teachers located in Queensland, Australia are exposed to high levels of ambient solar ultraviolet as part of the occupational requirement to provide supervision of children during lunch and break times. We investigated the relationship between periods of outdoor occupational radiant exposure and available ambient solar radiation across different teaching classifications and schools relative to the daily occupational solar ultraviolet radiation (HICNIRP) protection standard of 30J/m(2). Self-reported daily sun exposure habits (n=480) and personal radiant exposures were monitored using calibrated polysulphone dosimeters (n=474) in 57 teaching staff from 6 different schools located in tropical north and southern Queensland. Daily radiant exposure patterns among teaching groups were compared to the ambient UV-Index. Personal sun exposures were stratified among teaching classifications, school location, school ownership (government vs non-government), and type (primary vs secondary). Median daily radiant exposures were 15J/m(2) and 5J/m(2)HICNIRP for schools located in northern and southern Queensland respectively. Of the 474 analyzed dosimeter-days, 23.0% were found to exceed the solar radiation protection standard, with the highest prevalence found among physical education teachers (57.4% dosimeter-days), followed by teacher aides (22.6% dosimeter-days) and classroom teachers (18.1% dosimeter-days). In Queensland, peak outdoor exposure times of teaching staff correspond with periods of extreme UV-Index. The daily occupational HICNIRP radiant exposure standard was exceeded in all schools and in all teaching classifications. PMID:26963432

  1. The Logic of Equity Practice in "Queensland State Education"--2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sandra; Singh, Parlo

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on an interview-based study which explored the implementation of a major policy initiative in Queensland, Australia, with particular attention to social justice issues. Interviews were conducted with key policy actors in three sections of the bureaucracy: strategic directions, performance and measurement; curriculum and…

  2. MACOS/SEMP Debate in Queensland, 1978: Some Central Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhs, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Citing Dewey and Plato, the author presents a metaphysical and a political analysis of the Queensland Government's banning of two social studies programs: Man: A Course of Study and the Social Education Materials Project. Arguments of both the programs' attackers and defenders are critiqued. (SJL)

  3. MACOS in Queensland: The Politics of Educational Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, R. A.; Knight, J.

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, religious fundamentalists in Queensland attacked MACOS, a primary social studies course. Content analysis of fundamentalist writings and MACOS materials shows them diametrically opposed in cultural presuppositions. Subsequent government banning of MACOS is seen as a political move to enforce on schools the views of the political elite.…

  4. Resource Allocation Procedure at Queensland University: A Dynamic Modelling Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Peter L.; Carss, Brian W.

    A structural reorganization of the University of Queensland, Australia, was undertaken to promote efficient resource management, and a resource allocation model was developed to aid in policy evaluation and planning. The operation of the restructured system was based on creating five resource groups to manage the distribution of academic resources…

  5. The New Sexuality Education Curriculum for Queensland Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    A departmental review of education curricula in Queensland, Australia has found that minimal or no learning about sexuality education takes place. Its public schools and teachers are able to avoid or not fulfil their obligations regarding the teaching of sexuality education and reproductive health to children and young people. This lacuna in…

  6. The Itinerant Teacher Service, Queensland 1901-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogarty, M.

    The monograph reports on research from primary sources about Queensland's Itinerant Teacher Service from 1901 to 1930. Chapter One traces its history and shows that the Service was inaugurated in 1901 with 1 teacher visiting 103 homesteads having 319 children, reached its peak in 1921 with 18 teachers visiting 1,889 children, and declined until…

  7. Leading or Managing? Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance, in Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Ray; Ehrich, Lisa C.; Iyer, Radha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Education reform aimed at achieving improved student learning is a demanding challenge for leaders and managers at all levels of education across the globe. In 2010, the position of Assistant Regional Directors, School Performance (ARD-SP), was established to positively impact upon student learning across public schools in Queensland,…

  8. Board of Teacher Education (Queensland). Research Grants Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Education, Toowong (Australia).

    The Queensland (Australia) Board of Teacher Education lets research grants for work in the area of teacher education. As projects are completed, the Board periodically publishes summaries of the project reports. This volume, number three in the series, describes six research studies, as follows: "Student Teacher Stress in Field Studies" (M.…

  9. Understanding the geomorphology of macrochannel systems for flood risk management in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Chris; Croke, Jacky

    2016-04-01

    The year 2010-2011 was the wettest on record for the state of Queensland, Australia producing catastrophic floods. A tropical low pressure system in 2013 delivered further extreme flood events across South East Queensland (SEQ) which prompted state and local governments to conduct studies into flood magnitude and frequency in the region and catchment factors contributing to flood hazards. The floods in the region are strongly influenced by El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon, but also modulated by the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) which leads to flood and drought dominated regimes and high hydrological variability. One geomorphic feature in particular exerted a significant control on the transmission speed, the magnitude of flood inundation and resultant landscape resilience. This feature was referred to as a 'macrochannel', a term used to describe a 'large-channel' which has bankfull recurrence intervals generally greater than 10 years. The macrochannels display non-linear downstream hydraulic geometry which leads to zones of flood expansion (when hydraulic geometry decreases) and zones of flood contraction (when hydraulic geometry increases). The pattern of contraction and expansion zones determines flood hazard zones. The floods caused significant wet flow bank mass failures that mobilised over 1,000,000 m3 of sediment in one subcatchment. Results suggest that the wetflow bank mass failures are a stage in a cyclical evolution process which maintains the macrochannel morphology, hence channel resilience to floods. Chronological investigations further show the macrochannels are laterally stable and identify periods of heightened flood activity over the past millennium and upper limits on flood magnitude. This paper elaborates on the results of the geomorphic investigations on Lockyer Creek in SEQ and how the results have alerted managers and policy makers to the different flood responses of these systems and how flood risk management plans can

  10. The Probable Whole of Slope Submarine Landslides of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubble, T.

    2015-12-01

    A research cruise aboard the RV Southern Surveyor (SS2013-V01) conducted in January 2013 offshore east Australia collected regional bathymetric data for the seabed of the continental margin of southern Queensland for the seabed bounded by Noosa Heads in the south and Indian Head, Fraser Island in the north. This newly mapped area presents a particularly steep portion of continental slope (5o to 10 o) that presents numerous submarine landslides, including two 'whole-of-slope' features (The Wide Bay Canyon, and Inskip Slides. The slope is also dissected by three large submarine canyons offshore northern Fraser Island, Wide Bay and Noosa Heads (i.e. the Fraser Canyons, the Wide Bay Canyon and the Noosa Canyon). Dredge and core samples were collected from slide scars in the northern, central and southern areas of the bathymetric survey area. The initial examination of the area's bathymetry, the core and dredge sample sedimentology, and determination of biostratigraphic ages for these sediment samples indicates that the larger, submarine slides present in this study area have probably been shed from the slope since the late Pliocene and that canyon incision is currently active on this portion of the slope. In one case, canyon incision is partly responsible for generating slides due to undercutting and removal of the toe of the slope. Slope sediments are dominantly comprised of hemipelagic muds but the presence of massive coarse sands and graded sands in some cores above erosion surfaces that cut into slope mud units is interpreted to indicate that areas of the southern Queensland continental slope are probably subjected to abrasion by grain-flows and turbidites comprised of shelf-derived sands and upper slope sediment. The results from this voyage confirms and extends previous work on the southeastern Australian continental margin that indicates that sediment transport from the shelf to deep water on this margin is dominated by gravity mass transport and that the margin

  11. Potential distribution of an invasive species under climate change scenarios using CLIMEX and soil drainage: a case study of Lantana camara L. in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Subhashni; Kumar, Lalit

    2013-01-15

    Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity which may be intensified by the effects of climate change, particularly if favourable climate conditions allow invasives to spread to new areas. This research explores the combined effects of climate change and soil drainage on the potential future distribution of Lantana camara L. (lantana) in Queensland, Australia. Lantana is an invasive woody shrub species that has a profound economic and environmental impact worldwide. CLIMEX was used to develop a process-based niche model of lantana to estimate its potential distribution under current and future climate. Two Global Climate Models (GCMs), CSIRO-Mk3.0 and MIROC-H, were used to explore the impacts of climate change. These models were run with the A1B and A2 scenarios for 2030, 2070 and 2100. Further refinements of the potential distributions were carried out through the integration of fine scale soil drainage data in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The results from both GCMs show a progressive reduction in climatic suitability for lantana in Queensland. The MIROC-H projects a larger area as remaining at risk of lantana invasion in 2100 compared to CSIRO-Mk3.0. Inclusion of soil drainage data results in a more refined distribution. Overall results show a dramatic reduction in potential distribution of lantana in Queensland in the long term (2100). However, in the short term (2030), areas such as South East Queensland and the Wet Tropics, both regions of significant ecological importance, remain at risk of invasion consistently under both GCMs and with both the climate only and climate and soil drainage models. Management of lantana in these regions will need to be prioritized to protect environmental assets of ecological significance.

  12. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  13. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.

  14. Effects Of A Rapidly Urbanising Environment On Groundwater, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, M. E.; Hillier, J.; Foster, L.; Ellis, R.

    1996-01-01

    Southeastern Queensland, centred around Brisbane, has one of the fastest growing populations in Australia and has previously relied on surface storage of water for urban purposes. The projected demands for potable water mean that various groundwater supplies may need to be maintained for future urban use. Groundwater in this area occurs in a variety of aquifer types, some limited in extent and some susceptible to effects from increasing development, as well as from natural processes. Recorded impacts on groundwater in this area are varied and include: changes in land use from agricultural to residential; rising water tables as a result of cessation of extraction for irrigation; declining water tables in areas where irrigation has increased; decreasing quality, due to the introducing of nutrients (fertilizers and sewage); occurrence of acid saline waters in coastal Holocene sediments as a result of agricultural and engineering activities; and increased numbers of private bores on some bay islands. The large-scale managed development of groundwater supplies is now underway from North Stradbroke Island (a large sand island) to augment mainland surface supplies. At this stage, restrictions on the development of groundwater do not exist in the area, with the exception of North Stradbroke Island. Localised degradation of groundwater quality is produced by such features as old landfills, petroleum storage sites, and some old industrial sites. Possibly the major long-term impact will be the cumulative effect of increasing urban activity on a region whose drainage sink is Moreton Bay.

  15. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change. PMID:27479240

  16. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  17. The Preparatory Year in a Queensland Non-Government School: Exploring Parents' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Lyndal

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a research project investigating parents' conceptions of an early childhood program in Queensland. During 2007, early childhood education and care (ECEC) in Queensland underwent significant reform associated with the introduction of a full-time Preparatory Year program in all schools throughout the state. The…

  18. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In addition, we analyse the…

  19. School Experience in Queensland Pre-Service Teacher Education Programs. 2. Conference Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duck, Greg, Ed.; Cunningham, Debra, Ed.

    This report discusses the third major stage of the Queensland Board of Teacher Education's investigation into the nature of school experiences in preservice teacher education programs in Queensland, Australia. An account is presented of the proceedings of a statewide conference held in September 1984 to discuss results of the survey research…

  20. The Use of Mathematical Investigations in a Queensland Primary School and Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshman, Margaret; Clark, Darren; Carey, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of Ways of Working in 2008, Queensland teachers received professional development on using investigations to teach mathematics. This case study explores the extent to which teachers in one Queensland Primary School use this pedagogy. To determine teachers' beliefs and teaching approaches, a five point Likert scale…

  1. Learning Not Borrowing from the Queensland Education System: Lessons on Curricular, Pedagogical and Assessment Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin; McGregor, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed account of the Queensland education system's engagement with reforming curriculum, pedagogies and assessment. In so doing, it responds to the University College London's Institute of Education report on "high-performing" jurisdictions, of which Queensland, Australia, was identified as one. In this report,…

  2. Homesteading on the Web: The Queensland Department of Education Virtual Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Jennifer; Allison, Myrl

    1996-01-01

    The Queensland Department of Education (Australia) developed a homesteading model as an alternative to the urban-built environment model of large multi-purpose networks. This resulted in the in-house development of a low-cost, stand-alone server and homepage. The charette technique was used to plan and design the Queensland Department of Education…

  3. The Induction of Preschool and Kindergarten Teachers in Queensland: The Views of Beginning Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Queensland Board of Teacher Education, Toowong (Australia).

    This report presents the results of a survey questionnaire of beginning teachers who started duty in Queensland preschools or kindergartens in 1987. A brief summary is given of the literature on induction and beginning teachers, and a description provided of the organization of early childhood education in Queensland. At the beginning of the year,…

  4. Survey for Newcastle disease virus in northern Queensland birds.

    PubMed

    Garnett, S T; Flanagan, M

    1989-05-01

    Of 1,235 individual birds from 130 species tested for haemagglutinating virus and/or NDV antibody in far northern Queensland, none gave a positive response. On available evidence pittas and rainforest pigeons are considered the species most likely to bring virulent NDV into Australia followed by gulls and night herons which move between dense seabird breeding colonies and other avian communities. Both can easily be monitored by strategic sampling along migratory pathways or at breeding islands. Wild parrots, waterfowl and migratory waders appear to present a minimal threat. PMID:2735890

  5. A NEW CHROOCOCCACEAN ALGA FROM THE PROTEROZOIC OF QUEENSLAND

    PubMed Central

    Licari, Gerald R.; Cloud, Preston E.; Smith, W. D.

    1969-01-01

    Nannofossils§ here described are from the middle Proterozoic Paradise Creek Formation, along Paradise Creek in northwestern Queensland, Australia. These fossils, in chert blebs associated with branched stromatolites, comprise cubic colonies analogous to living Eucapsis, a member of the blue-green algal family Chroococcaceae. The age of the enclosing rocks, bracketed by the ages of older and younger granitic events, is about 1.6 × 109 years. We record, therefore, a new chronological and biological datum in the currently accumulating sequence of pre-Paleozoic microbiotas. Images PMID:16591730

  6. Hospital design Innovation on show at Queensland facility.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kieren; Reading, Megan

    2015-08-01

    In a follow-up to an article on the hospital that first appeared in the autumn 2010 issue of The Australian Hospital Engineer, and was then republished with the help of the magazine. The Institute of Hospital Engineering Australia, and the IFHE in the November 2011 edition of HEJ, principals at architectural firm, Hassell, Kieren Morgan and Megan Reading, explain how the new Gold Coast University Hospital (GCUH) in Southport, Queensland, 'demonstrates how good design can improve delivery of care, as well as staff retention and attraction'.

  7. Wetting or non-wetting liquid?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakov, Iordan

    2000-11-01

    What factors determine whether or not a particular liquid will wet a particular surface? Is it possible for a meniscus in a capillary to become convex from concave? What would you have to do to flatten it out? In university courses in physics there is often a lack of example or comment concerning the influence of temperature on the characteristics of liquid surface tension. For example, would temperature be a factor in changing wetting? This article describes an experiment that illustrates the conversion of isopropyl alcohol from a wetting state to a non-wetting state as a result of the influence of temperature on the characteristics of the liquid.

  8. Early medical abortion in Cairns, Queensland: July 2006 - April 2007.

    PubMed

    de Costa, Caroline M; Russell, Darren B; de Costa, Naomi R; Carrette, Michael; McNamee, Heather M

    2007-08-01

    Mifepristone (RU486), which is used for early medical abortion, can only be obtained in Australia under the Authorised Prescriber legislation (Section 19[5] of the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989 [Cwlth]); two of the authors have permission to obtain, prescribe and administer this drug in Cairns, Queensland. From July 2006 to April 2007, 10 women who fulfilled the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) criteria of "life-threatening or otherwise serious" indications underwent medical abortion with mifepristone/misoprostol, and 12 women conforming with abortion requirements of Queensland law, but not TGA legislation for mifepristone administration, had medical abortions with the less preferable methotrexate/misoprostol combination. Although it is now more than a year since the cross-party vote in federal Parliament in February 2006 confirmed wide support for the right of Australian women to a medical abortion, we believe we are at present the only medical practitioners in Australia with permission to use mifepristone. Obtaining Authorised Prescriber status from the TGA is of necessity a complex and protracted process, involving ethics committee approval and auditing, and regular reporting to the TGA. Because of the current restrictions, we believe that women seeking medical abortion in Australia face barriers not experienced by women in other comparable countries, and that drug manufacturing and distributing companies may be discouraged from seeking to market mifepristone in Australia.

  9. Risk factors for idiopathic dystonia in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Newman, Jeremy R B; Boyle, Richard S; O'Sullivan, John D; Silburn, Peter A; Mellick, George D

    2014-12-01

    It is currently hypothesised that a combination of genetic and environmental factors underlies the development of idiopathic isolated dystonia (IID). In this study, we examined several possible environmental or other non-genetic factors that may influence the risk for IID in Queensland, Australia. We surveyed several environmental exposures, lifestyle factors, medical and family histories to investigate potential risk factors for IID. Associations between putative risk factors and IID were assessed using a total of 184 dystonia patients and 1048 neurologically-normal control subjects sampled from Queensland between 2005 and 2012. Our analyses revealed that anxiety disorders, depression, tremor, cigarette smoking and head injuries with a loss of consciousness were associated with increased risk for IID (p<0.05), all of which remained statistically significant following an adjustment for multiple hypothesis testing except for depression. We also observed that the risk for dystonia increased with higher cigarette smoking pack-year quartiles in our analyses. Our results suggest possible environmental factors that influence the development of IID and complement the findings of similar dystonia risk factor studies. Further investigation defining the environmental and other non-genetic risk factors for IID may provide insight into the development of the disorder in genetically-susceptible individuals.

  10. Field epidemiology of an outbreak of dengue fever in Charters Towers, Queensland: are insect screens protective?

    PubMed

    Murray-Smith, S; Weinstein, P; Skelly, C

    1996-10-01

    Between March and July 1993 a dengue virus epidemic swept through Charters Towers, a rural North Queensland mining community of 10,000. This clearly delineated outbreak provided an ideal opportunity to carry out one of the few field epidemiological studies of dengue in Australia. The epicurve was consistent with that of a point source outbreak, 18 weeks in duration and peaking at four weeks. A basic reproduction number for the dengue epidemic of 1.99 indicates a similar rate of spread to that found in dengue epidemics overseas. A female-to-male sex ratio of 1.7:1 was obtained for the 238 cases identified. An age- and sex-matched retrospective case-control study showed that cases were significantly more likely to live in unscreened houses than were controls (McNemar chi 2 = 56.1 df, P < 0.0001). Despite being generally accepted, an association between insect screens and a reduced incidence of mosquito-borne diseases has not previously been demonstrated in Australia. We speculate that unscreened housing facilitates the initial spread of a dengue epidemic.

  11. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  12. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia’s Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Katya R.; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R.; Coblens, Michelle J.; Oberski, Jill T.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Boyer, Sarah L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented. PMID:27199608

  13. Telehealth opportunities in regional Queensland: a scoping study.

    PubMed

    Croll, Jasmine; Norton, Chrissie J; Gray, Leonard C; Bryett, Andrew; Smith, Anthony C

    2012-12-01

    We carried out a six month scoping study to ascertain current health service needs in the Queensland towns of Dalby, Chinchilla and Miles. The towns have a high proportion of their populations in the dependent age groups of over 65 years of age and less than 14 years of age. This implies a need for ready access to paediatric and geriatric specialist services. The hospitals in the three towns provided a range of health services, but patients still had to be referred to Toowoomba and Brisbane for specialist consultations. All three hospitals had videoconference facilities, but videoconferencing was mainly used for education, administration and training. General practitioners in the three towns did not use telehealth in their practice. The study reinforced the potential for telehealth services in three key domains: regional hospitals, residential aged-care facilities and general practice. PMID:23209272

  14. Dengue in the northern region of Queensland, 1981-1982.

    PubMed

    Guard, R W; Stallman, N D; Wiemers, M A

    1984-06-23

    During the dengue epidemic in northern Queensland in 1981 and 1982, type I dengue was serologically confirmed in 196 patients (mean age, 32.2 years) from the Cairns district. The most common symptoms were fever (99%), headache (92%), rash (91%), myalgia (93%), skin itching (75%) and arthralgia (60%). Haemorrhagic manifestations were noted in 14 patients. Most only showed skin petechiae. One patient also had bleeding from the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. No cases of shock were recorded. Leucopenia was present in 57% of patients. A discussion on the relevance of these findings to dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome is included. A serological survey after the epidemic suggests that approximately 7% of the population have antibodies to dengue as a result of the recent epidemic.

  15. Serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii exposure in native marsupials and introduced animals in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A; Goullet, M; Mitchell, J; Ketheesan, N; Govan, B

    2012-07-01

    The state of Queensland has the highest incidence of Q fever in Australia. In recent years, there has been an increase in human cases where no contacts with the typical reservoir animals or occupations were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian native animals and introduced animals in northern and southeastern Queensland. Australian native marsupials sampled included the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) and common northern bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus). Introduced species sampled included dingoes (Canis lupus dingo), cats (Felis catus), foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and pigs (Sus scrofa). Serum samples were tested by ELISA for both phase II and phase I antigens of the organism using an Australian isolate. The serological evidence of C. burnetii infection demonstrated in these species has public health implications due to their increasing movement into residential areas in regional Queensland. This study is the first known investigation of C. burnetii seroprevalence in these species in northern Queensland. PMID:21892986

  16. PREFACE: Dynamics of wetting Dynamics of wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grest, Gary S.; Oshanin, Gleb; Webb, Edmund B., III

    2009-11-01

    Capillary phenomena associated with fluids wetting other condensed matter phases have drawn great scientific interest for hundreds of years; consider the recent bicentennial celebration of Thomas Young's paper on equilibrium contact angles, describing the geometric shape assumed near a three phase contact line in terms of the relevant surface energies of the constituent phases [1]. Indeed, nearly a century has passed since the seminal papers of Lucas and Washburn, describing dynamics of capillary imbibition [2, 3]. While it is generally appreciated that dynamics of fluid wetting processes are determined by the degree to which a system is out of capillary equilibrium, myriad complications exist that challenge the fundamental understanding of dynamic capillary phenomena. The topic has gathered much interest from recent Nobel laureate Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, who provided a seminal review of relevant dissipation mechanisms for fluid droplets spreading on solid surfaces [4] Although much about the dynamics of wetting has been revealed, much remains to be learned and intrinsic technological and fundamental interest in the topic drives continuing high levels of research activity. This is enabled partly by improved experimental capabilities for resolving wetting processes at increasingly finer temporal, spatial, and chemical resolution. Additionally, dynamic wetting research advances via higher fidelity computational modeling capabilities, which drive more highly refined theory development. The significance of this topic both fundamentally and technologically has resulted in a number of reviews of research activity in wetting dynamics. One recent example addresses the evaluation of existing wetting dynamics theories from an experimentalist's perspective [5]. A Current Opinion issue was recently dedicated to high temperature capillarity, including dynamics of high temperature spreading [6]. New educational tools have recently emerged for providing instruction in wetting

  17. Hot spot detection and spatio-temporal dynamics of dengue in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naish, S.; Tong, S.

    2014-11-01

    Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992-1993. This study explored spatio-temporal distribution and clustering of locally-acquired dengue cases in Queensland State, Australia and identified target areas for effective interventions. A computerised locally-acquired dengue case dataset was collected from Queensland Health for Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Dengue hot spots were detected using SatScan method. Descriptive spatial analysis showed that a total of 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in central and northern regions of tropical Queensland. A seasonal pattern was observed with most of the cases occurring in autumn. Spatial and temporal variation of dengue cases was observed in the geographic areas affected by dengue over time. Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in tropical Queensland, Australia. There is a clear evidence for the existence of statistically significant clusters of dengue and these clusters varied over time. These findings enabled us to detect and target dengue clusters suggesting that the use of geospatial information can assist the health authority in planning dengue control activities and it would allow for better design and implementation of dengue management programs.

  18. Guide to wet scrubbers

    SciTech Connect

    Toy, D.A.

    1983-10-01

    The use of wet scrubbers for control of air pollution has gained wide acceptance throughout industry in the last two decades. Many plants have turned to wet scrubber technology to help reduce their discharge volumes and to help them comply with future regulations. There are four major classifications: centrifugal, venturi, packed column, and mist eliminators. Over 200 manufacturers of wet scrubbers were surveyed and their systems are listed to assist readers in selecting the proper system for a particular application.

  19. Integrated terrain mapping with digital Landsat images in Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Mapping with Landsat images usually is done by selecting single types of features, such as soils, vegetation, or rocks, and creating visually interpreted or digitally classified maps of each feature. Individual maps can then be overlaid on or combined with other maps to characterize the terrain. Integrated terrain mapping combines several terrain features into each map unit which, in many cases, is more directly related to uses of the land and to methods of land management than the single features alone. Terrain brightness, as measured by the multispectral scanners in Landsat 1 and 2, represents an integration of reflectance from the terrain features within the scanner's instantaneous field of view and is therefore more correlatable with integrated terrain units than with differentiated ones, such as rocks, soils, and vegetation. A test of the feasibilty of the technique of mapping integrated terrain units was conducted in a part of southwestern Queensland, Australia, in cooperation with scientists of the Queensland Department of Primary Industries. The primary purpose was to test the use of digital classification techniques to create a 'land systems map' usable for grazing land management. A recently published map of 'land systems' in the area (made by aerial photograph interpretation and ground surveys), which are integrated terrain units composed of vegetation, soil, topography, and geomorphic features, was used as a basis for comparison with digitally classified Landsat multispectral images. The land systems, in turn, each have a specific grazing capacity for cattle (expressed in beasts per km 2 ) which is estimated following analysis of both research results and property carrying capacities. Landsat images, in computer-compatible tape form, were first contrast-stretched to increase their visual interpretability, and digitally classified by the parallelepiped method into distinct spectral classes to determine their correspondence to the land systems classes and

  20. Wetting and spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Daniel; Eggers, Jens; Indekeu, Joseph; Meunier, Jacques; Rolley, Etienne

    2009-04-01

    Wetting phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and technology. A solid substrate exposed to the environment is almost invariably covered by a layer of fluid material. In this review, the surface forces that lead to wetting are considered, and the equilibrium surface coverage of a substrate in contact with a drop of liquid. Depending on the nature of the surface forces involved, different scenarios for wetting phase transitions are possible; recent progress allows us to relate the critical exponents directly to the nature of the surface forces which lead to the different wetting scenarios. Thermal fluctuation effects, which can be greatly enhanced for wetting of geometrically or chemically structured substrates, and are much stronger in colloidal suspensions, modify the adsorption singularities. Macroscopic descriptions and microscopic theories have been developed to understand and predict wetting behavior relevant to microfluidics and nanofluidics applications. Then the dynamics of wetting is examined. A drop, placed on a substrate which it wets, spreads out to form a film. Conversely, a nonwetted substrate previously covered by a film dewets upon an appropriate change of system parameters. The hydrodynamics of both wetting and dewetting is influenced by the presence of the three-phase contact line separating “wet” regions from those that are either dry or covered by a microscopic film only. Recent theoretical, experimental, and numerical progress in the description of moving contact line dynamics are reviewed, and its relation to the thermodynamics of wetting is explored. In addition, recent progress on rough surfaces is surveyed. The anchoring of contact lines and contact angle hysteresis are explored resulting from surface inhomogeneities. Further, new ways to mold wetting characteristics according to technological constraints are discussed, for example, the use of patterned surfaces, surfactants, or complex fluids.

  1. Alcohol and Drug Use by Queensland School Children. The First Report in a Series on the Queensland Alcohol and Drug Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Terence J.; McClure, Lyndall

    The principal aim of this study is to provide information on the use and abuse of alcohol and drugs by Queensland school children, and survey their attitudes toward and knowledge about alcohol and drugs. Various questionnaires were presented to a large sample of students from grades six to twelve. Some results were: (1) from grade six to twelve…

  2. Mating Reverses Actuarial Aging in Female Queensland Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Sarsha; Fanson, Benjamin G.; Taylor, Phillip W.

    2015-01-01

    Animals that have a long pre-reproductive adult stage often employ mechanisms that minimize aging over this period in order to preserve reproductive lifespan. In a remarkable exception, one tephritid fruit fly exhibits substantial pre-reproductive aging but then mitigates this aging during a diet-dependent transition to the reproductive stage, after which life expectancy matches that of newly emerged flies. Here, we ascertain the role of nutrients, sexual maturation and mating in mitigation of previous aging in female Queensland fruit flies. Flies were provided one of three diets: ‘sugar’, ‘essential’, or ‘yeast-sugar’. Essential diet contained sugar and micronutrients found in yeast but lacked maturation-enabling protein. At days 20 and 30, a subset of flies on the sugar diet were switched to essential or yeast-sugar diet, and some yeast-sugar fed flies were mated 10 days later. Complete mitigation of actuarial aging was only observed in flies that were switched to a yeast-sugar diet and mated, indicating that mating is key. Identifying the physiological processes associated with mating promise novel insights into repair mechanisms for aging. PMID:26147734

  3. Comparing Pediatric Rotations at Two University of Queensland Clinical Schools

    PubMed Central

    Park, Julie; Kantrow, Charles M.; Coulthard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The University of Queensland (UQ), Ochsner Clinical School (OCS) is a partnership between Ochsner Health System in New Orleans, LA, and UQ in Brisbane, Australia. OCS medical students are trained on both continents, receiving their didactic education in Australia and their clinical education in the United States. Methods: We review the OCS experience and compare the pediatric rotations at OCS and UQ. Results: Students in the pediatric rotations in Australia and in the United States receive their clinical instruction in the real-world learning environment of hospitals and clinics. In addition, lectures, online learning modules, case-based tutorials, and rigorous assessment at the end of the rotation help prepare medical students for future contact with pediatric patients. Sixty-nine third-year OCS students and 499 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation in 2014. In 2015, 105 third-year OCS students and approximately 400 fourth-year UQ students completed the pediatric rotation. Conclusion: In a unique educational collaboration, OCS has used e-learning and face-to-face tutorials to produce a well-rounded curriculum that assimilates global healthcare and international medicine. This article demonstrates the feasibility of delivering a standardized curriculum across two continents using modern e-learning tools. PMID:27046407

  4. A survey of Angiostrongylus species in definitive hosts in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Aghazadeh, Mahdis; Reid, Simon A.; Aland, Kieran V.; Restrepo, Angela Cadavid; Traub, Rebecca J.; McCarthy, James S.; Jones, Malcolm K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the recent sporadic reports of angiostrongyliasis in humans, dogs and wildlife in eastern Australia there has been no systematic study to explore the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus spp. in definitive and intermediate hosts in the region. Little is known about the epidemiology of Angiostrongylus species in the definitive host in southeast Queensland, since the only survey conducted in this region was performed in the late 1960s. In this study, free-living populations of Rattus spp. were sampled and examined for the presence of adult and larval Angiostrongylus in the lungs, and of larvae in faeces. The prevalence of infection with Angiostrongylus spp. was 16.5% in Rattus spp. trapped in urban Brisbane and surrounds. This prevalence is much higher than estimates of earlier studies. This highlights the possible risk of zoonotic infection in children, dogs and wildlife in this region and indicates the necessity for public awareness as well as more detailed epidemiological studies on this parasite in eastern Australia. PMID:26236633

  5. Very, Very Fast Wetting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacqmin, David; Lee, Chi-Ming (Technical Monitor); Salzman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Just after formation, optical fibers are wetted stably with acrylate at capillary numbers routinely exceeding 1000. It is hypothesized that this is possible because of dissolution of air into the liquid coating. A lubrication/boundary integral analysis that includes gas diffusion and solubility is developed. It is applied using conservatively estimated solubility and diffusivity coefficients and solutions are found that are consistent with industry practice and with the hypothesis. The results also agree with the claim of Deneka, Kar & Mensah (1988) that the use of high solubility gases to bathe a wetting line allows significantly greater wetting speeds. The solutions indicate a maximum speed of wetting which increases with gas solubility and with reduction in wetting-channel diameter.

  6. The use of discriminant analysis in predicting the distribution of bluetongue virus in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ward, M P

    1994-01-01

    The climatic variables that were most useful in classifying the infection status of Queensland cattle herds with bluetongue virus were assessed using stepwise linear discriminant analysis. A discriminant function that included average annual rainfall and average daily maximum temperature was found to correctly classify 82.6% of uninfected herds and 72.4% of infected herds. Overall, the infection status of 74.1% of herds was correctly classified. The spatial distribution of infected herds was found to parallel that of the suspected vector, Culicoides brevitarsis. This evidence supports the role of this arthropod species as a vector of bluetongue viruses in Queensland. The effect of potential changes in temperature and rainfall (the so-called 'global warming' scenario) on the distribution of bluetongue virus infection of cattle herds in Queensland was then investigated. With an increase in both rainfall and temperature, the area of endemic bluetongue virus infection was predicted to extend a further 150 km in and in southern Queensland. The implications of this for sheep-raising in Queensland are discussed.

  7. Formulating a VET roadmap for the waste and recycling sector: A case study from Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existing qualifications do not meet the needs of the sector in Queensland. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Businesses may not be best positioned to identify training needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Companies are developing training internally to meet their own specific needs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smaller companies lack the resources to develop internal training are disadvantaged. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is industry support for an entry-level, minimum industry qualification. - Abstract: Vocational Education and Training (VET) is an essential tool for providing waste management and recycling workers with the necessary skills and knowledge needed to beneficially influence their own employment and career development; and to also ensure productivity and safe working conditions within the organisations in which they are employed. Current training opportunities within Queensland for the sector are limited and not widely communicated or marketed; with other States, particularly Victoria and New South Wales, realising higher numbers of VET enrollments for waste management courses. This paper presents current VET opportunities and trends for the Queensland waste management sector. Results from a facilitated workshop to identify workforce requirements and future training needs organised by the Waste Contractors and Recyclers Association of Queensland (WCRAQ) are also presented and discussion follows on the future training needs of the industry within Queensland.

  8. Kinetics of Reactive Wetting

    SciTech Connect

    YOST, FREDERICK G.

    1999-09-09

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. The wide diversity of processes, such as diffusion, chemical reaction, and fluxing, and their possible combinations suggest that various rate laws should be expected for wetting kinetics depending on the controlling processes. These rate laws are expected to differ crucially from the standard fluid controlled wetting models found in the literature. Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. have shown data that suggests diffusion control for some systems and reaction control for others. They also presented a model of wetting kinetics controlled by the diffusion of a constituent contained by the wetting fluid. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time

  9. Kinetics of reactive wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.

    2000-04-14

    The importance of interfacial processes in materials joining has a long history. A significant amount of work has suggested that processes collateral to wetting can affect the extent of wetting and moderate or retard wetting rate. Even very small additions of a constituent, known to react with the substrate, cause pronounced improvement in wetting and are exploited in braze alloys, especially those used for joining to ceramics. In the following a model will be constructed for the wetting kinetics of a small droplet of metal containing a constituent that diffuses to the wetting line and chemically reacts with a flat, smooth substrate. The model is similar to that of Voitovitch et al. and Mortensen et al. but incorporates chemical reaction kinetics such that the result contains both diffusion and reaction kinetics. The model is constructed in the circular cylinder coordinate system, satisfies the diffusion equation under conditions of slow flow, and considers diffusion and reaction at the wetting line to be processes in series. This is done by solving the diffusion equation with proper initial and boundary conditions, computing the diffusive flux at the wetting line, and equating this to both the convective flux and reaction flux. This procedure is similar to equating the current flowing in components of a series circuit. The wetting rate will be computed versus time for a variety of diffusion and reaction conditions. A transition is observed from nonlinear (diffusive) to linear (reactive) behavior as the control parameters (such as the diffusion coefficient) are modified. This is in agreement with experimental observations. The adequacy of the slow flow condition, used in this type of analysis, is discussed and an amended procedure is suggested.

  10. Pollutant concentrations in road runoff: Southeast Queensland case study

    SciTech Connect

    Drapper, D.; Tomlinson, R.; Williams, P.

    2000-04-01

    This paper discusses the results of research into the pollutants in runoff from road pavement surfaces following natural rainfall events. Road runoff water quality was monitored at 21 sites centering around Brisbane, in southeast Queensland, Australia. The sites were selected according to traffic volumes, surrounding land use, pavement surface type, ease of access, and commercial vehicle percentage. Bridge sites were chosen for convenience of sample collection and minimized infrastructure modification. First flush grab samplers were permanently installed at each site to collect the first 20 L of runoff from one of the bridge drainage scuppers. The runoff samples were tested for a number of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, and other physical characteristics. The observed results fall within the ranges of concentrations reported internationally and nationally but do not typically follow the 30,000 average annual daily traffic results reported in the United States. Traffic volumes have not been found to be the best indicator of road runoff pollutant concentrations. Interevent duration has been found to be a statistically significant factor for pollutant concentrations. Sites incorporating exit lanes have recorded higher concentrations of acid-extractable copper and zinc, tending to support the hypothesis that brake pad and tire wear caused by rapid deceleration contributes to the concentrations of these metals in road runoff. Laser particle sizing has shown that a significant proportion of the sediment found in the runoff is <100 {micro}m. However, these particulates do settle in water within 24 h, under laboratory conditions. This may be due to the presence of heavy metals.

  11. Factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ip, S W; Ko, H S; Applegate, K E

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing career choices in radiology trainees. We distributed a 27-question written survey to all radiology registrars in Queensland. The questions investigated whether radiology was their first specialty choice, career satisfaction, ideal working conditions and attitudes regarding having children during the time of training. Forty-four of 51 surveys were returned (86% participation rate, 73% men, P = 0.048055) with 100% reporting a high job satisfaction; 28% of male registrars compared to 8% of female registrars did extra work outside of training to earn extra money (P = 0.000003), and 17% of female registrars took a leave of absence during their training, while no male registrar did (P = 0.087923). Only one female trainee worked part-time (P = 0.272727). In addition, 58% of female registrars planned a pregnancy (P = 0.731789) before completion of training; 83% of women versus 75% of men had no children (P = 0.329263). Only 5% of trainees agreed that it was easy to arrange part-time training, only 14% stated that it was easy to negotiate flexible work schedules and 7% agreed that it was easy to return to work after a period of absence. 'Time spent with immediate family' was rated the most important lifestyle factor, followed by 'work hours' and 'on-call duty'. The least important factors were 'being away from extended family', 'availability of part-time work' and whether 'work was in a rural location'. Overall job satisfaction is high among radiology trainees. Nevertheless, lifestyle factors, particularly those related to work time, are becoming more important for career decisions. This should be taken into account when designing and structuring radiology training to ensure that it is considered an attractive career choice. PMID:20518870

  12. Wetting Transition in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. R.; Khalil, M.; Taborek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Optical images were used to study the wetting behavior of water on graphite, sapphire, and quartz along the liquid vapor coexistence curve from room temperature to 300°C. Wetting transitions were identified by the temperature at which the contact angle decreased to zero and also by the disappearance of dropwise condensation. These two methods yielded consistent values for the wetting temperatures, which were 185°C, 234°C, and 271°C for water on quartz, sapphire, and graphite, respectively. We compare our results with the theoretical predictions based on a simplified model of the water-substrate potential and sharp interfaces.

  13. Wetting transition in water.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S R; Khalil, M; Taborek, P

    2013-11-27

    Optical images were used to study the wetting behavior of water on graphite, sapphire, and quartz along the liquid vapor coexistence curve from room temperature to 300 °C. Wetting transitions were identified by the temperature at which the contact angle decreased to zero and also by the disappearance of dropwise condensation. These two methods yielded consistent values for the wetting temperatures, which were 185 °C, 234 °C, and 271 °C for water on quartz, sapphire, and graphite, respectively. We compare our results with the theoretical predictions based on a simplified model of the water-substrate potential and sharp interfaces.

  14. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-07-01

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  15. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1998-03-30

    The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and may require accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained.

  16. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment.

  17. Coal seam gas water: potential hazards and exposure pathways in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Navi, Maryam; Skelly, Chris; Taulis, Mauricio; Nasiri, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    The extraction of coal seam gas (CSG) produces large volumes of potentially contaminated water. It has raised concerns about the environmental health impacts of the co-produced CSG water. In this paper, we review CSG water contaminants and their potential health effects in the context of exposure pathways in Queensland's CSG basins. The hazardous substances associated with CSG water in Queensland include fluoride, boron, lead and benzene. The exposure pathways for CSG water are (1) water used for municipal purposes; (2) recreational water activities in rivers; (3) occupational exposures; (4) water extracted from contaminated aquifers; and (5) indirect exposure through the food chain. We recommend mapping of exposure pathways into communities in CSG regions to determine the potentially exposed populations in Queensland. Future efforts to monitor chemicals of concern and consolidate them into a central database will build the necessary capability to undertake a much needed environmental health impact assessment. PMID:24853090

  18. Using MSD prevention for cultural change in mining: Queensland Government/Anglo Coal Industry partnership.

    PubMed

    Tilbury, Trudy; Sanderson, Liz

    2012-01-01

    Queensland Mining has a strong focus on safety performance, but risk management of health, including Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) continues to have a lower priority. The reliance on individual screening of workers and lower level approaches such as manual handling training is part of the coal mining 'culture'. Initiatives such as the New South Wales and Queensland Mining joint project to develop good practice guidance for mining has allowed for a more consistent message on participatory ergonomics and prevention of MSD. An evidence based practice approach, including the introduction of participatory ergonomics and safe design principles, was proposed to Anglo American Coal operations in Queensland. The project consisted of a skills analysis of current health personnel, design of a facilitated participatory ergonomics training program, site visits to identify good practice and champions, and a graduated mentoring program for health personnel. Early results demonstrate a number of sites are benefiting from site taskforces with a focus on positive performance outcomes. PMID:22317407

  19. A new species of freshwater eel-tailed catfish of the genus Tandanus (Teleostei: Plotosidae) from the Wet Tropics Region of Eastern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, Stuart; Jerry, Dean R.; Burrows, Damien

    2014-01-01

    Tandanus tropicanus, new species, is described based on specimens from streams in the wet tropics region of northeast Queensland. Previously, two species were recognized in the genus Tandanus: T. tandanus of eastern Australia and T. bostocki of Western Australia. A combination of meristic and morphometric characters distinguishes the new species from all congeners. Further, taxonomic distinctness based on morphologic differences between the new species and all congeners is corroborated by genetic analyses.

  20. Interannual variability in chlorophyll-a on the southern Queensland continental shelf and its relationship to ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Dien V.; Gabric, Albert; Cropp, Roger

    2015-12-01

    significant physical driver of the upwelling system. Our results suggest that variability in phytoplankton biomass on the southern Queensland continental shelf is driven by upwelling of nutrients during the spring dry season and fluvial nutrient loads during the summer and autumn wet seasons. Seasonal change is the primary factor controlling the variability of Chl-a and SST while climate variability (ENSO) and upwelling are secondary but significant factors.

  1. Palaeomagnetism of the Early Permian Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex and Tuckers Igneous Complex, North Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. A.; Lackie, M. A.

    2003-06-01

    This study provides reliable, precisely defined and well-dated Early Permian (286 +/- 6 Ma) palaeomagnetic poles for Australia from the Mount Leyshon Intrusive Complex (MLIC) and the Tuckers Igneous Complex (TIC). Both complexes are associated with prominent negative magnetic anomalies, indicating the presence of rocks carrying stable remanence of reverse polarity, with a Koenigsberger ratio greater than unity. The characteristic remanence carried by the intrusive phases and by locally remagnetized, contact-metamorphosed host rocks is always of reverse polarity, consistent with acquisition during the Permo-Carboniferous (Kiaman) Reverse Superchron. The corresponding palaeopoles confirm that Australia occupied high latitudes in the Early Permian. The pole positions are: MLIC: lat. = 43.2 °S, long. = 137.3 °E dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.4° Q= 6; TIC: lat. = 47.5 °S, long. = 143.0 °E, dp = 6.0°, dm = 6.6° Q= 6. Permian palaeomagnetic overprinting is detectable at considerable distances from the MLIC (2-3 km), well beyond the zone of visible alteration. The primary nature of the Early Permian palaeomagnetic signature is established by full baked contact/aureole tests at both localities. Other new data from Australia are consistent with the poles reported here. Comparison of the Australian, African and South American Apparent Polar Wander Paths (APWP) suggests that mean Permian and Triassic poles from West Gondwana, particularly from South America, are biased by remagnetization in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and that the Late Palaeozoic-Mesozoic APWP for Gondwana is best defined by Australian data. The Australian APWP exhibits substantial movement through the Mesozoic. Provided only that the time-averaged palaeofield was zonal, the Early Triassic palaeomagnetic data from Australia provide an important palaeogeographic constraint that the south geographic pole was within, or very close to, SE Australia around 240 Ma. The new Early Permian poles are apparently more consistent with Pangaea B-type reconstructions of Gondwana and Laurussia than with the Pangaea A2 configuration. This may be partly an artefact of reconstruction problems within Gondwana, as systematic differences between approximately coeval, apparently reliable, Permo-Carboniferous poles from Africa, South America and Australia are evident in standard Gondwana reconstructions. These discordances require a tighter fit of the southern continents, suggesting that some attenuation of continental margins, not accounted for in the reconstructions, has occurred during breakup of Gondwana, or that the fit between East and West Gondwana needs to be substantially modified. If stretching of continental margins during breakup of supercontinents is a general phenomenon, it may help to ameliorate, but not solve, the long-standing controversy regarding Pangaea reconstructions. Although alternative Pangaea reconstructions, such as Pangaea B, may reconcile poles from Laurussia with Australian poles in the Late Carboniferous-Early Permian, no plausible reconstruction can bring the Early Triassic poles into agreement. This suggests that persistent departures from a pure dipole field may have been present in the Early Triassic. Lesser, but still significant, non-dipole effects may also have been present during the Late Carboniferous and Permian, and may help resolve the Pangaea A versus B controversy, without requiring substantial attenuation of continental margins or intracontinental deformation. We suggest that the most parsimonious interpretation of the palaeomagnetic and geological information is that Laurussia and Gondwana remained in a Pangaea A2-type configuration through the Permian and Triassic. Discordance between the APWPs for these two supercontinents is attributable mainly to persistent non-dipole components of the geomagnetic field, which were most important in the Early Triassic.

  2. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gambling Products and Services: Indigenous Gamblers in North Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Helen

    2012-01-01

    As part of a larger study, this paper reports on findings into risk and protective factors associated with gambling products and services by Indigenous Australians. Both Indigenous card gambling (traditional or unregulated) and commercial gambling (regulated) were investigated. Permission was granted by Indigenous Elders and by a university ethics…

  3. Frequency of Cyanogenesis in Tropical Rainforests of Far North Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    MILLER, REBECCA E.; JENSEN, RIGEL; WOODROW, IAN E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant cyanogenesis is the release of toxic cyanide from endogenous cyanide-containing compounds, typically cyanogenic glycosides. Despite a large body of phytochemical, taxonomic and ecological work on cyanogenic species, little is known of their frequency in natural plant communities. This study aimed to investigate the frequency of cyanogenesis in Australian tropical rainforests. Secondary aims were to quantify the cyanogenic glycoside content of tissues, to investigate intra-plant and intra-population variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration and to appraise the potential chemotaxonomic significance of any findings in relation to the distribution of cyanogenesis in related taxa. • Methods All species in six 200 m2 plots at each of five sites across lowland, upland and highland tropical rainforest were screened for cyanogenesis using Feigl–Anger indicator papers. The concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides were accurately determined for all cyanogenic individuals. • Key Results Over 400 species from 87 plant families were screened. Overall, 18 species (4·5 %) were cyanogenic, accounting for 7·3 % of total stem basal area. Cyanogenesis has not previously been reported for 17 of the 18 species, 13 of which are endemic to Australia. Several species belong to plant families or orders in which cyanogenesis has been little reported, if at all (e.g. Elaeocarpaceae, Myrsinaceae, Araliaceae and Lamiaceae). A number of species contained concentrations of cyanogenic glycosides among the highest ever reported for mature leaves—up to 5·2 mg CN g−1 d. wt, for example, in leaves of Elaeocarpus sericopetalus. There was significant variation in cyanogenic glycoside concentration within individuals; young leaves and reproductive tissues typically had higher cyanogen content. In addition, there was substantial variation in cyanogenic glycoside content within populations of single species. • Conclusions This study expands the limited knowledge of the frequency of cyanogenesis in natural plant communities, includes novel reports of cyanogenesis among a range of taxa and characterizes patterns in intra-plant and intra-population variation of cyanogensis. PMID:16520340

  4. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    Increased sediment and nutrient losses resulting from unsustainable grazing management in the Burdekin River catchment are major threats to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. To test the effects of grazing management on soil and nutrient loss, five 1 ha mini-catchments were established in 1999 under different grazing strategies on a sedimentary landscape near Charters Towers. Reference samples were also collected from watercourses in the Burdekin catchment during major flow events. Soil and nutrient loss were relatively low across all grazing strategies due to a combination of good cover, low slope and low rainfall intensities. Total soil loss varied from 3 to 20 kg ha(-1) per event while losses of N and P ranged from 10 to 1900 g ha(-1) and from 1 to 71 g ha(-1) per event respectively. Water quality of runoff was considered moderate across all strategies with relatively low levels of total suspended sediment (range: 8-1409 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 101-4000 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 14-609 microg l(-1)). However, treatment differences are likely to emerge with time as the impacts of the different grazing strategies on land condition become more apparent. Samples collected opportunistically from rivers and creeks during flow events displayed significantly higher levels of total suspended sediment (range: 10-6010 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 650-6350 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 50-1500 microg l(-1)) than those collected at the grazing trial. These differences can largely be attributed to variation in slope, geology and cover between the grazing trial and different catchments. In particular, watercourses draining hillier, grano-diorite landscapes with low cover had markedly higher sediment and nutrient loads compared to those draining flatter, sedimentary landscapes. These preliminary data suggest that on relatively flat, sedimentary landscapes, extensive cattle grazing is compatible with achieving water quality targets, provided high levels of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment. PMID:15757706

  5. Nutrient loss and water quality under extensive grazing in the upper Burdekin river catchment, North Queensland.

    PubMed

    O'Reagain, P J; Brodie, J; Fraser, G; Bushell, J J; Holloway, C H; Faithful, J W; Haynes, D

    2005-01-01

    Increased sediment and nutrient losses resulting from unsustainable grazing management in the Burdekin River catchment are major threats to water quality in the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon. To test the effects of grazing management on soil and nutrient loss, five 1 ha mini-catchments were established in 1999 under different grazing strategies on a sedimentary landscape near Charters Towers. Reference samples were also collected from watercourses in the Burdekin catchment during major flow events. Soil and nutrient loss were relatively low across all grazing strategies due to a combination of good cover, low slope and low rainfall intensities. Total soil loss varied from 3 to 20 kg ha(-1) per event while losses of N and P ranged from 10 to 1900 g ha(-1) and from 1 to 71 g ha(-1) per event respectively. Water quality of runoff was considered moderate across all strategies with relatively low levels of total suspended sediment (range: 8-1409 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 101-4000 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 14-609 microg l(-1)). However, treatment differences are likely to emerge with time as the impacts of the different grazing strategies on land condition become more apparent. Samples collected opportunistically from rivers and creeks during flow events displayed significantly higher levels of total suspended sediment (range: 10-6010 mg l(-1)), total N (range: 650-6350 microg l(-1)) and total P (range: 50-1500 microg l(-1)) than those collected at the grazing trial. These differences can largely be attributed to variation in slope, geology and cover between the grazing trial and different catchments. In particular, watercourses draining hillier, grano-diorite landscapes with low cover had markedly higher sediment and nutrient loads compared to those draining flatter, sedimentary landscapes. These preliminary data suggest that on relatively flat, sedimentary landscapes, extensive cattle grazing is compatible with achieving water quality targets, provided high levels of ground cover are maintained. In contrast, sediment and nutrient loss under grazing on more erodable land types is cause for serious concern. Long-term empirical research and monitoring will be essential to quantify the impacts of changed land management on water quality in the spatially and temporally variable Burdekin River catchment.

  6. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov. (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A J

    2014-01-01

    An unusual species of the genus Periclimenaeus Borradaile, 1915 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae Pontoniinae) from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia, collected by Dr Niel Bruce in 1979, is described and illustrated. Periclimenaeus denticulodigitus sp. nov., an ascidian associate was collected from coral reef at 7.0 m and presents some interesting new features. It increases to 17 the number of Periclimenaeus known from Heron Island, Queensland, and to 28 the number of species known from Australia. The new species has the second pereiopod fingers minutely denticulate and unique to the genus. PMID:24872280

  7. Frequency of pancreatic amyloid deposition in cats from south-eastern Queensland.

    PubMed

    Lutz, T A; Ainscow, J; Rand, J S

    1994-08-01

    Stereological procedures were used to estimate the amount of amyloid deposition in the pancreatic islets of 83 cats from random sources in south-eastern Queensland. Most had only minor deposits of less than 20% of islet volume (median 9%), but deposits equal to more than 50% of the islet volume were found in 10% of the cats. Amyloid deposition in pancreatic islets was correlated with the age of the cat. Although similar observations have been made previously in cats from the USA, the frequency of amyloid deposition was higher in this population of cats from south-eastern Queensland.

  8. Some nemerteans (Nemertea) from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R; Sundberg, P

    2001-12-01

    Three species of marine nemerteans described and illustrated from Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia, include one new genus and two new species: these are the monostiliferous hoplonemerteans Thallasionemertes leucocephala gen. et sp. nov. and Correanemertes polyophthalma sp. nov. A new colour variety of the heteronemertean Micrura callima is also reported, this species previously only being known from Rottnest Island, Western Australia. A key for the field identification of the marine nemerteans recorded from coastal Queensland and the Great Barrier Reef is provided.

  9. Drop Tower Facility at Queensland University of Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plagens, Owen; Castillo, Martin; Steinberg, Theodore; Ong, Teng-Cheong

    The Queensland University of Technology (QUT) Drop Tower Facility is a {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}2.1 second, 21.3 m fall, dual capsule drop tower system. The dual capsule comprises of an uncoupled exterior hollow drag shield that experiences drag by the ambient atmosphere with the experimental capsule falling within the drag shield. The dual capsule system is lifted to the top of the drop tower via a mechanical crane and the dropping process is initiated by the cutting of a wire coupling the experimental package and suspending the drag shield. The internal experimental capsule reaches the bottom of the drag shield floor just prior to the deceleration stage at the air bag and during this time experience gravity levels of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{-6} g. The deceleration system utilizes an inflatable airbag where experimental packages can be designed to experience a maximum deceleration of {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}10textsuperscript{18} g for {raise.17exscriptstyle˜}0.1 seconds. The drag shield can house experimental packages with a maximum diameter of 0.8 m and height of 0.9 m. The drag shield can also be used in foam mode, where the walls are lined with foam and small experiments can be dropped completely untethered. This mode is generally used for the study of microsatellite manipulation. Payloads can be powered by on-board power systems with power delivered to the experiment until free fall occurs. Experimental data that can be collected includes but is not limited to video, temperature, pressure, voltage/current from the power supply, and triggering mechanisms outputs which are simultaneously collected via data logging systems and high speed video recording systems. Academic and commercial projects are currently under investigation at the QUT Drop Tower Facility and collaboration is openly welcome at this facility. Current research includes the study of heterogeneously burning metals in oxygen which is aimed at fire safety applications and

  10. Adularia in epithermal veins, Queensland: morphology, structural state and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, G.; Morrison, G. W.

    1995-02-01

    Four types of adularia (i.e. sub-rhombic, rhombic, tabular and pseudo-acicular) are recognised from examination of samples from ten epithermal vein deposits and prospects in Queensland, based on morphology of the individual crystals. Further investigation of the structural state of adularia reveals that each group has some specific features in terms of the degree of Al/Si disordering, which can be related to various crystallisation conditions and the thermal history. Sub-rhombic adularia is commonly 2 4 mm in size and subhedral with more or less rhombic outlines, and has a relatively ordered Al/Si distribution (2t1 > 0.84), reflecting slow crystallisation conditions. Adularia of this type, in association with coarse-grained quartz, is predominant at deep levels of epithermal systems where boiling is initiated in an environment of low permeability and the fluid is slightly supersaturated with respect to adularia and quartz. Tabular adularia, characterised by its lath-shape and disordered structure (2t1 values ranging from 0.64 to 0.74), is likely to have formed when the fluid moves up to a more permeable environment and starts boiling violently. Relatively high temperatures and rapidly changing conditions account for its special morphology and disordered structure. Rhombic adularia, showing very small crystal size (< 0.2 mm) with euhedral rhombic form, has an intermediate degree of Al/Si ordering. Pseudo-acicular adularia is interpreted as pseudomorphs after carbonate, and its high Al/Si ordered structure is attributed to the presence of a carbonate precursor. These two types of adularia commonly occur within crustiform and colloform bands in association with high grade ore, and chalcedony or fine-grained quartz which often displays various recrystallisation textures. It is most likely that adularias of these two types are formed when extensive boiling is protracted. Microprobe analyses indicate the composition of all adularia types close to pure KAlSi3O8. Sericite

  11. UV Radiation in an Urban Canyon in Southeast Queensland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, A. R.; Moore, M. R.; Kimlin, M. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UV) has the possibility to both harm and to benefit human beings when unprotected exposure occurs. After receiving small amounts of UV our bodies begin to synthesise vitamin D, which is essential for maintaining healthy bones, however excessive UV exposure can result in a variety of damaging outcomes ranging from sunburn to skin cancer and cataracts. For this reason it is very important to understand the different environments in which people encounter UV so as to better prepare the public to make smart and healthy sun exposure decisions. Each day more and more people are moving into large cities around the world and spending their time inside the urban canyon, however UV measurements are generally taken at scientific stations in open areas or on top of tall buildings, meaning that at times the environmental characteristics measured may not accurately represent those found at street-level in these highly urbanized areas. Urban canyons are home to both very tall buildings and tropospheric air pollution, each of which reduces the amount of UV reaching street-level. This study measured the varying difference between UV measurements taken at street-level and at a standard UV monitoring site on top of a building outside of the urban canyon. Investigation was conducted in the central business district (CBD) of Brisbane, Australia, which models the CBDs of large cities around the world in that it boasts a great number of tall buildings, including many skyscrapers. Data was collected under clear sky conditions at five different street-level sites in the CBD (on either side of two streets running perpendicular to one another (four sites) and in a public square) and then compared to that obtained on the same day at the Queensland University of Technology's Australian Sun and Health Research Laboratory (ASHRL), which is located 2.5 kilometres outside Brisbane's CBD. Minimum erythemal dose (MED) data was collected at each location and it was found that

  12. Exploring Information Experience Using Social Media during the 2011 Queensland Floods: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunce, Sharon; Partridge, Helen; Davis, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Social media networks have emerged as a powerful tool in allowing collaboration and sharing of information during times of crisis (Axel Bruns, The Centre for Creative Industries Blog, comment posted January 19, 2011). The 2011 Queensland floods provided a unique opportunity to explore social media use during an emergency. This paper presents the…

  13. Residential and Lifestyle Changes for Adults with an Intellectual Disability in Queensland 1960-2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Louise

    2003-01-01

    This article describes changes in lifestyle of adults with intellectual disabilities after moving from institutional to community residential service provision in Queensland, Australia. Evidence is presented validating the advantages of this type of service provision for residents with an intellectual disability, including the case study of one…

  14. A Report On Living Away From Home Facilities for Isolated Students in Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenahan, R.; And Others

    Data and information for a study of living away from home (LAFH) facilities for isolated students in Queensland were obtained from surveys of boarding schools and student hostels; a number of boarding schools and student hostels were visited and discussions were also held with isolated parents and student borders. While structural demographic…

  15. Historical PCDD inputs and their source implications from dated sediment cores in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Gaus, C; Brunskill, G J; Weber, R; Papke, O; Muller, J F

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations have demonstrated the presence of an unidentified source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in the coastal zone of Queensland (Australia). The present study provides new information on the possible PCDD sources and their temporal input to this environment. Two estuarine sediment cores were collected in northern Queensland for which radiochemical chronologies were established. Core sections from different depositional ages, up to three centuries, have been analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Variations of PCDD concentrations in the sediment cores over several centuries of depositional history were relatively small, and elevated PCDD levels were still present in sediment slices from the early 17th century. PCDD/F isomer patterns and congener profiles in sediments deposited during the last 350 years were almost identical and correlated well to the characteristic profiles observed in surface sediments and soils from the entire Queensland coastline. Profiles were dominated by higher chlorinated PCDDs, in particular octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD), whereas PCDF concentrations were below or near the limit of detection. These results indicate the presence of a PCDD source prior to industrialization and production of commercial organochlorine products. Further, the present study demonstrates that PCDD input patterns have been similar along an extensive but localized area over at least several centuries, contributing relatively high concentrations of PCDDs to the coastal system of Queensland. PMID:11770761

  16. Raspberry Ketone Trifluoroacetate, a new attractant for the Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt))

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Queensland fruit fly (Bactrocera tryoni, Q-fly) is a major agricultural pest in eastern Australia. The deployment of male lures comprises an important component of several control and detection strategies for this pest. A novel fluorinated analog of raspberry ketone, raspberry ketone trifluoroac...

  17. The Health Legislation Amendment Act 2013 (QLD) and Queensland's health assets privatisation dispute.

    PubMed

    Colton, Caroline; Faunce, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    'New legislation in Queensland has provided a "pathway" for the privatisation of health assets and services in Queensland, which effectively realigns the health care system to the financial market. This column explores how this legislation contained the antecedents of the Queensland doctors' dispute when doctors roundly rejected new employment contracts in February 2014. It also argues that such legislation and its attendant backlash provides a valuable case study in view of the federal government's 2014 budget offer to the States of extra funding if they sell their health assets to fund new infrastructure. The move to privatise health in Queensland has also resulted in a government assault on the ethical credibility of the opposing medical profession and changes to the health complaints system with the introduction of a Health Ombudsman under ministerial control. The column examines these changes in light of R (Heather) v Leonard Cheshire Foundation [2001] EWHC Admin 429, a case concerning the obligations of a private entity towards publically funded clients in the United Kingdom. In discussing concerns about the impact of privatisation on the medical profession, the column points to a stark conflict between the duty to operate hospitals as a business rather than as a duty to patients. PMID:25341319

  18. Natural Exposure of Horses to Mosquito-Borne Flaviviruses in South-East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Prow, Natalie A.; Tan, Cindy S. E.; Wang, Wenqi; Hobson-Peters, Jody; Kidd, Lisa; Barton, Anita; Wright, John; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 an unprecedented epidemic of equine encephalitis occurred in south-eastern (SE) Australia following heavy rainfall and severe flooding in the preceding 2–4 months. Less than 6% of the documented cases occurred in Queensland, prompting the question of pre-existing immunity in Queensland horses. A small-scale serological survey was conducted on horses residing in one of the severely flood-affected areas of SE-Queensland. Using a flavivirus-specific blocking-ELISA we found that 63% (39/62) of horses older than 3 years were positive for flavivirus antibodies, and of these 18% (7/38) had neutralizing antibodies to Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), Kunjin virus (WNVKUN) and/or Alfuy virus (ALFV). The remainder had serum-neutralizing antibodies to viruses in the Kokobera virus (KOKV) complex or antibodies to unknown/untested flaviviruses. Amongst eight yearlings one presented with clinical MVEV-encephalomyelitis, while another, clinically normal, had MVEV-neutralizing antibodies. The remaining six yearlings were flavivirus antibody negative. Of 19 foals born between August and November 2011 all were flavivirus antibody negative in January 2012. This suggests that horses in the area acquire over time active immunity to a range of flaviviruses. Nevertheless, the relatively infrequent seropositivity to MVEV, WNVKUN and ALFV (15%) suggests that factors other than pre-existing immunity may have contributed to the low incidence of arboviral disease in SE-Queensland horses during the 2011 epidemic. PMID:24048209

  19. Determinants of Classroom Environment in Queensland Secondary Schools: A Multilevel Reanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the reanalysis of data collected in a study of 3 determinants of classroom environment (viz. year level, subject, and school type) using multivariate analysis of variance and multilevel analysis. Data were collected from 2,211 students in Queensland Catholic and government schools. The Catholic School Classroom Environment…

  20. A Comparison of the Reading Achievement of Queensland Year 5 Pupils between 1971, 1976 and 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Bruce; And Others

    In 1981, the reading achievement of a representative sample of Queensland (Australia) Year 5 students was assessed by using a test that measured skills in the areas of vocabulary, comprehension, and speed of reading. The aim of this testing was to compare reading achievement in 1981 with reading achievement in 1971 and 1976. Comparisons of…

  1. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

  2. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program--Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, C. F.; Peters, J. E.

    Thirty-two projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were funded as part of the Disadvantaged Schools Program in 1979 and 1980. This program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report which suggested that students in country areas may be disadvantaged compared to urban dwellers, with respect to…

  3. Effective Implementation of Online Learning: A Case Study of the Queensland Mining Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Diane; Hase, Stewart; Ellis, Allan

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with key stakeholders in the mining industry in Queensland, Australia, identified six factors that are important in the effective implementation of online learning: external influences, organizational culture, organizational structures, training environment, learners' needs, and the learning environment. (Contains 54 references.) (JOW)

  4. Inclusivity and Senior Physical Education: Insights from Queensland and Western Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penney, Dawn; Hay, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In the context of uncertainty and ongoing reform of senior secondary education in Australia, this paper addresses inclusivity in the design and implementation of senior physical education (PE) courses. Critical analysis of course developments in two states in Australia; Queensland and Western Australia, demonstrates ways in which course design,…

  5. Water-Recycling in South-East Queensland, Australia: What Do Men and Women Think?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Evonne; Buys, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007, South-East Queensland became the first region in Australia to formally decide to introduce recycled water into the drinking supplies. Internationally, although water recycling occurs in the United States, United Kingdom, Singapore and Belgium, surprisingly little is known about public perceptions. This article explores gender…

  6. The Characteristics of, and Motivations for, Indigenous Student Mobility: Examples from Urban and Regional Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navin, Fiona; Hill, Angela; Doyle, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Using the notion that research should "enlighten" policy responses, this paper considers the complex locational factors that affect and underlie patterns of Indigenous student mobility in Queensland, Australia. The paper presents data, captured through an action research project, to explore mobility "in and through" two environments. In so doing,…

  7. School Outcomes in New South Wales and Queensland: A Regression Discontinuity Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul W.; Voon, Derby

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the differences in school (NAPLAN) outcomes between New South Wales and Queensland. It shows that there are pronounced differences in Year 3 NAPLAN results between these states, though these dissipate when later class years are considered. The reasons for these state effects in school outcomes are explored using an empirical…

  8. Leptospira weilii serovar Topaz, a new member of the Tarassovi serogroup isolated from a bovine source in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Corney, B G; Slack, A T; Symonds, M L; Dohnt, M F; McClintock, C S; McGowan, M R; Smythe, L D

    2008-10-01

    This paper reports on a Leptospira isolate of bovine origin and its identification as belonging to a previously unknown serovar, for which the name Topaz is proposed. The isolate (94-79970/3) was cultured from bovine urine from a north Queensland dairy farm in Australia. Strain 94-79970/3 grew at 30 degrees C in Ellinghausen McCullough Johnson Harris (EMJH) medium but failed to grow at 13 degrees C in EMJH medium or in the presence of 8-azaguanine. Serologically, strain 94-79970/3 produced titres against the Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Tarassovi, the reference strain for the Tarassovi serogroup; however, no significant titres to any other serovars within the serogroup were obtained. Using 16S rRNA and DNA gyrase subunit B gene analysis, strain 94-79970/3 was identified as a member of the species Leptospira weilii. We propose that the serovar be named Topaz, after the location where the original isolate was obtained. The reference strain for this serovar is 94-79970/3 (=KIT 94-79970/3=LT722).

  9. Wrinkling of wet paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Young; Kim, Jungchul; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-11-01

    It is a mundane experience that paper stained with water wrinkles. It is because a wetted portion of paper, which swells due to the hygroexpansive nature of the cellulose fiber network, deforms out of its original plane. Here we quantify the dynamics of wrinkling of wet paper coupled to the capillary imbibition of water into paper using a combination of experiment and theory. While supplying water from a capillary tube that touches the center of a paper strip, we measure the spreading rate of the wet area, wait time for the out-of-plane buckling, and temporal growth of a wrinkling magnitude. Using a theoretical model assuming a linear increase of the strain and an exponential decay of the elastic modulus with the water concentration, we construct scaling laws to predict the simultaneous capillary imbibition and wrinkling rates. This work was supported by the Wyss Institute of Harvard University.

  10. Comparison of residual oil cluster size distribution, morphology and saturation in oil-wet and water-wet sandstone.

    PubMed

    Iglauer, S; Fernø, M A; Shearing, P; Blunt, M J

    2012-06-01

    We imaged an oil-wet sandstone at residual oil saturation (S(or)) conditions using X-ray micro-tomography with a nominal voxel size of (9 μm)(3) and monochromatic light from a synchrotron source. The sandstone was rendered oil-wet by ageing with a North Sea crude oil to represent a typical wettability encountered in hydrocarbon reservoirs. We measured a significantly lower S(or) for the oil-wet core (18.8%) than for an analogue water-wet core (35%). We analysed the residual oil cluster size distribution and find consistency with percolation theory that predicts a power-law cluster size distribution. We measure a power-law exponent τ=2.12 for the oil-wet core which is higher than τ for the water-wet system (τ=2.05), indicating fewer large clusters in the oil-wet case. The clusters are rough and sheet-like consistent with connectivity established through layers in the pore space and occupancy of the smaller pores; in contrast the clusters for water-wet media occupy the centres of the larger pores. These results imply less trapping of oil, but with a greater surface area for dissolution. In carbon storage applications, this suggests that in CO(2)-wet systems, capillary trapping is less significant, but that there is a large surface area for dissolution and reaction.

  11. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  12. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  13. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1999-03-30

    The elastic modulus E of wet granular material was found to be of the order of 0.25 MPa, this value does not compare well with the value predicted for a cubic array of spheres under Hertzian contact were the predicted values were in the order of 250 MPa . The strain-stress behavior of a wet granular media was measured using a split Parfitt tensile tester. In all cases the stress increases linearly with distance until the maximum uniaxial tensile stress is reached. The stress then decreases exponentially with distance after this maximum is reached. The linear region indicates that wet solids behave elastically for stresses below the tensile stresses and can store significant elastic energy. The elastic deformation cannot be explained by analyzing the behavior of individual capillary bridges and requires accounting for the deformation of the solids particles. The elastic modulus of the wet granular material remains unexplained. New information was found to support the experimental finding and a first theory to explain the very small elastic modulus is presented. A new model based on the used of the finite element method is being developed.

  14. Wet and Wild Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.

    This guide uses a thematic approach to show the integration of subjects (reading, mathematics, language arts, science/fine arts) and skills to create a context for learning. The contents of this guide are presented in a holistic format. There are six major topics in the guide, each with subtopics: (1) "Getting Your Feet Wet--An Introduction to…

  15. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  16. Different Things to Different People, That's What Colleges Are: The Affiliation of Residential Colleges at the University of Queensland, Brisbane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymont, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on study analyses and historical aspects related to the development and establishment of the University of Queensland (Brisbane, Australia). Discusses the role of the Higher Education Financing and Policy Review Committee in reviewing Australia's higher education sector. (MER)

  17. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    PubMed

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd < 1, Cu 11, Fe 106, Mn 52, Pb < 5, Zn 25 and S 3934; similar levels were found in lucerne hay (used as cattle feed) from two Dee fields. All lucerne and lucerne hay data were generally comparable with levels found in the lucerne reference fields, suggesting no AMD influence; the levels were within the US National Research Council (US NRC) guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake. Pasture grass (also cattle feed) from two fields in the Dee River floodplains gave mean concentrations (mg/kg dry) of Cd 0.14, Cu 12, Fe 313, Mn 111, Pb 1.4, Zn 86 and S 2450. All metal levels from the Dee and from reference sites were below the US NRC guidelines for maximum tolerable cattle dietary intake; however, the average Cd, Cu and Fe levels in Dee samples were significantly greater than the corresponding levels in the pasture grass reference sites, suggesting AMD influence in the Dee samples. The average levels in the edible portions of mandarin oranges (Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and

  18. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-03-25

    The yield locus, tensile strength and fracture mechanisms of wet granular materials were studied. The yield locus of a wet material was shifted to the left of that of the dry specimen by a constant value equal to the compressive isostatic stress due to pendular bridges. for materials with straight yield loci, the shift was computed from the uniaxial tensile strength, either measured in a tensile strength tester or calculated from the correlation, and the angle of internal friction of the material. The predicted shift in the yield loci due to different moisture contents compare well with the measured shift in the yield loci of glass beads, crushed limestone, super D catalyst and Leslie coal. Measurement of the void fraction during the shear testing was critical to obtain the correct tensile strength theoretically or experimentally.

  19. Wet chemistry instrument prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A wet chemistry instrument prototype for detecting amino acids in planetary soil samples was developed. The importance of amino acids and their condensation products to the development of life forms is explained. The characteristics of the instrument and the tests which were conducted to determine the materials compatibility are described. Diagrams are provided to show the construction of the instrument. Data obtained from the performance tests are reported.

  20. Wetting of Porous Solids.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Saket; Chaudhuri, Parag

    2013-01-10

    This paper presents a simple, three stage method to simulate the mechanics of wetting of porous solid objects, like sponges and cloth, when they interact with a fluid. In the first stage, we model the absorption of fluid by the object when it comes in contact with the fluid. In the second stage, we model the transport of absorbed fluid inside the object, due to diffusion, as a flow in a deforming, unstructured mesh. The fluid diffuses within the object depending on saturation of its various parts and other body forces. Finally, in the third stage, over-saturated parts of the object shed extra fluid by dripping. The simulation model is motivated by the physics of imbibition of fluids into porous solids in the presence of gravity. It is phenomenologically capable of simulating wicking and imbibition, dripping, surface flows over wet media, material weakening and volume expansion due to wetting. The model is inherently mass conserving and works for both thin 2D objects like cloth and for 3D volumetric objects like sponges. It is also designed to be computationally efficient and can be easily added to existing cloth, soft body and fluid simulation pipelines. PMID:23319518

  1. Wetting of porous solids.

    PubMed

    Patkar, Saket; Chaudhuri, Parag

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a simple, three stage method to simulate the mechanics of wetting of porous solid objects, like sponges and cloth, when they interact with a fluid. In the first stage, we model the absorption of fluid by the object when it comes in contact with the fluid. In the second stage, we model the transport of absorbed fluid inside the object, due to diffusion, as a flow in a deforming, unstructured mesh. The fluid diffuses within the object depending on saturation of its various parts and other body forces. Finally, in the third stage, oversaturated parts of the object shed extra fluid by dripping. The simulation model is motivated by the physics of imbibition of fluids into porous solids in the presence of gravity. It is phenomenologically capable of simulating wicking and imbibition, dripping, surface flows over wet media, material weakening, and volume expansion due to wetting. The model is inherently mass conserving and works for both thin 2D objects like cloth and for 3D volumetric objects like sponges. It is also designed to be computationally efficient and can be easily added to existing cloth, soft body, and fluid simulation pipelines. PMID:23846102

  2. Epidemiologic Patterns of Ross River Virus Disease in Queensland, Australia, 2001–2011

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Weiwei; Mengersen, Kerrie; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; Toloo, Ghasem (Sam); Wang, Xiaoyu; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) infection is a debilitating disease that has a significant impact on population health, economic productivity, and tourism in Australia. This study examined epidemiologic patterns of RRV disease in Queensland, Australia, during January 2001–December 2011 at a statistical local area level. Spatio-temporal analyses were used to identify the patterns of the disease distribution over time stratified by age, sex, and space. The results show that the mean annual incidence was 54 per 100,000 persons, with a male:female ratio of 1:1.1. Two space-time clusters were identified: the areas adjacent to Townsville, on the eastern coast of Queensland, and the southeast areas. Thus, although public health intervention should be considered across all areas in which RRV occurs, it should specifically focus on high-risk regions, particularly during summer and autumn to reduce the social and economic impacts of RRV infection. PMID:24799374

  3. A review of necrophagous insects colonising human and animal cadavers in south-east Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Julianne F; Whittington, Andrew E; Zalucki, Myron P

    2015-12-01

    A review of insects collected from decomposing human remains in south-east Queensland yielded 32 species in three orders (Diptera, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera) and 11 families (Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Phoridae, Sepsidae, Chironomidae, Dermestidae, Cleridae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae, Encyrtidae). There were 15 cases where remains were located indoors and five cases where remains were outdoors, in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Coleoptera were strongly associated with outdoors remains, while dipteran species composition was similar in both indoor and outdoor habitats. Some Diptera were only associated with indoors remains, while others were similarly restricted to remains recovered outdoors. Hymenopteran parasitoids were active in both habitats. Comparative collections were made from other vertebrate remains, including road-kill and farmed animals throughout south-east Queensland (Qld) and northern New South Wales (NSW) during the same period.

  4. New Forearm Elements Discovered of Holotype Specimen Australovenator wintonensis from Winton, Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    White, Matt A.; Cook, Alex G.; Hocknull, Scott A.; Sloan, Trish; Sinapius, George H. K.; Elliott, David A.

    2012-01-01

    New skeletal elements are reported of the holotype specimen Australovenator wintonensis, from the type locality, near Winton, central western Queensland. New elements include left and right humeri, right radius, right radiale, right distal carpal 1, near complete right metacarpal I, left manual phalanx II-1, left manual phalanx II-2, near complete left manual phalanx II-3 and a left manual phalanx III-3. These new elements combined with those previously described are compared against other neovenatorids. PMID:22761772

  5. A snapshot of radiation therapy techniques and technology in Queensland: An aid to mapping undergraduate curriculum

    SciTech Connect

    Bridge, Pete; Carmichael, Mary-Ann; Brady, Carole; Dry, Allison

    2013-03-15

    Undergraduate students studying the Bachelor of Radiation Therapy at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) attend clinical placements in a number of department sites across Queensland. To ensure that the curriculum prepares students for the most common treatments and current techniques in use in these departments, a curriculum matching exercise was performed. A cross-sectional census was performed on a pre-determined “Snapshot” date in 2012. This was undertaken by the clinical education staff in each department who used a standardized proforma to count the number of patients as well as prescription, equipment, and technique data for a list of tumour site categories. This information was combined into aggregate anonymized data. All 12 Queensland radiation therapy clinical sites participated in the Snapshot data collection exercise to produce a comprehensive overview of clinical practice on the chosen day. A total of 59 different tumour sites were treated on the chosen day and as expected the most common treatment sites were prostate and breast, comprising 46% of patients treated. Data analysis also indicated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) use is relatively high with 19.6% of patients receiving IMRT treatment on the chosen day. Both IMRT and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) indications matched recommendations from the evidence. The Snapshot method proved to be a feasible and efficient method of gathering useful data to inform curriculum matching. Frequency of IMRT use in Queensland matches or possibly exceeds that indicated in the literature. It is recommended that future repetition of the study be undertaken in order to monitor trends in referral patterns and new technology implementation.

  6. Astronomical Association of Queensland Program of Measurements of Seven Southern Multiple Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkinson, Graeme

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the results of a mid-2014 program of the Astronomical Association of Queensland of photographic measurements of seven southern multiple stars. The images were obtained using a Meade DSI CCD camera in conjunction with an equatorially mounted 150mm F8 refractor. For each target pair, either a 2x or 5x barlow lens was used as required. Image processing was carried out using Losse's REDUC software.

  7. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-09-15

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy.

  8. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b) case outcomes varied amongst hospitals, including time spent in care, euthanasia and release rates; and (c) the majority (66.5%) of rescued koalas were either euthanized or died in care with only 27% released back to the wild. The results from this study have important implications for further research into koala rescue and rehabilitation to gain a better understanding of its effectiveness as a conservation strategy. PMID:27649249

  9. Wet-dog shake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, Andrew; Mills, Zack; Hu, David

    2010-11-01

    The drying of wet fur is a critical to mammalian heat regulation. We investigate experimentally the ability of hirsute animals to rapidly oscillate their bodies to shed water droplets, nature's analogy to the spin cycle of a washing machine. High-speed videography and fur-particle tracking is employed to determine the angular position of the animal's shoulder skin as a function of time. We determine conditions for drop ejection by considering the balance of surface tension and centripetal forces on drops adhering to the animal. Particular attention is paid to rationalizing the relationship between animal size and oscillation frequency required to self-dry.

  10. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  11. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of soil analysis on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL will attempt to determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an illustration of the analytical procedure of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Lab (WCL) on board the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument. By dissolving small amounts of soil in water, WCL can determine the pH, the abundance of minerals such as magnesium and sodium cations or chloride, bromide and sulfate anions, as well as the conductivity and redox potential.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, L.C.; Simpson, M.L.

    1995-01-17

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically. 4 figures.

  14. Optical wet steam monitor

    DOEpatents

    Maxey, Lonnie C.; Simpson, Marc L.

    1995-01-01

    A wet steam monitor determines steam particle size by using laser doppler velocimeter (LDV) device to produce backscatter light. The backscatter light signal is processed with a spectrum analyzer to produce a visibility waveform in the frequency domain. The visibility waveform includes a primary peak and a plurality of sidebands. The bandwidth of at least the primary frequency peak is correlated to particle size by either visually comparing the bandwidth to those of known particle sizes, or by digitizing the waveform and comparing the waveforms electronically.

  15. WET SOLIDS FLOW ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hugo S. Caram; Natalie Foster

    1997-03-31

    The objective was to visualize the flow of granular materials in flat bottomed silo. This was done by for dry materials introducing mustard seeds and poppy seeds as tracer particles and imaging them using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The region sampled was a cylinder 25 mm in diameter and 40 mm in length. Eight slices containing 128*128 to 256*256 pixels were generated for each image. The size of the silo was limited by the size of the high resolution NMR imager available. Cross-sections of 150mm flat bottomed silos, with the tracer layers immobilized by a gel, showed similar qualitative patterns for both dry and wet granular solids.

  16. Wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g. food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, construction, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g. the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

  17. Hyperspectral remote sensing for mineral mapping of structural related mineralizations around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Sandra; Salati, Sanaz; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Alone or combined with other remote sensing data, hyperspectral mineral mapping can be used to investigate mineralizations and deposits via alteration minerals. Their kind, abundance and spatial distribution can deliver important statements about the occurrence and formation of mineralizations and their relation to structural features. The high spectral and spatial resolution of HyMap data exceeds multispectral data distinctly and makes the recognition of even smaller geological structures possible. The spectral unmixing of single endmembers can be used for the accurate mapping of specific materials or minerals. The support of hyperspectral imaging by spectral data gathered in the field and the analysis of the composition of rock samples can help to determine endmembers and to identify absorption features. This study demonstrates the possibilities and limitations of remote sensing, especially hyperspectral data, for mineral mapping purposes, using the example of the Mount Isa Inlier. This geological area is situated in Northern Queensland, Australia, and is known for its considerable ore deposits and consequent mining of predominantly copper, zinc, lead, silver and gold. Beside hyperspectral HyMap data, multispectral Landsat 8 and SRTM digital elevation data were analyzed. A three-week field study in 2014 supported the investigations. After preprocessing and vegetation masking the data were analyzed using Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) for alteration mineral mapping. The outcomes were combined with results from decorrelation stretch, band ratioing, topographic indices and automated lineament analysis. Additional information was provided by field spectrometer measurements and the XRF and XRD analysis of rock samples. Throughout the study, mineral mapping using remote sensing data, especially hyperspectral data, turned out to deliver high qualitative results when it is supported by additional information. In situ

  18. PREFACE: Wetting: introductory note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herminghaus, S.

    2005-03-01

    The discovery of wetting as a topic of physical science dates back two hundred years, to one of the many achievements of the eminent British scholar Thomas Young. He suggested a simple equation relating the contact angle between a liquid surface and a solid substrate to the interfacial tensions involved [1], γlg cos θ = γsg - γsl (1) In modern terms, γ denotes the excess free energy per unit area of the interface indicated by its indices, with l, g and s corresponding to the liquid, gas and solid, respectively [2]. After that, wetting seems to have been largely ignored by physicists for a long time. The discovery by Gabriel Lippmann that θ may be tuned over a wide range by electrochemical means [3], and some important papers about modifications of equation~(1) due to substrate inhomogeneities [4,5] are among the rare exceptions. This changed completely during the seventies, when condensed matter physics had become enthusiastic about critical phenomena, and was vividly inspired by the development of the renormalization group by Kenneth Wilson [6]. This had solved the long standing problem of how to treat fluctuations, and to understand the universal values of bulk critical exponents. By inspection of the critical exponents of the quantities involved in equation~(1), John W Cahn discovered what he called critical point wetting: for any liquid, there should be a well-defined transition to complete wetting (i.e., θ = 0) as the critical point of the liquid is approached along the coexistence curve [7]. His paper inspired an enormous amount of further work, and may be legitimately viewed as the entrance of wetting into the realm of modern physics. Most of the publications directly following Cahn's work were theoretical papers which elaborated on wetting in relation to critical phenomena. A vast amount of interesting, and in part quite unexpected, ramifications were discovered, such as the breakdown of universality in thin film systems [8]. Simultaneously, a number

  19. Wetting of cholesteric liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Nuno M; Figueirinhas Pereira, Maria Carolina; Bernardino, Nelson R; Telo da Gama, Margarida M

    2016-02-01

    We investigate theoretically the wetting properties of cholesteric liquid crystals at a planar substrate. If the properties of substrate and of the interface are such that the cholesteric layers are not distorted, the wetting properties are similar to those of a nematic liquid crystal. If, on the other hand, the anchoring conditions force the distortion of the liquid crystal layers the wetting properties are altered, the free cholesteric-isotropic interface is non-planar and there is a layer of topological defects close to the substrate. These deformations can either promote or hinder the wetting of the substrate by a cholesteric, depending on the properties of the cholesteric liquid crystal.

  20. Wet solids flow enhancemant

    SciTech Connect

    Caram, H.S.; Foster, N.; Wildman, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    WE used glass beads of different sizes as.a model system to study the flow enhancing properties of Octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS). 0TS provides Si(CH{sub 2}){sub 17}CH{sub 3} groups that bind with the surface hydrox groups to make it hydrophobic. Experimental data showed, indeed, that surface hydrophobicity promotes the flow of wet granular materials. Mixtures of different percentage of silanized/unsilanized particles were prepared for tensile strength measurements. The tensile strength decreased as more silanized particles were added to the samples. The relationship between dimensionless tensile strength and void fraction followed the correlation found by Pierrat (1994). Contact angles were larger for the silanized particles, as compared with unsilanized ones.

  1. An investigation into underwater wet welding using the flux cored arc welding process

    SciTech Connect

    Brydon, A.M.; Nixon, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    For the last two years, Cranfield has been carrying out a program of process investigations into wet underwater welding (Graham and Nixon 1993, Nixon and Webb 1994), and has demonstrated that it is possible to markedly improve the stability and consistency of the process by using control techniques developed for hyperbaric welding. In the project reported below, an initial evaluation of wet flux cored arc welding was undertaken. Although there continues to be considerable resistance to the use of wet welding on structures in the North Sea, continued pressure to reduce repair and maintenance costs is causing the industry to re-examine techniques previously discounted, such as wet welding (Anon 1993).

  2. Alongshore variability in beach planform, grain-size distribution and foredune height of an embayed beach: Shoalwater Bay, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weymer, B. A.; Houser, C.; Giardino, R.

    2012-12-01

    Headland-bay beaches (HBB) are common beach-types found throughout the coastlines of the world. Morphodynamics of these structurally-controlled beaches are primarily governed by geological inheritance, wave climate, tidal range and grain-size distribution, which ultimately influence sediment transport across the beach-dune system. For embayed beaches, the degree of curvature (i.e., indentation ratio) has significant implications for littoral cell circulation, which mediates both cross-shore and alongshore sediment transport. This study investigated the morphodynamic controls on longshore and cross-shore sediment transport for a macro-tidal, embayed beach in central Queensland, Australia. Freshwater Beach is a 10 km long embayed beach located in the Shoalwater Bay Training Area, ~50 km north of Yeppoon. Freshwater Beach exhibits an asymmetrical planform which is characterized by a curved "shadow zone" (adjacent to the headland), transitioning to a straight tangential segment extending to the north. The beach is subjected to a mean tidal range of 6 m and prevailing onshore-directed winds and swell from the southeast. A total of 12 topographic profiles at ~1 km spacing were taken along the entire length of the beach to characterize variation in beach slope and foredune height. Sediment samples were collected across each transect for detailed grain-size and geochemical (XRD/XRF and SEM) analysis. Additionally, ground-based LiDAR surveys were conducted along the topographic profiles and for comparison with aerial-based LiDAR surveys. Preliminary results from topographic profiles show that the largest foredunes are located in the central portion of the beach, contrary to most embayed beaches where the largest dunes are typically located downdrift of the headland. Along the exposed section, the foredunes become large (~15 m high) and are hypothesized to be supplied by onshore welded bars that act as a sediment source for the foredunes to grow. Presently the alongshore and

  3. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  4. Evidence of sirenian cold stress syndrome in dugongs Dugong dugon from southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Owen, Helen C; Flint, Mark; Limpus, Colin J; Palmieri, Chiara; Mills, Paul C

    2013-03-13

    Cold stress syndrome (CSS) is the term used to describe the range of clinical signs and chronic disease processes that can occur in Florida, USA, manatees Trichechus manatus latirostris exposed to water temperatures below 20°C for extended periods. Although no cold-related adverse events have been described in the closely related dugong Dugong dugon thus far, it has been established that they make movements in response to water temperatures lower than about 17 to 18°C. In this study, archive reports for dugong carcasses submitted to The University of Queensland School of Veterinary Science for post mortem examination during 2010 to 2012 were examined. These animals had been recovered from Moreton Bay, southeast Queensland, Australia, and 10 out of 14 fulfilled the criteria for 'potential cold stress cases.' Epidermal hyperplasia and secondary bacterial infection, serous atrophy of pericardial adipose tissue, and multisystem abscessation were features commonly noted in these cases. Water temperature data were correlated with the time of year that carcasses were submitted for examination. Higher numbers of carcasses diagnosed with potential CSS were noted during sustained periods in which water temperature was below 20°C. Given the pattern of increased submission of non-specifically, chronically unwell animals in the colder months and evidence that environmental conditions known to precipitate CSS occur in southeast Queensland, it is probable that, like manatees, dugongs in this area are affected by CSS. Further investigation to confirm and to better characterize the syndrome is recommended to refine management practices and improve treatment of affected animals. PMID:23482380

  5. Characteristics of Queensland physicians and the influence of rural exposure on practice location.

    PubMed

    Runge, C E; MacKenzie, A; Loos, C; Waller, M; Gabbett, M; Mills, R; Eley, D

    2016-08-01

    The Queensland branch of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) commissioned this study to update their workforce profile and examine rural practice. The present investigation aimed to describe characteristics of Queensland physicians and determine the influence of childhood and training locations on current rural practice. A cross-sectional online survey, conducted 4 July-4 November 2013, was administered to Fellows of The RACP, Queensland. Descriptive statistics report characteristics and logistic regression analyses identify associations and interactions. The outcome measure was current practice location using the Australian Standard Geographic Classification - Remoteness Area. Data were obtained for 633 physicians. Their average age was 49.5 years, a third was female and a quarter was in rural practice. Rural practice was associated with a rural childhood (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval, CI) 1.89 (1.10, 3.27) P = 0.02) and any time spent as an intern (OR 4.07 (2.12, 7.82) P < 0.001) or registrar (OR 4.00 (2.21, 7.26) P < 0.001) in a rural location. Physicians with a rural childhood and rural training were most likely to be in rural practice. However, those who had a metropolitan childhood and a rural internship were approximately five times more likely to be working in rural practice than physicians with no rural exposure (OR 5.33 (1.61, 17.60) P < 0.01). The findings demonstrate the positive effect of rural vocational training on rural practice. A prospective study would determine if recent changes to the Basic Physician Training Pathway and the Basic Paediatric Training Network (more rural training than previous pathways) increases the rate of rural practice. PMID:27554000

  6. Potential animal and environmental sources of Q fever infection for humans in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Tozer, S J; Lambert, S B; Strong, C L; Field, H E; Sloots, T P; Nissen, M D

    2014-03-01

    Q fever is a vaccine-preventable disease; despite this, high annual notification numbers are still recorded in Australia. We have previously shown seroprevalence in Queensland metropolitan regions is approaching that of rural areas. This study investigated the presence of nucleic acid from Coxiella burnetii, the agent responsible for Q fever, in a number of animal and environmental samples collected throughout Queensland, to identify potential sources of human infection. Samples were collected from 129 geographical locations and included urine, faeces and whole blood from 22 different animal species; 45 ticks were removed from two species, canines and possums; 151 soil samples; 72 atmospheric dust samples collected from two locations and 50 dust swabs collected from domestic vacuum cleaners. PCR testing was performed targeting the IS1111 and COM1 genes for the specific detection of C. burnetii DNA. There were 85 detections from 1318 animal samples, giving a detection rate for each sample type ranging from 2.1 to 6.8%. Equine samples produced a detection rate of 11.9%, whilst feline and canine samples showed detection rates of 7.8% and 5.2%, respectively. Native animals had varying detection rates: pooled urines from flying foxes had 7.8%, whilst koalas had 5.1%, and 6.7% of ticks screened were positive. The soil and dust samples showed the presence of C. burnetii DNA ranging from 2.0 to 6.9%, respectively. These data show that specimens from a variety of animal species and the general environment provide a number of potential sources for C. burnetii infections of humans living in Queensland. These previously unrecognized sources may account for the high seroprevalence rates seen in putative low-risk communities, including Q fever patients with no direct animal contact and those subjects living in a low-risk urban environment. PMID:23663407

  7. Rural generalism and the Queensland Health pathway--implications for rural clinical supervisors, placements and rural medical education providers.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The lifeline for country medicine' was the description by the Rural Doctors Association of Australia of the Queensland Health Rural Generalist Pathway (RGP). The program promises to redress rural medical workforce issues in Queensland. It may fulfil these promises, but only with the support of rural clinical supervisors and medical educators adapting to new expectations of competencies, of training structure and endpoints of training. These adaptations will be a key element of the RGP success, particularly as other states adopt the approach. This article outlines the lessons learnt and adaptations made by clinical supervisors and medical educators in the Queensland Rural Medical Education group, to deliver the Rural Pathway of the Australian General Practice Training program since the first registrars identifying as RGP appeared in this program in 2006.

  8. Wet Winding Improves Coil Encapsulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, A. J.

    1987-01-01

    Wet-winding process encapsulates electrical coils more uniformily than conventional processes. Process requires no vacuum pump and adapts easily to existing winding machines. Encapsulant applied to each layer of wire as soon as added to coil. Wet-winding process eliminates voids, giving more uniformly encapsulated coil.

  9. Extensive wetting due to roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, F.G.; Michael, J.R.; Eisenmann, E.T. . Center for Solder Science and Technology)

    1995-01-01

    Typically, a small mass of eutectic Sn-Pb solder wets a copper surface and flows radially outward to form a hemispherical shape with a contact angle of approx. 15--20 deg. When a similar mass of solder wets and thick electroless copper coated substrate, rapid radial flow commences and surprising new effects occur. Thick coats of electroless copper have a nodular surface structure and spreading on it does not subside until all solder is consumed. When the nodular structure is wetted by solder a coastline'' with many nearby islands'' are defined. Photos of regions at the wetting front were taken in the backscatter imaging mode of an SEM. These images show that solder wets the valleys between the surface nodules forming a delicate, lacy arrangement. The geometry of this coastal'' solder structure is described as fractal-like having a dimension D = 1.38 making it similar to drying fronts and cloud configurations. The importance of surface roughness in wetting phenomena is discussed in the light of an extensive history on the subject. It is shown that for spontaneous flow, assisted by roughness, the surface geometry must consist of local angles that are larger than the equilibrium contact angle. Kinetics of the wetting process are demonstrated by image analysis of wetted area taken from videotaped experiments. These experimental kinetics are shown to be similar in form to flow in open channel capillaries.

  10. Three cases of ocular syphilis and the resurgence of the disease in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Sergio A; McAllister, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection. We describe a case series of ocular syphilis presentations in Queensland, Australia. PMID:27672343

  11. The Peacock Spiders (Araneae: Salticidae: Maratus) of the Queensland Museum, including six new species.

    PubMed

    Baehr, Barbara C; Whyte, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Six new species of the peacock spider genus Maratus Karsch, 1878 are described from Australia: M. eliasi sp. nov., M. julianneae sp. nov., M. licunxini sp. nov., M. michaelorum sp. nov. and M. ottoi sp. nov. from Queensland, and M. kiwirrkurra sp. nov. from Western  Australia. Five species groups are further documented within the genus and new records, detailed SEM and automontage images are provided for six previously described species: M. anomalus Karsch, 1878, M. chrysomelas (Simon, 1909), M. digitatus Otto & Hill, 2012, M. pavonis (Dunn, 1947), M. speciosus (O.P.-Cambridge, 1874) and M. volans (O.P.-Cambridge, 1874). PMID:27615856

  12. Three cases of ocular syphilis and the resurgence of the disease in Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Sara, Sergio A; McAllister, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection. We describe a case series of ocular syphilis presentations in Queensland, Australia.

  13. The Rescue and Rehabilitation of Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in Southeast Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Emily; Tribe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Little is understood about the overall success of current wildlife rehabilitation techniques and the implications of these as an effective conservation strategy. This study collated admission records from four major wildlife hospitals catering to sick and injured koalas across southeast Queensland from 2009 to 2014, and analyzed specific factors that may be important when quantifying the extent and effectiveness of this work. The study found koalas to be at an increased risk from urbanization and human disturbance, that various rehabilitation techniques are employed amongst the four wildlife hospitals, and that a majority of koalas are either euthanized or die whilst in care rather than being released back to the wild. These results provide an interesting insight into current koala rehabilitation practices and have important implications for further research to better understand the practice of rescue and rehabilitation as an effective conservation strategy for this species. Abstract Koala populations in southeast Queensland are under threat from many factors, particularly habitat loss, dog attack, vehicle trauma and disease. Animals not killed from these impacts are often rescued and taken into care for rehabilitation, and eventual release back to the wild if deemed to be healthy. This study investigated current rescue, rehabilitation and release data for koalas admitted to the four major wildlife hospitals in southeast Queensland (Australia Zoo Wildlife Hospital (AZWH), Currumbin Wildlife Sanctuary Hospital (CWH), Moggill Koala Hospital (MKH) and the Royal Society for the Prevention Against Cruelty to Animals Wildlife Hospital at Wacol (RSPCA)), and suggests aspects of the practice that may be changed to improve its contribution to the preservation of the species. It concluded that: (a) the main threats to koalas across southeast Queensland were related to urbanization (vehicle collisions, domestic animal attacks and the disease chlamydiosis); (b

  14. Three cases of ocular syphilis and the resurgence of the disease in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Sara, Sergio A; McAllister, Andrew S

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen a resurgence of syphilis. It is predominantly associated within men who have sex with men and also within heterosexual Indigenous Australians. Possessing the ability to mimic a variety of ocular diseases, it typically manifests as uveitis, although it can affect any structure within the eye. Thus, a high degree of clinical suspicion by ophthalmologists is required to prevent disease progression and ocular morbidity. Patients require prolonged antibiotic treatment with intravenous benzylpenicillin and outpatient monitoring to successfully resolve the infection. We describe a case series of ocular syphilis presentations in Queensland, Australia. PMID:27672343

  15. Confirmation of Elsey virus infection in a Queensland horse with mild neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Kalpana; Pease, Bradley; Oakey, Jane; Campbell, Grant

    2016-07-01

    In 2011, a 2-year-old horse in northern Queensland, Australia, was reported to have developed mild neurologic signs, and a blood sample was submitted for laboratory investigation. Virus isolation was performed using the blood sample, and an orbivirus was isolated. This was confirmed to be a strain of Elsey virus (ELSV) after transmission electron microscopy and nucleotide sequencing. The nucleotide sequence was compared with those in GenBank, and had 100% identity with ELSV previously reported from the Northern Territory, Australia. ELSV is taxonomically closely related to Peruvian horse sickness virus. PMID:27240568

  16. Does surface roughness amplify wetting?

    SciTech Connect

    Malijevský, Alexandr

    2014-11-14

    Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Locally-Acquired Dengue Transmission in Northern Queensland, Australia, 1993–2012

    PubMed Central

    Naish, Suchithra; Dale, Pat; Mackenzie, John S.; McBride, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Tong, Shilu

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue has been a major public health concern in Australia since it re-emerged in Queensland in 1992–1993. We explored spatio-temporal characteristics of locally-acquired dengue cases in northern tropical Queensland, Australia during the period 1993–2012. Methods Locally-acquired notified cases of dengue were collected for northern tropical Queensland from 1993 to 2012. Descriptive spatial and temporal analyses were conducted using geographic information system tools and geostatistical techniques. Results 2,398 locally-acquired dengue cases were recorded in northern tropical Queensland during the study period. The areas affected by the dengue cases exhibited spatial and temporal variation over the study period. Notified cases of dengue occurred more frequently in autumn. Mapping of dengue by statistical local areas (census units) reveals the presence of substantial spatio-temporal variation over time and place. Statistically significant differences in dengue incidence rates among males and females (with more cases in females) (χ2 = 15.17, d.f. = 1, p<0.01). Differences were observed among age groups, but these were not statistically significant. There was a significant positive spatial autocorrelation of dengue incidence for the four sub-periods, with the Moran's I statistic ranging from 0.011 to 0.463 (p<0.01). Semi-variogram analysis and smoothed maps created from interpolation techniques indicate that the pattern of spatial autocorrelation was not homogeneous across the northern Queensland. Conclusions Tropical areas are potential high-risk areas for mosquito-borne diseases such as dengue. This study demonstrated that the locally-acquired dengue cases have exhibited a spatial and temporal variation over the past twenty years in northern tropical Queensland, Australia. Therefore, this study provides an impetus for further investigation of clusters and risk factors in these high-risk areas. PMID:24691549

  18. Legislative intervention in Queensland to restrict access to solariums and cosmetic procedures by children and young persons.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Tina; Madden, Bill

    2009-02-01

    Breaking new ground, Queensland has enacted laws restricting access to cosmetic surgery by those under 18 years of age. Legislation in other Australian jurisdictions is narrower in scope, focusing on niche areas such as solarium use, tattoos and body piercing. Even in those niche areas there are inconsistencies of approach and now the unique Queensland cosmetic surgery restrictions further raise the prospects of "medical tourism" and highlight the difficulties of differing legislation throughout Australia. All implementations, however, face the same challenge: to balance protection of vulnerable children, respect for a young person's autonomy and due regard to parental consent.

  19. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the koala, a species listed as vulnerable.

  20. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D; Roca, Alfred L

    2014-06-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the koala, a species listed as vulnerable. PMID:25067980

  1. Development of 14 microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) using next generation sequencing technology

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Christina T.; Ishida, Yasuko; Greenwood, Alex D.; Roca, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of 14 new microsatellite markers in the Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus). Ten unrelated Queensland koala individuals from the San Diego Zoo, USA, were genotyped. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 7, with an average of 5.14 alleles per locus. Across all loci, the average observed and expected heterozygosity values were both 0.69. These polymorphic microsatellite loci will be useful for genetic studies relevant to the conservation of the koala, a species listed as vulnerable. PMID:25067980

  2. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  3. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillingim, Matthew; Brain, D.; Peticolas, L.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K.; Thrall, L.

    2012-10-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our "lessons learned" from formative evaluation, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  4. WET AND DRY SCRUBBERS FOR EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Generally speaking, absorption equipment includes two major categories: Wet adsorption scrubbers (or wet scrubbers); Dry absorption scrubbers (or dry scrubbers).
    Wet scrubbers: As the name implies, wet scrubbers (also known as wet collectors) are devices which use a liquid fo...

  5. An insight into the grain auger injury problem in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Athanasiov, A; Gupta, M L; Fragar, L J

    2006-02-01

    Grain auger-related injuries were studied by examining the injury data obtained from the Queensland worker's compensation database. Close to 60% of 52 claimants were male employees in the 20 to 34 age group. Fingers, hands, and arms were affected in 65% of all cases, and the auger flighting was involved in 60% of claims. The severity of auger-related injuries is reflected in the high average cost of claims and number of working days lost, which were more than double the all-industries values. Injuries involving the auger flighting are three times more costly (in time and money) than the all-industries values. More claims were made during winter and towards the end of summer, with the majority of injuries occurring in the animal industries. Most incidents occurred in the early or middle periods of a working shift. In addition, two focus group meetings were held to gain a broader perspective of the grain auger injury picture in Queensland, Australia. Focus group participants suggested that the operator's state of mind and attitude to safety are important, while the auger's age, type, and shielding were cited as important risk factors. They suggested that older augers are less likely to be adequately shielded, and mobile augers are most likely to be involved in injury events. The information gained from this study is being used to develop strategies to help farmers minimize injuries associated with the use of grain augers.

  6. Improving delivery of a health-promoting-environments program: experiences from Queensland Health.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, S

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the key components of a statewide multisite health-promoting-environments program. Contemporary health-promotion programs in settings such as schools, workplaces and hospitals use organisational development theory to address the health issues of the setting, including the physical environment, the organisational environment, and the specific health needs of the employees and consumers of the service. Program principles include management of each project by the participant organisation or site (for example, a school or workplace), using resources available within the organisation and the local community, voluntary participation, social justice and participant-based priority setting, and evaluation and monitoring. Adoption of these principles implies a shift in the role of the health worker from implementer to facilitator. Based on the experience of Queensland Health, it is proposed that the essential building blocks of the health-promoting-environments program are an intersectoral policy base, a model for action, training and resources, local facilitators, support from local organisations, a supportive network of sites, marketing of the program, and a state-based evaluation and monitoring system. The program in Queensland was able to develop a significant number of these components over the 1990-1996 period. In regard to evaluation, process measures can be built around the program components; however, further research is required for development of impact indicators and benchmarks on quality.

  7. Forced wetting and hydrodynamic assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Terence D.; Fernandez-Toledano, Juan-Carlos; Doyen, Guillaume; De Coninck, Joël

    2015-11-01

    Wetting is a prerequisite for coating a uniform layer of liquid onto a solid. Wetting failure and air entrainment set the ultimate limit to coating speed. It is well known in the coating art that this limit can be postponed by manipulating the coating flow to generate what has been termed "hydrodynamic assist," but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Experiments have shown that the conditions that postpone air entrainment also reduce the apparent dynamic contact angle, suggesting a direct link, but how the flow might affect the contact angle remains to be established. Here, we use molecular dynamics to compare the outcome of steady forced wetting with previous results for the spontaneous spreading of liquid drops and apply the molecular-kinetic theory of dynamic wetting to rationalize our findings and place them on a quantitative footing. The forced wetting simulations reveal significant slip at the solid-liquid interface and details of the flow immediately adjacent to the moving contact line. Our results confirm that the local, microscopic contact angle is dependent not simply only on the velocity of wetting but also on the nature of the flow that drives it. In particular, they support an earlier suggestion that during forced wetting, an intense shear stress in the vicinity of the contact line can assist surface tension forces in promoting dynamic wetting, thus reducing the velocity-dependence of the contact angle. Hydrodynamic assist then appears as a natural consequence of wetting that emerges when the contact line is driven by a strong and highly confined flow. Our theoretical approach also provides a self-consistent model of molecular slip at the solid-liquid interface that enables its magnitude to be estimated from dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the model predicts how hydrodynamic assist and slip may be influenced by liquid viscosity and solid-liquid interactions.

  8. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  9. Mining and urban impacts on semi-arid freshwater aquatic systems: the example of Mount Isa, Queensland.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark P; Mackay, Alana; Kuypers, Tabitha; Hudson-Edwards, Karen

    2009-05-01

    This paper examines the environmental risk and impact of trace metals affecting river water and sediment in and around Mount Isa, Queensland, Australia. Bacterial indicator densities are also analysed throughout the catchment to assess the impacts and the potential hazards arising from agricultural activities, sewage treatment plant releases and urban runoff. The area is drained by the ephemeral Leichhardt River, which bisects Mount Isa City and the major Pb, Zn, Cu and Ag Mount Isa Mine. Runoff is captured downstream in Lake Moondarra, with the water being used following natural filtration via a lagoon-reed bed system for potable purposes by the residents of Mount Isa City. During the dry season, the channel is characterised by numerous pools that act as storage zones for sediment and water-soluble metals as well as urban and agriculturally derived nutrients and pathogens. Our results show that sediment and water quality within the Leichhardt River adjacent to and downstream of the mine frequently exceed Australian government sediment guidelines with average values of Cu, Pb and Zn found adjacent to the footprint of the mine being 1550, 510 and 470 mg kg(-1), respectively. Dry season analysis of water-soluble Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations within pools showed that Australian government low trigger guidelines are exceeded in 100, 46 and 100% cases, respectively. The densities of bacterial indicators in remnant pools throughout the Leichhardt River also exceeded acceptable guidelines. Maximum dry season faecal coliform densities of 2000 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 mL and Enterococcus counts of 900 organisms per 100 mL were recorded in dry season remnant pools compared to wet season maximum faecal coliform and Enterococcus densities of 119 000 CFU per 100 mL and 95 000 organisms per 100 mL, respectively. The impacts on biota were also examined by assessing the metal content of the tissue of seven fish from Lake Moondarra for their Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn

  10. Processing and utilization of wet flue gas desulfurization material

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, A.; Hassett, D.J. |

    1997-05-01

    Cooperative Power`s Coal Creek Station (CCS) became fully operational in 1981. The two 550-MW units at CCS burn North Dakota lignite. The resulting by-products are fly ash, bottom ash, and wet FGD material. Although disposal of the coal combustion by-products (CCBs) was included in the original site plant at CCS, even early on, consideration was given to utilization of the fly ash as a mineral admixture for concrete and as a partial sorbent replacement for the wet scrubbing system. CCS fly ash has been successfully marketed into North Dakota, Minnesota, and the surrounding region as a construction material that is environmentally benign, highly consistent, and an excellent performer in numerous construction applications. Attempts to use CCS fly ash as part of the scrubbing medium in the wet scrubbing system at the site were not as successful as first hoped, primarily due to the abrasive nature of the fly ash. Currently, CCS scrubbers use lime as the scrubbing medium for SO{sub 2} removal. CCS`s efforts to market its fly ash have been successful, so with increased awareness of the economic advantages of by-product utilization, the favorable US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory determination that CCBs are not hazardous, and the improved understanding of potential local and regional markets, Cooperative Power has taken additional steps to investigate the processing and utilization of its wet FGD material. These steps are discussed.

  11. WET BEAVER ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulrich, George E.; Bielski, Alan M.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of field studies there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the Wet Beaver Roadless Area, Arizona. No significant concentrations of metals were indicated by geochemical sampling or aeromagnetic data within the area. Basaltic cinders and sandstone have been quarried for construction materials near the area but are readily available and more accessible outside the precipitous canyons of Wet Beaver Creek and its tributaries.

  12. Who Pays for Standardised Testing? A Cost-Benefit Study of Mandated Testing in Three Queensland Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Merilyn Gladys; Klenowski, Valentina; Chalmers, Christina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian study that explored the costs and benefits of the National Assessment Programme, Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) testing, both tangible and intangible, of Year 9 students in three Queensland schools. The study commenced with a review of pertinent studies and other related material about standardised testing in…

  13. Life in the "Real World": A Profile of Queensland University of Technology Library and Information Science Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tracey; Partridge, Helen

    2010-01-01

    A graduate destination survey can provide a snap shot in time of a graduate's career progression and outcome. This paper will present the results of a Queensland University of Technology study exploring the employment outcomes of students who had completed a library and information science course from the Faculty of Information Technology between…

  14. Developing a Cardiac Rehabilitation Education Resource for Rural Health Workers in Queensland: Reviewing the Process and Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth; O'Connor-Fleming, M.; Tooth, L.; Humphries, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    A resource manual on cardiac rehabilitation education was developed for health workers providing patient education in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). A process evaluation of the manual received feedback from 5 key informants and 31 rural health care workers following a 3-month trial. Overall, feedback was positive. Recommended content…

  15. Infection and pathology in Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), caused by exposure to Streptococcus agalactiae via different routes.

    PubMed

    Delamare-Deboutteville, J; Bowater, R; Condon, K; Reynolds, A; Fisk, A; Aviles, F; Barnes, A C

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, 96 wild Queensland groupers, Epinephelus lanceolatus, (Bloch), have been found dead in NE Australia. In some cases, Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) was isolated. At present, a GBS isolate from a wild grouper case was employed in experimental challenge trials in hatchery-reared Queensland grouper by different routes of exposure. Injection resulted in rapid development of clinical signs including bilateral exophthalmia, hyperaemic skin or fins and abnormal swimming. Death occurred in, and GBS was re-isolated from, 98% fish injected and was detected by PCR in brain, head kidney and spleen from all fish, regardless of challenge dose. Challenge by immersion resulted in lower morbidity with a clear dose response. Whilst infection was established via oral challenge by admixture with feed, no mortality occurred. Histology showed pathology consistent with GBS infection in organs examined from all injected fish, from fish challenged with medium and high doses by immersion, and from high-dose oral challenge. These experimental challenges demonstrated that GBS isolated from wild Queensland grouper reproduced disease in experimentally challenged fish and resulted in pathology that was consistent with that seen in wild Queensland grouper infected with S. agalactiae. PMID:25117665

  16. P.C.A.P. Project Profiles and General Profilles. Queensland Priority Country Area Program-Evaluation Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saide, Tom, Ed.

    Thirty-eight projects designed to improve educational opportunities of rural Queensland children were initiated in 1977 and funded through the Disadvantaged Schools Program; the program was renamed the Country Area Program and made a permanent School Commission program in 1982. The program resulted from a 1977-79 Schools Commission report…

  17. Baseline Survey of Sun-Protection Knowledge, Practices and Policy in Early Childhood Settings in Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Simone L.; Saunders, V.; Nowak, M.

    2007-01-01

    Excessive exposure to sunlight during early childhood increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Self-administered questionnaires exploring sun-protection knowledge, practices and policy were mailed to the directors/co-ordinators/senior teachers of all known early childhood services in Queensland, Australia, in 2002 (n = 1383; 56.5% response).…

  18. Testing a Moderated Model of Satisfaction with Urban Living Using Data for Brisbane-South East Queensland, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrea, Rod; Stimson, Robert; Western, John

    2005-01-01

    Using survey data collected from households living in the Brisbane-South East Queensland region, a rapidly growing metropolis in Australia, path analysis is used to test links between urban residents' assessment of various urban attributes and their level of satisfaction in three urban domains--housing, neighbourhood or local area, and the wider…

  19. Embedding EfS in Teacher Education through a Multi-Level Systems Approach: Lessons from Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Neus; Ferreira, Jo-Anne; Davis, Julie; Stevenson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the fourth stage of an evolving study to develop a systems model for embedding education for sustainability (EfS) into preservice teacher education. The fourth stage trialled the extension of the model to a comprehensive state-wide systems approach involving representatives from all eight Queensland teacher education…

  20. The Mobile Manual Arts Unit in South-West Queensland. Priority Country Area Program Evaluation Series: Report No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Clifford F.; Peters, Joanne

    Begun in 1978 to bring manual arts experience to children in Queensland's "disadvantaged country areas," the Mobile Manual Arts Unit by the end of the 1980 school year had visited 16 separate locations, involving 25 different schools. A total of 727 students had participated (out of a target population of 992 pupils) and a total of 259 contact…

  1. Investigating Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of and Practices in Education for Sustainability in Queensland: A Japan-Australia Research Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Michiko; O'Gorman, Lyndal; Davis, Julie

    2016-01-01

    In a study undertaken in Queensland, Australia, analysis of a survey that included both qualitative and quantitative questions revealed that, like their Japanese counterparts, early childhood teachers do not have well-developed ideas and practices in education for sustainability (EfS). Instead, they mainly practise traditional nature-based…

  2. HCMM imagery for the discrimination of rock types, the detection of geothermal energy sources and the assessment of soil moisture content in western Queensland and adjacent parts of New South Wales and South Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, M. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Day-visible and day-IR imagery of northwest Queensland show that large scale geological features like the Mitakoodi anticlinorium, which involves rocks of contrasting lithological type, can be delineated. North of Cloncurry, the contrasting lithological units of the Knapdale quartzite and bedded argillaceous limestones within the Proterozoic Corella sequence are clearly delineated in the area of the Dugald River Lode. Major structural features in the Mount Isa area are revealed on the day-visible cover. Which provides similar but less detailed information than the LANDSAT imagery. The day-IR cover provides less additional information for areas of outcropping bedrock than had been expected. Initial studies of the day-IR and night-IR cover for parts of South Australia suggest that they contain additional information on geology compared with day-visible cover.

  3. Earliest known Carboniferous shallow-water reefs, Gudman Formation (Tn1b), Queensland, Australia: Implications for Late Devonian reef collapse and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, G. E.

    1998-10-01

    The Phanerozoic history of reefs extensively has been considered a direct reflection of the history of skeletal reef-building organisms. However, such a relationship does not characterize global mid-Paleozoic reef history. The extinction of most reef-building stromatoporoids and corals at the Frasnian-Famennian boundary correlates with the collapse of North American and European stromatoporoid-dominated reefs, but Western Australian, Russian, and Chinese reefs were much less severely affected until the late Famennian, when algae, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites (i.e., stromatolites, thrombolites) declined globally. Additionally, reef recovery was more rapid than previously thought. Small, early Tournaisian (Tn1b) shallow-water reefs in the Gudman Formation of eastern-central Queensland substantially reduce the duration of the “reefless lag time” following Late Devonian reef decline, essentially confining it to the Strunian. Gudman reefs are dominated by microbialite, but contain a diverse, although volumetrically insignificant, skeletal fauna and flora, including large colonial corals, bryozoans, crinoids, brachiopods, and calcareous algae. Hence, mid-Paleozoic reef collapse and recovery reflect an amalgam of more-or-less independent histories of skeletal organisms, calcimicrobes, and nonskeletal microbialites, in response to regional and global environmental parameters. A better understanding of mid-Paleozoic reef history will require detailed local- and regional-scale studies to isolate global from nonglobal signals.

  4. Queensland Pastures

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active ... canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular ...

  5. Non-river flood barium signals in the skeletons of corals from coastal Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Daniel J.

    2005-09-01

    Two corals from coastal Queensland (Cow and Calf Islands, and Orpheus Island) have been analysed for a suite of trace elements by laser-ablation ICP-MS (LA-ICP-MS). Barium signals in these two corals are 'anomalous' in comparison with Ba behaviour seen in other near-shore corals from this region. The two corals display large sharp peaks in spring which do not correlate with markers of river discharge (Y/Ca and fluorescence). This Ba pattern contrasts with 'normal' behaviour—characterised here by the patterns previously published for two other coastal Queensland corals (King Reef and Pandora Reef), which display Ba peaks in summer associated with flooding of nearby rivers [1] [D.J. Sinclair, M.T. McCulloch, Corals record low mobile barium concentrations in the Burdekin River during the 1974 flood: evidence for limited Ba supply to rivers?, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 214 (1-2) (2004) 155-174]. Similarities are observed between the anomalous Ba in the Queensland corals and other published patterns of Ba behaviour in corals from South Africa and the Arabian Sea. This non-river flood Ba behaviour is characterized by large sharp spikes of Ba which are resistant to oxidative cleaning and form a continuous horizon within the coral. Curiously, not all corals from a region display anomalous Ba behaviour despite being in similar environments. The timing of anomalous Ba is consistent within a coral, but may vary from one location to the next. Anomalous Ba spikes are too large to be caused by Ba-rich upwelling, and no single environmental forcing function seems to be able to account for their timing. This combination of observations argues against an exogenous abiotic source for the anomalous Ba signal; instead, it may result from a biological event triggered by a combination of environmental parameters. Three hypotheses are presented, and critically tested against the observations: barite inclusion following phytoplankton blooms, decaying blooms of the blue

  6. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  7. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  8. Perceived Safety, Quality and Cultural Competency of Maternity Care for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Women in Queensland.

    PubMed

    Mander, Sarah; Miller, Yvette D

    2016-03-01

    Various policies, plans and initiatives have been implemented to provide safe, quality and culturally competent care to patients within Queensland's health care system. A series of models of maternity care are available in Queensland that range from standard public care to private midwifery care. The current study aimed to determine whether identifying as culturally or linguistically diverse (CALD) was associated with the perceived safety, quality and cultural competency of maternity care from a consumer perspective, and to identify specific needs and preferences of CALD maternity care consumers. Secondary analysis of data collected in the Having a Baby in Queensland Survey 2012 was used to compare the experiences of 655 CALD women to those of 4049 non-CALD women in Queensland, Australia, across three stages of maternity care: pregnancy, labour and birth, and after birth. After adjustment for model of maternity care received and socio-demographic characteristics, CALD women were significantly more likely than non-CALD women to experience suboptimal staff technical competence in pregnancy, overall perceived safety in pregnancy and labour/birth, and interpersonal sensitivity in pregnancy and labour/birth. Approximately 50 % of CALD women did not have the choice to use a translator or interpreter, or the gender of their care provider, during labour and birth. Thirteen themes of preferences and needs of CALD maternity care consumers based on ethnicity, cultural beliefs, or traditions were identified; however, these were rarely met. Findings imply that CALD women in Queensland experience disadvantageous maternity care with regards to perceived staff technical competence, safety, and interpersonal sensitivity, and receive care that lacks cultural competence. Improved access to support persons, continuity and choice of carer, and staff availability and training is recommended. PMID:26896108

  9. 29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL OF CLASSIFIER, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. THIS MACHINE WAS USED TO SEPARATE SLIMES FROM SANDS TO PREPARE THE WET ORE PULP FOR CYANIDE PROCESSING. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia.

  11. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found. PMID:26593603

  12. Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Alexander W A; Rodrigues, Taissa; Costa, Fabiana R

    2011-03-01

    Flying reptiles from Australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Toolebuc Formation, which crops out in western Queensland. Among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian) of England. It was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera Ornithocheirus, Lonchodectes or Anhanguera. Here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of Pteranodontoid (sensu Kellner 2003), here named Aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. It is the second named pterosaur from Australia and confirms that the Toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.

  13. Groundwater salt accessions to land in the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, Andrew J. W.

    2011-05-01

    Salt accessions from artesian and sub-artesian bores have been calculated for the Queensland Murray-Darling Basin (QMDB), Australia, using available water chemistry, licensing data and a number of assumptions. The majority (~90%) of the salt accessions come from sub-artesian bores used for irrigation (including intensive livestock) purposes. Historically, free-flowing artesian bores in the west of the basin have contributed large quantities of salt, but their contributions have declined with capping and piping of these bores. The highest salt yields (t/km2) are in the Condamine catchment, which also contains 70% of the bores in the region. Groundwater salt accessions are considerably less than atmospheric (rainfall) accessions in all catchments except the Condamine. Further expansion of the coal seam gas industry may substantially increase non-cyclic groundwater accessions, further reducing catchment salt export/import ratios.

  14. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay.

  15. Temporal trends and bioavailability assessment of heavy metals in the sediments of Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2014-12-15

    Thirteen sites in Deception Bay, Queensland, Australia were sampled three times over a period of 7 months and assessed for contamination by a range of heavy metals, primarily As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Hg. Fraction analysis, enrichment factors and Principal Components Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) analysis were conducted in order to identify the potential bioavailability of these elements of concern and their sources. Hg and Te were identified as the elements of highest enrichment in Deception Bay while marine sediments, shipping and antifouling agents were identified as the sources of the Weak Acid Extractable Metals (WE-M), with antifouling agents showing long residence time for mercury contamination. This has significant implications for the future of monitoring and regulation of heavy metal contamination within Deception Bay. PMID:25440195

  16. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  17. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found.

  18. Net primary productivity (NPP) of a biological soil crust (BSC) in northwestern Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, B.; Reichenberger, H.; Williams, W.

    2012-04-01

    In the tropical savanna of northwestern Queensland, BSCs are mainly composed of cyanobacteria, liverworts and more rarely, lichens. These BSCs cover up to 30% of the soil, thus stabilizing the soil surface against erosion. One of the major BSC types there is almost completely formed by the filamentous cyanobacterium Symplocastrum sp., with scattered occurrence of different species of the liverwort genus Riccia. Because of the local dominance of these crust type, we selected it for the determination of its NPP over a period of 18 months by setting up a semi-continuous and semi-automatic CO2 - gas exchange measuring device in the natural environment at Boodjamulla National Park. We found astonishingly high CO2-fixation rates of the Sympolcastrum sp. dominated crust type and also could show the crust was adapted to extremely high temperatures (47°C), at which time considerable positive net photosynthetic rates were still gained.

  19. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  20. Weak acid extractable metals in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia: temporal behaviour, enrichment and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Brady, James P; Ayoko, Godwin A; Martens, Wayde N; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2015-02-15

    Sediment samples were taken from six sampling sites in Bramble Bay, Queensland, Australia between February and November in 2012. They were analysed for a range of heavy metals including Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Ce, Th, U, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb. Fraction analysis, Enrichment Factors and Principal Component Analysis-Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) were carried out in order to assess metal pollution, potential bioavailability and source apportionment. Cr and Ni exceeded the Australian Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines at some sampling sites, while Hg was found to be the most enriched metal. Fraction analysis identified increased weak acid soluble Hg and Cd during the sampling period. Source apportionment via PCA-APCS found four sources of metals pollution, namely, marine sediments, shipping, antifouling coatings and a mixed source. These sources need to be considered in any metal pollution control measure within Bramble Bay. PMID:25537749

  1. Nursing and the nursing workplace in Queensland, 2001-2010: what the nurses think.

    PubMed

    Eley, Robert; Francis, Karen; Hegney, Desley

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to inform policy for reform in nursing. A survey mailed to members of the Queensland Nurses' Union four times between 2001 and 2010 elicited views on their employment and working conditions, professional development and career opportunities. Results across years and sectors of nursing consistently showed dissatisfaction in many aspects of employment, particularly by nurses working in aged care. However, views on staffing numbers, skill mix, workload, work stress, pay and staff morale all showed significant improvements over the decade. For example in 2001, 48.8% of nurses believed that their pay was poor, whereas in 2010, this had reduced to 35.2%. Furthermore, there was a significant rise throughout the decade in the opinion of the value of nursing as a good career. In light of the need to address nurse workforce shortages, the trends are encouraging; however, more improvements are required in order to support recruitment and retention. PMID:25157941

  2. Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry of Wild Black Flying-Foxes, (Pteropus alecto) in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Lee; Edson, Daniel; McLaughlin, Amanda; Mayer, David; Kopp, Steven; Meers, Joanne; Field, Hume

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry values in wild Black flying-foxes (Pteropus alecto) captured in South East Queensland, Australia. Values were found to be consistent with those of other Pteropus species. Four hundred and forty-seven animals were sampled over 12 months and significant differences were found between age, sex, reproductive and body condition cohorts in the sample population. Mean values for each cohort fell within the determined normal adult reference range, with the exception of elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in juvenile animals. Hematologic and biochemistry parameters of injured animals showed little or no deviation from the normal reference values for minor injuries, while two animals with more severe injury or abscessation showed leucocytosis, anaemia, thrombocytosis, hyperglobulinemia and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:25938493

  3. Pliocene Paleoenvironments of Southeastern Queensland, Australia Inferred from Stable Isotopes of Marsupial Tooth Enamel

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ13C = −14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ13C = −10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought. PMID:23776636

  4. Revision of the Dysmorphoptilidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Prosboloidea) of the Queensland Triassic-Part 2.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The extinct hemipteran family Dysmorphoptilidae was a major component of the Triassic insect fauna of Queensland preserved at the Denmark Hill, Dinmore, Mount Crosby and Gayndah fossil insect sites. A total of 13 species have now been identified, of which eight species in five genera were examined in the first part of this revision. This second part revises the remaining five species in three genera. Eoscartoides Evans, 1956 (= Mesonirvana Evans, 1956, syn. nov.), comprising Eoscartoides bryani Evans, 1956 (= Mesonirvana abrupta Evans, 1956, syn. nov.) (Mount Crosby), Eoscartoides orthocladus (Tillyard, 1922) comb. nov. (Denmark Hill), and Eoscartoides dmitryi sp. nov. (Dinmore), is distinguished by a strongly developed arc-like strigil in the basal costal space, a very short stem of RA, and a deeply forked M1+2. The monotypic Eoscarterella Evans, 1956, with type species Eoscarterella media Evans, 1956 (Mount Crosby), has a strongly lobate tegmen with peculiar surface sculpture and M1+2 simple. Eoscartoides and Eoscarterella differ from most dysmorphoptilids in having more or less lobate tegmina with even margins (without the antero-apical emargination so typical of the family), as well as the early entry of RA1 into the costal margin and the associated extensive and antero-apically positioned RA2. These characters are also shared with two other dysmorphoptilids, the Australian Permian Belmontocarta Evans and an unnamed Triassic species from Kyrgyzstan, and the four thus form a distinct subgroup within the family. On the other hand, the monotypic Trifidella Evans, 1956 (= Alotrifidus Evans, 1956, syn. nov.), with type species Trifidella perfecta Evans, 1956 (= Alotrifidus interruptus Evans, 1956, syn. nov.) (Mount Crosby), is a more typical dysmorphoptilid with a distinct emargination, RA entering the margin much more apically, and RA2 of limited extent. Trifidella is presumably the sister of the Queensland Triassic Dysmorphoptiloides Evans, sharing the basal

  5. Effect of rainfall as a component of climate change on estuarine fish production in Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meynecke, Jan-Olaf; Lee, Shing Yip; Duke, Norman C.; Warnken, Jan

    2006-09-01

    The speculation that climate change may impact on sustainable fish production suggests a need to understand how these effects influence fish catch on a broad scale. With a gross annual value of A$ 2.2 billion, the fishing industry is a significant primary industry in Australia. Many commercially important fish species use estuarine habitats such as mangroves, tidal flats and seagrass beds as nurseries or breeding grounds and have lifecycles correlated to rainfall and temperature patterns. Correlation of catches of mullet (e.g. Mugil cephalus) and barramundi ( Lates calcarifer) with rainfall suggests that fisheries may be sensitive to effects of climate change. This work reviews key commercial fish and crustacean species and their link to estuaries and climate parameters. A conceptual model demonstrates ecological and biophysical links of estuarine habitats that influences capture fisheries production. The difficulty involved in explaining the effect of climate change on fisheries arising from the lack of ecological knowledge may be overcome by relating climate parameters with long-term fish catch data. Catch per unit effort (CPUE), rainfall, the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and catch time series for specific combinations of climate seasons and regions have been explored and surplus production models applied to Queensland's commercial fish catch data with the program CLIMPROD. Results indicate that up to 30% of Queensland's total fish catch and up to 80% of the barramundi catch variation for specific regions can be explained by rainfall often with a lagged response to rainfall events. Our approach allows an evaluation of the economic consequences of climate parameters on estuarine fisheries, thus highlighting the need to develop forecast models and manage estuaries for future climate change impact by adjusting the quota for climate change sensitive species. Different modelling approaches are discussed with respect to their forecast ability.

  6. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly. PMID:23786078

  7. Pliocene paleoenvironments of southeastern Queensland, Australia inferred from stable isotopes of marsupial tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Shaena; Louys, Julien; Price, Gilbert J

    2013-01-01

    The Chinchilla Local Fauna is a diverse assemblage of both terrestrial and aquatic Pliocene vertebrates from the fluviatile Chinchilla Sand deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia. It represents one of Australia's few but exceptionally rich Pliocene vertebrate localities, and as such is an important source of paleoecological data concerning Pliocene environmental changes and its effects on ecosystems. Prior inferences about the paleoenvironment of this locality made on the basis of qualitative observations have ranged from grassland to open woodland to wetland. Examination of the carbon and oxygen isotopes in the tooth enamel of marsupials from this site represents a quantitative method for inferring the paleoenvironments and paleoecology of the fossil fauna. Results from Chinchilla show that Protemnodon sp. indet. consumed both C3 and C4 photosynthesis plant types (mean δ(13)C = -14.5±2.0‰), and therefore probably occupied a mixed vegetation environment. Macropus sp. indet. from Chinchilla also consumed a mixed diet of both C3 and C4 plants, with more of a tendency for C4 plant consumption (mean δ(13)C = -10.3±2.3‰). Interestingly, their isotopic dietary signature is more consistent with tropical and temperate kangaroo communities than the sub-tropical communities found around Chinchilla today. Other genera sampled in this study include the extinct kangaroo Troposodon sp. indet. and the fossil diprotodontid Euryzygoma dunense each of which appear to have occupied distinct dietary niches. This study suggests that southeastern Queensland hosted a mosaic of tropical forests, wetlands and grasslands during the Pliocene and was much less arid than previously thought.

  8. Host susceptibility of citrus cultivars to Queensland fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Lloyd, A C; Hamacek, E L; Smith, D; Kopittke, R A; Gu, H

    2013-04-01

    Citrus crops are considered to be relatively poor hosts for Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt), as for other tephritid species. Australian citrus growers and crop consultants have reported observable differences in susceptibility of different citrus cultivars under commercial growing conditions. In this study we conducted laboratory tests and field surveys to determine susceptibility to B. tryoni of six citrus cultivars [(Eureka lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck); Navel and Valencia oranges (C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck); and Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco). The host susceptibility of these citrus cultivars was quantified by a Host Susceptibility Index, which is defined as the number of adult flies produced per gram of fruit infested at a calculated rate of one egg per gram of fruit. The HSI was ranked as Murcott (0.083) > Imperial (0.052) > Navel (0.026) - Ellendale (0.020) > Valencia (0.008) > Eureka (yellow) (0.002) > Eureka (green) (0). Results of the laboratory study were in agreement with the level of field infestation in the four citrus cultivars (Eureka lemon, Imperial, Ellendale, and Murcott mandarins) that were surveyed from commercial orchards under baiting treatments against fruit flies in the Central Burnett district of Queensland. Field surveys of citrus hosts from the habitats not subject to fruit fly management showed that the numbers of fruit flies produced per gram of fruit were much lower, compared with the more susceptible noncitrus hosts, such as guava (Psidium guajava L.), cherry guava (P. littorale Raddi), mulberry (Morus nigra L.), loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.), and pear (Pyrus communis L.). Therefore, the major citrus crops commercially cultivated in Australia have a relatively low susceptibility to B. tryoni, with Eureka lemons being a particularly poor host for this tephritid fruit fly.

  9. Experiences and Perspectives of Physical Therapists Managing Patients Covered by Workers' Compensation in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Mandy; Corbière, Marc; Franche, Reneé-Louise

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical therapists have an active role in the rehabilitation of injured workers. However, regulations in Queensland, Australia, do not afford them the opportunity to participate in return-to-work (RTW) decisions in a standardized way. No prior research has explored the experiences and perceptions of therapists in determining work capacity. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate physical therapists' experiences with and perspectives on their role in determining readiness for RTW and work capacity for patients receiving workers' compensation in Queensland. Design A qualitative design was used. Participants were physical therapists who manage injured workers. Methods Novice (n=5) and experienced (n=20) therapists managing patients receiving workers' compensation were selected through purposeful sampling to participate in a focus group or semistructured telephone interviews. Data obtained were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were thematically analyzed. Physical therapists' confidence in making RTW decisions was determined with 1 question scored on a 0 to 10 scale. Results Themes identified were: (1) physical therapists believe they are important in RTW, (2) physical therapists use a variety of methods to determine work capacity, and (3) physical therapists experience a lack of role clarity. Therapists made recommendations for RTW using clinical judgment informed by subjective and objective information gathered from the injured worker. Novice therapists were less confident in making RTW decisions. Conclusion Therapists are well situated to gather and interpret the information necessary to make RTW recommendations. Strategies targeting the Australian Physiotherapy Association, physical therapists, and the regulators are needed to standardize assessment of readiness for RTW, improve role clarity, and assist novice practitioners. PMID:22745200

  10. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiomi, Junichiro; Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, the spontaneous spreading process after droplet contacts a solid surface, is important in various engineering processes, such as in printing, coating, and lubrication. In the recent years, experiments and numerical simulations have greatly progressed the understanding in the dynamic wetting particularly on ``flat'' substrates. To gain further insight into the governing physics of the dynamic wetting, we perform droplet-wetting experiments on microstructured surfaces, just a few micrometers in size, with complementary numerical simulations, and investigate the dependence of the spreading rate on the microstructure geometries and fluid properties. We reveal that the influence of microstructures can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. The systematic study is also of practical importance since structures and roughness are omnipresent and their influence on spreading rate would give us additional degrees of freedom to control the dynamic wetting. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., J.C., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A.).

  11. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  12. Surface structure determines dynamic wetting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Cannon, James J.; Yue, Feng; Suzuki, Yuji; Amberg, Gustav; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2015-01-01

    Liquid wetting of a surface is omnipresent in nature and the advance of micro-fabrication and assembly techniques in recent years offers increasing ability to control this phenomenon. Here, we identify how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. We reveal that the roughness influence can be quantified in terms of a line friction coefficient for the energy dissipation rate at the contact line, and that this can be described in a simple formula in terms of the geometrical parameters of the roughness and the line-friction coefficient of the planar surface. We further identify a criterion to predict if the spreading will be controlled by this surface roughness or by liquid inertia. Our results point to the possibility of selectively controlling the wetting behavior by engineering the surface structure. PMID:25683872

  13. The Torres Reefs, North Queensland, Australia —strong tidal flows a modern control on their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, M. R.

    1995-05-01

    High resolution seismic data from Torres Strait off northern Australia provide the first insights into the development of the striking platform reefs of the region. In the southern part of Torres Strait, where the sea floor is shallow and featureless, the Torres Reefs have developed as long, narrow platforms parallel to very strong east-west flowing tidal currents. The reefs have expanded since the end of the post-glacial marine transgression (approximately 6000 years ago) through preferential growth at each end of their platforms. In these localized areas sheltered from the strong tidal currents, patch reefs have developed. Sediments swept from the reef margin and the inter-reef channels are deposited in these current lee areas at the ends of the reefs. The combination of the patch reefs and reefal sediments provides the essentials for extension of the platform reefs. The seismic data confirm that modern reef expansion is occurring without there being a high substrate for coral colonization. The evolutionary sequence from an uncolonized seafloor to a mature platform reef envisages a synchronous process of patch reef development and sediment accumulation.

  14. Consumer-resource coupling in wet-dry tropical rivers.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Timothy D; Pettit, Neil E; Warfe, Danielle M; Pusey, Bradley J; Ward, Doug P; Douglas, Michael M; Davies, Peter M; Bunn, Stuart E

    2012-03-01

    1. Despite implications for top-down and bottom-up control and the stability of food webs, understanding the links between consumers and their diets remains difficult, particularly in remote tropical locations where food resources are usually abundant and variable and seasonal hydrology produces alternating patterns of connectivity and isolation. 2. We used a large scale survey of freshwater biota from 67 sites in three catchments (Daly River, Northern Territory; Fitzroy River, Western Australia; and the Mitchell River, Queensland) in Australia's wet-dry tropics and analysed stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13) C) to search for broad patterns in resource use by consumers in conjunction with known and measured indices of connectivity, the duration of floodplain inundation, and dietary choices (i.e. stomach contents of fish). 3. Regression analysis of biofilm δ(13) C against consumer δ(13) C, as an indicator of reliance on local food sources (periphyton and detritus), varied depending on taxa and catchment. 4. The carbon isotope ratios of benthic invertebrates were tightly coupled to those of biofilm in all three catchments, suggesting assimilation of local resources by these largely nonmobile taxa. 5. Stable C isotope ratios of fish, however, were less well-linked to those of biofilm and varied by catchment according to hydrological connectivity; the perennially flowing Daly River with a long duration of floodplain inundation showed the least degree of coupling, the seasonally flowing Fitzroy River with an extremely short flood period showed the strongest coupling, and the Mitchell River was intermediate in connectivity, flood duration and consumer-resource coupling. 6. These findings highlight the high mobility of the fish community in these rivers, and how hydrological connectivity between habitats drives patterns of consumer-resource coupling.

  15. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids.

    PubMed

    Samoilov, V N; Persson, B N J

    2004-01-22

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n-->n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application. PMID:15268334

  16. Squeezing wetting and nonwetting liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoilov, V. N.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2004-01-01

    We present molecular-dynamics results for the squeezing of octane (C8H18) between two approaching solid elastic walls with different wetting properties. The interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls is varied from a very small value (1 meV), corresponding to a nonwetting surface with a very large contact angle (nearly 180 degrees), to a high value (18.6 meV) corresponding to complete wetting. When at least one of the solid walls is wetted by octane we observe well defined molecular layers develop in the lubricant film when the thickness of the film is of the order of a few atomic diameters. An external squeezing-pressure induces discontinuous, thermally activated changes in the number n of lubricant layers (n→n-1 layering transitions). With increasing interaction energy between the octane bead units and the solid walls, the transitions from n to n-1 layers occur at higher average pressure. This results from the increasing activation barrier to nucleate the squeeze-out with increasing lubricant-wall binding energy (per unit surface area) in the contact zone. Thus, strongly wetting lubricant fluids are better boundary lubricants than the less wetting ones, and this should result in less wear. We analyze in detail the effect of capillary bridge formation (in the wetting case) and droplets formation (in the nonwetting case) on the forces exerted by the lubricant on the walls. For the latter case small liquid droplets may be trapped at the interface, resulting in a repulsive force between the walls during squeezing, until the solid walls come into direct contact, where the wall-wall interaction may be initially attractive. This effect is made use of in some practical applications, and we give one illustration involving conditioners for hair care application.

  17. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  18. Simulated seasonal variations in wet acid depositions over East Asia.

    PubMed

    Ge, Cui; Zhang, Meigen; Zhu, Lingyun; Han, Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2011-11-01

    The air quality modeling system Regional Atmospheric Modeling System-Community Multi-scale Air Quality (RAMS-CMAQ) was applied to analyze temporospatial variations in wet acid deposition over East Asia in 2005, and model results obtained on a monthly basis were evaluated against extensive observations, including precipitation amounts at 704 stations and SO4(2-), NO3-, and NH4+ concentrations in the atmosphere and rainwater at 18 EANET (the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia) stations. The comparison shows that the modeling system can reasonably reproduce seasonal precipitation patterns, especially the extensive area of dry conditions in northeast China and north China and the major precipitation zones. For ambient concentrations and wet depositions, the simulated results are in reasonable agreement (within a factor of 2) with observations in most cases, and the major observed features are mostly well reproduced. The analysis of modeled wet deposition distributions indicates that East Asia experiences noticeable variations in its wet deposition patterns throughout the year. In winter, southern China and the coastal areas of the Japan Sea report higher S04(2-) and NO3- wet depositions. In spring, elevated SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found in northeastern China, southern China, and around the Yangtze River. In summer, a remarkable rise in precipitation in northeastern China, the valleys of the Huaihe and Yangtze rivers, Korea, and Japan leads to a noticeable increase in SO4(2-) and NO3- wet depositions, whereas in autumn, higher SO4(2-) and NO3-wet depositions are found around Sichuan Province. Meanwhile, due to the high emission of SO2, high wet depositions of SO4(2-) are found throughout the entire year in the area surrounding Sichuan Province. There is a tendency toward decreasing NO3- concentrations in rainwater from China through Korea to Japan in both observed and simulated results, which is a consequence of the influence of the continental

  19. Factors Contributing to Extremely Wet Winters in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jong, B. T.; Ting, M.; Seager, R.

    2015-12-01

    As California continues to battle the severe drought conditions, it becomes increasingly important to understand the atmospheric and oceanic conditions that may possible break this ongoing drought. Is a strong El Niño, such as the 2015/16 event, enough to break the drought? We examine in this study the possible factors that lead to extremely wet winters (the wettest 15%) in both Northern and Southern CA. The relationships between CA winter precipitation and sea surface temperature conditions in the Pacific, as well as atmospheric circulation are determined by using observational and reanalysis data from 1901 to 2010. One of the key features of the atmospheric circulation is the location of the low pressure anomaly, whether caused by El Niño or other factors. If the anomaly locates right off the US west coast, CA tends to be wet, and vice versa. Furthermore, the duration of the circulation anomaly seems to be crucial. During wet El Niño winters, the peak of the circulation anomaly is in the late winter, whereas, during non-wet El Niño winters, the peak of the anomaly is in the early winter. Thus, an El Niño that can last to late winter is more likely to cause an extremely wet winter in the state. The intensity of El Niño is another critical factor. In the wettest tercile late winter, a strong El Niño can bring about 200% of climatological precipitation to CA, while a weak El Niño can bring only less than 150% of climatology. In combination, only a strong El Niño that can last to late winter may make extremely wet winters very likely in CA. To explore the other factors, composites of circulation anomaly during wet & non-El Niño winters were also analyzed. The results show that a zonally propagating wave train, originating from western North Pacific, contributes to low pressure center and wet winter conditions in the state. Thus, coastal low pressure anomaly is a consistent feature for an extremely wet winters in California, but the origin of forcing can

  20. Connecting landscape function to hyperspectral reflectance in a dry sub-humid native grassland in southern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wendy; Apan, Armando; Alchin, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Native grasslands cover over 80% of significant ecosystems in Australia, stretching across arid, semi-arid, tropical, sub-tropical and savannah landscapes. Scales of pastoral operations in Australia range from hundreds of hectares to thousands of square kilometres and are predominately found in regions with highly variable rainfall. Land use is governed by the need to cope with droughts, floods and fires. Resilience to climatic extremes can be attained through effective soil management. Connecting landscape function on the fine scale to broad land management objectives is a critical step in evaluation and requires an understanding of the relevant spectral properties in remotely sensed images. The aim of this study was to assess key landscape function indices across spatial scales in order to examine their correlation with hyperspectral reflectance measurements. The results from this study could be applied as a model for land management centred on remote sensing. The study site is located at Stonehenge (southern Queensland) on a moderately deep texture contrast soil with hard setting gravelly topsoil. Mean annual rainfall of 667 mm supports open forest and native perennial pastures with a diverse biocrust dominated by N-fixing cyanobacteria. Land use history is continuous grazing however; it had been destocked for several years prior to our study. There was some evidence of cattle, kangaroos and feral herbivores (rabbits, deer and goats) although impacts appeared to be minimal. We established four land cover types: native pasture - NP1 (~100% FPC - foliage projective cover), native pasture - NP2 (~50% FPC, 50% biocrust), natural bare soil - BC (>80% biocrust), bare and eroded soil - BE (<1% biocrust). Duplicate 0.25 m2 quadrats of each land cover type were selected contiguous with a 100 m transect across the slope. The quadrats were analysed as five micro-transects with each row consisting of five sub-cells. Stability, infiltration and nutrient cycling indices were

  1. Isolation of the Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare-M. scrofulaceum complex from tank water in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tuffley, R E; Holbeche, J D

    1980-01-01

    Disease-associated serotypes of Mycobacterium intracellulare and M. avium have been isolated from 32 of 141 rainwater tanks situated in the basin of the Fitzroy River and its tributaries in central Queensland, 7 of 32 tanks situated in the hinterland of the coastal city of Rockhampton, and 2 of 32 tanks sampled repetitively in the southeastern Queensland city of Toowoomba. M. gordonae was also isolated from 23 of the river basin tanks, from 9 in the Rockhampton hinterland, and from 5 in the city of Toowoomba. One half of these isolates came from tanks which also yielded M. intracellulare. Mycobacteria of the M. terrae-M. triviale-M. nonchromogenicum complex were found in 7 tanks, usually in conjunction with M. intracellulare. The humans who consume the contaminated tank water are free of symptoms but have not been medically examined. It is suggested that mycobacteria adhering to dust particles disturbed by mechanical cultivation may be the source of contamination.

  2. Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

    2014-03-01

    A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h.

  3. Comparative laboratory and field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and lemon eucalyptus oil against mosquitoes in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Rigby, L M; Chow, W K

    2014-03-01

    A field trial comparing a formulation containing 40% deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methyl benzamide) in ethanol (Bushman) and 32% lemon eucalyptus oil (LEO; Mosi-guard) as protection against mosquitoes at Redcliffe, Queensland, Australia, was conducted in February 2012 and February 2013. The 40% deet formulation provided 100% protection against mosquitoes for 7 h, while the 32% LEO provided >95% protection for 3 h. PMID:24772681

  4. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R. Lesley; Gynther, Ian C.; Leung, Luke K-P.; Allen, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species’ range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population’s size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline. PMID:26789521

  5. The Distribution and Density of Water Mice (Xeromys myoides) in the Maroochy River of Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Janina; Donald, R Lesley; Gynther, Ian C; Leung, Luke K-P; Allen, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    The water mouse is a small and vulnerable rodent present in coastal areas of south-west Papua New Guinea, and eastern Queensland and the Northern Territory of Australia. Current knowledge regarding the distribution of the water mouse is incomplete and the loss of one local population has been documented in southeast Queensland, a region where pressures from urban and industrial development are increasing. Water mouse populations have not been studied intensively enough to enable the primary factors responsible for the local decline to be identified. We surveyed the distribution and density of the water mouse along the Maroochy River of southeast Queensland, near the southern extent of the species' range, to gather baseline data that may prove valuable for detecting any future decline in this population's size or health. All areas of suitable habitat were surveyed on foot or by kayak or boat over a three-year period. We found 180 water mouse nests, of which ~94% were active. Permanent camera monitoring of one nest and limited supplementary live trapping suggested that up to three individual mice occupied active nests. Water mouse density was estimated to be 0.44 per hectare of suitable habitat along the Maroochy River. Should future monitoring reveal an adverse change in the water mouse population on the Maroochy River, a concerted effort should be made to identify contributing factors and address proximate reasons for the decline.

  6. Assessment of chemical water types and their spatial variation using multi-stage cluster analysis, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, Vivienne H.; Cox, Malcolm E.; Preda, Micaela

    2005-08-01

    A multivariate assessment has been adapted to the classification of a large, irregular dataset of approximately 34,000 surface water samples accumulated over more than 30 years. A two-stage K-means clustering method was designed to analyse chemical data in the form of percentages of major ions (Na, Mg, Ca, Cl, HCO 3 and SO 4); the first stage of clustering produced 347 groups, which were then re-clustered to generate the final nine water types. The analysis enabled the definition of provinces of water composition and highlighted natural processes influencing the surface water chemistry. On a statewide basis, sodium is the dominant cation and around 50% at all stream flows, while proportions of calcium and magnesium are about equal. Chloride and bicarbonate constitute the bulk of anions present, while sulfate occurs occasionally and tends to be localised. On a global basis, Queensland surface waters are relatively high in sodium, chloride and magnesium, and low in calcium and sulfate. It was also found that the geographical location has a greater impact on major ion ratios than does the stage of stream flow. The regional chemical trends are consistent with geology and climate. Streams in northeast Queensland, with short, steep catchments and high rainfall, yield low salinity, sodium-dominated water; this is also the case for sandy southern coastal catchments. Both also reflect an oceanic influence. The proportions of sodium and chloride decrease westward; streams draining the western side of the Great Dividing Range or flowing into the Gulf of Carpentaria have low salinity but relatively hard water. Streams in western Queensland are higher in calcium and bicarbonate. In the large catchments flowing from Queensland into central Australia, the water composition is highly variable, commonly with elevated sulfate. Also in Queensland, there are several other clearly definable water provinces such as the high magnesium waters of basaltic areas. The findings of this study

  7. Formative Assessment Probes: Wet Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeley, Page

    2015-01-01

    Picture a wet towel or a puddle of water on a hot, sunny day. An hour later, the towel is dry and the puddle no longer exists. What happened to the water? Where did it go? These are questions that reveal myriad interesting student ideas about evaporation and the water cycle--ideas that provide teachers with a treasure trove of data they can use to…

  8. Phoenix's Wet Chemistry Laboratory Units

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows four Wet Chemistry Laboratory units, part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument on board NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. This image was taken before Phoenix's launch on August 4, 2007.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Competitive Wetting in Active Brazes

    SciTech Connect

    Chandross, Michael Evan

    2014-05-01

    We found that the wetting and spreading of molten filler materials (pure Al, pure Ag, and AgAl alloys) on a Kovar ™ (001) substrate was studied with molecular dynamics simulations. A suite of different simulations was used to understand the effects on spreading rates due to alloying as well as reactions with the substrate. Moreover, the important conclusion is that the presence of Al in the alloy enhances the spreading of Ag, while the Ag inhibits the spreading of Al.

  10. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  11. Different regimes of dynamic wetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustav, Amberg; Wang, Jiayu; Do-Quang, Minh; Shiomi, Junichiro; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, as observed when a droplet contacts a dry solid surface, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. Here we discuss how surface roughness influences the initial dynamic spreading of a partially wetting droplet by studying the spreading on a solid substrate patterned with microstructures just a few micrometers in size. This is complemented by matching numerical simulations. We present a parameter map, based on the properties of the liquid and the solid surface, which identifies qualitatively different spreading regimes, where the spreading speed is limited by either the liquid viscosity, the surface properties, or the liquid inertia. The peculiarities of the different spreading regimes are studied by detailed numerical simulations, in conjuction with experiments. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W. and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  12. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects

    PubMed Central

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles. PMID:26721395

  13. Wetting hysteresis induced by nanodefects.

    PubMed

    Giacomello, Alberto; Schimmele, Lothar; Dietrich, Siegfried

    2016-01-19

    Wetting of actual surfaces involves diverse hysteretic phenomena stemming from ever-present imperfections. Here, we clarify the origin of wetting hysteresis for a liquid front advancing or receding across an isolated defect of nanometric size. Various kinds of chemical and topographical nanodefects, which represent salient features of actual heterogeneous surfaces, are investigated. The most probable wetting path across surface heterogeneities is identified by combining, within an innovative approach, microscopic classical density functional theory and the string method devised for the study of rare events. The computed rugged free-energy landscape demonstrates that hysteresis emerges as a consequence of metastable pinning of the liquid front at the defects; the barriers for thermally activated defect crossing, the pinning force, and hysteresis are quantified and related to the geometry and chemistry of the defects allowing for the occurrence of nanoscopic effects. The main result of our calculations is that even weak nanoscale defects, which are difficult to characterize in generic microfluidic experiments, can be the source of a plethora of hysteretical phenomena, including the pinning of nanobubbles.

  14. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  15. Utilization of sugarcane habitat by feral pig (Sus scrofa) in northern tropical Queensland: evidence from the stable isotope composition of hair.

    PubMed

    Wurster, Christopher M; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally 'crop raid' into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources.

  16. Utilization of Sugarcane Habitat by Feral Pig (Sus scrofa) in Northern Tropical Queensland: Evidence from the Stable Isotope Composition of Hair

    PubMed Central

    Wurster, Christopher M.; Robertson, Jack; Westcott, David A.; Dryden, Bart; Zazzo, Antoine; Bird, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) are an invasive species that disrupt ecosystem functioning throughout their introduced range. In tropical environments, feral pigs are associated with predation and displacement of endangered species, modification of habitat, and act as a vector for the spread of exotic vegetation and disease. Across many parts of their introduced range, the diet of feral pigs is poorly known. Although the remote location and difficult terrain of far north Queensland makes observing feral pig behavior difficult, feral pigs are perceived to seek refuge in World Heritage tropical rainforests and seasonally ‘crop raid’ into lowland sugarcane crops. Thus, identifying how feral pigs are using different components of the landscape is important to the design of management strategies. We used the stable isotope composition of captured feral pigs to determine the extent of rainforest and sugarcane habitat usage. Recently grown hair (basal hair) from feral pigs captured in remote rainforest indicated pigs met their dietary needs solely within this habitat. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of basal hair from feral pigs captured near sugarcane plantations were more variable, with some individuals estimated to consume over 85% of their diet within a sugarcane habitat, while a few consumed as much as 90% of their diet from adjacent forested environments. We estimated whether feral pigs switch habitats by sequentially sampling δ13C and δ15N values of long tail hair from a subset of seven captured animals, and demonstrate that four of these individuals moved between habitats. Our results indicate that feral pigs utilize both sugarcane and forest habitats, and can switch between these resources. PMID:22957029

  17. The development of an Ecosystem Services Framework for South East Queensland.

    PubMed

    Maynard, Simone; James, David; Davidson, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Extensive research has been conducted globally into conceptual frameworks for ecosystem services, the most notable being the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium ecosystem assessment: ecosystems and human well-being; a framework for assessment. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC, pp 51, 53-55, 2005). The South East Queensland (SEQ) Ecosystem Services Framework (Australia) aims to provide the tools to enable government, industry, business, researchers, non-government organizations and land managers to apply the concept of ecosystem services in their planning and management practices. This article describes the Framework and the process that has produced matrices and maps that identify and illustrate the linkages between ecosystems, ecosystem functions, ecosystem services and the community's well-being. The matrices and maps derived can identify areas in the region where the most ecosystem services are generated. This allows areas to be considered as valuable natural assets of the region, deserving appropriate protection measures or significant offsets if they are diminished or degraded in any way. Although the Framework requires further refinement and ongoing development, the process applied and the products produced has enabled decision makers to turn the concept of ecosystem services into practical application in SEQ.

  18. Naturally occurring radionuclides in materials derived from urban water treatment plants in southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kleinschmidt, Ross; Akber, Riaz

    2008-04-01

    An assessment of radiologically enhanced residual materials generated during treatment of domestic water supplies in southeast Queensland, Australia, was conducted. Radioactivity concentrations of U-238, Th-232, Ra-226, Rn-222, and Po-210 in water, sourced from both surface water catchments and groundwater resources were examined both pre- and post-treatment under typical water treatment operations. Surface water treatment processes included sedimentation, coagulation, flocculation and filtration, while the groundwater was treated using cation exchange, reverse osmosis, activated charcoal or methods similar to surface water treatment. Waste products generated as a result of treatment included sediments and sludges, filtration media, exhausted ion exchange resin, backwash and wastewaters. Elevated residual concentrations of radionuclides were identified in these waste products. The waste product activity concentrations were used to model the radiological impact of the materials when either utilised for beneficial purposes, or upon disposal. The results indicate that, under current water resource exploitation programs, reuse or disposal of the treatment wastes from large scale urban water treatment plants in Australia do not pose a significant radiological risk.

  19. An overview of the Central Queensland University self-contained evapotranspiration beds.

    PubMed

    Kele, B; Midmore, D J; Harrower, K; McKennariey, B J; Hood, B

    2005-01-01

    The Central Queensland University (CQU) has championed a self-contained concrete lined evapotranspiration channel. Any non-transpired effluent returns to a holding tank and is recirculated through the evapotranspiration channel until it is used. This paper examines the results from the Rockhampton trial site. Nutrient ions in the effluent were quantified over time and found not to accumulate in solution. Microbial analysis of the treated effluent was performed and was found to be within the ranges required by the relevant legislative codes. Citrus fruit grown in the evapotranspiration channel were sampled and no elevated levels of faecal coliforms were recorded. Macronutrients and micronutrients of the soil in the channels were measured over a 5-year period. No toxic accumulations or nutrient deficiencies in the soil occurred. Levels of salinity and sodicity in the evapotranspiration channel soil were quantified. Salinity rose slightly, as did sodium. Concentrations of salts and sodium did not reach unsustainable levels. The aim of the trial was to develop an on-site treatment and reuse system that is sustainable and protects public and environmental health. PMID:16104431

  20. Discriminating between the vocalizations of Indo-Pacific humpback and Australian snubfin dolphins in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Berg Soto, Alvaro; Marsh, Helene; Everingham, Yvette; Smith, Joshua N; Parra, Guido J; Noad, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Australian snubfin and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins co-occur throughout most of their range in coastal waters of tropical Australia. Little is known of their ecology or acoustic repertoires. Vocalizations from humpback and snubfin dolphins were recorded in two locations along the Queensland coast during 2008 and 2010 to describe their vocalizations and evaluate the acoustic differences between these two species. Broad vocalization types were categorized qualitatively. Both species produced click trains burst pulses and whistles. Principal component analysis of the nine acoustic variables extracted from the whistles produced nine principal components that were input into discriminant function analyses to classify 96% of humpback dolphin whistles and about 78% of snubfin dolphin calls correctly. Results indicate clear acoustic differences between the vocal whistle repertoires of these two species. A stepwise routine identified two principal components as significantly distinguishable between whistles of each species: frequency parameters and frequency trend ratio. The capacity to identify these species using acoustic monitoring techniques has the potential to provide information on presence/absence, habitat use and relative abundance for each species.

  1. Preliminary geological investigation of AIS data at Mary Kathleen, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntington, J. F.; Green, A. A.; Craig, M. D.; Cocks, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    The Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) was flown over granitic, volcanic, and calc-silicate terrain around the Mary Kathleen Uranium Mine in Queensland, in a test of its mineralocial mapping capabilities. An analysis strategy and restoration and enhancement techniques were developed to process the 128 band AIS data. A preliminary analysis of one of three AIS flight lines shows that the data contains considerable spectral variation but that it is also contaminated by second-order leakage of radiation from the near-infrared region. This makes the recognition of expected spectral absorption shapes very difficult. The effect appears worst in terrains containing considerable vegetation. Techniques that try to predict this supplementary radiation coupled with the log residual analytical technique show that expected mineral absorption spectra can be derived. The techniques suggest that with additional refinement correction procedures, the Australian AIS data may be revised. Application of the log residual analysis method has proved very successful on the cuprite, Nevada data set, and for highlighting the alunite, linite, and SiOH mineralogy.

  2. Diagenesis and reservoir potential of volcanogenic sandstones - Cretaceous of the Surat Basin, Queensland, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Hawlader, H.M. )

    1990-06-01

    The sandstones of the Lower Cretaceous succession of the Surat basin are characterized by abundant volcanogenic detritus in the form of rock-fragments and feldspars derived from an andesitic magmatic arc coincident with the present Great Barrier Reef in offshore Queensland. These compositionally immature sandstones are not regarded as favorable exploration targets because of their labile nature, their shallow burial depths, and hence the low thermal maturity of the intercalated mudrocks that might have constituted hydrocarbon source rocks. However, petrographic and petrophysical examinations show that significant primary and early diagenetic secondary dissolution porosity and permeability exist in some of these stratigraphic units that under certain circumstances could be the host for hydrocarbons and may become the future exploration targets. Flushing by CO{sub 2}-charged meteoric water after the inception of the Great Artesian basin (of which the Surat basin is a component) in the Tertiary is likely to have been the principal agent of secondary porosity development in these sandstones. Additionally, products of microbial degradation of organic matter (in the intercalated mudstones) and/or maturation products from the deeply buried part of the basin might have assisted in the dissolution of framework grains and previously deposited cement.

  3. Two new species of fossil Leggadina (Rodentia: Muridae) from Northwestern Queensland

    PubMed Central

    Godthelp, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Only three species of fossil murine have been described to date in Australia even though they are often found in fossil deposits and can be highly useful in understanding environmental change over time. Until now the genus Leggadina, a group of short-tailed mice that is particularly well adapted to an arid environment, was only known from two extant species: L. forresti and L. lakedownensis. Here two new fossil species of the genus are described from sites in northwestern Queensland. Leggadina gregoriensis sp. nov. comes from the Early Pleistocene Rackham’s Roost Site in the Riversleigh World Heritage Area and Leggadina macrodonta sp. nov. is from the Plio-Pleistocene Site 5C at Floraville Station. The evolution of the genus Leggadina and the lineage’s response to palaeoecological factors is considered. Taphonomy of the two fossil deposits is examined and shows marked differences in both faunal composition of the assemblages and preservation. Description of L. gregoriensis and L. macrodonta extends the known temporal range of the Leggadina lineage by over 2 million years. PMID:26207193

  4. Cyclists’ experiences of harassment from motorists: findings from a survey of cyclists in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Heesch, Kristiann C; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Garrard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Harassment from motorists is a major constraint on cycling that has been under-researched. We examined incidence and correlates of harassment of cyclists. Methods Cyclists in Queensland, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their experiences of harassment while cycling, from motor vehicle occupants. Respondents also indicated the forms of harassment they experienced. Logistic regression modeling was used to examine gender and other correlates of harassment. Results Of 1830 respondents, 76% of men and 72% of women reported harassment in the previous 12 months. The most reported forms of harassment were driving too close (66%), shouting abuse (63%), and making obscene gestures/sexual harassment (45%). Older age, overweight/obesity, less cycling experience (<2 years) and less frequent cycling (<3 days/week) were associated with less likelihood of harassment, while living in highly advantaged areas (SEIFA deciles 8 or 9), cycling for recreation, and cycling for competition were associated with increased likelihood of harassment. Gender was not associated with reports of harassment. Conclusions Efforts to decrease harassment should include a closer examination of the circumstances that give rise to harassment, as well as fostering road environments and driver attitudes and behaviors that recognize that cyclists are legitimate road users. PMID:22001076

  5. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals-87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  6. Cohort Profile Update: The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP).

    PubMed

    Najman, Jake M; Alati, Rosa; Bor, William; Clavarino, Alexandra; Mamun, Abdullah; McGrath, John J; McIntyre, David; O'Callaghan, Michael; Scott, James; Shuttlewood, Greg; Williams, Gail M; Wray, Naomi

    2015-02-01

    The Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes began in 1981 with data collected on 7223 pregnant woman-child pairs (6753 mothers, of whom 520 had 2 study children, less 50 who had multiple births). These women, and their children, were initially followed for up to 21 years. Since then there have been additional follow-ups of the mothers (27 years) and their children (30 years). There has also been a substantial increase in the breadth of topics addressed, with the collection of biological samples, the administration of structured clinical assessments of mental health and cognitive capacity, and markers of physical health such as lung function and blood pressure. MUSP was originally developed as a birth cohort study. It has become a longitudinal study of growth, development and ageing with an emphasis on the generational transmission of a wide range of factors impacting on adult health outcomes. We welcome interest in our study; for study background and publications visit [www.socialscience.uq.edu.au/musp] or contact [j.najman@uq.edu.au]. PMID:25519422

  7. Habitats of Culicoides spp. in an intertidal zone of southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Hagan, C E; Kettle, D S

    1990-01-01

    The distribution of immature Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in the intertidal zone was investigated at Redland Bay near Brisbane, southeast Queensland. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of Culicoides immatures and to identify environmental factors influencing these distributions. Light trapping of adult midges indicated that C.subimmaculatus Lee & Reye, C.marmoratus (Skuse), C.longior Hagan & Reye, C.henryi Lee & Reye, C.cordiger Macfie, may have been breeding in the study site. Soil sampling on six transects traversing mangrove and salt-marsh revealed the breeding habitats from which immature stages of the first four species were obtained. The elevation, vegetation and soils of positive sites were recorded and analysed for each species of Culicoides. The distribution of intertidal vegetation (mangroves and salt-marsh plants) was compared to MacNae's (1966) system of mangrove zonation for eastern Australia. The distribution of immature Culicoides did not correspond with mangrove zones, but was related to the presence or absence of intertidal vegetation. C.subimmaculatus was closely associated with a particular substrate and the presence of burrowing crabs.

  8. Anastomosing channels and arroyo development on the Nogoa River, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, B. L.; Brizga, S. O.

    1993-05-01

    It is widely accepted that European settlement in Australia has had a major impact on river channels. For many parts of Australia records are available which permit the history of channel changes to be reconstructed over most of the post-settlement period. In this paper the history of changes on part of the Nogoa River in Central Queensland is described from the first European contact until the present. The river channel at this site has changed from an anastomosing pattern to a single large channel (arroyo). There is evidence to suggest that such changes have occurred also in the past but an unusual feature of the present incision phase is that incision is synchronous throughout the region. This may have been triggered by the introduction of cattle which naturally congregate in the moister valley bottoms in this otherwise dry environment. The changes observed here reflect those reported for the semiarid regions of the USA. A linking factor appears to be hydrological behaviour characterised by high levels of variability in the annual flood series, which appears to render such streams more sensitive to disturbance than those with less variable flood behaviour.

  9. New U/Th ages for Pleistocene megafauna deposits of southeastern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Feng, Yue-xing; Hocknull, Scott A.

    2009-02-01

    Arguments over the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna have become particularly polarised in recent years. Causes for the extinctions are widely debated with climate change, human hunting and/or habitat modification, or a combination of those factors, being the dominant hypotheses. However, a lack of a spatially constrained chronology for many megafauna renders most hypotheses difficult to test. Here, we present several new U/Th dates for a series of previously undated, megafauna-bearing localities from southeastern Queensland, Australia. The sites were previously used to argue for or against various megafauna extinction hypotheses, and are the type localities for two now-extinct Pleistocene marsupials (including the giant koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni). The new dating allows the deposits to be placed in a spatially- and temporally constrained context relevant to the understanding of Australian megafaunal extinctions. The results indicate that The Joint (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is middle Pleistocene or older (>292 ky); the Cement Mills (Gore) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene or older (>53 ky); and the Russenden Cave Bone Chamber (Texas Caves) megafaunal assemblage is late Pleistocene (˜55 ky). Importantly, the new results broadly show that the sites date prior to the hypothesised megafaunal extinction 'window' (i.e., ˜30-50 ky), and therefore, cannot be used to argue exclusively for or against human/climate change extinction models, without first exploring their palaeoecological significance on wider temporal and spatial scales.

  10. Monitoring temporal changes in use of two cathinones in a large urban catchment in Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Thai, Phong K; Lai, Foon Yin; Edirisinghe, Methsiri; Hall, Wayne; Bruno, Raimondo; O'Brien, Jake W; Prichard, Jeremy; Kirkbride, K Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater analysis was used to examine prevalence and temporal trends in the use of two cathinones, methylone and mephedrone, in an urban population (>200,000 people) in South East Queensland, Australia. Wastewater samples were collected from the inlet of the sewage treatment plant that serviced the catchment from 2011 to 2013. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure mephedrone and methylone in wastewater sample using direct injection mode. Mephedrone was not detected in any samples while methylone was detected in 45% of the samples. Daily mass loads of methylone were normalized to the population and used to evaluate methylone use in the catchment. Methylone mass loads peaked in 2012 but there was no clear temporal trend over the monitoring period. The prevalence of methylone use in the catchment was associated with the use of MDMA, the more popular analogue of methylone, as indicated by other complementary sources. Methylone use was stable in the study catchment during the monitoring period whereas mephedrone use has been declining after its peak in 2010. More research is needed on the pharmacokinetics of emerging illicit drugs to improve the applicability of wastewater analysis in monitoring their use in the population. PMID:26747989

  11. Seminal fluids mediate sexual inhibition and short copula duration in mated female Queensland fruit flies.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Preethi; Taylor, Phillip W

    2007-07-01

    Molecules in male seminal fluid transferred to female insects during mating can have potent effects on their subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviour. Like many other tephritids, female Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni) typically have diminished sexual receptivity after their first mating. Also, copulations of females that do remate tend to be shorter than those of virgins. We here find that virgin females injected with small doses (0.1, 0.2 or 0.5 male equivalents) of extracts from the male reproductive tract accessory tissues, which consist of male accessory glands, ejaculatory apodeme and ejaculatory duct (AG/EA/ED), have diminished receptivity and short copula duration very similar to naturally mated females. In contrast, virgin females injected with saline or with high doses of AG/EA/ED (1 or 2 male equivalents) that likely exceed the range of natural variation retain the higher levels of sexual receptivity and longer copulations of un-injected virgins. We conclude that reduced sexual receptivity and shorter copulations of mated female Q-flies are mediated by products in the male seminal fluid derived from the male reproductive tract accessory tissues. PMID:17187820

  12. Perkinsus sp. infections and in vitro isolates from Anadara trapezia (mud arks) of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Dungan, Christopher F; Scott, Gail P; Reece, Kimberly S

    2015-02-10

    Perkinsus sp. protists were found infecting Anadara trapezia mud ark cockles at 6 sites in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, at prevalences of 4 to 100% during 2011 as determined by surveys using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. Perkinsus sp. lesions were found among gill and visceral connective tissues in histological samples from several cockles, where basophilic, eccentrically vacuolated Perkinsus sp. signet ring trophozoites and proliferating, Perkinsus sp. schizont cells were documented. Two Perkinsus sp. isolates were propagated in vitro during August 2013 from gill tissues of a single infected A. trapezia cockle from Wynnum in Moreton Bay. DNA from those isolate cells amplified universally by a Perkinsus genus-specific PCR assay, and rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences respectively grouped them with P. olseni and P. chesapeaki in phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in Australia, and the first report of a P. chesapeaki in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. Although P. olseni was originally described in 1981 as a pathogen of abalone in South Australia, and has subsequently been identified as a prevalent pathogen of numerous other molluscs worldwide, this is also the first report of a P. olseni-like in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host.

  13. Perkinsus sp. infections and in vitro isolates from Anadara trapezia (mud arks) of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Dang, Cécile; Dungan, Christopher F; Scott, Gail P; Reece, Kimberly S

    2015-02-10

    Perkinsus sp. protists were found infecting Anadara trapezia mud ark cockles at 6 sites in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, at prevalences of 4 to 100% during 2011 as determined by surveys using Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium. Perkinsus sp. lesions were found among gill and visceral connective tissues in histological samples from several cockles, where basophilic, eccentrically vacuolated Perkinsus sp. signet ring trophozoites and proliferating, Perkinsus sp. schizont cells were documented. Two Perkinsus sp. isolates were propagated in vitro during August 2013 from gill tissues of a single infected A. trapezia cockle from Wynnum in Moreton Bay. DNA from those isolate cells amplified universally by a Perkinsus genus-specific PCR assay, and rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequences respectively grouped them with P. olseni and P. chesapeaki in phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of P. chesapeaki in Australia, and the first report of a P. chesapeaki in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. Although P. olseni was originally described in 1981 as a pathogen of abalone in South Australia, and has subsequently been identified as a prevalent pathogen of numerous other molluscs worldwide, this is also the first report of a P. olseni-like in vitro isolate from an Australian mollusc host. PMID:25667336

  14. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals-87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats. PMID:26479238

  15. Helminth assemblages of the turtle Emydura macquarii (Pleurodira: Chelidae) Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Meryl A; Smales, Lesley R

    2006-02-01

    The helminth fauna of 76 Emydura macquarii from 3 river systems in central and northern Queensland was examined. Eleven species were found, including 2 nematodes, 6 trematodes, 1 aspidogastrean, 1 cestode, and 1 monogenean. Analysis of helminth diversity showed that the Fitzroy and Ross River turtles had communities of comparable diversity, but the helminth communities in Proserpine River turtles were much less diverse. The helminth communities in all localities were dominated by trematodes. Polystomoides australiensis was the most prevalent, being found in 60% of the Ross River turtles, 57% of the Fitzroy River turtles, and 46% of the Proserpine River turtles. Notopronocephalus peekayi was the most abundant species, with mean abundances of 5.9 in the Ross River turtles and 9.8 in the Fitzroy River turtles. Species richness, Simpson's Reciprocal Index, was highest, 4.68, for the Ross River helminth community, Sorensen's Qualitative Index showed 95% similarity between the Ross River and Fitzroy River communities, although Sorensen's Quantitative Index indicated only 35% similarity between the 2 sites. Host feeding patterns are likely the most important factor affecting species richness of the helminth infracommunities, as the majority of helminth species are transmitted by food-web interactions involving intermediate hosts. PMID:16629335

  16. N-nitrosodimethylamine and trihalomethane formation and minimisation in Southeast Queensland drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knight, Nicole; Watson, Kalinda; Farré, Maria José; Shaw, Glen

    2012-07-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of disinfection by-product (DBP) precursors in some Southeast Queensland drinking water sources by conducting formation potential experiments for the four regulated trihalomethanes (THMs), and the potent carcinogen, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). NDMA formation potentials were consistently low (<5-21 ng/L), and total THM (tTHM) formation potentials were consistently below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline (250 μg/L). NDMA concentration of finished drinking waters was also monitored and found to be <5 ng/L in all cases. The effect of coagulation and advanced oxidation on the formation of NDMA and THMs is also reported. UV/H(2)O(2) pre-treatment was effective in producing water with very low THMs concentrations, and UV irradiation was an effective method for NDMA degradation. H(2)O(2) was not required for the observed NDMA degradation to occur. Coagulation using alum, ferric chloride or poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) was ineffective in removing DBPs precursors from the source water studied, irrespective of the low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) attained. Rather, coagulation with polyDADMAC caused an increase in NDMA formation potential upon chloramination, and all coagulants led to an increased tTHM formation potential upon chlorination due to the high bromide concentration of the source water studied.

  17. An overview of the Central Queensland University self-contained evapotranspiration beds.

    PubMed

    Kele, B; Midmore, D J; Harrower, K; McKennariey, B J; Hood, B

    2005-01-01

    The Central Queensland University (CQU) has championed a self-contained concrete lined evapotranspiration channel. Any non-transpired effluent returns to a holding tank and is recirculated through the evapotranspiration channel until it is used. This paper examines the results from the Rockhampton trial site. Nutrient ions in the effluent were quantified over time and found not to accumulate in solution. Microbial analysis of the treated effluent was performed and was found to be within the ranges required by the relevant legislative codes. Citrus fruit grown in the evapotranspiration channel were sampled and no elevated levels of faecal coliforms were recorded. Macronutrients and micronutrients of the soil in the channels were measured over a 5-year period. No toxic accumulations or nutrient deficiencies in the soil occurred. Levels of salinity and sodicity in the evapotranspiration channel soil were quantified. Salinity rose slightly, as did sodium. Concentrations of salts and sodium did not reach unsustainable levels. The aim of the trial was to develop an on-site treatment and reuse system that is sustainable and protects public and environmental health.

  18. Community Acquisition of Gentamicin-Sensitive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo, Graeme R.; Schooneveldt, Jacqueline; O'Kane, Gabrielle; McCall, Brad; Vickery, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) susceptible to gentamicin has been reported in a number of countries in the 1990s. To study the acquisition of gentamicin-sensitive MRSA (GS-MRSA) in southeast Queensland and the relatedness of GS-MRSA to other strains of MRSA, 35 cases of infection due to GS-MRSA from October 1997 through September 1998 were examined retrospectively to determine the mode of acquisition and risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Thirty-one isolates from the cases were examined using a variety of methods (antibiotyping, phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE] fingerprinting, and coagulase typing by restriction analysis of PCR products) and were compared with strains of local hospital-acquired gentamicin-resistant MRSA (GR-MRSA) and of Western Australian MRSA (WA-MRSA). Only 6 of 23 cases of community-acquired GS-MRSA had risk factors for MRSA acquisition. Twenty of 21 isolates from cases of community-acquired infection were found to be related by PFGE and coagulase typing and had similar phage typing patterns. Hospital- and nursing home-acquired GS-MRSA strains were genetically and phenotypically diverse. Community-acquired GS-MRSA strains were not related to nosocomial GR-MRSA or WA-MRSA, but phage typing results suggest that they are related to GS-MRSA previously reported in New Zealand. PMID:11060046

  19. Dental Erosion and Dentinal Sensitivity amongst Professional Wine Tasters in South East Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Belinda; Undery, Rebecca; Ahmed, Humza

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims. Professional wine tasters face a hidden occupational hazard due to the high acid content in wine. This study evaluates the self-perceived dentinal sensitivity and erosive effects of wine on the professional wine tasters of the Granite Belt and the Scenic Rim regions of South East Queensland, Australia. Methods. Seventy wineries were contacted and participants were surveyed about their professional wine tasting experience and oral health. Participants were also required to rate their tooth sensitivity prior to being examined for erosion using a modified Smith & Knight tooth wear index. The data were analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation test. Results. The results showed that most participants (25 males, 22–66 yrs), brushed twice a day; however, the majority did not floss daily and had limited knowledge of the erosive effect of wine. There was a direct correlation between years of wine tasting, age of participants, and the erosion index. Correlation was not observed between the participant's sensitivity index and erosion index. Conclusion. The lack of significant experience of dentinal hypersensitivity amongst professional wine tasters should not prevent oral health practitioners from providing necessary counselling and undertaking preventive measures, as tooth wear can have serious long-term effect on oral health of an individual. PMID:24526901

  20. Clay mineralogy of the Greenvale Ore Body, Queensland, Australia: Implications for the interpretation of paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Lev, S.; Anderson, K.; Ramirez, B.; Sun, H.; Swank, R.; Yost, D.; Huff, W.; Maynard, J.B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    A 3--5% nickel enriched laterite in the Greenvale Ore Body of Queensland, Australia, is the result of weathering a serpentinized ultramafic intrusion. Variations in solubilities and drainage, typical of laterite deposits, resulted in the formation of three primary zones: (1) the Saprolite zone, (2) the Intermediate zone, and (3) the Limonite zone. Within these zones, clay mineral species with distinct chemistries and/or mineralogies have been identified, including: Ni-rich Smectite, Halloysite, and Palygorskite. Clay minerals were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction and SEM. Bulk chemistry was determined by X-ray fluorescence in an attempt to better constrain the chemical conditions at the time of formation of the clay minerals. Results indicate a complex drainage system and history for the Greenvale Ore Body. Based on the distribution of ore grade material, it is apparent that the deposit was initially characterized by fracture controlled drainage. Owing to precipitation of Ni-rich smectite, halloysite, and palygorskite, subsequent alteration of the ore body drainage network and/or local climate can be inferred.

  1. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Zamek, Ashley L.; Spinner, Jennifer E.; Micallef, Jessica L.; Gurr, Geoff M.; Reynolds, Olivia L.

    2012-01-01

    This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni. PMID:26466726

  2. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High-resolution record of Early to Middle Miocene climate variability from Site 1195, Marion Plateau, NE Queensland margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowery, C.; Browning, E.; Leckie, R. M.; John, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Constraining and quantifying eustatic variations has been a priority for stratigraphers since the publication of the first global sea level curves by the Exxon research group in the late 1970s. Quantifying the glacio-eustatic component of sea level signals has become a greater focus as more recent work has demonstrated that far-field effects like ice-sheet gravitation and isostasy imprint on the "true" eustatic signal of waxing and waning ice sheets so that coeval signals from disparate sites may show significantly different local sea level variations. To this end, the Miocene sediments on the Marion Plateau, a drowned carbonate platform on the Queensland margin of Australia, were drilled by ODP Leg 194 to provide an independent, southern hemisphere test of the sea level record of the New Jersey Margin of North America, the most complete and oft-cited record of Cenozoic sea level variability. A high-resolution record is critical to compare sea level variations across hemispheres. Natural Gamma Ray (NGR) logs of core holes can provide a complete, high-resolution record independent of any problems with core recovery or sampling interval. We here present a NGR record of ODP Site 1195 tied to recently completed nannofossil assemblage data, planktic/benthic foraminiferal ratios, sedimentary particle counts, and benthic foraminifera stable isotopes. Peaks in glauconite and clay content correspond to peaks in NGR. The largest of these peaks correspond to sequence boundaries (lowstands), as glauconite accumulates during periods of low sedimentation along this carbonate-dominated margin. These sequence boundaries, in turn, are each associated with marine oxygen isotope events ("Mi Events") and correlate to sequences on the New Jersey margin, the Gulf of Papua, Great Australian Bight, and McMurdo Sound, indicating that these sequences are eustatically controlled. Although sedimentary particle counts only show strong peaks of glauconite at sequence boundaries, the NGR record

  4. Precipitation chemistry and wet deposition in a remote wet savanna site in West Africa: Djougou (Benin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpo, A. B.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Laouali, D.; Delon, C.; Liousse, C.; Adon, M.; Gardrat, E.; Mariscal, A.; Darakpa, C.

    2015-08-01

    , biomass burning and biofuel combustions. The second highest contribution is the calcium ion (13.3 μeq·L-1), characteristic of dust aerosols from terrigenous sources, Calcium contributes up to 46% of the precipitation chemistry in Djougou. Finally, these results are compared to those obtained for other selected African sites representative of other main natural ecosystems: dry savanna and forest. The study of the African ecosystem transect indicates a pH gradient with more acidic pH in the forested ecosystem. Nitrogenous contribution to the chemical composition of rain in Lamto, wet savanna, (24%) is equivalent to the one estimated in Djougou (24%). The last contribution concerns organic acidity, which represents 7% of total ionic content of precipitation at Djougou. The relative particulate contribution PC and the relative gaseous contribution GC are calculated using the mean chemical composition measured in Djougou for the studied period. The comparison with other African sites gives 40% and 43% PC in wet savannas of Lamto (Côte d'Ivoire) and Djougou (Benin) respectively, 20% PC in the equatorial forest of Zoetele (Cameroon) and 80% PC in dry savanna of Banizoumbou (Niger). The results shown here indicate the existence of a North-South gradients of organic, marine, terrigenous and nitrogenous contributions along the transect in West and Central Africa.

  5. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  6. Mold management of wetted carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Dixit, Anupma; Lewis, Roger D; MacDonald Perkins, Maureen; Backer, Denis; Condoor, Sridhar; Emo, Brett; Yang, Mingan

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the growth and removal of fungi on wetted carpet using newly designed technologies that rely on physical principles of steam, heat, and fluid flow. Sixty samples of carpet were embedded with heat-treated house dust, followed by embedding, wearing with a hexapod, and wetting. Samples were inoculated using a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum prior to placement over a water-saturated foam pad. Incubation times were 24 hr, 7 days, and 30 days. Cleaning was performed using three methods; high-flow hot water extraction, hot water and detergent, and steam. Fungal loading increased from approximately 1500 colony forming units per area (CFU/cm(2)) in 24 hr to a maximum of approximately 10,200 CFU/cm(2) after 7 days with a slight decline to 9700 CFU/cm(2) after 30 days incubation. Statistically significant differences were found among all three methods for removal of fungi for all three time periods (p < 0.05). Steam-vapor was significantly better than the alternative methods (p <0.001) with over 99% efficiency in mold spore decline from wetted carpet after 24 hr and 30 days, and over 92% efficiency after 7 days. The alternative methods exhibited lower efficiencies with a decline over time, from a maximum of 82% and 81% at 24 hr down to 60% and 43% at 30 days for detergent-hot water and high-flow, hot water extraction, respectively. The net effect of the mold management study demonstrates that while steam has a consistent fungal removal rate, the detergent and high-flow, hot water methods decline in efficiency with increasing incubation time.

  7. Single-metalloprotein wet biotransistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, Andrea; Salerno, Marco; Frabboni, Stefano; Facci, Paolo

    2005-03-01

    Metalloproteins are redox molecules naturally shuttling electrons with high efficiency between molecular partners. As such, they are candidates of choice for bioelectronics. In this work, we have used bacterial metalloprotein azurin, hosted in a nanometer gap between two electrically biased gold electrodes, to demonstrate an electrochemically gated single-molecule transistor operating in an aqueous environment. Gold-chemisorbed azurin shows peaks in tunneling current upon changing electrode potential and a related variation in tunneling barrier transparency which can be exploited to switch an electron current through it. These results suggest the wet approach to molecular electronics as a viable method for exploiting electron transfer of highly specialized biomolecules.

  8. A Wet Chemistry Laboratory Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This picture of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) cell is labeled with components responsible for mixing Martian soil with water from Earth, adding chemicals and measuring the solution chemistry. WCL is part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer (MECA) instrument suite on board the Phoenix lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  9. Droplet charging for wet scrubbers.

    PubMed

    Pilat, Michael J; Lukas, John C

    2004-01-01

    Water droplet charge/mass of wet scrubbers was measured over the direct charging applied potential range of 0-20 kV, 30-70 pounds per square inch gauge (206.8-482.6 kPa) water pressure, and with spiral, impingement, and whirl nozzles. The measured charge/mass ranged from -0.0005 to 0.2 microcoulomb/gm and was directly related to the applied voltage. The water charge/mass was a function of the spray nozzle, with the smaller orifice lower-flow nozzles having the higher charge/mass.

  10. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  11. Building of tropical beach ridges, northeastern Queensland, Australia: Cyclone inundation and aeolian decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Toru; Nicholas, William; Brooke, Brendan; Oliver, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Processes associated with tropical cyclones are thought responsible for building coarse sand beach ridges along the northeastern Queensland coast, Australia. While these ridges are expected to be geological records of the past cyclone, they question the general consensus of the aeolian genesis of sandy beach ridges. To explore the ridge-forming process, we carried out the GPR survey, auger drilling, pit excavation, grain-size analysis, and OSL dating for coarse sand beach ridges at the Cowley Beach, northeastern Queensland. The Cowley Beach is a mesotidal beach characterized by a low-tide terrace and steep beach face. Ten beach ridges are recognized along the survey transect that extends 700 m inland from the shore. 37 OSL ages are younger seawards, indicating the seaward accretion of the ridge sequence over the last 2700 years. The highest ridge is +5.1 m high above AHD (Australian Height Datum). Two GPR units are bounded by a groundwater surface at c. +1.5 m AHD. The upper unit is characterized by horizontal to hummocky reflectors punctuated by seaward dipping truncation surfaces. These reflectors in places form dome-like structure that appears to be the nucleus of a beach ridge. The shape and level (+2.5 m AHD) of the dome are similar to those of the present swash berm. The lower unit shows a sequence of reflectors that dip at an angle of present beach face. The sequence is dissected by truncation surfaces, some of which are continuous to those in the upper unit. Coarse sand mainly forms beach ridge deposits below +4.0 m AHD, while a few higher ridges have an upward fining layer composed of medium sand above +4.0 m, which is finer than aeolian ripples found on the backshore during the survey. In addition, pumice gravel horizons underlie the examined ridge crests. The sequence of seaward dipping reflectors indicates that the Cowley Beach, like other many sandy beaches, has prograded during onshore sand accretion by fairweather waves and has been eroded by storms

  12. Prevalence of maternal red cell alloimmunisation: a population study from Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Pal, Manika; Williams, Bronwyn

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the current prevalence of red cell antigen alloimmunisation in Australia. Blood group (ABO and RhD) and red cell antibody screen results of pregnant women who presented at public hospitals in Queensland between the period of January 2011 and June 2013 were evaluated retrospectively. Antibody prevalence in pregnancy was compared to other published studies. A total of 482 positive antibody screens from 66,354 samples (0.73%) were identified. The prevalence of antibodies was: anti-E 27.6%; anti-D 10.4%; anti-Kell 9.5%; anti-c 8.7%; anti-Duffy 3.1%, including Fy and Fy; anti-MNS 7.9%, including M, N, S and s; anti-Lewis 6%, including Le and Le; and multiple antibodies (16%, including anti-D). Compared to other studies, including one from Australia in 1977, the anti-D alloimmunisation rate had dropped significantly, with little change in anti-c and some increase in anti-E and anti-Kell cases. Continued vigilance is required to ensure eligible RhD negative women receive prophylaxis according to the current RhD immunoprophylaxis guidelines, especially those who have a fetomaternal haemorrhage (FMH). RhD positive women that are at risk of developing an antibody during pregnancy should have their pregnancy monitored according to published guidelines. Once antibodies are identified, consideration should be given to paternal antigen status in an attempt to identify the pregnancy that will be at risk of alloimmunisation. PMID:25551305

  13. Bacteria isolated from dugongs (Dugong dugon) submitted for postmortem examination in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kristen A; Owen, Helen C; Mills, Paul C; Flint, Mark; Gibson, Justine S

    2013-03-01

    Microbial infection may contribute to disease in a significant proportion of marine mammal mortalities, but little is known about infectious bacterial species and their prevalence in dugongs (Dugong dugon). This study represents a survey of the species of bacteria and fungi isolated from dugongs submitted to the University of Queensland's School of Veterinary Science for postmortem examination. Thirty-six dugongs were included in the survey, with 23 species of bacteria and four species of fungus cultured from lesions that were suspected of contributing to local infection, systemic infection, or both. The most abundant bacteria included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp., Enterococcus faecalis, and Pseudomonas spp. In six cases, the microorganism(s) cultured were considered to have been associated with disease. Mixed infections containing Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.; Morganella morganii, Pasteurella multocida, and Serratia marcescens; and Actinomyces spp. and Peptostreptococcus spp. were associated with pneumonia or pleuritis, and Enterococcus faecalis was associated with a multisystemic infection in a neonate. Clostridium spp. was cultured from two animals with peritonitis and likely septicemia. The significance of many of the other isolates is uncertain because the samples were taken after death, and some of the species isolated may represent postmortem overgrowth. It is also difficult to fulfil Koch's postulates through experimental infection in marine mammals. Regardless, this information will assist clinicians working with dugongs to make treatment decisions and the baseline data on the prevalence of bacterial and fungal species is of value for monitoring coastal water habitat health and risks of zoonotic disease transmission. PMID:23505701

  14. Habitat and Biodiversity of On-Farm Water Storages: A Case Study in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwell, Kim A.; Fellows, Christine S.

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners’ motivations in making farm pond management decisions. The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover. The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds

  15. Metazoan microbial framework fabrics in a Mississippian (Carboniferous) coral sponge microbial reef, Monto, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.

    2005-07-01

    Microbial fabrics (stromatolites, thrombolites and calcimicrobes) occur in many Paleozoic carbonate buildups and commonly dominated reefs after mass extinction events (e.g., Middle Cambrian, Famennian [Late Devonian] and early Mississippian). By Viséan (middle Mississippian) time, eastern Australian reefs were mostly small, microbialite-dominated structures, but they contained diverse reef-building metazoans (e.g., rugose and tabulate corals, bryozoans) that came to dominate limited reef facies in some cases. Reefs in the Cannindah Limestone at Old Cannindah Homestead, Monto region, Queensland are exceptional in being the largest such reefs and in having the most complex and differentiated reef facies. They occurred on an oolitic-crinoidal bank characterized by long-term continuous carbonate deposition in a shallow, high-energy setting. Cannindah reef framework contained lithistid sponges and diverse corals, but was dominated by microbialite. The microbialites contain diverse thrombolites, microdigitate stromatolites, and calcimicrobes. Abundant syndepositional cavities in the microbial framework supported a diverse cryptic fauna including numerous calcimicrobes (e.g., Renalcis, Palaeomicrocodium, Girvanella, Ortonella, Aphralysia, and problematica), crinoids, and ostracodes. Cavities indicate that the framework was suprastratal both where microbialite-dominated and where skeletal organisms played a role in framework construction. Although these reefs grew following Late Devonian extinction events that affected skeletal reef builders, the dominance of microbialites is difficult to attribute to the absence of appropriate skeletal reef builders. The reefs occurred ˜20 million years after the Devonian-Mississippian transition, and diverse, potentially reef-building corals and algae occur throughout the reefs, but never rose to dominate framework construction. High siliciclastic flux, turbidity, abnormal salinity, low oxygen levels, low light penetration, and

  16. Nutrients, not caloric restriction, extend lifespan in Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni).

    PubMed

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Weldon, Christopher W; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Simpson, Stephen J; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely accepted as a mechanism explaining increased lifespan (LS) in organisms subjected to dietary restriction (DR), but recent studies investigating the role of nutrients have challenged the role of CR in extending longevity. Fuelling this debate is the difficulty in experimentally disentangling CR and nutrient effects due to compensatory feeding (CF) behaviour. We quantified CF by measuring the volume of solution imbibed and determined how calories and nutrients influenced LS and fecundity in unmated females of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). We restricted flies to one of 28 diets varying in carbohydrate:protein (C:P) ratios and concentrations. On imbalanced diets, flies overcame dietary dilutions, consuming similar caloric intakes for most dilutions. The response surface for LS revealed that increasing C:P ratio while keeping calories constant extended LS, with the maximum LS along C:P ratio of 21:1. In general, LS was reduced as caloric intake decreased. Lifetime egg production was maximized at a C:P ratio of 3:1. When given a choice of separate sucrose and yeast solutions, each at one of five concentrations (yielding 25 choice treatments), flies regulated their nutrient intake to match C:P ratio of 3:1. Our results (i) demonstrate that CF can overcome dietary dilutions; (ii) reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet; (iii) illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies and (iv) highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.

  17. Can stormwater harvesting restore pre-development flows in urban catchments in South East Queensland?

    PubMed

    Ashbolt, S; Aryal, S; Petrone, K; McIntosh, B S; Maheepala, S; Chowdhury, R; Gardner, T

    2013-01-01

    Increases in the impervious area due to urbanisation have been shown to have negative impacts on the physical and ecological condition of streams, primarily through increased volume and frequency of runoff. The harvesting and detention of runoff has a potential to decrease this impact. This paper describes the effects of urbanisation on catchment flow and of stormwater harvesting on reducing those adverse impacts on a stream in South East Queensland (SEQ), Australia. A largely undeveloped catchment located southeast of Brisbane city was calibrated and validated using the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM). This model was used to investigate the effect of a range of future increases in urbanisation (represented by impervious area) on stream hydrology as well as the potential of stormwater harvesting to return the catchments to predevelopment flow conditions. Stormwater harvesting was modelled according to flow frequency measures specified in current SEQ development guidelines. These guidelines stipulate the capture of the first 10 mm of runoff from impervious areas of 0-40% and the first 15 mm from impervious areas of 40% or greater for urban developments. We found that increases in the impervious area resulted in increases in the mean, frequency and duration of high flows, and an increase in the mean rate of rise and fall for storm events in the catchment. However, the predevelopment (non-urbanised) flow distribution was very flashy in comparison with all urbanised scenarios; i.e. it had the quickest response to rainfall indicated by a high rate of rise to and fall from peak flow volume, followed by a return to zero flow conditions. Capturing the runoff according to the development guidelines resulted in a reduction in flow towards the flow distribution of a lower impervious area, however this was insufficient to meet predevelopment conditions. This suggests a stronger influence of impervious areas in this catchment on the volume of runoff than flow frequency

  18. Habitat and biodiversity of on-farm water storages: a case study in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Markwell, Kim A; Fellows, Christine S

    2008-02-01

    On-farm water storages (locally known as farm dams or farm ponds) are an important part of many agricultural landscapes, as they provide a reliable source of water for irrigation and stock. Although these waterbodies are artificially constructed and morphologically simple, there is increasing interest in their potential role as habitat for native flora and fauna. In this article, we present results from a case study which examined the habitat characteristics (such as water physical and chemical parameters, benthic metabolism, and macrophyte cover) and the macrophyte and macroinvertebrate biodiversity of eight farm ponds on four properties in the Stanley Catchment, Southeast Queensland, Australia. Each landowner was interviewed to allow a comparison of the management of the ponds with measured habitat and biodiversity characteristics, and to understand landowners' motivations in making farm pond management decisions.The physical and chemical water characteristics of the study ponds were comparable to the limited number of Australian farm ponds described in published literature. Littoral zones supported forty-five macroinvertebrate families, with most belonging to the orders Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, and Diptera. Invertebrate community composition was strongly influenced by littoral zone macrophyte structure, with significant differences between ponds with high macrophyte cover compared to those with bare littoral zones. The importance of littoral zone macrophytes was also suggested by a significant positive relationship between invertebrate taxonomic richness and macrophyte cover.The landowners in this study demonstrated sound ecological knowledge of their farm ponds, but many had not previously acknowledged them as having high habitat value for native flora and fauna. If managed for aquatic organisms as well as reliable water sources, these artificial habitats may help to maintain regional biodiversity, particularly given the large number of farm ponds across

  19. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  20. Revision of the Scytinopteridae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Scytinopteroidea) of the Queensland Triassic.

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    The extinct hemipteran family Scytinopteridae, the presumed ancestors of the Heteroptera, was a small but widely distributed element of the Triassic insect fauna of Queensland. A total of 28 tegmina have been collected at six sites (Gayndah, Esk, Mount Crosby, Riverview, Denmark Hill and Dinmore) in five Middle or Late Triassic Formations. The specimens are remarkably uniform in both wing shape and basic venation, and the generally weakly developed venation of the apical area of the tegmen is rarely clearly preserved. Some consistent variations in tegmen size and in minor venational characters, however, have enabled the identification of six and possibly seven species in three genera, acknowledging of course, the somewhat artificial nature of fossil insect species based solely on isolated wings. Mesoscytina Tillyard, 1919 (= Triassoscarta Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov.), comprising Mesoscytina australis Tillyard, 1919 (= Mesoscytina affinis Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov., = Triassoscarta subcostalis Tillyard, 1919, syn. nov.) (Denmark Hill, Esk), Mesoscytina fistulae sp. nov. (Mount Crosby, Gayndah), Mesoscytina woodsi sp. nov. (Gayndah), and Mesoscytina magna sp. nov. (Dinmore), is distinguished by the combination of the R more or less straight distally and M with three apical branches. The monotypic Eurymelidium Tillyard, 1919, with type species Eurymelidium australe Tillyard, 1919 (Denmark Hill, Dinmore), has R sinuous and M with two apical branches, and the monotypic Apheloscyta Tillyard, 1922, with type species Apheloscyta mesocampta Tillyard, 1922 (Denmark Hill, Riverview) has R more or less straight and M with two apical branches. Three poorly preserved and thus unidentifiable scytinopterid tegmina from Esk, similar in size to Mesoscytina fistulae, are designated as Esk species A. PMID:27395195

  1. Global change and the mulga woodlands of southwest Queensland: greenhouse gas emissions, impacts, and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Howden, S M; Moore, J L; McKeon, G M; Carter, J O

    2001-09-01

    The possibility of trading greenhouse gas emission permits as a result of the Kyoto Protocol has spurred interest in developing land-based sinks for greenhouse gases. Extensive grazing lands that have the potential to develop substantial woody biomass are one obvious candidate for such activities. However, such activities need to consider the possible impacts on existing grazing and the possible impacts of continuing CO2 buildup in the atmosphere and resultant climate change. We used simulation models to investigate these issues in the mulga (Acacia aneura) woodlands of southwest Queensland. The simulation results suggest that this system can be managed to act as either a net source or a net sink of greenhouse gases under current climate and CO2 and under a range of global change scenarios. The key component in determining source or sink status is the management of the woody mulga. The most effective means of permanently increasing carbon stores and hence reducing net emissions is to exclude both burning and grazing. There are combinations of management regimes, such as excluding fire with light grazing, which, on average, allows productive grazing but transient carbon storage. The effects of increased CO2 on ecosystem carbon stores were unexpected. Carbon stores increased (7-17%) with doubling of CO2 only in those simulations where burning did not occur, but decreased when burnt. This occurred because the substantial increases in grass growth with doubling of CO2 (34-56%) enabled more fires, killing off the establishing cohorts needed to ensure continued carbon accumulation. On average, the doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration increased grass growth by 44%, which is identical with mean literature values, suggesting that this result may be applicable in other ecosystems where fire has a similar function. A sensitivity analysis of the CO2 response of mulga showed only minor impacts. We discuss additional uncertainties and shortcomings.

  2. Mars: Always Cold, Sometimes Wet?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Pascal; McKay, Christoper P.

    2003-01-01

    A synthesis of a diverse suite of observations of H2O-related landforms that are possible Mars analogs from terrestrial polar regions (Devon Island in the Arctic; the Dry Valleys of Antarctica) put into question any requirement for extended episode(s) of warm and wet climate in Mars past. Geologically transient episodes of localized H2O cycling, forced by exogenic impacts, enhanced endogenic heat flow, and/or orbit-driven short-term local environmental change under an otherwise cold, low pressure (=10(exp 2) mbar) global climate, may be sufficient to account for the martian surface's exposed record of aqueous activity. A Mars that was only sometimes locally warm and wet while remaining climatically cold throughout its history is consistent with results (difficulties) encountered in modeling efforts attempting to support warm martian climate hypotheses. Possible analogs from terrestrial cold climate regions for the recent gully features on Mars also illustrate how transient localized aqueous activity might, under specific circumstances, also occur on Mars under the present frigid global climatic regime.

  3. This technology is all wet

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The wet oxidation technology developed by Conor Pacific Environmental Technologies Inc. (CPET; Vancouver, British Columbia) is designed to eliminate hazardous and nonhazardous organic contaminants from liquid effluent. The technology, which originated in Denmark, uses oxygen homogeneously dissolved in water to treat organic contaminants. According to the company, the process eliminates hazardous and nonhazardous contaminants without generating pollutant emissions, making it relatively easy to permit. CPET says wet oxidation eliminates some inorganic compounds, such as cyanides, and all hazardous and nonhazardous organic pollutants, including those found in petroleum products, aromatic solvents, tar compounds, pesticides and plasticizers. The process also handles relatively high concentrations of such contaminants as phenol, oil, and coal, tar and wood preservatives. The technology can achieve up to 99.9999% destruction efficiencies. The process is exothermic, generating its own heat, and allows energy to be recovered and recycled. Some heating is required at start-up, and heat exchangers are used to overcome heat build-up later in the process.

  4. Elucidating the mysteries of wetting.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Grillet, Anne Mary; Sackinger, Philip A.; Grest, Gary Stephen; Emerson, John Allen; Ash, Benjamin Jesse; Heine, David R.; Brooks, Carlton, F.; Gorby, Allen D.

    2005-11-01

    Nearly every manufacturing and many technologies central to Sandia's business involve physical processes controlled by interfacial wetting. Interfacial forces, e.g. conjoining/disjoining pressure, electrostatics, and capillary condensation, are ubiquitous and can surpass and even dominate bulk inertial or viscous effects on a continuum level. Moreover, the statics and dynamics of three-phase contact lines exhibit a wide range of complex behavior, such as contact angle hysteresis due to surface roughness, surface reaction, or compositional heterogeneities. These thermodynamically and kinetically driven interactions are essential to the development of new materials and processes. A detailed understanding was developed for the factors controlling wettability in multicomponent systems from computational modeling tools, and experimental diagnostics for systems, and processes dominated by interfacial effects. Wettability probed by dynamic advancing and receding contact angle measurements, ellipsometry, and direct determination of the capillary and disjoining forces. Molecular scale experiments determined the relationships between the fundamental interactions between molecular species and with the substrate. Atomistic simulations studied the equilibrium concentration profiles near the solid and vapor interfaces and tested the basic assumptions used in the continuum approaches. These simulations provide guidance in developing constitutive equations, which more accurately take into account the effects of surface induced phase separation and concentration gradients near the three-phase contact line. The development of these accurate models for dynamic multicomponent wetting allows improvement in science based engineering of manufacturing processes previously developed through costly trial and error by varying material formulation and geometry modification.

  5. Mangrove distribution and mosquito control: transport of Avicennia marina propagules by mosquito-control runnels in southeast Queensland saltmarshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breitfuss, M. J.; Connolly, R. M.; Dale, P. E. R.

    2003-03-01

    The saltmarsh-mangrove interface generally constitutes the landward boundary for the grey mangrove Avicennia marina var. australasica, the most widespread species on southeast Queensland shores. A. marina produces buoyant propagules, which are dispersed by tidal waters, only infrequently transported to saltmarsh by the highest spring tides. We predicted that runnelling, a form of habitat modification for mosquito control, transports and deposits mangrove propagules to saltmarsh because the runnels carry low-amplitude tides that would not normally inundate higher regions of the marsh. To test this, groups of marked A. marina propagules were released at three runnelled saltmarshes in southeast Queensland during high-amplitude, flooding and low-amplitude, non-flooding tidal events. The distance propagules were transported from their original starting positions on the saltmarsh-mangrove interface was measured and analysed to detect differences among groups at different distances from runnels. Groups of propagules released within 10 m of a runnel were always transported significantly further from the starting position and further up the saltmarsh shore after both flooding and non-flooding tides than any other groups. In addition, the pattern of stranding on saltmarsh for significantly different groups was closely associated with the path of runnel construction so that propagules were located either in the runnel or in depressions linked to the runnel that had been isolated mosquito-breeding pools prior to runnelling. Observations of A. marina plants at other runnelled sites suggest that propagules transported by runnels can establish and develop to maturity, at least in depressions and runnels, in saltmarsh. The fact that runnels transport propagules to regions of the saltmarsh beyond their normal limits of dispersion suggests a possible advantage for landward extension of the intertidal distribution of A. marina at runnelled sites and should be considered in saltmarsh

  6. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  7. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  8. Environmental Legionella spp. collected in urban test sites of South East Queensland, Australia, are virulent to human macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amba; Eglezos, Sofroni; Huston, Wilhelmina

    2016-01-01

    Legionellae are frequent contaminants of potable water supplies, resulting in sporadic infections and occasional outbreaks. Isolates of Legionella were collected from urban test sites within South East Queensland and evaluated for their virulence potential in vitro. Two strains (from the species Legionella londiniensis and Legionella quinlivanii) were demonstrated to have the ability to infect human macrophages, while a strain from the species Legionella anisa did not maintain an infection over the same time course. This suggests that the spectrum of urban environmentally associated Legionella with potential to cause human disease might be greater than currently considered.

  9. Hendra virus in Queensland, Australia, during the winter of 2011: veterinarians on the path to better management strategies.

    PubMed

    Mendez, Diana; Buttner, Petra; Speare, Rick

    2014-11-01

    Following the emergence of Hendra virus (HeV), private veterinarians have had to adopt additional infection control strategies to manage this zoonosis. Between 1994 and 2010, seven people became infected with HeV, four fatally. All infected people were at a higher risk of exposure from contact with horses as they were either veterinary personnel, assisting veterinarians, or working in the horse industry. The management of emerging zoonoses is best approached from a One Health perspective as it benefits biosecurity as well as a public health, including the health of those most at risk, in this case private veterinarians. In 2011 we conducted a cross-sectional study of private veterinarians registered in Queensland and providing veterinary services to horses. The aim of this study was to gauge if participants had adopted recommendations for improved infection control, including the use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and the development of HeV specific management strategies during the winter of 2011. A majority of participants worked in practices that had a formal HeV management plan, mostly based on the perusal of official guidelines and an HeV field kit. The use of PPE increased as the health status of an equine patient decreased, demonstrating that many participants evaluated the risk of exposure to HeV appropriately; while others remained at risk of HeV infection by not using the appropriate PPE even when attending a sick horse. This study took place after Biosecurity Queensland had sent a comprehensive package about HeV management to all private veterinarians working in Queensland. However, those who had previous HeV experience through the management of suspected cases or had attended a HeV specific professional education programme in the previous 12 months were more likely to use PPE than those who had not. This may indicate that for private veterinarians in Queensland personal experience and face-to-face professional education sessions may be more

  10. Wetting and Non-Wetting Models of Black Carbon Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henson, B. F.; Laura, S.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of recent modeling studies on the activation of black carbon (BC) aerosol to form cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). We use a model of BC activation based on a general modification of the Koehler equation for insoluble activation in which we introduce a term based on the activity of water adsorbed on the particle surface. We parameterize the model using the free energy of adsorption, a parameter directly comparable to laboratory measurements of water adsorption on carbon. Although the model of the water- surface interaction is general, the form of the activation equation that results depends upon a further model of the distribution of water on the particle. One possible model involves the symmetric growth of a water shell around the isoluble particle core (wetting). This model predicts upper and lower bounding curves for the activation supersaturation given by the range of water interaction energies from hydrophobic to hydrophilic which are in agreement with a large body of recent activation data. The resulting activation diameters are from 3 to 10 times smaller than activation of soluble particles of identical dry diameter. Another possible model involves an exluded liquid droplet growing in contact with the particle (non-wetting). The geometry of this model much more resembles classic assumptions of heterogeneous nucleation theory. This model can yield extremely high activation supersaturation as a function of diameter, as has been observed in some experiments, and enables calculations in agreement with some of these results. We discuss these two geometrical models of water growth, the different behaviors predicted by the resulting activation equation, and the means to determine which model of growth is appropriate for a given BC particle characterized by either water interaction energy or morphology. These simple models enable an efficient and physically reasonable means to calculate the activation of BC aerosol to form CCN based upon a

  11. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  12. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy. PMID:24941308

  13. Carbon nanotube fiber spun from wetted ribbon

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yuntian T; Arendt, Paul; Zhang, Xiefei; Li, Qingwen; Fu, Lei; Zheng, Lianxi

    2014-04-29

    A fiber of carbon nanotubes was prepared by a wet-spinning method involving drawing carbon nanotubes away from a substantially aligned, supported array of carbon nanotubes to form a ribbon, wetting the ribbon with a liquid, and spinning a fiber from the wetted ribbon. The liquid can be a polymer solution and after forming the fiber, the polymer can be cured. The resulting fiber has a higher tensile strength and higher conductivity compared to dry-spun fibers and to wet-spun fibers prepared by other methods.

  14. Directional wetting in anisotropic inverse opals.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Katherine R; Vogel, Nicolas; Burgess, Ian B; Perry, Carole C; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    Porous materials display interesting transport phenomena due to restricted motion of fluids within the nano- to microscale voids. Here, we investigate how liquid wetting in highly ordered inverse opals is affected by anisotropy in pore geometry. We compare samples with different degrees of pore asphericity and find different wetting patterns depending on the pore shape. Highly anisotropic structures are infiltrated more easily than their isotropic counterparts. Further, the wetting of anisotropic inverse opals is directional, with liquids filling from the side more easily. This effect is supported by percolation simulations as well as direct observations of wetting using time-resolved optical microscopy.

  15. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation. PMID:27464305

  16. Wet comet model: Rosetta redux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Robert B.

    2015-09-01

    The wet-comet model (WCM) of the structure and composition of comets was developed in 2005 to replace the "dirty-snowball" model (DSM) of Fred Whipple, because the first comet flybys of P/Halley "armada" revealed a very different landscape. Subsequent flybys of P/Borrelly, P/Wild-2, P/Hartley, P/Tempel-1 have confirmed and refined the model, so that we confidently predicted that the Rosetta mission would encounter a prolate, tumbling, concrete-encrusted, black comet: P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Unfortunately, the Philae lander team was preparing for a DSM and the anchors bounced off the concrete surface, but the orbiter has returned spec- tacular pictures of every crevice, which confirm and extend the WCM yet a sixth time. We report of what we predicted, what was observed, and several unexpected results from the ROSETTA mission.

  17. Thunderstorms Increase Mercury Wet Deposition.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Christopher D; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth P; Caffrey, Jane M; Landing, William M; Edgerton, Eric S; Knapp, Kenneth R; Nair, Udaysankar S

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) wet deposition, transfer from the atmosphere to Earth's surface by precipitation, in the United States is highest in locations and seasons with frequent deep convective thunderstorms, but it has never been demonstrated whether the connection is causal or simple coincidence. We use rainwater samples from over 800 individual precipitation events to show that thunderstorms increase Hg concentrations by 50% relative to weak convective or stratiform events of equal precipitation depth. Radar and satellite observations reveal that strong convection reaching the upper troposphere (where high atmospheric concentrations of soluble, oxidized mercury species (Hg(II)) are known to reside) produces the highest Hg concentrations in rain. As a result, precipitation meteorology, especially thunderstorm frequency and total rainfall, explains differences in Hg deposition between study sites located in the eastern United States. Assessing the fate of atmospheric mercury thus requires bridging the scales of global transport and convective precipitation.

  18. A cold and wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairén, Alberto G.

    2010-07-01

    Water on Mars has been explained by invoking controversial and mutually exclusive solutions based on warming the atmosphere with greenhouse gases (the "warm and wet" Mars) or on local thermal energy sources acting in a global freezing climate (the "cold and dry" Mars). Both have critical limitations and none has been definitively accepted as a compelling explanation for the presence of liquid water on Mars. Here is considered the hypothesis that cold, saline and acidic liquid solutions have been stable on the sub-zero surface of Mars for relatively extended periods of time, completing a hydrogeological cycle in a water-enriched but cold planet. Computer simulations have been developed to analyze the evaporation processes of a hypothetical martian fluid with a composition resulting from the acid weathering of basalt. This model is based on orbiter- and lander-observed surface mineralogy of Mars, and is consistent with the sequence and time of deposition of the different mineralogical units. The hydrological cycle would have been active only in periods of dense atmosphere, as having a minimum atmospheric pressure is essential for water to flow, and relatively high temperatures (over ˜245 K) are required to trigger evaporation and snowfall; minor episodes of limited liquid water on the surface could have occurred at lower temperatures (over ˜225 K). During times with a thin atmosphere and even lesser temperatures (under ˜225 K), only transient liquid water can potentially exist on most of the martian surface. Assuming that surface temperatures have always been maintained below 273 K, Mars can be considered a "cold and wet" planet for a substantial part of its geological history.

  19. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Corrie S.; Hugall, Andrew F.; McDonald, Keith R.; Jamieson, Barrie G. M.; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity. PMID:26366862

  20. An Ancient Divide in a Contiguous Rainforest: Endemic Earthworms in the Australian Wet Tropics.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Corrie S; Hugall, Andrew F; McDonald, Keith R; Jamieson, Barrie G M; Moritz, Craig

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the factors that shape current species diversity is a fundamental aim of ecology and evolutionary biology. The Australian Wet Tropics (AWT) are a system in which much is known about how the rainforests and the rainforest-dependent organisms reacted to late Pleistocene climate changes, but less is known about how events deeper in time shaped speciation and extinction in this highly endemic biota. We estimate the phylogeny of a species-rich endemic genus of earthworms (Terrisswalkerius) from the region. Using DEC and DIVA historical biogeography methods we find a strong signal of vicariance among known biogeographical sub-regions across the whole phylogeny, congruent with the phylogeography of less diverse vertebrate groups. Absolute dating estimates, in conjunction with relative ages of major biogeographic disjunctions across Australia, indicate that diversification in Terrisswalkerius dates back before the mid-Miocene shift towards aridification, into the Paleogene era of isolation of mesothermal Gondwanan Australia. For the Queensland endemic Terrisswalkerius earthworms, the AWT have acted as both a museum of biological diversity and as the setting for continuing geographically structured diversification. These results suggest that past events affecting organismal diversification can be concordant across phylogeographic to phylogenetic levels and emphasize the value of multi-scale analysis, from intra- to interspecies, for understanding the broad-scale processes that have shaped geographic diversity.

  1. At the Heart of the Industrial Boom: Australian Snubfin Dolphins in the Capricorn Coast, Queensland, Need Urgent Conservation Action

    PubMed Central

    Cagnazzi, Daniele; Parra, Guido J.; Westley, Shane; Harrison, Peter L.

    2013-01-01

    The recent industrial boom along the Australian coastline has increased concerns about the long term conservation of snubfin dolphins along the Queensland coast. National assessment of the conservation status and management of the Australian snubfin dolphin is currently hindered by the lack of adequate biological and ecological information throughout most of its range. In response to the issue of determining the conservation status of species with broad ranges, the IUCN has provided a framework for assessing the threatened status of regional populations. In this study we assessed the conservation status of a small geographically isolated population of snubfin dolphins living in the Fitzroy River region, Queensland, Australia, against the IUCN criteria for regional populations. A review of all available sightings data and stranding information indicates that this is the southernmost resident population of snubfin dolphins in Australian waters. The Fitzroy River snubfin dolphin population is composed of less than 100 individuals, with a representative range and core area of less than 400 and 300 km2 respectively. The area most often used by snubfin dolphins within the representative range and core area was estimated to be about 292 and 191 km2, respectively. A decrease in representative range, core area and preferred habitat between 14 and 25% is projected to occur if a planned industrial port development were to occur. These results are robust to uncertainty and considering the low level of formal protection and future threats, a classification of this subpopulation under the IUCN Red List as “Endangered” is appropriate. PMID:23437225

  2. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable.

  3. Multivariate genetic analysis of academic skills of the Queensland core skills test and IQ highlight the importance of genetic g.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark A; Wright, Margaret J; Luciano, Michelle; Geffen, Gina M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental relationships among 5 academic achievement skills of a standardized test of academic achievement, the Queensland Core Skills Test (QCST; Queensland Studies Authority, 2003a). QCST participants included 182 monozygotic pairs and 208 dizygotic pairs (mean 17 years +/- 0.4 standard deviation). IQ data were included in the analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. A genetic general factor explained virtually all genetic variance in the component academic skills scores, and accounted for 32% to 73% of their phenotypic variances. It also explained 56% and 42% of variation in Verbal IQ and Performance IQ respectively, suggesting that this factor is genetic g. Modest specific genetic effects were evident for achievement in mathematical problem solving and written expression. A single common factor adequately explained common environmental effects, which were also modest, and possibly due to assortative mating. The results suggest that general academic ability, derived from genetic influences and to a lesser extent common environmental influences, is the primary source of variation in component skills of the QCST.

  4. Cocaine, MDMA and methamphetamine residues in wastewater: Consumption trends (2009-2015) in South East Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Foon Yin; O'Brien, Jake W; Thai, Phong K; Hall, Wayne; Chan, Gary; Bruno, Raimondo; Ort, Christoph; Prichard, Jeremy; Carter, Steve; Anuj, Shalona; Kirkbride, K Paul; Gartner, Coral; Humphries, Melissa; Mueller, Jochen F

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater analysis, or wastewater-based epidemiology, has become a common tool to monitor trends of illicit drug consumption around the world. In this study, we examined trends in cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and methamphetamine consumption by measuring their residues in wastewater from two wastewater treatment plants in Australia (specifically, an urban and a rural catchment, both in South East Queensland) between 2009 and 2015. With direct injection of the samples, target analytes were identified and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cocaine and MDMA residues and metabolites were mainly quantifiable in the urban catchment while methamphetamine residues were consistently detected in both urban and rural catchments. There was no consistent trend in the population normalised mass loads observed for cocaine and MDMA at the urban site between 2009 and 2015. In contrast, there was a five-fold increase in methamphetamine consumption over this period in this catchment. For methamphetamine consumption, the rural area showed a very similar trend as the urban catchment starting at a lower baseline. The observed increase in per capita loads of methamphetamine via wastewater analysis over the past six years in South East Queensland provides objective evidence for increased methamphetamine consumption in the Australian population while the use of other illicit stimulants remained relatively stable. PMID:27325011

  5. Multivariate genetic analysis of academic skills of the Queensland core skills test and IQ highlight the importance of genetic g.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Mark A; Wright, Margaret J; Luciano, Michelle; Geffen, Gina M; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the genetic and environmental relationships among 5 academic achievement skills of a standardized test of academic achievement, the Queensland Core Skills Test (QCST; Queensland Studies Authority, 2003a). QCST participants included 182 monozygotic pairs and 208 dizygotic pairs (mean 17 years +/- 0.4 standard deviation). IQ data were included in the analysis to correct for ascertainment bias. A genetic general factor explained virtually all genetic variance in the component academic skills scores, and accounted for 32% to 73% of their phenotypic variances. It also explained 56% and 42% of variation in Verbal IQ and Performance IQ respectively, suggesting that this factor is genetic g. Modest specific genetic effects were evident for achievement in mathematical problem solving and written expression. A single common factor adequately explained common environmental effects, which were also modest, and possibly due to assortative mating. The results suggest that general academic ability, derived from genetic influences and to a lesser extent common environmental influences, is the primary source of variation in component skills of the QCST. PMID:16354502

  6. Spatiotemporal modelling of groundwater extraction in semi-arid central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keir, Greg; Bulovic, Nevenka; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    The semi-arid Surat Basin in central Queensland, Australia, forms part of the Great Artesian Basin, a groundwater resource of national significance. While this area relies heavily on groundwater supply bores to sustain agricultural industries and rural life in general, measurement of groundwater extraction rates is very limited. Consequently, regional groundwater extraction rates are not well known, which may have implications for regional numerical groundwater modelling. However, flows from a small number of bores are metered, and less precise anecdotal estimates of extraction are increasingly available. There is also an increasing number of other spatiotemporal datasets which may help predict extraction rates (e.g. rainfall, temperature, soils, stocking rates etc.). These can be used to construct spatial multivariate regression models to estimate extraction. The data exhibit complicated statistical features, such as zero-valued observations, non-Gaussianity, and non-stationarity, which limit the use of many classical estimation techniques, such as kriging. As well, water extraction histories may exhibit temporal autocorrelation. To account for these features, we employ a separable space-time model to predict bore extraction rates using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference. A joint approach is used to model both the probability (using a binomial likelihood) and magnitude (using a gamma likelihood) of extraction. The correlation between extraction rates in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model. To reduce computational burden, we allow the GMRF to be evaluated at a relatively coarse temporal resolution, while still allowing predictions to be made at arbitrarily small time scales. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, and present some

  7. What Makes Community Engagement Effective?: Lessons from the Eliminate Dengue Program in Queensland Australia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Worldwide, more than 40% of the population is at risk from dengue and recent estimates suggest that up to 390 million dengue infections are acquired every year. The Eliminate Dengue (ED) Program is investigating the use of Wolbachia-infected, transmission-compromised, mosquitoes to reduce dengue transmission. Previous introductions of genetically-modified strategies for dengue vector control have generated controversy internationally by inadequately engaging host communities. Community Engagement (CE) was a key component of the ED Program’s initial open release trials in Queensland Australia. Their approach to CE was perceived as effective by the ED team’s senior leadership, members of its CE team, and by its funders, but if and why this was the case was unclear. We conducted a qualitative case study of the ED Program’s approach to CE to identify and critically examine its components, and to explain whether and how these efforts contributed to the support received by stakeholders. Methodology/Principal Findings In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 participants with a range of experiences and perspectives related to the ED Program’s CE activities. Our analytic approach combined techniques of grounded theory and qualitative description. The ED Program’s approach to CE reflected four foundational features: 1) enabling conditions; 2) leadership; 3) core commitments and guiding values; and 4) formative social science research. These foundations informed five key operational practices: 1) building the CE team; 2) integrating CE into management practices; 3) discerning the community of stakeholders; 4) establishing and maintaining a presence in the community; and 5) socializing the technology and research strategy. We also demonstrate how these practices contributed to stakeholders’ willingness to support the trials. Conclusions/Significance Our case study has identified, and explained the functional relationships among, the

  8. Landsat Based Woody Vegetation Loss Detection in Queensland, Australia Using the Google Earth Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansen, K.; Phinn, S. R.; Taylor, M.

    2014-12-01

    Land clearing detection and woody Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) monitoring at the state and national level in Australia has mainly been undertaken by state governments and the Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) because of the considerable expense, expertise, sustained duration of activities and staffing levels needed. Only recently have services become available, providing low budget, generalized access to change detection tools suited to this task. The objective of this research was to examine if a globally available service, Google Earth Engine Beta, could be used to predict woody vegetation loss with accuracies approaching the methods used by TERN and the government of the state of Queensland, Australia. Two change detection approaches were investigated using Landsat Thematic Mapper time series and the Google Earth Engine Application Programming Interface: (1) CART and Random Forest classifiers; and (2) a normalized time series of Foliage Projective Cover (FPC) and NDVI combined with a spectral index. The CART and Random Forest classifiers produced high user's and producer's mapping accuracies of clearing (77-92% and 54-77%, respectively) when detecting change within epochs for which training data were available, but extrapolation to epochs without training data reduced the mapping accuracies. The use of FPC and NDVI time series provided a more robust approach for calculation of a clearing probability, as it did not rely on training data but instead on the difference of the normalized FPC / NDVI mean and standard deviation of a single year at the change point in relation to the remaining time series. However, the FPC and NDVI time series approach represented a trade-off between user's and producer's accuracies. Both change detection approaches explored in this research were sensitive to ephemeral greening and drying of the landscape. However, the developed normalized FPC and NDVI time series approach can be tuned to provide automated alerts for large

  9. Fish community persistence in Eastern North and South Dakota Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearer, J.S.; Berry, C.R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, the James River in North and South Dakota has experienced records in minimum and maximum discharge. Our objectives were to compare: (1) the fish community in the main river after dry (1988-90) and wet (1993-2000) years, and (2) the fish community of both the main river and tributaries between dry (1975) and wet (1998-2000) years. In South Dakota in the main river, there were 10 families and 29 species after several dry years and 11 families and 35 species after several wet years. Percichthyidae was the additional family after the wet years. Basinwide, there were 41 species present after the dry 1970s and 50 species after the wet 1990s. Overall, 93% of the species collected in 1975 have persisted. Our results provide some support for the flood pulse concept, and the findings suggest that the fish community can be useful for biomonitoring of prairie streams.

  10. 7 CFR 29.2316 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2316 Section 29.2316 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2316 Wet...

  11. 7 CFR 29.3567 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3567 Section 29.3567 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3567 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  12. 7 CFR 29.3077 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.3077 Section 29.3077 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is in an unsafe...

  13. 7 CFR 29.1083 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.1083 Section 29.1083 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1083 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco containing excessive moisture to the extent that it is...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2570 - Wet (W).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wet (W). 29.2570 Section 29.2570 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2570 Wet (W). Any sound tobacco...

  15. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  16. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  17. "Push-Me" or "Pull-You"? An Opportunity for Early Childhood Leadership in the Implementation of Queensland's Early Years Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Louise; O'Gorman, Lyndal

    2007-01-01

    Recent developments in the Queensland early childhood context have seen the phased-in introduction of a full-time Preparatory Year to replace current part-time preschool provision. Surrounding this development has been discussion of the potential role of the play-based Early Years Curriculum in shaping the implementation of early primary…

  18. Women in the University: A Policy Report. Report of the University of Queensland Senate Working Party on the Status of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brian G., Ed.; Byrne, Eileen M., Ed.

    A survey of all staff of the University of Queensland was conducted to gather: information on the participation of women in the university, particularly with regard to structural barriers and direct or indirect discriminatory practices that disadvantage women more than men; and information on opinions regarding the standing of women in the…

  19. Mapping of Assessment Procedures in Schools: A Study of Assessment Procedures in Three Subject Areas at Year 12 Level in Queensland State Secondary Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBryde, Bruce; Lamont, Ann

    In the light of recommendations for future directions in secondary education made by the Review of School Based Assessment in Queensland Secondary Schools, this study aimed to systematically map current internal assessment practices for grade 12, and to determine the degree of satisfaction in schools with these practices. The study was performed…

  20. The Development of a White Water Rafting Code of Practice in Response to Multiple Fatalities in Queensland: How Will It Impact the Commercial and Educational Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Sean

    2015-01-01

    In this article I review lessons to be learned from five commercial rafting participant fatalities in Northern Queensland between 2007 and 2009, and examine some implications of the coroner's recommendations from an outdoor education perspective. I aim both to help prevent future fatalities and to contribute to discussion about how best to achieve…

  1. The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered 'species' of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available.

  2. The Role of Integrative Taxonomy in the Conservation Management of Cryptic Species: The Taxonomic Status of Endangered Earless Dragons (Agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the Grasslands of Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Melville, Jane; Smith, Katie; Hobson, Rod; Hunjan, Sumitha; Shoo, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics is increasingly highlighting the prevalence of cryptic species, where morphologically similar organisms have long independent evolutionary histories. When such cryptic species are known to be declining in numbers and are at risk of extinction due to a range of threatening processes, the disjunction between molecular systematics research and conservation policy becomes a significant problem. We investigate the taxonomic status of Tympanocryptis populations in Queensland, which have previously been assigned to T. tetraporophora, using three species delimitation approaches. The taxonomic uncertainties in this species-group are of particular importance in the Darling Downs Earless Dragon (T. cf. tetraporophora), which is ranked as an endangered ‘species’ of high priority for conservation by the Queensland Department of Environment and Heritage Protection. We undertook a morphological study, integrated with a comprehensive genetic study and species delimitation analyses, to investigate the species status of populations in the region. Phylogenetic analyses of two gene regions (mtDNA: ND2; nuclear: RAG1) revealed high levels of genetic divergence between populations, indicating isolation over long evolutionary time frames, and strongly supporting two independent evolutionary lineages in southeastern Queensland, from the Darling Downs, and a third in the Gulf Region of northern Queensland. Of the three species delimitation protocols used, we found integrative taxonomy the most applicable to this cryptic species complex. Our study demonstrates the utility of integrative taxonomy as a species delimitation approach in cryptic complexes of species with conservation significance, where limited numbers of specimens are available. PMID:25076129

  3. Germ-line transformation of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, using a piggyBac vector in the presence of endogenous piggyBac elements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the stable genetic transformation of the Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni using a piggyBac vector marked with either the fluorescent protein DsRed or EGFP.A transformation frequency of 5–10% was obtained.Inheritance of the transgenes has remained stable over eight generations despite...

  4. PEARLs, Problems and Politics: Exploring Findings from Two Teaching and Learning Projects in Indigenous Australian Studies at the University of Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of PEARL (Political, Embodied, Active, and Reflective Learning) in two courses at The University of Queensland: a first-year introductory Indigenous Studies course and a second year Indigenous Education course. We draw on findings from a 2-year (2010-2011) Office for Learning and Teaching (then ALTC) funded…

  5. Dodgy Data, Language Invisibility and the Implications for Social Inclusion: A Critical Analysis of Indigenous Student Language Data in Queensland Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Sally; Angelo, Denise

    2014-01-01

    As part of the "Bridging the Language Gap" project undertaken with 86 State and Catholic schools across Queensland, the language competencies of Indigenous students have been found to be "invisible" in several key and self-reinforcing ways in school system data. A proliferation of inaccurate, illogical and incomplete data…

  6. Promoting and Disseminating Good Practice in the Planning and Management of Educational Facilities: Capital Investment Strategic Planning - A Case Study, Gold Coast Institute of TAFE, Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Kelvin

    This paper presents a case study of the process of capital investment strategic planning at the Gold Coast Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Queensland, Australia. Capital investment strategic planning is a means of contributing to success by providing strategies to ensure that assets are managed efficiently, effectively, and…

  7. Thin wetting film lensless imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allier, C. P.; Poher, V.; Coutard, J. G.; Hiernard, G.; Dinten, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Lensless imaging has recently attracted a lot of attention as a compact, easy-to-use method to image or detect biological objects like cells, but failed at detecting micron size objects like bacteria that often do not scatter enough light. In order to detect single bacterium, we have developed a method based on a thin wetting film that produces a micro-lens effect. Compared with previously reported results, a large improvement in signal to noise ratio is obtained due to the presence of a micro-lens on top of each bacterium. In these conditions, standard CMOS sensors are able to detect single bacterium, e.g. E.coli, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus thuringiensis, with a large signal to noise ratio. This paper presents our sensor optimization to enhance the SNR; improve the detection of sub-micron objects; and increase the imaging FOV, from 4.3 mm2 to 12 mm2 to 24 mm2, which allows the detection of bacteria contained in 0.5μl to 4μl to 10μl, respectively.

  8. Dynamic wetting at the nanoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amberg, Gustav; Nakamura, Yoshinori; Carlson, Andreas; Shiomi, Junichiro

    2013-11-01

    Although the capillary spreading of a drop on a dry substrate is well studied, the physical mechanisms that govern the dynamics remain challenging. Here we study the dynamics of spreading of partially wetting nano-droplets, by combining molecular dynamics and continuum simulations. The latter accounts for all the relevant hydrodynamics, i.e. capillarity, inertia and viscous stresses. By coordinated continuum and molecular dynamics simulations, the macroscopic model parameters are extracted. For a Lennard-Jones fluid spreading on a planar surface, the liquid slip on the substrate is found to be crucial for the motion of the contact line. Evaluation of the different contributions to the energy transfer shows that the liquid slip generates dissipation of the same order as the bulk viscous dissipation or the energy transfer to kinetic energy. We also study the dynamics of spreading on a substrate with a periodic nanostructure. Here it is found that a nanostructure with a length scale commensurate with molecular size completely inhibits the liquid slip. This reduces the spreading speed by about 30%. This work is partially supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, the Swedish Research Council, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, and the Sasakawa foundation.

  9. Teachers' Duration of Placement in Three Queensland Regions: A Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loney, Paul

    This paper examines the tenure of teachers in the South Western, North Western, and Sunshine Coast regions of Australia. These regions provide contrasts of isolation, climate, and apparent attractiveness. Research indicates that rapid teacher turnover in rural areas is a significant concern. Data collected since 1975 suggest that the average days…

  10. A qualitative study of pharmacy nurse providers of community based post-birth care in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced length of hospital stay following childbirth has placed increasing demands on community-based post-birth care services in Australia. Queensland is one of several states in Australia in which nurses are employed privately by pharmacies to provide maternal and child health care, yet little is known about their prevalence, attributes or role. The aims of this paper are to (1) explore the experiences and perspectives of a sample of pharmacy nurses and GPs who provide maternal and child health services in Queensland, Australia (2) describe the professional qualifications of the sample of pharmacy nurses, and (3) describe and analyze the location of pharmacy nurse clinics in relation to publicly provided services. Methods As part of a state-wide evaluation of post-birth care in Queensland, Australia, case studies were conducted in six regional and metropolitan areas which included interviews with 47 key informants involved in postnatal care provision. We report on the prevalence of pharmacy nurses in the case study sites, and on the key informant interviews with 19 pharmacy nurses and six General Practitioners (GPs). The interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Results The prevalence of pharmacy nurses appears to be highest where public services are least well integrated, coordinated and/or accessible. Pharmacy nurses report high levels of demand for their services, which they argue fill a number of gaps in the public provision of maternal and child health care including accessibility, continuity of carer, flexibility and convenient location. The concerns of pharmacy nurses include lack of privacy for consultations, limited capacity for client record keeping and follow up, and little opportunity for professional development, while GPs expressed concerns about inadequate public care and about the lack of regulation of pharmacy based care. Conclusions Pharmacy based clinics are a market-driven response to gaps in the public provision of

  11. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, William F.

    1990-01-01

    The 100 m Drop Tower at NASA-Marshall was used to provide the step change in acceleration from 1.0 to 0.0005 g. An inter-fluid meniscus oscillates vertically within a cylindrical container when suddenly released from earth's gravity and taken into a microgravity environment. Oscillations damp out from energy dissipative mechanisms such as viscosity and interfacial friction. Damping of the oscillations by the later mechanism is affected by the nature of the interfacial junction between the fluid-fluid interface and the container wall. In earlier stages of the project, the meniscus shape which developed during microgravity conditions was applied to evaluations of wetting phenomena near the critical temperature. Variations in equilibrium contact angle against the container wall were expected to occur under critical wetting conditions. However, it became apparent that the meaningful phenomenon was the damping of interfacial oscillations. This latter concept makes up the bulk of this report. Perfluoromethyl cyclohexane and isopropanol in glass were the materials used for the experiment. The wetting condition of the fluids against the wall changes at the critical wetting transition temperature. This change in wetting causes a change in the damping characteristics of the interfacial excursions during oscillation and no measurable change in contact angle. The effect of contact line friction measured above and below the wetting transition temperature was to increase the period of vertical oscillation for the vapor-liquid interface when below the wetting transition temperature.

  12. Wetting transitions at soft, sliding interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A.; Clain, J.; Buguin, A.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    2002-03-01

    We observe (by optical interferometry) the contact of a rubber cap squeezing a nonwetting liquid against a plate moving at velocity U. At low velocities, the contact is dry. It becomes partially wet above a threshold velocity Vc1, with two symmetrical dry patches on the rear part. Above a second velocity Vc2, the contact is totally wet. This regime U>Vc2 corresponds to the hydroplaning of a car (decelerating on a wet road). We interpret the transitions at Vc1, Vc2 in terms of a competition between (a) liquid invasion induced by shear (b) spontaneous dewetting of the liquid (between nonwettable surfaces).

  13. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  14. Identification of Radar Facies and Linked Process-Based Palaeo-environmental Interpretations, Cooloola Sand Mass, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontz, A. M.; McCallum, A. B.; Moss, P. T.; Shulmeister, J.

    2015-12-01

    During 2015 and 2014, nearly 60 km of high-resolution ground penetrating radar data were acquired on the Cooloola Sand Mass (CSM) in southeastern coastal Queensland. The CSM is part of the world's largest downdrift sand system. It contains three of the world's largest sand islands, several National Parks, a UNESCO World Heritage Site and covers 500 km of the eastern Australian coastline in northern New South Wales and southern Queensland. The large (>200 m) composite dunes of the CSM exhibit multiple activation phases, coastally eroding bluffs and dune development is not obvious from surficial exposures. This provides an ideal environment for ground penetrating radar. The dune sequences have been provisionally dated to the mid Quaternary through present and represent the potential for a large palaeo-environmental proxy dataset. GPR imagery was collected using a MALA GeoSciences Ground Explorer (GX) system with 160 and 450 MHz antennae from the numerous physiographic and ecological provinces as well as mapped surficial soil units at the CSM. These data were used to determine the subsurface architecture, identify radar facies and develop environmental interpretations. In the clean, aeolian quartz-rich sands, radar wave penetration exceeded 30 m (radar velocity = 0.07 m/ns) with the 160 MHz antenna. From the interpreted environmental units including palaeosol, dune slip face, dune stoss face, sand blow, beach, estuarine and fluvial, we are developing maps to relate the units and focus a detailed sampling regime that includes OSL, sediment geochemistry and sedimentology, The interpreted units, stratigraphic correlation and spatial distribution of the facies is the first step in a broader project to unravel the Quaternary environmental and climate records that are archived within the sediments of the CSM.

  15. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  16. Comparative sensitivity of aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate species to wastewater from an operational coal mine in central Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lanctôt, C; Wilson, S P; Fabbro, L; Leusch, F D L; Melvin, S D

    2016-07-01

    Coal excavation and refinement processes generate substantial volumes of contaminated effluent that may be detrimental to aquatic ecosystems. As such, understanding the impacts of coal mine water releases on aquatic animals and ecosystems is essential for effectively managing and protecting neighboring environments. Such information will ultimately be applied towards developing ongoing monitoring strategies that are protective of native wildlife. Despite intensive mining operations in Australia, few studies have documented toxicity associated with coal mine wastewater (CMW) on native species. To address existing knowledge gaps, we investigated acute toxicity (48-96h) using eight native invertebrate species and sub-chronic effects (2 week) using three vertebrate species following exposure to wastewater from two dams (CMW1 and CMW2) located at an open-cut coal mine licensed to discharge into the Fitzroy catchment (Queensland, Australia). Wastewater from these sites is characterized by elevated conductivity, pH, sulfates as well as relatively high total and dissolved metal(loid)s (including As, Al, B, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se and Zn). Acute exposures revealed cladocerans (Daphnia carinata) and planarians (Dugesia sp.) to be the most sensitive species, exhibiting significant mortality after 48 and 96h exposure to CMW2, respectively. Neither wastewater was found to elicit acute toxicity in vertebrates, but a range of sub-lethal morphological effects were observed following the sub-chronic exposures. The overall response pattern was characterized by decreased condition factor and hepatosomatic index in the fish Hypseleotris compressa and Pseudomugil signifier, and in Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles. Tadpoles were generally more sensitive compared to the two fish species. Differences in responses were observed amongst CMW1 and CMW2, which likely relates to differences in physico-chemical properties between sites. Our results have identified several candidate vertebrate and

  17. Results of the Queensland 2007-2012 roadside drug testing program: The prevalence of three illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry; Martin, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to present an overview of roadside drug driving enforcement and detections in Queensland, Australia since the introduction of oral fluid screening. Drug driving is a problematic issue for road safety and investigations of the prevalence and impact of drug driving suggest that, in particular, the use of illicit drugs may increase a driver's involvement in a road crash when compared to a driver who is drug free. In response to the potential increased crash involvement of drug impaired drivers, Australian police agencies have adopted the use of oral fluid analysis to detect the presence of illicit drugs in drivers. This paper describes the results of roadside drug testing for over 80,000 drivers in Queensland, Australia, from December 2007 to June 2012. It provides unique data on the prevalence of methamphetamine, cannabis and ecstasy in the screened population for the period. When prevalence rates are examined over time, drug driving detection rates have almost doubled from around 2.0% at the introduction of roadside testing operations to just under 4.0% in the latter years. The most common drug type detected was methamphetamine (40.8%) followed by cannabis (29.8%) and methamphetamine/cannabis combination (22.5%). By comparison, the rate of ecstasy detection was very low (1.7%). The data revealed a number of regional, age and gender patterns and variations of drug driving across the state. Younger drivers were more likely to test positive for cannabis whilst older drivers were more likely to test positive for methamphetamine. The overall characteristics of drivers who tested positive to the presence of at least one of the target illicit drugs are they are likely to be male, aged 30-39 years, be driving a car on Friday, Saturday or Sunday between 6:00 pm and 6:00 am and to test positive for methamphetamine. PMID:24389088

  18. Wetting behavior of alternative solder alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, F.M.; Vianco, P.T.; Hernandez, C.L.; Rejent, J.A.

    1993-07-01

    Recent economic and environmental issues have stimulated interest in solder alloys other than the traditional Sn-Pb eutectic or near eutectic composition. Preliminary evaluations suggest that several of these alloys approach the baseline properties (wetting, mechanical, thermal, and electrical) of the Sn-Pb solders. Final alloy acceptance will require major revisions to existing industrial and military soldering specifications. Bulk alloy and solder joint properties are consequently being investigated to validate their producibility and reliability. The work reported in this paper examines the wetting behavior of several of the more promising commercial alloys on copper substrates. Solder wettability was determined by the meniscometer and wetting balance techniques. The wetting results suggest that several of the alternative solders would satisfy pretinning and surface mount soldering applications. Their use on plated through hole technology might be more difficult since the alloys generally did not spread or flow as well as the 60Sn-40Pb solder.

  19. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  20. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  1. Wetting of a Chemically Heterogeneous Surface

    SciTech Connect

    Frink, L.J.D.; Salinger, A.G.

    1998-11-20

    Theories for inhomogeneous fluids have focused in recent years on wetting, capillary conden- sation, and solvation forces for model systems where the surface(s) is(are) smooth homogeneous parallel plates, cylinders, or spherical drops. Unfortunately natural systems are more likely to be hetaogeneous both in surt%ce shape and surface chemistry. In this paper we discuss the conse- quences of chemical heterogeneity on wetting. Specifically, a 2-dimensional implementation of a nonlocal density functional theory is solved for a striped surface model. Both the strength and range of the heterogeneity are varied. Contact angles are calculated, and phase transitions (both the wetting transition and a local layering transition) are located. The wetting properties of the surface ase shown to be strongly dependent on the nature of the surface heterogeneity. In addition highly ordered nanoscopic phases are found, and the operational limits for formation of ordered or crystalline phases of nanoscopic extent are discussed.

  2. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  3. Critical point wetting drop tower experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaukler, W. F.; Tcherneshoff, L. M.; Straits, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary results for the Critical Point Wetting CPW Drop Tower Experiment are produced with immiscible systems. Much of the observed phenomena conformed to the anticipated behavior. More drops will be needed to test the CPW theory with these immiscible systems.

  4. Chlorine Disinfection of Wet Weather Managed Flows

    EPA Science Inventory

    Blending is a practice used in the wastewater industry to deal with wet weather events when the hydraulic capacity of the treatment facility could be compromised. Blending consists of primary wastewater treatment plant effluent, partially bypassing secondary treatment, and then ...

  5. Snow wetness measurements for melt forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linlor, W. I.; Clapp, F. D.; Meier, M. F.; Smith, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A microwave technique for directly measuring snow pack wetness in remote installations is described. The technique, which uses satellite telemetry for data gathering, is based on the attenuation of a microwave beam in transmission through snow.

  6. Structure of Wet Specimens in Electron Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, D. F.

    1974-01-01

    Discussed are past work and recent advances in the use of electron microscopes for viewing structures immersed in gas and liquid. Improved environmental chambers make it possible to examine wet specimens easily. (Author/RH)

  7. Wetting on flexible hydrophilic pillar-arrays

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Quanzi; Zhao, Ya-Pu

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic wetting on the flexible hydrophilic pillar-arrays is studied using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. For the first time, the combined effect of the surface topology, the intrinsic wettability and the elasticity of a solid on the wetting process is taken into consideration. The direction-dependent dynamics of both liquid and pillars, especially at the moving contact line (MCL), is revealed at atomic level. The flexible pillars accelerate the liquid when the liquid approaches, and pin the liquid when the liquid passes. The liquid deforms the pillars, resulting energy dissipation at the MCL. Scaling analysis is performed based on molecular kinetic theory and validated by our simulations. Our results may expand our knowledge of wetting on pillars and assisting the future design of active control of wetting in practical applications. PMID:23736041

  8. Making and Experimenting with a Wet Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that demonstrates the physical and chemical changes that occur during the operation of a wet cell battery as it produces an electrical current. Provides instructions for the lesson. (MDH)

  9. ESTIMATING URBAN WET-WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads in urban watersheds emanating from wet-weather flow discharge. Equations for pollutant loading estimates will focus on the effects of wastewater characteristics, sewer flow carrying velocity, and sewer-solids depositi...

  10. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  11. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  12. 7 CFR 51.491 - Wet slip.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... time of packing in which the stem scar is abnormally large, excessively wet and slippery, yields to slight pressure, and is frequently accompanied by fresh radial growth cracks at the edge of the stem scar....

  13. Wet/dry cooling tower and method

    DOEpatents

    Glicksman, Leon R.; Rohsenow, Warren R.

    1981-01-01

    A wet/dry cooling tower wherein a liquid to-be-cooled is flowed along channels of a corrugated open surface or the like, which surface is swept by cooling air. The amount of the surface covered by the liquid is kept small compared to the dry part thereof so that said dry part acts as a fin for the wet part for heat dissipation.

  14. Complete wetting of graphene by biological lipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-03-01

    Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a graphene sheet.Graphene nanosheets have been demonstrated to extract large amounts of lipid molecules directly out of the cell membrane of bacteria and thus cause serious damage to the cell's integrity. This interesting phenomenon, however, is so far not well understood theoretically. Here through extensive molecular dynamics simulations and theoretical analyses, we show that this phenomenon can be categorized as a complete wetting of graphene by membrane lipids in water. A wetting-based theory was utilized to associate the free energy change during the microscopic extraction of a lipid with the spreading parameter for the macroscopic wetting. With a customized thermodynamic cycle for detailed energetics, we show that the dispersive adhesion between graphene and lipids plays a dominant role during this extraction as manifested by the curved graphene. Our simulation results suggest that biological lipids can completely wet the concave, flat or even convex (with a small curvature) surface of a

  15. Recent developments in wet carbonization of peat

    SciTech Connect

    Rue, D.M.; Mensinger, M.C.; Srivastava, V.J.

    1986-08-01

    Wet carbonization is a generic term for a thermal beneficiation process in which wet peat is heated to temperatures of 150 to 325/sup 0/C at elevated pressures so that water present remains in liquid form. Wet carbonization produces a solid product with a higher heating value than raw peat. Wet-carbonized peat can be mechanically dewatered to a significantly lower moisture content than raw peat. A continuous-flow Process Research Unit (PRU), capable of processing 375 kg/h of peat slurry at temperatures and pressures up to 290/sup 0/C and 7.60 MPa, respectively, was used to study the effect of wet-carbonization operating conditions on the peat. Thirteen tests were made with peats from Minnesota and Maine. For the Minnesota peat tests, the feed slurry solids concentration ranged from 6.1 to 13.7%. The average reactor operating temperatures and residence times ranged from 175 to 260/sup 0/C and 1 to 60 minutes, respectively. The heating value enhancement of the wet-carbonized peats was as high as 21%, and the moisture content of mechanically-dewatered wet-carbonized peat was as low as 39% (compared with >65% for raw peat). A bench-scale, continuous two-phase anaerobic digestion system to recover energy and to treat wet-carbonization effluent water was designed, fabricated, and tested with effluent water from the PRU tests. At a short hydraulic retention time of 2.9 days, the system provided COD and BOD/sub 5/ removal efficiencies of 56 and 75%, respectively. The methane yield was approximately 86% of the average ultimate biodegradable yield. 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Leaf wetness distribution within a potato crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusinkveld, B. G.

    2010-07-01

    The Netherlands has a mild maritime climate and therefore the major interest in leaf wetness is associated with foliar plant diseases. During moist micrometeorological conditions (i.e. dew, fog, rain), foliar fungal diseases may develop quickly and thereby destroy a crop quickly. Potato crop monocultures covering several hectares are especially vulnerable to such diseases. Therefore understanding and predicting leaf wetness in potato crops is crucial in crop disease control strategies. A field experiment was carried out in a large homogeneous potato crop in the Netherlands during the growing season of 2008. Two innovative sensor networks were installed as a 3 by 3 grid at 3 heights covering an area of about 2 hectares within two larger potato crops. One crop was located on a sandy soil and one crop on a sandy peat soil. In most cases leaf wetting starts in the top layer and then progresses downward. Leaf drying takes place in the same order after sunrise. A canopy dew simulation model was applied to simulate spatial leaf wetness distribution. The dew model is based on an energy balance model. The model can be run using information on the above-canopy wind speed, air temperature, humidity, net radiation and within canopy air temperature, humidity and soil moisture content and temperature conditions. Rainfall was accounted for by applying an interception model. The results of the dew model agreed well with the leaf wetness sensors if all local conditions were considered. The measurements show that the spatial correlation of leaf wetness decreases downward.

  17. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patricia S; Smart, Peter L; Richards, David A; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2004-12-01

    The tropics are the main source of the atmosphere's sensible and latent heat, and water vapour, and are therefore important for reconstructions of past climate. But long, accurately dated records of southern tropical palaeoclimate, which would allow the establishment of climatic connections to distant regions, have not been available. Here we present a 210,000-year (210-kyr) record of wet periods in tropical northeastern Brazil--a region that is currently semi-arid. The record is obtained from speleothems and travertine deposits that are accurately dated using the U/Th method. We find wet periods that are synchronous with periods of weak East Asian summer monsoons, cold periods in Greenland, Heinrich events in the North Atlantic and periods of decreased river runoff to the Cariaco basin. We infer that the wet periods may be explained with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. This widespread synchroneity of climate anomalies suggests a relatively rapid global reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere system. We conclude that the wet periods probably affected rainforest distribution, as plant fossils show that forest expansion occurred during these intermittent wet intervals, and opened a forest corridor between the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests. PMID:15592409

  18. Wet periods in northeastern Brazil over the past 210 kyr linked to distant climate anomalies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianfeng; Auler, Augusto S; Edwards, R Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Cristalli, Patricia S; Smart, Peter L; Richards, David A; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2004-12-01

    The tropics are the main source of the atmosphere's sensible and latent heat, and water vapour, and are therefore important for reconstructions of past climate. But long, accurately dated records of southern tropical palaeoclimate, which would allow the establishment of climatic connections to distant regions, have not been available. Here we present a 210,000-year (210-kyr) record of wet periods in tropical northeastern Brazil--a region that is currently semi-arid. The record is obtained from speleothems and travertine deposits that are accurately dated using the U/Th method. We find wet periods that are synchronous with periods of weak East Asian summer monsoons, cold periods in Greenland, Heinrich events in the North Atlantic and periods of decreased river runoff to the Cariaco basin. We infer that the wet periods may be explained with a southward displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. This widespread synchroneity of climate anomalies suggests a relatively rapid global reorganization of the ocean-atmosphere system. We conclude that the wet periods probably affected rainforest distribution, as plant fossils show that forest expansion occurred during these intermittent wet intervals, and opened a forest corridor between the Amazonian and Atlantic rainforests.

  19. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  20. Geographical patterns and temporal variations of regional dry and wet heatwave events in China during 1960-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ting; Qian, Weihong

    2011-03-01

    Daily maximum/minimum temperatures and relative humidity records from 510 stations in China for the period 1960-2008 were used to investigate geographical patterns and temporal variations of heatwave (HW) events. Dry and wet HW events were compared by different definitions. Regionally, both dry and wet HW events are commonly located in southeastern China in the monsoon area, with neither type occurring in the northeast part of Northeast China and Southwest China, while the north-northwest region of the country experiences dry HW events and a few wet HW events. In the southeast of the country, site dry HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in June, while site wet HW events occurred from April to October and mostly in September. In total, 163 regional wet HW events were identified. The ten longest regional wet HW events lasted for more than 20 days, while the mean duration for 163 events was about 11 days. For the top ten events, six occurred after the 1990s, compared with four before this time. Global surface warming was clear since 1979, but the frequency and severity of regional wet HW events were relatively low in the 1980s, increasing remarkably since the 1990s. Possible reasons for this might be the strong interdecadal and interannual variations in regional atmospheric circulations, as well as water transport related directly to temperature contrasts in different regions, rather than global-mean temperature changes.

  1. A new dasyurid marsupial from Kroombit Tops, south-east Queensland, Australia: the Silver-headed Antechinus, Antechinus argentus sp. nov. (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae).

    PubMed

    Baker, Andrew M; Mutton, Thomas Y; Hines, Harry B

    2013-12-11

    Antechinus argentus sp. nov. is currently only known from the plateau at the eastern escarpment of Kroombit Tops National Park, about 400km NNW of Brisbane and 60km SSW of Gladstone, south-east Queensland, Australia. Antechinus flavipes (Waterhouse) is also known from Kroombit Tops NP, 4.5km W of the nearest known population of A. argentus; A. mysticus Baker, Mutton and Van Dyck has yet to be found within Kroombit Tops, but is known from museum specimens taken at Bulburin NP, just 40km ESE, as well as extant populations about 400km to both the south-east and north-west of Kroombit NP. A. argentus can be easily distinguished in the field, having an overall silvery/grey appearance with much paler silver feet and drabber deep greyish-olive rump than A. flavipes, which has distinctive yellow-orange toned feet, rump and tail-base; A. argentus fur is also less coarse than that of A. flavipes. A. argentus has a striking silver-grey head, neck and shoulders, with pale, slightly broken eye-rings, which distinguish it from A. mysticus which has a more subtle greyish-brown head, pale buff dabs of eyeliner and more colourful brownish-yellow rump. Features of the dentary can also be used for identification: A. argentus differs from A. flavipes in having smaller molar teeth, as well as a narrower and smaller skull and from A. mysticus in having on average a narrower snout, smaller skull and dentary lengths and smaller posterior palatal vacuities in the skull. A. argentus is strongly divergent genetically (at mtDNA) from both A. flavipes (9.0-11.2%) and A. mysticus (7.2-7.5%), and forms a very strongly supported clade to the exclusion of all other antechinus species, in both mtDNA and combined (mtDNA and nDNA) phylogenies inferred here. We are yet to make detailed surveys in search of A. argentus from forested areas to the immediate east and north of Kroombit Tops. However, A. mysticus has only been found at these sites in low densities in decades past and not at all in several

  2. Characteristics and changes of regional wet and dry heat wave events in China during 1960-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ting; Ke, Zongjian; Li, Jin

    2016-04-01

    Using observed surface maximum/minimum temperature and relative humidity (RH) data from 534 meteorological stations in China, the geographical patterns and temporal variations of heat wave (HW) events over the 54 years (1960-2013) were investigated. The HW events were classified into two groups by mean RH: dry HW and wet HW. In total, 211 wet HW events and 64 dry HW events were identified. Wet HW events were commonly located in the southeastern China in the monsoon area, while dry HW events occurred mostly in the northwestern China and North China. Wet HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in July and August, while dry HW events occurred from May to August and mostly in June. The average duration of wet HWs was longer than those of dry HWs, while the average intensity of the wet HWs was lower than those of dry HWs. The annual occurrences of wet HW events and dry HW events increased significantly during 1960-2013, with magnitudes of 0.54 and 0.34 times per decade, respectively. The comprehensive index (C_i) of wet HWs showed a significant positive trend, indicating an increasing severity of wet HWs. The strong wet HW events and dry HW events became more frequent and stronger significantly in the 54 years. The decadal changes in HWs are remarkable, with significant transition points for the frequencies of the wet HWs and dry HWs at 2002 and 1996, respectively. A remarkable increasing trend of frequencies of HWs occurred after the 1990s. Stations with significant positive trends for the annual number of days of the wet HWs were widespread over southern China. The wet HWs in 2003 and 2013 summer were among the top three events in China in the study period, and a large number of sites in East China were affected. The HW event in 2013 lasted shorter and affected less area than that in 2003, but was more intense with higher temperature anomaly during the duration. The rare extreme heat wave in the summer of 2013 occurred in the middle and lower reaches of

  3. Characteristics and changes of regional wet and dry heat wave events in China during 1960-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Ting; Ke, Zongjian

    2015-11-01

    Using observed surface maximum/minimum temperature and relative humidity (RH) data from 534 meteorological stations in China, the geographical patterns and temporal variations of heat wave (HW) events over the 54 years (1960-2013) were investigated. The HW events were classified into two groups by mean RH: dry HW and wet HW. In total, 211 wet HW events and 64 dry HW events were identified. Wet HW events were commonly located in the southeastern China in the monsoon area, while dry HW events occurred mostly in the northwestern China and North China. Wet HW events occurred from April to September and mostly in July and August, while dry HW events occurred from May to August and mostly in June. The average duration of wet HWs was longer than those of dry HWs, while the average intensity of the wet HWs was lower than those of dry HWs. The annual occurrences of wet HW events and dry HW events increased significantly during 1960-2013, with magnitudes of 0.54 and 0.34 times per decade, respectively. The comprehensive index ( C i ) of wet HWs showed a significant positive trend, indicating an increasing severity of wet HWs. The strong wet HW events and dry HW events became more frequent and stronger significantly in the 54 years. The decadal changes in HWs are remarkable, with significant transition points for the frequencies of the wet HWs and dry HWs at 2002 and 1996, respectively. A remarkable increasing trend of frequencies of HWs occurred after the 1990s. Stations with significant positive trends for the annual number of days of the wet HWs were widespread over southern China. The wet HWs in 2003 and 2013 summer were among the top three events in China in the study period, and a large number of sites in East China were affected. The HW event in 2013 lasted shorter and affected less area than that in 2003 but was more intense with higher temperature anomaly during the duration. The more frequent and stronger HW events in the recent years may be partly due to global

  4. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  5. An hypothesis for integrating climate, geomorphology, soils, and land use for interpreting runoff and erosion in catchment management studies, Central Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    Traditionally, soil movement has been reported in the literature under processes of raindrop impact/splash, overland sheet flow, rills, gullies, and ephemeral and fluent streams and rivers. From the perspective of a land manager this information needs to be structured in a way that integrates these many strands of knowledge thus facilitating decision making about land use operations and conservation of the resource. This paper describes the interconnectedness of hydrologic and sedimentological processes of landscape elements and segments in the headwaters of the semi/arid - subhumid Fitzroy River, Central Queensland, Australia and options for managing severe erosion. The central notion of the hypothesis is that sediment has been pulsing through this landscape for thousands of years. Stratigraphy of valley alluvial fans indicates that the valleys have been filled and re-excavated many times. The pulsing of sediment through valleys where incision of alluvial fans and subsequent downstream deposition creates a sequence of similar landforms, but of a different scale, is largely driven by the morphology of the landforms themselves. The "noses" of alluvial fans exhibit a convex shape with the surface being characterised by finer sediments. Positive pore water pressures develop throughout the fan due to the highest infiltration occurring at the head of the fan where coarsest sediments are deposited. Strata of coarser materials are thus laid down progressively up-valley as the fans continue to grow. In the base of the "nose" of alluvial fans there are the remnants of the coarse material that were laid down initially and movement of water through fans is subsequently along the layers of coarse gravel and exfiltrated at the "nose" of the fan. A "pothole" in these locations is the first visible evidence of the impending rapid retreat of a new gully whereby sediment is pulsed down-valley and again deposited to form a new fan. Thus alluvial fans are destroyed and gullies are in

  6. Quantifying denitrification losses from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia - use of the 15N gas flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedl, Johannes; Scheer, Clemens; Warner, Daniel; Grace, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The microbial mediated production of nitrous oxide (N2O) and its reduction to dinitrogen (N2) via denitrification represents a loss of nitrogen (N) from fertilised agro ecosystems to the atmosphere. Although denitrification remains a major uncertainty in estimating N losses from soils, the magnitude of N2 losses and related N2:N2O ratios from soils are largely unknown due to difficulties measuring N2 against a high atmospheric background. In order to address this lack of data, this study investigated the influence of different soil moisture contents on N2 and N2O emissions from a sub-tropical pasture in Queensland/Australia using the 15N gas flux method. Intact soil cores were incubated over 14 days at 80% and 100% water filled pore space (WFPS). Gas samples were taken up to six times per day after application of 15N labelled nitrate, equivalent to 50 kg N ha-1 and analysed for N2 and N2O by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Fluxes were calculated assuming non-random 15N distribution in the headspace according to Mulvaney and Kurtz (1984) using the labelled pool of nitrate estimated from N2O measurements (Stevens and Laughlin 2001). The main product of denitrification in both treatments was N2. N2 emissions exceeded N2O emissions by a factor of 1.3 ± 0.3 at 80% WFPS and a factor of 3 ± 0.8 at 100% WFPS. The total amount of N-N2 lost over the incubation period was 13.5±1.0 kg N ha-1 at 80% WFPS and 21.8±1.8 kg ha-1 at 100% WFPS respectively. Over the entire incubation period, N2 emissions remained elevated at 100% WFPS, showing high variation between soil cores, while related N2O emissions decreased. At 80% WFPS, N2 emissions increased constantly over time showing significantly higher values after day five. At the same time, N2O fluxes declined. Consequently, N2:N2O ratios rose over the incubation period in both treatments. Overall denitrification rates and related N2:N2O ratios were higher at 100% WFPS compared to 80% WFPS, confirming WFPS as a major driver of

  7. Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Stop Myself From Having a Wet Dream? Print A A A Text Size Can I stop myself from having a wet dream? – Tom* You really can't stop wet dreams, ...

  8. Using topographic lidar data to delineate the North Carolina Shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Limber, Patrick W.; List, Jeffrey H.; Warren, Jeffrey D.; Farris, Amy S.; Weber, Kathryn M.

    2007-01-01

    In North Carolina, shoreline change rates are an important component of the state's coastal management program. To enhance methods of measuring shoreline change, the NC Division of Coastal Management (DCM) is considering using mean high water (MHW) shorelines extracted from lidar data together with traditional wet/dry shorelines digitized from aerial photography. To test their compatibility, a wet/dry line and MHW shoreline derived from a concurrent 2004 oceanfront photography and lidar dataset were compared along a distance of 244 km. Results show that the MHW shoreline was seaward of the wet/dry shoreline by 2.82 m on average, and that this offset biased shoreline change rates by an average of 0.05 m/yr. The offset was greatest on low-sloping beaches experiencing higher water levels at the time of photography, but overall was small enough to suggest that the MHW shoreline can be a reliable substitute for the wet/dry shoreline.

  9. [North] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality.

  10. Wetting and particle adsorption in nanoflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drazer, German; Khusid, Boris; Koplik, Joel; Acrivos, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the behavior of closely fitting spherical and ellipsoidal particles moving through a fluid-filled cylinder at nanometer scales. The particle, the cylinder wall, and the fluid solvent are all treated as atomic systems, and special attention is given to the effects of varying the wetting properties of the fluid. Although the modification of the solid-fluid interaction leads to significant changes in the microstructure of the fluid, its transport properties are found to be the same as in bulk. Independently of the shape and the relative size of the particle, we find two distinct regimes as a function of the degree of wetting, with a sharp transition between them. In the case of a highly wetting suspending fluid, the particle moves through the cylinder with an average axial velocity in agreement with that obtained from the solution of the continuum Stokes equations. In contrast, in the case of less-wetting fluids, only the early time motion of the particle is consistent with continuum dynamics. At later times, the particle is eventually adsorbed onto the wall and subsequently executes an intermittent stick-slip motion. We show that van der Waals forces are the dominant contribution to the particle adsorption phenomenon and that depletion forces are weak enough to allow, in the highly wetting situation, an initially adsorbed particle to spontaneously desorb.

  11. Dynamic wetting on anisotropic patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do-Quang, Minh; Wang, Jiayu; Nita, Satoshi; Shiomi, Junichiro; Amberg, Gustav; Physiochemical fluid mechanics Team; Maruyama-Chiashi Laboratory Team

    2014-11-01

    Dynamic wetting, as occurs when a droplet of a wetting liquid is brought in contact with a dry solid, is important in various engineering processes, such as printing, coating, and lubrication. Our overall aim is to investigate if and how the detailed properties of the solid surface influence the dynamics of wetting. We have recently quantified the hindering effect of fairly isotropic micron-sized patterns on the substrate. Here we will study highly anisotropic surfaces, such as parallel grooves, either perpendicular or parallel to an advancing contact line. This is done by detailed phase field simulations and experiments on structured silicon surfaces. The dynamic wetting behavior of drops on the grooved surfaces is governed by the combined interplay of the wetting line friction and the internal viscous dissipation. Influence of roughness is quantified in terms of the energy dissipation rate at the contact line using the experiment-simulation combined analysis. The energy dissipation of the contact line at the different part of the groove will be discussed. The performance of the model is assessed by comparing its predictions with the experimental data. This work was financially supported in part by, the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (J.W., S.N., and J.S) and Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems (M.D.-Q. and G.A).

  12. Membrane-based wet electrostatic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Bayless; Liming Shi; Gregory Kremer; Ben J. Stuart; James Reynolds; John Caine

    2005-06-01

    Emissions of fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in both primary and secondary form, are difficult to capture in typical dry electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). Wet (or waterbased) ESPs are well suited for collection of acid aerosols and fine particulates because of greater corona power and virtually no re-entrainment. However, field disruptions because of spraying (misting) of water, formation of dry spots (channeling), and collector surface corrosion limit the applicability of current wet ESPs in the control of secondary PM2.5. Researchers at Ohio University have patented novel membrane collection surfaces to address these problems. Water-based cleaning in membrane collectors made of corrosion-resistant fibers is facilitated by capillary action between the fibers, maintaining an even distribution of water. This paper presents collection efficiency results of lab-scale and pilot-scale testing at First Energy's Bruce Mansfield Plant for the membrane-based wet ESP. The data indicate that a membrane wet ESP was more effective at collecting fine particulates, acid aerosols, and oxidized mercury than the metal-plate wet ESP, even with {approximately}15% less collecting area. 15 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-03-17

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given.

  14. A new genus and two new species of soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae: Chiromyzinae) from Australia, one found infesting sugarcane in central Queensland.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Metridius nov. gen. and types species M. robertsoni nov. sp. with winged males and apterous females is described from adults and larvae found infesting sugarcane stools from near Mackay, central Queensland. A second new species, M. mcalpinei nov. sp., based only on males from near Sydney, New South Wales is also described. Notes on the biology of both species and an identification key to the genera of the subfamily Chiromyzinae and to the species are also given. PMID:27394475

  15. MINErosion 3: A user friendly hillslope model for predicting erosion from steep post-mining landscapes in Central Queensland, Australia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Hwat-Bing; Khalifa, Ashraf; Carroll, Chris; Yu, Bofu

    2010-05-01

    Open-cut coal mining in Central Queensland involves the breaking up of overburden that overlies the coal seams using explosives, followed by removal with draglines which results in the formation of extensive overburden spoil-piles with steep slopes at the angle of repose (approximately 75 % or 37o). These spoil-piles are found in long multiple rows, with heights of up to 60 or 70 m above the original landscapes. They are generally highly saline and dispersive and hence highly erosive. Legislation requires that these spoil-piles be rehabilitated into a stable self sustaining ecosystem with no off-site pollution. The first stage in the rehabilitation of these landscapes is the lowering of slopes to create a landscape that is stable against geotechnical failure and erosion. This is followed by revegetation generally with grasses as pioneer vegetation to further reduce erosion and a mixture of native shrubs and trees. Minimizing erosion and excessive on-site discharges of sediment into the working areas may result in the temporary cessation of mining operation with significant financial consequences, while off site discharges may breach the mining lease conditions. The average cost of rehabilitation is around 22,000 per ha. With more than 50,000 ha of such spoil-piles in Queensland at present, the total cost of rehabilitation facing the industry is very high. Most of this comprised the cost of reshaping the landscape, largely associated with the amount of material movement necessary to achieve the desired landscape. Since soil and spoil-piles vary greatly in their erodibilities, a reliable and accurate method is required to determine a cost effective combination of slope length, slope gradient and vegetation that will result in acceptable rates of erosion. A user friendly hillslope computer package MINErosion 3, was developed to predict potential erosion to select suitable combinations of landscape design parameters (slope gradient, slope length and vegetation cover

  16. Century-scale causal relationships between global dry/wet conditions and the state of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qiaohong; Miao, Chiyuan; AghaKouchak, Amir; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-06-01

    The Granger causality test is used to examine the effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on global dry/wet conditions. The results show robust relationships between dry/wet conditions and the ocean states, as assessed through a multi-index (standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index and standardized precipitation index) and multiscale (3 months and 12 months) evaluation. The influence of ENSO events is widespread, dominating about 38% of the global land surface (excluding Antarctica). Southern and western North America, northern South America, and eastern Russia are influenced by the PDO. The NAO influences not only dry/wet conditions in Europe but also dry/wet conditions in northern Africa. Similarly, climate variability in southern Europe and northern Africa may be due to the concurrence of the ENSO and the NAO. Knowledge of the spatial influence of ocean states on global dry/wet conditions is valuable for improving drought and flood forecasting.

  17. Wetting transitions at soft, sliding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Martin, A; Clain, J; Buguin, A; Brochard-Wyart, F

    2002-03-01

    We observe (by optical interferometry) the contact of a rubber cap squeezing a nonwetting liquid against a plate moving at velocity U. At low velocities, the contact is dry. It becomes partially wet above a threshold velocity V(c1), with two symmetrical dry patches on the rear part. Above a second velocity V(c2), the contact is totally wet. This regime U>V(c2) corresponds to the hydroplaning of a car (decelerating on a wet road). We interpret the transitions at V(c1), V(c2) in terms of a competition between (a) liquid invasion induced by shear (b) spontaneous dewetting of the liquid (between nonwettable surfaces). PMID:11909071

  18. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, L.G.

    1979-08-29

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  19. Wetting transitions at soft, sliding interfaces.

    PubMed

    Martin, A; Clain, J; Buguin, A; Brochard-Wyart, F

    2002-03-01

    We observe (by optical interferometry) the contact of a rubber cap squeezing a nonwetting liquid against a plate moving at velocity U. At low velocities, the contact is dry. It becomes partially wet above a threshold velocity V(c1), with two symmetrical dry patches on the rear part. Above a second velocity V(c2), the contact is totally wet. This regime U>V(c2) corresponds to the hydroplaning of a car (decelerating on a wet road). We interpret the transitions at V(c1), V(c2) in terms of a competition between (a) liquid invasion induced by shear (b) spontaneous dewetting of the liquid (between nonwettable surfaces).

  20. A snow wetness retrieval algorithm for SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Jian-Cheng; Dozier, Jeff

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this study are: (1) to evaluate the backscattering signals response to snow wetness; and (2) to develop an algorithm for snow wetness measurement using C-band polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In hydrological investigations, modeling and forecasting of snowmelt runoff requires information about snowpack properties and their spatial variability. In particular, timely measurement of snow parameters is needed for operational hydrology. The liquid water content of snowpack is one of the important parameters. Active microwave sensors are highly sensitive to liquid water in the snowpack because of the large dielectric contrast between ice and water in the microwave spectrum. They are not affected by weather and have a spatial resolution compatible with the topographic variation in alpine regions. However, a quantitative algorithm for retrieval snow wetness has not yet been developed.

  1. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.; Gray, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R&D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station.

  2. Wet powder seal for gas containment

    DOEpatents

    Stang, Louis G.

    1982-01-01

    A gas seal is formed by a compact layer of an insoluble powder and liquid filling the fine interstices of that layer. The smaller the particle size of the selected powder, such as sand or talc, the finer will be the interstices or capillary spaces in the layer and the greater will be the resulting sealing capacity, i.e., the gas pressure differential which the wet powder layer can withstand. Such wet powder seal is useful in constructing underground gas reservoirs or storage cavities for nuclear wastes as well as stopping leaks in gas mains buried under ground or situated under water. The sealing capacity of the wet powder seal can be augmented by the hydrostatic head of a liquid body established over the seal.

  3. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  4. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Shangshang; Faul, Ulrich H.

    2016-05-01

    Samples of Fo90 olivine and basaltic melt were annealed at a range of temperatures and a pressure of 1 GPa in a piston cylinder apparatus from 1 to 336 h. Post-run samples have melt contents from 0.3 to 6.8 % and mean grain sizes from 4.3 to 84.5 μm. Grain boundary wetness, a measure of the intergranular melt distribution, was determined by analyzing scanning electron microscope images with sufficiently high resolution to detect thin layers wetting grain boundaries, as well as small triple junctions. The measurements show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt content to values well above those predicted by the idealized isotropic equilibrium model for a finite dihedral angle. Additionally, the melt geometry changes with grain size, with grain boundary wetness increasing with increasing grain size at fixed melt content. Grain boundary wetness and dihedral angle of samples annealed at a range of temperatures, but constant melt content does not depend on temperature. These observations emphasize that the dihedral angle alone is not adequate to characterize the melt distribution in partially molten rocks, as the idealized isotropic model does not account for the influence of grain growth. Diffusion creep viscosities calculated from the measured wetness reflect the grain size and melt content dependence. Accordingly, experimentally measured viscosities at small grain sizes underestimate the effect of melt to weaken partially molten rocks for coarser grain sizes. The presence of melt in the mantle may therefore enhance diffusion creep relative to dislocation creep.

  5. Adhesion Elastocapillary coalescence in wet hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bico, José; Roman, Benoît; Moulin, Loïc; Boudaoud, Arezki

    2004-12-01

    We investigated why wet hair clumps into bundles by dunking a model brush of parallel elastic lamellae into a perfectly wetting liquid. As the brush is withdrawn, pairs of bundles aggregate successively, forming complex hierarchical patterns that depend on a balance between capillary forces and the elasticity of the lamellae. This capillary-driven self-assembly of flexible structures, which occurs in the tarsi of insects and in biomimetic adhesives but which can also damage micro-electromechanical structures or carbon nanotube `carpets', represents a new type of coalescence process.

  6. Traction of Pneumatic Tires on Wet Runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Walter B.; Joyner, Upshur T.

    1965-01-01

    Recent work on the traction of pneumatic tires on wet runways is discussed, and it is shown that a loss of tire traction adversely affects cross-wind landings. The effect of runway surface texture is discussed,, and a simple method for measuring surface texture is described. A preliminary correlation of tire traction with surface texture is shown. Results of work at Langley Research Center on the use of air jets to improve tire traction on wet or flooded runways indicate that this is a promising approach for alleviating the large losses in tire braking and sideways traction that occur when tire hydroplaning occurs on a flooded runway.

  7. Wet air oxidation of propellant wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, T.L.; Copa, W.M.; Deitrich, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Wet Air Oxidation studies have been conducted on a number of propellant wastewaters, to assess destruction levels of specific propellant components. OTTO fuel, used as a torpedo propellant, and hydrazine based rocket fuels were propellants of interest. OTTO fuel wastewaters contain substantial amounts of propylene glycol dinitrate. Hydrazine based rocket fuel wastewaters contain hydrazine and unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine. Laboratory Wet Air Oxidation studies on OTTO fuel wastewaters indicated that a 99+ percent destruction of propylene glycol dinitrate can be achieved at an oxidation temperature of 280/sup 0/C.

  8. Dynamics of complete wetting liquid under evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Chi-Tuong; Berteloot, Guillaume; Lequeux, François; Limat, Laurent

    2008-11-01

    The dynamics of a contact line under evaporation and total wetting conditions is studied taking into account the divergent nature of evaporation near the border of the liquid, as evidenced by Deegan et al. [Nature 389, 827 (1997)]. Complete wetting is assumed to be due to Van der Waals interactions. The existence of a precursor film at the edge of the liquid is shown analytically and numerically. The length of the precursor film is controlled by Hamacker constant and evaporative flux. Past the precursor film, Tanner's law is generalized accounting for evaporative effects.

  9. Imperfect wetting of hydrogen in zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.S.; Rall, M.

    1995-11-01

    We have considered the theoretical dependencies of the amount of supercooling of liquid hydrogen as a function of pore size for constrained geometries in order to compare the different mechanisms for supercooling that can be observed: notably the inhibition of nucleation in small geometries and the use of surfaces for which there is imperfect wetting. Analysis of the dependence of the observed supercooling reported elsewhere for molecular hydrogen and hydrogen deuteride on the pore size in zeolites supports the view that imperfect wetting occurs for small pores that have rough surfaces and dimension less than approximately 10{angstrom}.

  10. Grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, S.; Faul, U.

    2013-12-01

    The grain scale melt distribution plays a key role for physical properties of partially molten regions in Earth's upper mantle, but our current understanding of the distribution of basaltic melt at the grain scale is still incomplete. A recent experimental study shows that wetted two-grain boundaries are a common feature of partially molten dunite at small melt fractions (Garapic et al., G3, 2013). In early ideal models which assume isotropic surface energy, the grain scale melt distribution is uniquely determined by knowing the melt fraction and the dihedral angle between two crystalline grains and the melt (von Bargen and Waff, JGR, 1986). Olivine is anisotropic in surface energy, hence the grain scale melt distribution at given melt fraction cannot be characterized by the dihedral angle alone. The grain boundary wetness, which is defined as the ratio of solid-liquid boundary area over the total interfacial area (Takei, JGR, 1998), is a more objective measure of the grain scale melt distribution. The aim of this study is to quantify the relationship between grain size, melt fraction, temperature and grain boundary wetness of partially molten dunite under dry conditions. We annealed olivine-basalt aggregates with melt fractions from 0.03% to 6% at a range of temperatures and 1 GPa in a piston cylinder for 1 to 336 hours, with resulting mean grain sizes of 10 to 60 μm. The samples were sectioned, polished and imaged at high resolution by using a field emission SEM. Each image had a size of 2048 x 1536 pixels with a resolution of 0.014 to 0.029 μm/pixel, depending on magnification. For each sample, depending on grain sizes, we made mosaics of 3 x 3 or 6 x 6 overlapping images. Measurements of melt fraction, grain boundary wetness and grain size were carried out on these high resolution mosaics by using ImageJ software. Analyses of mosaics show that grain boundary wetness increases with increasing melt fraction at constant grain size to values well above those

  11. Controllable underwater anisotropic oil-wetting

    SciTech Connect

    Yong, Jiale; Chen, Feng Yang, Qing; Farooq, Umar; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hou, Xun

    2014-08-18

    This Letter demonstrates a simple method to achieve underwater anisotropic oil-wetting using silicon surfaces with a microgroove array produced by femtosecond laser ablation. The oil contact angles along the direction perpendicular to the grooves are consistently larger than those parallel to the microgroove arrays in water because the oil droplet is restricted by the energy barrier that exists between the non-irradiated domain and the trapped water in the laser-ablated microgrooves. This underwater anisotropic oil-wetting is able to be controlled, and the anisotropy can be tuned from 0° to ∼20° by adjusting the period of the microgroove arrays.

  12. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  13. Wet oxidation of a spacecraft model waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. C.; Wydeven, T.

    1985-01-01

    Wet oxidation was used to oxidize a spacecraft model waste under different oxidation conditions. The variables studied were pressure, temperature, duration of oxidation, and the use of one homogeneous and three heterogeneous catalysts. Emphasis is placed on the final oxidation state of carbon and nitrogen since these are the two major components of the spacecraft model waste and two important plant nutrients.

  14. Why most ``dry`` rocks should cool ``wet``

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, M.J.

    1999-04-01

    A new consideration of oxygen isotope resetting among metamorphic minerals is made accounting for (1) the possibility of f{sub H{sub 2}O}-buffering by typical mineral assemblages during cooling and (2) experimental data that show that high f{sub H{sub 2}O} correlates with high diffusion rates. Isotope closure temperatures in buffered rocks are intermediate between simpler predictions based on wet (1 kbar hydrothermal) and dry (P {le} 1 atm, H{sub 2}O-absent) diffusion experiments, but are typically within {approximately}50 C of closure temperature estimates that use wet diffusion rates, yet 200--300 C different from dry. Even though many rocks may be dry in that they lack a hydrous fluid that is physically present during cooling, buffering of f{sub H{sub 2}O} results in quasi-wet diffusion rates. Re-evaluation of published data shows that most rocks indeed exhibit substantial isotope resetting that is best matched by predictions of f{sub H{sub 2}O}-buffering models. Wet- and dry-diffusion models somewhat overestimate and greatly underestimate resetting respectively. Previous interpretations invoking dry diffusion rates may derive from erroneous fractionation factors or faster cooling rates than assumed. The rare preservation of isotope closure temperatures that are higher than predicted may reflect faster than expected cooling rates or extraordinarily los f{sub H{sub 2}O} in conjunction with anhydrous assemblages.

  15. ESTIMATING URBAN WET WEATHER POLLUTANT LOADING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents procedures for estimating pollutant loads emanating from wet-weather flow discharge in urban watersheds. Equations are presented for: annual volume of litter and floatables; the quantity of sand from highway runoff; the quantity of dust-and-dirt accumulation ...

  16. Wet oxidation of salicylic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Diaz, Mario

    2010-11-15

    Salicylic acid is a frequent pollutant in several industrial wastewaters. Uncatalyzed wet air oxidation, which is a promising technique for the treatment of phenolic effluents, has not been analyzed yet for the removal of salicylic acid. The effect of different conditions of pH (1.3-12.3), pressure (1.0-4.1 MPa), temperature (413-443 K), and initial concentrations (1.45-14.50 mM) on the wet oxidation of salicylate/salicylic acid solutions have here been investigated. The pH value of the reaction media was found to be a key parameter for the rate of the oxidation process with an optimum at pH 3.1, when the concentrations of salicylic acid and salicylate were similar. The oxidation reaction followed pseudofirst-order kinetics with respect to salicylic acid and 0.82 order with respect to dissolved oxygen. Additionally, the evolution of the color during the wet oxidation was analyzed and discussed in relation with the formation of intermediate compounds. Then, a reaction pathway for the noncatalytic wet oxidation of the salicylic acid was proposed.

  17. OVERVIEW OF WET-WEATHER RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents an overview of EPA,s wet-weather flow (WWF) research program, which was expanded in October 1995 with the establishment of the Urban Watershed Management Branch at Edison, New Jersey. Research priorities for 1998-1999 are presented as well as efforts to col...

  18. Next generation low cost wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Klingspor, J.S.; Bresowar, G.E.

    1995-12-31

    Limestone based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) has been the dominating control technology since the introduction of the clean air act and is projected to be the preferred FGD technology for the foreseeable future. Following the introduction of wet FGD systems in the late `60s, the technology quickly reached maturity with only incremental improvements during recent years. However, deregulation, emission trading, and market forces have demanded significant improvements in capital and operating costs, performance, environmental impact, ease of retrofit and cycle time. In response to market demands, ABB has developed a new generation wet FGD system, named LS-2, based on the traditional open spray tower technology. The development of the LS-2 system has progressed methodically within the ABB R and D community within the last three years and is currently being demonstrated at Ohio Edison`s Niles station. The LS-2 system features cost savings and performance improvements never before demonstrated in wet FGD systems. The cost level of the LS-2 system will make it a clear alternative to fuel switching when applied in a manner similar to the installation at Niles. The economics of the LS-2 system is discussed in some detail.

  19. Calculation of wet deposition from radioactive plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Brenk, H.D.; Vogt, K.J.

    1981-05-01

    A reevaluation of the current wet deposition models for radioactive plumes of the Gaussian type is presented. The application of the methodology to routine and accidental activity releases from nuclear facilities is discussed. A set of washout parameters for a simplified model has been included.

  20. Capturing wetting states in nanopatterned silicon.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiumei; Vereecke, Guy; Chen, Chang; Pourtois, Geoffrey; Armini, Silvia; Verellen, Niels; Tsai, Wei-Kang; Kim, Dong-Wook; Lee, Eunsongyi; Lin, Chang-You; Van Dorpe, Pol; Struyf, Herbert; Holsteyns, Frank; Moshchalkov, Victor; Indekeu, Joseph; De Gendt, Stefan

    2014-01-28

    Spectacular progress in developing advanced Si circuits with reduced size, along the track of Moore's law, has been relying on necessary developments in wet cleaning of nanopatterned Si wafers to provide contaminant free surfaces. The most efficient cleaning is achieved when complete wetting can be realized. In this work, ordered arrays of silicon nanopillars on a hitherto unexplored small scale have been used to study the wetting behavior on nanomodulated surfaces in a substantial range of surface treatments and geometrical parameters. With the use of optical reflectance measurements, the nanoscale water imbibition depths have been measured and the transition to the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state has been accurately determined. For pillars of high aspect ratio (about 15), the transition occurs even when the surface is grafted with a hydrophilic functional group. We have found a striking consistent deviation between the contact angle measurements and the straightforward application of the classical wetting models. Molecular dynamics simulations show that these deviations can be attributed to the long overlooked atomic-scale surface perturbations that are introduced during the nanofabrication process. When the transition condition is approached, transient states of partial imbibition that characterize intermediate states between the Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter states are revealed in our experiments.