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Sample records for north ramp area

  1. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Gillies, D.C.

    1999-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the US Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the US Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Shallow infiltration is not discussed in detail in this report because the focus in on three major aspects of the deep unsaturated-zone system: geologic framework, the gaseous-phase system, and the aqueous-phase system. However, because the relation between shallow infiltration and deep percolation is important to an overall understanding of the unsaturated-zone flow system, a summary of infiltration studies conducted to date at Yucca Mountain is provided in the section titled Shallow Infiltration. This report describes results of several Site Characterization Plan studies that were ongoing at the time excavation of the ESF North Ramp began and that continued as excavation proceeded.

  2. Hydrogeology of the unsaturated zone, North Ramp area of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.; Rousseau, Joseph P.; Kwicklis, Edward M.; Gillies, Daniel C.

    1999-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is being investigated by the U.S. Department of Energy as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. This report documents the results of surface-based geologic, pneumatic, hydrologic, and geochemical studies conducted during 1992 to 1996 by the U.S. Geological Survey in the vicinity of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) that are pertinent to understanding multiphase fluid flow within the deep unsaturated zone. Detailed stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the study area provided the hydrogeologic framework for these investigations. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that gas flow and liquid flow within the welded tuffs of the unsaturated zone occur primarily through fractures. Fracture densities are highest in the Tiva Canyon welded (TCw) and Topopah Spring welded (TSw) hydrogeologic units. Although fracture density is much lower in the intervening nonwelded and bedded tuffs of the Paintbrush nonwelded hydrogeologic unit (PTn), pneumatic and aqueous-phase isotopic evidence indicates that substantial secondary permeability is present locally in the PTn, especially in the vicinity of faults. Borehole air-injection tests indicate that bulk air-permeability ranges from 3.5x10-14 to 5.4x10-11 square meters for the welded tuffs and from 1.2x10-13 to 3.0x10-12 square meters for the non welded and bedded tuffs of the PTn. Analyses of in-situ pneumatic-pressure data from monitored boreholes produced estimates of bulk permeability that were comparable to those determined from the air-injection tests. In many cases, both sets of estimates are two to three orders of magnitude larger than estimates based on laboratory analyses of unfractured core samples. The in-situ pneumatic-pressure records also indicate that the unsaturated-zone pneumatic system consists of four subsystems that coincide with the four major hydrogeologic units of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In

  3. 4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW TO NORTH; SIDE SIDE OF RAMP IN FRONT OF U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, eastern section, looking southwest at east ramp and pavilion in CO-172-BR-17. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, showing ramp at western section but photograph taken to east of CO-172-BR-8 and looking southwesterly. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, east part. Ramp leads to basement utility rooms and specimen preparation rooms. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUS RAMP FROM NORTH LOOKING DOWN INTO TUNNEL ENTRANCE, HARVARD YARD IN REAR LEFT, HOLYOKE CENTER IN MIDDLE, FIRST CHURCH ON RIGHT - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  8. 3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Cement and Plaster Warehouse, north facade. Loading ramp on the right. Utility building, intrusion, on the far right. - Curtis Wharf, Cement & Plaster Warehouse, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  9. 5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING IN RELATION TO U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. RAMP: a computer system for mapping regional areas

    Treesearch

    Bradley B. Nickey

    1975-01-01

    Until 1972, the U.S. Forest Service's Individual Fire Reports recorded locations by the section-township-range system..These earlier fire reports, therefore, lacked congruent locations. RAMP (Regional Area Mapping Procedure) was designed to make the reports more useful for quantitative analysis. This computer-based technique converts locations expressed in...

  11. North side, middle section, top of the ramp in CO17214 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side, middle section, top of the ramp in CO-172-14 is at the right in this photograph. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Infirmary, Northwest Corner of East Bushnell Avenue & South Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. SOUTH RAMP 3.01.X AREA GROUND SUPPORT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bonabian

    1999-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the stability and determine ground support requirements for the 3.01.X areas in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) South Ramp. The 3.01.X area refers to the ESF tunnel portions that were constructed under Section 3.01.X of the ESF General Construction Specification (Reference 8.4). Four 3.01.X areas in the ESF Main Loop are covered in this analysis that extend from Station 60+15.28 to 60+49.22, 62+04.82 to 62+32.77, 75+21.02 to 75+28.38, and 76+63.08 to 77+41.23. The scope of the analysis is (1) to document the as-built configuration including existing voids and installed ground support, (2) to evaluate the existing ground conditions, (3) to determine applicable design loads, (4) to evaluate the stability and determine a ground support system, and (5) to analyze the recommended system.

  13. Thermal and seismic impacts on the North Ramp at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.; Hardy, M.P.; Jung, J.

    1994-05-01

    The impacts of thermal and seismic loads on the stability of the Exploratory Studies Facility North Ramp at Yucca Mountain were assessed using both empirical and analytical approaches. This paper presents the methods and results of the analyses. Thermal loads were first calculated using the computer code STRES3D. This code calculates the conductive heat transfer through a semi-infinite elastic, isotropic, homogeneous solid and the rafts thermally-induced stresses. The calculated thermal loads, combined with simulated earthquake motion, were then modeled using UDEC and DYNA3D, numerical codes with dynamic simulation capabilities. The thermal- and seismic-induced yield zones were post-processed and presented for assessment of damage. Uncoupled bolt stress analysis was also conducted to evaluate the seismic impact on the ground support components.

  14. Integrated geology and preliminary cross section along the north ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility, Yucca Mountain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buesch, D.C.; Dickerson, R.P.; Drake, R.M.; Spengler, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Exploratory Studies Facility is a major part of the site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the north ramp is the first phase of construction. The N61W trending north ramp will transect the Bow Ridge and Drill Hole Wash faults and numerous minor faults, and traverses two thick welded tuffs and several nonwelded tuff units. A preliminary cross section along the north ramp was created by integration of geologic map relations, lithostratigraphic data from core collected from boreholes, and surface and borehole geophysical data. The Bow Ridge fault is a west-dipping normal fault with about 410 feet of dip-slip separation. East-dipping strata in the hanging wall adjacent to the fault is contrary to early structural interpretations. West of the Bow Ridge fault the ramp might traverse about 220??65 feet of nonlithified tuffaceous material. Geometry of the Drill Hole Wash fault is not known, but is modeled in part as two strands that juxtapose different thicknesses and facies of formations with a complex sense of movement.

  15. NORTH ABSAROKA STUDY AREA, MONTANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.E.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the North Absaroka study area in Montana was conducted. The results of this survey indicate that parts of the area are extensively mineralized and that the area has potential for resources of gold, silver, copper, molybdenum, nickel, lead, zinc, platinum-group metals, uranium, iron, manganese, chromium, tungsten, and arsenic. Six areas of probable and substantiated mineral-resource potential were identified. The nature of the geologic terrain indicates that there is little likelihood for occurrence of oil, gas, coal, or geothermal resources.

  16. SNOWBIRD ROADLESS AREA, NORTH CAOLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Chatman, Mark L.

    1984-01-01

    The Snowbird Roadless Area includes all the upper reaches of Snowbird Creek and the surrounding rugged ridges of the Unicoi Mountains, North Carolina. Mineral-resource surveys show that the area contains folded metasedimentary rocks of the Great Smoky Group of Late Proterozoic age and that the area has little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. Abundant rock suitable for crushed rock and rough building stone is the only identified mineral resource, but extensive deposits of this commodity occur throughout the region outside the roadless area. Oil and gas and massive sulfide deposits are possible resources.

  17. San Antonio relay ramp: Area of stratal continuity between large-displacement barrier faults of the Edwards aquifer and Balcones fault zone, central Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.

    1996-09-01

    The San Antonio relay ramp, a gentle southwest-dipping monocline, formed between the tips of two en echelon master faults having maximum throws of >240 in. Structural analysis of this relay ramp is important to studies of Edwards aquifer recharge and ground-water flow because the ramp is an area of relatively good stratal continuity linking the outcrop belt recharge zone and unconfined aquifer with the downdip confined aquifer. Part of the relay ramp lies within the aquifer recharge zone and is crossed by several southeast-draining creeks, including Salado, Cibolo, and Comal Creeks, that supply water to the ramp recharge area. This feature is an analog for similar structures within the aquifer and for potential targets for hydrocarbons in other Gulf Coast areas. Defining the ramp is an {approximately}13-km-wide right step of the Edwards Group outcrop belt and the en echelon master faults that bound the ramp. The master faults strike N55-75{degrees}E, and maximum displacement exceeds the {approximately}165-m thickness of the Edwards Group strata. The faults therefore probably serve as barriers to Edwards ground-water flow. Within the ramp, tilted strata gently dip southwestward at {approximately}5 m/km, and the total structural relief along the ramp`s southwest-trending axis is <240 in. The ramp`s internal framework is defined by three fault blocks that are {approximately}4 to {approximately}6 km wide and are bound by northeast-striking faults having maximum throws between 30 and 150 m. Within the fault blocks, local areas of high fracture permeability may exist where smaller faults and joints are well connected.

  18. Optimization of ramp area aircraft push back time windows in the presence of uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, William Jeremy

    It is well known that airport surface traffic congestion at major airports is responsible for increased taxi-out times, fuel burn and excess emissions and there is potential to mitigate these negative consequences through optimizing airport surface traffic operations. Due to a highly congested voice communication channel between pilots and air traffic controllers and a data communication channel that is used only for limited functions, one of the most viable near-term strategies for improvement of the surface traffic is issuing a push back advisory to each departing aircraft. This dissertation focuses on the optimization of a push back time window for each departing aircraft. The optimization takes into account both spatial and temporal uncertainties of ramp area aircraft trajectories. The uncertainties are described by a stochastic kinematic model of aircraft trajectories, which is used to infer distributions of combinations of push back times that lead to conflict among trajectories from different gates. The model is validated and the distributions are included in the push back time window optimization. Under the assumption of a fixed taxiway spot schedule, the computed push back time windows can be integrated with a higher level taxiway scheduler to optimize the flow of traffic from the gate to the departure runway queue. To enable real-time decision making the computational time of the push back time window optimization is critical and is analyzed throughout.

  19. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 1, Data summary

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavation of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands adjacent to the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan. This report is volume 1 of the data summary.

  20. Evaluation of geotechnical monitoring data from the ESF North Ramp Starter Tunnel, April 1994 to June 1995. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    This report presents the results of instrumentation measurements and observations made during construction of the North Ramp Starter Tunnel (NRST) of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF). The information in this report was developed as part of the Design Verification Study, Section 8.3.1.15.1.8 of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988). The ESF is being constructed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the feasibility of locating a potential high-level nuclear waste repository on lands within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The Design Verification Studies are performed to collect information during construction of the ESF that will be useful for design and construction of the potential repository. Four experiments make up the Design Verification Study: Evaluation of Mining Methods, Monitoring Drift Stability, Monitoring of Ground Support Systems, and The Air Quality and Ventilation Experiment. This report describes Sandia National Laboratories` (SNL) efforts in the first three of these experiments in the NRST.

  1. Geotechnical characterization of the North Ramp of the Exploratory Studies Facility: Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Volume 2, NRG corehole data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Brechtel, C.E.; Lin, Ming; Martin, E.; Kessel, D.S.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the results of the geological and geotechnical characterization of the Miocene volcanic tuff rocks of the Timber Mountain and Paintbrush groups that the tunnel boring machine will encounter during excavations of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) North Ramp. The information in this report was developed to support the design of the ESF North Ramp. The ESF is being constructed by the DOE as part of the Yucca Mountain Project site characterization activities. The purpose of these activities is to evaluate the potential to locate the national high-level nuclear waste repository on land within and adjacent to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report was prepared as part of the Soil and Rock Properties Studies in accordance with the 8.3.1.14.2 Study Plan to Provide Soil and Rock Properties. This is volume 2 which contains NRG Corehole Data for each of the NRG Holes.

  2. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    NASA's Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed "Barnacle Bill," which Sojourner will later study. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00627

  3. Final Environmental Assessment Demolition of Alpha Ramp, Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    interior and exterior areas. Testing has not been conducted on these materials to determine the presence of black mold, also known as Stachybotrys ...chartarum (atra), and NDDH does not regulate the removal of this material. Stachybotrys is a greenish-black toxic mold that could affect occupational...health of exposed individuals. Health risks associated with exposure to Stachybotrys are currently considered as short-term effects. However, most

  4. Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining stone inlay to provide traction surface. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  5. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as "key areas." These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering North American herons. Within each area, we identify specific sites that are potentially important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  6. Key areas for wintering North American herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikuska, T.; Kushlan, J.A.; Hartley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Nearly all North American heron populations are migratory, but details of where they winter are little known. Locations where North American herons winter were identified using banding recovery data. North American herons winter from Canada through northern South America but especially in eastern North America south of New York, Florida, California, Louisiana, Texas, Mexico and Cuba, these areas accounting for 63% of winter recoveries. We identified regions where recoveries for various species clustered as 'key areas.' These forty-three areas constitute a network of areas that hold sites that likely are important to wintering herons. The relative importance of each area and site within the network must be evaluated by further on the ground inventory. Because of biases inherent in the available data, these hypothesized key areas are indicative rather than exhaustive. As a first cut, this network of areas can serve to inform further inventory activities and can provide an initial basis to begin planning for the year-round conservation of North American heron populations.

  7. Forest Area in North Dakota, 1980

    Treesearch

    Ronald L. Hackett

    1982-01-01

    In 1980 North Dakota's forest resources covered 518,100 acres of land, a slight decline from 572,400 acres reported in 1954. The area of commercial forest land also dropped from 398,400 acres to 343,200 acres. The aspen forest type makes up 41 percent of the commercial forest area.

  8. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  9. Sedimentology, diagenesis, clay mineralogy and sequential analysis model of Upper Paleocene evaporite-carbonate ramp succession from Tamerza area (Gafsa Basin: Southern Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messadi, Abdel Majid; Mardassi, Besma; Ouali, Jamel Abdennaceur; Touir, Jamel

    2016-06-01

    Integrated sedimentological studies, diagenesis, sequential analysis and clay mineralogy on the Upper Paleocene rocks in Tamerza area provide important information on the reconstruction of the depositional basin, cyclicity, and paleoclimatic contexts. Facies analysis and petrographic studies have led to the recognition of nine facies that were deposited in three facies belts: Sebkha, inner ramp and outer ramp summarized in a carbonate ramp model: Homoclinal ramp under an arid climate. The upward and lateral changes in thickness and composition show a general regressive trend that records a transition from an outer ramp to Sebkha, creating different types of confinement. The facies stacking patterns constitute several kinds of meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles. Nine different types of depositional cycles and several models of Sebkha sequences were defined. These different types of facies, characterized within the Thelja Formation, compose seven depositional sequences, mainly made of carbonates, marls and evaporates. Detailed multi approach analysis provides important information on evaporitic sequence stratigraphy. In carbonates beds, the diagenetic analysis provides an overview and chronology of diagenetic processes. A particular attention was paid to early stage cementation which enables us to characterize better the depositional environments. In addition to cementation, other features define the diagenetic history. X-ray diffraction reveals the presence of smectite suggesting an arid climate. Moreover, the clinoptilolite and the frequency of primary dolomite indicate different degrees of confinement. The seven depositional sequences showing a hierarchical organization of many cycles, as described above, suggested that eustatic sea level oscillations caused by cyclic perturbations of the Earth's orbit play a fundamental role in determining the formation of hierarchical cyclic rhythmicity.

  10. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  11. OVERFLOW ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA AND NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Davis, Michael P.

    1984-01-01

    The Overflow Roadless Area in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Georgia and North Carolina is underlain by complexly folded schist and gneiss of Proterozoic age. A mineral-resource survey found little likelihood for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources in the area. Minor isolated localities of mica pegmatite and amethyst gemstone occur in the area. Gneiss and schist suitable for rock aggregate are present in large quantities, but similar rocks abound outside the area. Natural gas may possibly be present at great depth beneath the overthrust of the Blue Ridge. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the natural gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  12. 2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONCRETE PADDING AREA BETWEEN BERM MOUNDS, LOOKING NORTH FROM TOP OF BERM. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Acid Fueling Station, North of Launch Area Entrance Drive, eastern central portion of base, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  13. 7. North side of marine museum and area office building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. North side of marine museum and area office building looking south-southwest - Duluth Ship Canal, Marine Museum-Area Office, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. Airport ramp safety and crew performance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Roy; Drew, Charles; Patten, Marcia; Matchette, Robert

    1995-01-01

    This study examined 182 ramp operations incident reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) database, to determine which factors influence ramp operation incidents. It was found that incidents occurred more often during aircraft arrival operations than during departure operations; incidents occurred most often at the gate stop area, less so at the gate entry/exit areas, and least on the ramp fringe areas; and reporters cited fewer incidents when more ground crew were present. The authors offer suggestions for both airline management and flight crews to reduce the rate of ramp incidents.

  15. Rock ramp design guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooney, David M.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher L.; Broderick, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Rock ramps or roughened channels consist of steep reaches stabilized by large immobile material (riprap). Primary objectives for rock ramps include: Create adequate head for diversionMaintain fish passage during low-flow conditionsMaintain hydraulic conveyance during high-flow conditionsSecondary objectives for rock ramp design include:Emulate natural systemsMinimize costsThe rock ramp consists of a low-flow channel designed to maintain biologically adequate depth and velocity conditions during periods of small discharges. The remainder of the ramp is designed to withstand and pass large flows with minimal structural damage. The following chapters outline a process for designing rock ramps.

  16. 12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW NORTH, ACROSS DECK CENTER AREA SHOWING ASPHALT AND NORTH SIDE GUARD WALL - Route 1 Extension, South Street Viaduct, Spanning Conrail & Wheeler Point Road at South Street, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  17. Supersonic Elliptical Ramp Inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamson, Eric E. (Inventor); Fink, Lawrence E. (Inventor); Fugal, Spencer R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A supersonic inlet includes a supersonic section including a cowl which is at least partially elliptical, a ramp disposed within the cowl, and a flow inlet disposed between the cowl and the ramp. The ramp may also be at least partially elliptical.

  18. East view; Mechanical Building south elevation, covered ramp, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East view; Mechanical Building - south elevation, covered ramp, and Street Car Waiting House, left to right - North Philadelphia Station, Mechanical Building, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 26. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF ROOM 109 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF ROOM 109 AND THE RAMP TO THE LOWER LEVELS. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  20. 43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. VIEW OF THE RAMP ABOVE LOWER PORTAL AND RAMP, LOOKING NORTHWEST. THE RAMP WAS USED TO GUIDE RUN-OFF FROM THUNDERSTORMS AWAY FROM THE PORTAL. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  1. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply..., Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017,...

  2. 16. Detail view of the scale area at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of the scale area at the north end of the 1937 main section, looking east-northeast; the original office is at th left, and the scale at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  3. 8. INTERIOR, NORTH SECTION OF MAIN STOREHOUSE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, NORTH SECTION OF MAIN STOREHOUSE AREA, FROM APPROXIMATELY ONE-THIRD OF DISTANCE FROM WEST END AND 20 FEET SOUTH OF NORTH WALL, LOOKING WEST, WITH TRUSSWORK SHOWN OVERHEAD. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Pier Transit Shed, Pier 5, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina area as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-12

    AS09-20-3128 (3-13 March 1969) --- Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, area as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its Earth-orbital mission. Cape Lookout is near bottom of picture. Cape Hatteras juts the farthest out into the Atlantic. Largest inland body of water is Pamlico Sound; and to the north of it is Albemarle Sound.

  5. North Sea difficult but prime area for applications

    SciTech Connect

    Skattum, K.S. )

    1990-04-02

    The Norwegian North Sea sector has been considered a very expensive area for subsea developments compared to the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil, where, the cost of a completed subsea well is several times less. An analysis of these large differences shows how the costs for North Sea projects can be reduced.

  6. 65. VIEW OF RADAR TRANSMITTER AREA, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. VIEW OF RADAR TRANSMITTER AREA, LOOKING NORTH Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Interior, looking north at transmitter and power supply areas ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, looking north at transmitter and power supply areas - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector One Transmitter Building, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  8. 1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING NORTH IN SHOP AREA. BUILDING 15 ON RIGHT, BUILDING 22 ON LEFT, AND BUILDING 1 IN DISTANCE. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  9. 27. View in the Shagbark Hickory area looking north to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. View in the Shagbark Hickory area looking north to the visitor's center (duplicate of HALS no. LA-1-2 (CT)) - Briarwood: The Caroline Dormon Nature Preserve, 216 Caroline Dormon Road, Saline, Bienville Parish, LA

  10. 5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR OF NORTH SIDE SHOWING ENCLOSED FRONT PORCH AREA, ALUMINUM SLIDING GLASS WINDOW GLAZING REPLACEMENTS, AND RAILING FOR STAIRS TO BASEMENT. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking North into Lab Metallurgy Testing Area and Enrichment Motor within Recycle Recovery Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Recycle Recovery Building, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  12. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north (Vault Nos. 1-9 - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  13. VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 233, NORTH SIDE OF POOL AREA, SHOWING WEST WALL OF BUILDING 22, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Swimming Pool, Reeves Avenue, enclosed by Building No. 22 & Arcade, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated doors, and detail of underside of canopy - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  15. Kitchen area on north side of building (first floor) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Kitchen area on north side of building (first floor) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Nurses' Tubercular Ward/Nurses' Infirmary, West Harlow Avenue & South Hickey Street, Southwest corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. 8. View north from hallway, through administration area to front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from hallway, through administration area to front entrance. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  17. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... 1969 (NEPA) on a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Northwest Area Water Supply... Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area Office, P.O. Box 1017, Bismarck, ND...

  18. RAMP MANAGEMENT IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    KEWISCH,J.; VAN ZEIJTS,J.; PEGGS,S.; SATOGATA,T.

    1999-03-29

    In RHIC, magnets and RF cavities are controlled by Wave Form Generators (WFGs), simple real time computers which generate the set points. The WFGs are programmed to change set points from one state to another in a synchronized way. Such transition is called a ''Ramp'' and consists of a sequence of ''stepping stones'' which contain the set point of every WFG controlled device at a point in time. An appropriate interpolation defines the set points between these stepping stones. This report describes the implementation of the ramp system. The user interface, tools to create and modify ramps, interaction with modeling tools and measurements and correction programs are discussed.

  19. Pathfinder Ramp Deploy Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    Mars Pathfinder's forward rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was not used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Sojourner can be seen still latched to one of the lander's petals, waiting for the command sequence that would execute its descent off of the lander's petal. The imager helped Pathfinder scientists determine whether to deploy the rover using the forward or backward ramps and the nature of the first rover traverse. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00628

  20. Wind Plant Ramping Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Kemper, J.

    2009-12-01

    With the increasing wind penetrations, utilities and operators (ISOs) are quickly trying to understand the impacts on system operations and planning. This report focuses on ramping imapcts within the Xcel service region.

  1. Late Tectonic history of Beaufort Sea - North Pacific area

    SciTech Connect

    McWhae, J.R.H.

    1985-02-01

    The Kaltag fault (and its northern associated splay, the Rapid fault array) is the sheared suture between the Eurasian-Alaskan plate and the North American plate in the area between the Mackenzie Delta and the Alaskan Border. This condition has been maintained throughout considerable additional phases of faulting and folding from mid-Cretaceous to the present. Previously, the Alaskan plate had been the northwestern nose of the North America plate. The interplate suture was deflected to the north as the Canadian Shield was approached. The Kaltag fault continued northeastward 2000 km seaward of the Sverdrup rim, northwest of the Canadian Arctic Island, and north of Greenland. The driving force was directed from the southwest by the Eurasian plate after its collision in Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) with the North American plate and the docking of north-moving exotic terranes from the Pacific. During the early Tertiary, perhaps in concert with the accretion of the Okhotsk block to the Asian plate north of Japan, the northern Pacific subduction zone jumped southward to the Aleutian Arc where it has persisted until today. A distance of 800 km separates the stable shelf of the Canadian craton, at the Alberta Foothills thrust belt, from the subduction zone off Vancouver Island. The foreland thrust belt and the accretion of exotic terranes in Mesozoic and Tertiary times extended the continental crust of the North American plate westward to the present active transform margin with the Pacific plate along the Queen Charlotte fault zone.

  2. Oxfordian ramp system (La Manga Formation) in the Bardas Blancas area (Mendoza Province) Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Facies and depositional sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Ricardo M.; López-Gómez, José; Piethé, Ricardo D.

    2007-03-01

    The outcrops of the Oxfordian La Manga Formation at Bardas Blancas, Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina, allow the recognition of six different depositional facies (A to F) on the basis of sedimentological analysis, taphonomic attributes and microfacies studies. These depositional facies correspond to outer ramp (A), middle ramp (B), inner ramp— oolitic shoal (C), inner ramp margin (patch reef) (D), lagoon deposits (E), and a paleokarst surface (F). Outer ramp deposits which are not completely represented, consist of greyish carbonate beds, where the fabric of the shell beds (gryphaeids) reflects the action of waves and currents. Middle ramp deposits consist of a packstone-grainstone lithofacies indicating the importance of storm processes and is dominated by ooids, intraclasts, pelecypods, echinoderms and gastropods which accumulated on a middle-ramp storm-dominated shoreface. Trace fossils belong to the Skolithos and Cruziana Ichnofacies characterizing the upper, lower and middle shoreface setting respectively. The inner ramp deposits consist of oolitic grainstones and subordinate packstones shoal with a small sponge bioherm at the base. Different types of ooids, peloids and coated grains are abundant, as well as skeletal fragments of molluscs, echinoderms and corals. Lithofacies and microfacies studies suggest a high energy and shallow-water depositional setting. The inner ramp margin deposits consist of reef core facies, fore and back reef facies characterized by a scleractinian community of relatively low generic diversity. The rich associated fauna consists of bivalves, echinoids, serpulids, bryozoans, dasycladacean algae and cyanophytes, as well as foraminifers and ostracods. The growth forms of the corals are indicative of shallow well illuminated water. Both the back and fore reef deposits suggest intensive reworking by storm waves or currents. The lagoon deposits consist of bioclastic and peloidal wackestones as well as bioclastic

  3. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; SOUTH VEHICULAR RAMP FROM BASE AT ALISO STREET (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW TO NORTHWEST; DETAIL OF VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW TO EAST; DETAIL OF LAMP ON VEHICULAR RAMP LIGHTING PYLON (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT MARIANO RETRACTABLE RAMP IN FULL UP POSITION. CONTROL BOX IN FOREGROUND. USN PHOTO, JANUARY 20, 1942. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  8. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W. Bruce; McNeilly, David R.; Thacker, Louis H.

    1986-01-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  9. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOEpatents

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  10. Ramped-amplitude NOVEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Can, T. V.; Weber, R. T.; Walish, J. J.; Swager, T. M.; Griffin, R. G.

    2017-04-01

    We present a pulsed dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) study using a ramped-amplitude nuclear orientation via electron spin locking (RA-NOVEL) sequence that utilizes a fast arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) to modulate the microwave pulses together with samples doped with narrow-line radicals such as 1,3-bisdiphenylene-2-phenylallyl (BDPA), sulfonated-BDPA (SA-BDPA), and trityl-OX063. Similar to ramped-amplitude cross polarization in solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, RA-NOVEL improves the DNP efficiency by a factor of up to 1.6 compared to constant-amplitude NOVEL (CA-NOVEL) but requires a longer mixing time. For example, at τmix = 8 μs, the DNP efficiency reaches a plateau at a ramp amplitude of ˜20 MHz for both SA-BDPA and trityl-OX063, regardless of the ramp profile (linear vs. tangent). At shorter mixing times (τmix = 0.8 μs), we found that the tangent ramp is superior to its linear counterpart and in both cases there exists an optimum ramp size and therefore ramp rate. Our results suggest that RA-NOVEL should be used instead of CA-NOVEL as long as the electronic spin lattice relaxation T1e is sufficiently long and/or the duty cycle of the microwave amplifier is not exceeded. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of a time domain DNP experiment that utilizes modulated microwave pulses. Our results also suggest that a precise modulation of the microwave pulses can play an important role in optimizing the efficiency of pulsed DNP experiments and an AWG is an elegant instrumental solution for this purpose.

  11. North Base Industrial Area Development Plan Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    emission testing and lube oil and filter bays. In addition to the building, a parking area for approximately 70 vehicles would also be constructed... Hammond Avenue. Parking in some on-base areas is limited. Access to the North Base Industrial Area and the Poplar Road alternative locations is from a...facility complex in the northwestern, southern, and southeastern portion of the base. The large wind tunnels and aeronautical test equipment that

  12. 2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. 5 (left buildings) and Ramp No. 6 (right buildings). View is to west from roof of Corridor A. Note that a pedestrian sidewalk separates buildings instead of a street for automobiles. In left foreground is the north end of Building No. 9962-B; followed by the north B-sides of Buildings Nos. 9963, 9964, 9965, 9966, 9967 and 9968 on Ramp No. 5. Large white building in far distance is a barracks on the other side of Wilson Avenue. - Madigan Hospital, Medical Detachment Barracks, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  13. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  14. 12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERHEAD VIEW OF THE EVISCERATION AREA; LOOKING NORTH FROM THE VISITORS' GALLERY; NOTE THE RAISED CONCRETE PLATFORMS FOR WORKERS; VISCERA TABLE HAS BEEN REMOVED - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  15. North Fork Silver Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 47

    Treesearch

    Reid Schuller; Rachel Showalter; Tom Kaye; Beth Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    This guidebook describes major biological and physical attributes of the 243-ha (600-ac) North Fork Silver Creek Research Natural Area (RNA), Josephine County, Oregon. Chosen to represent the diversity of shrub species that occur in the western Siskiyou Mountains on non-serpentine metamorphic bedrock, the RNA supports manzanita (Arctostaphylos spp...

  16. 11. NORTH ACROSS PUMP REPAIR AREA ALONG EAST WALL INSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH ACROSS PUMP REPAIR AREA ALONG EAST WALL INSIDE FACTORY. VIEW INCLUDES PARTS BINS AND BOXES ALONG WALL, MULTIPLE DRILL PRESS NEAR WALL, AND PUMP REPAIR WORK BENCH IN LEFT FOREGROUND. LEFT OF CENTER IN PHOTOGRAPH IS 1920S TURRET LATHE. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  17. Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vault Area (original section), east corridor, looking north, showing tops of individual vaults and vent housings - Fort McNair, Film Store House, Fort Lesley J. McNair, P Street between Third & Fourth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. 15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BALD MOUNTAIN MILL, INTERIOR SHOWING PRECIPITATION AREA FROM NORTH, c. 1934. SHOWS PRECIPITATION TANK No. 1 (NOTE LOCKS), ZINC FEEDER WITH MIXING CONE, VACUUM RECEIVER AND PIPING. CREDIT WR. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  19. View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north from inside historic Mount Zion Cemetery entrance area across a pile of removed gravestones along the subtle ridgeline to the Doughty-Beck monument. - Mount Zion Cemetery/ Female Union Band Cemetery, Bounded by 27th Street right-of-way N.W. (formerly Lyons Mill Road), Q Street N.W., & Mill Road N.W., Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump room level, looking north in service bay area. Visible from left to right are the direct current breaker panel, battery bank, door to stairwell, and hanging tools. - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. 15. CENTER ENTRY (central area of barn), SHOWING NORTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CENTER ENTRY (central area of barn), SHOWING NORTH WALL (right) OF SOUTH CENTRAL PEN WITH LADDER AND HARNESS CLOSET. NORTHEAST CORNER OF PEN TO THE LEFT. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST. Date: July 10, 1937; negative #10632 - Witt Shields Barn, Townsend, Blount County, TN

  2. LOST COVE AND HARPER CREEK ROADLESS AREAS, NORTH CAROLINA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffitts, W.R.; Crandall, T.M.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation indicated that a part of the Lost Cove and Harper Creek Roadless Areas, North Carolina has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, niobium, and beryllium. The study areas lie within the Blue Ridge physiographic province and are predominantly underlain by Precambrian plutonic and metasedimentary rocks of low metamorphic grade. The uranium occurs in vein-type deposits and in supergene-enriched foliated rocks. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuel resources.

  3. Resistors Improve Ramp Linearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L.

    1982-01-01

    Simple modification to bootstrap ramp generator gives more linear output over longer sweep times. New circuit adds just two resistors, one of which is adjustable. Modification cancels nonlinearities due to variations in load on charging capacitor and due to changes in charging current as the voltage across capacitor increases.

  4. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  5. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  6. Investigating Ramps and Sliders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a series of hands-on activities for introducing students to concepts of energy transfer and conversion. Describes how simple devices as marbles, ramps, and sliders can be used to gauge the transfer of energy and assist in the development of investigative skills. (ML)

  7. Wheelchair ramp navigation in snow and ice-grit conditions.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Edward D; O'Neill, Patricia A; Desrosiers, Marcel M; Robertson, D Gordon

    2010-10-01

    To explore manual wheelchair propulsion strategies for ramp ascent and descent in snow and snow-ice-grit conditions. Cross-sectional study. Climatic Engineering and Testing Chamber (Ottawa, Canada). Manual wheelchair users (N=11) who typically self-propel their wheelchair in winter. Ramp ascent and descent at 3 grades (1:10, 1:12, 1:16) and 2 winter conditions (packed snow, packed snow with a freezing rain cover, and traction grit). Type of ascent and descent strategy, success rate, number and severity of obstructions, average speed, and perceived ramp navigation rating. A questionnaire regarding the subject's past experiences with wheelchair propulsion in winter. Snow accumulation on ramps at 1:10 grade will render the ramp inaccessible for many wheelchair users who do not have external assistance. For snow conditions, the transition area from the level group to the first 2m of ramp incline were the most difficult to traverse for both ascent and descent. All subjects were able to ascend and descend the ramp for the ice-grit condition. Two-railing propulsion is a preferred strategy for ice-grit ramp navigation because of enhanced trajectory control and reducing the potential for wheel-slip problems. Backwards ramp ascent was a successful strategy for ascent in soft-snow conditions. The 1:16 grade is preferred for winter ramp navigation. Backwards ramp ascent for snow conditions should be considered for people with sufficient shoulder and trunk range of motion. Two handrails are recommended for exterior ramps for both propulsion and wheelchair extraction from ruts and other snow-related obstacles. For ice ramp navigation, the amount of grit required and the effective time (ie, time to when grit becomes embedded in snow-ice, becoming much less effective) should be addressed in further research. Front wheels typically available with manual wheelchairs are not appropriate for soft-snow conditions. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine

  8. Area sensitivity in North American grassland birds: Patterns and processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, C.A.; Koford, Rolf R.; Herkert, J.R.; Johnson, D.H.; Niemuth, N.D.; Naugle, D.E.; Bakker, K.K.; Sample, D.W.; Renfrew, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Grassland birds have declined more than other bird groups in North America in the past 35-40 years (Vickery and Herkert 2001, Sauer et al. 2008), prompting a wide variety of research aimed at understanding these declines, as well as conservation programs trying to reverse the declines (Askins et al. 2007). Area sensitivity, whereby the pattern of a species’ occurrence and density increases with patch area (Robbins et al. 1989), has been invoked as an important issue in grassland-bird conservation, and understanding the processes that drive area sensitivity in grassland birds is a major conservation need (Vickery and Herkert 2001). Here, we review the literature on North American grassland bird species that is relevant to the following questions: (1) What is the evidence for area sensitivity in grassland birds? (2) What are the historical explanations for area sensitivity? (3) What ecological processes could produce area sensitivity? And (5) what are the conservation implications of knowing the processes behind area sensitivity? Because of space limitations, we could not cite every paper we reviewed; the cited papers are given as examples of the literature in this field

  9. Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at east side of Building 7 (including 3-story trash dump tower), looking north - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Geology of the Knife River area, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, William Edward

    1953-01-01

    The Knife River area, consisting of six 15-minute quadrangles, includes the lower half of the Knife River valley in west-central North Dakota. The area, in the center of the Williston Basin, is underlain by the Tongue River member of the Fort Union formation (Paleocene) and the Golden Valley formation (Eocene). The Tongue River includes beds equivalent to the Sentinel Butte shale; the Golden Valley formation, which receives its first detailed description in this report, consists of two members, a lower member of gray to white sandy kaolin clay and an upper member of cross-bedded micaceous sandstone. Pro-Tongue River rocks that crop out in southwestern North Dakota include the Ludlow member of the Fort Union formation, the Cannonball marine formation (Paleocene) and the Hell Creek, Fox Hills, and Pierre formations, all upper Cretaceous. Post-Golden Valley rocks include the White River formation (Oligocene) and gravels on an old planation surface that may be Miocene or Pliocent. Surficial deposits include glacial and fluvial deposits of Pleistocene age and alluvium, dune sand, residual silica, and landslide blocks of Recent age. Three ages of glacial deposits can be differentiated, largely on the basis of three fills, separated by unconformities, in the Knife River valley. All three are of Wisconsin age and probably represent the Iowan, Tazewell, and Mankato substages. Deposits of the Cary substage have not been identified either in the Knife River area or elsewhere in southern North Dakota. Iowan glacial deposits form the outermost drift border in North Dakota. Southwest of this border are a few scattered granite boulders that are residual from the erosion of either the White River formation or a pre-Wisconsin till. The Tazewell drift border cannot be followed in southern North Dakota. The Mankato drift border can be traced in a general way from the South Dakota State line northwest across the Missouri River and through the middle of the Knife River area. The major

  11. 40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. NORTH ACROSS WOODWORKING AREA IN NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY ACROSS STACKED LUMBER ON SAWHORSES TOWARD CIRCA 1900 THICKNESS PLANER, SHOP-MADE BELT GUARD, AND BELOW THE SKYLIGHT OVERHEAD LINE SHAFT, BELTS, AND PULLEYS. BEYOND THE LUMBER ON A WHEELED WORK STATION ARE CIRCA 1900 ROLLS FOR BENDING PROPER CURVATURE IN STEEL WINDMILL BLADES AND CIRCA 1900 BEADING MACHINE FOR FORMING CREASES IN THE EDGES OF SHEET METAL PARTS SUCH AS WHEEL BLADES. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  12. 46. NORTH THROUGH SHEET METAL AND ASSEMBLY AREA IN SOUTHWESTERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTH THROUGH SHEET METAL AND ASSEMBLY AREA IN SOUTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF FACTORY AS SEEN FROM DOORWAY IN SOUTH FRONT WALL. ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ARE SHELVES BEARING WATER PUMPS, PARTS FOR PUMPS AND WATER SUPPLY EQUIPMENT, AND NEW OLD STOCK MERCHANDISE. IN FRONT OF THE WALL ARE THE CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL SHEAR AND CIRCA 1900 SHEET METAL BRAKE. AT THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE ALONGSIDE VERTICAL CEILING SUPPORTS IS METAL-COVERED BENCH FOR SHEET METAL WORK. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  13. Geology of the Plumtree area, Spruce Pine district, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brobst, Donald Albert

    1953-01-01

    This report describes the results of study and geologic mapping (1:12,000) in the 70-square-mile Plumtree area in the northeastern part of the Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine pegmatite district, on the Blue Ridge upland in western North Carolina. The district has been the chief domestic source of feldspar and sheet mica. The mining belt just west of the Blue Ridge Front trends northeast and is 25 miles long and 10 miles wide. The center of the Plumtree area lies 10 miles northeast of Spruce Pine and includes parts of Mitchell and Avery Counties shown on the portions of the 7.5-minute Spruce Pine, Linville Falls, Newland, North Carolina, and Carvers Gap, North Carolina and Tennessee quadrangle. The topography varies from rugged mountains to rounded or flat topped hills near the entrenched, meandering master streams. Old erosion surfaces are approximately 600,1,100, 1,500, and 2,500 feet above the present master stream level. The area is in late youth or early maturity after rejuvenation.. The regionally metamorphosed rocks of the amophibolite facies form three mappable units: mica gneiss, mica schist, and hornblende rock. These rocks, perhaps of Precambrian age, are intimately interlayered with thicknesses of the individual layers ranging from less than one inch to several tons of feet. Field relationships and chemical data suggest that the mica (Carolina-type) rocks were derived from sandstones, graywackes, and shales and that the hornblende-rich (Roan-type) layers were derived from impure carbonate rocks. The igneous rocks include alaskite and associated pegmatite of early Paleozoic age (?), dunite and associated soapstone of a prepegmatite age, and a few diabasic

  14. 39. NORTH TOWARD GENERAL VIEW OF WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. NORTH TOWARD GENERAL VIEW OF WOODWORKING SHOP AREA IN THE NORTHWESTERN QUADRANT OF THE FACTORY. THE LINE SHAFT, BELTS, AND PULLEYS WHICH OPERATED MACHINERY ARE CLEARLY VISIBLE BENEATH THE SKYLIGHT IN THE CEILING. A SHOP-MADE BELT GUARD MADE FROM SAWED LUMBER AND HARDWARE CLOTH IS SEEN NEAR THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH, BENEATH WHICH ARE A CIRCA 1900 TABLE SAW AND A SMALL WHEELED WORK STATION WITH A BELT-ACTUATED PAINT PIGMENT GRINDER. IN THE RIGHT AREA OF THE IMAGE ARE A TIRE BENDER AND A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. SAWHORSES AT THE LEFT SIDE SUPPORT STACKED LUMBER IN FRONT OF A CIRCA 1900 THICKNESS PLANER. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  15. Draft environmental assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped form the Ea/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. The origin and nature of the TMI core debris and the proposed drying process are described and analyzed in detail in this EA. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  16. Environmental Assessment -- Test Area North pool stabilization project update

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this Environmental Assessment (EA) is to update the ``Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project`` EA (DOE/EA-1050) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) issued May 6, 1996. This update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of a drying process for the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear reactor core debris canisters now stored underwater in a facility on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). A drying process was analyzed in the predecision versions of the EA released in 1995 but that particular process was determined to be ineffective and dropped from the EA/FONSI issued May 6, 1996. A new drying process was subsequently developed and is analyzed in Section 2.1.2 of this document. As did the 1996 EA, this update analyzes the environmental and health impacts of removing various radioactive materials from underwater storage, dewatering these materials, constructing a new interim dry storage facility, and transporting and placing the materials into the new facility. Also, as did the 1996 EA, this EA analyzes the removal, treatment and disposal of water from the pool, and placement of the facility into a safe, standby condition. The entire action would take place within the boundaries of the INEEL. The materials are currently stored underwater in the Test Area North (TAN) building 607 pool, the new interim dry storage facility would be constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which is about 25 miles south of TAN.

  17. Identifying Wind and Solar Ramping Events: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.

    2013-01-01

    Wind and solar power are playing an increasing role in the electrical grid, but their inherent power variability can augment uncertainties in power system operations. One solution to help mitigate the impacts and provide more flexibility is enhanced wind and solar power forecasting; however, its relative utility is also uncertain. Within the variability of solar and wind power, repercussions from large ramping events are of primary concern. At the same time, there is no clear definition of what constitutes a ramping event, with various criteria used in different operational areas. Here the Swinging Door Algorithm, originally used for data compression in trend logging, is applied to identify variable generation ramping events from historic operational data. The identification of ramps in a simple and automated fashion is a critical task that feeds into a larger work of 1) defining novel metrics for wind and solar power forecasting that attempt to capture the true impact of forecast errors on system operations and economics, and 2) informing various power system models in a data-driven manner for superior exploratory simulation research. Both allow inference on sensitivities and meaningful correlations, as well as the ability to quantify the value of probabilistic approaches for future use in practice.

  18. Trunk Highway 169: Dynamic ramp metering evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    Peak period travel demand has exceed unmanaged road capacity on most of Twin Cities metropolitan area freeways for more than two decades. During this time, the Minnesota Department of Transportation (MN/DOT) has developed and implemented its freeway traffic management system (FTMS). MN/DOT continues to expand the FTMS, which includes ramp metering as one component. This report documents the impact of dynamic ramp metering on Trunk Highway 169 (TH 16) from Minnetonka Boulevard in Minnetonka to 77th Avenue in Brooklyn Park. The study examines changes in traffic performance with regard to traffic flow, congestion levels, travel times, and accident rates before and after implementation of dynamic ramp metering.

  19. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  20. Repair and Maintenance Programs (RAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Hostetler, D.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explain in a general way how the development of Komatsu RAMPs can help accomplish the worthy ideal set forth in that theme for all parties involved--the OEM (Original Equipment Manufacturer), the equipment dealer, and the mining company. The goal of the RAMP is to utilize the resources of the OEM, the dealer, and the mining company to minimize the costs, maximize the efficiency, increase the productivity, and improve the profits of all parties. The paper describes how a RAMP works.

  1. 18. View of W elevation of ramp looking NE showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of W elevation of ramp looking NE showing entrances and openings to storage spaces below. - Hacienda Azurarera Santa Elena, Sugar Mill Ruins, 1.44 miles North of PR Route 2 Bridge Over Rio De La Plata, Toa Baja, Toa Baja Municipio, PR

  2. 24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. CUSHMAN #1 CONCRETE SPILLWAY RAMPS PLAN AND DETAILS. January 1981. Revised in June 1981. Reference No. BA-081 - Cushman No. 1 Hydroelectric Power Plant, Spillway, North Fork of Skokomish River, 5 miles West of Hood Canal, Hoodsport, Mason County, WA

  3. Test Area North Pool Stabilization Project: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) Pool is located within the fenced TAN facility boundaries on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The TAN pool stores 344 canisters of core debris from the March, 1979, Three Mile Island (TMI) Unit 2 reactor accident; fuel assemblies from Loss-of-Fluid Tests (LOFT); and Government-owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies. The LOFT and government owned commercial fuel rods and assemblies are hereafter referred to collectively as {open_quotes}commercial fuels{close_quotes} except where distinction between the two is important to the analysis. DOE proposes to remove the canisters of TMI core debris and commercial fuels from the TAN Pool and transfer them to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for interim dry storage until an alternate storage location other than at the INEL, or a permanent federal spent nuclear fuel (SNF) repository is available. The TAN Pool would be drained and placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for refurbishment or eventual decommissioning. This environmental assessment (EA) identifies and evaluates environmental impacts associated with (1) constructing an Interim Storage System (ISS) at ICPP; (2) removing the TMI and commercial fuels from the pool and transporting them to ICPP for placement in an ISS, and (3) draining and stabilizing the TAN Pool. Miscellaneous hardware would be removed and decontaminated or disposed of in the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). This EA also describes the environmental consequences of the no action alternative.

  4. A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Fourrail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. Radioactive parts security storage area. Camera facing north. Four-rail track leads to south end (front door) of TAN-647. Dolly is loaded with transport cask and liner. To its right, view shows back end of TAN-648, which is accessed by road on its north side. Photographer: M. Holmes. Date: December 21, 1959. INEEL negative no. 59-6080. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE EAST OF THE ACCESS RAMP TO THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA FROM THE COLD ASSEMBLY AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. Truck ramp construction from clean coal technology waste products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, W.E.; Beeghly, J.H.

    1993-12-31

    The construction and performance of a truck ramp made from clean coal technology waste products are described. The specific waste product used in this project was generated at the power plant located on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus. The ramp is used by University vehicles depositing hard trash at a central disposal facility on the OSU campus. Laboratory tests which had been conducted on samples made from the power plant waste product clearly showed that, when the material is property compacted, strengths could be obtained that were much higher than those of the natural soils the clean coal waste would replace. In addition, the permeability and swelling characteristics of the waste product should make it an attractive alternative to importing select borrow materials. Based on the results of the laboratory tests, a decision was made to use the power plant waste in the truck ramp rather than the soil that was called for in the original design. Prior to the start of construction, the area on which the ramp was to be located was covered with an impermeable geomembrane. Drain lines were installed on top of the geomembrane so that water that might leach through the ramp could be collected. The waste product from the power plant was placed on the geomembrane in 20 to 30 centimeter lifts by University maintenance personnel without special equipment. A drain line was installed across the toe of the ramp to intercept surface runoff, and a wearing surface of 7 to 15 centimeters of crushed limestone was placed over the compacted ash. The finished ramp structure recycled approximately 180 metric tons of the power plant byproduct. After over a year in service there is no indication of erosion or rutting in the ramp surface. Tests performed on the leachate and runoff water have shown the high pH characteristic of these materials, but concentrations of metals fall below the established limits.

  7. Geochemical map of the North Fork John Day River Roadless Area, Grant County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.

    1986-01-01

    The North Fork John Day River Roadless Area comprised 21,210 acres in the Umatilla and Wallowa-Whitman National Forests, Grant County, Oregon, about 30 miles northwest of Baker, Oregon. The irregularly shaped area extends for about 1 mile on both sides of a 25-mile segment of the North Fork John Day River from Big Creek on the west to North Fork John Day Campground on the east. Most of the roadless area is in the northern half of the Desolation Butte 15-minute quadrangle. The eastern end of the area is in parts of the Granite and Trout Meadows 7½-minute quadrangles.

  8. Analytical results of asymmetric exclusion processes with ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2005-07-01

    We present the analytical results in a simple traffic model describing a single-lane highway with ramps. Both on-ramps and off-ramps are considered. Complete classification of distinct phases is achieved. Exact phase diagrams are derived. In the case of a single ramp (either on-ramp or off-ramp), the bottleneck effect is absent. The traffic conditions of congestion before the ramp and free-flowing after the ramp cannot be realized. In the case of two consecutive ramps, the bottleneck emerges when the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp and the flow in between the ramps saturates.

  9. Early Callovian ingression in southwestern Gondwana. Palaeoenvironmental evolution of the carbonate ramp (Calabozo Formation) in southwestern Mendoza, Neuquen basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armella, Claudia; Cabaleri, Nora G.; Cagnoni, Mariana C.; Panarello, Héctor O.

    2013-08-01

    The carbonatic sequence of the Calabozo Formation (Lower Callovian) developed in southwestern Gondwana, within the northern area of the Neuquén basin, and is widespread in thin isolated outcrops in southwestern Mendoza province, Argentina. This paper describes the facies, microfacies and geochemical-isotopic analysis carried out in five studied localities, which allowed to define the paleoenvironmental conditions of a homoclinal shallow ramp model, highly influenced by sea level fluctuations, where outer, mid and inner ramp subenvironments were identified. The outer ramp subenvironment was only recognized in the south of the depocenter and is characterized by proximal outer ramp facies with shale levels and interbedded mudstone and packstone layers. The mid ramp subenvironment is formed by low energy facies (wackestone) affected by storms (packstones, grainstones and floatstones). The inner ramp subenvironment is the most predominant and is characterized by tidal flat facies (wackestones, packstones and grainstones) over which a complex of shoals (grainstones and packstones) dissected by tidal channels (packstone, grainstones and floatstones) developed. In the north area, protected environment facies were recorded (bioturbated wackestones and packstones). The vertical distribution of facies indicates that the paleoenvironmental evolution of the Calabozo Formation results from a highstand stage in the depocenter, culminating in a supratidal environment, with stromatolitic levels interbedded with anhydrite originated under restricted water circulation conditions due to a progressive isolation of the basin. δ13C and δ18O values of the carbonates of the Calabozo Formation suggest an isotopic signature influenced by local palaeoenvironmental parameters and diagenetic overprints. The δ13C and δ18O oscillations between the carbonates of the different studied sections are related with lateral facies variations within the carbonate ramp accompanied with dissimilar

  10. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  11. Bell 47 #822 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Bell 47 #822 on ramp. The helicopter arrived at the NASA Flight Research Center on November 4, 1973 from the NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas. It operated for more than 11 years, before being sent to the Napa City Fire Department on June 21, 1985.

  12. Model for RHIC ramp controls

    SciTech Connect

    Kewisch, J.; Mane, V.; Clifford, T.; Hartmann, H.; Kahn, T.; Oerter, B.; Peggs, S.

    1994-08-01

    This paper introduces the hardware and software concepts for the implementation of the ramp controls. The hardware part of the ramp controls consists of a number of multi-purpose Wave Form Generators (WFGS) which control the settings of accelerator hardware directly or indirectly by controlling their WFG. A Real Time Data Link (RTDL) data transfer system connects the WFGs in a three layer architecture. To the usual two layers which generate an independent timing signal and dependent set points, respectively, an intermediate layer is added which produces accelerator parameters such as the magnet strength. The task of the bottom layer is therefore reduced to the function of implementing those parameters. This architecture de-couples two independent functions which axe normally folded together. The function of the hardware becomes modular and easily maintainable. The ramp control software is layered in the same way. Between the top layer (the ramp procedure application program) and the bottom layer (the hardware interface) an additional layer of ``manager`` programs allow operation of accelerator subsystems.

  13. Mineral resources of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), Imperial County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.S.U.; Yeend, W.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Gese, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-360), California Desert Conservation Area, Imperial County, California. The potential for undiscovered base and precious metals, and sand and gravel within the North Algodones Dunes Wilderness Study Area is low. The study area has a moderate potential for geothermal energy. One small sand-free area between the Coachella Canal and the west edge of the dune field would probably be the only feasible exploration site for geothermal energy. The study area has a moderate to high potential for the occurrence of undiscovered gas/condensate within the underlying rocks. 21 refs.

  14. Mineral Resources of the Black Mountains North and Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrad, James E.; Hill, Randall H.; Jachens, Robert C.; Neubert, John T.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, approximately 19,300 acres of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-020-009) and 23,310 acres of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area (AZ-02D-010) were evaluated for mineral resources and mineral resource potential. In this report, the area studied is referred to, collectively or individually, as the 'wilderness study area' or simply 'the study area'; any reference to the Black Mountains North or Burns Spring Wilderness Study Areas refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which a mineral survey was requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. The study area is located in western Arizona, about 30 mi northwest of Kingman. There are no identified resources in the study area. An area surrounding the Portland mine and including the southern part of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the extreme northwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has high resource potential for gold and moderate resource potential for silver, lead, and mercury. The area surrounding this and including much of the northern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold, silver, and lead. The northeastern corner of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area has moderate potential for gold and low potential for silver, copper, and molybdenum resources. The central part, including the narrow strip of land just west of the central part, of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and the southern and extreme eastern parts of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have low resource potential for gold. The central and southern parts of the Black Mountains North Wilderness Study Area and all but the southwestern part of the Burns Spring Wilderness Study Area have moderate resource potential for perlite. Moderate resource potential for zeolites is assigned to a large area around the Portland mine that includes parts of both study areas, to

  15. Mineral resources of the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Kleinkopf, M.D.; Gese, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    The Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area (AZ-050-033) is located in Yuma County, southwestern Arizona. At the request of the U.S. Bureau of Land Management, 1,380 acres of the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area were evaluated for mineral resources (known) and mineral resource potential (undiscovered). Throughout the report, reference to the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area or to the study area refers only to that part of the wilderness study area for which mineral surveys were requested by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management. Low resource potential for geothermal energy exists northwest of the range-bounding faults of the study area. The study area has no resource potential for oil or gas.

  16. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  17. Optimization Evaluation, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site (NPA6 Site) addresses multiple sources of contamination and a broad contaminant plume that underlies a large portion of Lansdale, Pennsylvania. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and associated....

  18. 42. SAR2, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA, LOOKING NORTH, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. SAR-2, OVERVIEW OF POWERHOUSE AND HOUSING AREA, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING HORSE-DRAWN BUGGY. SCE negative no. 3, no date. Photograph by G. Haven Bishop. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. MUTAGENIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RIVER WATERS FLOWING THROUGH LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS IN NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not havi...

  20. 12. OVERVIEW FROM FORMER RESIDENTIAL AREA NORTH OF SAR2, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. OVERVIEW FROM FORMER RESIDENTIAL AREA NORTH OF SAR-2, SHOWING TRAIL UP TO FOREBAY, RETAINING WALL, PEPPER TREES, AND SAR-2 IN DISTANCE. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. Static internal performance of convergent single-expansion-ramp nozzles with various combinations of internal geometric parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bare, E. Ann; Capone, Francis J.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Static Test Facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects of five geometric design parameters on the internal performance of convergent single expansion ramp nozzles. The effects of ramp chordal angle, initial ramp angle, flap angle, flap length, and ramp length were determined. All nozzles tested has a nominally constant throat area and aspect ratio. Static pressure distributions along the centerlines of the ramp and flap were also obtained for each configuration. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied up to 10.0 for all configurations.

  2. CABLE DESIGN FOR FAST RAMPED SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS (COS-0 DESIGN).

    SciTech Connect

    GHOSH,A.

    2004-03-22

    The new heavy ion synchrotron facility proposed by GSI will have two superconducting magnet rings in the same tunnel, with rigidities of 300 T-m and 100 T-m. Fast ramp times are needed, which can cause significant problems for the magnets, particularly in the areas of ac loss and magnetic field distortion. The development of the low loss Rutherford cable that can be used is described, together with a novel insulation scheme designed to promote efficient cooling. Measurements of contact resistance in the cable are presented and the results of these measurements are used to predict the ac losses, in the magnets during fast ramp operation. For the high energy ring, a lm model dipole magnet was built, based on the RHIC dipole design. This magnet was tested under boiling liquid helium in a vertical cryostat. The quench current showed very little dependence on ramp rate. The ac losses, measured by an electrical method, were fitted to straight line plots of loss/cycle versus ramp rate, thereby separating the eddy current and hysteresis components. These results were compared with calculated values, using parameters which had previously been measured on short samples of cable. Reasonably good agreement between theory and experiment was found, although the measured hysteresis loss is higher than expected in ramps to the highest field levels.

  3. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  4. Perseus A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    for a series of four flights. Thereafter, a series of modifications were made including external fuel pods on the wing that more than doubled the fuel capacity to 100 gallons. Engine power was increased by more than 20 percent by boosting the turbocharger output. Fuel consumption was reduced with fuel control modifications and a leaner fuel-air mixture that did not compromise power. The aircraft again crashed on Oct. 1, 1999, near Barstow, California, suffering moderate damage to the aircraft but no property damage, fire, or injuries in the area of the crash. Perseus B is flown remotely by a pilot from a mobile flight control station on the ground. A Global Positioning System (GPS) unit provides navigation data for continuous and precise location during flight. The ground control station features dual independent consoles for aircraft control and systems monitoring. A flight termination system, required for all remotely piloted aircraft being flown in military-restricted airspace, includes a parachute system deployed on command plus a C-Band radar beacon and a Mode-C transponder to aid in location. Dryden has provided hanger and office space for the Perseus B aircraft and for the flight test development team when on site for flight or ground testing. NASA's ERAST project is developing aeronautical technologies for a new generation of remotely piloted and autonomous aircraft for a variety of upper-atmospheric science missions and commercial applications. Dryden is the lead center in NASA for ERAST management and operations. Perseus B is approximately 25 feet long, has a wingspan of 71.5 feet, and stands 12 feet high. Perseus B is powered by a Rotax 914, four-cylinder piston engine mounted in the mid-fuselage area and integrated with an Aurora-designed three-stage turbocharger, connected to a lightweight two-blade propeller.

  5. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  6. Shallow geology of north Aleutian shelf area, Bering Sea, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Hoose, P.J.; Ashenfelter, K.H.

    1983-03-01

    In 1981, the geological hazards analysis group of the US Geological Survey's Conservation Division collected 4009 line-km (2491 line-mi) of high-resolution seismic reflection data in the south-central Bering Sea. The US Department of the Interior has tentatively selected this area for inclusion in Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sale 92 scheduled to be held in 1985. This study was part of the surface and shallow subsurface geological investigation of the sale area. A bathymetric map constructed from these data reveals a prominent, 20-m (33 ft) high, gentle scarp which trends obliquely across the survey area. Several linear moraine deposits, and several sag depressions related to the presence of near-surface faults were also found in the area. A Holocene isopach map reveals that sediment distribution is current-controlled. Contemporary current-related features consist of ripple marks, sediment waves, and scour zones. These features generally occur within 60 km (37 mi) of the shore and in water depths of less than 70 m (230 ft). Although current flow generally parallels the shore, side-scan sonographs indicate that the current direction which produced these features is strongly influenced by small and intermediate scale bathymetric features. Faults are present in the southwestern portion of the survey area where they occur in a 30 km (19 mi) wide, east-west trending zone. Within it, faults trend approximately east-west and sense of movement is exclusively normal. There are also several examples of growth faults. Acoustic anomalies, which may represent gas, are present throughout much of the survey area and occur at two different relatively shallow depths.

  7. LLRV liftoff from ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    giant four-legged bedstead, the vehicle was to simulate a lunar landing profile. To do this, the LLRV had a General Electric CF-700-2V turbofan engine mounted vertically in a gimbal, with 4200 pounds of thrust. The engine got the vehicle up to the test altitude and was then throttled back to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight, simulating the reduced gravity of the Moon. Two hydrogen peroxide lift rockets with thrust that could be varied from 100 to 500 pounds handled the LLRV's rate of descent and horizontal movement. Sixteen smaller hydrogen peroxide rockets, mounted in pairs, gave the pilot control in pitch, yaw, and roll. As safety backups on the LLRV, six 500-pound rockets could take over the lift function and stabilize the craft for a moment if the main jet engine failed. The pilot had a zero-zero ejection seat that would then lift him away to safety. The two LLRV's were shipped from Bell to the FRC in April 1964, with program emphasis on vehicle No. 1. It was first readied for captured flight on a tilt-table affair. The scene then shifted to the old South Base area of Edwards. On the day of the first flight, October 30, 1964, research pilot Joe Walker flew it three times for a total of just under 60 seconds to a peak altitude of ten feet (three meters). Later flights were shared between Walker, another Center pilot named Don Mallick, the Army's Jack Kleuver, NASA Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas, pilots Joseph Algranti and H.E. 'Bud' Ream. NASA had accumulated enough data from the LLRV flight program at the FRC by mid-1966 to give Bell a contract to deliver three LLTV's at a cost of $2.5 million each. In December 1966 vehicle No. 1 was shipped to Houston, followed by No. 2 in January 1967, within weeks of its first flight. Modifications already made to No. 2 had given the pilot a three-axis side control stick and a more restrictive cockpit view, both features of the real Lunar Module that would later be flown by the astronauts down to the Moon

  8. Ramp-induced transitions in traffic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-Wei

    2006-01-01

    We present the analytical results of ramp effects in asymmetric simple exclusion processes. Both on-ramp and off-ramp are included in between the two open boundaries. The ramps can be taken as the nontrivial boundaries to trigger the phase transitions. Exact phase diagrams are obtained analytically in the full parameter space. We find that the order of the two ramps is crucial. When the on-ramp is placed after the off-ramp along the traffic direction, there are only four distinct phases: free-free-free, free-free-jam, free-jam-jam, and jam-jam-jam. The other four phases from naive expectation cannot be realized, i.e., jam-free-free, jam-jam-free, jam-free-jam, and free-jam-free are all absent. The free flow will not follow the congestion. When the on-ramp is placed before the off-ramp, we observe an interesting phase: jam-max.-free. The bottleneck emerges as the flow in between the two ramps saturates to its maximum. We further show that the roadway configuration is equivalent to a nonstandard intersection. Applications to a traffic rotary are discussed.

  9. North Carolina, Virginia, New Jersey, and New York area as seen from Apollo 9

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-03-12

    AS09-20-3126 (3-13 March 1969) --- Oblique view of the U.S. South Atlantic coastal area as photographed from the Apollo 9 spacecraft during its Earth-orbital mission in March of 1969. This view shows area north from Goldsboro, North Carolina, looking over the Pamlico River and Albemarle Sound at the Portsmouth-Norfolk-Newport News area. The Delaware peninsula and New Jersey lie under snow. Long Island, New York, is barely visible under the clouds in the background. Richmond is left of center.

  10. INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING NORTH, WITH 10TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF MAGNESIUM TREATMENT AREA, LOOKING NORTH, WITH 10-TON LADLE POURING MOLTEN IRON INTO 20-TON LADLE. - United States Pipe & Foundry Company Plant, Melting & Treatment Areas, 2023 St. Louis Avenue at I-20/59, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  11. 76 FR 60587 - Environmental Impact Statement; North Corridor Transit Project, Seattle (WA) Metropolitan Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... urban area comprises one of the region's most productive markets for transit. The Regional Transit... centers located in the North Corridor and the other urban centers in the Central Puget Sound area; 2... gas emissions Chapter 70.235 RCW (Limiting Green House Gas Emissions) ] Potential EIS Alternatives The...

  12. MTR, TRA603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. NORTH ELEVATION. PLUG STORAGE AREA WITH ROLLING STEEL DOOR. PIPE TUNNEL IN SUB-BASEMENT. FIXED SASH WINDOWS IN BALCONY SECTION. DOOR DETAILS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-7, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100566, REV. 4. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1997-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided...

  14. Timber resource statistics for the North Coast resource area of California 1994.

    Treesearch

    Karen L. Waddell; Patricia M. Bassett

    1996-01-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State-wide multi-resource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National...

  15. 77 FR 9260 - Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South Dakota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Establishment of Dakota Grassland Conservation Area, North Dakota and South... public that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) has established the Dakota Grassland... Grassland Conservation Area on September 21, 2011, with the purchase of a 318.18-acre grassland easement in...

  16. 94. ARAIV. Aerial view of ML1 area. Camera facing north. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    94. ARA-IV. Aerial view of ML-1 area. Camera facing north. Reactor test building is in center of view. Walking path and utility lines connect test building. Berm lies between. Road curves to left and continues to GCRE complex. Ineel photo no. 79-4707. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Recent metalliferous sediment in the North Pacific manganese nodule area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    Quaternary sediments cored in the northeast Pacific nodule area (DOMES site C, 14??N, 126??W) contain a significant amount of hydrothermal metalliferous mud. Water content, color, mineralogy, and chemical composition are analogous to metalliferous sediments of the subequatorial East Pacific Rise. Correction for contribution of pelagic clay indicates the metalliferous fraction to be about 40% of the sediment. SiO2 and Mg are major components in the corrected composition, as they are for other metalliferous sediments similarly corrected from a variety of East Pacific Rise and DSDP metalliferous sediments. A correlation between Mg and SiO2 for these corrected sediments could indicate a hydrothermal origin for a significant portion of the SiO2. Results from DSDP in the nodule area suggest that metalliferous globules are a ubiquitous minor component of the Clipperton Oceanic Formation, which underlies much of the Pacific ferromanganese nodule belt. This indicates that deposition of hydrothermal precipitates is not confined to spreading centers. ?? 1977.

  18. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660... Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  19. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660... Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  20. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660... Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  1. 50 CFR Table 2 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited Entry Fixed Gear North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 2 Table 2 (North) to Part 660... Table 2 (North) to Part 660, Subpart E—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Limited...

  2. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  3. JF-102A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Convair JF-102A (54-1374) on the ramp at NACA High-Speed Flight Station , Edwards, California in 1956. The most prominent new feature distinguishing the JF-102A from the YF-102 was a longer fuselage with a pinched or 'coke-bottle' waist. Note wing-fences on both wings. The JF-102A Characteristics are: Wing Span, ft. 38.1 Fuselage length, ft. 63.4 Vertical Tail height, ft. 21.2 Power Plant: Pratt & Whitney J57-P-23 turbojet

  4. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  5. Launch of a Vehicle from a Ramp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2011-01-01

    A vehicle proceeding up an inclined ramp will become airborne if the ramp comes to a sudden end and if the vehicle fails to stop before it reaches the end of the ramp. A vehicle may also become airborne if it passes over the top of a hill at sufficient speed. In both cases, the vehicle becomes airborne if the point of support underneath the…

  6. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  7. Satellite versus ground-based estimates of burned area: A comparison between MODIS based burned area and fire agency reports over North America in 2007

    Treesearch

    Stephane Mangeon; Robert Field; Michael Fromm; Charles McHugh; Apostolos Voulgarakis

    2015-01-01

    North American wildfire management teams routinely assess burned area on site during firefighting campaigns; meanwhile, satellite observations provide systematic and global burned-area data. Here we compare satellite and ground-based daily burned area for wildfire events for selected large fires across North America in 2007 on daily timescales. In a sample of 26 fires...

  8. Performance of a Blunt-lip Side Inlet with Ramp Bleed, Bypass, and a Long Constant-area Duct Ahead of the Engine : Mach Numbers 0.66 and 1.5 to 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, John L

    1956-01-01

    Unsteady shock-induced separation of the ramp boundary layer was reduced and stabilized more effectively by external perforations than by external or internal slots. At Mach 2.0 peak total-pressure recovery was increased from 0.802 to 0.89 and stable mass-flow range was increased 185 percent over that for the solid ramp. Peak pressure recovery occurred just before instability. The 7 and one-third-diameter duct ahead of the engine reduced large total-pressure distortions but was not as successful for small distortions as obtained with throat bleed. By removing boundary-layer air the bypass nearly recovered the total-pressure loss due to the long duct.

  9. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of a Tithonian-Valanginian carbonate ramp (Vaca Muerta Formation): A misunderstood exceptional source rock in the Southern Mendoza area of the Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietzmann, Diego A.; Palma, Ricardo M.; Riccardi, Alberto C.; Martín-Chivelet, Javier; López-Gómez, José

    2014-04-01

    The Vaca Muerta Formation (early Tithonian-early Valanginian) is a rhythmic succession of marls and limestones, cropping out in the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina. This lithostratigraphic unit was traditionally interpreted as basinal to slope deposits. Detailed facies analysis allows to differentiate seven facies associations, representing basinal to middle ramp facies of a homoclinal ramp system prograding westward from the eastern margin, and slope facies attributed to a distally steepened ramp system that progrades eastward from the Andean volcanic arc in the west. Two sequence hierarchies are recognized: five third order depositional sequences, and fifteen fourth order high-frequency sequences. Fluctuations in organic matter content within the Vaca Muerta Formation suggest relationship with depositional sequences, finding the highest values associated with transgressive system tracts. This work represents an important advance in the understanding of the sedimentary and stratigraphic evolution of this exceptional unconventional reservoir. Our sequence stratigraphic approach contributes to the understanding of the relationship between organic matter, facies, and sea-level changes.

  10. A Preliminary Study of Seismic Risk in the Pyongyang Area, North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, S. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2016-12-01

    Small and large earthquakes have occurred according to the historical and instrumental records in the Korean Peninsula. Results of the GIS spatial analyst using historical and instrumental records indicate high point (earthquake) density in Pyongyang metropolitan area in North Korea, and southern areas in South Korea. Apparently, Pyongyang metropolitan area, the capital of North Korea, is exposed to large risks due to natural hazards including earthquakes. Assuming a magnitude 6.7 scenario earthquake, which was experienced in A.D. 502 in the area, 51.1% of the Pyongyang area will experience 0.24g or higher shaking. Approximately 14.8 % of the population in North Korea has been evacuated due to disasters between 1999 and 2008. This is significantly higher than that of South Korea (62 times higher) in the same period. It demonstrates that North Korea is in poorer environment and may have lesser competencies to handle the crisis of hazard than that of South Korea. Results of the study provide a significant information in laying out the earthquake disaster assessment system.

  11. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  12. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  13. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  14. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B high-altitude, remotely piloted research aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the vehicle, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft

  15. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The long, slender wing of the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft can be clearly seen in this photo, taken on the ramp of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in September 1999. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later

  16. Perseus B Parked on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted aircraft, seen here on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which

  17. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  18. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  19. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. 165.540 Section 165.540 Navigation... Limited Access Areas Fifth Coast Guard District § 165.540 Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina. (a) Description of the Regulated Navigation Area (RNA...

  20. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  1. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  2. B-47A on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    Boeing B-47A (NACA 150) shown on the ramp near NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station at South Base of Edwards Air Force Base, California, in 1953. The B-47A Stratojet's wing is mounted high on the fuselage with a sweep back of 36 degrees and a span of 116 feet, with wing vortex generators installed. A two engine pod under each wing, and an additional engine pod at each wing tip using General Electric J-47-GE-23 turbojets. The airplane is fitted with a nose boom for measuring airspeed, altitude, angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip, and an optigraph for measuring the movements of target lights on the wing and tail.

  3. GLOBAL DECOUPLING ON THE RHIC RAMP.

    SciTech Connect

    LUO, Y.; CAMERON, P.; DELLA PENNA, A.; FISCHER, W.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The global betatron decoupling on the ramp is an important issue for the operation of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), especially in the RHIC polarized proton (pp) run. To avoid the major betatron and spin resonances on the ramp, the betatron tunes are constrained. And the rms value of the vertical closed orbit should be smaller than 0.5mm. Both require the global coupling on the ramp to be well corrected. Several ramp decoupling schemes were found and tested at RHIC, like N-turn map decoupling, three-ramp correction, coupling amplitude modulation, and coupling phase modulation. In this article, the principles of these methods are shortly reviewed and compared. Among them, coupling angle modulation is a robust and fast one. It has been applied to the global decoupling in the routine RHIC operation.

  4. Using Species-Area Relationships to Inform Baseline Conservation Targets for the Deep North East Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Nicola L.; Foggo, Andrew; Howell, Kerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Demands on the resources of the deep-sea have increased in recent years. Consequently, the need to create and implement a comprehensive network of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to help manage and protect these resources has become a global political priority. Efforts are currently underway to implement MPA networks in the deep North East Atlantic. To ensure these networks are effective, it is essential that baseline information be available to inform the conservation planning process. Using empirical data, we calculated conservation targets for sessile benthic invertebrates in the deep North East Atlantic for consideration during the planning process. We assessed Species-Area Relationships across two depth bands (200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m) and nine substrata. Conservation targets were predicted for each substratum within each depth band using z-values obtained from fitting a power model to the Species-Area Relationships of observed and estimated species richness (Chao1). Results suggest an MPA network incorporating 10% of the North East Atlantic’s deep-sea area would protect approximately 58% and 49% of sessile benthic species for the depth bands 200–1100 m and 1100–1800 m, respectively. Species richness was shown to vary with substratum type indicating that, along with depth, substratum information needs to be incorporated into the conservation planning process to ensure the most effective MPA network is implemented in the deep North East Atlantic. PMID:23527053

  5. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  6. Display area, looking north towards the classified storage rooms, D.M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Display area, looking north towards the classified storage rooms, D.M. Logistics and D.O. Offices in northwest corner. Viewing bridge is at upper left, and alert status display at upper right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  7. Those Left Behind: Recent Social Changes in a Heavy Emigration Area of North Central New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Olen E.; Hannon, John H.

    1977-01-01

    Examining social and economic change associated with a recent mass exodus of Spanish surnamed populations from rural villages in north-central New Mexico, this article addresses attitudes of those left behind and postulates that while the impact of migration has been felt throughout the area, its intensity has fluctuated among villages. (Author/JC)

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  9. Near East and North Africa: A Question Syllabus. Center for Area and Country Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Harry N.

    This study syllabus on the Near East and North Africa is divided into twelve units. Designed to familiarize government personnel assigned to the area with the region and people, each unit consists of a statement of the main objectives to be studied, questions for consideration, and a list of suggested readings from books and periodicals. Units…

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF LAND USE IN RIPARIAN AREAS WITHIN THE CONTENTNEA WATERSHED OF NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterization of land use in riparian areas within the Contentnea watershed of North Carolina.

    Wright, C.J.,1 and S.W. Alberty.2 1U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA 30605 USA; 2OAO Corporation, Athens, GA 30605 USA.

    Legislation mandating riparian bu...

  11. Timber resource statistics of the north coast resource area of California.

    Treesearch

    J.D. Lloyd; Joel Moen; Charles L. Bolsinger

    1986-01-01

    This report is one of five that provide timber resource statistics for 57 of the 58 counties in California (San Francisco is excluded). This report presents statistics from a 1981-84 inventory of the timber resources of Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Tables presented are of forest area and of timber volume, growth, and mortality. The north coast...

  12. Geology and ground-water resources of the Grand Rapids area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oakes, Edward L.

    1970-01-01

    This report is one of a series of studies of geology and ground-water availability conducted in and near selected communities on the Mesabi Iron Range, north-central and northeastern Minnesota. This report describes the geology and ground-water conditions in the 303 square-mile Grand Rapids area.

  13. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  14. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  15. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  16. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  17. 9 CFR 91.23 - Loading ramps and doors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... height of not less than 6 feet 6 inches. The incline of the ramps shall not exceed 1:2 (261/2°) between the ramps and the horizontal plane. The ramps shall be fitted with footlocks of approximately...

  18. Detecting and characterising ramp events in wind power time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, Cristóbal; Cuerva, Álvaro; Costa, Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    In order to implement accurate models for wind power ramp forecasting, ramps need to be previously characterised. This issue has been typically addressed by performing binary ramp/non-ramp classifications based on ad-hoc assessed thresholds. However, recent works question this approach. This paper presents the ramp function, an innovative wavelet- based tool which detects and characterises ramp events in wind power time series. The underlying idea is to assess a continuous index related to the ramp intensity at each time step, which is obtained by considering large power output gradients evaluated under different time scales (up to typical ramp durations). The ramp function overcomes some of the drawbacks shown by the aforementioned binary classification and permits forecasters to easily reveal specific features of the ramp behaviour observed at a wind farm. As an example, the daily profile of the ramp-up and ramp-down intensities are obtained for the case of a wind farm located in Spain.

  19. Acid deposition and air quality related values in north central Colorado wilderness areas. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hidy, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem response to atmospheric acid, sulfur, and nitrate deposition has been studied only in a very limited way in Colorado wilderness areas. However, the observed deposition rates in north central Colorado remain low relative to affected areas in the eastern United States and well within a range where no adverse ecological effects are expected. This report presents a survey of scientific information describing acid deposition and air quality related values, which may have implications for utility plant operations.

  20. Frontier areas and resource assessment: case of the 1002 area of the Alaska North Slope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Schuenemeyer, John H.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's 1998 assessment of the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge significantly revised previous estimates of the area's petroleum supply potential. The mean (or expected) value of technically recoverable undiscovered oil for the Study Area (Federal 1002 Area, adjacent State waters, and Native Lands) is estimated at 10.4 billion barrels of oil (BBO) and for the Federal 1002 Area the mean is 7.7 BBO. Accumulation sizes containing the oil are expected to be sufficiently large to be of economic interest. At a market price of $21 per barrel, 6 BBO of oil in the Study area is expected to be economic. The Assessment's methodology, results, and the reasons for the significant change in assessments are reviewed. In the concluding section, policy issues raised by the assessment are discussed.

  1. Calculation of area and volume for the north part of Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskin, Robert L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Forestry, Fire, and State Lands, collected bathymetric data for the north part of Great Salt Lake during the spring and early summer of 2006 using a single-beam, high-definition fathometer and real-time differential global positioning system. About 5.2 million depth measurements were collected along more than 765 miles (1,230 kilometers) of survey transects. Sound-velocity profiles were obtained in conjunction with the bathymetric data to provide time-of-travel corrections to the depth calculations. Data were processed with commercial hydrographic software and exported into geographic information system (GIS) software for mapping and calculation of area and volume. Area and volume calculations show a maximum area of about 385,000 acres (1,560 square kilometers) and a maximum volume of about 5,693,000 acre-feet (about 7 cubic kilometers) at a water-surface altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters). Minimum natural water-surface altitude of the north part of Great Salt Lake is just below 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) in the area just north of the Union Pacific railroad causeway halfway between Saline and the western edge of the lake. The north part of Great Salt Lake generally grades gradually to the west and north and is bounded by steep scarps along its eastern border. Calculations for area and volume are based on a low altitude of 4,167 feet (1,270 meters) to a high altitude of 4,200 feet (1,280 meters).

  2. Review of Wind Energy Forecasting Methods for Modeling Ramping Events

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N; Williams, J L; Rhodes, M; Chow, T K; Maxwell, R

    2011-03-28

    Tall onshore wind turbines, with hub heights between 80 m and 100 m, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere since they generally encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complexity of boundary layer flows. This complexity of the lowest layers of the atmosphere, where wind turbines reside, has made conventional modeling efforts less than ideal. To meet the nation's goal of increasing wind power into the U.S. electrical grid, the accuracy of wind power forecasts must be improved. In this report, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, in collaboration with the University of Colorado at Boulder, University of California at Berkeley, and Colorado School of Mines, evaluates innovative approaches to forecasting sudden changes in wind speed or 'ramping events' at an onshore, multimegawatt wind farm. The forecast simulations are compared to observations of wind speed and direction from tall meteorological towers and a remote-sensing Sound Detection and Ranging (SODAR) instrument. Ramping events, i.e., sudden increases or decreases in wind speed and hence, power generated by a turbine, are especially problematic for wind farm operators. Sudden changes in wind speed or direction can lead to large power generation differences across a wind farm and are very difficult to predict with current forecasting tools. Here, we quantify the ability of three models, mesoscale WRF, WRF-LES, and PF.WRF, which vary in sophistication and required user expertise, to predict three ramping events at a North American wind farm.

  3. Mineral resources of the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area, Yuma County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sherrod, D.R.; Smith, D.B.; Kleinkopf, M.D. ); Gese, D.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Kofa Unit 4 North Wilderness Study Area, in the Castle Dome Mountains of Arizona, underlain by Tertiary volcanic rocks that have been deformed by northwest-trending normal faults. The study area has inferred resources of zeolite minerals, which have been mined within the study area. The resource potential for additional zeolite minerals is high in three small areas surrounding the known zeolite occurrences and is unknown in areas of silicic lava flows or intrusions that may include thin altered tuff. The resource potential is low for gold, solver, lead, and zinc throughout the study area and for geothermal energy along range-bounding faults in the study area.

  4. Influence of Detection Method and Study Area Scale on Syphilis Cluster Identification in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Veronica; Hampton, Kristen H; Gesink, Dionne C; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Leone, Peter A; Samoff, Erika; Miller, William C

    2016-04-01

    Identifying geographical clusters of sexually transmitted infections can aid in targeting prevention and control efforts. However, detectable clusters can vary between detection methods because of different underlying assumptions. Furthermore, because disease burden is not geographically homogenous, the reference population is sensitive to the study area scale, affecting cluster outcomes. We investigated the influence of cluster detection method and geographical scale on syphilis cluster detection in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. We analyzed primary and secondary syphilis cases reported in North Carolina (2003-2010). Primary and secondary syphilis incidence rates were estimated using census tract-level population estimates. We used 2 cluster detection methods: local Moran's I using an areal adjacency matrix and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic using a variable size moving circular window. We evaluated 3 study area scales: North Carolina, Piedmont region, and Mecklenburg County. We focused our investigation on Mecklenburg, an urban county with historically high syphilis rates. Syphilis clusters detected using local Moran's I and Kulldorff's scan statistic overlapped but varied in size and composition. Because we reduced the scale to a high-incidence urban area, the reference syphilis rate increased, leading to the identification of smaller clusters with higher incidence. Cluster demographic characteristics differed when the study area was reduced to a high-incidence urban county. Our results underscore the importance of selecting the correct scale for analysis to more precisely identify areas with high disease burden. A more complete understanding of high-burden cluster location can inform resource allocation for geographically targeted sexually transmitted infection interventions.

  5. Flora, life forms and chorotypes of plants of Salok protected area (North Khorassan Province Iran).

    PubMed

    Nadaf, M; Mortazavi, M; Halimi, M Khalilabad

    2011-01-01

    Salok protected Area is located in the 37 degrees 15' to 37 degrees 08' of the North latitude and 57 degrees 16' to 57 degrees 06' of East longitude, in West North Esfarayen in North khorassan province. In this research 52 families, 174 genera and 213 species were identified. The largest plant family is Asteraceae (34 species), Poaceae (18 species), Brassicaceae (17 species) and Fabaceae (17 species), respectively. Chief life forms are Hemicryptopytes (49.29%), Therophytes 23.47% and cryptophytes (12.67%). The most of plants chorotype with 62.91% is influenced by Irano-Touranina elements. Among 213 identified species of this region and 15 species endemic of Iran contain 0.87% of total endemic species of Iran's flora.

  6. Interstellar extinction in the area of the North America and Pelican Nebulae complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straizys, V.; Meistas, E.; Vansevicius, V.; Goldberg, E. P.

    1989-09-01

    Interstellar extinction is investigated in the area including the North America Nebula, the Pelican Nabula, the dark cloud separating both the nebulae, and the nearby area south of Alpha Cygni. Determination of spectral classes, absolute magnitudes, and color excesses of 249 stars is based on their photometry in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system. The distance of the dark cloud is found to be 550 + or - 100 pc. The area west of the Pelican Nebula and south of Alpha Cygni is comparatively transparent at least up to 700 pc.

  7. Potential fluoride contamination in the drinking water of Naranji area, NorthWest Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Danishwar, Shuhab

    2003-12-01

    The drinking water of Naranji village and surrounding areas of the NorthWest Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan, was analyzed for its fluoride content. The fluoride content of water samples from the springs in the Naranji village goes up to 13.52 mg kg(-1), which exceeds the permissible limit (1.5 mg kg(-1)) set by the World Health Organization (WHO). This study explores the source of fluoride contamination and attributes it to the alkaline rocks of the Ambela granitic complex and the Koga complex. The low-lying areas towards the south have a fluoride content within the permissible limit. The Naranji area therefore needs urgent remedial measures.

  8. IMPROVEMENTS OF THE RHIC RAMP EFFICIENCY.

    SciTech Connect

    TRBOJEVIC,D.; PTITSYN,V.; FISCHER,W.; AHRENS,L.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; HAYES,T.; PILAT,F.; ROSER,T.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    The last nms in both gold-gold and polarized proton-proton required necessary corrections in the ramp as the intensities in the two rings were rising towards design values. Corrections were made with respect to the beam-beam effects, transverse and longitudinal instabilities, transition crossing (for the gold-gold ramps), transverse tune resonances, local and global coupliug problems, aperture restrictions, chromatic effects. Along the ramps we had to use the beam separation, ''Landau'' cavities, chromatic and tune control, orbit correction, special gamma-t quadrupole system for the transition crossing in the gold run, correction octupole circuits, beam position monitor system decoupling etc.

  9. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  10. North view general left to right; Mechanical Building, roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view - general left to right; Mechanical Building, roof of Station Building, covered ramp, and Street Car Waiting House - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Sequence development of a latest Devonian-Tournaisian distally-steepened mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramp, Canning Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyedmehdi, Zahra; George, Annette D.; Tucker, Maurice E.

    2016-03-01

    The sequence development and evolution of latest Devonian-earliest Carboniferous Fairfield Group in the Canning Basin have been established through integration of detailed sedimentological analysis of core, petrophysical data, existing biostratigraphic data and new seismic interpretations. The Fairfield Group on the Lennard Shelf was deposited on a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic distally-steepened ramp with a broad inner ramp, narrow mid ramp and steepened outer ramp. The majority of facies associations (FA1-FA8) were formed in intertidal-shallow subtidal conditions in proximal to distal inner ramp including siliciclastic tidal flats (FA1), carbonate intertidal flats (FA2), tidal flats and channels (FA3), lagoons (FA4-FA5), and shallow subtidal (FA6), backshoal (FA7) and fore-shoal areas (FA8). Bioclastic muddy sandstone (FA9) and bioclastic mudstone (FA10) are the dominant mid-ramp facies. Recognition of turbiditic facies of middle to lower slope of the outer ramp (FA11-FA13) led to the identification of a distally-steepened ramp. Antecedent topography exerted a significant control on platform morphology and the development of the widespread inner-ramp facies on the Lennard Shelf. A sequence-stratigraphic analysis reveals that the Fairfield Group ramp deposits consists of four third-order sequences (S1-S4) that were largely deposited during sea-level highstands (HST) characterized by progradational trends and dominant shallow subtidal inner-ramp facies associations. Transgressive systems tracts (TST) are well developed in S1 and S3 and have a retrogradational facies pattern with dominant deep subtidal mid-outer ramp facies associations. Lowstand systems tracts, characterized by lowstand wedges and turbiditic facies, are identified in the lower parts of S2 and S3. Coarse and fine-grained siliciclastic facies are mixed with carbonate facies as a result of coeval deposition on the inner and mid ramp, and reciprocal deposition on the outer ramp. A temporal variation in

  12. Timber resource statistics for the north interior resource area of California. Forest Service research bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Interior Resource Area of California, which includes Lassen, Modoc, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Trinity Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Lassen, Mendocino, Modoc, Six Rivers, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Rogue River, and Toiyabe National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality , and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  13. Environmental pollutant isotope measurements and natural radioactivity assessment for north Tushki area, south western desert, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Sroor, A; Afifi, S Y; Abdel-Haleem, A S; Salman, A B; Abdel-Sammad, M

    2002-09-01

    Natural radioactive materials under certain conditions can reach hazardous radiological levels. The natural radionuclide (238U, 232Th, 40K) contents of rock samples at various locations in the North Tushki area were investigated using gamma-spectrometric analysis. Estimates of the measured radionuclide content have been made for the absorbed dose rate of gamma radiation. The equivalent radium (Req) and the external hazard index (Hex) which resulted from the natural radionuclides in soil are also calculated and tabulated. The studied samples have been collected from various rock exposures in the North Tushki area. The distribution of major oxides, U and Th were studied. It is found that the enrichment and depletion of the major oxides are mainly due to the effect of hydrothermal alteration, which caused mobility of some major oxides, which increases some elements and decreases others. It is important to mention that the study area is far from the development region of the Tushki project and is only a local hazard. Therefore, additional regional studies of the Tushki Project area should be under taken to explore any unexpected environmental hazard due to the high concentration of the radioactive elements, which have been observed at its north boundary.

  14. Radionuclides in shallow groundwater at Solid Waste Storage Area 5 North, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Marsh, J.D. Jr.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a compilation of groundwater monitoring data from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 North at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) between November 1989 and September 1993. Monitoring data were collected as part of the Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program that was implemented in 1989 in response to DOE Order 5820.2A. SWSA 5 North was established for the retrievable storage of transuranic (TRU) wastes in 1970. Four types of storage have been used within SWSA 5 North: bunkers, vaults, wells, and trenches. The fenced portion of SWSA 5 North covers about 3.7 ha (9 acres) in the White Oak Creek watershed south of ORNL. The area is bounded by White Oak Creek and two ephemeral tributaries of White Oak Creek. Since 1989, groundwater has been monitored in wells around SWSA 5 North. During that time, elevated gross alpha contamination (reaching as high as 210 Bq/L) has consistently been detected in well 516. This well is adjacent to burial trenches in the southwest corner of the area. Water level measurements in wells 516 and 518 suggest that water periodically inundates the bottom of some of those trenches. Virtually all of the gross alpha contamination is generated by Curium 244 and Americium 241. A special geochemical investigation of well 516 suggests that nearly all of the Curium 44 and Americium 241 is dissolved or associated with dissolved organic matter. These are being transported at the rate of about 2 m/year from the burial trenches, through well 516, to White Oak Creek, where Curium 244 has been detected in a few bank seeps. Concentrations at these seeps are near detection levels (<1 Bq/L).

  15. Mesoscale Simulations of a Wind Ramping Event for Wind Energy Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M; Lundquist, J K

    2011-09-21

    Ramping events, or rapid changes of wind speed and wind direction over a short period of time, present challenges to power grid operators in regions with significant penetrations of wind energy in the power grid portfolio. Improved predictions of wind power availability require adequate predictions of the timing of ramping events. For the ramping event investigated here, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was run at three horizontal resolutions in 'mesoscale' mode: 8100m, 2700m, and 900m. Two Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) schemes, the Yonsei University (YSU) and Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) schemes, were run at each resolution as well. Simulations were not 'tuned' with nuanced choices of vertical resolution or tuning parameters so that these simulations may be considered 'out-of-the-box' tests of a numerical weather prediction code. Simulations are compared with sodar observations during a wind ramping event at a 'West Coast North America' wind farm. Despite differences in the boundary-layer schemes, no significant differences were observed in the abilities of the schemes to capture the timing of the ramping event. As collaborators have identified, the boundary conditions of these simulations probably dominate the physics of the simulations. They suggest that future investigations into characterization of ramping events employ ensembles of simulations, and that the ensembles include variations of boundary conditions. Furthermore, the failure of these simulations to capture not only the timing of the ramping event but the shape of the wind profile during the ramping event (regardless of its timing) indicates that the set-up and execution of such simulations for wind power forecasting requires skill and tuning of the simulations for a specific site.

  16. Geophysical logging data from the Mills Gap Road area near Asheville, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.

    2011-01-01

    In September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was requested to assist the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4 Superfund Section in the development of a conceptual groundwater flow model in the area of the Mills Gap Road contaminant investigation near Asheville, North Carolina (Site ID A4P5) through an Interagency Grant and work authorization IAD DW number 14946085. The USGS approach included the application of established and state-of-the-science borehole geophysical tools and methods used to delineate and characterize fracture zones in the regolith-fractured bedrock groundwater system. Borehole geophysical logs were collected in eight wells in the Mills Gap Road project area from January through June 2010. These subsurface data were compared to local surface geologic mapping data collected by the North Carolina Geological Survey (NCGS) from January through May 2010.

  17. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%.

  18. Forecasting petroleum discoveries in sparsely drilled areas: Nigeria and the North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    Decline function methods for projecting future discoveries generally capture the crowding effects of wildcat wells on the discovery rate. However, these methods do not accommodate easily situations where exploration areas and horizons are expanding. In this paper, a method is presented that uses a mapping algorithm for separating these often countervailing influences. The method is applied to Nigeria and the North Sea. For an amount of future drilling equivalent to past drilling (825 wildcat wells), future discoveries (in resources found) for Nigeria are expected to decline by 68% per well but still amount to 8.5 billion barrels of oil equivalent (BOE). Similarly, for the total North Sea for an equivalent amount and mix among areas of past drilling (1322 wildcat wells), future discoveries are expected to amount to 17.9 billion BOE, whereas the average discovery rate per well is expected to decline by 71%. ?? 1988 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  19. [Epidemiology of Lyme disease in a healthcare area in north-west Spain].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Díaz, Pablo; Fernández, Gonzalo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of some risk factors on the incidence rate of Lyme disease and the main clinical manifestations. A retrospective study of Lyme disease (2006-2013) was performed in north-west Spain; we included only patients who fulfilled the epidemiological surveillance criteria defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence rate varied between 2.64 and 11.61/100,000 inhabitants/year. Significant differences were found in relation to habitat, age and area of residence. Patients showed neurological (67.59%), dermatological (47.22%), rheumatological (15.74%) and cardiac (13.88%) manifestations, alone or combined. Due to the increase of the disease in north-west Spain and the differences observed between the different areas, epidemiological studies are needed that increase the index of diagnostic suspicion and lead to the implementation of effective prevention measures. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Water in the Elizabethtown area; a study of a limestone terrane in North Central Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    An inventory of the water resources of a 240-square-mile area in north-central Kentucky is reported. It includes water distribution, chemical quality, water use, and principles of water occurrence and availability, and references. Nolin River is the only major stream in the area. Two of its tributaries, Valley Creek and North Fork Nolin River, have water withdrawn for public supply by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville. The quality of the water from the streams is typical of a limestone terrane. Ground water is also used for public supplies by Elizabethtown and Hodgenville and by two industrial plants. Many springs have flows of more than 0.25 cubic foot per second. Except for stock water, only three springs serve as a water source. Water from wells and springs is typical of limestone terrane. (USGS)

  1. Ramp technique for dc partial discharge testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bever, R. S.

    1985-02-01

    The partial discharge (PD) data presently obtained by means of a stepwise ramp technique, for the cases of high voltage (HV) components and such resin-packaged HV devices as the Space Telescope's Faint Object Camera, is acquired separately on part-way ramps to rated voltage and on the intermediate voltage plateaus. For test specimens intended for dc service, this ramp method yields more data on insulation integrity than quiescent dc measurements, especially in the case of specimens of high resistivity which causes the discharge frequency to be deceptively low at constant dc voltage. During upward ramping the voltage distribution is capacitive, and the PD behavior resembles that of an ac test. Many more pulses are obtained in the voids without the heat otherwise generated by the application of 60-Hz ac. PD histograms are presented for various materials, with and without intentional defects.

  2. A revised 5 minute gravimetric geoid and associated errors for the North Atlantic calibration area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mader, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    A revised 5 minute gravimetric geoid and its errors were computed for the North Atlantic calibration area using GEM-8 potential coefficients and the latest gravity data available from the Defense Mapping Agency. This effort was prompted by a number of inconsistencies and small errors found in previous calculations of this geoid. The computational method and constants used are given in detail to serve as a reference for future work.

  3. Climate of Remote Areas in North-Central Alaska: 1975-1979 Summary,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFORE COMPLETING FORM 1.REPR LMBRpot83 GrVT ACCESSION NO. 1. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (wad Subtitle) S . TYPE OF REPORT...PERIOD COVERED CLIMATE OF REMOTE AREAS IN NORTH-CENTRAL ALASKA: 1975-1979 SUMMARY 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) S . CONTRACT OR GRANT...throughout much of the year. Although winds elements. The Interior is predominantly a forested rarely exceed 17 m/ s (32 knots), they are seldom region with

  4. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies that were collected during 1983 include water-surface temperature, sediment temperature, dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperature, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short-and long-wave radiation. Data are collected at raft and land stations. (USGS)

  5. Climatic data for the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sturrock, A.M.; Hanson, B.A.; Scarborough, J.L.; Winter, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Research on the hydrology of the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, includes study of evaporation. Presented here are those climatic data needed for energy-budget and mass-transfer evaporation studies, including: water-surface temperature, sediment temperature dry-bulb and wet-bulb air temperatures, vapor pressure at and above the water surface, wind speed, and short- and long-wave radiation. Data were collected at raft and land stations.

  6. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resources area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, J.E.; Price, D.

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Ferron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than 4 percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to take place during the summer cloudburst season. Subsidence, which usually follows underground coal mining, could create rock fractures through which a perched aquifer might be drained, thus depleting the flow of seeps or springs fed by that aquifer. It is considered unlikely that the mining will adversely affect the chemical quality of the ground water.

  7. North African petroleum geology: regional structure and stratigraphic overview of a hydrocarbon-rich cratonic area

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, T.E.; Kanes, W.H.

    1985-02-01

    North Africa, including Sinai, contains some of the most important hydrocarbon-producing basins in the world. The North African Symposium is devoted to examining the exploration potential of the North African margin in light of the most recent and promising exploration discoveries. The geologic variety of the region is extraordinary and can challenge any exploration philosophy. Of primary interest are the Sirte basin of Libya, which has produced several billion barrels of oil, and the Gulf of Suez, a narrow, evaporite-capped trough with five fields that will produce more than 5 billion bbl. Both are extensional basins with minimal lateral movement and with good source rocks in direct proximity to reservoirs. Structural models of these basins give firm leads for future exploration. More difficult to evaluate are the Tethyan realm basins of the northern Sinai, and the Western Desert of Egypt, the Cyrenaican Platform of Libya, and the Tunisia-Sicily shelf area, where there are only limited subsurface data. These basins are extensional in origin also, but have been influenced by lateral tectonics. Favorable reservoirs exist, but source rocks have been a problem locally. Structural models with strong stratigraphic response offer several favorable play concepts. The Paleozoic Ghadames basin in Libya, Tunisia, and Algeria has the least complex structural history, and production appears to be limited to small structures. A series of stratigraphic models indicates additional areas with exploration potential. The Paleozoic megabasin of Morocco, with its downfaulted Triassic grabens, remains an untested but attractive area.

  8. Idaho National Laboratory Test Area North: Application of Endpoints to Guide Adaptive Remediation at a Complex Site: INL Test Area North: Application of Endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M. Hope; Truex, Mike; Freshley, Mark; Wellman, Dawn

    2016-09-01

    Complex sites are defined as those with difficult subsurface access, deep and/or thick zones of contamination, large areal extent, subsurface heterogeneities that limit the effectiveness of remediation, or where long-term remedies are needed to address contamination (e.g., because of long-term sources or large extent). The Test Area North at the Idaho National Laboratory, developed for nuclear fuel operations and heavy metal manufacturing, is used as a case study. Liquid wastes and sludge from experimental facilities were disposed in an injection well, which contaminated the subsurface aquifer located deep within fractured basalt. The wastes included organic, inorganic, and low-level radioactive constituents, with the focus of this case study on trichloroethylene. The site is used as an example of a systems-based framework that provides a structured approach to regulatory processes established for remediation under existing regulations. The framework is intended to facilitate remedy decisions and implementation at complex sites where restoration may be uncertain, require long timeframes, or involve use of adaptive management approaches. The framework facilitates site, regulator, and stakeholder interactions during the remedial planning and implementation process by using a conceptual model description as a technical foundation for decisions, identifying endpoints, which are interim remediation targets or intermediate decision points on the path to an ultimate end, and maintaining protectiveness during the remediation process. At the Test Area North, using a structured approach to implementing concepts in the endpoint framework, a three-component remedy is largely functioning as intended and is projected to meet remedial action objectives by 2095 as required. The remedy approach is being adjusted as new data become available. The framework provides a structured process for evaluating and adjusting the remediation approach, allowing site owners, regulators, and

  9. Investigation of ramp injectors for supersonic mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimovitch, Y.; Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of wall mounted swept ramp injectors fitted with injector nozzles of different shape has been conducted in a constant area duct to explore mixing enhancement techniques for scramjet combustors. Six different injector nozzle inserts, all having equal exit and throat areas, were tested to explore the interaction between the preconditioned fuel jet and the vortical flowfield produced by the ramp: circular nozzle (baseline), nozzle with three downstream facing steps, nozzle with four vortex generators, elliptical nozzle, tapered-slot nozzle, and trapezoidal nozzle. The main flow was air at Mach 2, and the fuel was simulated by air injected at Mach 1.63 or by helium injected at Mach 1.7. Pressure and temperature surveys, combined with Mie and Rayleigh scattering visualization, were used to investigate the flow field. The experiments were compared with three dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The results indicate that the mixing process is dominated by the streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp, the injectors' inner geometry having a minor effect. It was also found that the injectant/air mixing in the far-field is nearly independent of the injector geometry, molecular weight of the injectant, and the initial convective Mach number.

  10. Upper cretaceous foraminiferal biostraigraphy and paleobathymetry of the Al-Baqa area, North of Amman (Jordan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rifaiy, I. A.; Cherif, O. H.; El-Bakri, B. A.

    1993-10-01

    The examination of vertical variations of foraminiferal assemblages in the Upper Cretaceous exposures of the Al-Baqa area to the north of Amman in Jordan enables us to evaluate ancient paleobathymetric changes with regard to eustatic changes in sea level. Index foraminiferal species are used for age determinations and paleobathymetry. The sedimentary cycle including Upper Cenomanian sediments (Fuheis, Hummar, Shueib and Wadi Sir Formations) appears to be related to global eustatic changes in sea levels. This is also the case of the Late Campanian sedimentary cycle in the study area (Amman Formation).

  11. Protected areas in the North Sea: An absolute need for future marine research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeboom, H. J.

    1995-03-01

    There are many signals that different human activities affect the marine ecosystem on local and sometimes regional scales. There is evidence that in the Dutch sector of the North Sea at least 25 species have decreased tremendously in numbers or have totally disappeared. But what has caused their disappearance: fisheries, pollution, eutrophication, climatic changes, or a combination of causes? On the Dutch Continental Shelf, the fisheries are now so intensive that every square metre is trawled, on an average, once to twice a year. Furthermore, it has been shown that trawling causes direct damage to the marine ecosystem. This indicates that the “natural” North Sea ecosystem we are studying is already a heavily influenced system. And what is the value of data on the diversity and production of benthic animals, if the research area has been raked by beamtrawl gear an unknown amount of times before sampling? To be able to study the natural trends in the marine ecosystem, or to answer the question which human activity has most influenced the ecosystem, there is an absolute and immediate need for protected areas to be established. The size of the protected areas must be determined by the behaviour of that species characteristic for the area. In such areas, where fisheries and local pollution would be forbidden or very limited, scientific research into the species composition and age distribution of different populations should be carried out and trends should be established.

  12. Influence of detection method and study area scale on syphilis cluster identification in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Escamilla, Veronica; Hampton, Kristen H.; Gesink, Dionne C.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Leone, Peter A.; Samoff, Erika; Miller, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Identifying geographical clusters of sexually transmitted infections can aid in targeting prevention and control efforts. However, detectable clusters can vary between detection methods because of different underlying assumptions. Furthermore, because disease burden is not geographically homogenous, the reference population is sensitive to the study area scale, affecting cluster outcomes. We investigated the influence of cluster detection method and geographical scale on syphilis cluster detection in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. Methods We analyzed primary and secondary (P&S) syphilis cases reported in North Carolina (2003–2010). Primary and secondary syphilis incidence rates were estimated using census tract-level population estimates. We used two cluster detection methods: local Moran’s I using an areal adjacency matrix, and Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic using a variable size moving circular window. We evaluated three study area scales: North Carolina, Piedmont region, and Mecklenburg County. We focused our investigation on Mecklenburg, an urban county with historically high syphilis rates. Results Syphilis clusters detected using local Moran’s I and Kulldorff’s scan statistic overlapped but varied in size and composition. Because we reduced the scale to a high incidence urban area, the reference syphilis rate increased, leading to the identification of smaller clusters with higher incidence. Cluster demographic characteristics differed when the study area was reduced to a high incidence urban county. Conclusion Our results underscore the importance of selecting the correct scale for analysis to more precisely identify areas with high disease burden. A more complete understanding of high burden cluster location can inform resource allocation for geographically targeted sexually transmitted infection interventions. PMID:26967297

  13. Recent increase in high tropical cyclone heat potential area in the Western North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pun, Iam-Fei; Lin, I.-I.; Lo, Min-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Main Development Region (MDR) for tropical cyclones (TCs) in the western North Pacific Ocean is the most active TC region in the world. Based on synergetic analyses of satellite altimetry and gravity observations, we found that the subsurface ocean conditions in the western North Pacific MDR has become even more favorable for the intensification of typhoons and supertyphoons. Compared to the early 1990s, a 10% increase in both the depth of the 26°C isotherm (D26) and Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential (TCHP) has occurred in the MDR. In addition, the areas of high TCHP (≥ 110 kJ cm-2) and large D26 (≥ 110 m) have 13% and 17% increases, respectively. Because these high TCHP and large D26 regions are often associated with intensification of the most intense TCs (i.e. supertyphoons), this recent warming requires close attention and monitoring.

  14. An Aerial Radiological Survey of Selected Areas of the City of North Las Vegas

    SciTech Connect

    Piotr Wasiolek

    2008-06-01

    As part of the proficiency training for the Radiological Mapping mission of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS), a survey team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis) conducted an aerial radiological survey of selected areas of the city of North Las Vegas for the purpose of mapping natural radiation background and locating any man-made radioactive sources. Survey areas were selected in collaboration with the City Manager's office and included four separate areas: (1) Las Vegas Motor Speedway (10.6 square miles); (2) North Las Vegas Downtown Area (9.2 square miles); (3) I-15 Industrial Corridor (7.4 square miles); and (4) Future site of University of Nevada Las Vegas campus (17.4 square miles). The survey was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 on December 11-12, 2007 (Areas 1 and 2), Phase 2 on February 28, 2008 (Area 3), and Phase 3 on March 19, 2008 (Area 4). The total completed survey covered a total of 44.6 square miles. The flight lines (without the turns) over the surveyed areas are presented in Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4. A total of eight 2.5-hour-long flights were performed at an altitude of 150 ft above ground level (AGL) with 300 feet of flight-line spacing. Water line and test line flights were conducted over the Lake Mead and Government Wash areas to ensure quality control of the data. The data were collected by the AMS data acquisition system (REDAR V) using an array of twelve 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch sodium iodide (NaI) detectors flown on-board a twin-engine Bell 412 helicopter. Data, in the form of gamma energy spectra, were collected continually (every second) over the course of the survey and were geo-referenced using a differential Global Positioning System. Collection of spectral data allows the system to distinguish between ordinary fluctuations in natural background radiation levels and the signature produced by man-made radioisotopes. Spectral data can also be used to identify specific radioactive isotopes. As a courtesy service, with

  15. 76 FR 65209 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area North Porcupine Coal Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Wright Area North... Record of Decision (ROD) for the North Porcupine Coal Lease-by-Application (LBA) included in the Wright...

  16. Geologic Map of the Upper Wolf Island Creek Watershed, Reidsville Area, Rockingham County, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horton, J. Wright; Geddes, Donald J.

    2006-01-01

    This geologic map provides a foundation for hydrogeologic investigations in the Reidsville area of Rockingham County, north-central North Carolina. The 16-mi2 area within the Southeast Eden and Reidsville 7.5-min quadrangles includes the watershed of Wolf Island Creek and its tributary, Carroll Creek, upstream of their confluence. Layered metamorphic rocks in this area of the Milton terrane, here informally named the Chinqua-Penn metamorphic suite, include a heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist unit that contains interlayers and lenses of white-mica schist, felsic gneiss, amphibolite, and ultramafic rock; a felsic gneiss that contains interlayers of amphibolite, white-mica schist, and minor ultramafic lenses; and a migmatitic biotite gneiss. Crushed stone is produced from an active quarry in the felsic gneiss. Igneous intrusive rocks include a mafic-ultramafic assemblage that may have originated as mafic intrusive bodies containing ultramafic cumulates, a foliated two-mica granite informally named the granite of Reidsville, and unmetamorphosed Jurassic diabase dikes. The newly recognized Carroll Creek shear zone strikes roughly east-west and separates heterogeneous mica gneiss and schist to the north from structurally overlying felsic gneiss to the south. Regional amphibolite-facies metamorphism accompanied polyphase ductile deformation in the metamorphic rocks. Two phases of isoclinal to tight folding and related penetrative deformation, described as D1 and D2, were followed by phases of high-strain mylonitic deformation in shear zones and late gentle to open folding. Later brittle deformation produced minor faults, steep joints, foliation-parallel parting, and sheeting joints. The metamorphic and igneous rocks are mantled by saprolite and residual soil derived from weathering of the underlying bedrock, and unconsolidated Quaternary alluvium occupies the flood plains of Wolf Island Creek and its tributaries. The geologic map delineates lithologic and structural

  17. Landsat classification of the barren hydrolittoral areas of Lake Yli-Kitka, north-eastern Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.; Jantunen, H.; Lampinen, J.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the project 'Landsat-studies for Mapping the Variables within Water Areas' this study deals with the classification possibilities of evaluating and mapping depth relations and bottom materials within the barren and clear-watered shores of Lake Yli-Kitka, North-Eastern Finland. It has been discovered that it is possible to distinguish open water areas with a water depth of more than about half of the Secchi disk depth from those of shallower hydrolittoral areas. The morainic, sandy and only slightly vegetated subareas of the shallow shores and shoals can possibly be identified by using a simple classification procedure. The data used were recorded by the coarse-resolution Landsat MSS imagery system, and better results are expected after the experiences of the Landsat TM data and the availability of the SPOT material.

  18. Delineating flood damage areas at Naseon City in North Korea using Radar Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.; Lee, K. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood is a devastating natural hazard in the world. It damages agriculture, industry, residence, economics, and human health. North Korea (NK) has suffered flood damage almost every year since 1995. Especially, there was serious flood at Naseon City in NK in 22nd August 2015 resulting in many people died and homeless. In order to restore the flood damage areas, delineating flood damage areas (FDAs) is necessary. Remote sensing (RS) can be used to delineate FDAs in inaccessible regions NK. Moreover, radar RS data have been widely used for detecting FDAs. Radar RS data can offer the maximum damaged date data regardless of weather conditions. Therefore, if we use radar RS data, we can delineate FDAs more accurately. Therefore, the objective of this study is to delineate FDAs at Naseon City in NK using Sentinel 1 data. The ultimate goal is to provide basic information for restoring flood damaged areas in NK after reunification.

  19. Landsat classification of the barren hydrolittoral areas of Lake Yli-Kitka, north-eastern Finland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitala, J.; Jantunen, H.; Lampinen, J.

    1987-01-01

    As a part of the project 'Landsat-studies for Mapping the Variables within Water Areas' this study deals with the classification possibilities of evaluating and mapping depth relations and bottom materials within the barren and clear-watered shores of Lake Yli-Kitka, North-Eastern Finland. It has been discovered that it is possible to distinguish open water areas with a water depth of more than about half of the Secchi disk depth from those of shallower hydrolittoral areas. The morainic, sandy and only slightly vegetated subareas of the shallow shores and shoals can possibly be identified by using a simple classification procedure. The data used were recorded by the coarse-resolution Landsat MSS imagery system, and better results are expected after the experiences of the Landsat TM data and the availability of the SPOT material.

  20. An oilspill risk analysis for the North Atlantic outer continental shelf lease area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard Allmon; Slack, James Richard; Davis, Robert K.

    1976-01-01

    The Federal Government has proposed to lease 1,172,795 acres of Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) lands on Georges Bank off the New England Coast for oil and gas development. Estimated recoverable petroleum resources for the proposed 206 tract sale area range from 180 to 650 million barrels. Contingent upon actual discovery of this quantity of oil, production is expected to span a period of about 20 years. An oilspill risk analysis was conducted to determine relative environmental hazards of developing oil in the North Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf lease area. The study analyzed probability of spill occurrence, likely path of pollutants from spills, and locations in space and time of recreational and biological resources likely to be vulnerable. These results are combined to yield estimates of the overall oilspill risk associated with development of the lease area. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Base of Principal Aquifer for the Elkhorn-Loup Model Area, North-Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, V.L.; Peterson, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    In Nebraska, the water managers in the Natural Resources Districts and the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources are concerned with the effect of ground-water withdrawal on the availability of surface water and the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawal on ground- and surface-water resources. In north-central Nebraska, in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, ground water is used for irrigation, domestic supply, and public supply; surface water is used in this area for irrigation, recreation, and hydropower production. In recognition of these sometimes competing ground- and surface-water uses in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Lewis and Clark Natural Resources District, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, the Lower Loup Natural Resources District, the Lower Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Lower Platte North Natural Resources District, the Middle Niobrara Natural Resources District, the Upper Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and the Upper Loup Natural Resources District agreed to cooperatively study water resources in the Elkhorn and Loup River Basins. The goals of the overall study were to construct and calibrate a regional ground-water flow model of the area and to use that flow model as a tool to assess current and future effects of ground-water irrigation on stream base flow and to help develop long-term water-resource management strategies for this area, hereafter referred to as the Elkhorn-Loup model area. The Elkhorn-Loup model area covers approximately 30,800 square miles, and extends from the Niobrara River in the north to the Platte River in the south. The western boundary of the Elkhorn-Loup model area coincides with the western boundary of the Middle Niobrara, Twin Platte, and Upper Loup Natural Resources Districts; the eastern boundary coincides with the approximate location of the western extent of glacial till in eastern Nebraska. The principal aquifer in most of the Elkhorn-Loup model

  2. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  3. Mapping Deforestation area in North Korea Using Phenology-based Multi-Index and Random Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Sung, S.; Lee, D. K.; Jeong, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forest ecosystem provides ecological benefits to both humans and wildlife. Growing global demand for food and fiber is accelerating the pressure on the forest ecosystem in whole world from agriculture and logging. In recently, North Korea lost almost 40 % of its forests to crop fields for food production and cut-down of forest for fuel woods between 1990 and 2015. It led to the increased damage caused by natural disasters and is known to be one of the most forest degraded areas in the world. The characteristic of forest landscape in North Korea is complex and heterogeneous, the major landscape types in the forest are hillside farm, unstocked forest, natural forest and plateau vegetation. Remote sensing can be used for the forest degradation mapping of a dynamic landscape at a broad scale of detail and spatial distribution. Confusion mostly occurred between hillside farmland and unstocked forest, but also between unstocked forest and forest. Most previous forest degradation that used focused on the classification of broad types such as deforests area and sand from the perspective of land cover classification. The objective of this study is using random forest for mapping degraded forest in North Korea by phenological based vegetation index derived from MODIS products, which has various environmental factors such as vegetation, soil and water at a regional scale for improving accuracy. The model created by random forest resulted in an overall accuracy was 91.44%. Class user's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 97.2% and 84%%, which indicate the degraded forest. Unstocked forest had relative low user accuracy due to misclassified hillside farmland and forest samples. Producer's accuracy of hillside farmland and unstocked forest were 85.2% and 93.3%, repectly. In this case hillside farmland had lower produce accuracy mainly due to confusion with field, unstocked forest and forest. Such a classification of degraded forest could supply essential

  4. A 3D gravity and magnetic model for the Entenschnabel area (German North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Ingo; Barckhausen, Udo; Heyde, Ingo

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we focus on structural configuration of the Entenschnabel area, a part of the German exclusive economic zone within the North Sea, by means of gravity and magnetic modelling. The starting point of the 3D modelling approach is published information on subseafloor structures for shallow depths, acquired by wells and seismic surveys. Subsequent gravity and magnetic modelling of the structures of the deeper subsurface builds on this geophysical and geological information and on gravity and magnetic data acquired during a research cruise to the Entenschnabel area. On the one hand, our 3D model shows the density and susceptibility distribution of the sediments and the crust. In addition, the potential field modelling provides evidence for a differentiation between lower and upper crust. The thickness distribution of the crust is also discussed with respect to the tectonic framework. Furthermore, gravity as well as magnetic modelling points to an intrusive complex beneath the Central Graben within the Entenschnabel area. On the other hand, this work provides a geological-geophysical consistent 3D gravity and magnetic model that can be used as a starting point for further investigation of this part of the German North Sea.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Fork and surrounding areas, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Bova, Richard G.; Misut, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water on the North Fork of Long Island is the sole source of drinking water, but the supply is vulnerable to saltwater intrusion and upconing in response to heavy pumping. Information on the area?s hydrogeologic framework is needed to analyze the effects of pumping and drought on ground-water levels and the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface. This will enable water-resource managers and water-supply purveyors to evaluate a wide range of water-supply scenarios to safely meet water-use demands. The extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units and position of the freshwater-saltwater interface were interpreted from previous work and from exploratory drilling during this study. The fresh ground-water reservoir on the North Fork consists of four principal freshwater flow systems (referred to as Long Island mainland, Cutchogue, Greenport, and Orient) within a sequence of unconsolidated Pleistocene and Late Cretaceous deposits. A thick glacial-lake-clay unit appears to truncate underlying deposits in three buried valleys beneath the northern shore of the North Fork. Similar glacial-lake deposits beneath eastern and east-central Long Island Sound previously were inferred to be younger than the surficial glacial deposits exposed along the northern shore of Long Island. Close similarities in thickness and upper-surface altitude between the glacial-lake-clay unit on the North Fork and the glacial-lake deposits in Long Island Sound indicate, however, that the two are correlated at least along the North Fork shore. The Matawan Group and Magothy Formation, undifferentiated, is the uppermost Cretaceous unit on the North Fork and constitutes the Magothy aquifer. The upper surface of this unit contains a series of prominent erosional features that can be traced beneath Long Island Sound and the North Fork. Northwest-trending buried ridges extend several miles offshore from areas southeast of Rocky Point and Horton Point. A promontory in the irregular, north

  6. Hydrogeologic framework of the North Fork and surrounding areas, Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schubert, Christopher E.; Bova, Richard G.; Misut, Paul E.

    2004-01-01

    Ground water on the North Fork of Long Island is the sole source of drinking water, but the supply is vulnerable to saltwater intrusion and upconing in response to heavy pumping. Information on the area's hydrogeologic framework is needed to analyze the effects of pumping and drought on ground-water levels and the position of the freshwater-saltwater interface. This will enable water-resource managers and water-supply purveyors to evaluate a wide range of water-supply scenarios to safely meet water-use demands. The extent and thickness of hydrogeologic units and position of the freshwater-saltwater interface were interpreted from previous work and from exploratory drilling during this study.The fresh ground-water reservoir on the North Fork consists of four principal freshwater flow systems (referred to as Long Island mainland, Cutchogue, Greenport, and Orient) within a sequence of unconsolidated Pleistocene and Late Cretaceous deposits. A thick glacial-lake-clay unit appears to truncate underlying deposits in three buried valleys beneath the northern shore of the North Fork. Similar glacial-lake deposits beneath eastern and east-central Long Island Sound previously were inferred to be younger than the surficial glacial deposits exposed along the northern shore of Long Island. Close similarities in thickness and upper-surface altitude between the glacial-lake-clay unit on the North Fork and the glacial-lake deposits in Long Island Sound indicate, however, that the two are correlated at least along the North Fork shore.The Matawan Group and Magothy Formation, undifferentiated, is the uppermost Cretaceous unit on the North Fork and constitutes the Magothy aquifer. The upper surface of this unit contains a series of prominent erosional features that can be traced beneath Long Island Sound and the North Fork. Northwest-trending buried ridges extend several miles offshore from areas southeast of Rocky Point and Horton Point. A promontory in the irregular, north

  7. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  8. YF-12C on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The so-called YF-12C on the NASA Flight Research Center ramp. Following the loss of a YF-12A in a non-fatal accident in June 1971, NASA acquired the second production SR-71A (61-7951) from the Air Force. Because the SR-71 program was shrouded in the highest secrecy, the Air Force restricted NASA to using the aircraft solely for propulsion testing with YF-12A inlets and engines. It was designated the YF-12C, and given a bogus tail number (06937). The two YF-12As in the program had actual tail numbers 06935 and 06936. The first NASA flight of the YF-12C took place on 24 May 1972. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 606936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made

  9. Downstream Effect of Ramping Neuronal Activity through Synapses with Short-Term Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-04-01

    Ramping neuronal activity refers to spiking activity with a rate that increases quasi-linearly over time. It has been observed in multiple cortical areas and is correlated with evidence accumulation processes or timing. In this work, we investigated the downstream effect of ramping neuronal activity through synapses that display short-term facilitation (STF) or depression (STD). We obtained an analytical result for a synapse driven by deterministic linear ramping input that exhibits pure STF or STD and numerically investigated the general case when a synapse displays both STF and STD. We show that the analytical deterministic solution gives an accurate description of the averaging synaptic activation of many inputs converging onto a postsynaptic neuron, even when fluctuations in the ramping input are strong. Activation of a synapse with STF shows an initial cubical increase with time, followed by a linear ramping similar to a synapse without STF. Activation of a synapse with STD grows in time to a maximum before falling and reaching a plateau, and this steady state is independent of the slope of the ramping input. For a synapse displaying both STF and STD, an increase in the depression time constant from a value much smaller than the facilitation time constant τ(F) to a value much larger than τ(F) leads to a transition from facilitation dominance to depression dominance. Therefore, our work provides insights into the impact of ramping neuronal activity on downstream neurons through synapses that display short-term plasticity. In a perceptual decision-making process, ramping activity has been observed in the parietal and prefrontal cortices, with a slope that decreases with task difficulty. Our work predicts that neurons downstream from such a decision circuit could instead display a firing plateau independent of the task difficulty, provided that the synaptic connection is endowed with short-term depression.

  10. Quantum strongly secure ramp secret sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Paul; Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2015-02-01

    Quantum secret sharing is a scheme for encoding a quantum state (the secret) into multiple shares and distributing them among several participants. If a sufficient number of shares are put together, then the secret can be fully reconstructed. If an insufficient number of shares are put together however, no information about the secret can be revealed. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an unqualified set, that cannot fully reconstruct the secret. By allowing this, the size of a share can be drastically reduced. This paper introduces a quantum analog of classical strong security in ramp secret sharing schemes. While the ramp secret sharing scheme still leaks partial information about the secret to unqualified sets of participants, the strong security condition ensures that qudits with critical information can no longer be leaked.

  11. Climatic patterns in the establishment of wintering areas by North American migratory birds.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Moreno, Heidi; Martínez-Meyer, Enrique; Soberón Mainero, Jorge; Rojas-Soto, Octavio

    2016-04-01

    Long-distance migration in birds is relatively well studied in nature; however, one aspect of this phenomenon that remains poorly understood is the pattern of distribution presented by species during arrival to and establishment of wintering areas. Some studies suggest that the selection of areas in winter is somehow determined by climate, given its influence on both the distribution of bird species and their resources. We analyzed whether different migrant passerine species of North America present climatic preferences during arrival to and departure from their wintering areas. We used ecological niche modeling to generate monthly potential climatic distributions for 13 migratory bird species during the winter season by combining the locations recorded per month with four environmental layers. We calculated monthly coefficients of climate variation and then compared two GLM (generalized linear models), evaluated with the AIC (Akaike information criterion), to describe how these coefficients varied over the course of the season, as a measure of the patterns of establishment in the wintering areas. For 11 species, the sites show nonlinear patterns of variation in climatic preferences, with low coefficients of variation at the beginning and end of the season and higher values found in the intermediate months. The remaining two species analyzed showed a different climatic pattern of selective establishment of wintering areas, probably due to taxonomic discrepancy, which would affect their modeled winter distribution. Patterns of establishment of wintering areas in the species showed a climatic preference at the macroscale, suggesting that individuals of several species actively select wintering areas that meet specific climatic conditions. This probably gives them an advantage over the winter and during the return to breeding areas. As these areas become full of migrants, alternative suboptimal sites are occupied. Nonrandom winter area selection may also have

  12. Introductions and developments of oysters in the North Sea area: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwaard, A. C.

    1998-09-01

    To replenish the exploited native stocks of Ostrea edulis, imports from almost all European coasts have arrived in the North Sea, particularly in the Dutch Oosterschelde estuary. The American oyster Crassostrea virginica and the Portuguese oyster C. angulata have also been imported into the North Sea several times. However, only the introductions of various genetic strains of the Pacific oyster C. gigas have been of lasting success. Spat from British Columbia (Canada) was first imported to the Oosterschelde in 1964. First spatfalls in this area took place in the warm summers of 1975 and 1976. Further larval outbursts occurred in 1982 and 1989, and good settlements took place on culture plots as well as along the dikes of the Oosterschelde. Since 1977 no more cupped oysters have been imported from overseas. The population maintained itself and was able to spread in a northern direction along the Dutch North Sea coast. In Britain, hatchery-produced C. gigas were transferred to several sites, in the 1970s including the British North Sea coast. Here, occurrence in the wild seems to be rather limited up to now. Into the German Wadden Sea, C. gigas larvae and spat from a Scottish hatchery have been introduced since 1971, as were medium-sized oysters from a variety of European sources in the 1980s. Strong spatfalls on intertidal mussel beds in the northern German Wadden Sea occured in 1991 and 1994. For the introductions of C. gigas along the west European coasts, precautionary measures to minimize unintentional transfers of associated organisms, as recommended by the ICES Code of Practice in 1994, came too late.

  13. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., 085°45′34″ W; East point—30°14′56″ N, 085°43′45″ W; South point—30°14′01″ N, 085°44′59″ W; West point...

  14. Impact of industrial wastewater disposal on surface water bodies in Mostord area, north greater Cairo.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Sabour, M F; Rabie, F H; Mostafa, T; Hassan, S A

    2001-10-01

    The studied area (Shoubra El-Khima, Bahteem and Mostorod) lies in the industrial area north of Greater Cairo. The area suffers from several environmental problems such as sewage and disposal of pollutants from the surrounding factories into the surface water pathways in the area. Water samples were collected seasonally from different waterways found in the area, domestic and or industrial liquid wastes from 12 discharge tubes of different factories (as a point source of pollution). Chemical characteristics of different water samples and its heavy metals content were determined using ion coupled plasma technique (ICP). Results indicate that industrial and domestic wastewater samples contain several toxic levels of tested heavy metals (Cd, Co, Pb and Ni) which have a serious impact on surface waterways in the area. Shebin El-Qanater collector drain samples exhibited the highest levels of Cd, Co, Pb and Ni compared to other tested water bodies. Mostorod collector drain samples showed the highest levels of Zn and Cu. Industrial effluent samples collected from Cairo Company for Fabric industry had the highest amounts of total Zn Cu, Cd, Co and Pb, while Delta steel company discharges the highest amounts of total Fe and Mn. Al-Ahleya Plastic Company discharges the highest amounts of total-Ni. Generally, it is necessary to impose the environmental laws and its regulation regarding the industrial wastewater treatments and disposals to minimize the risk of the adverse effects of these pollutants.

  15. Mars pathfinder Rover egress deployable ramp assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spence, Brian R.; Sword, Lee F.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Program is a NASA Discovery Mission, led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, to launch and place a small planetary Rover for exploration on the Martian surface. To enable safe and successful egress of the Rover vehicle from the spacecraft, a pair of flight-qualified, deployable ramp assemblies have been developed. This paper focuses on the unique, lightweight deployable ramp assemblies. A brief mission overview and key design requirements are discussed. Design and development activities leading to qualification and flight systems are presented.

  16. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  17. A survey on draught animal technology (DAT) in EN-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Makki, Elsamawal Khalil; Musa, Ezdehar Omer Mohammed

    2011-06-01

    Draught animal technology (DAT) can potentially play a central role in agriculture transformation for traditional farmers. This study surveyed the state of DAT in En-Nhoud area, North Kordofan State, Sudan in an attempt to have a clear view of the changes brought about by introducing the technology. The study followed the cross-sectional survey design. Farmers were selected from ten clusters (villages) and data were collected using questionnaires and face to face interviews with farmers in addition to group discussions with them and the different actors in the field. The results showed that farmers appreciate the role played by DAT, but they highlighted the need for further capacity building and technical backup. Harnessing issues are not well understood and applied by the farmers. The different actors involved in DAT in the area lack networking and coordination, and this reflected on the many problems and constraints faced by the farmers.

  18. Area-wide seafloor mapping in the SE North Sea using hydroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mielck, Finn; Hass, H. Christian

    2013-04-01

    Mapping seafloor properties has become increasingly important for understanding marine ecosystems and providing basic data for sustainable management. However, the knowledge regarding the distribution of seabed environments in the German part of the North Sea is still fragmentary. It is mainly derived from single case studies and from a 1:250,000 scale map based on grab samples published in 1981. In recent years, hydroacoustic devices became a powerful tool to quickly obtain reliable information of the seafloor. In the years 2007-2012 various hydroacoustic surveys were performed in order to map the seafloor in the coastal zone of the NE German Bight comprising an area of approximately 1,500 km². Measurements were carried out with a sidescan sonar (Imagenex YellowFin, 330 kHz) at a resolution of 25 cm. For ground truthing several hundred sediment samples were taken. The seafloor in the investigation area is mainly characterized by fine and medium sand. West off Sylt relics of former Pleistocene moraines stretch perpendicular to the coast in westerly directions. These relics consist of wide bands of coarse to medium sand and are basically linked to the morphological structures such as ridges and channels. The truncated push moraines from the Saalian glacial represent the seaward extension of the recent moraine core ('Geest') of Sylt. In addition a great number of smaller scaled structures, generally known as sorted bedforms were detected. Sidescan sonography of the same area carried out in two consecutive years reveals that these bedforms are dynamic and therefore subject to flow-directed movement across the seafloor. They are linked with large-scale sediment transport that occurs in this highly dynamic area as a result of vigorous tidal currents. Ongoing investigations aim at relating the occurrence of different bedforms to current speed and net sediment transport direction to calculate sediment budget. These govern erosion and accumulation processes that are

  19. The flora of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, D.M.; Euliss, N.H.; Lane, S.P.; Goldade, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    The 92 ha Cottonwood Lake Study Area is located in south-central North Dakota along the eastern edge of a glacial stagnation moraine known as the Missouri Coteau. The study area has been the focus of biologic and hydrologic research since the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service purchased the site in 1963. We studied the plant communities of the Cottonwood Lake Study Area from 1992 to 2001. During this time period, the vascular flora of the study area consisted of 220 species representing 51 families. Over half of the species were perennial forbs (117 species). Perennial grasses (26 species) and annual forbs (22 species) made up the next two largest physiognomic groupings. The flora, having a mean Coefficient of Conservatism of 4.6 and a Floristic Quality Index of 62, consisted of 187 native species. Thirty-three species were non-natives. Our annotated list should provide information useful to researchers, graduate students, and others as they design and implement future studies in wetlands and uplands both in and around the Cottonwood Lake Study Area.

  20. The role of pre-existing thrust ramps on the evolution of a differently oriented thrust systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Pini, Gian Andrea; Ponton, Maurizio; Del Ben, Anna

    2017-04-01

    In the accretionary wedges, as well as in fold-and-thrust belts, shortening is mostly accommodated by fault-related folding. This kind of structures are sensitive both to internal factors such as the mechanical characteristics of the rocks involved in contractional processes, and to external ones such as erosion or syn-kinematics sedimentation. Notwithstanding such diversity, the resulting geometries are commonly composed by faults with flat and ramp trajectory and their related folds. The above mentioned factors may directly affect both the geometry and the kinematics of a fault-related folding, for instance, the location, the number, and the frictional properties of weak horizons lead the location and the extent of the flat portion of the thrust systems. The mechanical properties of the rocks involved in the contractional phase impacts on the location and geometry of the thrust ramp. Thus, the stratigraphic and tectonic architecture of an area is central to predict or study the evolution of a contractional system. Among different factors, we select to test the role of pre-existing thrust ramp on the subsequent evolution on differently oriented thrust ramp. As a method we use analogue modeling and as an analogue material we use wet clay (kaolin). We reproduce different setups varying the initial orientation of the pre-existing thrust ramp with respect to the new ramp that we force to nucleate in the same region of the experiment box. The tested angles vary from 0°, i.e. the two ramps are parallel, to 90°, i.e. the two ramps are perpendicular. Our results show that the angle between the two systems directly impact on the degree of development of new ramps. When the angle between new and pre-existing thrust ramps is low, e.g. <30°, the reactivation of the pre-existing ramp prevail on the development of a new ramp. Conversely, high angles promote the development of new thrust ramps optimally oriented with respect to the imposed stress field. Our results are

  1. X-36 on Ramp Viewed from Above

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-16

    This look-down view of the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on the ramp at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, clearly shows the unusual wing and canard design of the remotely-piloted aircraft.

  2. VISUAL ACCESSIBILITY OF RAMPS AND STEPS

    PubMed Central

    Legge, Gordon E.; Yu, Deyue; Kallie, Christopher S.; Bochsler, Tiana M.; Gage, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    The visual accessibility of a space refers to the effectiveness with which vision can be used to travel safely through the space. For people with low vision, the detection of steps and ramps is an important component of visual accessibility. We used ramps and steps as visual targets to examine the interacting effects of lighting, object geometry, contrast, viewing distance and spatial resolution. Wooden staging was used to construct a sidewalk with transitions to ramps or steps. 48 normally sighted subjects viewed the sidewalk monocularly through acuity-reducing goggles, and made recognition judgments about the presence of the ramps or steps. The effects of variation in lighting were milder than expected. Performance declined for the largest viewing distance, but exhibited a surprising reversal for nearer viewing. Of relevance to pedestrian safety, the step up was more visible than the step down. We developed a probabilistic cue model to explain the pattern of target confusions. Cues determined by discontinuities in the edge contours of the sidewalk at the transition to the targets were vulnerable to changes in viewing conditions. Cues associated with the height in the picture plane of the targets were more robust. PMID:20884503

  3. A simple computer-controlled analogue ramp generator for producing multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli.

    PubMed

    Matheson, T; Ditz, F

    1991-08-01

    This report describes an inexpensive ramp generator which produces multiple ramp-and-hold stimuli ("staircase-type" wave forms). The output voltage is analogue and is, therefore, free of stepping artifacts characteristic of digital function generators. When coupled with a standard power amplifier and mechanical vibrator, this system is particularly suitable for stimulation of mechanoreceptive sense organs. Connection to the serial port of an IBM personal computer, or the user port of a BBC computer allows complex ramp-and-hold sequences to be developed and repeated. The number, duration and sign of ramps, and the duration of intervening hold periods can be set using the computer. This system has been used successfully to characterise phasic and tonic neurones in the locust metathoracic femoral chordotonal organ (a leg position and movement detector).

  4. 36 CFR 7.50 - Chickasaw Recreation Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... speed in the following locations: (i) The Guy Sandy arm north of the east/west buoy line located near Masters Pond. (ii) The Guy Sandy Cove west of the buoy marking the entrance to the cove. (iii) Rock Creek... Point boat ramp. (iii) Guy Sandy boat ramp. (iv) Upper Guy Sandy boat ramp. (4) The fueling of PWC is...

  5. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  6. GIS Representation of Coal-Bearing Areas in North, Central, and South America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewalt, Susan J.; Kinney, Scott A.; Merrill, Matthew D.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide coal consumption and international coal trade are projected to increase in the next several decades (Energy Information Administration, 2007). A search of existing literature indicates that in the Western Hemisphere, coal resources are known to occur in about 30 countries. The need exists to be able to depict these areas in a digital format for use in Geographic Information System (GIS) applications at small scales (large areas) and in visual presentations. Existing surficial geology GIS layers of the appropriate geologic age have been used as an approximation to depict the extent of coal-bearing areas in North, Central, and South America, as well as Greenland (fig. 1). Global surficial geology GIS data were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for use in world petroleum assessments (Hearn and others, 2003). These USGS publications served as the major sources for the selection and creation of polygons to represent coal-bearing areas. Additional publications and maps by various countries and agencies were also used as sources of coal locations. GIS geologic polygons were truncated where literature or hardcopy maps did not indicate the presence of coal. The depicted areas are not adequate for use in coal resource calculations, as they were not adjusted for geologic structure and do not include coal at depth. Additionally, some coal areas in Central America could not be represented by the mapped surficial geology and are shown only as points based on descriptions or depictions from scientific publications or available maps. The provided GIS files are intended to serve as a backdrop for display of coal information. Three attributes of the coal that are represented by the polygons or points include geologic age (or range of ages), published rank (or range of ranks), and information source (published sources for age, rank, or physical location, or GIS geology base).

  7. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  8. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  9. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  10. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  11. 9 CFR 313.1 - Livestock pens, driveways and ramps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Livestock pens, driveways and ramps... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.1 Livestock pens, driveways and ramps. (a) Livestock pens, driveways and ramps shall be maintained in good repair. They shall be free from sharp or...

  12. Anatomy of a cyclically packaged Mesoproterozoic carbonate ramp in northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherman, A. G.; Narbonne, G. M.; James, N. P.

    2001-03-01

    Carbonates in the upper member of the Mesoproterozoic Victor Bay Formation are dominated by lime mud and packaged in cycles of 20-50 m. These thicknesses exceed those of classic shallowing-upward cycles by almost a factor of 10. Stratigraphic and sedimentological evidence suggests high-amplitude, high-frequency glacio-eustatic cyclicity, and thus a cool global climate ca. 1.2 Ga. The Victor Bay ramp is one of several late Proterozoic carbonate platforms where the proportions of lime mud, carbonate grains, and microbialites are more typical of younger Phanerozoic successions which followed the global waning of stromatolites. Facies distribution in the study area is compatible with deposition on a low-energy, microtidal, distally steepened ramp. Outer-ramp facies are hemipelagic lime mudstone, shale, carbonaceous rhythmite, and debrites. Mid-ramp facies are molar-tooth limestone tempestite with microspar-intraclast lags. In a marine environment where stromatolitic and oolitic facies were otherwise rare, large stromatolitic reefs developed at the mid-ramp, coeval with inner-ramp facies of microspar grainstone, intertidal dolomitic microbial laminite, and supratidal evaporitic red shale. Deep-subtidal, outer-ramp cycles occur in the southwestern part of the study area. Black dolomitic shale at the base is overlain by ribbon, nodular, and carbonaceous carbonate facies, all of which exhibit signs of synsedimentary disruption. Cycles in the northeast are shallow-subtidal and peritidal in character. Shallow-subtidal cycles consist of basal deep-water facies, and an upper layer of subtidal molar-tooth limestone tempestite interbedded with microspar calcarenite facies. Peritidal cycles are identical to shallow-subtidal cycles except that they contain a cap of dolomitic tidal-flat microbial laminite, and rarely of red shale sabkha facies or of sandy polymictic conglomerate. A transect along the wall of a valley extending 8.5 km perpendicular to depositional strike reveals

  13. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  14. Assessment of Pharmacists' Perception of Patient Care Competence and Need for Training in Rural and Urban Areas in North Dakota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Few studies have examined pharmacists' level of patient care competence and need for continuous professional development in rural areas. Purpose: To assess North Dakota pharmacists' practice setting, perceived level of patient care competencies, and the need for professional development in urban and rural areas. Methods: A survey was…

  15. Hydrodynamic trapping in the Cretaceous Nahr Umr lower sand of the North Area, Offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, P.R.A.

    1988-03-01

    A hydrodynamic model is described to account for oil and gas occurrences in the Cretaceous of offshore Qatar, in the Arabian Gulf. Variable and inconsistent fluid levels and variable formation water potentials and salinities cannot be explained by combinations of stratigraphic and structural trapping. Indeed, there is no structural closure to the southwest of the oil and gas accumulations. The water-potential and salinity data and oil distribution are consistent with this model and indicate that a vigorous hydrodynamic system pervades the Cretaceous of the Arabian Gulf region. Extensive upward cross-formational discharge is taking place in the North Area. This cross-formation water flow could be partly responsible for localized leaching and reservoir enhancement in the chalky limestones.

  16. Natural groundwater recharge in an upland area of central North Dakota, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehm, B.W.; Moran, S.R.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    The magnitude of groundwater recharge to coal aquifers in a 150-km2 area in west-central North Dakota was determined using three separate approaches: (1) the net water level rise in water-table wells; (2) calculations of the fluid flux between nested piezometers, using the Darcy equation and measured values of hydraulic conductivity and vertical gradients; and (3) evaluation of the inputs to and outputs from the coal aquifer, using a steady-state control volume approach in which the aquifer was divided into semi-rectangular cells bounded by equipotential lines and flow lines. Measurements of potential gradients and hydraulic conductivity permitted indirect determination of all components of flow into and out of the cell except the recharge input, which was determined by difference. All methods yielded consistent results on the order of 0.04-0.01 m yr.-1 These values, which represent 2-9% of the annual precipitation, are consistent with results of other studies on recharge throughout the prairies of North America. Evaluation of site hydrology and stable-isotope data indicates that recharge is restricted in both time and place. Most recharge occurs in late spring and in the fall following heavy rainfall events. During these seasons the ground is not frozen and vegetation is not transpiring large amounts of water. Some recharge may occur during very heavy localized summer storms, but it is not considered volumetrically significant. Major permanent depressions on the site are a source of significant recharge. In addition, the extensive area of ephemeral standing water bodies that result from snowmelt can produce significant amounts of infiltration over the entire site. ?? 1982.

  17. [Food security in 'Grain for Green Project' area of North Shaanxi based on households].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Zhuo; Xie, Yong-Sheng

    2011-02-01

    This paper analyzed the food production by the households in the counties with high population (Mizhi County) and low population (Wuqi County) in North Shaanxi, and studied the food security and its affecting factors in the two counties by using minimum cropland area per capita and Cobb-Douglass production function methods. The results demonstrated that the food production in low population county could meet the basic standard of food security, while that in high population county could not. Cultivated area and investment in agricultural technology were the major factors affecting food security; labor force, labor quality, and grain subsidy also had positive effects on food production. The current technology and labor quality did not reach their potential for food production. This region needed to increase grain production area to reach the minimum standard of 0.14 bm2 per capita, put much stress on labor force training, and formulate appropriate following policies for 'Grain for Green' to realize the food security strategy.

  18. Variation in acoustic activity of North Atlantic right whales in three critical habitat areas in 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Susan E.; Clark, Christopher W.

    2005-04-01

    The North Atlantic right whale is a critically endangered species. Five major habitat areas have been defined based on the presence of groups of right whales during different seasons of the year. Autonomous seafloor acoustic recorders, ``pop-ups,'' have been used over the past five years to identify the presence/absence of right whales in Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts by detection of right whale contact calls. These recordings have shown the effectiveness of using acoustics to monitor right whale behavior. In 2004, multi-unit arrays of pop-ups were deployed in three critical habitat areas; Cape Cod Bay (January-April), Great South Channel (May), and the Bay of Fundy (August). The presence/absence of right whale calls within range of the array, estimates of the minimum number of individuals calling, the types of calls recorded, and the diurnal patterns of sound production were measured to compare the acoustic repertoire use of right whales in these three habitats. These data were compared to visual survey data in the Bay of Fundy. These results can be used to compare diurnal and nocturnal behavioral patterns of the whales and provide information on behavioral differences between these three critical habitat areas.

  19. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  20. Geologic map of the Sasquatch Steps area, north flank of Mount St. Helens, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausback, Brian P.

    2000-01-01

    The 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens resulted in both new volcanic deposits and deeply incised exposures into pre-1980 deposits. These exposures were produced by excavation of the crater by the 1980 landslides and lateral explosion as well as the subsequent erosion of Step and Loowit creeks by northerly stream flow out of the horseshoe-shaped crater. The map covers the area known as the Sasquatch Steps (commonly called the Steps), which lies between the Pumice Plain on the north and the lowermost portion of the crater on the south. Rapid alluvial aggradation at the base of the Steps is presently burying some of the lowest exposures, and erosion is stripping many of the upland deposits. The stratigraphic sequence exposed in the map area includes deposits from the eruptive periods listed in table 1 (Crandell, 1987). Assignment of deposits to the various eruptive periods is based on lithology and ferromagnesian-mineral suites typical for each of the eruptive periods (Mullineaux and Crandell, 1981; Mullineaux, 1986), as well as three 14 C dates from wood found in the deposits. Faults displayed on the map are largely confined to the older part of the stratigraphic section. These older units are highly shattered, with an extremely complicated fracture pattern, and it is only possible to show the largest and most distinctive of these structures at the map scale. Interpretation of the stratigraphy and structure of this area is given in Hausback and Swanson (1990).

  1. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  2. The Characteristic and Classification of Thermal Spring in Ramsar area, North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedsoltan, Farnaz; Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Gafari, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm. There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area. The study makes use of the Department Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University and GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information. The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC - 65oC and SiO2 geothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 86 o C - 96 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur. In addition, there are 30 Thermal springs located in Ramsar area and that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg. There

  3. Simulation of groundwater flow and saltwater movement in the Onslow County area, North Carolina: predevelopment-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fine, Jason M.; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2014-01-01

    Onslow County, North Carolina, is located within the designated Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area (CCPCUA). The CCPCUA was designated by law as a result of groundwater level declines of as much as 200 feet during the past four decades within aquifers in rocks of Cretaceous age in the central Coastal Plain of North Carolina and a depletion of water in storage from increased groundwater withdrawals in the area. The declines and depletion of water in storage within the Cretaceous aquifers increase the potential for saltwater migration—both lateral encroachment and upward leakage of brackish water. Within the CCPCUA, a reduction in groundwater withdrawals over a period of 16 years from 2003 to 2018 is mandated. Under the CCPCUA rules, withdrawals in excess of 100,000 gallons per day from any of the Cretaceous aquifer well systems are subject to water-use reductions of as much as 75 percent. To assess the effects of the CCPCUA rules and to assist with groundwater-management decisions, a numerical model was developed to simulate the groundwater flow and chloride concentrations in the surficial Castle Hayne, Beaufort, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in the Onslow County area. The model was used to (1) simulate groundwater flow from 1900 to 2010; (2) assess chloride movement throughout the aquifer system; and (3) create hypothetical scenarios of future groundwater development. After calibration of a groundwater flow model and conversion to a variable-density model, five scenarios were created to simulate future groundwater conditions in the Onslow County area: (1) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with three phases of withdrawal reductions simulated through 2028; (2) implementation of only phase 1 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (3) implementation of only phases 1 and 2 withdrawal reductions of the CCPCUA rules and simulated through 2028; (4) full implementation of the CCPCUA rules with the addition of withdrawals from

  4. TESTING GROUND BASED GEOPHYSICAL TECHNIQUES TO REFINE ELECTROMAGNETIC SURVEYS NORTH OF THE 300 AREA HANFORD WASHINGTON

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2010-12-02

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys were flown during fiscal year (FY) 2008 within the 600 Area in an attempt to characterize the underlying subsurface and to aid in the closure and remediation design study goals for the 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU). The rationale for using the AEM surveys was that airborne surveys can cover large areas rapidly at relatively low costs with minimal cultural impact, and observed geo-electrical anomalies could be correlated with important subsurface geologic and hydrogeologic features. Initial interpretation of the AEM surveys indicated a tenuous correlation with the underlying geology, from which several anomalous zones likely associated with channels/erosional features incised into the Ringold units were identified near the River Corridor. Preliminary modeling resulted in a slightly improved correlation but revealed that more information was required to constrain the modeling (SGW-39674, Airborne Electromagnetic Survey Report, 200-PO-1 Groundwater Operable Unit, 600 Area, Hanford Site). Both time-and frequency domain AEM surveys were collected with the densest coverage occurring adjacent to the Columbia River Corridor. Time domain surveys targeted deeper subsurface features (e.g., top-of-basalt) and were acquired using the HeliGEOTEM{reg_sign} system along north-south flight lines with a nominal 400 m (1,312 ft) spacing. The frequency domain RESOLVE system acquired electromagnetic (EM) data along tighter spaced (100 m [328 ft] and 200 m [656 ft]) north-south profiles in the eastern fifth of the 200-PO-1 Groundwater OU (immediately adjacent to the River Corridor). The overall goal of this study is to provide further quantification of the AEM survey results, using ground based geophysical methods, and to link results to the underlying geology and/or hydrogeology. Specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) Test ground based geophysical techniques for the efficacy in delineating underlying geology; (2) Use ground

  5. Geographic variation of persistent organic pollutant levels in humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) feeding areas of the North Pacific and North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Elfes, Cristiane T; Vanblaricom, Glenn R; Boyd, Daryle; Calambokidis, John; Clapham, Phillip J; Pearce, Ronald W; Robbins, Jooke; Salinas, Juan Carlos; Straley, Janice M; Wade, Paul R; Krahn, Margaret M

    2010-04-01

    Seasonal feeding behavior and high fidelity to feeding areas allow humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) to be used as biological indicators of regional contamination. Biopsy blubber samples from male individuals (n = 67) were collected through SPLASH, a multinational research project, in eight North Pacific feeding grounds. Additional male samples (n = 20) were collected from one North Atlantic feeding ground. Persistent organic pollutants were measured in the samples and used to assess contaminant distribution in the study areas. North Atlantic (Gulf of Maine) whales were more contaminated than North Pacific whales, showing the highest levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and chlordanes. The highest dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) levels were detected in whales feeding off southern California, USA. High-latitude regions were characterized by elevated levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) but generally nondetectable concentrations of PBDEs. Age was shown to have a positive relationship with SigmaPCBs, SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordanes, and total percent lipid. Contaminant levels in humpback whales were comparable to other mysticetes and lower than those found in odontocete cetaceans and pinnipeds. Although these concentrations likely do not represent a significant conservation threat, levels in the Gulf of Maine and southern California may warrant further study.

  6. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; Braun, Dave G.; Boehly, Thomas R.; Patterson, J. Reed; Celliers, Peter M.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Collins, Gilbert W.; Duffy, Thomas S.

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both the time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.

  7. Ramp compression of iron to 273 GPa

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Jue; Smith, Raymond F.; Eggert, Jon H.; ...

    2013-07-11

    Multiple thickness Fe foils were ramp compressed over several nanoseconds to pressure conditions relevant to the Earth’s core. Using wave-profile analysis, the sound speed and the stress-density response were determined to a peak longitudinal stress of 273 GPa. The measured stress-density states lie between shock compression and 300-K static data, and are consistent with relatively low temperatures being achieved in these experiments. Phase transitions generally display time-dependent material response and generate a growing shock. We demonstrate for the first time that a low-pressure phase transformation (α-Fe to ε-Fe) can be overdriven by an initial steady shock to avoid both themore » time-dependent response and the growing shock that has previously limited ramp-wave-loading experiments. Additionally, the initial steady shock pre-compresses the Fe and allows different thermodynamic compression paths to be explored.« less

  8. Forward modeling of shock-ramped tantalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Justin L.; Carpenter, John H.; Seagle, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic materials experiments on the Z-machine are beginning to reach a regime where traditional analysis techniques break down. Time dependent phenomena such as strength and phase transition kinetics often make the data obtained in these experiments difficult to interpret. We present an inverse analysis methodology to infer the equation of state (EOS) from velocimetry data in these types of experiments, building on recent advances in the propagation of uncertain EOS information through a hydrocode simulation. An example is given for a shock-ramp experiment in which tantalum was shock compressed to 40 GPa followed by a ramp to 80 GPa. The results are found to be consistent with isothermal compression and Hugoniot data in this regime.

  9. Methane emission and consumption at a North Sea gas seep (Tommeliten area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemann, H.; Elvert, M.; Hovland, M.; Orcutt, B.; Judd, A.; Suck, I.; Gutt, J.; Joye, S.; Damm, E.; Finster, K.; Boetius, A.

    2005-11-01

    The North Sea hosts large coal, oil and gas reservoirs of commercial value. Natural leakage pathways of subsurface gas to the hydrosphere have been recognized during geological surveys (Hovland and Judd, 1988). The Tommeliten seepage area is part of the Greater Ekofisk area, which is situated above the Tommeliten Delta salt diapir in the central North Sea. In this study, we report of an active seep site (56°29.90'N, 2°59.80'E) located in the Tommeliten area, Norwegian Block 1/9, at 75 m water depth. Here, cracks in a buried marl horizon allow methane to migrate into overlying clay-silt and sandy sediments. Hydroacoustic sediment echosounding showed several venting spots coinciding with the apex of marl domes where methane is released into the water column and potentially to the atmosphere during deep mixing situations. In the vicinity of the gas seeps, sea floor observations showed small mats of giant sulphide-oxidizing bacteria above patches of black sediments and carbonate crusts, which are exposed 10 to 50 cm above seafloor forming small reefs. These Methane-Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDACs) contain 13C-depleted, archaeal lipids indicating previous gas seepage and AOM activity. High amounts of sn2-hydroxyarchaeol relative to archaeol and low abundances of biphytanes in the crusts give evidence that ANaerobic MEthane-oxidising archaea (ANME) of the phylogenetic cluster ANME-2 were the potential mediators of Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) at the time of carbonate formation. Small pieces of MDACs were also found subsurface at about 1.7 m sediment depth, associated with the Sulphate-Methane Transition Zone (SMTZ). The SMTZ of Tommeliten is characterized by elevated AOM and Sulphate Reduction (SR) rates, increased concentrations of 13C-depleted tetraether derived biphytanes, and specific bacterial Fatty Acids (FA). Further biomarker and 16S rDNA based analyses give evidence that AOM at the Tommeliten SMTZ is mediated by archaea belonging to the ANME-1b

  10. Assigning on-ramp flows to maximize capacity of highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Lan; Jiang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we study the capacity of a highway with two on-ramps and one off-ramp in between by using a cellular automaton traffic flow model. We investigate how to maximize the system capacity by assigning proper traffic flow to the two on-ramps. The system phase diagram is presented and eight different regions are observed under different conditions. It is shown that in region I, in which both on-ramps are in free flow and the main road upstream of the upstream on-ramp is in congestion, assigning proper proportion of the demand to two on-ramps could maximize the system capacity. Two critical values of the off-ramp flow ratio poff have been observed. When poff

    ramp. When poff >p off , c 2, no demand should be assigned to the upstream on-ramp. An analytical investigation has been performed to calculate the critical values. The analytical results are in good agreement with the simulation ones.

  11. Ramp-preserving denoising for conductivity image reconstruction in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Ock; Jeon, Kiwan; Ahn, Seonmin; Kim, Hyung Joong; Woo, Eung Je

    2011-07-01

    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography, among several conductivity image reconstruction algorithms, the harmonic B(z) algorithm has been successfully applied to B(z) data from phantoms and animals. The algorithm is, however, sensitive to measurement noise in B(z) data. Especially, in in vivo animal and human experiments where injection current amplitudes are limited within a few milliampere at most, measured B(z) data tend to have a low SNR. In addition, magnetic resonance (MR) signal void in outer layers of bones and gas-filled organs, for example, produces salt-pepper noise in the MR phase and, consequently, B(z) images. The B(z) images typically present areas of sloped transitions, which can be assimilated to ramps. Conductivity contrasts change ramp slopes in B(z) images and it is critical to preserve positions of those ramps to correctly recover edges in conductivity images. In this paper, we propose a ramp-preserving denoising method utilizing a structure tensor. Using an eigenvalue analysis, we identified local regions of salt-pepper noise. Outside the identified local regions, we applied an anisotropic smoothing to reduce noise while preserving their ramp structures. Inside the local regions of salt-pepper noise, we used an isotropic smoothing. After validating the proposed denoising method through numerical simulations, we applied it to in vivo animal imaging experiments. Both numerical simulation and experimental results show significant improvements in the quality of reconstructed conductivity images. © 2011 IEEE

  12. Contribution of Gulf Area natural sulfur to the North American sulfur budget

    SciTech Connect

    Luria, M.; Van Valin, C.C.; Wellman, D.L.; Pueschel, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the contribution of natural sulfur compounds from the Gulf of Mexico to the overall North American sulfur budget two series of air sampling flights were performed over the gulf area. Total aerosol mass load and sulfate concentration data indicate, in agreement with our previous findings on gas-phase products, that these observations can be divided into two categories. One group of measurements was taken under offshore airflow and the other under onshore flow conditions. From the measurements performed under clean (onshore) flow, average inside boundary layer SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations were evaluated. Using these data, together with our previously reported dimethyl sulfide levels, a simple model was developed to estimate the sulfur flux transported northward from the gulf area. Upper and lower limits of this contribution are estimated at 0.25 and 0.04 Tg (S) year/sup -1/, respectively. Although this quantity is relatively low compared with the national US anthropogenic emission, it has significance for the global sulfur cycle, and it can cause a significant acidification of cloud water. 24 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  13. Specifying the differentiated contribution of farmers to groundwater depletion in two irrigated areas in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameur, Fatah; Amichi, Hichem; Kuper, Marcel; Hammani, Ali

    2017-09-01

    Much attention has been paid to the issue of groundwater depletion linked to intensive groundwater-based agriculture in (semi-)arid areas. Often referred to as the "overexploitation" of aquifers, groundwater depletion is generally attributed to the entire agricultural sector without distinguishing between different uses and users. Although it expresses a general concern for future users, the ambiguous term of "overexploitation" does not acknowledge the contested nature of groundwater use and emerging inequalities. Also, the impact of inequality on groundwater depletion is rarely questioned. The aim of this article is to investigate how and by whom groundwater is depleted, and in turn, how unequal access to groundwater fuels the socioeconomic differentiation of farms and groundwater depletion. Based on a detailed analysis of groundwater use from a user perspective in two irrigated areas in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), this study shows how the context of groundwater depletion exacerbates—and is exacerbated by—existing inequalities. The paper concludes that knowing how much is withdrawn, where, and by whom provides helpful information for more informed groundwater management by a better understanding of the response of users to declining groundwater conditions and the interests and incentives of different social categories of famers to contribute to groundwater management.

  14. Specifying the differentiated contribution of farmers to groundwater depletion in two irrigated areas in North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameur, Fatah; Amichi, Hichem; Kuper, Marcel; Hammani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    Much attention has been paid to the issue of groundwater depletion linked to intensive groundwater-based agriculture in (semi-)arid areas. Often referred to as the "overexploitation" of aquifers, groundwater depletion is generally attributed to the entire agricultural sector without distinguishing between different uses and users. Although it expresses a general concern for future users, the ambiguous term of "overexploitation" does not acknowledge the contested nature of groundwater use and emerging inequalities. Also, the impact of inequality on groundwater depletion is rarely questioned. The aim of this article is to investigate how and by whom groundwater is depleted, and in turn, how unequal access to groundwater fuels the socioeconomic differentiation of farms and groundwater depletion. Based on a detailed analysis of groundwater use from a user perspective in two irrigated areas in North Africa (Morocco and Algeria), this study shows how the context of groundwater depletion exacerbates—and is exacerbated by—existing inequalities. The paper concludes that knowing how much is withdrawn, where, and by whom provides helpful information for more informed groundwater management by a better understanding of the response of users to declining groundwater conditions and the interests and incentives of different social categories of famers to contribute to groundwater management.

  15. [New area of endemic goiter : the northeast Bénoué, (North Cameroon)].

    PubMed

    Moulin, P; N'Charre, C; Hashom, A; Boucherat, M; Berthezene, F

    1986-01-01

    Endemic goiter was thought to essentially spread in the southern part of Cameroun. In fact the North-East Benoué (NEB) area also appears to be concerned. We studied 1242 individuals from 5 representative villages. The overall goiter frequency was 28.4%. Study of emigrants showed a spreading of the endemic area towards the boundary part of Tchad. However increase of morbidity was related to the duration of settlement in NEB (18% after 1 year vs 34% after 5 years, p less than 0.01). Samples of urine from one single micturition were kept at 4 degrees C and assayed for iodide within 3 days. The results exhibited marked iodine deficiency (iodide : 9.6 +/- 1.5 micrograms/l; urinary ratio : iodide/creatinine : 17.9 micrograms/l). The way of preserving urine before iodine assay was critical. After 8 days of daylight exposure of the samples at 30 degrees C, the most part of assayable iodine had disappeared. The goitrogenic effect of manioc was weak : there was no relationship between the presence of goiter and the amount of ingested manioc. Concentration of thiocyanates in urine was correlated neither with manioc consumption nor with goiter volume. An automatic classification was obtained by computerization of several parameters. 88% of the patients distributed in 10 groups whose goiter frequencies were markedly different. Because of the well-defined characteristics of each group, it seems possible to perform valid biological or nutritional studies using a limited number of individuals.

  16. Survey of feline visceral leishmaniasis in Azarshahr area, north west of Iran, 2013.

    PubMed

    Fatollahzadeh, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Majid; Bazmani, Ahad; Mirsamadi, Nasrin; Jafari, Rasool; Mohebali, Mehdi; Nemati, Taher; Fallah, Esmail

    2016-09-01

    Leishmania infantum is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar, which is endemic in some part of Iran. Azarshahr city located in East Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran, which is endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. This study aimed to investigate the possible reservoir role of cats for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area. Totally 65 cats have been trapped alive from villages of Azarshahr county and their serum samples subjected to direct agglutination test (DAT) for L. infantum antibodies. Giemsa stained impression smears have been prepared for parasitological examination of spleen and liver tissue. Also liver and spleen samples of the cats have been cultured in Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle (NNN) medium and also used for PCR. None from 65 samples was positive in NNN culture, PCR and microscopic examination. Fifteen (23.07 %) out of 65 serum samples showed Leishmania specific antibody agglutination at 1:320 dilution or above, but all considered as negative because none of them confirmed by Giemsa stained smears, PCR and NNN culture. According to the findings of the present study, cats are not a reservoir for visceral leishmaniasis in the Azarshahr area.

  17. Disparities in mammography screening in rural areas: analysis of county differences in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Cummings, Doyle M; Whetstone, Lauren M; Earp, Jo Anne; Mayne, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The extent to which targeted mammography programs have impacted women in rural areas is not well defined. We investigated mammography screening rates among 843 women age 50 and over from a population-based sample in four predominantly rural eastern North Carolina counties. We examined age, race, education level, county of residence, health insurance, and the self-reported completion of mammography in the past year using contingency tables and logistic regression. African American females aged 65 years or older had the lowest reported mammography rates (42%), while white females aged 50 to 64 had the highest rates (58%). Uninsured women and those with less education were less likely to have received a mammogram. Logistic regression demonstrated that age, education, and health insurance were significant predictors of mammography completion. A county-level analysis revealed that three counties had similar rates and one county had substantially lower rates. A higher-than-expected rate of screening-mammography completion among African American women was noted in one predominantly rural county served by a breast cancer screening program. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that county was a significant predictor for mammography completion. In separate regressions run by race, county remained a significant predictor for African American women but not for white women. Differences in mammography screening appear to persist in some predominantly rural areas and are related to age, race, education, and health insurance. Programs that target hard-to-reach women with efforts tailored specifically to their needs may be effective in reducing persistent racial differences.

  18. Mutagenic characteristics of river waters flowing through large metropolitan areas in North America.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Takeshi; White, Paul A; DeMarini, David M

    2003-01-10

    The hanging technique using blue rayon, which specifically adsorbs mutagens with multicyclic planar structures, has the advantages over most conventional methods of not having to bring large volumes of water back to the laboratory for extraction of organic materials. Therefore, for the same effort the hanging blue rayon technique allows for the analysis of more samples from remote sites, although it has a disadvantage of not allowing quantitative analysis. In this study, the blue rayon hanging technique was used to collect organic mutagens in river waters that flow through metropolitan areas in northeastern North America. Monitoring was performed at a total of 21 sites: the Providence River system (4 sites), the Charles River (2 sites), the Potomac River (6 sites), the St. Lawrence River (5 sites), the Hudson River (3 sites), and the East River (1 site). Mutagenicity was evaluated using the Salmonella assay with strains TA98, TA100, YG1024, YG1041, and YG1042 with and without metabolic activation. The results demonstrated that strains YG1041 and YG1024 were much more sensitive than TA98 with S9 mix. Fifteen samples out of 21 were positive in YG1041 with S9 mix. Six samples gave 5000-18,400 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. YG1042 was also much more sensitive than TA100. Eight samples were positive in YG1042 with S9 mix. The highest activity was 10,200 revertants/g blue rayon equivalent. The overall results showed that rivers flowing through major cities in North America contain frameshift-type, aromatic amine-like mutagenic activity. However, the levels of mutagenic activity in these rivers were much lower than expected based on prior analyses and calculated population-to-discharge ratios. Further research, such as detailed chemical analyses and/or simultaneous comparisons of several different adsorbents (e.g. XAD and blue rayon), will be needed to clarify the observed differences between North American blue rayon values and published values for European and

  19. Spring and summer contrast in new particle formation over nine forest areas in North America

    DOE PAGES

    Yu, F.; Luo, G.; Pryor, S. C.; ...

    2015-12-18

    Recent laboratory chamber studies indicate a significant role for highly oxidized low-volatility organics in new particle formation (NPF), but the actual role of these highly oxidized low-volatility organics in atmospheric NPF remains uncertain. Here, particle size distributions (PSDs) measured in nine forest areas in North America are used to characterize the occurrence and intensity of NPF and to evaluate model simulations using an empirical formulation in which formation rate is a function of the concentrations of sulfuric acid and low-volatility organics from alpha-pinene oxidation (Nucl-Org), and using an ion-mediated nucleation mechanism (excluding organics) (Nucl-IMN). On average, NPF occurred on ~more » 70 % of days during March for the four forest sites with springtime PSD measurements, while NPF occurred on only ~ 10 % of days in July for all nine forest sites. Both Nucl-Org and Nucl-IMN schemes capture the observed high frequency of NPF in spring, but the Nucl-Org scheme significantly overpredicts while the Nucl-IMN scheme slightly underpredicts NPF and particle number concentrations in summer. Statistical analyses of observed and simulated ultrafine particle number concentrations and frequency of NPF events indicate that the scheme without organics agrees better overall with observations. The two schemes predict quite different nucleation rates (including their spatial patterns), concentrations of cloud condensation nuclei, and aerosol first indirect radiative forcing in North America, highlighting the need to reduce NPF uncertainties in regional and global earth system models.« less

  20. A survey on wind power ramp forecasting.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, C.; Gama, J.; Matias, L.; Botterud, A.; Wang, J.

    2011-02-23

    The increasing use of wind power as a source of electricity poses new challenges with regard to both power production and load balance in the electricity grid. This new source of energy is volatile and highly variable. The only way to integrate such power into the grid is to develop reliable and accurate wind power forecasting systems. Electricity generated from wind power can be highly variable at several different timescales: sub-hourly, hourly, daily, and seasonally. Wind energy, like other electricity sources, must be scheduled. Although wind power forecasting methods are used, the ability to predict wind plant output remains relatively low for short-term operation. Because instantaneous electrical generation and consumption must remain in balance to maintain grid stability, wind power's variability can present substantial challenges when large amounts of wind power are incorporated into a grid system. A critical issue is ramp events, which are sudden and large changes (increases or decreases) in wind power. This report presents an overview of current ramp definitions and state-of-the-art approaches in ramp event forecasting.

  1. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs.

  2. XF-92A on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1953-01-01

    This NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station photograph of the XF-92A was taken at the South Base of Edwards Air Force Base. The photograph shows the pitot-static probe, used to measure airspeed, Mach number, and altitude, mounted on a noseboom protruding from the aircraft's nose engine inlet. Also attached to the pitot-static-probe portion of the noseboom are flow direction vanes for sensing the aircraft's angles of attack and sideslip. The Convair XF-92A aircraft was powered by a Allison J33-A turbojet engine with an afterburner, and was unique in having America's first delta wing. The delta wing's large area, thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made this design a promising combination for a supersonic airplane. The Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation (Convair) XF-92A Dart was America's first delta wing aircraft. It was built as a test bed for a proposed interceptor that never materialized. The XF-92A was then continued to test the delta-wing concept. The delta wing's large area (425 square feet), thin airfoil cross section, low weight, and structural strength made a great combination for a supersonic aircraft. The aircraft was powered by an Allison J33-A-29 turbojet engine with an afterburner. Convair and the U.S. Air Force flew the XF-92A from 1948 to 1953. After the Air Force's plans for an interceptor failed to materialize, the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, which had supplied engineering, instrumentation, and operational assistance to the Air Force during its flights, took over the flight test program in 1953. A. Scott Crossfield flew all 25 NACA flights of the NACA's XF-92A program over a six-month test period. The original XF-92A ship had a severe pitch-up problem but was tested with different wing-fence combinations to gather data on their contribution to solving that problem. The pilot also reported that the aircraft was sluggish and underpowered. Besides validating the thin delta wing principle, the XF-92A

  3. Public transit bus ramp slopes measured in situ.

    PubMed

    Bertocci, Gina; Frost, Karen; Smalley, Craig

    2014-05-02

    Abstract Purpose: The slopes of fixed-route bus ramps deployed for wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users during boarding and alighting were assessed. Measured slopes were compared to the proposed Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) maximum allowable ramp slope. Methods: A ramp-embedded inclinometer measured ramp slope during WhMD user boarding and alighting on a fixed-route transit bus. The extent of bus kneeling was determined for each ramp deployment. In-vehicle video surveillance cameras captured ramp deployment level (street versus sidewalk) and WhMD type. Results: Ramp slopes ranged from -4° to 15.5° with means of 4.3° during boarding (n = 406) and 4.2° during alighting (n = 405). Ramp slope was significantly greater when deployed to street level. During boarding, the proposed ADA maximum allowable ramp slope (9.5°) was exceeded in 66.7% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level, and in 1.9% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. During alighting, the proposed ADA maximum allowable slope was exceeded in 56.8% of instances when the ramp was deployed to street level and in 1.4% of instances when the ramp was deployed to sidewalk level. Conclusions: Deployment level, built environment and extent of bus kneeling can affect slope of ramps ascended/descended by WhMD users when accessing transit buses. Implications for Rehabilitation Since public transportation services are critical for integration of wheeled mobility device (WhMD) users into the community and society, it is important that they, as well as their therapists, are aware of conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses. Knowledge of real world ramp slope conditions that may be encountered when accessing transit buses will allow therapists to better access capabilities of WhMD users in a controlled clinical setting. Real world ramp slope conditions can be recreated in a clinical setting to allow WhMD users to develop and practice necessary

  4. Human-Modified Permafrost Complexes in Urbanized Areas of the Russian North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V. I.; Streletskiy, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    ) are formed in the urban territories, which are characterized by modified permafrost characteristics, by the new set of cryogenic processes, and by modified temperature trends. NTGC classification depends on initial natural settings and on type, intensity and duration of technogenic pressure. For instance, field reconnaissance of permafrost and geological conditions resulted in characterization of 17 NTGC types in Norilsk industrial area, 11 types in Yamburg Gas Condensate Field, Tazovsky Peninsula, and 32 types along gas and oil pipelines in the north of Western Siberia. Particular interest presents the dynamics of NTGC depending on the scale of urban system, on the set of its elements and on duration of technogenic impacts on permafrost. Important aspect is assessment of climate change impacts on structures and environment in various areas on permafrost

  5. Lateral ramps in the folded Appalachians and in overthrust belts worldwide; a fundamental element of thrust-belt architecture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pohn, Howard A.

    2000-01-01

    Lateral ramps are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level along strike; they differ from frontal ramps, which are zones where decollements change stratigraphic level perpendicular to strike. In the Appalachian Mountains, the surface criteria for recognizing the subsurface presence of lateral ramps include (1) an abrupt change in wavelength or a termination of folds along strike, (2) a conspicuous change in the frequency of mapped faults or disturbed zones (extremely disrupted duplexes) at the surface, (3) long, straight river trends emerging onto the coastal plain or into the Appalachian Plateaus province, (4) major geomorphic discontinuities in the trend of the Blue Ridge province, (5) interruption of Mesozoic basins by cross-strike border faults, and (6) zones of modern and probable ancient seismic activity. Additional features related to lateral ramps include tectonic windows, cross-strike igneous intrusions, areas of giant landslides, and abrupt changes in Paleozoic sedimentation along strike. Proprietary strike-line seismic-reflection profiles cross three of the lateral ramps that were identified by using the surface criteria. The profiles confirm their presence and show their detailed nature in the subsurface. Like frontal ramps, lateral ramps are one of two possible consequences of fold-and-thrust-belt tectonics and are common elements in the Appalachian fold-and-thrust belt. A survey of other thrust belts in the United States and elsewhere strongly suggests that lateral ramps at depth can be identified by their surface effects. Lateral ramps probably are the result of thrust sheet motion caused by continued activation of ancient cratonic fracture systems. Such fractures localized the transform faults along which the continental segments adjusted during episodes of sea-floor spreading.

  6. Modeling four occurred debris flow events in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreggio, Mauro; Gregoretti, Carlo; Degetto, Massimo; Bernard, Martino

    2016-04-01

    Four occurred debris flows in the Dolomites area (North-Eastern Italian Alps) are modeled by back-analysis. The four debris flows events are those occurred at Rio Lazer (Trento) on the 4th of November 1966, at Fiames (Belluno) on the 5th of July 2006, at Rovina di Cancia (Belluno) on the 18th of July 2009 and at Rio Val Molinara (Trento) on the 15th of August 2010. In all the events, runoff entrained sediments present on natural channels and formed a solid-liquid wave that routed downstream. The first event concerns the routing of debris flow on an inhabited fan. The second event the deviation of debris flow from the usual path due to an obstruction with the excavation of a channel in the scree and the downstream spreading in a wood. The third event concerns the routing of debris flow in a channel with an ending the reservoir, its overtopping and final spreading in the inhabited area. The fourth event concerns the routing of debris flow along the main channel downstream the initiation area until spreading just upstream a village. All the four occurred debris flows are simulated by modeling runoff that entrained debris flow for determining the solid-liquid hydrograph. The routing of the solid-liquid hydrograph is simulated by a bi-phase cell model based on the kinematic approach. The comparison between simulated and measured erosion and deposition depths is satisfactory. Nearly the same parameters for computing erosion and deposition were used for all the four occurred events. The maps of erosion and deposition depths are obtained by comparing the results of post-event surveys with the pre-event DEM. The post-event surveys were conducted by using different instruments (LiDAR and GPS) or the combination photos-single points depth measurements (in this last case it is possible obtaining the deposition/erosion depths by means of stereoscopy techniques).

  7. Seasonal prediction of typhoon genesis frequency and track patterns in the North West Pacific area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyoun, Yoosun; Kang, Kiryong; Shin, Do-Shick

    2014-05-01

    This study is to investigate the performance of the typhoon seasonal predictability using a dynamical model. The check items are the monthly statistics for total number of typhoon genesis in Western North Pacific (WNP) area and possible threat to Korean peninsula among them, and the probability of each categorized track pattern. As the dynamical model the Florida State University/Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (FSU/COAPS) was used, and it uses five ensemble members including control run are generated using time-lagged methods and the resolution of T126L27 (a Gaussian grid spacing of 0.94º). The model initial conditions are obtained from the National Center for Enviromental Prediction Global Forecast System (NCEP GFS) and the SST from Climate Forecast System with bias correction was used for ocean surface boundary condition. The summer (Jun-Jul-Aug) season prediction is made one month prior to target season. The detection of tropical cyclone used in this system is based on six criteria. First, the isolated vortex type minimum sea level pressure should be below 1008hPa. Second, the maximum wind speed is larger than 17m s-1. Third, the magnitude of the maximum relative vorticity at 850hPa exceeds 3.5x10-5s-1. Fourth, the average temperature difference from the area mean of surrounding region at 300hPa, 500hPa, 700hPa exceeds 2.5K. Fifth, the maximum wind speed at 850hPa is larger than that at 300hPa. Sixth, this identified vortex should last more than two days. These criteria were chosen after close examination from model-observation comparison. In this study, we will focus on performance of the system typhoon frequency and track pattern in the WNP area during 2004-2013.

  8. Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Eaton

    2007-01-18

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) applies to the remedial actions performed under the Final Record of Decision for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (DOE-ID 1999) as amended by the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2003), the Record of Decision Amendment for the V-Tanks (TSF-09 and TSF-18) and Explanation of Significant Differences for the PM-2A Tanks (TSF-26) and TSF-06, Area IO, at Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-1 0 (DOE-ID 2004a), and the Explanation of Significant Differences for the Record of Decision for the Test Area North Operable Unit 1-10 (DOE-ID 2005). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 10; and the Idaho Department of Health and Welfare-now identified as the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ)-signed the Record of Decision (ROD) in December 1999, the 2003 ESD in April 2003, the ROD Amendment/ESD in February 2004, and the 2005 ESD in January 2005. The EPA and DEQ support the need for this ESD.

  9. Predictability of wind ramps in the Columbia River Gorge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Wind generation capacity in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) system, which stands at 4,500 MW currently, can at time account for 70% of total electricity demand. With 2,500 additional MW of wind generation capacity expected by 2015, increasingly accurate forecasts are required to avoid water quality issues associated with hydropower dam overspill. Wind ramps, or large increases or decreases in wind generation over a short period of time, are particularly difficult to accurately forecast in the Columbia River Gorge area. Industry standard computational resources, combined with turbulence grey-zone issues associated with planetary boundary (PBL) schemes, suggest a leveling off of numerical weather prediction (NWP) model skill score with respect to increasing grid resolution until eddy resolving scales are resolved. However, we show that dispersion errors, which associated with wind ramps, continue to decrease for locations and seasons in which meso-scale and topographically forced diurnal motions account for a significant portion of the power spectral density of hub-height wind speeds.

  10. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  12. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  13. 33 CFR 334.1450 - Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas, U.S. Army Forces Antilles. 334.1450 Section 334.1450 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1450 Atlantic Ocean off north coast of Puerto Rico; practice firing areas...

  14. Geologic framework of the Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation the Alabama coastal waters area

    SciTech Connect

    Tew, B.H.; Mancini, E.A. ); Mink R.M.; Mann, S.D. ); Mancini, E.A.

    1993-09-01

    The Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover Formation is a prolific hydrocarbon-producing geologic unit in the onshore Gulf of Mexico area, including southwest Alabama. However, no Smackover strata containing commercial accumulations of oil or gas have thus far been discovered in the Alabama state coastal waters area (ACW). This study of the regional geologic framework of the Smackover Formation was done to characterize the unit in the ACW and to compare strata in the ACW with productive Smackover intervals in the onshore area. In the study area, the Smackover Formation was deposited on a highly modified carbonate associated with pre-Smackover topographic features. In the onshore Alabama, north of the Wiggins arch complex, an inner ramp developed in the area of the Mississippi interior salt basin and the Manila and Conecuh embayments. South of the Wiggins arch complex in extreme southern onshore Alabama and in the ACW, an outer ramp formed that was characterized by a much thicker Smackover section. In the outer ramp setting, four lithofacies associations are recognized: lower, middle, and upper outer ramp lithofacies (ORL) and the coastal dolostone lithofacies. The coastal dolostone lithofacies accounts for most of the reservoir-grade porosity in the outer ramp setting. The lower, middle, and upper ORL, for the most part, are nonporous. Volumetrically, intercrystalline porosity is the most important pore type in the coastal dolostone lithofacies. Numerous data in the ACW area indicate that halokinesis has created structural conditions favorable for accumulation and entrapment of oil and gas in the outer ramp lithofacies of the Smackover. Prolific hydrocarbon source rocks are present in the ACW, as evidenced by the significant natural gas accumulations in the Norphlet Formation. To date, however, reservoir quality rocks of the coastal dolostone lithofacies coincident with favorable structural conditions have not been encountered in the ACW.

  15. [Atmospheric dry and wet nitrogen deposition in typical agricultural areas of North Shaanxi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Yang; Tong, Yan-An; Duan, Min; Qiao, Li; Tian, Hong-Wei; Lei, Xiao-Ying; Ma, Wen-Juan

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the farmland soil nitrogen input from atmospheric dry and wet deposition, a 1-year observation was conducted in the Yulin and Luochuan areas of North Shaanxi Province from June 2007 to May 2008. The total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) deposition in Yulin and Luochuan was 22.17 and 16.95 kg x hm(-2) x a(-1), among which, wet deposition accounted for 95.1% and 90.4%, while dry deposition accounted for 4.9% and 9.6%, respectively, illustrating that the nitrogen deposition in both Yulin and Luochuan was mainly come from wet deposition. In the TIN deposition, the amount of nitrate in Yulin and Luochuan was 12.22 and 9.24 kg x hm(-2) xa(-1), accounting for 55.1% and 54.5%, respectively. The amount of wet deposition and the percentage of nitrate in TIN deposition were higher in Yulin than in Luochuan, because of the differences in pollution level, weather condition, and underlying surface characteristics.

  16. Effects of the catastrophic flood of December 1966, north rim area, eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.; Aldridge, B.N.; Euler, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    Precipitation from the unusual storm of December 1966 was concentrated on highlands in northern Arizona, southwestern Utah , southern Nevada, and south-central California and caused widely scattered major floods in the four States. In Arizona the largest amount of precipitation was in the north rim area of eastern Grand Canyon, where about 14 inches was measured. The largest flows occurred along Bright Angel Creek and the MilK Creek-Dragon Creek part of the Crystal Creek drainage basin. The maximum effects of the flood were along Milk Creek-Dragon Creek, where a mudflow caused extensive channel modification. Floods that occurred in the Bright Angel and Crystal Creek basins have a recurrence interval of only once in several centuries. The streamflow that resulted from the storm on the Kaibab Plateau caused considerable local scouring and deepening of channels, including some renewed arroyo cutting. The most catastrophic effects of the 1966 floods were caused by two mudflows that extended from the edge of the Kaibab Plateau along Dragon Creek in the Crystal Creek basin and Lava Creek in the Chuar Creek basin to the Colorado River. More than 10 other large mudflows occurred in Nankoweap, Kwagunt, Crystal, and Shinumo Creek basins. About 80 large debris slides left conspicuous scars in the amphitheaters at the heads of the side gorges, and at least 10 small slides occurred on the Kaibab Plateau. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Disseminated histoplasmosis and aids: relapse and late mortality in endemic area in North-Eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dasmasceno, Lisandra Serra; Novaes, Alberto Ramos; Alencar, Carlos Henrique Morais; Lima, Daniel Teixeira; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Gonçalves, Maria Vânia Freitas; de Mesquita, Jacó Ricarte Lima; Leitão, Terezinha do Menino Jesus Silva

    2013-09-01

    The State of Ceará in north-eastern Brazil has one of the highest rates in the world of relapse and death due to disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. The objective of this study is to characterise the relapse and mortality of DH in AIDS cases residents in Ceará. We performed a retrospective analysis of the medical records of AIDS patients who had a first episode of DH from 2002 to 2008. We analysed the outcomes until December 31, 2010. A total of 145 patients participated in the study. The mean clinical follow-up duration was 3.38 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75). The majority of the subjects were male with a mean age of 35 years (SD = 2.2; 95% CI = 3.01-3.75) and were born in the capital of Ceará. DH was the first manifestation of AIDS in 59% of the patients. The relapse rate was 23.3%, with a disseminated presentation in 90% of these patients. The overall mortality during the study period was 30.2%. The majority of patients who relapsed or died had irregular treatment with antifungals or highly active antiretroviral therapy and did not have active clinical follow-up. High rates of recurrence and mortality were found in AIDS-associated DH in this area of the country.

  18. Emergency Mosquito Control on a Selected Area in Eastern North Carolina After Hurricane Irene

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Jonathan W; Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters such as hurricanes may contribute to mosquito abundance and, consequently, arbovirus transmission risk. In 2011, flooding from Hurricane Irene in eastern North Carolina (NC) resulted in increased mosquito populations that hindered recovery efforts. Budget shortfalls in NC have reduced the functionality of long-term mosquito surveillance and control programs; hence, many counties rely on the Federal Emergency Management Agency for post-disaster mosquito control. This pilot study examines mosquito abundance pre- and post-aerial insecticide spraying at eight study sites in Washington and Tyrrell Counties in rural eastern NC after Hurricane Irene. Percent change was calculated and compared for traps in areas that received aerial pesticide application and those that did not. Traps in spray zones show decreases in mosquito abundance when compared to control traps (treatment: −52.93%; control: 3.55%), although no significant differences (P = 0.286) were found in mosquito abundance between groups. Implications of reactive rather than proactive mosquito control responses are discussed. PMID:25574141

  19. Emergency mosquito control on a selected area in eastern north Carolina after hurricane irene.

    PubMed

    Harris, Jonathan W; Richards, Stephanie L; Anderson, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Natural disasters such as hurricanes may contribute to mosquito abundance and, consequently, arbovirus transmission risk. In 2011, flooding from Hurricane Irene in eastern North Carolina (NC) resulted in increased mosquito populations that hindered recovery efforts. Budget shortfalls in NC have reduced the functionality of long-term mosquito surveillance and control programs; hence, many counties rely on the Federal Emergency Management Agency for post-disaster mosquito control. This pilot study examines mosquito abundance pre- and post-aerial insecticide spraying at eight study sites in Washington and Tyrrell Counties in rural eastern NC after Hurricane Irene. Percent change was calculated and compared for traps in areas that received aerial pesticide application and those that did not. Traps in spray zones show decreases in mosquito abundance when compared to control traps (treatment: -52.93%; control: 3.55%), although no significant differences (P = 0.286) were found in mosquito abundance between groups. Implications of reactive rather than proactive mosquito control responses are discussed.

  20. Legacy data for a northern prairie grassland: Woodworth Study Area, North Dakota, 1963-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Shelby H.; Austin, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological data commonly become more valuable through time. Such legacy data provide baseline records of past biological, physical, and social information that provide historical perspective and are necessary for assessment of stasis or change. Legacy data collected at the Woodworth Study Area (WSA), a contiguous block of grasslands, croplands, and wetlands covering more than 1,000 hectares of the Prairie Pothole Region of North Dakota, are cataloged and summarized in this study. The WSA is one of the longest researched grassland sites in the Upper Midwest. It has an extensive history of settlement, land use, and management that provides a deeper context for future research. The WSA data include long-term vegetation transect records, land use history, habitat management records, geologic information, wetland hydrology and chemistry information, and spatial images. Substantial parts of these data have not been previously reported. The WSA is representative of many other lands purchased by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the Prairie Pothole Region from the 1930s to the 1970s; therefore, synthesized data from the WSA are broadly applicable to topics of concern in northern grasslands, such as increases in non-native plants, managing for biodiversity, and long-term effects of habitat management. New techniques are also described that were used to preserve these data for future analyses. The data preservation techniques are applicable to any project with data that should be preserved for 100 years or more.

  1. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Singh, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients' needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs. PMID:27738425

  2. Water-quality characteristics of streams in forested and rural areas of North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simmons, Clyde E.; Heath, Ralph C.

    1979-01-01

    Data collected in North Carolina during 1973-78 from a statewide network of 39 rural sampling sites were used to define unpolluted or baseline stream quality. The basins were 90 to 100 percent forested and, except for the unknown effects of air pollution, were relatively unaffected by man 's activities. Five distinct geochemical zones were delineated across the State. The chemical characteristics of surface waters in each zone are similar. Mean and other statistical values for major dissolved constituents, nutrients, and minor elements in base runoff and storm runoff were determined. Twenty additional rural sites were located in basins where farming activities ranged from 15 to 55 percent of basins ' land area. Data from these 20 sites were used for comparison with data from the 39 unpolluted sites to determine the increase in constituent levels caused by man. For basins where farming activities accounted for 20 or more percent of total land use, phosphorus levels were 2 to 13 times greater than those from the forested basins and several major constituents were 2 to 3 times greater. Concentrations of minor elements were essentially the same in both developed and undeveloped basins. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. The source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the topsoil in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, North of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia-Le; Wang, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Cai-Xiang; Dong, Yi-Hui; Du, Bin; Liao, Xiao-Ping

    2014-12-01

    31 topsoil samples were collected by grid method in Xiaodian sewage irrigation area, Taiyuan City, North of China. The concentrations of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrum. Generally speaking, the distribution order of PAHs in the area is: those with five and six rings > those with four rings > those with two and three rings. Source apportionment shows a significant zonation of the source of PAHs: the civil coal pollution occurred in the north part, the local and far factory pollution happened in the middle area and the mixed pollution sources from coal and wood combustion, automotive emission, presented in the south area. The distribution of PAHs has a definite relationship with the sewage water flow and soil adsorption. The related coefficient between PAHs and physicochemical property showed there was a negative correlation between pH, silt, clay and PAHs while there was a positive correlation between total organic carbon, sand and PAHs.

  4. Resource and potential reclamation evaluation of Rattlesnake Butte study area, Dickinson coalfield, North Dakota: summary. Final report 1978-82

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, G.H.; Parish, L.M.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, and overburden. The study area, located in Southwestern North Dakota, lies within the unglaciated portion of the Great Plains Physiographic Province.

  5. Stratified and nonstratified areas in the North Sea: Long-term variability and biological and policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, Sonja; Tett, Paul; Mills, David; van der Molen, Johan

    2015-07-01

    The European Unions' Marine Strategy Framework Directive aims to limit anthropogenic influences in the marine environment. But marine ecosystems are characterized by high variability, and it is not trivial to define its natural state. Here, we use the physical environment as a basis for marine classification, as it determines the conditions in which organisms must operate to survive and thrive locally. We present a delineation of the North Sea into five distinct regimes, based on multidecadal stratification characteristics. Results are based on a 51 year simulation of the region using the coupled hydrobiogeochemical model GETM-ERSEM-BFM. The five identified regimes are: permanently stratified, seasonally stratified, intermittently stratified, permanently mixed, and Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI). The areas characterized by these regimes show some interannual variation in geographical coverage, but are overall remarkable stable features within the North Sea. Results also show that 29% of North Sea waters fail to classify as one of the defined stratification regimes, due to high interannual variability. Biological characteristics of these regimes differ from diatom-based food webs in areas with prolonged stratification to Phaeocystis-dominated food webs in areas experiencing short-lived or no stratification. The spatial stability of the identified regimes indicates that carefully selected monitoring locations can be used to represent a substantive area of the North Sea.

  6. Holocene Environmental Change in the Skallingen Area, Eastern North Greenland, Based on a Lacustrine Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, B.; Bennike, O.

    2014-12-01

    Although lakes are known to provide excellent high-resolution records of climate and environmental change over long periods, only few records exist from the high arctic regions. For example, only very few records exist from northernmost Greenland (> 80°N). Some of the existing records are chronologically poorly constrained or cover only the latest part of the Holocene. A new lacustrine record from a small lake (80°01'N, 22°39'W) in the Skallingen area in northeastern Greenland indicates that the region was deglaciated prior to 8000 cal. a BP. Deglaciation was probably triggered by high temperatures, but it took more than 1000 years for the lake and the catchment to stabilise. Chironomids were amongst the first invertebrates to colonize the lake. The fossil chironomid assemblage is fairly rich and comparable to other records from further south in Greenland. The pioneer vegetation in the area consisted of mosses and herbaceous plants. The only woody plants recorded comprise Salix arctica and Dryas integrifolia, which appear at around 7700 cal. a BP and 6700 cal. a BP, respectively. Maximum concentrations of chironomids, maximum occurrence of ephippia of the water flea Daphnia pulex, highest organic matter contents and lowest minerogenic input from c. 7700 to 4400 cal. a BP probably reflect the Holocene thermal maximum (HTM). A maximum of Salix arctica, which is considered a warmth-loving plant, indicates that the highest temperatures during the HTM are recorded around 7000 cal. a BP. However, the occurrence of several warmth-demanding species particularly in the early Holocene sediments indicates redeposition and implies that temperatures in the past, most likely during an interglacial period, were significantly higher than during the HTM. Comparisons with Holocene records from East and North Greenland show similar immigration histories and similar trends, with the Little Ice Age as the coldest period during the Holocene culminating about 150 year ago. Subsequent

  7. Interdune areas of the back-island dune field, North Padre Island, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Gary; Kocurek, Gary

    1984-04-01

    The small, young (about 100 yrs) back-island dune field on north Padre Island, south Texas, consists of fairly persistant oblique dunes (up to 6 m high) with well-developed interdune areas that grade northwestward to small, ephemeral transverse and barchan dunes with interconnected "interdune" areas, thence sheet sand areas. The subhumid climate is marked by rain associated with frontal systems and tropical storms. Winds are seasonally bimodal—prevailing southeasterly are punctuated by northerly and northwesterly winds with the passage of frontal systems in winter. The entire dune field and individual oblique dunes show a net migration of about 15 m yr -1 to the northwest. The dunes however are on a seasonally reversing track, changing their slipface direction and migration direction with frontal systems. One year of monitoring shows sand transport in the dune-interdune system to be complex and cyclic. During the wind reversals of winter, dunes are very ineffecfive sand traps owing to loss of flow separation, and much sand is lost to the interdune areas. Interdune areas store sand during these wet winter months as a result of the wind reversals and higher moisture content. During the summer, the interdune areas deflate and the dunes build in size. The overall dune field deposit appears to consist of three laterally contiguous zones from southeast to northwest: (1) continuous, climbing oblique dune and interdune deposits; (2) discontinuous lenses of dune sand in overall "interdune layers"; and (3) a chaotic mixture of dune and horizontal deposits of the sheet sand areas. One year's mapping and trenching documents that interdune sedimentary structures are extremely variable laterally and vertically reflecting specific microenvironments within the interdune flat. Wet-surface features consist of current and wave ripples, channel fill, miniature deltas, wrinkle marks, mini-ripples, rills, algae and sand volcanoes. Abundant adhesion structures, rain-impacted ripples

  8. Red Oak Research and Demonstration Area in Phelps Township, North Bay, Ontario-2004 to 2005

    Treesearch

    Dave Deugo; Andrée Morneault; Dianne Othmer; Megan Smith; Al Stinson; Murray Woods; Ian Kovacs; Ian Aho; Bill Parker; Rob Baker; Marinus Verwey; Guylaine Thauvette; Don Willis; Jeff Dech

    2006-01-01

    In July 2004, a large stand of red oak (Quercus rubra) was harvested in Phelps Township, North Bay District, North Bay, Ontario using the uniform shelterwood system. Most of the stand was harvested to retain 40 percent crown closure, while a very small portion was harvested to retain 70 percent crown closure. During tree marking, an active Northern...

  9. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate... least two cold weather anti-exposure suits in the aircraft, to protect crewmembers during...

  10. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate... least two cold weather anti-exposure suits in the aircraft, to protect crewmembers during...

  11. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate... least two cold weather anti-exposure suits in the aircraft, to protect crewmembers during...

  12. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate... least two cold weather anti-exposure suits in the aircraft, to protect crewmembers during...

  13. 14 CFR 135.98 - Operations in the North Polar Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight... operate an aircraft in the region north of 78° N latitude (“North Polar Area”), other than intrastate... least two cold weather anti-exposure suits in the aircraft, to protect crewmembers during...

  14. Status of the SNS Power Ramp Up

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. Since formal operations began in 2006, the beam power has been steadily increasing toward the design goal of 1.4 MW. In September 2009 the power surpassed 1 MW for the first time, and operation at the 1 MW level is now routine. The status of the beam power ramp-up program and present operational limitations will be described.

  15. CMC intake ramp for hypersonic propulsion systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kochendoerfer, R.; Krenkel, W.

    1995-12-01

    An alternative technology to produce CMC structural components with lower costs and shorter manufacturing times has been developed at the DLR. The process is based on liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) into porous carbon/carbon resulting in a C/C-SiC material whereby the load carrying fibres are internally protected against oxidation by SiC. The material`s adequate strength levels and the high reproducibility of the state-of-the-art process now allows the realization of CMC components. Representing a very complex structure of high integrity, an intake ramp for a hypersonic propulsion system has been designed, manufactured and tested, which is described in this paper.

  16. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  17. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  18. Leaching tendencies of uranium and regulated trace metals from the Hanford Site 300 Area North Process Pond sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.; Mattigod, S.V.

    1994-09-01

    Data are presented that address the leaching tendencies and the total chemical composition of metals in feed materials and soil-washed fines generated by Alternative Remediation Technology, Inc. during a pilot-scale soil physical separation test performed at the 300 Area North Process Pond (Facility 316-2) on the Hanford Site in the spring of 1994. Four 300 Area North Process Pond sediments and one sediment from outside the pond`s fenced area were leach-tested using the Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) and other modified US Environmental Protection Agency and American Society for Testing and Materials protocols. Finally, leachate from the most contaminated sediment was used to load the Hanford sediment obtained outside the facility to evaluate the potential for contaminant adsorption onto natural sediments. The sediment characterization, leach, and adsorption results will be used in the evaluation of remedial alternatives in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study.

  19. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake Area, Stutsman County, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.

  20. Quantum Ramp Secret Sharing Scheme and Quantum Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Heling; Wang, Huifeng; Wang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of quantum secret sharing, quantum ramp secret sharing schemes were proposed (Ogawa et al., Phys. Rev. A 72, 032318 [2005]), which had a trade-off between security and coding efficiency. In quantum ramp secret sharing, partial information about the secret is allowed to leak to a set of participants, called an intermediate set, which cannot fully reconstruct the secret. This paper revisits the size of a share in the quantum ramp secret scheme based on a relation between the quantum operations and the coherent information. We also propose an optimal quantum ramp secret sharing scheme.

  1. Small-area snow surveys on the northern plains of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emerson, D.G.; Carroll, T.R.; Steppuhn, Harold

    1985-01-01

    The variation in snow cover over small areas is the focus of this study of the feasibility of using aerial surveys to obtain information on the snow water equivalent of the snow cover in order to minimize the necessity of labor intensive ground snow surveys. A low-flying aircraft was used to measure attenuations of natural terrestrial gamma radiation by snow cover. Aerial and ground snow surveys of eight 1-mile snow courses and one 4-mile snow course in North Dakota were used in the evaluation, with ground snow surveys used as the base to evaluate aerial data. Each of the 1-mile snow courses consisted of a single land use and all had the same terrain type (plane). The 4-mile snow course consists of a variety of land uses and the same terrain type (plane). Using the aerial snow-survey technique, the snow water equivalent of the 1-mile snow courses was measured with three passes of the aircraft. Use of more than one pass did not improve the results. The mean absolute difference between the aerial- and ground-measured snow water equivalents for the 1-mile snow courses was 26 percent (0.77 inches). The aerial snow water equivalents determined for the 1-mile snow courses were used to estimate the variations in the snow water equivalents over the 4-mile snow course. The weighted mean absolute difference for the 4-mile snow course was 27 percent (0.8 inches). Variations in snow water equivalents could not be verified adequately by segmenting the aerial snow-survey data because of the uniformity found in the snow cover. On the 4-mile snow course, about two-thirds of the aerial snow-survey data agreed with the ground snow-survey data within the accuracy of the aerial technique (+or-0.5 inch of the mean snow water equivalent). (USGS)

  2. The groundwater system of Livigno area (north Lombardy - Italy):first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambillara, R.; Terrana, S.; Carugati, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the last few years, a progressive impoverishment of water resources took place in the mountain; this is due to the increase of antropic activity and to the change in the precipitation regime. In this context, the preservation of every aquifer will acquire great importance. In particular, the mountain fissured aquifers could play a relevant role in the water supply for the mountain people, although they have a limited productivity. These aquifers, in fact, represent the main alimentation source for mountain people. However, they are made vulnerable by external factors such as the climate change and the pollution, because these springs are near to their recharge areas, therefore their circuits are short and swift. A good knowledge of the mountain hydro-geological circuits allows either their safeguard or a better exploitation. In the mountain environment, for a better reconstruction of groundwater system is suggested the multidisciplinary approach, because it permit to maximize the merit of both methods. The Livigno area represents a good test for the groundwater system reconstruction in the mountain environment because it has a complex geological and tectonical setting and because, in this area, the density of population varies greatly during the year and this generate a shortage of water in some seasons. In order to characterize this aquifer, a multidisciplinary approach, based on lithological, geochemical, hydro-geological and geo-structural methods, has been adopted. Mostly, the geo-structural methods allow to determinate the rock permeability and the hydraulic conductivity tensor, whereas the geochemical method permit to reconstruction of groundwater system. The Livigno area is located at 1800 m s.l.m. in the central Alps (northern Lombardy - Italy). For the tectonic setting this area is comprise between the Err Bernina system (Lower Australpine) and the Ortles-Quatervals system (Upper Austroalpine). The most important regional fault is represented by Zebr

  3. [Ramp lesions : Tips and tricks in diagnostics and therapy].

    PubMed

    Seil, R; Hoffmann, A; Scheffler, S; Theisen, D; Mouton, C; Pape, D

    2017-09-14

    There is an increasing biomechanical and anatomical understanding of the different types of meniscal lesions. Lesions of the posterior part of the medial meniscus in the meniscosynovial area have recently received increased attention. They generally occur in association with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. They are often missed ("hidden lesions") due to the fact that they cannot be seen by routine anterior arthroscopic inspection. Furthermore, meniscosynovial lesions play a role in anteroposterior knee laxity and, as such, they may be a cause of failure of ACL reconstruction or of postoperative persistent laxity. Little information is available regarding their cause with respect to injury mechanism, natural history, biomechanical implications, healing potential and treatment options. This article presents an overview of the currently available knowledge of these ramp lesions, their possible pathomechanism, classification, biomechanical relevance as well as repair techniques.

  4. Assessment of pharmacists' delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota.

    PubMed

    Scott, David M; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists' delivery of public health services. To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists' practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.05). For some public health services, pharmacists in rural areas reported higher frequency of delivery than did pharmacists in urban areas (P < .05) that included: medication therapy management, immunizations, tobacco counseling, and medication take-back programs. For some essential services, pharmacists (particularly independents) in rural areas reported more frequent delivery than did pharmacists in urban areas (P < .05), these included: evaluate the services the pharmacy provides, partner with the community to identify and help solve health problems, and conduct needs assessments to identify health risks in my community. Rural pharmacists more frequently deliver public health services than urban in both Iowa and North Dakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking.

  5. Assessment of pharmacists’ delivery of public health services in rural and urban areas in Iowa and North Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David M.; Strand, Mark; Undem, Teri; Anderson, Gabrielle; Clarens, Andrea; Liu, Xiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The profession of pharmacy is expanding its involvement in public health, but few studies have examined pharmacists’ delivery of public health services. Objective: To assess Iowa and North Dakota pharmacists’ practices, frequency of public health service delivery, level of involvement in achieving the essential services of public health, and barriers to expansion of public health services in rural and urban areas. Methods: This study implemented an on-line survey sent to all pharmacists currently practicing pharmacy in Iowa and North Dakota. Results: Overall, 602 valid responses were analyzed, 297 in rural areas and 305 in urban areas. Three practice settings (chain stores [169, 28.2%], independent community pharmacies [162, 27.0%], and hospital pharmacies [156, 26.0%]) comprised 81.2% of the sample. Both chain and independent community pharmacists were more commonly located in rural areas than in urban areas (P<0.05). For some public health services, pharmacists in rural areas reported higher frequency of delivery than did pharmacists in urban areas (P < .05) that included: medication therapy management, immunizations, tobacco counseling, and medication take-back programs. For some essential services, pharmacists (particularly independents) in rural areas reported more frequent delivery than did pharmacists in urban areas (P < .05), these included: evaluate the services the pharmacy provides, partner with the community to identify and help solve health problems, and conduct needs assessments to identify health risks in my community. Conclusion: Rural pharmacists more frequently deliver public health services than urban in both Iowa and North Dakota. These findings should be interpreted to be primarily due to differences in the role of the rural pharmacist and the quest for certain opportunities that rural pharmacists are seeking. PMID:28042356

  6. Chaotic Pattern Dynamics in Spatially Ramped Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiener, R. J.; Ashbaker, E.; Olsen, T.; Bodenschatz, E.

    2003-11-01

    In previous experiments(Richard J. Wiener et al), Phys. Rev. E 55, 5489 (1997)., Taylor vortex flow in an hourglass geometry has demonstrated a period-doubling cascade to chaotic pattern dynamics. A spatial ramp exists in the Reynolds number. For low reduced Reynolds numbesr \\varepsilon, supercritical vortex flow occurs between regions of subcritical structureless flow with soft boundaries that allow for pattern dynamics. At \\varepsilon ≈ 0.5, the pattern exhibits phase slips that occur irregularly in time. At \\varepsilon ≈ 1.0 the entire system is supercritical, and the pattern is stabilized against phase slips. At \\varepsilon > 15, shear flow creates a spatial ramp in turbulence. Remarkably, the phase slip instability reoccurs. Vortex pairs are created chaotically, possibly due to the spatial variation of the turbulence. The variance and Fourier spectra of time series of light scattered off Kalliroscope tracer were measured. These indicate that a region of turbulence exists, within which phase slips occur, bounded by regions of laminar flow which may provide soft boundaries that allow for the phase dynamics. Despite the presence of turbulence, the dynamics might be describable by a phase equation.

  7. Rainfall Manipulation Plot Study (RaMPS)

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blair, John [Kansas State University; Fay, Phillip [USDA-ARS; Knapp, Alan [Colorado State University; Collins, Scott [University of New Mexico; Smith, Melinda [Yale University

    Rainfall Manipulation Plots facility (RaMPs) is a unique experimental infrastructure that allows us to manipulate precipitation events and temperature, and assess population community, and ecosystem responses in native grassland. This facility allows us to manipulate the amount and timing of individual precipitation events in replicated field plots at the Konza Prairie Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. Questions we are addressing include: • What is the relative importance of more extreme precipitation patterns (increased climatic variability) vs. increased temperatures (increased climatic mean) with regard to their impact on grassland ecosystem structure and function? Both projected climate change factors are predicted to decrease soil water availability, but the mechanisms by which this resource depletion occurs differ. • Will altered precipitation patterns, increased temperatures and their interaction increase opportunities for invasion by exotic species? • Will long-term (6-10 yr) trajectories of community and ecosystem change in response to more extreme precipitation patterns continue at the same rate as initial responses from years 1-6? Or will non-linear change occur as potential ecological thresholds are crossed? And will increased temperatures accelerate these responses? Data sets are available as ASCII files, in Excel spreadsheets, and in SAS format. (Taken from http://www.konza.ksu.edu/ramps/backgrnd.html

  8. Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals.

    PubMed

    Smith, R F; Eggert, J H; Jeanloz, R; Duffy, T S; Braun, D G; Patterson, J R; Rudd, R E; Biener, J; Lazicki, A E; Hamza, A V; Wang, J; Braun, T; Benedict, L X; Celliers, P M; Collins, G W

    2014-07-17

    The recent discovery of more than a thousand planets outside our Solar System, together with the significant push to achieve inertially confined fusion in the laboratory, has prompted a renewed interest in how dense matter behaves at millions to billions of atmospheres of pressure. The theoretical description of such electron-degenerate matter has matured since the early quantum statistical model of Thomas and Fermi, and now suggests that new complexities can emerge at pressures where core electrons (not only valence electrons) influence the structure and bonding of matter. Recent developments in shock-free dynamic (ramp) compression now allow laboratory access to this dense matter regime. Here we describe ramp-compression measurements for diamond, achieving 3.7-fold compression at a peak pressure of 5 terapascals (equivalent to 50 million atmospheres). These equation-of-state data can now be compared to first-principles density functional calculations and theories long used to describe matter present in the interiors of giant planets, in stars, and in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. Our data also provide new constraints on mass-radius relationships for carbon-rich planets.

  9. Ramp compression of diamond to five terapascals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. F.; Eggert, J. H.; Jeanloz, R.; Duffy, T. S.; Braun, D. G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rudd, R. E.; Biener, J.; Lazicki, A. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Wang, J.; Braun, T.; Benedict, L. X.; Celliers, P. M.; Collins, G. W.

    2014-07-01

    The recent discovery of more than a thousand planets outside our Solar System, together with the significant push to achieve inertially confined fusion in the laboratory, has prompted a renewed interest in how dense matter behaves at millions to billions of atmospheres of pressure. The theoretical description of such electron-degenerate matter has matured since the early quantum statistical model of Thomas and Fermi, and now suggests that new complexities can emerge at pressures where core electrons (not only valence electrons) influence the structure and bonding of matter. Recent developments in shock-free dynamic (ramp) compression now allow laboratory access to this dense matter regime. Here we describe ramp-compression measurements for diamond, achieving 3.7-fold compression at a peak pressure of 5 terapascals (equivalent to 50 million atmospheres). These equation-of-state data can now be compared to first-principles density functional calculations and theories long used to describe matter present in the interiors of giant planets, in stars, and in inertial-confinement fusion experiments. Our data also provide new constraints on mass-radius relationships for carbon-rich planets.

  10. Assessing malaria transmission in a low endemicity area of north-western Peru

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Where malaria endemicity is low, control programmes need increasingly sensitive tools for monitoring malaria transmission intensity (MTI) and to better define health priorities. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a low endemicity area of the Peruvian north-western coast to assess the MTI using both molecular and serological tools. Methods Epidemiological, parasitological and serological data were collected from 2,667 individuals in three settlements of Bellavista district, in May 2010. Parasite infection was detected using microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-119 (PvMSP119) and to Plasmodium falciparum glutamate-rich protein (PfGLURP) were detected by ELISA. Risk factors for exposure to malaria (seropositivity) were assessed by multivariate survey logistic regression models. Age-specific antibody prevalence of both P. falciparum and P. vivax were analysed using a previously published catalytic conversion model based on maximum likelihood for generating seroconversion rates (SCR). Results The overall parasite prevalence by microscopy and PCR were extremely low: 0.3 and 0.9%, respectively for P. vivax, and 0 and 0.04%, respectively for P. falciparum, while seroprevalence was much higher, 13.6% for P. vivax and 9.8% for P. falciparum. Settlement, age and occupation as moto-taxi driver during previous year were significantly associated with P. falciparum exposure, while age and distance to the water drain were associated with P. vivax exposure. Likelihood ratio tests supported age seroprevalence curves with two SCR for both P. vivax and P. falciparum indicating significant changes in the MTI over time. The SCR for PfGLURP was 19-fold lower after 2002 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.022 versus λ2 = 0.431), and the SCR for PvMSP119 was four-fold higher after 2006 as compared to before (λ1 = 0.024 versus λ2 = 0.006). Conclusion Combining molecular and serological tools

  11. Cretaceous tide-dominated carbonate ramp: Comparison of reservoir hetergeneity in tide-versus wave-dominated carbonate ramp systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kerans, C.

    1995-08-01

    Cretaceous (upper Albian) carbonate ramp strata, Pecos River Canyon, Texas, provide a uniquely continuous exposure of a tide-dominated ramp reservoir analog. The continuous 100-km shelf-to-basin outcrop begins in inner ramp mud-rich facies that record both high-frequency (20-100 ky) and intermediate frequency (>200 ky) cyclicity. The ramp-crest is up to 40 km across depositional dip. Intermediate-scale cycles in the ramp crest include basal oyster and toucasid wackestones, chondrodontid-rudist packstones, rudist-skeletal grainstones, and caprinid biostromes. Ramp-crest grainstones are 4-23 m in thickness and extend more than 20 km in a shelf to basin direction. Rudist biostromes are 3-7 m in thickness and are up to several kilometers in dip continuity except in deeper outer ramp settings where 100-200 m wide mounds are more common. The ramp crest is dominated by grain-rich facies with moderate to high permeability. Toucasid wackestones and oyster marls are 1-5 m in thickness and extend tens of kilometers in a dip direction, representing potential fluid flow barriers. Wave-dominated ramp systems of the Permian of West Texas provide a contrast to the Cretaceous tide-dominated setting. Low-permeability high-frequency cycle base mudstones and high-permeability cycle-top grainstones are preserved in both inner ramp and ramp crest settings. Fluid-flow modeling of these Permian wave-dominated reservoir strata illustrates that the intercalation of thin high- and low-permeability layers result in crossflow trapping and thief zones controlling the position and amount of remaining oil saturation. The depositional homogeneity of the Cretaceous tide-dominated ramp indicates that diagenetic heterogeneities and gravitational effects are potentially dominant controls on reservoir performance for these strata.

  12. New estimates of area and mass for the North American tektite strewn field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, C.

    1989-01-01

    A revised estimate is given for the total mass of the North American tektite material, which is based on a concept of patches or rays of distribution rather than on a continuous tektite and microtektite blanket. This concept yields a total mass of about 3 x 10 to the 14th g, which is less than a third of previous estimates. The shape of the North American tektite strewn field is in agreement with other tektite strewn fields.

  13. Characterization of peak streamflows and flood inundation at selected areas in North Carolina following Hurricane Matthew, October 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musser, Jonathan W.; Watson, Kara M.; Gotvald, Anthony J.

    2017-05-05

    The passage of Hurricane Matthew through central and eastern North Carolina during October 7–9, 2016, brought heavy rainfall, which resulted in major flooding. More than 15 inches of rain was recorded in some areas. More than 600 roads were closed, including Interstates 95 and 40, and nearly 99,000 structures were affected by floodwaters. Immediately following the flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey documented 267 high-water marks, of which 254 were surveyed. North Carolina Emergency Management documented and surveyed 353 high-water marks. Using a subset of these highwater marks, six flood-inundation maps were created for hard-hit communities. Digital datasets of the inundation areas, study reach boundary, and water-depth rasters are available for download. In addition, peak gage-height data, peak streamflow data, and annual exceedance probabilities (in percent) were determined for 24 U.S. Geological Survey streamgages located near the heavily flooded communities.

  14. The recognition of a duplex with imbricate thrusting in the Furrial-Tejero Trend, North Mongas Area (VE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bischke, R.E. ); Morales, M.; Ascanio, B.A.; Metzner, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Two and three dimensional seismic surveys taken across the El Furrial-Carito-Tejero fields of the North Monagas Area, Venezuela, support the existence of several large southeast verging thrust plates that involve the Oligocene-Cretaceous reservoir sequence. The shallow thrust plate is folded by a deeper plate. These plates moved parallel with and terminate in the west at the Urica Fault. Well data, when integrated with seismic data, indicate that most of the wells drilled in the fields bottomed in an upper plate. Some wells penetrated a lower second plate and additional thrusting may exist below the lower plate. The seismic interpretation is supported by structural and fault surface maps, well correlations, dipmeter analysis and by a series of balanced cross sections constructed across and along the duplex. Our reinterpretation, using advanced structural methods, indicates that the North Monagas Area contains considerable additional hydrocarbon potential.

  15. The recognition of a duplex with imbricate thrusting in the Furrial-Tejero Trend, North Mongas Area (VE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bischke, R.E.; Morales, M.; Ascanio, B.A.; Metzner, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    Two and three dimensional seismic surveys taken across the El Furrial-Carito-Tejero fields of the North Monagas Area, Venezuela, support the existence of several large southeast verging thrust plates that involve the Oligocene-Cretaceous reservoir sequence. The shallow thrust plate is folded by a deeper plate. These plates moved parallel with and terminate in the west at the Urica Fault. Well data, when integrated with seismic data, indicate that most of the wells drilled in the fields bottomed in an upper plate. Some wells penetrated a lower second plate and additional thrusting may exist below the lower plate. The seismic interpretation is supported by structural and fault surface maps, well correlations, dipmeter analysis and by a series of balanced cross sections constructed across and along the duplex. Our reinterpretation, using advanced structural methods, indicates that the North Monagas Area contains considerable additional hydrocarbon potential.

  16. Evaluation of hydrologic data collected at the North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Grazul, Kevin E.; Wood, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The North Penn Area 12 Superfund Site is underlain by the Lockatong Formation, which consists of interbedded gray to black siltstone and shale. The beds of the Lockatong Formation strike northeast and dip about 10d to 20d to the northwest in the vicinity of the site. Ground water moves through fractures that are nearly vertical and horizontal in the shale and siltstone. Permeability and storage are very low. Borehole-geophysical logs were obtained from eight wells to determine the location of fractures, water-producing and water-receiving intervals, and intervals of borehole flow. The logs also were used to quantify fluid movement in the borehole, to characterize the lithology, and to obtain data on well construction. The logs indicate fractures at depths less than 100 feet are more frequent and generally are more productive than fractures at depths greater than 100 feet. The fluid resistivity of water in shallow intervals usually was greater than that in deeper intervals. The rate and direction of fluid movement under nonpumping conditions differs in the boreholes logged. In the northwest part of the site, no vertical flow was detected in three wells and very small amounts of flow were measured in two wells. In the southwest part of the site, downward flow was measured in two wells. Aquifer-isolation tests in three wells provided information on hydraulic heads and specific capacities in discrete vertical intervals and allowed collection of water samples form discrete water-bearing intervals. Natural annual fluctuations of water levels in 11 wells ranged form 11.4 to 28.3 feet. Seven of the 11 wells gave very similar water-level hydrographs. The four southernmost wells on the site show rises in water levels after precipitation much sooner than the other seven wells. Two other wells show daily fluctuations caused by pumping. A potentiometric-surface map of the site and vicinity was prepared from water-level measurements made in late July 1995. The map can be used to

  17. Rhyolite domes in the Krafla area, North Iceland. Densities and deformation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustsdottir, T.; Einarsson, P.; Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    Krafla is a central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland. It began forming about 200 000 years BP, has a caldera, and is transected by a N10°A trending fissure swarm. Krafla’s products are mostly basaltic but rhyolite domes have formed around the caldera rims. Krafla’s products were mostly erupted during the last glacial period, 110 000 years BP to 10 000 years BP. Silicic rocks in Iceland are generally associated with central volcanoes and are often emplaced on or around caldera rims. Rhyolite magma can rise, due to buoyancy forces and either form a cryptodome in the shallow crust or rise to the surface, where it erupts. Due to its high viscosity and resistance to flow it often accumulates and forms a lava dome over the vent. A gravity survey was carried out in the area of Krafla in 2007 and 2008 to determine the mean bulk density values of rhyolite domes. Data on density and volumes is essential for meaningful modelling of the emplacement of cryptodomes and lava domes. Such data are scarce. Profiles were measured over three formations, ranging in size from Hlidarfjall (310 m high and 2 km long), formed under ice 90 000 years BP, to Hrafntinnuhryggur (80 m high and 2,5 km long) formed 24 000 years BP under a glacier to Hraunbunga (125 m high and 1,8 km long) formed 10 000 years BP. Mean bulk density for each formation was obtained by the Nettleton method. The results are that all the domes have low densities, reflecting both low grain-density and high porosity. The domes’s density values are significantly smaller than those of the surroundings, creating a density contrast possibly sufficient to drive the ascent of rhyolite magma. Furthermore, results from gravity data demonstrate that these formations are neither buried by younger volcanic eruptives nor are any roots detected. The domes studied were therefore emplaced as vent-forming domes. Additionally, we propose a model to describe the deformation field above a rising batch of magma

  18. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  19. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  20. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  1. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  2. 40 CFR 1033.520 - Alternative ramped modal cycles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative ramped modal cycles. 1033.520 Section 1033.520 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM LOCOMOTIVES Test Procedures § 1033.520 Alternative ramped...

  3. 14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE MODERN CONCRETE RAMP THAT CONNECTED THE UPPER AND LOWER MINE ROADS. TRUCKS USED THIS RAMP AND THE ROADS TO HAUL SLAG TO THE MINE DUMP. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  4. Upper Jurassic ramp carbonate and associated evaporite, Neuquen Province, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelsen, B.H.; Merrill, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    The Oxfordian La Manga Limestone (10-65 m) and overlying Auquilco Gypsum (315 m maximum thickness) crop out along the west flank of the Neuquen basin, Neuquen Province, Argentina (36/sup 0/40/sup 0/S lat.). The contact with the underlying Lotena Sandstone is gradational, and both formations are cut by the Late Jurassic Araucanian angular unconformity. Seven lithofacies have been identified within sections measured through the entire interval along the northeast to southwest trending, 30-km long Sierra de la Vaca Muerta ridge (38/sup 0/30'-39/sup 0/S). The La Manga Limestone is interpreted as a temperate ramp carbonate that developed over the Lotena Formation siliciclastic shelf. Interpretations of lithofacies from southwest to northeast are: behind-barrier subtidal lagoon with washovers; coral and red algae biostromes; ooid and peloid sand shoals; downslope wackestone and packstone mud mounds; and deep-water carbonate turbidites. A minor regression separates La Manga and Auquilco Formations. Lithofacies of the Auquilco Formation indicate a shallowing-up sequence comprised of initially deep (hundreds of meters) subaqueous evaporite deposition followed by shallow, subtidal carbonate peloidal and shell fragment grainstones and evaporites. Thickness of the subaqueous evaporite gives an order of magnitude estimate of Auquilco basin depths of a few hundred meters at most. The Neuquen basin has an intermediate proportion of carbonate in comparison to relatively carbonate-poor basins to the south and carbonate-rich basins to the north.

  5. Martian Terrain, Unfurled Rover Ramps & Deflated Airbags

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) took this image of surrounding terrain in the mid-morning on Mars (2:30 PM Pacific Daylight Time) earlier today. Part of the small rover, Sojourner, is visible on the left side of the picture. The tan cylinder to the right of the rover is one of two rolled-up ramps by which the rover will descend to the ground. The white, billowy material in the center of the picture is part of the airbag system. Many rocks of different shapes and sizes are visible between the lander and the horizon. Two hills are visible on the horizon. The notch on the left side of the leftmost conical hill is an artifact of the processing of this picture. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00613

  6. Fast current ramp experiments on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Morris, A.W.; Stauffer, F.J.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1987-05-01

    Electron heat transport on TFTR and other tokamaks is several orders of magnitude larger than neoclassical calculations would predict. Despite considerable effort, there is still no clear theoretical understanding of this anomalous transport. The electron temperature profile T/sub e/(r), shape has shown a marked consistency on many machines, including TFTR, for a wide range of plasma parameters and heating profiles. This could be an important clue as to the process responsible for this enhanced thermal transport. In this paper 'profile consistency' in TFTR is described and an experiment which uses a fast current ramp to transiently decouple the current density profile J(r), and the T/sub e/(r) profiles is discussed. From this experiment the influence of J(r) on electron temperature profile consistency can be determined.

  7. Stormy North

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-08-05

    The area within Saturn north polar hexagon is shown by NASA Cassini spacecraft to contain myriad storms of various sizes, not the least of which is the remarkable and imposing vortex situated over the planet north pole.

  8. Terasaki spiral ramps in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-31

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  9. Terasaki Spiral Ramps in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-01

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  12. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restricted area shall proceed across the area by the most direct route and without unnecessary delay. (5) No vessel or craft of any size shall lie-to or anchor in the restricted area at any time other than a...

  13. Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-10-01

    Recovery Plans that meet the recovery plan requirements; and the percent of Corps acreage included within North American Waterfowl Management Joint ... Venture Implementation Plans where proposed work has been accomplished. This report seeks to provide this information. In summary, the Corps has

  14. School District Merger in Metropolitan Areas: Report of a Feasibility Study in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, William J.; Pyecha, John N.

    This paper outlines an attempt to include analysis of political, economic, and social considerations within a study of the feasibility of a school district merger in Guilford County, North Carolina. The paper is divided into three sections, the first of which discusses major conditions in each of three school districts in the county. Two of these…

  15. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This look-down, front view of NASA's SR-71A aircraft shows the Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  16. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  17. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. NASA operated two SR-71s, an SR-71A and an SR- 71B pilot trainer aircraft, both based at Dryden, at that particular point in time. The SR-71 was designed and built by the Lockheed Skunk Works, now the Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. Studies have shown that less than 20 percent of the total thrust used to fly at Mach 3 is produced by the basic engine itself. The balance of the total thrust is produced by the unique design of the engine inlet and 'moveable spike' system at the front of the engine nacelles, and by the ejector nozzles at the exhaust which burn air compressed in the engine bypass system. Data from the SR-71 high speed research program will be used to aid designers of future supersonic/hypersonic aircraft and propulsion systems, including a high speed civil transport. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to

  18. SR-71 - Taxi on Ramp with Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This photo shows a head-on shot of NASA's SR-71A aircraft taxiing on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, heat waves from its engines blurring the hangars in the background. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena

  19. Three SR-71s on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The original trio of SR-71 'Blackbirds' loaned to NASA by the U.S. Air Force for high-speed, high-altitude research line the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The three former reconnaissance aircraft, two SR-71 'A' models and one 'B' model, can fly more than 2200 mph and at altitudes of over 80,000 feet. This operating environment makes the aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. One of the 'A' models was later returned the Air Force for active duty. It subsequently returned to Dryden. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system

  20. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This look-down, front view of NASA's SR-71A aircraft shows the Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera placed in

  1. SR-71 Ship #1 on Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This look-down view of NASA's SR-71A aircraft shows the Blackbird on the ramp at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, with Rogers Dry Lake in the background. NASA operated two SR-71s, an SR-71A and an SR- 71B pilot trainer aircraft at that point in time, both based at Dryden. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the

  2. Evolution of near-surface ramp-flat-ramp normal faults and implication during intramontane basin formation in the eastern Betic Cordillera (the Huércal-Overa Basin, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrera, Antonio; Galindo-ZaldíVar, Jesús; Lamas, Francisco; Ruiz-ConstáN, Ana

    2012-08-01

    The nucleation, propagation, and associated folding of ramp-flat-ramp normal faults were analyzed from field examples developed in a brittle/ductile multilayer sequence of the Huércal-Overa Basin (SE Spain). Gently dipping sandy silt layers, which display a low cohesive strength (C0 = 7 kPa, μ= 34°), favor the development of extensional detachments. A tectonic origin instead of a possible gravitational origin is supported by the perpendicularity between the paleoslope direction of the fluvial-deltaic environment inferred from imbricated pebbles, and the senses of movement deduced from fault slicken-lines. The link between high-angle normal faults (HANFs) —formed at different levels in the layered sequence— with horizontal fault segments comes to develop ramp-flat-ramp normal faults with associated roll-over in the hanging wall. Observed extensional duplexes are formed by parallel detachments connected through synthetic Riedel faults. These Riedel faults would produce the back-rotation of the individual blocks (horses), i.e., extensional folding of the originally subhorizontal layers. There is no correlation between the analyzed ramp-flat-ramp normal faults, accommodating south-southeastward extension during Serravallian-lower Tortonian, and either the regional Alpujarride/Nevado-Filabride west-directed extensional shear zone or the top-to-the-north detachments within Alpujarride units, which are clearly sealed by Serravallian-lower Tortonian sediments. Therefore, the studied normal faults are restricted to the brittle/ductile multilayer fluvio/deltaic sequence and accommodate moderate late extension instead of belonging to a large crustal extensional system connected with a regional detachment at depth. Therefore, the basin formed in a moderate crustal thickness context where small and medium-scale extensional systems were subordinate structures. These natural examples support the development of low-angle normal faults at very shallow crustal levels in

  3. Water resources of the Rattlesnake Butte area, a site of potential lignite mining in west-central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The D and E lignite beds, the two mineable beds in the lower Sentinel Butte Member (Fort Union Formation), underlies the entire Rattlesnake Butt study area, North Dakota but are unsaturated over much of their area of occurrence. Ground-water flow in both lignite aquifers is largely controlled by topography. Interconnected sand beds form aquifers between the E and D beds (E-D aquifer) and below the D bed (D-HT aquifer). Both aquifers underlie the central part of the study area and consist of fine silty sand. Depth to the aquifers is as much as 320 feet. Aquifers also occur in strata of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary age. Aquifers in the Fox Hills Sandstone (Cretaceous) and lower Tongue River Member (Tertiary) lie at depths of about 1,700 and 750 feet, respectively. All aquifers yield a sodium bicarbonate or sodium sulfate type water. Mean dissolved-solids concentrations in the four shallowest aquifers ranged from 1,290 to 1,970 milligrams per litter. North Creek and an unnamed tributary of Green River drain most of the study area. North Creek, the major drain, ceases to flow during several months of most years, while the Green River tributary, with a smaller basin area, has sustained base flows of 0.15 to 0.25 cubic foot per second. Mining-induced impacts on the shallow ground-water flow system would be very localized because of the already low water levels and the segmented nature of the flow system in the lignite aquifers. (USGS)

  4. Multi-area unit commitment with ramp-rate limits

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Shahidehpour, S.M. . Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering); Adapa, R. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that there are two tasks considered in power system generation scheduling. One is the unit commitment which determines the unit start up and shut down schedules in order to minimize the system fuel expenditure. The other is the economic dispatch which assigns the system load demand to the committed generating units for minimizing the power generation cost. The economic operation attracts a great deal of attention as a modest reduction in percentage fuel cost leads to a large saving in the system operation costs. Many studies for power system generation scheduling have successfully applied various mathematical algorithms such as Lagrangian relaxation, dynamic programming, and artificial intelligence techniques e.g., expert systems, artificial neural networks (ANN), etc. The AI techniques have incorporated the system practical operational policies in the mathematical techniques to improve system models considerably. The mechanism of ANN simulates the learning process of the human brain. One class of ANN learns the knowledge through examples, or training facts, composed by various inputs and their corresponding outputs. The extent of the intelligibility of ANN depends upon the diversity of the training facts. For an input which is not in the training facts, the trained ANN can estimate an output based on its previous knowledge about the problem.

  5. Ices on Mercury: Chemistry of volatiles in permanently cold areas of Mercury's north polar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitsky, M. L.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Harju, E. R.; Schriver, D.; Johnson, R. E.; Travnicek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Observations by the MESSENGER spacecraft during its flyby and orbital observations of Mercury in 2008-2015 indicated the presence of cold icy materials hiding in permanently-shadowed craters in Mercury's north polar region. These icy condensed volatiles are thought to be composed of water ice and frozen organics that can persist over long geologic timescales and evolve under the influence of the Mercury space environment. Polar ices never see solar photons because at such high latitudes, sunlight cannot reach over the crater rims. The craters maintain a permanently cold environment for the ices to persist. However, the magnetosphere will supply a beam of ions and electrons that can reach the frozen volatiles and induce ice chemistry. Mercury's magnetic field contains magnetic cusps, areas of focused field lines containing trapped magnetospheric charged particles that will be funneled onto the Mercury surface at very high latitudes. This magnetic highway will act to direct energetic protons, ions and electrons directly onto the polar ices. The radiation processing of the ices could convert them into higher-order organics and dark refractory materials whose spectral characteristics are consistent with low-albedo materials observed by MESSENGER Laser Altimeter (MLA) and RADAR instruments. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR), scattered UV light and solar energetic particles (SEP) also supply energy for ice processing. Cometary impacts will deposit H2O, CH4, CO2 and NH3 raw materials onto Mercury's surface which will migrate to the poles and be converted to more complex Csbnd Hsbnd Nsbnd Osbnd S-containing molecules such as aldehydes, amines, alcohols, cyanates, ketones, hydroxides, carbon oxides and suboxides, organic acids and others. Based on lab experiments in the literature, possible specific compounds produced may be: H2CO, HCOOH, CH3OH, HCO, H2CO3, CH3C(O)CH3, C2O, CxO, C3O2, CxOy, CH3CHO, CH3OCH2CH2OCH3, C2H6, CxHy, NO2, HNO2, HNO3, NH2OH, HNO, N2H2, N3, HCN, Na2O, Na

  6. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

  7. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

  8. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 (north) to Part 660... - Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10′ N. Lat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 3 Table 3 (North) to Part 660, Subpart F...) to Part 660, Subpart F—Non-Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Trip Limits for Open Access Gears...

  10. Area Disadvantage and Intimate Partner Homicide: An Ecological Analysis of North Carolina Counties, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n=100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services’ funding), was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data. PMID:20565007

  11. Area disadvantage and intimate partner homicide: an ecological analysis of North Carolina counties, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Martin, Sandra L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the North Carolina Violent Death Reporting System and other sources, we examined ecologic relationships between county (n = 100) disadvantage and intimate partner homicide (IPH), variability by victim gender and county urbanicity, and potential mediators. County disadvantage was related to female-victim homicide only in metropolitan counties (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.25); however, disadvantage was associated with male-victim IPH regardless of county urbanicity (IRR 1.17). None of the potential intervening variables examined (shelter availability, intimate partner violence services' funding) was supported as a mediator. Results suggest disparities across North Carolina counties in IPH according to county disadvantage. Future research should explore other potential mediators (i.e., service accessibility and law enforcement responses), as well as test the robustness of findings using additional years of data.

  12. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  13. Geologic Interpretation of the Geothermal Potential of the North Bonneville Area

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.L.; Moran, M.R.

    1980-02-15

    Possible geothermal development for the township of North Bonneville, Washington is being investigated because of the proximity of the town to hot springs in a geologic province of good geothermal potential. Surface expression of geothermal resources is provided by conduits through an impermeable reservoir cap and is therefore generally structurally controlled. Near North Bonneville the geologic formations that underlie potential drilling sites are the Eagle Creek formation and the Ohanpecosh Formation. The Lower Miocene Eagle Creek Formation is composed of poorly consolidated volcanic conglomerates, sandstones, tuffs, and includes a few minor interbedded lava flows. The Eocene-Oligiocene Ohanapecosh (Weigle) Formation in its nearest exposures to North Bonneville is composed of volcaniclastics and lava flows. The Ohanapecosh has been altered to zeolites and clays and is therefore well consolidated and impermeable. The lack of permeability provides the necessary reservoir cap for any geothermal system that may be present at depth. This formation, to the northeast, in the Wind River drainage is greater than 19,000 ft. thick. Circulation of geothermal heated water from this thick sequence of impermeable strata must be associated with penetrating fracture zones.

  14. What drives seasonal change in oligotrophic area in the subtropical North Atlantic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Apurva C.; Barton, Andrew D.; Lozier, M. Susan; McKinley, Galen A.

    2015-06-01

    The oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres cover a significant portion of the global ocean, and exhibit considerable but poorly understood intraseasonal, interannual, and longer-term variations in spatial extent. Here using historical observations of surface ocean nitrate, wind, and currents, we have investigated how horizontal and vertical supplies of nitrate control seasonal changes in the size and shape of oligotrophic regions of the subtropical North Atlantic. In general, the oligotrophic region of the subtropical North Atlantic is associated with the region of weak vertical supply of nitrate. Though the total vertical supply of nitrate here is generally greater than the total horizontal supply, we find that seasonal expansion and contraction of the oligotrophic region is consistent with changes in horizontal supply of nitrate. In this dynamic periphery of the subtropical gyre, the seasonal variations in chlorophyll are linked to variations in horizontal nitrate supply that facilitate changes in intracellular pigment concentrations, and to a lesser extent, phytoplankton biomass. Our results suggest that horizontal transports of nutrient are crucial in setting seasonal cycles of chlorophyll in large expanses of the subtropical North Atlantic, and may play a key and underappreciated role in regulating interannual variations in these globally important marine ecosystems.

  15. A microfluidic separation platform using an array of slanted ramps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbud, Sumedh; Bernate, Jorge; Drazer, German

    2013-03-01

    The separation of the different components of a sample is a crucial step in many micro- and nano-fluidic applications, including the detection of infections, the capture of circulating tumor cells, the isolation of proteins, RNA and DNA, to mention but a few. Vector chromatography, in which different species migrate in different directions in a planar microfluidic device thus achieving spatial as well as temporal resolution, offers the promise of high selectivity along with high throughput. In this work, we present a microfluidic vector chromatography platform consisting of slanted ramps in a microfluidic channel for the separation of suspended particles. We construct these ramps using inclined UV lithography, such that the inclined portion of the ramps is upstream. We show that particles of different size displace laterally to a different extent when driven by a flow field over a slanted ramp. The flow close to the ramp reorients along the ramp, causing the size-dependent deflection of the particles. The cumulative effect of an array of these ramps would cause particles of different size to migrate in different directions, thus allowing their passive and continuous separation.

  16. 12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Dairy barn, east and north sides, milk house to left and barn ramp at center - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF 1903 GIRDERS AND NORTH APPROACH GRADE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM VALLEY STREET RAMP - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  18. Climate Variability in the Subarctic Area for the Last Two Millennia: Influence of North Atlantic Sector and Millennial Trend.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolle, M.; Debret, M.; Massei, N.; Hormes, A.; Swingedouw, D.; Christophe, C.; de Vernal, A.; Arctic 2k Working Group

    2016-12-01

    Understanding climate variability for the last two millennia is an key issue to propose new constraints on climate modeling. This study is based on the Arctic2k database compiled by the PAGES Arctic2k working group. All records meet several quality criteria concerning location, time period span, resolution and age-dating control. All the proxy used are sensitivity to temperature changes. The database high quality allows to investigate climate variability from millennial trend to high frequencies. There is spatially heterogeneous record distribution throughout the Arctic-subarctic area, most of the archives being located in the North Atlantic sector. We divided the study region into 3 sectors (Siberia, Alaska and North Atlantic areas) and compared them to the global Arctic2k temperature reconstruction using statistics and signal analysis method (wavelet coherence). Wavelet coherence allows investigation of the relationships in time-frequency space between two time series and identification of common variability. The results highlight better significant correlations between North Atlantic and global Arctic signals. The results is confirmed by wavelet coherence, showing common variability at centennial to multi-centennial scales. Millennial trends showed significant cooling trends before 1900 A.D., except for two records. Cooling trends are consistent with reconstructed temperatures for north hemisphere and warming trends seemed to be the results of regional particularity. Studying millennial variability also highlights the inconsistency between some marine proxies which reflect summer temperatures. The characterization of centennial to multidecadal variability will be an important issue to link the high frequency variability of paleoclimate series to low frequency variability recorded by instrumental data.

  19. Investigation of a supplementary tool to assist in the prioritization of emphasis areas in North American strategic highway safety plans.

    PubMed

    Park, Peter Y; Young, Jason

    2012-03-01

    An important potential benefit of a jurisdiction developing an upper-level traffic safety policy statement, such as a strategic highway safety plan (SHSP) or a traffic safety action plan, is the creation of a manageable number of focus areas, known as emphasis areas. The responsible agencies in the jurisdiction can then direct their finite resources in a systematic and strategic way designed to maximize the effort to reduce the number and severity of roadway collisions. In the United States, the federal government through AASHTO has suggested 22 potential emphasis areas. In Canada, CCMTA's 10 potential emphasis areas have been listed for consideration. This study reviewed the SHSP and traffic safety action plan of 53 jurisdictions in North America, and conducted descriptive data analyses to clarify the issues that currently affect the selection and prioritization process of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We found that the current process relies heavily on high-level collision data analysis and communication among the SHSP stakeholders, but may not be the most efficient and effective way of selecting and prioritizing the emphasis areas and allocating safety improvement resources. This study then formulated a formal collision diagnosis test, known as the beta-binomial test, to clarify and illuminate the selection and the prioritization of jurisdiction-specific emphasis areas. We developed numerical examples to demonstrate how engineers can apply the proposed diagnosis test to improve the selection and prioritization of individual jurisdictions' emphasis areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  1. Distribution and source of heavy metals in the surface sediments from the near-shore area, north Jiangsu Province, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Kong, Xianghuai; Hu, Gang

    2014-06-15

    Samples of surface sediment and vibrocore were collected in the near-shore area of north Jiangsu Province for grain size, elements, (210)Pbexcess and (137)Cs analyses. In our study area, the diversity of metal concentration was controlled not by the grain size, but by the source. The element content of the old Yellow River Delta was used as baseline for our study area. Geoaccumulation indexes indicate that no station was polluted by Cu, Pb, Zn and As, but the Igeo values of As were close to zero in some stations. Slight pollution caused by Cd was observed in some stations. Correlation and enrichment factors suggest that Cu, Pb and Zn are lithogenic in origin, while As and Cd are mixed in origin. Especially, in some polluted stations Cd was obviously anthropogenic in origin.

  2. Forward ramp and Twin Peaks - 3D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A lander petal and the forward ramp are featured in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 3. 3D glasses are necessary to identify surface detail. There are several prominent rocks, including Wedge at left; Shark, Half-Dome, and Pumpkin in the background; and Flat Top and Little Flat Top at center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

    Click below to see the left and right views individually. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right

  3. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  4. Ramp loading in Russian doll poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailani, Gaffar; Cowin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Aporoelastic model for porous materials with a nested pore space structure is developed to represent the interstitial fluid flow in bone tissue. The nested porosity model is applied to the problem of determining the exchange of pore fluid between the vascular porosity (PV) and the lacunar-canalicular porosity (PLC) in bone tissue in a ramp loading in the case where the fluid and solid constituents are assumed to be compressible. The compressibility assumption is appropriate for hard tissues while the incompressibility assumption is appropriate for soft tissues. The influence of blood pressure in the PV is included in the analysis. A formula for the fluid that moves between the two porosities is developed. The analysis showed the coupling of the two porosities and their influence on each other and concluded that the PV pore pressure has an influence less than 3% on the PLC pore pressure while the absence of the PV pore pressure will affect the fluid exchange between the PV and PLC by less than 6% (the blood pressure range is 40-60 mmHg). Also the analysis has shown that the draining time of the PLC is inversely proportional to its permeability. The significance of the result is basic to the understanding of interstitial flow in bone tissue that, in turn, is basic to understanding of nutrient transport from the vasculature to the bone cells buried in the bone tissue and to the process of mechanotransduction by these cells.

  5. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  6. Tu-144LL ramp taxi and takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This 31-second clip shows the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport on the ramp in Moscow, then taxiing into position and making its takeoff run, rotating from the runway and climbing away.

  7. Possible differentiation of natal areas of North American waterfowl by neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devine, T.; Peterle, T.J.

    1968-01-01

    The possibility of using neutron activation analyses to differentiate sources of North American waterfowl was investigated by irradiating rectrices and wing bones of birds collected in several localities, and comparing the characteristic gamma-ray spectra. Canada goose rectrices from Oregon specimens could be distinguished from those taken in Wisconsin and Colorado based on higher levels of Mn. Mallard, black duck, and blue-winged teal wing bones from Wisconsin, Colorado, and New Brunswick could not be clearly identified as to locality from levels of Ca, Al, Na, Mn, and Cl.

  8. [Near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the north area of Yellow Sea].

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Yang, Jian-Hong; Chen, Yan-Long

    2010-12-01

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) near ultraviolet absorption spectra contains CDOM molecular structure, composition and other important physical and chemical information. Based on the measured data of CDOM absorption coefficient in March 2009 in the north area of Yellow Sea, the present paper analyzed near ultraviolet absorption spectral properties of CDOM. The results showed that due to the impact of near-shore terrigenous input, the composition of CDOM is quite different in the north area of Yellow Sea, and this area is a typical case II water; fitted slope with specific range of spectral band and absorption coefficient at specific band can indicate the relative size of CDOM molecular weight, correlation between spectral slope of the Sg,275-300), Sg,300-350, Sg,350-400 and Sg,250-275 and the relative size of CDOM molecular weight indicative parameter M increases in turn and the highest is up to 0.95. Correlation between a(g)(lambda) and M value increases gradually with the increase in wavelength, and the highest is up to 0.92 at 400 nm; being correlated or not between spectral slope and absorption coefficient is decided by the fitting-band wavelength range for the spectra slope and the wavelength for absorption coefficient. Correlation between Sg,275-300 and a(g)(400) is the largest, up to 0.87.

  9. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  10. Interconnections between equilibrium topology and dynamical quantum phase transitions in a linearly ramped Haldane model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Utso; Dutta, Amit

    2017-05-01

    We study the behavior of Fisher zeros (FZs) and dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs) for a linearly ramped Haldane model occurring in the subsequent temporal evolution of the same, and we probe the intimate connection with the equilibrium topology of the model. Here, we investigate the temporal evolution of the final state of the Haldane Hamiltonian (evolving with the time-independent final Hamiltonian) reached following a linear ramping of the staggered (Semenoff) mass term from an initial to a final value, first selecting a specific protocol, so chosen that the system is ramped from one nontopological phase to the other through a topological phase. We establish the existence of three possible behaviors of areas of FZs corresponding to a given sector: (i) no-DQPT, (ii) one-DQPT (intermediate), and (iii) two-DQPTs (reentrant), depending on the inverse quenching rate τ . Our study also reveals that the appearance of the areas of FZs is an artefact of the nonzero (quasi-momentum-dependent) Haldane mass (MH), whose absence leads to an emergent one-dimensional behavior indicated by the shrinking of the area's FZs to lines and the nonanalyticity in the dynamical "free energy" itself. Moreover, the characteristic rates of crossover between the three behaviors of FZs are determined by the time-reversal-invariant quasimomentum points of the Brillouin zone where MH vanishes. Thus, we observe that through the presence or absence of MH, there exists an intimate relation to the topological properties of the equilibrium model even when the ramp drives the system far away from equilibrium.

  11. Response of different Earth System Models to ramp-up/ramp-down greenhouse gases concentration trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgubin, Giovanni; Swingedouw, Didier

    2013-04-01

    It has been relatively well established that, in the past, large abrupt and irreversible changes in the climate have consistently occurred when the climate system crossed certain thresholds. Given the massive amount of greenhouse gases released by human activities, which will further increase in the coming decades, it is crucial to evaluate the reversibility and inertia of the climate system in response to such an anthropogenic perturbation. Indeed, a few model projections have shown that the human contribution to greenhouse gases emission is likely to force the climate system towards potentially risky thresholds, which could dramatically alter the Earth's climate. In order to evaluate the robustness of such a scenario, we compare model results from 4 different state-of-the-art European EMSs (EC-EARTH, HadGEM2, IPSL-CM5-LR, MPI-ESM) in response to the same increase and decrease of anthropogenic forcing. More specifically, 95 years of ramp-up simulations based on the CMIP5 RCP8.5 scenario (where the radiative forcing value is gradually increased up to 8.5 W/m2) are followed by 95 years of ramp-down simulations (where the radiative value is reduced at the same rate down to its initial value). The response and the inertia of the climate system are investigated and the possibility of abrupt and/or (ir)reversible climatic changes are analysed in the different models. In particular, the behaviour of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) under the ramp-up/ramp-down is addressed and its relation to the evolution of other physical parameters is pointed out. Indeed, the stability of the AMOC, which is believed to lay in a monostable or bistable regime depending on the mean climate state, is controlled by different feedback mechanisms. A classical diagnostic for determining the transition between the single and multiple equilibria regime of the AMOC is the sign of the meridional freshwater transport at 30°S in the Atlantic. We therefore outline the response

  12. WALK UP RAMP - ASTRONAUT THOMAS P. STAFFORD - MISC.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-06-03

    S66-32149 (3 June 1966) --- Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground), command pilot, and Eugene A. Cernan, pilot, walk up the ramp at Pad 19 during the Gemini-9A prelaunch countdown. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Wind Power Ramping Product for Increasing Power System Flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Mingjian; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Hongyu; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Ke, Deping; Sun, Yuanzhang

    2016-05-05

    With increasing penetrations of wind power, system operators are concerned about a potential lack of system flexibility and ramping capacity in real-time dispatch stages. In this paper, a modified dispatch formulation is proposed considering the wind power ramping product (WPRP). A swinging door algorithm (SDA) and dynamic programming are combined and used to detect WPRPs in the next scheduling periods. The detected WPRPs are included in the unit commitment (UC) formulation considering ramping capacity limits, active power limits, and flexible ramping requirements. The modified formulation is solved by mixed integer linear programming. Numerical simulations on a modified PJM 5-bus System show the effectiveness of the model considering WPRP, which not only reduces the production cost but also does not affect the generation schedules of thermal units.

  14. 3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West facade, looking east, with concrete truck ramp leading to main floor. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Viaduct, looking west with downtown Harrisburg in background. Note ramp descending from viaduct to Cameron Street at left. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  16. 125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: MODIFIED RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6A of 11 (#3279) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  17. 124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. PLAN OF IMPROVEMENT, HUNTINGTON BEACH MUNICIPAL PIER: RAMP DETAILS Sheet 6 of 11 (#3278) - Huntington Beach Municipal Pier, Pacific Coast Highway at Main Street, Huntington Beach, Orange County, CA

  18. 1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF PARK FROM NORTHWEST SHOWING BUS RAMP AND PUBLIC PARKING LOT IN CENTER, HARVARD YARD BUILDINGS IN REAR, HOLYOKE CENTER AT REAR RIGHT. - Flagstaff Park, Massachusetts Avenue & Kirkland Street, Cambridge, Middlesex County, MA

  19. A Scenario Generation Method for Wind Power Ramp Events Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Ming-Jian; Ke, De-Ping; Sun, Yuan-Zhang; Gan, Di; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2015-07-03

    Wind power ramp events (WPREs) have received increasing attention in recent years due to their significant impact on the reliability of power grid operations. In this paper, a novel WPRE forecasting method is proposed which is able to estimate the probability distributions of three important properties of the WPREs. To do so, a neural network (NN) is first proposed to model the wind power generation (WPG) as a stochastic process so that a number of scenarios of the future WPG can be generated (or predicted). Each possible scenario of the future WPG generated in this manner contains the ramping information, and the distributions of the designated WPRE properties can be stochastically derived based on the possible scenarios. Actual data from a wind power plant in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was selected for testing the proposed ramp forecasting method. Results showed that the proposed method effectively forecasted the probability of ramp events.

  20. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY

  1. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SOUTHBOUND LANES AND EXIT RAMP TO ORANGE GROVE AVENUE. ORANGE GROVE AVENUE BRIDGE IN REAR. LOOKING 278°W - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Orange Grove Avenue Bridge, Milepost 30.59, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility S 372, replacement dolphins and ramp from upper deck of ferry boat (YFB 87). - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheetpile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 596, detail of ramp from below, with replacement sheet-pile dolphin on right and southernmost dolphins in background. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ferry Landing Type, Halawa Landing on Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Reconstruction of pollutant lead transport and input in the western north atlantic area during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desenfant, F.; Camoin, G. F.; Veron, A.

    2003-04-01

    There are only few available proxies for marine transport of continental aerosols. Although pelagic sediments can record past deposition, they are not suitable for seasonal and/or interannual detailed records due to low sedimentation rates. We have studied trace metal deposition and associated air mass circulation based on coral records. Indeed, the skeleton of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals represents a potentially important database for the record of environmental parameters. It is used more frequently for paleoenvirronment reconstruction so far in tropical zones, for which only a few sources of information are available. Shen et al (1988 -- Chemical Geology) have demonstrated the capability of these coral skeletons to record anthropogenic lead transport and deposition to the North American basin, in Bermuda. We have collected massive corals from the Caribbean in order to determine the anthropogenic impact of industrial emissions in the western North Atlantic during the past century. Sources and atmospheric circulation are considered at regional and basin scale depending on the location of the sampling sites in the northern (Puerto Rico) and western (Martinique, Guadeloupe) Caribbean. Here we use the capability of lead and its stable isotopes to trace the continental origin of anthropogenic sources and its transport within the North Atlantic troposphere. Measurements of lattice bound lead in sequential coral bands have revealed temporal changes in lead concentration and lead isotope ratios. Anthropogenic perturbations are clearly evidenced at all sites of the Caribbean area, linked to increase of industrial activities and the use of leaded gasoline in the US and Western Europe. Specific variations are related to regional inputs and seasonal changes in air mass circulation. The latter are determined and coupled to lead variations using stable isotope records (O) and meteorological index (North Atlantic Oscillation). Such coral records also provide reliable

  5. Map showing geochemical characteristics of the North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas, Del Norte County, California, Curry and Josephine Counties, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Norman J; Carlson, Carl A.; Gray, Floyd; Carlson, R.A.; Briggs, P.H.; Haffty, Joseph; Cooley, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The North Fork Smith River Roadless Areas are located primarily in Del Norte County, northern California, include small parts of Curry and Josephine Counties, Oreg., and cover parts of the Gasquet, Crescent City, and Chetco Peak 15-minute quadrangles. The areas encompass aproximately 39,400 acres of Six rivers National Forest and 950 acres of Siskiyou National Forest and extend from just north of the California-Oregon border southward about 6 mi to the town of Gasquet, Calif. (fig. 1).

  6. 50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting North of 40°10′ N. Lat...

  7. A reservoir model for the Lower Cretaceous deep marine sandstones in the Maloy Fault Block area, Norwegian North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kloster, A.; Areklett, E.K.; Milton, N.

    1995-08-01

    The Maloy Fault Block area of the North Viking Graben forms a platform to the east of the Sogn Graben next to the coast of Norway. This area is characterized by an unusual and thick Lower Cretaceous section containing a number of discrete sandstone packages. Wells drilled elsewhere in the Norwegian North Sea are in contrast dominated by a relatively thin mud and marl dominated section in the Lower Cretaceous. Two wells in block 35/3 (the Agat field) encountered gas bearing sandstones of Albian age interpreted to represent deposition in a deep marine environment. An integrated sequence stratigraphic approach to the Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in the Maloy Fault Block area has led to a new and more detailed understanding of controls on deposition in this area. This is based both on a regional dataset and good quality 3D seismic data. A Valanginian-Hauterivian relict slope/shelf system is present along the eastern basin margin. It formed a long-lasting topographic feature and in some areas was not onlapped until the Campanian time. A dramatic change in the basin configuration took place most likely in the Aptian time. This was initiated by erosion of the slope/shelf system which cut multiple huge canyons along the basin-margin. The canyons focused sediment input to the basin along discrete and mappable transport routes, some of which are controlled by erosion features inherited from the Late Jurassic. A complex history of deposition and filling followed. This was controlled by a constantly changing basin floor topography and left a complex pattern of partly constrained fan deposition.

  8. Variability in ambient noise levels and call parameters of North Atlantic right whales in three habitat areas.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Urazghildiiev, Ildar; Clark, Christopher W

    2009-02-01

    The North Atlantic right whale inhabits the coastal waters off the east coasts of the United States and Canada, areas characterized by high levels of shipping and fishing activities. Acoustic communication plays an important role in the social behavior of these whales and increases in low-frequency noise may be leading to changes in their calling behavior. This study characterizes the ambient noise levels, including both natural and anthropogenic sources, and right whale upcall parameters in three right whale habitat areas. Continuous recordings were made seasonally using autonomous bottom-mounted recorders in the Bay of Fundy, Canada (2004, 2005), Cape Cod Bay, (2005, 2006), and off the coast of Georgia (2004-2005, 2006-2007). Consistent interannual trends in noise parameters were found for each habitat area, with both the band level and spectrum level measurements higher in the Bay of Fundy than in the other areas. Measured call parameters varied between habitats and between years within the same habitat area, indicating that habitat area and noise levels alone are not sufficient to predict variability in call parameters. These results suggest that right whales may be responding to the peak frequency of noise, rather than the absolute noise level in their environment.

  9. Persistent marine debris in the North Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the West Coast of Baja California. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Heneman, B.

    1988-07-01

    Information on persistent marine debris (including plastics, glass, metal, and tar) in four study areas (North Sea, northwest Atlantic Ocean, Wider Caribbean Area, and the west coast of Baja California) was obtained through literature searches, a mailed survey, correspondence, interviews, and personal observations. All of the study areas except Baja California were found to have severe marine debris problems.

  10. 78 FR 49265 - Adequacy Status of the North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill Bi-State Area...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... AGENCY Adequacy Status of the North Carolina Portion of the Charlotte- Gastonia-Rock Hill Bi-State Area Maintenance Plan 8-Hour Ozone Sub-Area Motor Vehicle Emission Budgets for Transportation Conformity Purposes... public that the Agency has determined that the sub-area motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for the...

  11. Effects of ground-water development in the North Fort Hood area, Coryell County, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandeen, W.M.

    1983-01-01

    The ground water in the area is slightly saline and concentrations of some constituents generally exceed chemical-quality limits set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for public water supplies. Hie historical chemical changes in the ground water generally are insignificant and appear unrelated to the large declines of water levels in wells of the area.

  12. Vibratory high pressure coal feeder having a helical ramp

    DOEpatents

    Farber, Gerald

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus and method for feeding powdered coal from a helical ramp into a high pressure, heated, reactor tube containing hydrogen for hydrogenating the coal and/or for producing useful products from coal. To this end, the helical ramp is vibrated to feed the coal cleanly at an accurately controlled rate in a simple reliable and trouble-free manner that eliminates complicated and expensive screw feeders, and/or complicated and expensive seals, bearings and fully rotating parts.

  13. Potential links between the North Atlantic Oscillation and decreasing precipitation and runoff on a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaldo, Nicola; Sarigu, Alessio

    2017-10-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the reduction in precipitation and warmer temperatures is generating a desertification process, with dramatic consequences for both agriculture and the sustainability of water resources. On the island of Sardinia (Italy), the decrease in runoff impacts the management of water resources, resulting in water supply restrictions even for domestic consumption. In the 10 Sardinian basins with a longer database (at least 40 complete years of data, including data from the past 10 years), runoff decreased drastically over the 1975-2010 period, with mean yearly runoff reduced by more than 40% compared to the previous 1922-1974 period. Trends in yearly runoff are negative, with Mann-Kendall τ values ranging from -0.39 to -0.2. Decreasing winter precipitation over the 1975-2010 period everywhere on Sardinia island has led to these decreases in runoff, as most yearly runoff in the Sardinian basins (70% on average) is produced by winter precipitation due to the seasonality typical of the Mediterranean climate regime. The trend in winter precipitation is not homogenous; the negative trend is higher (around -0.25) on the west Sardinian coast, becoming lower across the island toward the east coast (around -0.14). Winter precipitation is highly correlated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a weather phenomenon in the North Atlantic Ocean that controls the direction and strength of westerly winds and storm tracks into Europe. High negative correlations (up to -0.45) between winter NAO index and winter precipitation are estimated along the west coast. Meanwhile, these correlations decrease east across the island toward the high mountain in the center of Sardinia, reaching the lowest values along the east coast (about -0.25). The generally decreasing correlation between winter NAO index and winter precipitation in the longitudinal direction (from the North Atlantic dipole to the east) here accelerates due to local-scale orographic effects that

  14. Regime-dependent validation of simulated surface wind speed in coastal areas of the North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, Ivonne; Rockel, Burkhardt

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of the wind climate at specific locations is of vital importance for risk assessment, engineering, and wind power assessment. Results from regional climate models (RCM) are getting more and more important to enlarge the investigation from local to regional scale. In this study we investigate the simulated near surface wind speed by a regional climate multi model ensemble carried out in the EU funded project ENSEMBLES. Within this project several participating European institutions run their regional climate models (RCM) for the same European domain (including the Mediterranean and Island) with the same grid size of 0.44° and in a second simulation 0.22°. The simulations use ERA40 reanalysis as forcing data and cover at least the time period from 1961 to 2000. To verify the near surface wind speed simulated by all participating models we compared not only daily mean of simulated 10m-wind speed but also daily maximum values to observation data. The special focus is on the coastal regions of the Netherlands and Germany. The objective procedure to classify the atmospheric circulation near the surface for the North Sea goes back to investigations of Jenkinson and Collison (1977). This simple and efficient method is based on the areal pressure distribution at the mean sea level (MSLP) and the derivation of two representative indices for wind and velocity at 16 grid points covering the North Sea and the surrounding with a spatial resolution of 10° by 5° (longitude by latitude). The definition of the circulation type, but also the identification of storm events are finally based on empirical relations between the two indices. Based on this weather classification we carry out a regime-dependent validation of the simulated surface wind speeds using the described analysing methods. We applied several measures and skill scores to analyse the RCMs performance compared to the driving field and to evaluate accuracy gain by including higher spatial resolution of

  15. The Tool Life of Ball Nose end Mill Depending on the Different Types of Ramping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vopát, Tomáš; Peterka, Jozef; Kováč, Martin

    2014-12-01

    The article deals with the cutting tool wear measurement process and tool life of ball nose end mill depending on upward ramping and downward ramping. The aim was to determine and compare the wear (tool life) of ball nose end mill for different types of copy milling operations, as well as to specify particular steps of the measurement process. In addition, we examined and observed cutter contact areas of ball nose end mill with machined material. For tool life test, DMG DMU 85 monoBLOCK 5-axis CNC milling machine was used. In the experiment, cutting speed, feed rate, axial depth of cut and radial depth of cut were not changed. The cutting tool wear was measured on Zoller Genius 3s universal measuring machine. The results show different tool life of ball nose end mills depending on the copy milling strategy.

  16. An analysis of eco-environmental impacts of the south-to-north water transfer project on the receiving areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Gan, Hong; Xiao, Yuquan; You, Jinjun

    2010-05-01

    The receiving areas of the Phase I projects of the eastern and central routes of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project cover 41 administrative regions at and above the prefecture level in the provincial level administrative regions of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shandong and Henan, and have a carrying capacity of water resources most unadaptive to the needs by the economic and social development. Those areas have densely distributed population, farmland and agricultural and industrial activities and are experiencing rapid urbanization, but suffer from high scarcity of water resources, with all the cities in the areas seeing water shortage to a varying extent. Most of the cities are relying on abstracting deep groundwater and occupying agricultural water for urban water supply. In December 2002, the State Council officially approved the General Plan on the South-to-North Water Transfer Project, which provides multiple measures to reduce groundwater over-abstraction and improve and gradually restore the eco-environment in the receiving areas by using transferred water to replace the agricultural water occupied by urban water supply and the eco-environmental water occupied by cities and agriculture. What changes have occurred to the eco-environment and urban water use in the receiving areas in recent years ? How much water can be returned from the cities to agriculture and ecology after the objectives of water supply are met? What can be achieved in the control of groundwater abstraction? What level of guarantee can the water transfer provide for agricultural water use in a dry year? All of those issues have been at the focus of public attention. In this paper, statistical analysis is made on the eco-environmental status and urban water use of 72 cities in the receiving areas of the Phase I projects since year 2000 and a conclusion is drawn that the renewal capacity of the eco-environment and groundwater in the receiving areas is deteriorating. Then the water

  17. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"—the time derivative of the driving field phase—matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  18. PDR with a foot-mounted IMU and ramp detection.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Antonio R; Seco, Fernando; Zampella, Francisco; Prieto, José C; Guevara, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The localization of persons in indoor environments is nowadays an open problem. There are partial solutions based on the deployment of a network of sensors (Local Positioning Systems or LPS). Other solutions only require the installation of an inertial sensor on the person's body (Pedestrian Dead-Reckoning or PDR). PDR solutions integrate the signals coming from an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), which usually contains 3 accelerometers and 3 gyroscopes. The main problem of PDR is the accumulation of positioning errors due to the drift caused by the noise in the sensors. This paper presents a PDR solution that incorporates a drift correction method based on detecting the access ramps usually found in buildings. The ramp correction method is implemented over a PDR framework that uses an Inertial Navigation algorithm (INS) and an IMU attached to the person's foot. Unlike other approaches that use external sensors to correct the drift error, we only use one IMU on the foot. To detect a ramp, the slope of the terrain on which the user is walking, and the change in height sensed when moving forward, are estimated from the IMU. After detection, the ramp is checked for association with one of the existing in a database. For each associated ramp, a position correction is fed into the Kalman Filter in order to refine the INS-PDR solution. Drift-free localization is achieved with positioning errors below 2 meters for 1,000-meter-long routes in a building with a few ramps.

  19. Dynamic control for nanostructures through slowly ramping parameters.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jaeyun; Blick, Robert; Ahn, Kang-Hun

    2016-06-01

    We propose a nanostructure control method which uses slowly ramping parameters. We demonstrate the dynamics of this method in both a nonlinear classical system and a quantum system. When a quantum mechanical two-level atom (quantum dot) is irradiated by an electric field with a slowly increasing frequency, there exists a sudden transition from ground (excited) to excited (ground) state. This occurs when the ramping rate is smaller than the square of the Rabi frequency. The transition arises when its "instant frequency"-the time derivative of the driving field phase-matches the resonance frequency, satisfying the Fermi golden rule. We also find that the parameter ramping is an efficient control manner for classical nanomechanical shuttles. For ramping of driving amplitudes, the shuttle's mechanical oscillation is amplified and even survives when the ramping is stopped outside the original oscillation region. This strange oscillation is due to the entrance into a multistable dynamic region in phase space. For ramping of driving frequencies, an onset of oscillation arises when the instant frequency enters the oscillation region. Thus, regardless of being classical or quantum, the instant frequency is physically relevant. We discuss in which conditions the dynamic control is efficient.

  20. Ramp-rate limitation experiments using a hybrid superconducting cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Schultz, J. H.; Takayasu, M.; Vysotsky, V.; Michael, P. C.; Warnes, W.; Shen, S.

    Ramp-rate limitation experiments were done in a new facility at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Plasma Fusion Center. The features of this new facility include (1) a superconducting pulse coil that can superimpose high ramp-down rates, up to 25 T s -1, (2 T in 80 ms) at a background field up to 5 T, (2) new power supplies that can supply high rates of dl/dt and dB/dt to the sample under test and (3) a forced-flow supercritical helium system for cooling CICCs (Cable-In-Conduit Conductors). This paper discusses the results of the ramp-rate limitation experiments on a 27-strand hybrid Nb 3Sn cable. The cable was tested under field ramps of up to 2.5 T s -1 with various operating currents. It did not quench with dB/dt, field and average strand currents that were simultaneously above the operating range of TPX-PF (Tokamak Physics Experiment Poloidal Field) coils. Further ramp-rate limitation experiments revealed that the tested 27-strand hybrid cable has very high transient stability at ramped fields, extending out to average strand currents that are nearly triple the TPX-PF operating current.

  1. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 3 direct wheat study of North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinsler, M. C.; Nichols, J. D.; Ona, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The green number and brightness scatter plots, channel plots of radiance values, and visual study of the imagery indicate separability between barley and spring wheat/oats during the wheat mid-heading to mid-ripe stages. In the LACIE Phase 3 North Dakota data set, the separation time is more specifically the wheat soft dough stage. At this time, the barley is ripening, and is therefore, less green and brighter than the wheat. Only 4 of the 18 segments studied indicate separation of barley/other spring small grain, even though 11 of the segments have acquisitions covering the wheat soft dough stage. The remaining seven segments had less than 5 percent barley based on ground truth data.

  2. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  3. Ecology of Lutzomyia longipalpis in an area of visceral leishmaniasis transmission in north-eastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pietra Lemos; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; da Silva, Fernando José; Guimarães, Vanessa Cristina Fitipaldi Veloso; Gaudêncio, Kamila; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto

    2013-05-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a major public health issue in South America, where the disease is rapidly spreading. Changes in ecology and distribution of the principal vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis are among the factors accounting for the increasing incidence of the disease in this region. However, information about the ecology of L. longipalpis is still incipient, which may directly impair the implementation of effective control programs. Herein, the ecology of L. longipalpis was studied in a focus of visceral leishmaniasis in north-eastern Brazil. From August 2009 to August 2010, phlebotomine sand flies were monthly collected in four localities using CDC light traps (~37 per month) and a lantern-baited Shannon trap with mouth aspirators. A total of 24,226 phlebotomine sand flies were collected with light traps and 375 with mouth aspirators. The most abundant species was L. longipalpis, representing 97.9% of the specimens collected with light traps and 91.5% with the mouth aspirator. Other species (Lutzomyia evandroi, Lutzomyia lenti and Lutzomyia sallesi) were found in low numbers. Most phlebotomine sand flies (94.6%) were collected at chicken coops and corrals. No significant correlation was found between the monthly abundance of phlebotomine sand flies and the monthly averages of temperature, relative humidity or rainfall. However, interestingly enough, 82.4% of L. longipalpis specimens were collected in months when relative humidity surpassed 75%. This study points out that this vector is well adapted to live in different habitats and to different climate conditions. It also suggests that some north-eastern populations of L. longipalpis may be more xerotolerant than southern populations. Further studies to assess the relationship between microclimate and L. longipalpis density in different Brazilian regions are advised.

  4. The tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Garzê (North Tibet) and adjacent areas from Proterozoic to Present: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Françoise; Jolivet, Marc; Malavieille, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    The Triassic orogeny in North Tibet results from interactions between the South China, North China and Qiangtang (North Tibet) blocks during the closure of the Paleotethys ocean. It is mainly composed, from west to east, by the Bayan Har, Songpan-Garzê, and Yidun (or Litang-Batang) terranes. We focus here on the Triassic Songpan-Garzê fold belt and the actual eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau which is one of the key areas for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Asian continent and the Tibetan Plateau. At least three major deformation phases are recognized in eastern Tibet and south-east of the South China block: a Neoproterozoic phase (1-0.75 Ga) correlated to the assembly and break-up of the Rodinia Continent, a Late Triassic compression event and finally a Tertiary deformation related to the India-Asia collision. The tectonic and geodynamic history of this part of Asia is very complex and often vigorously debated. For example the Triassic compression event in Tibet is usually associated to the Indosinian Orogeny originally defined in Vietnam but this is probably an oversimplification. Our purpose is to review the various models proposed in the literature and to synthesize the tectonic and geodynamic history of this area. We show that the Songpan-Garzê fold belt is not a typical collisional belt: the triangular shape of the closing oceanic basin as well as the huge volume of accreted sediments did not allow a complete continent-continent collision. Finally, the tectonic inheritance plays a major role in the evolution of the eastern margin of Tibet as most of the major Tertiary tectonic structures in the Longmen Shan are reactivated Paleozoic and Mesozoic faults.

  5. Craters hosting radar-bright deposits in Mercury's north polar region: Areas of persistent shadow determined from MESSENGER images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Ernst, Carolyn M.; Harmon, John K.; Murchie, Scott L.; Solomon, Sean C.; Blewett, David T.; Denevi, Brett W.

    2013-01-01

    Radar-bright features near Mercury's poles were discovered in Earth-based radar images and proposed to be water ice present in permanently shadowed areas. Images from MESSENGER's one-year primary orbital mission provide the first nearly complete view of Mercury's north polar region, as well as multiple images of the surface under a range of illumination conditions. We find that radar-bright features near Mercury's north pole are associated with locations persistently shadowed in MESSENGER images. Within 10° of the pole, almost all craters larger than 10 km in diameter host radar-bright deposits. There are several craters located near Mercury's north pole with sufficiently large diameters to enable long-lived water ice to be thermally stable at the surface within regions of permanent shadow. Craters located farther south also host radar-bright deposits and show a preference for cold-pole longitudes; thermal models suggest that a thin insulating layer is required to cover these deposits if the radar-bright material consists predominantly of long-lived water ice. Many small (<10 km diameter) and low-latitude (extending southward to 66°N) craters host radar-bright material, and water ice may not be thermally stable in these craters for ~1 Gy, even beneath an insulating layer. The correlation of radar-bright features with persistently shadowed areas is consistent with the deposits being composed of water ice, and future thermal modeling of small and low-latitude craters has the potential to further constrain the nature, source, and timing of emplacement of the radar-bright material.

  6. Changes in ground-water levels in the Carlin Trend area, north-central Nevada, 1989-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    Ground-water pumpage in support of gold mining activities, including mine dewatering, has resulted in water-level declines and rises in different parts of the Carlin Trend area in north-central Nevada. Total annual pumpage at the Gold Quarry, Carlin, Genesis, and Betze Mines has ranged from about 5,000 acre-feet in 1989 to almost 130,000 acre-feet in 1994 and 1998. Excess water from the mines is stored in the TS Ranch and Maggie Creek Reservoirs. Aquifers in the Carlin Trend area are comprised of carbonate rocks of Cambrian to Permian age and basin-fill deposits and interbedded volcanic rocks of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Since 1992, water levels in carbonate-rock aquifers near the Gold Quarry Mine have declined as much as 680 feet below an elongate area 12 miles long and 6 miles wide northwest and southeast from the mine. Since 1990, water levels have declined by more than 1,600 feet in the deepest part of the cone of depression at the Betze Mine. The area encompassed by the main part of the cone, which is 7 miles long by 4 miles wide, did not change much during 1993-2003, although its depth had doubled. Near both mines, the cones of depression are bounded by faults acting as barriers to ground-water flow. Water levels in the volcanic rocks of northern Boulder Flat began to rise soon after the TS Ranch Reservoir began filling in 1990 because of infiltration. Since 1990, the net water-level rise around the reservoir has been 50 feet or more over an area of about 2 square miles, and 20 feet or more over an area of about 60 square miles. Since 1992, water levels in basin-fill deposits in Boulder Flat have risen 5 feet or more over an estimated area of 20 square miles as a result of (1) use of water from the Betze Mine as a substitute for irrigation pumpage, (2) water from the TS Ranch Reservoir infiltrating volcanic rocks and then flowing southward into adjacent basin-fill deposits, (3) secondary recharge of water from the mine for irrigating about 10,000 acres

  7. Aerial view of Naval Air Station, North Island. View from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of Naval Air Station, North Island. View from southwest showing buildings 29 and 68 and seaplane ramps nos. 2,3, and 4, ca. 1935. Photographer unknown. - Naval Air Station North Island, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  9. YO-3A parked on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's YO-3A parked on the Dryden ramp. The YO-3A aircraft was originally a Schweizer SGS-2-23 sailplane. During the late 1960s Lockheed modified over a dozen of these sailplanes to create ultra-quiet observation aircraft for use over South Vietnam during the conflict there. This particular YO-3A flew combat missions and was later sold to an airframe and powerplant mechanics school. NASA's Ames Research Center at Mountain Veiw, California, acquired the aircraft from the school in 1978. It restored the YO-3A to flight status and fitted it with wing- and tail-mounted microphones as an accoustic research aircraft. Ames operated it at Edwards Air Force Base for noise measurements of helicopters and tilt rotor aircraft. One set of tests in December 1995 obtained free-flight noise data on the XV-15 tilt rotor. NASA also used the YO-3A for sonic boom measurements of a NASA SR-71 assigned to the Dryden Flight Research Center. NASA transferred the YO-3A to Dryden in December 1997, and as of April 2001 it was in flyable storage there. The designation YO-3A indicates that this aircraft was a pre-production (Y) observation (O) aircraft. Even though the YO-3A saw operational use, the Y designation was never removed. Its 210-horsepower Continental V-6 was modified to reduce noise. The engine was connected to a propeller through a belt-driven reduction system. This reduced the propeller's rotation speed. The propeller blades themselves were made of birch plywood and were wider than standard propellers. The result of these modifications was an aircraft so quiet that its noise was drowned out by the background sounds.

  10. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues.

  11. Reconnaissance investigation of the alluvial gold deposits in the North Takhar Area of Interest, Takhar Province, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.; Moran, Thomas W.

    2013-01-01

    This study is a reconnaissance assessment of the alluvial gold deposits of the North Takhar Area of Interest (AOI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan. Soviet and Afghan geologists collected data and calculated the gold deposit reserves in Takhar Province in the 1970s, prior to the development of satellite-based remote-sensing platforms and new methods of geomorphic mapping. The purpose of this study was to integrate new mapping techniques with previously collected borehole sampling and concentration sampling data and geomorphologic interpretations to reassess the alluvial gold placer deposits in the North Takhar AOI. Through a combination of historical borehole and cross-section data and digital terrain modeling, the Samti, Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, and Kocha River placer deposits were reassessed. Resource estimates were calculated to be 20,927 kilograms (kg) for Samti, 7,626 kg for Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir, 160 kg for the mouth of the Kocha, 1,047 kg for the lower Kocha, 113 kg for the middle Kocha, and 168 kg for the upper Kocha. Previous resource estimates conducted by the Soviets for the Samti and Nooraba-Khasar-Anjir deposits estimated 30,062 kg and 802 kg of gold, respectively. This difference between the new estimates and previous estimates results from the higher resolution geomorphic model and the interpretation of areas outside of the initial work zone studied by Soviet and Afghan geologists.

  12. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    PubMed

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS2), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg(-1), respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  13. EPA Funding to Temple University will help Revitalize Philadelphias North Kensington Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (March 27, 2015) Funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to Temple University will help plan for health, environmental and economic improvements for Philadelphia's Kensington area residents through the cleanup and reuse of brownf

  14. Geohydrology of the North Park area, Jackson County, Colorado; with a section on water law

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Graham, Glenn

    1996-01-01

    Increasing population in rural and suburban areas of Colorado is causing greater reliance on ground water as a source of domestic supply. In the primarily rural area of Jackson County, for example, the number of registered water wells increased from about 100 in 1972 to about 500 in 1995. Most of the new wells were drilled after 1988 and supply water to ranches and summer homes. In Jackson County, ground water is pumped from a series of shallow alluvial aquifers along principal stream valleys and from deeper, more extensive, bedrock aquifers. In much of the area, the alluvial aquifers are thin and can be dewatered by moderate water- level declines. Knowledge of the nature and extent of the alluvial and bedrock aquifers, the sources of recharge and discharge, and the effects of ground- water withdrawal on water levels in the aquifers is vital if management of the area's water resources is to ensure continued availability of a dependable water supply.

  15. An Archeological Survey of Two Proposed Reservoir Areas, Rocky River Basin, North Carolina,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    difficult. For that reason the discussions that follow, especially the overviews of Chapters 1 and 2, may speak of the "study area," which refers to the...Piedmont presents a single ceramic tradition, one generally ascribed to the several Siouan- speaking groups occupying the region in historic times. In...areas, while the Scotch-Irish and Germans came largely from Pennsylvania, Maryland, and the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia. Generally speaking , the

  16. HISTORICAL AMERICAN ENGINEERING RECORD - IDAHO NATIONAL ENGINEERING AND ENVIRONMENTAL LABORATORY, TEST AREA NORTH, HAER NO. ID-33-E

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Hollie K. Gilbert

    2005-02-01

    Test Area North (TAN) was a site of the Aircraft Nuclear Propulsion (ANP) Project of the U.S. Air Force and the Atomic Energy Commission. Its Cold War mission was to develop a turbojet bomber propelled by nuclear power. The project was part of an arms race. Test activities took place in five areas at TAN. The Assembly & Maintenance area was a shop and hot cell complex. Nuclear tests ran at the Initial Engine Test area. Low-power test reactors operated at a third cluster. The fourth area was for Administration. A Flight Engine Test facility (hangar) was built to house the anticipated nuclear-powered aircraft. Experiments between 1955-1961 proved that a nuclear reactor could power a jet engine, but President John F. Kennedy canceled the project in March 1961. ANP facilities were adapted for new reactor projects, the most important of which were Loss of Fluid Tests (LOFT), part of an international safety program for commercial power reactors. Other projects included NASA's Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power and storage of Three Mile Island meltdown debris. National missions for TAN in reactor research and safety research have expired; demolition of historic TAN buildings is underway.

  17. Early pictures of global climate change impact to the coastal area (North West of Demak Central Java Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Heri; Pradipta, Dhota; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Sarsito, Dina A.

    2017-07-01

    In the last several decades we have been realized for the Global Climate Change situation. Some indicators are worldwide increasing temperature, decreasing volume of ice in Antarctica, and the sea level rise. Relating to the decreased of ice volume and the sea level rise, this situation has been predicted to endanger the living at the coastal area in the future. Prediction models have shown some coastal cities area would suffer flood by tidal inundation and even permanent flooding. Coincidently, today in the North West of Demak District Central Java Indonesia we literally can see the early picture of Global Climate Change impact to the coastal areas as mention. The occurrence of tidal inundation in this area was recognized at least in the early 2000 and even earlier, and in the recent years the tidal inundation comes not only at a high tide but even at the regular tide, and in fact some of this area are obviously sinking to the sea through times. This early picture is truly showing a disaster. Adaptation has been made in facing the disaster such as increasing the house and infrastructures, and built dyke. We have been done some investigations to this area by field observations (mapping the flooded area, interviewing people and seeing the adaptations, conduct GPS measurement to see deformation, etc.), gather information from digital media and also using remotely time series of high resolution satellite image data to mapping the tidal inundation in this area. We noted people increased their house and the local goverment elevated the road and the bridge, etc. regulary over less decade periode. Our conclusions said that the adaptation only made temporaly since the sea level keep rising worsening by the land subsidence significantly.

  18. Peroneus Longus activity according to various angles of a ramp during cross-ramp walking and one-legged standing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yeol; Lee, Seung-Min; Jung, Jae-Min

    2017-06-03

    Ankle sprain are one of the most common injuries in sports and public health in general. Cross-slope may creat a risk for ankle sprain and are commonly found in both urban and rural environment. The purpose of study was to clarify the environmental risk factor that can be easily occurred ankle sprain during walking (stance phase) and one leg standing at various ramp environment. Participants was measured muscle activation on peroneus longus during both conditions (walk across the ramp and one leg stand in the transverse direction) of seven different angle (0∘, 2∘, 5∘, 10∘, 15∘, 20∘, 25∘). The measured data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA to investigate the effect of muscle activation on the each condition. Ankle sprain can be easily occurred when cross walk and one-leg stand on a ramp from higher than 10∘, and highest risk was angle of 25∘ or more. As a people with peroneus longus weakness walks a ramp, the ramp angle has a cross relationship with the sprain on the ankle. If people with peroneus longus weakness walk on the more than 10∘ of ramp angle, they will need a lot of attention for prevent ankle sprain.

  19. Neogene tectonics and modern geodynamics and seismicity of Pannonia north-eastern remote area (Ukrainian Transcarpathian yield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozynak, Petro; Nazarevych, Andriy; Nazarevych, Lesya

    2010-05-01

    Pannonia north-eastern remote area (Ukrainian Transcarpathian yield) joins to East (Ukrainian) Carpathians and their geodynamic mode is interdependent from the alpine stage until now. Due to the detailed study in the last few years of structures of surface of basement and sedimentary layers of the Transcarpathian yield of postalpine ages (neogene - from early Miocene to Sarmatian and farther) (see Lozynak at al., 2002-2007) we have the possibility to trace the Neogene's tectonics of the region and its connection with modern geodynamics and seismicity of Ukrainian Transcarpathians and adjoining territories of Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. These data indicate that active orogenic processes (dominance of compression caused by a plate-tectonic processes) in this region to beginning of early miocene made off and began the process of formation of the Transcarpathian yield in his modern view (due to an output on the first plan of the plum-tectonic processes caused by Pannonian asthenolite?) (see Nazarevych A. and Nazarevych L., 2000-2007). The process of formation (origin) of yield (and the proper accumulation of sedimentary layers) began in his east part (in the area of border with Romania (Siget - Solotvyno)) at the beginning of early Miocene (about 23 million years ago), continue in north-western direction (in the rear of modern Carpathians) to the border with Slovakia at first as a narrow (10-15 km) bar (roughly during 2-4 million years) and then broadened (during next 2-3 million years) in north-eastern - south-west direction on all modern territory of the Transcarpathian yield. In future (in Sarmatian epoch, approximately from 12-14 to 10-11 million years ago) east part of yield (so-called Solotvyno depression) transgress to the mode of compression and raising with ending of intensive sedimentation, and in western part (so-called Tchop-Mukatcheve depression) the process of sagging was farther displaced westward and at present he is concentrated (by geodesic and

  20. Water-quality trends for streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1983-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Bathala, Neeti

    1997-01-01

    Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data, collected from 1983 to 1995, were analyzed for 34 stream and reservoir sites in a seven- county region within the upper Neuse and upper Cape Fear River Basins. Early data (1983-88) were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey water- quality studies and from the ambient water-quality monitoring network of the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources. Analyses of major ions, nutrients, metals, trace elements, and synthetic organic compounds were compiled from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1988 to 1995 as part of a continuing project to monitor the water quality of surface-water supplies in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, and from the North Carolina Department of Environment, Health, and Natural Resources ambient water-quality monitoring network. This report presents the results of analysis of consistently increasing or decreasing trends in concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus species, suspended sediment, suspended solids, sodium, chloride, iron, manganese, zinc, and chlorophyll a from seasonal Kendall trend analysis on flow-adjusted concentrations for streams and concentrations in lakes. Total phosphorus concentrations also were tested for a step decrease in concentration (step trend) associated with the North Carolina phosphate-detergent ban of 1988. For some other constituents, insufficient data or values below laboratory detection limits precluded trend analysis. A regionwide decrease in total phosphorus, ranging from 25 to 81 percent was observed that coincided with increased phosphorus removal efforts at municipal wastewater-treatment facilities in the region and the statewide phosphate-detergent ban. Most sites had stable or decreasing trends in nitrogen concentrations; however, increasing trends occurred in the Neuse River near Clayton and at Smithfield, both of which are downstream from the developing Raleigh-Durham area. Chlorophyll a

  1. Estuarine monitoring programs in the Albemarle Sound study area, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moorman, Michelle; Kolb, Katharine R.; Supak, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify major natural resource management issues for the region, provide information on current monitoring activities occurring within the Albemarle Sound study area, determine how the current monitoring network fits into the design of the NMN, and determine what additional monitoring data are needed to address these issues. In order to address these questions, a shapefile and data table were created to document monitoring and research programs in the Albemarle Sound study area with an emphasis on current monitoring programs within the region. This database was queried to determine monitoring gaps that existed in the Albemarle Sound by comparing current monitoring programs with the design indicated by the NMN. The report uses this information to provide recommendations on how monitoring could be improved in the Albemarle Sound study area.

  2. Changing the Chevreul illusion by a background luminance ramp: lateral inhibition fails at its traditional stronghold--a psychophysical refutation.

    PubMed

    Geier, János; Hudák, Mariann

    2011-01-01

    The Chevreul illusion is a well-known 19(th) century brightness illusion, comprising adjacent homogeneous grey bands of different luminance, which are perceived as inhomogeneous. It is generally explained by lateral inhibition, according to which brighter areas projected to the retina inhibit the sensitivity of neighbouring retinal areas. Lateral inhibition has been considered the foundation-stone of early vision for a century, upon which several computational models of brightness perception are built. One of the last strongholds of lateral inhibition is the Chevreul illusion, which is often illustrated even in current textbooks. Here we prove that lateral inhibition is insufficient to explain the Chevreul illusion. For this aim, we placed the Chevreul staircase in a luminance ramp background, which noticeably changed the illusion. In our psychophysical experiments, all 23 observers reported a strong illusion, when the direction of the ramp was identical to that of the staircase, and all reported homogeneous steps (no illusion) when its direction was the opposite. When the background of the staircase was uniform, 14 saw the illusion, and 9 saw no illusion. To see whether the change of the entire background area or that of the staircase boundary edges were more important, we placed another ramp around the staircase, whose direction was opposite to that of the original, larger ramp. The result is that though the inner ramp is rather narrow (mean = 0.51 deg, SD = 0.48 deg, N = 23), it still dominates perception. Since all conditions of the lateral inhibition account were untouched within the staircase, lateral inhibition fails to model these perceptual changes. Area ratios seem insignificant; the role of boundary edges seems crucial. We suggest that long range interactions between boundary edges and areas enclosed by them, such that diffusion-based models describe, provide a much more plausible account for these brightness phenomena, and local models are

  3. Frequency, nature and outcomes of hospital admissions in centenarians in an area of North-East England.

    PubMed

    Dotchin, Catherine L; Gray, William K; Gaskin, Elizabeth; Hartley, Samantha; Walker, Richard W

    2016-08-01

    There are few data on the use of hospital services by centenarians living in the UK. In the present study, we recorded the frequency, nature and outcomes of hospital admissions in centenarians in an area of North-East England. Data regarding hospital attendance in centenarians in Northumberland and North Tyneside, covered by one National Health Service Trust, were collected. For the years 2010-2013, demographics, frequency of admission and length of hospital stay data were collected. Medical notes for those admitted in 2011 were reviewed, and data extracted relating to diagnosis, medications and past medical history. Across the 4 years of the study, there were 349 hospital attendances of centenarians. A total of 264 of these attendances resulted in admission with an overnight stay. In 2011, there were 107 attendances, 75 of which (in 54 unique patents) resulted in admission and an overnight stay. The unique patients admitted represented 41.5% of the centenarians living in the catchment area. The most common primary reason for admission in centenarians was respiratory tract infection, though falls were a primary or secondary reason for admission in 41.3% of centenarians. There were 11 in-hospital deaths in 2011, and a further seven deaths within 30 days of discharge. The median number of medications taken on admission and discharge was six. Almost half of the centenarians living in the catchment area were admitted to hospital during 2011. Over 25% of admissions either died in hospital or within 30 days of discharge. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 16: 969-975. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Construct Miscellaneous Services Recreation Area at Grand Forks AFB, North Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-03-15

    erosion. No pesticides would be used as part of this project. Environmental Justice- There are no minority or low-income populations in the area of the...Type Condition............................................ 34 3.13.3 Pesticide Management........................................... 34 3.14...No pesticides would be used as part of this project. Environmental Justice- EO 12898 requires federal agencies to identify and address, as

  5. An analysis of the North Rainier Elk Herd area, Washington: Change detection and habitat modeling with remote sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, Joshua J.

    The North Rainier Elk Herd (NREH) is one of ten designated herds in Washington State, all managed by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To aid in the management of the herd, the WDFW has decided to implement a spatial ecosystem analysis. This thesis partially undertakes this analysis through the use of a suite of software tools, the Westside Elk Nutrition and Habitat Use Models (WENHUM). This model analyzes four covariates that have a strong correlation to elk habitat selection: dietary digestible energy (DDE); distance to roads open to the public; mean slope; and distance to cover-forage edge and returns areas of likely elk habitation or use. This thesis includes an update of the base vegetation layer from 2006 data to 2011, a series of clear cuts were identified as areas of change and fed into the WENHUM models. The addition of these clear cuts created improvements in the higher quality DDE levels and when the updated data is compared to the original, predictions of elk use are higher. The presence of open or closed roads was simulated by creating an area of possible closures, selecting candidate roads within that area and then modeling them as either "all open" or "all closed". The simulation of the road closures produced increases in the higher levels of predicted use.

  6. Coal geology of the Bowman-Gascoyne area, Adams, Billings, Bowman, Golden Valley, and Slope counties, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    The Bowrnan-Gascoyne area is located in southwestern North Dakota. It is situated on the southwestern edge of the Williston structural basin and the northeastern flank of the Cedar Creek anticline. Strata of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), consisting of nonmarine claystone, sandstone, and lignite, dip to the northeast 25-50 ft/mi. Seven correlatable coal beds of varying thicknesses and areal dimensions occur in the area. The thickest and most persistent of these beds is the Harmon bed which attains a maximum thickness of 38 ft in T. 134 N., Rs. 101 and 102 W. Analyses show a heating value of 5,915-6,680 Btu/lb and a sulfur content of 0.6-1.4 percent. Two areas of high-coal-development potential are located near Gascoyne and Amidon. The Harmon bed in these two areas contains a total of 740,000,000 and 650,000,000 tons, respectively, and is under less than 150 ft of overburden.

  7. Disconnected runoff contributing areas: Evidence provided by ancient watershed management systems in arid north-eastern Marmarica (NW-Egypt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, T.; Rieger, A.-K.; Nicolay, A.

    2014-05-01

    This study presents the importance of disconnectivity in dryland area runoff demonstrated by manmade water harvesting structures dated to Greco-Roman times. Located on the coastal strip of some 20 km width along the Mediterranean coast of modern northwestern Egypt covering the north-eastern part of the region known in antiquity as Marmarica, the area receives winterly rainfalls of up to 140 mm. Further south, precipitation decreases quickly and desert conditions become more pronounced. Bedrocks are predominantly calcareous, soils are loamy, stony, calcareous, and shallow, except in relief sinks with sedimentary deposits. The land rises from the coast up to 230 m a.s.l. on the Marmarica Plateau in a sequence of zonal northsloping plains and scarps the northern parts of which are dissected and drained by wadis. Agriculturally suitable areas comprise some 9% of the coastal zone and adjacent tablelands. Overland flow controls the discharge dynamics and is the main source of wadi runoff and hence agricultural water supply. The land use pattern is scattered because cropping areas depend mainly on suitability of soils and the generation of runoff harvest, which are closely interrelated because of the arid water and sediment regime. The patchiness of runoff generation increases further south where aridity is higher and topography inhibits greater drainage patterns. The abundance of cisterns, many of them originally Greco-Roman, is strong evidence that tableland overland flows occur and are frequently disconnected from larger drainage systems.

  8. Seismic tomography of the area of the 2010 Beni-Ilmane earthquake sequence, north-central Algeria.

    PubMed

    Abacha, Issam; Koulakov, Ivan; Semmane, Fethi; Yelles-Chaouche, Abd Karim

    2014-01-01

    The region of Beni-Ilmane (District of M'sila, north-central Algeria) was the site of an earthquake sequence that started on 14 May 2010. This sequence, which lasted several months, was triggered by conjugate E-W reverse and N-S dextral faulting. To image the crustal structure of these active faults, we used a set of 1406 well located aftershocks events and applied the local tomography software (LOTOS) algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the initial 1D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3D seismic P- and S-wave velocities (and the Vp/Vs ratio), and source parameters. The patterns of P-wave low-velocity anomalies correspond to the alignments of faults determined from geological evidence, and the P-wave high-velocity anomalies may represent rigid blocks of the upper crust that are not deformed by regional stresses. The S-wave low-velocity anomalies coincide with the aftershock area, where relatively high values of Vp/Vs ratio (1.78) are observed compared with values in the surrounding areas (1.62-1.66). These high values may indicate high fluid contents in the aftershock area. These fluids could have been released from deeper levels by fault movements during earthquakes and migrated rapidly upwards. This hypothesis is supported by vertical sections across the study area show that the major Vp/Vs anomalies are located above the seismicity clusters.

  9. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Sarulla graben geothermal area, North Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, R. G.; Dobson, P. F.; van Gerven, M.; Sagala, B. D.; Gunderson, R. P.

    2004-07-01

    The Sarulla graben is a composite Plio-Pleistocene basin developed along the northwest striking, dextral-slip Sumatra fault in a region where the fault coincides with the Sumatra volcanic arc. Offset of the 0.27±0.03 Ma Tor Sibohi rhyodacite dome by an active strand of the Sumatra fault, the Tor Sibohi fault (TSF), indicates a slip rate of about 9 mm/y. This value is lower than previous regional estimates of ˜25-30 mm/y for Holocene slip on the Sumatra fault determined from stream offsets in the Taratung region. This discrepancy may be due to (1) a difference between Holocene and late Quaternary rates of slip and (2) additional slip on other faults in the Sarulla area. Since the magnitude of undated stream offsets along the TSF in the Sarulla area is similar to those in the Taratung area, the discrepancy is likely to be due largely to a change in slip rate over time. Within the Sarulla area, major volcanic centers include the Sibualbuali stratavolcano (˜0.7-0.3 Ma), the Hopong caldera (˜1.5 Ma), and the Namora-I-Langit dacitic dome field (0.8-0.1 Ma). These centers generated the majority of the ash-flow tuffs and tuffaceous sediments filling the Sarulla graben, and appear to have been localized by structural features related to the Sumatra fault zone. Four geothermal systems within the Sarulla area are closely linked to major faults and volcanic centers. In three of the systems, reservoir permeability is clearly dominated by specific structures within the Sumatra fault system. In the fourth geothermal system, Namora-I-Langit geothermal field, permeability may be locally influenced by faults, but highly permeable fractures are widely distributed.

  10. M2-F2 on ramp

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1966-02-24

    The M2-F2 Lifting Body is seen here on the ramp at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The success of Dryden's M2-F1 program led to NASA's development and construction of two heavyweight lifting bodies based on studies at NASA's Ames and Langley research centers -- the M2-F2 and the HL-10, both built by the Northrop Corporation. The "M" refers to "manned" and "F" refers to "flight" version. "HL" comes from "horizontal landing" and 10 is for the tenth lifting body model to be investigated by Langley. The first flight of the M2-F2 -- which looked much like the "F1" -- was on July 12, 1966. Milt Thompson was the pilot. By then, the same B-52 used to air launch the famed X-15 rocket research aircraft was modified to also carry the lifting bodies. Thompson was dropped from the B-52's wing pylon mount at an altitude of 45,000 feet on that maiden glide flight. The M2-F2 weighed 4,620 pounds, was 22 feet long, and had a width of about 10 feet. On May 10, 1967, during the sixteenth glide flight leading up to powered flight, a landing accident severely damaged the vehicle and seriously injured the NASA pilot, Bruce Peterson. NASA pilots and researchers realized the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, even though it had a stability augmentation control system. When the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Dryden and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin -- centered between the tip fins -- to improve control characteristics. The M2-F2/F3 was the first of the heavy-weight, entry-configuration lifting bodies. Its successful development as a research test vehicle answered many of the generic questions about these vehicles. NASA donated the M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institute in December 1973. It is currently hanging in the Air and Space Museum along with the X-15 aircraft number 1, which was its hangar partner at Dryden from 1965 to 1969.

  11. Geochemistry of glacial sediments in the area of the Bend massive sulfide deposit, north-central Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodruff, L.G.; Attig, J.W.; Cannon, W.F.

    2004-01-01

    Geochemical exploration in northern Wisconsin has been problematic because of thick glacial overburden and complex stratigraphic record of glacial history. To assess till geochemical exploration in an area of thick glacial cover and complex stratigraphy samples of glacial materials were collected from cores from five rotasonic boreholes near a known massive sulfide deposit, the Bend deposit in north-central Wisconsin. Diamond drilling in the Bend area has defined a long, thin zone of mineralization at least partly intersected at the bedrock surface beneath 30-40 m of unconsolidated glacial sediments. The bedrock surface has remnant regolith and saprolite resulting from pre-Pleistocene weathering. Massive sulfide and mineralized rock collected from diamond drill core from the deposit contain high (10s to 10,000s ppm) concentrations of Ag, As, Au, Bi, Cu, Hg, Se, Te, and Tl. Geochemical properties of the glacial stratigraphic units helped clarify the sequence and source areas of several glacial ice advances preserved in the section. At least two till sheets are recognized. Over the zone of mineralization, saprolite and preglacial alluvial and lacustrine samples are preserved on the bedrock surface in a paleoriver valley. The overlying till sheet is a gray, silty carbonate till with a source hundreds of kilometers to the northwest of the study area. This gray till is overlain by red, sandy till with a source to the north in Proterozoic rocks of the Lake Superior area. The complex glacial stratigraphy confounds down-ice geochemical till exploration. The presence of remnant saprolite, preglacial sediment, and far-traveled carbonate till minimized glacial erosion of mineralized material. As a result, little evidence of down-ice glacial dispersion of lithologic or mineralogic indicators of Bend massive sulfide mineralization was found in the samples from the rotasonic cores. This study points out the importance of determining glacial stratigraphy and history, and

  12. Spatial distribution of herring in the orkney/shetland area (northern north sea): A geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelias, Christos D.; Haralabous, John

    Geostatistical methodology was used to analyse the structure and describe the spatial patterns of North Sea herring ( Clupea harengus L.), using data from the 1992 ICES (Division IVa) acoustic survey. Three different scales of spatial structures were identified: an unresolved small-scale variability, which accounted for 48% of the total variance, and two structure components, the first being a meso-scale of ≈9 nmi (nautical miles) (≈30%) and the second a large-scale of ≈17 nmi (22%). Geostatistical analysis permitted the determination of spatial density gradients as well as patch sizes (range from 9 to 17 nmi). The use of the truncated data and the robust variogram on the raw data provided additional information for the structure. The utilization of this information in the variographic analysis resulted in better estimations. The best unbiased predictor was used to objectively map the herring population distribution by kriging. The kriging estimates were better with interpolation of a large number of points. Herring tended to aggregate mainly in meso-scale patches with a diameter of 9 nmi and to a lesser extent in large-scale patches of 17 nmi diameter. Environmental factors (depth, salinity and temperature) partly explained the spatial distribution of herring, despite the absence of a trend in the variogram structure. The study demonstrates the existence of spatial correlation and an objective way of optimal mapping of the population. Geostatistics provided additional information on herring spatial organization which is important to understand the behaviour of the species and to study its relationship with the environment.

  13. Geology and Mineral Deposits of the Snow Camp-Saxapahaw Area, Central North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Robert G.; Gumiel, Pablo; Payas, Alba

    2006-01-01

    The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw study area, in the Carolina slate belt in the Southeastern United States, is notable for large zones of high-sulfidation alteration in arc-related metavolcanic rocks. The area has potential for additional significant pyrophyllite and related aluminosilicate refractory mineral deposits and may have potential for small- to medium-size gold deposits also associated with the high-sulfidation hydrothermal systems. The Carolina slate belt is an elongate zone of mostly low-grade metamorphic rocks of Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic age that extends from northeastern Georgia to southern Virginia. It is dominated by volcanic rocks but locally consists of fine-grained epiclastic sedimentary rocks. Plutons and subvolcanic bodies have intruded the rocks of the Carolina slate belt in many places and have been important in controlling the metamorphism and in localizing hydrothermal alteration. The Snow Camp-Saxapahaw area is mostly underlain by volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks and lesser amounts of intrusive shallow plutons. The volcanic rocks range in composition from basalt to rhyolite; however andesites, dacites, and rhyodacites are the most abundant. The intrusive bodies are largely granite and quartz monzonite; gabbroic bodies also are common. It was possible to establish the relative ages of only part of these rocks. Two northeast-trending fault zones and fractures divide the map area into three structural blocks; the central block was tilted down to the southwest to form a grabenlike structure. Most of the hydrothermally altered rocks and all of the intensely altered zones are confined to the downdropped block, which we think may have been calderalike in origin. A major volcanic unit, the Reedy Branch Tuff, is limited to the southwestern part of the graben and may be the youngest volcanic rock in the area. Layered rocks record one or more strong folding events, but the diversity of rock types, lack of recognizable stratigraphic markers, and

  14. Cyclostratigraphy and chemostratigraphy of a bioclastic storm-dominated carbonate ramp (late Pliensbachian, Iberian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val, Jorge; Bádenas, Beatriz; Aurell, Marcos; Rosales, Idoia

    2017-06-01

    Deposition of regressive successions and coeval positive trend in the oxygen stable isotope record in relatively deep marine successions of the upper Pliensbachian of western European basins have been related to a cooling interlude within the warm greenhouse conditions of the Pliensbachian. Sedimentological, cyclostratigraphic and chemostratigraphic analyses carried out in two upper Pliensbachian successions exposed in the Iberian Chain (Obón and San Pedro localities, Spain) allowed the characterization of the imprint of this cooling interlude on the relatively shallow areas of the Iberian carbonate ramp. The upper Pliensbachian succession is characterized by skeletal limestones and encompasses proximal mid-ramp to proximal outer-ramp facies, in which resedimentation and reworking by storm-induced flows controlled the accumulation of bioclastic debris. Two orders of high-frequency, metre-scale sequences have been identified: bundles of beds, and deepening-shallowing sets of bundles. According to the age calibration (previous biostratigraphic data and new strontium isotopes data) and correlation with nearby sections, these sequences are suggested as formed in tune with the short-term and long-term eccentricity Milankovitch cycles. The isotopic data from brachiopod shells and belemnite rostra indicate progressively increasing δ18O and slightly decreasing δ13C trends for the uppermost Pliensbachian Spinatum Zone, reflecting the influence of cooling conditions. However, facies analysis reflects that the expected coeval long-term regression was interrupted by a tectonically driven transgressive event in the uppermost part of the Spinatum Zone.

  15. Adapting to Climate Change: Reconsidering the Role of Protected Areas and Protected Organisms in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graumlich, L. J.; Cross, M. S.; Hilty, J.; Berger, J.

    2007-12-01

    With the recent publication of the 2007 Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), little doubt remains among scientists that the global climate system is changing due to human influence and that climate change will have far-reaching and fundamental impacts on ecosystems and biodiversity. Arguably the best-documented evidence linking 20th Century warming trends to changes in physical and biological systems comes from the mountains of western North America (e.g., Figure SPM1 in Summary of Working Group 11 Report). In the West, ecosystem impacts include changes in the distribution of species as well as changing functional linkages between species such as the synchrony between flower emergence and pollinating insects. These climate impacts, when combined with other environmental stressors (e.g., altered disturbance regimes, land-use change and habitat fragmentation) portend an amplification of species extinction rates. One of the great challenges in adapting to climate change is developing and implementing policies that enhance ecological resilience in the face of these change. Clearly, the current system of nature reserves in Western North America is a fundamental asset for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services. However, the fixed- boundary nature of these protected areas presents a problem as species' ranges shift with future climate change. The loss of species whose ranges move outside of fixed park boundaries and the arrival of other species that move into protected areas could lead to significant turnover of species diversity, new species assemblages, and altered functionality. In short, reserves that were designed to protect particular species or communities may no longer serve their intended purpose under a changing climate. In this talk, we use case studies from the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem and the Sonoran Desert Ecosystem to define strategies for enhancing ecological resilience to climate change at

  16. Repeat Measurements of Seismic Noise at the Waiotapu Geothermal Area, North Island, NZ

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteford, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    The amplitudes of seismic ground noise were remeasured at 66 sites in the Waiotapu and Reporoa geothermal areas in 1995 to determine whether amplitudes had changed since the first survey in 1970. In both 1995 and 1970 high levels of seismic noise occurred in two localities, one at Waiotapu and one at Reporoa. The elevated levels of seismic noise at most sites are thought to be caused by surface or near-surface geothermal activity. At seven sites in the Waiotapu area seismic noise levels were almost the same in 1995 as in 1970, indicating no change in the intensity of the source of the geothermal seismic noise. At most other sites the 1995 seismic noise levels were different to those measured in 1970, although at sites with high levels of seismic noise the differences were usually less than at sites with low levels of seismic noise.

  17. Lower Miocene stratigraphy of the Gebel Shabrawet area, north Eastern desert Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, Osman

    2002-05-01

    The Lower Miocene carbonate/siliciclastic sequence of the Shabrawet area, comprises a complex alternation of autochthonous and allogenic sediments. The sequence can be subdivided into two lithostratigraphic units. The lower unit (unit I) is equivalent to the Gharra Formation. It is mainly clastic and composed of sandstones, siltstones and shales with minor limestone intercalations. These sediments are rich in Clypeaster spp., Scutella spp., Miogypsina intermedia, Operculina complanata, and smaller foraminifera. The upper unit (unit II) was considered by previous workers as being equivalent to the Marmarica Formation. It consists mainly of non-clastic rocks, dominated by sandy and chalky limestones rich in larger foraminifera (miogypsinids and nummulitids). This unit is topped by a highly fossiliferous ( Heterostegina, Operculina and Planostegina) sandy limestone. The present study places both units in the Gharra Formation and reports for the first time M. intermedia from the Miocene sequence of the Shabrawet area.

  18. Heavy metals in sea cucumber juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas, north China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Tang, Shizhan; Qin, Dongli; Chen, Zhongxiang; Wang, Jinlong; Bai, Shuyan; Mou, Zhenbo

    2015-05-01

    The study was undertaken to assess the contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cd, As and Hg) in sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) juveniles from coastal areas of Bohai and Yellow seas in northern China. Sea cucumber juveniles were collected from twenty commercial hatcheries distributed in five coastal cities. The mean concentrations obtained for heavy metals in mg/kg were as follows: Cu (0.179), Zn (2.634), Cr (0.108), Pb (0.065), Cd (0.161), As (0.372), Hg (0.034). All the mean concentrations were below the maximum residual limits set by Chinese legislation, but As in 10 % samples exceeded the safety threshold. Significant differences in contents of Cr, Pb and Hg were found among the five investigated areas. Overall, the heavy metal levels in sea cucumber juveniles were relatively low and more attention should be paid to toxic metals Pb, Cd, As and Hg in future routine monitoring program.

  19. Results of Test-Hole Drilling in Well-Field Areas North of Tampa, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    2003-01-01

    A total of 32 test holes were drilled in well-field areas of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties in the early 1970's to collect information on the hydraulic and geologic properties of shallow formations overlying the Upper Floridan aquifer. Lithologic profiles were compiled and geohydrologic units identified for each test hole. At most test holes, natural-gamma logs were run to identify the confining unit that separates the surficial aquifer system from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Selected core samples were analyzed in the laboratory for vertical hydraulic conductivity, grain size, sorting, specific gravity, effective porosity, cation-exchange capacity, and mineralogy. Following drilling, casing was installed in each test hole and water levels were monitored. The data were used in the preparation of regional water-level maps and in the construction of a numerical model of ground-water flow in the well-field areas.

  20. Tooele Army Depot-North Area Suspected Releases SWMUs. Phase 1 RFI report. Volume 1. Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    location of the continental storm track , most of the precipitation in the Tooele Valley occurs as snow between the months of October and May. Summers are...of railroad tracks . Stormwater from the Administration Area drains via an underground concrete piping system to a depression in a dry wash, where it...Shank (JMM) with Ammunition survelliance Chief, Milo Serreyn, Tooele Army Depot, Utah, October 1992. Siniscalchi, 1991. Telephone interview conducted

  1. [Epidemiology of communicable skin diseases in school children of a rural area in North Ethiopia].

    PubMed

    Dagnew, M B; Günther, E

    1990-01-01

    The pupils of 5 elementary schools in the Dembia-District in Northethiopia were inspected in serial examinations. The transmissible skin diseases head lice infestation, tinea capitis, impetigo contagiosa and verrucae vulgares are very common among the unselected children (5 to 15 years old). Only 16% of all children had not any infectious skin disease. The investigations showed the unfortunate conditions of the poor hygiene those are existing in the rural areas of a developing country in the tropics.

  2. Climatological data for the rice-growing areas along the North Coast of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roman-Mas, Angel; Green, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Rainfall, temperature, wind velocity and pan evaporation data were collected from May 1983 to September 1985, in the rice growing areas of Vega Baja, Manati, and Arecibo in northern Puerto Rico. Daily values and statistics including mean, standard deviation, extremes, and totals for each month of record were compiled. Descriptions of equipment installation and operation, data processing, and significance of climatological data for rice cultivation are presented. (Author 's abstract)

  3. [Study on soil element background values of the Hoh Xil area in north Tibet].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jian-Kun; Wang, Jian-Li; Li, Chao-Liu; Kang, Shi-Chang; Chen, Peng-Fei

    2014-04-01

    Hoh Xil locates at northern part of the Tibetan Plateau. Twenty five surface soil samples were collected from this area in 2007 and 32 elements were analyzed and compared to the element contents of Yarlung Zangbo river sediment, background element value of the Tibetan surface soil and the Chinese Continental crust contents. The results showed that the element contents of the < 20 microm fraction were higher than those of bulk samples; Contents of many elements of this study were similar to those of the Tibetan soil. Meanwhile, contents of Ca and As of the studied area were higher than those of Chinese continental crust, resulting mainly from local alpine arid climate and widely distributed the rocks that enriched in As, respectively. The EOF analysis of the contents of bulk soil samples revealed the sources and chemical properties of studied elements: many elements such as Al, Fe, Ga inherit the characteristics of the parent rocks of this region. Meanwhile, elements with an active chemical property and the element Zr that specially existed in the heavy minerals also had a certain contribution to the contents. The contents of B and Cs revealed contribution of hot springs to the soil of studied area.

  4. Design features of portable wheelchair ramps and their implications for curb and vehicle access.

    PubMed

    Storr, Tim; Spicer, Julie; Frost, Peggy; Attfield, Steve; Ward, Christopher D; Pinnington, Lorraine L

    2004-05-01

    This study evaluated a range of portable wheelchair ramps to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of use when wheelchair users climb curbs or access vehicles. Twelve portable ramps were evaluated. Although all the ramps were designed to load powered wheelchairs into motor vehicles, they were manufactured in different designs. The ramps were based on a "singlewide" platform or "channel" design. Some ramps had fixed dimensions, whereas others could be reduced in size because they were telescopic or designed to allow folding. Overall, the ramps could be divided into four subgroups on the basis of their key features. These were horizontally and longitudinally folding ramps, telescopic ramps, and ramps with fixed dimensions. The telescopic ramps could be subdivided into "U"-shaped gutter ramps and reverse profile ramps. Product appraisals and trials involving wheelchair users and caregivers of wheelchair users were done to evaluate each of these ramp designs. Although wheelchair ramps are available in a wide range of designs and configurations, we found that no single ramp design successfully met the needs of all wheelchair users or their caregivers. The evaluation highlighted a number of specific problems and potential hazards. Some ramps were found to move during a maneuver, showed poor stability when used with some vehicles, or were too narrow to allow wheelchair castors to pass through the channel without jamming. Some features, such as handles and locking mechanisms, influenced the ease with which the caregivers could use the ramps. Wheelchair users preferred the wide platform ramps because they were able to drive up these with ease and little preparation. The caregivers preferred folding or telescopic channel ramps because these were easier to handle and store.

  5. Splash erosion in recently-burnt area in North-West Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Raga, María

    2013-04-01

    Splash erosion is generally acknowledged as the main erosive agent, because it represents the first step in water erosion (Ellison, 1944, Sempere Torres et al., 1994). The impact of raindrops not only modifies the structure of the earth's surface, (Moss, 1991) but also breaks down and emits soil fragments which are later transported over long distances in the case of additional surface runoff processes (Moss and Green, 1983). In the whole process we need to take into account not only the specific kinetic energy associated to each rain event, but also the type of soil and the size of the particles released (Sharma et al 1991), as well as the characteristics of the layer of water formed on the surface (Moss and Green, 1983, Kinnell, 1991, Leguédois et al., 2005). The erosion process is more obvious when it affects vulnerable areas that have recently been devastated by a wildfire. This study has computed the raindrop size, its volume, the fall velocity, and its kinetic energy by means of an optical disdrometer. The data have subsequently been compared with the mass of soil that was splashed and collected in a particular area devastated by an important wildfire on the 17th of May 2012. The splash erosion produced in 6 months has been analyzed. 2. Study Site The data were gathered in the period between the 29th May and the 30th November 2012, in the area of Congosto, in the province of León, Spain. The study zone is part of a transition area between the plain and the mountainous regions. The dominant climate is the continentalized Mediterranean climate, although with more moderate temperatures. In general, in this area we find a wide temperature range (from 12 to 20°C), long and cold winters, short springs and autumns, and short and warm summers. Precipitation is irregularly scattered along the year, and may reach, depending on the area, up to 1,500 mm per year. Intense precipitation events may occur. The area presents a coarse-grained siliceous lithology, that is

  6. Bacterial utilization of glucose in the water column from eutrophic to oligotrophic pelagic areas in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Armand; Van Wambeke, France; Garcin, Jean

    1998-01-01

    Vertical profiles of glucose utilization rates were compared at three sampling stations in the eastern part of the tropical North Atlantic Ocean. The investigation area was along 20-21 °N and the three sampling sites, characterised by differences in their primary productivity, were located at 18 °W, 21 °W and 31 °W. In the superficial waters, maximum ( Vmax) glucose utilization (respiration plus incorporation) depended on the nutritional load being 20-fold higher in the eutrophic, compared to the oligotrophic zone. Due to these variations, natural turnover times for this labile compound were approximately 1 day in the eutrophic area, and up to 435 days in the oligotrophic area. Bacterial activity showed a steep decline immediately below the mixed layer in the mesotrophic and eutrophic areas and below the deep chlorophyll maximum in the oligotrophic area. Discrepancies between microbial activities in the three areas decreased with increasing depth: at depths below 250 m potential utilization rates of glucose were similar whatever the nutrient richness of the photic layer. Nevertheless, the distribution of microbial activities through the whole water column depended greatly on the productivity of superficial waters. In nutrient-rich areas 73% of glucose utilization activity was realized in the productive upper layer, whereas only 4% was metabolized at depths below 250 m. Conversely, in the oligotrophic area, more than 40% of the glucose utilized in the whole water column was processed in the intermediate and deep-water masses. Integration of Vmax values for the whole water column, suggested potential carbon fluxes due to bacterial utilization of glucose of 6 and 34 mg C m -2 d -1 in the oligotrophic and eutrophic areas, respectively. The fate of the metabolised carbon depended on the nutrient availability. In the mixed-water layer the glucose respiration percentage (%R) increased from 30% in nutrient-rich areas to 60% under oligotrophic conditions, moreover %R

  7. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): North Bronson Industrial Area, Operable Unit 1, city of Bronson, Branch County, MI, June 19, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This document presents the selected remedial action for the North Bronson Industrial Area Superfund site, Operable Unit 1 (OU 1). OU 1 is an interim action that addresses the eastern and western sludge lagoons, groundwater impacted by the sludge lagoons, exposure to area-wide groundwater contamination, and County Drain No. 30 (CD No. 30).

  8. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  9. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  10. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  11. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  12. 33 CFR 334.275 - North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base, Langley, Va.; restricted area. 334.275 Section 334.275 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.275 North and Southwest Branch, Back River, Hampton, U.S. Air Force Base..., thence along the shore of Langley Air Force Base, 35 yards off the ordinary mean high water (MHW) mark...

  13. Identifying core habitat and connectivity for focal species in the interior cedar-hemlock forest of North America to complete a conservation area design

    Treesearch

    Lance Craighead; Baden Cross

    2007-01-01

    To identify the remaining areas of the Interior Cedar- Hemlock Forest of North America and prioritize them for conservation planning, the Craighead Environmental Research Institute has developed a 2-scale method for mapping critical habitat utilizing 1) a broad-scale model to identify important regional locations as the basis for a Conservation Area Design (CAD), and 2...

  14. Evaluation of multiband, multitemporal, and transformed LANDSAT MSS data for land cover area estimation. [North Central Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; May, G. A.; Kalcic, M. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Sample segments of ground-verified land cover data collected in conjunction with the USDA/ESS June Enumerative Survey were merged with LANDSAT data and served as a focus for unsupervised spectral class development and accuracy assessment. Multitemporal data sets were created from single-date LANDSAT MSS acquisitions from a nominal scene covering an eleven-county area in north central Missouri. Classification accuracies for the four land cover types predominant in the test site showed significant improvement in going from unitemporal to multitemporal data sets. Transformed LANDSAT data sets did not significantly improve classification accuracies. Regression estimators yielded mixed results for different land covers. Misregistration of two LANDSAT data sets by as much and one half pixels did not significantly alter overall classification accuracies. Existing algorithms for scene-to scene overlay proved adequate for multitemporal data analysis as long as statistical class development and accuracy assessment were restricted to field interior pixels.

  15. Evaporation from a small prairie wetland in the Cottonwood Lake Area, North Dakota - An energy-budget study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, R.S.; Winter, T.C.; Rosenberry, D.O.; Sturrock, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation from Wetland Pl in the Cottonwood Lake area of North Dakota, USA was determined by the energy-budget method for 1982-85 and 1987. Evaporation rates were as high as 0.672 cm day-1. Incoming solar radiation, incoming atmospheric radiation, and long-wave radiation emitted from the water body are the largest energy fluxes to and from the wetland. Because of the small heat storage of the water body, evaporation rates closely track solar radiation on short time scales. The effect of advected energy related to precipitation is small because the water quickly heats up by solar radiation following precipitation. Advected energy related to ground water is minimal because ground-water fluxes are small and groundwater temperature is only about 7 ??C. Energy flux related to sediment heating and thermal storage in the sediments, which might be expected to be large because the water is clear and shallow, affects evaporation rates by less than 5 percent.

  16. Glacial geology of the Shingobee River headwaters area, north-central Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melchior, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    During middle and late Wisconsin time in the Shingobee River headwaters area, the Laurentide Wadena lobe, Hewitt and Itasca phases, produced terminal and ground moraine along with a variety of associated glacial features. The stratigraphic record is accessible and provides details of depositional mode as well as principal glacial events during the advance and retreat of middle and late Wisconsin ice tongues. Geomorphic features such as tunnel valleys, stream terraces, and postglacial stream cuts formed by erosional events persist to the present day. Middle Wisconsin Hewitt phase deposits are the oldest and include drumlins, ground moraine, boulder pavements, and outwash. Together, these deposits suggest a wet-based, periodically surging glacier in a subpolar thermal state. Regional permafrost and deposition from retreating ice are inferred between the end of the Hewitt phase and the advance of late Wisconsin Itasca phase ice. Itasca phase glaciation occurred as a contemporaneous pair of adjacent ice tongues whose contrasting moraine styles suggest independent flow modes. The western (Shingobee) portion of the Itasca moraine contains composite ridges, permafrost phenomena, hill-hole pairs, and debris flows. By contrast, eastern (Onigum) moraine deposits generally lack glaciotectonic features and consist almost exclusively of mud and debris flows. Near the end of the Itasca phase, large-scale hill-hole pairs developed in the Shingobee division, and debris flows from the Onigum division blocked the preexisting Shingobee tunnel valley to form glacial lake Willobee. Postglacial streams formed deep valleys as glacial lake Willobee catastrophically drained. Dates based on temperature trends in Greenland ice cores are proposed for prominent glacial events in the Shingobee area. This report proposes that Hewitt phase glaciation occurred between 27.2 and 23.6 kiloannum and Itasca phase glaciation between 22.8 and 14.7 kiloannum. Des Moines lobe (Younger Dryas) glaciation

  17. Intensive Cultural Resource Inventory of Selected Recreation Areas in the West Portion of Lake Sakakawea, Dunn, McKenzie, Mountrail and Williams Counties, North Dakota. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Selected Recreation Areas- In the West Portion of Lake Sakakawea, North Dakota’ Dunn, McKenzie, Mountrail, and Williams Counties 1 4 (Contract No. DACW 45...Anthropology and Archaeology University of North Dakota Grand Forks, North Dakota 58202 L E N G T BO D 4 NOTCH WIDTH (side notched) I NOTCH WIDTH HEIGH 0 1 ...surface evidence. Appropriate - F er.. . . . .. ’n 1 I -li i i ii i. . .. . . . DO 7,r CO3 eIUTION OF I NOV 5 iS Oe6@LTZ SECUINTY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS

  18. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  19. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  20. 33 CFR 334.865 - Naval Air Station North Island, San Diego, California, restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The waters within an area beginning at 32°42′55.0″ N, 117°11′30.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′57.0″ N, 117°11′22.5″ W; thence running easterly to 32°42′56.0″ N, 117°11′19.0″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′49.0″ N, 117°11′08.5″ W; thence running southeasterly to 32°42′44.5″ N, 117°11′06.5″ W...

  1. 50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Table 1 Table 1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish...

  2. 50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Table 1 Table 1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish...

  3. 50 CFR Table 1 (north) to Part 660... - Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish Conservation Areas and Landing Allowances for non-IFQ Species and Pacific Whiting North of 40°10â² N. Lat. 1 Table 1... Pt. 660, Subpt. D, Table 1 Table 1 (North) to Part 660, Subpart D—Limited Entry Trawl Rockfish...

  4. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle Area of North Carolina, water years 2012–13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pfeifle, C.A.; Cain, J.L.; Rasmussen, R.B.

    2016-09-07

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of local governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2011 through September 2012 (water year 2012) and October 2012 through September 2013 (water year 2013). Major findings for this period include:Annual precipitation was approximately 2 percent above the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation in 2012 and approximately 3 percent below the long-term mean in 2013.In water year 2012, streamflow was generally below the long-term mean during most of the period for the 10 project streamflow gaging stations. Streamflow was near or above the long-term mean at the same streamflow gaging stations during the 2013 water year.More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 17 sites—6 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-three water-quality properties or constituents were measured; State water-quality standards exist for 23 of these.All observations met State water-quality standards for pH, temperature, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium.North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved-oxygen percent saturation, turbidity, chlorophyll a, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at all 17 sites.Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 19 water-quality constituents relative to non-storm events.

  5. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts. PMID:26964762

  6. Petrography, age, and paleomagnetism of basaltic lava flows in coreholes at Test Area North (TAN), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lanphere, M.A.; Champion, D.E.; Kuntz, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    The petrography, age, and paleomagnetism were determined on basalt from 21 lava flows comprising about 1,700 feet of core from two coreholes (TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2) in the Test Area North (TAN) area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Paleomagnetic studies were made on two additional cores from shallow coreholes in the TAN area. K-Ar ages and paleomagnetism also were determined on nearby surface outcrops of Circular Butte. Paleomagnetic measurements were made on 416 samples from four coreholes and on a single site in surface lava flows of Circular Butte. K-Ar ages were measured on 9 basalt samples from TAN CH No. 1 and TAN CH No. 2 and one sample from Circular Butte. K-Ar ages ranged from 1.044 Ma to 2.56 Ma. All of the samples have reversed magnetic polarity and were erupted during the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Epoch. The purpose of investigations was to develop a three-dimensional stratigraphic framework for geologic and hydrologic studies including potential volcanic hazards to facilities at the INEL and movement of radionuclides in the Snake River Plain aquifer.

  7. Concentrations, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wentao; Massey Simonich, Staci L.; Xue, Miao; Zhao, Jingyu; Zhang, Na; Wang, Rong; Cao, Jun; Tao, Shu

    2013-01-01

    The concentrations, profiles, sources and spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 40 surface soil samples collected from Beijing, Tianjin and surrounding areas, North China in 2007, and all sampling sites were far from industrial areas, roadsides and other pollution sources, and across a range of soil types in remote, rural villages and urban areas. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 31.6 to 1475.0 ng/g, with an arithmetic average of 336.4 ng/g. The highest PAH concentrations were measured in urban soils, followed by rural village soils and soils from remote locations. The remote–rural village–urban PAH concentration gradient was related to population density, gross domestic product (GDP), long-range atmospheric transport and different types of land use. In addition, the PAH concentration was well correlated with the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of the soil. The PAH profile suggested that coal combustion and biomass burning were primary PAH sources. PMID:20199833

  8. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Benjamin L.; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S.; Allen, Lee R.; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  9. American cutaneous leishmaniasis in horses from endemic areas in the north-central mesoregion of Paraná state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vedovello Filho, D; Jorge, F A; Lonardoni, M V C; Teodoro, U; Silveira, T G V

    2008-04-01

    American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is an endemic disease in the north-west of Paraná state, Brazil, where it occurs in humans and dogs. Few studies have been undertaken on the occurrence of the disease in other domestic animals and horses. In this study we investigated the infection of horses by Leishmania in ACL-endemic rural areas. Direct agglutination test (DAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed. Fifty-five horses from rural areas in the municipalities of Doutor Camargo, Ourizona, São Jorge do Ivaí, Ivatuba and Santa Fé (Agua do O) were analysed. DAT-detected antibody titres varied from 10 to 640, and 42 (76.3%) animals presented titres > or =20. PCR analyses led to the detection of Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in the blood samples of three (7.1%) of 42 animals. The presence of anti-L. (V.) braziliensis antibodies and Leishmania (Viannia) DNA in horses from endemic areas suggests their participation in the ACL transmission cycle.

  10. Diet of dingoes and other wild dogs in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Benjamin L; Carmelito, Erin; Amos, Matt; Goullet, Mark S; Allen, Lee R; Speed, James; Gentle, Matt; Leung, Luke K-P

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge of the resource requirements of urban predators can improve our understanding of their ecology and assist town planners and wildlife management agencies in developing management approaches that alleviate human-wildlife conflicts. Here we examine food and dietary items identified in scats of dingoes in peri-urban areas of north-eastern Australia to better understand their resource requirements and the potential for dingoes to threaten locally fragmented populations of native fauna. Our primary aim was to determine what peri-urban dingoes eat, and whether or not this differs between regions. We identified over 40 different food items in dingo scats, almost all of which were mammals. Individual species commonly observed in dingo scats included agile wallabies, northern brown bandicoots and swamp wallabies. Birds were relatively common in some areas but not others, as were invertebrates. Dingoes were identified as a significant potential threat to fragmented populations of koalas. Dietary overlap was typically very high or near-identical between regions, indicating that peri-urban dingoes ate the same types or sizes of prey in different areas. Future studies should seek to quantify actual and perceived impacts of, and human attitudes towards, peri-urban dingoes, and to develop management strategies with a greater chance of reducing human-wildlife conflicts.

  11. Hydrology of the Wibaux-Beach lignite deposit area, eastern Montana and western North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horak, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    The geology and existing hydrologic regime of the Wibaux-Beach deposit area were studied to assess the potential impacts of proposed mining on the water resources. The Paleocene Harmon lignite of the Wibaux-Beach deposit constitutes a 50-square mile strippable reserve of about 1 billion tons. The Harmon bed and underlying discontinuous sand deposits in the lower Tongue River and upper Ludlow Members (Fort Union Formation) are the principal shallow aquifers in the area. Varying thicknesses of salt and clay separate the respective aquifers and act as confining units. Hydraulic and potentiometric data indicate that flow velocities are low, recharge is infrequent and of low magnitude, and vertical leakage is a major flux component. Water quality is quite uniform among the three aquifers. Most water is a sodium bicarbonate-sulfate type. Anomalously large sulfate, calcium, magnesium, and iron concentrations are generated by natural geochemical processes at the Harmon bed outcrop, but such concentrations do not persist far into the aquifer. Significant potentiometric declines in the Harmon lignite aquifer will extend for a few miles from active mines. Impact on the deeper aquifers will be minimal. (USGS)

  12. Improving short-term forecasting during ramp events by means of Regime-Switching Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, C.; Costa, A.; Cuerva, A.

    2010-09-01

    -ANN model (without regime classification) is adopted as a reference model. Both models are evaluated in terms of Improvement over Persistence on the Mean Square Error basis (IoP%) when predicting horizons form 1 time-step to 5. The case of a wind farm located in the complex terrain of Alaiz (north of Spain) has been considered. Three years of available power output data with a hourly resolution have been employed: two years for training and validation of the model and the last year for assessing the accuracy. Results showed that the RS-ANN overcame the single-ANN model for one step-ahead forecasts: the overall IoP% was up to 8.66% for the RS-ANN model (depending on the gradient criterion selected to consider the ramp regime triggered) and 6.16% for the single-ANN. However, both models showed similar accuracy for larger horizons. A locally-weighted evaluation during ramp events for one-step ahead was also performed. It was found that the IoP% during ramps-up increased from 17.60% (case of single-ANN) to 22.25% (case of RS-ANN); however, during the ramps-down events this improvement increased from 18.55% to 19.55%. Three main conclusions are derived from this case study: It highlights the importance of considering statistical models capable of differentiate several regimes showed by the output power time series in order to improve the forecasting during extreme events like ramps. On-line regime classification based on available power output data didn't seem to contribute to improve forecasts for horizons beyond one-step ahead. Tacking into account other explanatory variables (local wind measurements, NWP outputs) could lead to a better understanding of ramp events, improving the regime assessment also for further horizons. The RS-ANN model slightly overcame the single-ANN during ramp-down events. If further research reinforce this effect, special attention should be addressed to understand the underlying processes during ramp-down events.

  13. High-resolution area-wide sea-floor mapping: The paleo Elbe valley (S North Sea) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papenmeier, Svenja; Hass, H. Christian

    2014-05-01

    The North Sea Basin is shaped by multiple glacial advances and retreats that left complex sequences of glacio-fluvial and sub-glacial deposits, cut by sub-glacial tunnel valleys. Today, the submerged valley of the Elbe forms one of the most prominent structures of the southern North Sea. Flanked by huge moraine deposits of older glacials, the valley developed to its present form during the Weichselian sea-level lowstand (-130 m below present). Melt waters that discharged in north-westerly directions along the Scandinavian Ice Sheet fed the paleo Elbe at that time. During the Holocene the valley drowned in the rising sea. Here we present an area-wide high-resolution map of the seafloor and high-resolution shallow seismic data covering 1,600 km2 of the paleo Elbe valley (PEV) including its eastern levee. The data allow to shed new light on the PEV development including the historical process of sedimentary infill with the successive Holocene sea level rise in detail. Shallow seismic data with transect distances of 400 m and several cross sections allow 3-D visualization. The eastern flank of the valley is characterized by a relatively steep slope with one or more terraces. At its levee a significant sediment change is present on the modern sea floor, representing moraine and marine deposits. High resolution sidescan sonar data of this area show a much higher heterogeneity and complexity in sediment and habitat distribution as assumed before. Holocene marine sediments form a patchy and thin drape east of the valley floor. The western slip-off slope of the valley slope is much smoother than the eastern undercut slope. As yet, significant sedimentological changes at the present seafloor are not known for the western side of the PEV. Shallow seismic data show the base of the PEV. There are conspicuous internal seismic reflectors above the base, inclined in northeastern direction. They indicate a sedimentary infill of the valley from the southwest when the southern part

  14. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand

    2013-04-01

    From a geodynamic point of view, the Campine area is situated on the crossroads between distinctive tectonic settings: the subsiding North Sea basin and Roer Valley Graben in the north, and the uplifting Brabant Massif and Ardennes in the south. In general, this has led to overall Cenozoic subsidence of the area and sedimentation of unconsolidated marine sands. However, the morphology of the present-day Nete basin, which is situated in the central and eastern part of the Campine area, is a clear example of an erosional feature and shows evidence of up to 30 m of Quaternary erosion. However, the drivers, timing and rate of landscape development in the Nete basin are poorly constrained. Here, we present and describe geological and geomorphological remnants testifying to past landscape development in the Nete basin, that will help understanding the Quaternary geodynamic evolution (uplift) of the Campine area. The Nete basin is located in northern Belgium and is drained by two small rivers, the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete, that merge into the larger Nete river several km before entering the Lower Scheldt basin. The Nete basin can clearly be identified on topographical maps as a depression, ca. 40 km x 40 km, with valley floors ranging between 10-20 m above sea level (a.s.l.). It is bounded in the north, east and south by erosion resistant geological formations at altitudes between 30 m (north) and 60 m (south). The major direction of drainage is from ENE to WSW and the basin thus opens towards the west. The start of basin development is situated after deposition of Rhine sediments (~ 1 Ma) which form the erosion resistant eastern watershed with the Meuse basin at an altitude of ~ 50 m a.s.l. on top of the Campine Plateau. GIS-based landscape analysis of the topography and the contour map of the Quaternary base confirm the observation that the lowering of the relief from the Campine Plateau down to the floodplain of the Kleine Nete and Grote Nete shows a stepwise

  15. Water budget estimates for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River basin, north-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Water budgets were developed for the 14 hydrographic areas in the middle Humboldt River Basin of north-central Nevada. The water budgets include estimates of average annual precipitation, runoff, water yield, ground-water recharge and subsurface flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) determined from recently developed or revised methods. Ground-water pumping is not included in the budget estimates. The estimated budgets represent average annual volumes over a 30-year reference period ( 1961-90) and are compared to water budgets developed more than 30 years ago. Annual inflow to the middle Humboldt River basin is about 5 million acre-feet. An estimated 4.6 million is from precipitation in the 14 hydrographic areas and about 350,000 acre-feet is inflow from the Humboldt River. Annual outflow is about 5.1 million acre-feet, of which ET accounts for 4.8 million acre-feet, and outflow of the Humboldt River is about 300,000 acre-feet. Average annual precipitation in the hydrographic areas for 1961-90 ranged from 105 to 128 percent of that for the 1912-63 period. The annual volume ofET in the 14 areas was 102 to almost 134 percent of that previously estimated, although the percentage of annual precipitation lost to ET is similar. About 15 percent of the annual precipitation in mountain-block areas becomes water yield (either ground water or runoff) as compared to previous estimates of 11 percent. On the basis of mass-balance calculations, ground-water recharge on average is about 145 percent of previous estimates.

  16. Effects of prophylaxis with iodised salt in an area of endemic goitre in north-eastern Sicily.

    PubMed

    Regalbuto, C; Scollo, G; Pandini, G; Ferrigno, R; Pezzino, V

    2010-05-01

    In developed countries, the use of iodised salt represents the best prophylaxis of endemic goitre in areas exposed to iodine deficiency. In the present study we re-evaluated goitre prevalence and iodine intake 10 years after the introduction of iodised salt in an area of goitre endemia in north-eastern Sicily (Italy), and we compared these results with those obtained in previous surveys. Three centres with known moderate goitre endemia (Bronte, Nicosia, and Gagliano) and three other smaller ones with severe goitre endemia (Sperlinga, Villadoro, and Maniace) were studied. We surveyed 697 schoolchildren. Goitre prevalence was assessed by thyroid palpation and by a thyroid ultrasound scan. Iodine urinary excretion was also measured. Iodised salt consumption was 44% of total salt consumption. Goitre prevalence assessed by thyroid palpation was significantly decreased in all towns studied compared to previous surveys. However, the persistence of a mild goitre endemia was observed in some small rural centres (5.8% in Sperlinga/Villadoro, and 11.4% in Maniace). Goitre prevalence evaluated by thyroid ultrasound scan was greater than 5% in all centres of the endemic area and was always greater than that assessed by thyroid palpation. Iodine urinary excretion was above 100 microg/l in all localities studied. In conclusion, our studies indicate a progressive reduction in goitre prevalence over a period of about 30 years in schoolchildren in a well-characterised endemic area in northeastern Sicily. The decrease in goitre prevalence was associated with a significant increase in urinary iodine excretion. However, it may be speculated that iodine deficiency is the pre-eminent, but not the exclusive cause of goitre endemia in this area.

  17. Guidelines for the Calculation of the Accumulator Magnet Bus Ramps for Fermilab Experiment E835

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; Stancari, Giulio; Werkema, Steve; /Fermilab

    1999-04-15

    This report lists the steps that are required to calculate deceleration ramps for all relevant Accumulator devices. The ramps used for the 1996-97 fixed target run (experiment E835) are saved in files associated with ACNET console application PA1627 (PAUX RAMP DEVELOP). These ramps cannot be re-used because the Accumulator {gamma}{sub t} upgrade has significantly changed the lattice since the last time the ramps were used. Consequently, new deceleration ramps must be calculated and commissioned before the next fixed target run. The deceleration ramp for a particular device is a table that gives the sequence of set values sent to the device as the ramp is executed. The 1997 ramps consist of ramp tables for 100 devices. Appendix 1 gives a list of the devices ramped. Most of these devices will still require ramps for the next fixed target run. Future decelerations will also require ramps for the quadrupole magnet shunts that were installed as part of the {gamma}{sub t} upgrade. Additionally, ramps must be constructed for the two skew-sextupole magnets that will be installed during the summer of 1999.

  18. YF-12A #935 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A front, overhead view of the number two YF-12A (60-6935) on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden), Edwards, California. Notice how the chines end abruptly, just aft of the nose radome. The aircraft was originally designed as an interceptor. The large radome housed a radar for the Hughes ASG-18 missile fire control system. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the

  19. YF-12A #935 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A front, overhead view of the number two YF-12A (60-6935) on the ramp at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden), Edwards, California. Notice how the chines end abruptly, just aft of the nose radome. The aircraft was originally designed as an interceptor. The large radome housed a radar for the Hughes ASG-18 missile fire control system. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse of the program, with 146 flights between 11 December 1969 and 7 November 1979. The second YF-12A, 936, made 62 flights. It was lost in a non-fatal crash on 24 June 1971. It was replaced by the so-called YF-12C (SR-71A 61-7951, modified with YF-12A inlets and engines and a bogus tail number 06937). The Lockheed A-12 family, known as the

  20. X-36 on Ramp Viewed from Above

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This look-down view of the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft on the ramp at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, clearly shows the unusual wing and canard design of the remotely-piloted aircraft. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet