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Sample records for north sikkim india

  1. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Bharat K; Badola, Hemant K

    2008-01-01

    Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera). As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt. PMID:18826658

  2. Socioeconomic characteristics of alcohol and other substance users, seeking treatment in Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sunil Kumar; Datta, Debranjan; Dutta, Sanjiba; Verma, Yogesh; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted to generate information for better understanding of socioeconomic and CAGE characteristics of alcohol and other substance users who were undergoing treatment in Sikkim. Subjects and Methods: Socioeconomic and CAGE questionnaire was administered to alcohol and other substance abusers of Sikkim (n = 241) who were undergoing treatment in different treatment centers of Sikkim. Information was collected on printed instrument after taking participant's consent and data was statistically analyzed. Results: Male participants (93.8%) outnumbered female (6.2%). Majority of the sample were either in the school dropout group or school completed (36.1%) group. Most of the samples were occupationally unemployed, urban residents, Nepali by ethnicity, single, and Hindu (48.5%) by religion. Minimum age for starting of alcohol and drug was 5 years and 7 years respectively. Knowledge about AIDS and its transmission was satisfactory. All the four CAGE characteristics were present in majority of samples. Conclusions: Climate, geographical location, wide and easy availability of alcohol in Sikkim make this state vulnerable for alcohol abuse. Alcohol drinking among parents, sibling and friends found to be important risk factor. Outreach to the community for better acceptability of treatment is an important area to fill the gap of treatment demand and treatment supply. PMID:25883520

  3. Vulnerability assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Floods using Remote Sensing and GIS in North Sikkim (India), Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Suruchi; Probha Devi, Juna; Thakur, Praveen Kumar; Rai, Suresh Chand

    2016-04-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) occur when glacier melt water dammed by a moraine is released in short time. Such floods may lead to disastrous events posing, therefore, a huge threat to human lives and infrastructure. A devastating GLOF in Uttarakhand, India, on 17 July 2013 has led to the loss of all villages in a stretch of 18 km downstream the lake and the loss of more than 5000 lives. The present study evaluates all 16 glacial lakes (with an area >0.1 km²) in the Thangu valley, northern Sikkim (India), eastern Himalaya, with respect to potential threats for the downstream areas. The hazard criteria for the study include slope, aspect and distance of the respective parent glacier, change in the lake area, dam characteristics and lake depth. For the most hazardous lakes, the socio-economic conditions in the downstream areas (settlements and infrastructure) are analysed regarding the impact of potential GLOFs. For the vulnerability analysis, we used various satellite products including LANDSAT, RESOUCESAT-1 and 2, RISAT-1 imageries and ASTER GDEM covering the period from 1977 to 2014. For lake mapping, we applied the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). A Land Use Land Cover (LULC) map of the study area showing in-situ observations is serving as driving factor for the vulnerability analysis. The results of the study show that almost all evaluated glacial lakes were expanding during the study period (1977-2014). Combining the hazard criteria for the lakes, 5 of the 16 studied glacial lakes are identified as highly hazardous. In the downstream area, there are two villages with 200 inhabitants and an army camp within the zone of highest vulnerability. The identified vulnerability zones may be used by the local authorities to take caution of the threatened villages and infrastructure and for risk analysis for planned future hydropower plants.

  4. Descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of male prescription opioid abusers: Cross-sectional study from Sikkim, North East India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, D.; Pandey, S.; Dutta, S.; Verma, Y.; Chakrabarti, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sikkim is emerging as an important area for prescription opioid abuse with frequent news of seizures and arrests due to possession of prescription opioids. However, till date there is a little information on descriptive epidemiology and high risk behavior of prescription opioid abusers from Sikkim. Aims: The aim was to describe demographic (age, sex, religion, marital status, community, occupation, etc.); socioeconomic (income, education, family information etc.); and high risk behavior (e.g., injection sharing, visit to commercial sex workers [CSWs], homosexuality etc.) among treatment-seeking prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim. Materials and Methods: Epidemiological data were collected by administering predevised questionnaires from n = 223 prescription opioid abusers (main problem prescription opioids) reporting for treatment at five different drug abuse treatment centers across Sikkim. Results: The mean age of prescription opioid abusers in Sikkim was 27 years; all were male, of Nepalese ethnicity and single/never married, school dropout and/or illiterate, earning < Rs. 10,000/month with most spending almost Rs. 5000 a month on prescription opioids. Most (57.4%) prescription opioid abusers belonged to the urban community. Commonly abused prescription opioids were dextropropoxyphene and codeine. Injection sharing was more in urban areas whereas syringe exchange was observed equally among rural and urban prescription opioid abusers. Among urban injectors visits to CSWs, and multiple sex partners were also common in spite of knowledge about AIDS. Limited condom use was observed among rural respondents. Incidences of arrests, public intoxication, and violence under the influence of prescription opioids were also reported. Conclusion: Both the rural and urban areas of Sikkim show increasing rates of prescription opioid abuse among males. It is more prevalent among school dropouts and unemployed youth. Trends of injection drug use, unsafe injection

  5. Dermatoglyphic variation among the Limboo of Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Dorjee, B; Das, S; Mondal, N; Sen, J

    2015-10-01

    Variations in finger and palmar dermatoglyphic patterns are investigated among the Limboo (18-60 years, 150 males and 150 females), a little known population of Sikkim. The results for Limboo were compared with other North-East Indian populations. The most commonly occurring pattern was loop (males: 64.33%; females: 75.00%) followed by whorl (males: 31.00%; females: 21.33%) and finally arch (males: 4.67%; females: 3.66%). There were no significant differences between sexes in pattern types. The overall values of pattern intensity (P.I.I.), Dankmeijer's (D.I.) and Furuhata's (F.I.) indices were 14.08, 12.60 and 96.06 respectively. The P.I.I. was within the range for East Asian populations of North-East India. The D.I. was similar to those reported for Rajbanshi, Kalita, Rabha and Newar populations, while F.I. was higher than in other populations of Eastern Himalaya and North-East India. The most frequently occurring mainline formulae in all palm prints (left and right combined) were 7.5'.5.- followed by 9.7.5.- and finally 11.9.7.- (p>0.05) and these were similar to the reported values for other North-eastern populations of India. The mean values of total finger ridge count (TFRC) and absolute finger ridge count (AFRC) were greater among males (138.03; s=42.26 and 198.78; s=77.4) than females (137.91; s=44.15 and 194.47; s=86.71). The a-b ridge count was greater among females than males. Sex differences in AFRC and a-b ridge count were both statistically significant (p<0.05). The mean TFRC values were within ranges for populations of North-East India. Cluster analysis based on P.I.I., D.I. and F.I. shows affinity of the Limbo to some of the populations of Assam and North-East India.

  6. Epidemiology of endemic cretinism in Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sankar, R; Pulger, T; Rai, B; Gomathi, S; Gyatso, T R; Pandav, C S

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted in Sikkim to determine the prevalence of endemic cretinism in the state. A household was the basic sampling unit. Villages were selected randomly in the state and from these households were selected randomly using the electoral lists. All members of the households were studied. Total of 17,837 individuals from 3,197 households from 249 villages were studied. There were 8,953 males and 8,884 females. A total of 617 endemic cretins were identified: 316 males and 301 females. The overall prevalence of endemic cretinism was 3.46%: (males 3.53% and females 3.39%). Endemic cretinism was observed in 194 (77.9%) villages studied. Neurological cretinism was the predominant form (98.7%). Deaf-mutism was the most salient neurological feature seen in 472 (76.5%) subjects. Motor system examination revealed proximal spasticity and brisk reflexes, both more marked in the lower limbs. Recording of daily life activities revealed 14.1% of the cretins to be totally dependent and another 23% to be requiring considerable assistance for their daily routine activities. The overall prevalence of goitre found in this survey was 54%. Urinary iodine concentration was estimated from a representative sample of the population; mean 4 micrograms/dl (SD 2.68). This survey shows the existence of severe iodine deficiency in Sikkim. PMID:10771977

  7. Climate perceptions of local communities validated through scientific signals in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Shrestha, D G

    2016-10-01

    Sikkim, a tiny Himalayan state situated in the north-eastern region of India, records limited research on the climate change. Understanding the changes in climate based on the perceptions of local communities can provide important insights for the preparedness against the unprecedented consequences of climate change. A total of 228 households in 12 different villages of Sikkim, India, were interviewed using eight climate change indicators. The results from the public opinions showed a significant increase in temperature compared to a decade earlier, winters are getting warmer, water springs are drying up, change in concept of spring-water recharge (locally known as Mul Phutnu), changes in spring season, low crop yields, incidences of mosquitoes during winter, and decrease in rainfall in last 10 years. In addition, study also showed significant positive correlations of increase in temperature with other climate change indicators viz. spring-water recharge concept (R (2) = 0.893), warmer winter (R (2) = 0.839), drying up of water springs (R (2) = 0.76), changes in spring season (R (2) = 0.68), low crop yields (R (2) = 0.68), decrease in rainfall (R (2) = 0.63), and incidences of mosquitoes in winter (R (2) = 0.50). The air temperature for two meteorological stations of Sikkim indicated statistically significant increasing trend in mean minimum temperature and mean minimum winter temperature (DJF). The observed climate change is consistent with the people perceptions. This information can help in planning specific adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change by framing village-level action plan.

  8. Climate perceptions of local communities validated through scientific signals in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R K; Shrestha, D G

    2016-10-01

    Sikkim, a tiny Himalayan state situated in the north-eastern region of India, records limited research on the climate change. Understanding the changes in climate based on the perceptions of local communities can provide important insights for the preparedness against the unprecedented consequences of climate change. A total of 228 households in 12 different villages of Sikkim, India, were interviewed using eight climate change indicators. The results from the public opinions showed a significant increase in temperature compared to a decade earlier, winters are getting warmer, water springs are drying up, change in concept of spring-water recharge (locally known as Mul Phutnu), changes in spring season, low crop yields, incidences of mosquitoes during winter, and decrease in rainfall in last 10 years. In addition, study also showed significant positive correlations of increase in temperature with other climate change indicators viz. spring-water recharge concept (R (2) = 0.893), warmer winter (R (2) = 0.839), drying up of water springs (R (2) = 0.76), changes in spring season (R (2) = 0.68), low crop yields (R (2) = 0.68), decrease in rainfall (R (2) = 0.63), and incidences of mosquitoes in winter (R (2) = 0.50). The air temperature for two meteorological stations of Sikkim indicated statistically significant increasing trend in mean minimum temperature and mean minimum winter temperature (DJF). The observed climate change is consistent with the people perceptions. This information can help in planning specific adaptation strategies to cope with the impacts of climate change by framing village-level action plan. PMID:27650439

  9. Acute stress-related psychological impact in children following devastating natural disaster, the Sikkim earthquake (2011), India

    PubMed Central

    Mondal, Rakesh; Sarkar, Sumantra; Banerjee, Indira; Hazra, Avijit; Majumder, Debabrata; Sabui, Tapas; Dutta, Sudip; Saren, Abhisek; Pan, Partha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychological stress following natural disaster is common. Despite several earthquakes in India, data on evaluation of acute stress among the child victims in the early postdisaster period is scarce. Immediately following a devastating earthquake (6.9 Richter) at Sikkim on September, 18 2011, many children attended North Bengal Medical College, the nearest government tertiary care institution, with unusual stress symptoms. Objective: Evaluation of acute stress symptoms in children in the immediate postearthquake period. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done over 4 weeks and includes all the children from 1 to 12 years presenting with unusual physical or behavioral symptoms. Those with major injuries requiring admission were excluded. They were divided into two age groups. For older children (8-12 years) the 8-item Children Impact of Event Scale (CIES) was used for screening of stress. Unusual symptoms were recorded in younger children (1-8 years) as CIES is not validated < 8 years. Result: A total of 84 children (2.66%) out of 3154 had stress symptoms. Maximum attendance was noted in first 3 days (65.47%) and declined gradually. In children ≥ 8 years, 48.78% had psychological stress, which was statistically significant on CIES scores without any gender predilection. Static posturing (41.86%), sleeplessness (32.55%), anorexia (9.30%), recurrent vomiting (13.95%), excessive crying (13.95%), or night-awakenings (4.65%) were found in younger children (n = 43) and three required admission. Conclusion: This study represent the first Indian data showing statistically significant psychological impact in older children (8-12 years) and various forms of physical stress symptoms in young children (1-8 years) following earthquake. PMID:24174793

  10. The Tista Megafan, a ~50 kyr Record of Drainage Development, Erosion and Weathering in the Sikkim Himalayas (Eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahami, R.; Huyghe, P.; Van Der Beek, P.; Lowick, S.; Garzanti, E.; Revillon, S.; Carcaillet, J.; Chakraborty, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Tista River, a major tributary of the Brahmaputra drainage system (Eastern Himalaya) has built a fluvial deposit which extents over 16500 km2. The Tista megafan stands out because of (1) its disproportionate size compared to that of the upstream Tista River catchment (8000 km2), and (2) it has been incised about 50m by the river at the topographic front of the mountain range. Neither the timing of deposition/incision of the megafan sediments, and their potential tectonic or climatic controls have yet been investigated. We use both IRSL and 10Be cosmogenic data to respectively constrain the date of deposition and abandonment of the different lobes of the megafan. We suggest that two distal lobes developed successively downstream from a common proximal lobe. Deposition took place since ~50 ka and incision began at 4.0 +0.6/-0.4 ka at an average rate of 10.5 +0.6/-1.8 mm yr-1. In addition, petrology, isotope geochemistry (ɛNd, 87Sr/86Sr) and chemical composition performed on modern river sands and late-Quaternary megafan sediments allows characterizing (1) provenance variations through time of megafan deposits and their implication for drainage development (2) the weathering history of Sikkim recorded by the megafan deposits. Results show that the Tista fan deposits are mainly sourced from the High Himalayan Crystalline domain and the Tethyan Sedimentary Series, (consistent with high erosion rates identified in north Sikkim at millennial timescale). Variations in provenance and weathering through time recorded by the Tista megafan deposits can be linked to climatic variations with strong monsoonal precipitations penetrating further northward into the southern Tibetan plateau. Tectonic processes seem to play a minor role. Otherwise, we propose as a first hypothesis that the Kosi River has recently (at ~4 ka) captured the upper part of the Tista catchment. That could explain the particular isotopic signature of the Tista megafan deposits, its recent incision, its

  11. Caterpillar Mushroom, Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ascomycetes): A Potential Bioresource for Commercialization in Sikkim Himalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Bharat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis has a long history of use in Tibetan traditional medicine and traditional Chinese medicine as a powerful tonic and aphrodisiac. The species is inextricably linked to the trade of medicinal and aromatic plants in East Asia. Its demand has increased substantially in the international market, and its collection and trade have significantly improved the socioeconomic status of the people in some regions. Nonetheless, in Sikkim this resource is still untapped formally, but it is traded illegally. Formal legalization and the community's involvement will ensure the conservation and sustainability of the species, as well as proper management of harvesting areas and monitoring of pressure on Yartsa Gunbu to exploit it. PMID:27481300

  12. Geometry and kinematics of the fold-thrust belt and structural evolution of the major Himalayan fault zones in the Darjeeling -- Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali

    The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lies in the eastern part of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) in a zone of high arc-perpendicular convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. In this region two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; both these faults have translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks farther towards the foreland than in the western Himalaya. The width of the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan rocks progressively decreases from the western Himalaya to this part of the eastern Himalaya, and as a result, the width of the FTB is narrower in this region compared to the western Himalaya. Our structural analysis shows that in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in the rest of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The structurally higher Dating duplex is a hinterland-dipping duplex; the structurally lower Rangit duplex varies in geometry from a hinterland-dipping duplex in the north to an antiformal stack in the middle and a foreland-dipping duplex in the south. The MCT2 is the roof thrust of the Daling duplex and the Ramgarh thrust is the roof thrust of the Rangit duplex. In this region, the Ramgarh thrust has a complex structural history with continued reactivation during footwall imbrication. The foreland-dipping component of the Rangit duplex, along with the large displacement associated with the reactivation of the Ramgarh thrust accounts for the large translation of the MCT sheets in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The growth of the Lesser Himalayan duplex modified the final geometry of the overlying MCT sheets, resulting in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending "anticline" in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. This is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section across this region has accommodated

  13. Geometry and kinematics of the fold-thrust belt and structural evolution of the major Himalayan fault zones in the Darjeeling -- Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Kathakali

    The Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya lies in the eastern part of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt (FTB) in a zone of high arc-perpendicular convergence between the Indian and Eurasian plates. In this region two distinct faults form the Main Central thrust (MCT), the structurally higher MCT1 and the lower MCT2; both these faults have translated the Greater Himalayan hanging wall rocks farther towards the foreland than in the western Himalaya. The width of the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan rocks progressively decreases from the western Himalaya to this part of the eastern Himalaya, and as a result, the width of the FTB is narrower in this region compared to the western Himalaya. Our structural analysis shows that in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya the sub-MCT Lesser Himalayan duplex is composed of two duplex systems and has a more complex geometry than in the rest of the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. The structurally higher Dating duplex is a hinterland-dipping duplex; the structurally lower Rangit duplex varies in geometry from a hinterland-dipping duplex in the north to an antiformal stack in the middle and a foreland-dipping duplex in the south. The MCT2 is the roof thrust of the Daling duplex and the Ramgarh thrust is the roof thrust of the Rangit duplex. In this region, the Ramgarh thrust has a complex structural history with continued reactivation during footwall imbrication. The foreland-dipping component of the Rangit duplex, along with the large displacement associated with the reactivation of the Ramgarh thrust accounts for the large translation of the MCT sheets in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. The growth of the Lesser Himalayan duplex modified the final geometry of the overlying MCT sheets, resulting in a plunge culmination that manifests itself as a broad N-S trending "anticline" in the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. This is not a "river anticline" as its trace lies west of the Teesta river. A transport parallel balanced cross section across this region has accommodated

  14. Forecasting climate change impacts and evaluation of adaptation options for maize cropping in the hilly terrain of Himalayas: Sikkim, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Proloy; Shrestha, Sangam; Babel, Mukand S.

    2015-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to assess the climate change impacts on rainfed maize yield using AquaCrop and CERES-maize crop simulation models, and evaluation of adaptation measures were performed for Sikkim state of India. Data related to crop phenology retrieved from the field experiments were used to calibrate and validate the crop models for three representative sites. Climate projections of six global circulation models (ECHAM5, CCSM, HadCM3, CSIRO-MK3.0, CGCM3.1, and MIROC3.2) for scenarios A2 and B2 were bias-corrected at station scale by power law transformation. Simulation results by the two crop models indicate a significant declination in the yield of NLD-White variety of maize ranging from 4.7 ± 1.4 to 20.4 ± 7.2 % for the future time windows under A2 scenario and 2.5 ± 0.9 to 15.8 ± 5.7 % under B2 scenario relative to the yield simulated for the baseline period of 1991-2000. It is also observed that, for a particular temperature, yield remarkably increases with escalated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. On contrary, increase in temperature reduces the yield at a particular CO2 concentration. The overall decline in the yield under future climate scenarios can be alleviated by early planting, appropriate nutrient management, introducing supplementary irrigation, and shifting to heat-tolerant varieties.

  15. Seedling growth and survival of selected wild edible fruit species of the Sikkim Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundriyal, Manju; Sundriyal, R. C.

    2005-07-01

    In the Sikkim Himalaya, an enormous variety of wild growing plants are exploited at large scale for collection of their edible parts, of which six most prominently utilized fruit species (viz., Baccaurea sapida, Diploknema butyracea, Elaeagnus latifolia, Eriolobus indica, Machilus edulis and Spondias axillaris) were investigated. The growth of nursery raised seedlings was measured at 3 month intervals until two years old in terms of absolute growth rate (AGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf weight ratio (LWR), stem weight ratio (SWR), root weight ratio (RWR) and root-shoot ratio (RSR). Spondias axillaris and Machilus edulis had the maximum AGR, RGR, LAR and SWR among all species. LWR was highest for B. sapida. RGR, LAR and LWR declined with the age of seedlings. RGR was negatively correlated with NAR, SWR, RWR and RSR, though it showed a positive relationship with LAR. For all species, seedlings attained significant sizes after one year of age, and showed reasonable survival after transplantation into the farmers' fields. It is expected that information on the growth behaviour of these species would be useful while they are adopted into agroforestry systems. It is suggested that these species should be multiplied at large scale and distributed to the local inhabitants to reduce pressure on them in natural stands as well as provide economic benefit to the subsistence farmers.

  16. Timing, duration and inversion of prograde Barrovian metamorphism constrained by high resolution Lu-Hf garnet dating: A case study from the Sikkim Himalaya, NE India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anczkiewicz, Robert; Chakraborty, Sumit; Dasgupta, Somnath; Mukhopadhyay, Dilip; Kołtonik, Katarzyna

    2014-12-01

    We investigated Lu-Hf isotopic systematics in garnets from gradually higher grade metamorphic rocks from the first appearance of garnet at c. 500 °C to biotite dehydration melting at c. 800 °C in the Sikkim Himalaya, India. Exceptionally precise Lu-Hf ages obtained for the Barrovian metasedimentary sequence in the Lesser Himalaya (LH) correspond to the time of early garnet formation on a prograde path and show remarkable correlation with increasing metamorphic grade and decreasing structural depth. The youngest age is reported for the garnet zone (10.6±0.2 Ma) and then the ages become progressively older in the staurolite (12.8±0.3 Ma), kyanite (13.7±0.2 Ma) and sillimanite (14.6±0.1 Ma) zones. The oldest age of 16.8±0.1 Ma was recorded at the top of the sequence in the zone marking the onset of muscovite dehydration melting, directly below the Main Central Thrust (MCT). These ages provide a tight constraint on the timing and duration of the Barrovian sequence formation which lasted about 6 Ma. The age pattern is clearly inverted with respect to structural depth but shows "normal" correlation with the metamorphic grade, i.e. earlier garnet growth in higher grade rocks. The timing of the peak metamorphic conditions estimated for the garnet and kyanite zones suggests that thermal climax occurred in all zones within a relatively short time span about 10-13 Ma ago. The metamorphic inversion in the Sikkim Himalaya must therefore have occurred after the metamorphic peak was attained in all grades. Lu-Hf garnet ages in the overthrust Higher Himalaya (HH) continue to be older but do not show a clear progression. There is about 6 Ma jump to 22.6±0.1 Ma within the MCT zone and even older ages of 26-28 Ma were obtained for migmatites from the lower part of the HH. The Lu-Hf system in garnets from the HH records the time of melting at or near the thermal peak rather than dates initial garnet growth as in the LH. The age pattern obtained in this study provides precise

  17. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Banerjee, Amrita; Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A K; Pattanayak, A; Harish, G D; Singh, S K; Ngachan, S V; Bansal, K C

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland; and P3, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur [corrected]. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and

  18. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure in Aromatic and Quality Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Landraces from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Mawkhlieng, Bandapkuper; Misra, A. K.; Pattanayak, A.; Harish, G. D.; Singh, S. K.; Ngachan, S. V.; Bansal, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    The North-eastern (NE) India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, possess diverse array of locally adapted non-Basmati aromatic germplasm. The germplasm collections from this region could serve as valuable resources in breeding for abiotic stress tolerance, grain yield and cooking/eating quality. To utilize such collections, however, breeders need information about the extent and distribution of genetic diversity present within collections. In this study, we report the result of population genetic analysis of 107 aromatic and quality rice accessions collected from different parts of NE India, as well as classified these accessions in the context of a set of structured global rice cultivars. A total of 322 alleles were amplified by 40 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with an average of 8.03 alleles per locus. Average gene diversity was 0.67. Population structure analysis revealed that NE Indian aromatic rice can be subdivided into three genetically distinct population clusters: P1, joha rice accessions from Assam, tai rices from Mizoram and those from Sikkim; P2, chakhao rice germplasm from Manipur; and P3, aromatic rice accessions from Nagaland. Pair-wise FST between three groups varied from 0.223 (P1 vs P2) to 0.453 (P2 vs P3). With reference to the global classification of rice cultivars, two major groups (Indica and Japonica) were identified in NE Indian germplasm. The aromatic accessions from Assam, Manipur and Sikkim were assigned to the Indica group, while the accessions from Nagaland exhibited close association with Japonica. The tai accessions of Mizoram along with few chakhao accessions collected from the hill districts of Manipur were identified as admixed. The results highlight the importance of regional genetic studies for understanding diversification of aromatic rice in India. The data also suggest that there is scope for exploiting the genetic diversity of aromatic and quality rice

  19. Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India.

    PubMed

    Prokop, P; Płoskonka, D

    2014-06-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use and soil properties were studied in the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont over the last 150 years, with a special emphasis on the period 1930-2010. Analysis of historical reports, combined with the visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images, indicates that the land reforms related to the location of tea gardens caused rapid deforestation of the higher elevated terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth between 1930 and 2010 caused a shift in the major land use changes from the terraces to the floodplains. As a consequence, a gradual extension of tea plantation and forestry development helped in stabilizing the land use of the terraces, while the parallel deforestation of mountain catchments and floodplains for rice cultivation intensified fluvial activity. The enlargement of river-channel area by about 42% between 1930 and 2010 excluded a large part of the floodplains from cultivation and increased risk of soil degradation. The replacement of natural forest by monocultural tea and rice cultivation influenced the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Statistically significant changes were observed only in some chemical properties of the topsoil. Tea cultivation reduced the total carbon content by 26% and total nitrogen content by 33% in the surface soil horizon. The influence of rice tillage on the soil properties is masked by the fluvial activity. The combined effect of flooding and rice cultivation is reflected in the lower content of total carbon and nitrogen in the surface of the soil, namely, 76% and 77% respectively. Taking into account the long-term nature of the plantation, the soil still has the capability to support tea production. The productivity of rice depends partly on fertilization levels and partly on the natural deposition of fresh sediment eroded from mountains.

  20. Natural and human impact on the land use and soil properties of the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont in India.

    PubMed

    Prokop, P; Płoskonka, D

    2014-06-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use and soil properties were studied in the Sikkim Himalayas piedmont over the last 150 years, with a special emphasis on the period 1930-2010. Analysis of historical reports, combined with the visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images, indicates that the land reforms related to the location of tea gardens caused rapid deforestation of the higher elevated terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth between 1930 and 2010 caused a shift in the major land use changes from the terraces to the floodplains. As a consequence, a gradual extension of tea plantation and forestry development helped in stabilizing the land use of the terraces, while the parallel deforestation of mountain catchments and floodplains for rice cultivation intensified fluvial activity. The enlargement of river-channel area by about 42% between 1930 and 2010 excluded a large part of the floodplains from cultivation and increased risk of soil degradation. The replacement of natural forest by monocultural tea and rice cultivation influenced the physical and chemical properties of the soil. Statistically significant changes were observed only in some chemical properties of the topsoil. Tea cultivation reduced the total carbon content by 26% and total nitrogen content by 33% in the surface soil horizon. The influence of rice tillage on the soil properties is masked by the fluvial activity. The combined effect of flooding and rice cultivation is reflected in the lower content of total carbon and nitrogen in the surface of the soil, namely, 76% and 77% respectively. Taking into account the long-term nature of the plantation, the soil still has the capability to support tea production. The productivity of rice depends partly on fertilization levels and partly on the natural deposition of fresh sediment eroded from mountains. PMID:24560792

  1. Solar Disinfection Improves Drinking Water Quality to Prevent Diarrhea in Under-Five Children in Sikkim, India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, BB; Pal, Ranabir; Kar, Sumit; Tsering, Dechen C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Solar radiations improve the microbiological quality of water and offer a method for disinfection of drinking water that requires few resources and no expertise and may reduce the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children. Aims and Objectives: To find out the reduction in the prevalence of diarrhea in the under-five children after consumption of potable water treated with solar disinfection method. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based interventional prospective study in the urban slum area of Mazegoan, Jorethang, south Sikkim, during the period 1st May 2007 to 30th November 2007 on 136 children in the under-five age group in 102 households selected by random sampling. Main outcome measure was the assessment of the reduction of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children after consumption of potable water treated with solar disinfection method practiced by the caregivers in the intervention group keeping water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles as directed by the investigators. The data were collected by the interview method using a pre-tested questionnaire prepared on the basis of socio-demographics and prevalence of diarrhea. The data were subjected to percentages and chi-square tests, which were used to find the significance. Results: After four weeks of intervention among the study group, the diarrhea prevalence was 7.69% among solar disinfection (SODIS) users, while 31.82% prevalence was observed among non-users in that period; the reduction in prevalence of diarrhea was 75.83%. After eight weeks of intervention, the prevalence of diarrhea was 7.58% among SODIS users and 31.43% among non-users; the reduction in diarrhea was 75.88% in the study group. The findings were found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: In our study, we observed that the prevalence of diarrhea decreased significantly after solar disinfection of water was practiced by the caregivers keeping potable water in PET bottles in the

  2. Analysis and trends of precipitation lapse rate and extreme indices over north Sikkim eastern Himalayas under CMIP5ESM-2M RCPs experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vishal; Goyal, Manish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws attention to highlight the spatial and temporal variability in precipitation lapse rate (PLR) and precipitation extreme indices (PEIs) through the mesoscale characterization of Teesta river catchment, which corresponds to north Sikkim eastern Himalayas. A PLR rate is an important variable for the snowmelt runoff models. In a mountainous region, the PLR could be varied from lower elevation parts to high elevation parts. In this study, a PLR was computed by accounting elevation differences, which varies from around 1500 m to 7000 m. A precipitation variability and extremity were analysed using multiple mathematical functions viz. quantile regression, spatial mean, spatial standard deviation, Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation. For this reason, a daily precipitation, in the historical (years 1980-2005) as measured/observed gridded points and projected experiments for the 21st century (years 2006-2100) simulated by CMIP5 ESM-2 M model (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 Earth System Model 2) employing three different radiative forcing scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways), utilized for the research work. The outcomes of this study suggest that a PLR is significantly varied from lower elevation to high elevation parts. The PEI based analysis showed that the extreme high intensity events have been increased significantly, especially after 2040s. The PEI based observations also showed that the numbers of wet days are increased for all the RCPs. The quantile regression plots showed significant increments in the upper and lower quantiles of the various extreme indices. The Mann-Kendall test and Sen's estimation tests clearly indicated significant changing patterns in the frequency and intensity of the precipitation indices across all the sub-basins and RCP scenario in an intra-decadal time series domain. The RCP8.5 showed extremity of the projected outcomes.

  3. Application of water quality index for the assessment of suitability of natural sources of water for drinking in rural areas of east Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Poonia, Shubra; Singh, T Shantikumar; Tsering, Dechen C

    2015-01-01

    In Sikkim, especially in the rural areas where there is no supply of treated water for drinking and other domestic uses, natural surface water is the only source. The objective was to assess the water quality of natural sources of water in the rural areas of East Sikkim using a water quality index (WQI) for different seasons. A total of 225 samples, that is, 75 in winter, 75 in summer, and 75 in monsoon were collected from different sources for physicochemical analysis, and a WQI was calculated. The water quality values ranged 32.01-96.71. The results showed that most of the water samples were in poor condition (85.3%) and very few of them were in good condition (2.6%). The water quality of the natural sources indicated that the water is poor-quality and not totally safe for human consumption, and that it needs treatment before consumption. PMID:26021656

  4. Traditional uses and medicinal potential of Cordyceps sinensis of Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Swain, Kailash Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Cordyceps sinensis has been described as a medicine in old Chinese medical books and Tibetan medicine. It is a rare combination of a caterpillar and a fungus and found at altitudes above 4500m in Sikkim. Traditional healers and local people of North Sikkim recommend the mushroom, i.e., Yarsa gumba, Keera jhar (C. sinensis) for all diseases either as a single drug or combined with other herbs. The present study was undertaken to collect information regarding the traditional uses of cordyceps in Sikkim. It was found that most local folk healers/traditional healers use cordyceps for the treatment of 21 ailments. A modern literature search was carried out to assess whether the curative effects are valid or just blind faith of local people. Chemical constituents of cordyceps are given and pharmacological and biological studies reviewed. More mechanism-based and disease-oriented clinical studies are recommended. PMID:21731381

  5. Earthquake induced Landslides in the Sikkim Himalaya - A Consequences of the 18th September 2011 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-01

    On September 18, 2011 an earthquake of 6.8 magnitude on the Richter scale struck Sikkim at 18.11 hours IST. The epicenter of the quake was latidude 27.7o North and longitude 88.2o East about 64 km North-West of Gangtok along the junction point of Teesta lineament and Kanchenjunga fault in the North District of Sikkim. The high intensity tremor triggered various types of natural calamities in the form of landslides, road blocks, falling boulders, lake bursts, flash floods, falling of trees, etc. and caused severe damage to life and property of the people in Sikkim. As the earthquake occurred during the monsoon season, heavy rain and landslides rendered rescue operations extremely difficult. Almost all road connectivity and communication network were disrupted. Sikkim experiences landslides year after year, especially during the monsoons and periods of intense rain. This hazard affects the economy of the State very badly. But due to the earthquake, many new and a few reactivated landslides have occurred in the Sikkim Himalaya.

  6. Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

    2010-01-01

    Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

  7. Childhood injuries in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh; Kumar, Adarsh; Varghese, Mathew

    2010-03-01

    This article reports the results of 100% household injury surveillance project conducted over a 1-year period in nine contiguous villages with a total population of 22,883 persons in north India. Fourteen trained field workers did the health and injury survey by visiting 16-20 households every day. In this article, we document the epidemiology of injuries among children in rural households. A person was considered injured if the injury prevented the victim from continuing a normal daily routine as understood by the family and the victim. A total of 2029 injury cases were recorded. Children in the age group 0-14 years accounted for 611 (30%) of all injury cases of which 42% were injured at home (28% for >14 years), 35% on roads (30% for >14 years), 8% on farms (31% for >14 years) and 6% on playgrounds. The maximum number of injuries was due to falls (35%). Eighty per cent of the injuries were minor (Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 1), 18% were moderate or serious (AIS 2-3); none were severe (AIS 4) and one child had a critical injury (AIS 5). The injury rates per 100,000 children in different age groups were 5354, 6962 and 8060 for 0-4, 5-9 and 10-14 years per year.

  8. Lateral Variation of Seismic Attenuation in Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajaay, T.; Kumar, Ajay; Mitra, Supriyo

    2016-10-01

    We use data from local earthquakes (mb ≥ 3.0) recorded by the Sikkim broadband seismograph network to study the frequency dependent attenuation of the crust and uppermost mantle. These events have been relocated using body wave phase data from local and regional seismograms. The decay of coda amplitudes at a range of central frequencies (1 to 12 Hz) have been measured for 74 earthquake-receiver pairs. These measurements are combined to estimate the frequency dependent coda Q of the form Q(f) = Q0fη. The estimated Q0 values range from 80-200, with an average of 123±29; and η ranges from 0.92-1.04, with an average of 0.98±0.04. To study the lateral variation of Q0 and η, we regionalized the measured Q values by combining all the earthquake-receiver path measurements through a back projection algorithm. We consider a single back-scatter model for the coda waves with elliptical sampling and parameterize the sampled area using 0.2° square grids. A nine-point spatial smoothening (similar to spatial Gaussian filter) is applied to stabilize the inversion. This is done at every frequency to observe the spatial variation of Q(f) and subsequently combined to obtain η variations. Results of our study reveal that the Sikkim Himalaya is characterized by low Q0 (80-100) compared to the foreland basin to its south (150-200) and the Nepal Himalaya to its west (140-160). The low Q and high η in Sikkim Himalaya is attributed to extrinsic scattering attenuation from structural heterogeneity and active faults within the crust, and intrinsic attenuation due to anelasticity in the hotter lithosphere beneath the actively deforming mountain belt. Similar low Q and high η values had also been observed in North-West and Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya.

  9. STS-56 Earth observation of Karakorum Range of north India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 Earth observation shows of some of the highest mountain peaks in the world taken from Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, as it passed over India and China. The top of the view shows one of the snow and ice-covered massifs in the great Karakorum Range of north India. A star-shaped peak at top left reaches 23,850 feet. Glaciers can be seen in valleys at these high elevations. The international border between India to the south (top) and China (bottom) snakes left to right along a river near the top of the scene, then veers into the muntains at top left. Larger valleys, despite their elevation (all in excess of 14,000 feet), are occupied by transport routes joining points in India, China and the southern republics of the CIS. The ancient Silk Route between China and the Middle East lies not far to the north (outside the bottom of the frame).

  10. Duration of inverted metamorphic sequence formation across the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), Sikkim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cioldi, Stefania; Moulas, Evangelos; Tajcmanová, Lucie; Burg, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates since the Eocene (50 Ma) caused the closure of the Neo-Tethys and the underthrusting of India beneath the Tibetan Plateau, generating the 2500 km extended Himalayan belt. The Main Central Thrust (MCT) marks the boundary of the underlying Midland Lower Himalaya metasediments zone (LH) in the south from the overlying high grade metamorphic Higher Himalaya (HH) in the north. Several models considering petrochronology, geothermobarometry and structural geology have been discussed to explain the inverted metamorphic gradient in the LH metasediments without reaching a common agreement. This study investigates the tectonic setting and the timescale of inverted isograds related to crustal-scale thrusting at the MCT in the Sikkim region, northeast India. The aim is to contribute to the understanding of the link between mechanical and thermal evolution of major thrust zones and to clarify the nature and the origin of orogenic heat applying garnet geospeedometry. Garnets provide a sensitive record of metamorphic conditions and are potential chronometer. Their compositional zoning is used as a gauge for rate estimates of element diffusion within the mineral and allows estimating the absolute time of the thermal evolution. Inverse-fitting numerical model considering FRactIonation and Diffusion in GarnEt (FRIDGE) calculates garnet composition profiles by introducing P-T-t paths and bulk-rock composition of a specific sample. P-T conditions were estimated by convectional geothermobarometry supported by phase equilibria modelling and measured garnet chemical compositions. Simulation were compared with measured garnet profiles. Simple step function and FRIDGE preliminary results of Fe-Mg - Ca - Mn garnet fractionation-diffusion modelling indicate very short timescale (between 3 and 6 Ma) for peak metamorphic conditions in the northeast Himalayan collisional system. This duration does not allow thermal re-equilibration. It is an

  11. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  12. Surrendering a Colonial Domain: Educating North India, 1854-1890

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Postcolonial research has often assumed that colonial education fell victim to the forces of nationalism, like other areas of Raj governance in the early twentieth century. However, European-led education that aspired to reach the general population had already failed a generation earlier, at least in north India. This was after highly imaginative…

  13. Effect of consanguinity among North India Muslims.

    PubMed

    Basu, S K

    1975-01-01

    Endogamous Muslim groups in Delhi and Lucknow, India, were studied to discover the effects of consanguineous marriage on fertility, mortality, and net-fertility rates. Sayyad Shias have a much higher frequency of parental consanguinity. Consanguineous marriages occurred among the following groups in descending order of frequency: Sheikh, Pathan, and Moghul Sumnis. Different forms of inbreeding occurred among the various groups. Most Muslims oppose family planning on religous grounds. In both Sayyad Shias and Sheikh Sumni consanguineous marriages there was a higher fertility rate than among non-consanguineous marriages. The net-fertility rate was not higher, because mortality before 21 was highest among first cousins. PMID:12307582

  14. Maternal mortality inquiry in a rural community of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, A K; Barik, S; Kumar, V

    1989-08-01

    Community inquiry on maternal mortality was conducted in a rural area of North India. Maternal deaths were identified by multiple informants and investigated by doctors. Amongst 257 deaths registered in women in the 15-44 year age group, 55(21.4%) were maternal deaths. Maternal mortality ratio was 230 per 100,000 live births. Major causes were antepartum and postpartum hemorrhage (18.2%), puerperal sepsis (16.4%), severe anemia (16.4%), abortion (9.1%) and obstructed labor (7.3%). This rapid, simple and low cost method is recommended for application in areas where vital registration system is unsatisfactory. PMID:2571532

  15. Genetic studies among Ramgarhias and Ramdasias of Punjab, North India.

    PubMed

    Sehajpal, P K; Khanna, A K; Singh, G; Sharma, V K

    1981-02-01

    This study reports results of investigations on ABO, Rh, haptoglobin and transferrin types in the two hitherto uninvestigated endogamous groups of Punjab, North India. Frequencies for the A, B, and O genes were found to be 0.1711, 0.2566, and 0.5723 in Ramdasias, and 0.1737, 0.2960, and 0.5303 in Ramgarhias. In all 13 Rhesus-negative individuals were encountered. The Hp2 allele shows a high frequency of 0.8060 for Ramdasias, and 0.7860 for Ramgarhias.

  16. Primary Cutaneous Coccidioidomycosis: First Imported Case in North India

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Vikram; Garg, Bhavna; Sood, Neena; Goraya, Sukhjot Kaur

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease found only in the Western Hemisphere. In recent years, the incidence of the disease has increased in California and Arizona, which may be partially due to the rapid immigration of previously unexposed persons from states outside the endemic areas. The disease in the nonendemic areas is usually imported. Determining a history of exposure is critical for performing the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis in these cases. Histopathological examination is the key to the diagnosis when fungal culture and molecular studies are not available. We hereby report an imported case of cutaneous coccidioidomycosis, which to the best of our knowledge is the first case report from North India. PMID:25071284

  17. Effects of inbreeding on marriage payment in north India.

    PubMed

    Badaruddoza; Afzal, M

    1995-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between consanguineous marriages and marriage payment, using data from two Muslim qaums living in urban and rural areas in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh, North India. Qaum and locality were found to have no significant association with the dowry system. Marriage payment is less common in consanguineous than in non-consanguineous marriages. However, the association between marriage payment and the type of marriage is significant at p < 0.001. The dowry system is more prevalent among the higher socioeconomic groups, while the bride-wealth system is more common among the lower socioeconomic groups.

  18. Rubella outbreak in the union territory of Chandigarh, North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mini P; Kumar, Archit; Gautam, Neha; Khurana, Jasmine; Gupta, Madhu; Ratho, Radha Kanta

    2015-02-01

    Rubella virus outbreaks usually occur when a large numbers of susceptible individuals accumulate. The disease presents clinically with fever and maculopapular rash. The present study reports the investigation of rubella outbreak in a modern and well-planned village near Chandigarh, North India. The blood samples were collected from 39 cases with febrile rash and from 15 age and sex matched healthy controls residing in the same locality and subjected for the detection of Rubella IgM and IgG antibodies by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The throat swabs, urine and blood samples from acute cases were also collected and subjected to RT-PCR using the primers targeting the E1 region. The genetic characterization of the rubella virus was carried out to identify the circulating genotypes. In the present outbreak, 13 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. Rubella IgM antibodies were detected in 12/39 (30.7%) patients. Rubella RNA could be detected in 83.3% (5/6) of urine, 22.2% (2/9) of throat swabs, and 8.3% (1/12) of blood samples. The rubella genotype responsible for the present outbreak was identified as genotype 1a. This outbreak highlights the need for the introduction of rubella vaccine in the National Immunization Programme of India to prevent outbreaks and to aim towards the eradication of this disease. This study reports the presence of genotype 1a in North India for the first time and stresses the need for further molecular work to identify the circulating strains of the virus.

  19. Writing sex and sexuality: archives of colonial North India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Charu

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on disparate sites and subjects to reflect on and problematize the relationship between sexuality and the archives in colonial north India. I dwell on how ‘recalcitrant’ and hidden histories of sexuality can be gleaned by not only expanding our arenas of archives, but also by decentering and recasting colonial archives. I do so by specifically investigating some of the “indigenous” writings in Hindi, through texts concerning homosexuality, sex manuals, the writings of a woman ayurvedic practitioner, didactic literature and its relationship to Dalit (outcaste) sexuality, and current popular Dalit literature and its representations of the past. The debate for me here is not about the flaws of archival uses but rather of playing one archive against another, of appropriating many parallel, alternative, official, and popular archives simultaneously to shape a more nuanced and layered understanding of sexuality.

  20. Microbial evaluation of bottled water marketed in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhawna; Kaur, Satinder

    2015-01-01

    Drinking unsafe and unhygienic water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid. The present study describes the microbial evaluation of bottled water sold in North India. The samples were analyzed for total viable count and coliforms and susceptibility to different antibiotics. Though free of coliforms, the samples had a total viable count ranging from 0.01 × 10 (1) cfu/mL to 2.40 × 10 (3) cfu/mL and in 17% of the samples, total viable count was much higher than specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Government of India. Among the samples, 6.5% also showed fungal growth. On checking the sensitivity of bacteria isolates to different antibiotics, most of the strains were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that the consumption of bottled water with a high viable count and that was bacteria-resistant to different antibiotics may have an effect on the health of the consumers, especially immune-compromised individuals. PMID:26584170

  1. Seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Kar, S. C.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Kumari, S.; Sinha, P.

    2016-04-01

    The climatology, amplitude error, phase error, and mean square skill score (MSSS) of temperature predictions from five different state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) have been examined for the winter (December-January-February) seasons over North India. In this region, temperature variability affects the phenological development processes of wheat crops and the grain yield. The GCM forecasts of temperature for a whole season issued in November from various organizations are compared with observed gridded temperature data obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period 1982-2009. The MSSS indicates that the models have skills of varying degrees. Predictions of maximum and minimum temperature obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate forecast system model (NCEP_CFSv2) are compared with station level observations from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE). It has been found that when the model temperatures are corrected to account the bias in the model and actual orography, the predictions are able to delineate the observed trend compared to the trend without orography correction.

  2. Pseudotachylite Breccia Veins from Dhala Impact Structure, North Central India: Texture, Mineralogy and Geochemical Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Koeberl, C. K.; Pati, P.

    2013-08-01

    This is the first report of pseudotachylitic breccia veins (PTB)in basement granitoids from the Dhala structure, north central India.The host granitoids and PTB show similar REE pattern despite extensive alteration and major element concentration.

  3. Informal rural healthcare providers in North and South India.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Shyamprasad, K M; Singh, Rajesh; Zachariah, Anshi; Singh, Rajkumari; Bloom, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Rural households in India rely extensively on informal biomedical providers, who lack valid medical qualifications. Their numbers far exceed those of formal providers. Our study reports on the education, knowledge, practices and relationships of informal providers (IPs) in two very different districts: Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand (north) and Guntur in Andhra Pradesh (south). We mapped and interviewed IPs in all nine blocks of Tehri and in nine out of 57 blocks in Guntur, and then interviewed a smaller sample in depth (90 IPs in Tehri, 100 in Guntur) about market practices, relationships with the formal sector, and their knowledge of protocol-based management of fever, diarrhoea and respiratory conditions. We evaluated IPs' performance by observing their interactions with three patients per condition; nine patients per provider. IPs in the two districts had very different educational backgrounds-more years of schooling followed by various informal diplomas in Tehri and more apprenticeships in Guntur, yet their knowledge of management of the three conditions was similar and reasonably high (71% Tehri and 73% Guntur). IPs in Tehri were mostly clinic-based and dispensed a blend of allopathic and indigenous drugs. IPs in Guntur mostly provided door-to-door services and prescribed and dispensed mainly allopathic drugs. In Guntur, formal private doctors were important referral providers (with commissions) and source of new knowledge for IPs. At both sites, IPs prescribed inappropriate drugs, but the use of injections and antibiotics was higher in Guntur. Guntur IPs were well organized in state and block level associations that had successfully lobbied for a state government registration and training for themselves. We find that IPs are firmly established in rural India but their role has grown and evolved differently in different market settings. Interventions need to be tailored differently keeping in view these unique features.

  4. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. PMID:25447914

  5. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation.

  6. Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, A; Midha, V; Sood, N; Bhatia, A S; Avasthi, G

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcerative colitis occurs worldwide. It is considered common in most of Europe and North America and uncommon in most of the developing Asian countries. The incidence/prevalence of ulcerative colitis varies not only according to geographical region but also with race and ethnicity. There are no reported data from India on the incidence of the disease and its prevalence. Material and methods: A house to house survey was conducted by questionnaire, formulated to enquire about symptoms that are suggestive of ulcerative colitis. Those with prolonged diarrhoea with or without rectal bleeding were considered as suspected cases. These suspected cases were subjected to video sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. In addition, patients already diagnosed and receiving treatment for ulcerative colitis, encountered during the survey, were reviewed. Resurvey of the same areas was conducted after a one year interval to detect new cases. Using direct methods, standardised rates were calculated using world standard population weights 22, 18, 16, 12, 12, 9, 7, 3, and 1 for each 10 year age group. Standardised rates were also obtained separately for males, females, and combined populations, using the Punjab state 1991 population census data. Rates were also estimated according to UK 2000 population data. Ninety five per cent confidence intervals (95% CI) of prevalence and incidence rates of ulcerative colitis were estimated under the assumption that the distribution of cases followed a Poisson probability model. Results: A total population of 51 910 were screened from January to March 1999. We identified 147 suspected cases and of these 23 were finally established as ulcerative colitis cases, giving a crude prevalence rate of 44.3 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 29.4–66.6). A second visit to the same areas after one year identified 10 suspected cases in a population of 49 834. Of these, three were confirmed as “definite” ulcerative colitis giving a crude

  7. Identifying Predictors of Childhood Anaemia in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sankar; Dey, Tanujit

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the factors that influence the occurrence of childhood anaemia in North-East India by exploring dataset of the Reproductive and Child Health-II Survey (RCH-II). The study population consisted of 10,137 children in the age-group of 0-6 year(s) from North-East India to explore the predictors of childhood anaemia by means of different background characteristics, such as place of residence, religion, household standard of living, literacy of mother, total children ever born to a mother, age of mother at marriage. Prevalence of anaemia among children was taken as a polytomous variable. The predicted probabilities of anaemia were established via multinomial logistic regression model. These probabilities provided the degree of assessment of the contribution of predictors in the prevalence of childhood anaemia. The mean haemoglobin concentration in children aged 0-6 year(s) was found to be 11.85 g/dL, with a standard deviation of 5.61 g/dL. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that rural children were at greater risk of severe (OR=2.035; p=0.003) and moderate (OR=1.23; p=0.003) anaemia. All types of anaemia (severe, moderate, and mild) were more prevalent among Hindu children (OR=2.971; p=0.000), (OR=1.195; p=0.010), and (OR=1.201; p=0.011) than among children of other religions whereas moderate (OR=1.406; p=0.001) and mild (OR=1.857; p=0.000) anaemia were more prevalent among Muslim children. The fecundity of the mother was found to have significant effect on anaemia. Women with multiple children were prone to greater risk of anaemia. The multiple logistic regression analysis also confirmed that children of literate mothers were comparatively at lesser risk of severe anaemia. Mother's age at marriage had a significant effect on anaemia of their children as well. PMID:24592587

  8. Seasonal perturbations in interseismic deformation of North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, J. D.; Vijayan, M.; Kumar, A.

    2013-12-01

    GPS time series is manifestation of longterm plate motion along with contribution from some non-tectonic forcing. The non-tectonic forces causing deformation of the crust are, to say a few, ocean and body tides of the Earth, interhemispheirc exchange of fluids, snow melt, groundwater runoff, Glacial Isostatic adjustment, atmospheric loading, etc. The Earth as a whole responses to external forces as an elastic body. As it was shown by Darwin in 1882[Darwin, G.H. 1882], changes of weight of the atmospheric column due to variations of pressure result in crustal deformations called atmospheric pressure loading [http://gemini.gsfc.nasa.gov/aplo/] (The word 'crust' was not in use during Darwin's time. Instead he wrote as 'distortion of the upper strata of the Earth'). The magnitude of the effect can be upto 15-20mm and it can vary as much as 10mm within a 24 hour period. As a result, this physical phenomenon affects the coordinates of geodetic sites (VLBI, GPS, SLR, DORIS etc) and should be accounted for in all high precision geodetic analyses. On the other hand, the solid Earth crust also deforms due to the largest mass movement on the solid earth through global hydrological cycle, the exchange of water between ocean, land, and ice sheets[Braitenberg, C., and Zadro, M. 2001]. In this paper emphasis is laid on the study of seasonal perturbations in GPS time series due to atmospheric loading. The results are based on GPS measurements from 2004-2011 in North-eastern India. To asses the influence of atmospheric pressure loading on GPS time series we implement atmospheric pressure loading model in our GAMIT processing. It has been observed that model has most impact in vertical component. The difference in displacement reaches upto ~1-2cm in vertical whereas ~2-3mm in horizontal components. In addition, power spectral analysis is opted to find out the frequency of perturbations and seasonal signals in the time series. Power spectral densities demonstrate that colored noise

  9. HIV Stigma and Specified Correlates in North India

    PubMed Central

    Nebhinani, Naresh; Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Wanchu, Ajay

    2012-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, the stigma and discrimination impede HIV-AIDS programs across the continuum of prevention to care. We studied stigma and related issues in HIV-positive subjects. Materials and Methods: At a tertiary care hospital in North India, we studied 100 HIV-positive outpatients not receiving antiretroviral therapy. The subjects self-administered ‘Tanzania Stigma Indicator and Community Endline-Individual Questionnaire’. Psychiatric morbidity was screened with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-I2 Hindi) and diagnosed with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID). Results: A typical subject was middle aged (25-44 years, 77%), school non-completer (63%), village dweller (61%), and male (59%). Only 35 subjects could differentiate between HIV and AIDS, and only 24 were aware of antiretroviral therapy. Unprotected sex, sharing injections, and blood transfusions were reported spontaneously as possible sources of transmission by 56-79% subjects each. About 80% of subjects reported no fear in touching HIV-positive subjects or their objects. Avoiding injections, being faithful to uninfected partner, avoiding blood transfusions, using condoms, and avoiding sharing razors/blades were reported spontaneously as HIV preventive measures by 40 to 26 subjects each. Half of the subjects blamed self for contracting HIV. Only 38 subjects reported others behaving differently with HIV-positive subjects. HIV status disclosure was reported by 98 subjects (73 to family or relatives). Urban subjects reported higher primary stigma and shame or blame. Psychiatric disorders, present in 45 subjects, showed no association with stigma items. Conclusions: The subjects had a limited knowledge, especially of treatment aspects. Stigma showed no association with psychiatric disorders. The study reflects a strong need for public health measures to enhance awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS. PMID:23723539

  10. Antenatal care: provision and inequality in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Foss, Mary; Stones, R William

    2004-09-01

    The objectives of this paper are to examine factors associated with use of antenatal care in rural areas of north India, to investigate access to specific critical components of care and to study differences in the pattern of services received via health facilities versus home visits. We used the 1998-1999 Indian National Family Health Survey of ever-married women in the reproductive age group and analysed data from the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh (n = 11,369). Overall, about three-fifths of rural women did not receive any antenatal check-up during their last pregnancy. Services actually received were predominantly provision of tetanus toxoid vaccination and supply of iron and folic acid tablets. Only about 13% of pregnant women had their blood pressure checked and a blood test done at least once. Women visited by health workers received fewer services compared to women who visited a health facility. Home visits were biased towards households with a better standard of living. There was significant under-utilisation of nurse/midwives in the provision of antenatal services and doctors were often the lead providers. The average number of antenatal visits reported in this study was 2.4 and most visits were in the second trimester. Higher social and economic status was associated with increased chances of receiving an antenatal check-up, and of receiving specific components including blood pressure measurement, a blood test and urine testing but not the obstetric physical examination, which was however linked to ever-use of family planning and the education of women and their husbands. Thus, pregnant women from poor and uneducated backgrounds with at least one child were the least likely to receive antenatal check-ups and services in the four large north Indian states. Basic antenatal care components are effective means to prevent a range of pregnancy complications and reduce maternal mortality. The findings indicate substantial

  11. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  12. India.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    In this discussion of India attention is directed to the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; the economy; foreign relations (Pakistan and Bangladesh, China, and the Soviet Union); defense; and the relations between the US and India. In 1983 India's population was estimated at 746 million with an annual growth rate of 2.24%. The infant mortality rate was estimated at 116/1000 in 1984 with a life expectancy of 54.9 years. Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports nearly 15% of the world's population. 2 major ethnic strains predominate in India: the Aryan in the north and the Dravidian in the south, although the lines between them are blurred. India dominates the South Asian subcontinent geographically. The people of India have had a continuous civilization since about 2500 B.C., when the inhabitants of the Indus River Valley developed an urban culture based on commerce, trade, and, to a lesser degree, agriculture. This civilization declined about 1500 B.C. and Aryan tribes originating in central Asia absorbed parts of its culture as they spread out over the South Asian subcontinent. During the next few centuries, India flourished under several successive empires. The 1st British outpost in South Asia was established in 1619 at Surat on the northwestern coast of India. The British gradually expanded their influence until, by the 1850s, they controlled almost the entire area of present-day India. Independence was attained on August 15, 1947, and India became a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister. According to its constitution, India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic." Like the US, India has a federal form of government, but the central government in India has greater power in relation to its states, and government is patterned after the British parliamentary system. The Congress Party has ruled India since independence with the

  13. Source process of the Sikkim earthquake 18th September, 2011, inferred from teleseismic body-wave inversion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, A.; Sunil, T. C.

    2014-12-01

    The recent earthquake of Mw 6.9 occurred on September 18, 2011 in Sikkim-Nepal border region. The hypocenter parameters determined by the Indian Meteorological Department shows that the epicentre is at 27.7°N, 88.2°E and focal depth of 58Km, located closed to the north-western terminus of Tista lineament. The reported aftershocks are linearly distributed in between Tista and Golapara lineament. The microscopic and geomorphologic studies infer a dextral strike-slip faulting, possibly along a NW-SE oriented fault. Landslides caused by this earthquake are distributed along Tista lineament . On the basis of the aftershock distribution, Kumar et al. (2012), have suggested possible NW orientation of the causative fault plane. The epicentral region of Sikkim bordered by Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet, comprises a segment of relatively lower level seismicity in the 2500km stretch of the active Himalayan Belt. The north Sikkim earthquake was felt in most parts of Sikkim and eastern Nepal; it killed more than 100 people and caused damage to buildings, roads and communication infrastructure. Through this study we focus on the earthquake source parameters and the kinematic rupture process of this particular event. We used tele-seismic body waveformsto determine the rupture pattern of earthquake. The seismic-rupture pattern are generally complex, and the result could be interpreted in terms of a distribution of asperities and barriers on the particular fault plane (Kikuchi and Kanamori, 1991).The methodology we adopted is based on the teleseismic body wave inversion methodology by Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982, 1986 and 1991). We used tele-seismic P-wave records observed at teleseismic distances between 50° and 90° with a good signal to noise ratio. Teleseismic distances in the range between 50° and 90° were used, in order to avoid upper mantle and core triplications and to limit the path length within the crust. Synthetic waveforms were generated gives a better fit with triangular

  14. The Effect of Early Childhood Developmental Program Attendance on Future School Enrollment in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazarika, Gautam; Viren, Vejoya

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of prior participation in early childhood developmental programs, considered endogenous, upon 7-18 years olds' school enrollment in rural North India. Analyses by age group of data from the World Bank's 1997-98 Survey of Living Conditions in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar reveal that 7-10 year olds, 11-14 year olds, and…

  15. School and "Madrasah" Education: Gender and the Strategies of Muslim Young Men in Rural North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey, Craig; Jeffery, Roger; Jeffery, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural and economic strategies of educated but un/under-employed young Muslim men aged between 20 and 34 in a village in western Uttar Pradesh, north India. Drawing on Connell's gender theory, the paper demonstrates how economic and political forces shape Muslim young men's strategies. The paper distinguishes between…

  16. Complete Genome Sequences of Hepatitis B Virus from North India Using Ion Torrent

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Shantanu; Seth, Akanksha; Jain, Bhawana

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is among the most common causes of liver cirrhosis. We report the full-genome sequences of seven molecular clones of HBV genotype A, amplified from an HBV-infected North Indian patient. This is probably the first report of the HBV genome sequencing using Ion Torrent from India. PMID:26659668

  17. A Tangled Weave: Tracing Outcomes of Education in Rural Women's Lives in North India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for…

  18. Changes in age at marriage of women in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, M

    1992-01-01

    There has been a dramatic increase in age at marriage for women in a rural area of north India. Age at marriage rose from under 12 years before 1930 to about 19 years in 1988, mainly as a result of socioeconomic development and advances in education of women.

  19. Educational Research in North-East India: A Source Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Nirmal; Mittal, Pratibha

    The Northeast region of India has a distinct geophysical structure and concomitant socio-economic development. New educational development initiatives for Northeastern states include bridging gaps in basic minimum services, enhancing teachers training facilities, and preparing state specific holistic plans. This annotated bibliography represents…

  20. Need for Prophylactic Cholecystectomy in Silent Gall Stones in North India.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Alok Vardhan

    2015-09-01

    One of the criteria for recommending cholecystectomy for silent gall stones, is gall stones in regions with high incidence of gall bladder cancer. Both gall stones and gall bladder cancer are common in North India. All tertiary care centres in India report high rates of gall bladder cancer (GBC) incidence and poor treatment outcomes in the majority of cases due to advanced stage of presentation. Csendes of Chile has reported very high incidence of gallbladder cancer in Chile and Bolivia and advocated prophylactic cholecystectomy in asymptomatic patients. Incidence rate of gall bladder cancer in Indian males is equal to that of Chile, whereas in females, the rates are almost double the rates of Chile. Indians have also been found to have high concentrations of heavy metals in gall bladder wall, and antibodies to tumor suppressor genes. In India, gall bladder cancer is the commonest GI cancer in women and fourth commonest cancer overall in the female population. In view of the epidemiology and clinical scenario of gall bladder cancer and proven safety of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, there is a need to act before it is too late in the current rates of gall bladder cancer. This study looks at the evidence correlating gall stones and gall bladder cancer, in relation to India. There is pressing evidence today to justify a strategy of prophylactic cholecystectomy in silent gall stones in North India. Data for this study was selected through an internet based search for literature concerning gall stones and gall bladder cancer in India, and for prophylactic cholecystectomy. PMID:27217672

  1. Genetic similarity between Taenia solium cysticerci collected from the two distant endemic areas in North and North East India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Monika; Devi, Kangjam Rekha; Sehgal, Rakesh; Narain, Kanwar; Mahanta, Jagadish; Malla, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. This study reports genotypic analysis of T. solium cysticerci collected from two different endemic areas of North (Chandigarh) and North East India (Dibrugarh) by the sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The variation in cox1 sequences of samples collected from these two different geographical regions located at a distance of 2585 km was minimal. Alignment of the nucleotide sequences with different species of Taenia showed the similarity with Asian genotype of T. solium. Among 50 isolates, 6 variant nucleotide positions (0.37% of total length) were detected. These results suggest that population in these geographical areas are homogenous.

  2. One new species and a new record of the genus Chordodes (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Yadav, Arun K

    2013-01-01

    Fifteen species of freshwater Nematomorpha have been described from India, five of which belong to the genus Chordodes. This paper describes one new species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha): Chordodes lasuboni and a new record, C. moutoni from North-East India, which raises the total number of described species from India to 17. Chordodes lasuboni is characterized by a novel cuticular pattern in the head region and by the presence of slender, hooked thorn areoles on the body cuticle. Compared to the large size and ecological diversity of India, the nematomorph fauna is regarded as under-sampled and several new species are to be expected.

  3. Mass awareness regarding snake bite induced early morning neuroparalysis can prevent many deaths in North India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rupinder; Dogra, Varundeep; Sharma, Gurudutt; Chauhan, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In North India snake bite deaths are predominantly seen with neurotoxic envenomations (NEs) whereas in South India the hemotoxic envenomation (HE) is more common. Krait is responsible for most deaths in North India. It bites people sleeping on the floors, mostly at night. We describe the profile of venomous snake bites over 1 year in 2013. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a rural tertiary care hospital in North India. Demographics, circumstances of bite, envenomation, first aid, delay, consultation, treatment, anti-venom, and outcomes were recorded for all victims of snake bite. We included all consecutive adult (>18 years) venomous snake bite victims admitted from January to December 2013. Results: A total of 91 patients with venomous snake bites were included in the study. Pure NEs were 41 (45.1%), pure HE in 31 (34.1%), 7 (7.7%) had mixed NE + HE, and 12 (13.2%) had only local swelling. Forty patients (44%) were bitten during sleep presenting as NE (92.5%), NE + HE (5%), and HE (2.5%). Findings in the 51 patients (56%) bitten during activity were HE (58.8%), local swelling (23.5%), NE + HE (9.8%), and NE (7.8%) (P < 0.0001). First aid was sought by 24 NE patients out of which 23 (96%) went to alternate practitioners or religious healers. Conclusion: Almost all (97.5%) bites during sleep resulted in NE in our study. About 96% of NE sought first aid from alternate practitioners or religious healers in hope of some magical treatment. Thus, a deadly combination of krait bite during sleep and wrong health seeking behavior is responsible for high mortality krait bites in this region. Mass public awareness regarding krait bites can prevent mortality in many such cases. PMID:27722112

  4. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  5. Tonal hierarchies in the music of north India.

    PubMed

    Castellano, M A; Bharucha, J J; Krumhansl, C L

    1984-09-01

    Cross-culturally, most music is tonal in the sense that one particular tone, called the tonic, provides a focus around which the other tones are organized. The specific organizational structures around the tonic show considerable diversity. Previous studies of the perceptual response to Western tonal music have shown that listeners familiar with this musical tradition have internalized a great deal about its underlying organization. Krumhansl and Shepard (1979) developed a probe tone method for quantifying the perceived hierarchy of stability of tones. When applied to Western tonal contexts, the measured hierarchies were found to be consistent with music-theoretic accounts. In the present study, the probe tone method was used to quantify the perceived hierarchy of tones of North Indian music. Indian music is tonal and has many features in common with Western music. One of the most significant differences is that the primary means of expressing tonality in Indian music is through melody, whereas in Western music it is through harmony (the use of chords). Indian music is based on a standard set of melodic forms (called rags), which are themselves built on a large set of scales (thats). The tones within a rag are thought to be organized in a hierarchy of importance. Probe tone ratings were given by Indian and Western listeners in the context of 10 North Indian rags. These ratings confirmed the predicted hierarchical ordering. Both groups of listeners gave the highest ratings to the tonic and the fifth degree of the scale. These tones are considered by Indian music theorists to be structurally significant, as they are immovable tones around which the scale system is constructed, and they are sounded continuously in the drone. Relatively high ratings were also given to the vadi tone, which is designated for each rag and is given emphasis in the melody. The ratings of both groups of listeners generally reflected the pattern of tone durations in the musical contexts. This

  6. Prevalence of peste des petits ruminants in goats in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, V; Das, Sutopa; Raju, D S N; Chakravarty, Indirani; Nagalingam, M; Hemadri, D; Govindaraj, G; Ibotombi Singh, N; Ltu, Keduzol; Devi, Maitryee; Sharma, K; Gajendragad, M R; Rahman, H

    2014-12-01

    The present study describes prevalence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus infection in goats in various parts of North-East (NE) India by screening of suspected serum samples collected during outbreak investigation and random samples during 2013-2014 survey. A total of 391 serum samples (318 random and 73 outbreak/suspected) were collected from 28 districts in 7 states (Meghalaya, Assam, Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura and Mizoram) of NE India. Serum samples were screened for PPRV-specific antibodies by using PPR monoclonal-antibody based competitive ELISA. Analysis of 391 serum samples indicates that an overall seroprevalence of 17.90 % [CI 95 % 14.40-22.00] in goats {45.2 % in suspected [CI 95 % 34.32-56.58] and 11.63 % in random [CI 95 % 8.56-15.63] samples} in NE India. As expected prevalence was high in outbreaks vis-à-vis random samples. The random survey results (11.63 %) has specific implication in epidemiological perspectives, since it highlights the exact PPR prevalence under natural situations, where the subclinical, in apparent or nonlethal or recovery of infection was suspected in goats, as samples were collected from unvaccinated animals. It also warrants appropriate control measures against PPR in NE region to prevent spread of infection besides widespread presence of the disease in rest of India. PMID:25674627

  7. Farmer's response to changing climate in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Utpal Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Diversification of land use in the cultivation of various crops provides an alternative way to moderate the climate risk. By choosing alternative crops that are resilient to various weather parameters, farmers can reduce the crop damage and achieve optimum output from their limited land resources. Apart from other adaptation measures, crop diversity can reflect farmers' response towards changing climate uncertainty. This paper tries to examine the changing climatic condition through spatio-temporal variation of two important weather variables (precipitation and temperature) in the largest North-East Indian state, Assam, since 1950. It is examined by the variation in crop diversification index. We have used (1) Herfindahl Index for measuring degree of diversification and (2) locational quotient for measuring the changes in the regional crop concentration. The results show that, in almost all the districts, crop specialization has been taking place slowly and that happened mostly in the last phase of our study. The hilly and backward districts recorded more diversification but towards lower value crops. It goes against the normal feature of crop diversification where farmers diversify in favour of high value crops. Employing ordinary least squares method and/or Fixed Effect model, irrigation is found to have significant impact on crop diversification; while the flood plain zones and hill zones are found to have better progress in this regard, which has been due to the survival necessity of poor farmers living the zone. Thus crop diversity does not reflect very significant response from the farmers' side towards changing weather factors (except rainfall) though they have significant impact on the productivity of various crops, and thus profitability. The study thus suggests the necessity for rapid and suitable diversification as alternative climate change mitigation in the long run.

  8. Population structure of Aggarwals of north India as revealed by molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vipin; Khadgawat, Rajesh; Ng, Hon Keung Tony; Kumar, Satish; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra; Sachdeva, Mohinder Pal

    2010-12-01

    Using molecular genetic data on Aggarwals (Vaish/Vysya), an endogamous population group of north India, we provide evidence of its homogeneous unstratified population structure. We found the mean average heterozygosity value of 0.33 for 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms belonging to four genes (TCF7L2-, HHEX-, KCNJ11-, and ADIPOQ-) in the Aggarwal population (sample of 184 individuals) and tried to evaluate the genomic efficiency of endogamy in this population with the help of clan-based stratified analysis. We concluded that the sociocultural identity of the endogamous population groups could act as a robust proxy maker for inferring their homogeneity and population structure in India, which is ideal also for population selection for future genome-wide association studies in the country.

  9. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in north and south India.

    PubMed

    Haggar, Axana; Nerlich, Andreas; Kumar, Rajesh; Abraham, Vinod J; Brahmadathan, Kootallur N; Ray, Pallab; Dhanda, Vanita; Joshua, John Melbin Jose; Mehra, Narinder; Bergmann, Rene; Chhatwal, G Singh; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2012-05-01

    The lack of epidemiologic data on invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in many developing countries is concerning, as S. pyogenes infections are commonly endemic in these areas. Here we present the results of the first prospective surveillance study of invasive Streptococcus pyogenes infections in India. Fifty-four patients with invasive S. pyogenes infections were prospectively enrolled at two study sites, one in the north and one in the south of India. Sterile-site isolates were collected, and clinical information was documented using a standardized questionnaire. Available acute-phase sera were tested for their ability to inhibit superantigens produced by the patient's own isolate using a cell-based neutralizing assay. The most common clinical presentations were bacteremia without focus (30%), pneumonia (28%), and cellulitis (17%). Only two cases of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and no cases of necrotizing fasciitis were identified. Characterization of the isolates revealed great heterogeneity, with 32 different emm subtypes and 29 different superantigen gene profiles being represented among the 49 sterile-site isolates. Analyses of acute-phase sera showed that only 20% of the cases in the north cohort had superantigen-neutralizing activity in their sera, whereas 50% of the cases from the south site had neutralizing activity. The results demonstrate that there are important differences in both clinical presentation and strain characteristics between invasive S. pyogenes infections in India and invasive S. pyogenes infections in Western countries. The findings underscore the importance of epidemiologic studies on streptococcal infections in India and have direct implications for current vaccine developments.

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in North India.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Valentina; Mahant, Shweta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Das, Kunal; De, Ronita; Kar, Premashis; Das, Rajashree

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases are very common in India. Antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics against H. pylori is increasing very rapidly. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of H. pylori strains from India against commonly used antibiotics in H. pylori treatment. Helicobacter pylori were cultured from 68 patients suffering from various gastroduodenal diseases in North India. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. The clinical diagnosis of the 68 patients who were H. pylori culture-positive were gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (n=23), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=22), non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (n=13), antral gastritis (n=3), duodenal ulcer (n=2) and others (n=5). Of the 68 H. pylori isolates, 20 (29.4%) showed no resistance. The prevalence of drug resistance was 70.6%, including resistance to metronidazole (48.5%), furazolidone (22.1%), amoxicillin (17.6%), tetracycline (16.2%) and clarithromycin (11.8%). Dual and multiple drug resistance were found in 26.5% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the isolated H. pylori strains showed resistance to at least one of the antibiotics for H. pylori treatment. Metronidazole resistance was most prevalent amongst the isolates tested. Emergence of dual and multidrug resistance is of great concern and there is an urgent need for regular antibiotic resistance surveillance studies. Amoxicillin- and clarithromycin-based anti-H. pylori regimens commonly prescribed for triple therapy in India show least resistance and hence are appropriate for anti-H. pylori management in India. PMID:27436467

  11. Genetic diversity within ITS-1 region of Eimeria species infecting chickens of north India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saroj; Garg, Rajat; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Sunil; Mandal, M

    2015-12-01

    Coccidiosis, caused by apicomplexan parasites of the genus Eimeria, inflicts severe economic losses to the poultry industry around the globe. In the present study, ITS-1 based species specific nested PCR revealed prevalence of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. maxima, E. mitis, E. praecox, E. necatrix and E. tenella in 79.2%, 12.5%, 64.6%, 89.6%, 60.4%, 64.6% and 97.9% poultry farms of north India, respectively. The ITS-1 sequences of different Eimeria spp. from north India were generated and analyzed to establish their phylogenetic relationship. The sequence identity with available sequences ranged from 80 to 100% in E. tenella, 95 to 100% in E. acervulina, 64 to 97% in E. necatrix, 96 to 99% in E. brunetti and 97 to 98% in E. mitis. Only long ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima could be generated in the present study and it had 80-100% identity with published sequences. Two out of the four ITS-1 sequences of E. maxima had mismatches in the published nested primer sequences from Australia, while one sequence of E. necatrix had a mismatch near 3' end of both forward and reverse published nested primer sequences, warranting for the need of designing new set of degenerate primers for these two species of Eimeria. In the phylogenetic tree, all isolates of E. acervulina, E. brunetti, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. necatrix clustered in separate clades with high bootstrap value. E. maxima sequences of north Indian isolates grouped in a long form of E. maxima clade. Complete ITS-1 sequences of E. necatrix and E. mitis are reported for the first time from India. Further studies are required with more number of isolates to verify whether these differences are unique to geographical locations.

  12. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-chromosomal STRs in Saraswat Brahmin Community of North India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhuvnesh; Raina, Anupuma; Dogra, Tirath Das

    2011-06-01

    In this study, 17 Y-specific STR loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385a/b, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y_GATA_H4) were analyzed in 181 unrelated male individuals from three North Indian states. A total of 157 different 17-loci haplotypes were identified, 145 of which were unique. The most frequent haplotype was detected in nine instances, occurring with a frequency of 4.97%. These results, including the haplotype data at 17 Y-STR loci in the present study, provide useful information for forensic practice in the Saraswat Brahmin population in North India. PMID:20971692

  13. Role of Libraries in Disaster Management: Experience from North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpathy, K. C.

    2007-10-01

    India is a large country and prone to a number of natural hazards. Among all the natural hazards that that country faces, river floods are the most frequent and devastating. A shortfall in rainfall causes droughts or drought-like situations in various parts of the country. The country has suffered some severe earthquakes causing widespread damage to life and property. India has a coastline of about 8000 km which is prone to very severe cyclonic formations in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Another major problem faced by the country takes the form of landslides and avalanches. All the major disasters directly or indirectly affect libraries. With an increasing interest in spreading a culture of prevention in the field of disaster management, considerable emphasis is now being placed on research and development activities in the area of information technology for disaster preparedness and prevention. This has brought a significant positive change even through the number and frequency of disasters in this country has increased. The library can play a significant role in spreading awareness of disaster management. Keeping the above facts in mind the author describes a disaster and the role of Information technology in reducing its impact. The paper also describes the role of libraries in the management of the disaster. The author shares his personal experience of how North East India deals with disaster management. Finally, the future vision of disaster management is outlined.

  14. Unprecedented hailstorms over north peninsular India during February-March 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, J. R.; Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Padmakumari, B.; Sunitha Devi, S.; Rajeevan, M.

    2015-04-01

    Unprecedented, widespread, and devastating hailstorms occurred during February and March 2014 over north peninsular India (study area). A diagnostic study has been carried out to understand the causes for the same. Over the study area the atmosphere was convectively unstable due to the incursion of warm and moist air from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea which was overlaid by cold and dry midlatitude westerlies caused due to the unusual upper oceanic heat content of the Pacific Ocean. At the surface and lower levels, anticyclonic flow over the central India produced easterly winds and cyclonic circulation over Arabian Sea at 850 hPa level produced westerly winds over the peninsular India. Meeting of these winds caused convergence of moist air in the lower levels. The troughs in the upper level westerlies provided the divergence in the upper levels. As a consequence of this convergence/divergence structure, synoptic-scale slow rising motion occurred over the study region. This released the convective instability to cause deep and wide convection with cloud bases at ~1500 m above mean sea level and tops well above the freezing level. Release of latent heat of deposition of water vapor provided extra buoyancy and produced strong updrafts causing explosive growth of the clouds reaching to very high levels and formation of large hails in the clouds. This atmospheric setup was a result of combined effect of planetary and synoptic forcings which persisted for ~3 weeks.

  15. Fertility and mortality differentials among selected tribal population groups of north-western and eastern India.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, A K; Kshatriya, G K

    2000-04-01

    Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for six tribal groups inhabiting different geo-climatic conditions, namely: Sahariya, Mina and Bhil of the State of Rajasthan, north-western India, and Munda, Santal and Lodha of the State of West Bengal, eastern India. Irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among Lodhas (0.668), followed by Sahariyas (0.524), Santals (0.462), Bhils (0.386), Mundas (0.353) and Minas (0.334). Incidentally, Lodha and Sahariya are two of the seventy-four notified primitive tribal groups of India, and these two study populations show the highest index of total selection, mainly because of a higher embryonic and postnatal mortality. The relative contribution of the fertility component to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding mortality component in all tribal groups. The analysis of postnatal mortality components indicates that childhood mortality constitutes the bulk of postnatal mortality, suggesting that children under 5 years need better health care in these tribal groups. PMID:10765614

  16. Disjunctive Grade Variation from Greenschist to Granulite Facies, Siyom Valley, Eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, G. L.; Bhowmik, S. K.; Aitchison, J. C.; Ireland, T. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Siyom Valley section in eastern Arunachal Pradesh exposes an inverted metamorphic succession (Nandini & Thakur, 2011), metapelitic assemblages increasing in grade northwards from chlorite, through biotite, garnet-staurolite and kyanite-bearing schist to kyanite-sillimanite migmatite. Grade changes are mostly controlled by shallowly north, and northwest-dipping fault structures. Two textural stages of garnet growth can be identified in the ilmenite-bearing amphibolite facies rocks, staurolite having formed late in, or after, deformation responsible for the main penetrative foliation (S2). Kyanite and rutile inclusions in garnet indicate that their growth in migmatite preceded that of matrix sillimanite, ilmenite and cordierite, though unrecrystallized kyanite is also common in the feldspathic matrix. Preliminary data indicate the pronounced tectonic thinning of metasedimentary protoliths during exhumation, and the probability of a pronounced step in grade in the middle part of the river section. Similarities with sections in the Sikkim (Dasgupta et al., 2004) and western Arunachal Pradesh (Goswami et al., 2009) Himalaya reflect the lateral continuity of the south-vergent thrusts that controlled the exhumation of the high-grade rocks, with debate concerning the location and significance of the Main Central Thrust zone begging protolith and metamorphic age data. Dasgupta, S.,Ganguly, J. & Neogi, S., 2004. Inverted metamorphic sequence in the Sikkim Himalayas: crystallization history, P-T gradient and implications. Journal of Metamorphic Geology, 22, 395-412. Goswami, S., Bhowmik, S.K. & Dasgupta, S., 2009. Petrology of a non-classical Barrovian inverted metamorphic sequence from the western Arunachal Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 36, 390-406. Nandini, P. & Thakur, S.S., 2011. Metamorphic evolution of the Lesser Himalayan Crystalline Sequence, Siyom Valley, NE Himalaya, India. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 40, 1089-1100

  17. Gender-Based Power and Couples' HIV Risk in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Alpna; Bloom, Shelah S.; Suchindran, Chirayath; Curtis, Sian; Angeles, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Context Gender inequality is a long-recognized driver of the HIV epidemic. However, few studies have investigated the association between gender-based power and HIV risk in India, which has the world's third largest HIV epidemic. Methods Population-based data collected in 2003 from 3,385 couples residing in Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand, North India, were used to examine associations between gender-based power (wife's autonomy and husband's inequitable gender attitudes) and indicators of couples' HIV risk (whether the husband had had premarital sex with someone other than his eventual spouse, extramarital sex in the past year or STI symptoms in the past year). Structural equation modeling was used to create composite variables for the gender-based power measures and test their associations with HIV risk measures. Results Twenty-four percent of husbands had had premarital sex, 7% had had extramarital sex in the past year and 6% had had STI symptoms in the past year. Structural equation models indicated that wives who reported higher levels of autonomy were less likely than other wives to have husbands who had had extramarital sex in the past year (direct association) and STI symptoms in the past year (indirect association). Moreover, husbands who endorsed more inequitable gender attitudes were more likely than others to report having had premarital sex with someone other than their spouse, which in turn was associated with having had extramarital sex and STI symptoms in the past year. Conclusions If the associations identified in this study reflect a causal relationship between gender-based power and HIV risk behavior, then HIV prevention programs that successfully address inequitable gender roles may reduce HIV risks in North India. PMID:25565347

  18. e-Agriculture Prototype for Knowledge Facilitation among Tribal Farmers of North-East India: Innovations, Impact and Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raj, Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This case study deals with the implementation methodology, innovations and lessons of the ICT initiative in providing agricultural extension services to the rural tribal farming community of North-East India. Methodology: This study documents the ICT project implementation challenges, impact among farmers and briefly indicates lessons of…

  19. Sero-Epidemiological Survey of Human Cystic Echinococcosis in Kashmir, North India

    PubMed Central

    Fomda, Bashir Ahmad; Khan, Asiya; Thokar, Manzoor Ahmad; Malik, Ajaz Ahmad; Fazili, Anjum; Dar, Rayees Ahmad; Sharma, Monika; Malla, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Echinococcosis is a human and animal health problem in many endemic areas worldwide. There are numerous reports and hospital-based studies from Kashmir, North India, yet there has been no epidemiological study conducted in Kashmir, the apparently endemic area for human hydatidosis. This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of hydatid infection in Kashmir Valley and to find out association of risk factors for acquisition of this infection. Methodology Fourteen hundred and twenty-nine samples were collected from different districts in the Kashmir region (North India) using systematic random sampling. The 130 control samples included were from apparently healthy blood donors (100), patients with other parasitic infections (20), surgically confirmed hydatidosis patients (5), and apparently healthy subjects excluded for hydatidosis and intestinal parasitic infections (5). Hydatid-specific IgG antibody was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and seropositive samples were analysed further by Western blotting. Results Out of 1,429 samples, 72 (5.03%) were IgG positive by ELISA. The percentage occurrence of the highly immunoreactive antigenic fractions in IgG ELISA positive samples was 57 kDa (72.2%) followed by 70 kDa (66.7%) and 39kDa (58.3%) by immunoblotting. Samples with other parasitic infections were reactive with the cluster of 54-59 kDa antigenic fractions. Age <15 years, male gender, contact with dog, and rural residence were the most significant factors associated with the seropositivity. Conclusion The study revealed that 72 (5.03%) out of 1,429 subjects asymptomatic for hydatidosis were seropositve to E.granulosus antigen by ELISA. Western blot analysis of 72 ELISA seropositive samples showed that 66.7% and 58.3% of samples were immunoreactive with 70 and 39kDa specific antigenic fractions, respectively. The seropositivity was significantly higher (5.79%) in the younger age group (<15 years) as compared to the 16-55 years (4

  20. Essential oil composition of two unique ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) cultivars from Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Indu; Venugopal, V V; Menon, A Nirmala

    2012-01-01

    Volatile oils from two most popular cultivars from Sikkim namely, Bhaisa and Majulay, were isolated, characterised by analytical GC and GC-MS. Sixty constituents accounting for 94.9% and 92.6% of the Bhaisa and Majulay oils were identified. The major compounds of Bhaisa oil were geranyl acetate (18.8%), zingiberene (16.3%) and geranial (8.2%) and those of Majulay oil were zingiberene (19.8%) and geranial (16.5%). Compared to other ginger cultivar oils, the Bhaisa oil had higher content of oxygenated compounds (43.1%). This is the first report on the essential oils from Sikkim ginger cultivars. PMID:21985708

  1. 2001 Bhuj, India, earthquake engineering seismoscope recordings and Eastern North America ground-motion attenuation relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Engineering seismoscope data collected at distances less than 300 km for the M 7.7 Bhuj, India, mainshock are compatible with ground-motion attenuation in eastern North America (ENA). The mainshock ground-motion data have been corrected to a common geological site condition using the factors of Joyner and Boore (2000) and a classification scheme of Quaternary or Tertiary sediments or rock. We then compare these data to ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. Despite uncertainties in recording method, geological site corrections, common tectonic setting, and the amount of regional seismic attenuation, the corrected Bhuj dataset agrees with the collective predictions by ENA ground-motion attenuation relations within a factor of 2. This level of agreement is within the dataset uncertainties and the normal variance for recorded earthquake ground motions.

  2. Polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of CTC black tea of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Baruah, Binoti Devi; Bordoloi, Cinmoy; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2013-12-15

    Sixty black tea samples from different agro climatic zones of northeast India were assessed for biochemical constituents that determine quality and also influence organoleptic perception. The antioxidant activities such as α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhibition, nitrite scavenging and super oxide scavenging, of the collected samples were analysed. Out of the four antioxidant activities, the super oxide scavenging activity was lowest and nitrite scavenging activity was highest. Theaflavin was significantly and positively correlated with nitrite scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. Thearubigins showed a significant positive correlation only with nitrite scavenging activity. Correlations between relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI) and TF, TR and tasters' quality were positive and significant. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. Principal component analysis showed that Upper Assam, North Bank and South Bank produced better quality tea than other regions with respect to TF, TR, RACI and tasters' quality. PMID:23993544

  3. Molecular and morphological diversity in locally grown non-commercial (heirloom) mango varieties of North India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anju; Muthukumar, M; Ahmad, Israr; Ravishankar, K V; Parthasarthy, V A; Sthapit, Bhuwon; Rao, Ramanatha; Verma, J P; Rajan, S

    2016-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been cultivated and conserved in different agro-ecologies including Malihabad region in northern part of India, that is well known for housing diverse types (heirloom and commercial varieties). In the present study, 37 mango types comprising of 27 heirloom varieties from Malihabad region and 10 commercial varieties grown in North and Eastern India were assessed for morphological attributes and molecular diversity. The employed SSR markers amplified 2-13 alleles individually, cumulatively amplifying 124 alleles. These were studied for allelic diversity and genetic dissimilarity ranged from 0.035 to 0.892 arranging the varieties in three major clusters. The results revealed that majority of unique heirloom mangoes from Malihabad were different from the eastern part of the country. It is interesting to note Dashehari, a commercial variety from Malihabad was not aligned with heirloom varieties. Commercial varieties like Gulabkhas and Langra were placed in a separate group including Bombay Green, Himsagar, Dashehari, etc., indicating their dissimilarity with heirloom varieties at molecular level and thus, indicating importance for later from conservation point of view. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering of varieties based on fruit morphology, assembled these into four groups largely influenced by fruit size. The maximum agreement subtree indicated seemingly good fit as thirteen varieties were arrayed in common grouping pattern. Appreciable dissimilarity among the heirloom varieties demonstrated by molecular analysis, underlines the importance for their on-farm conservation. PMID:27097441

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice about Research Ethics among Dental Faculty in the North India

    PubMed Central

    Mallela, Kiran Kumar; Walia, Rachit; TM, Chaitra Devi; Das, Maneesha; Sepolia, Shipra; Sethi, Priyank

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research activities in dentistry are increased greatly in India during the recent decade, but there is limited of information about the knowledge and attitude of dental faculty for research ethics. To assess the knowledge and attitudes of dental faculty of North India regarding research ethics. Materials and Methods: Through convenience sampling, a questionnaire was sent either via printed copies or E-mails to 1240 dental faculty, while protecting confidentiality and anonymity of all the participants. Results: Our response rate was 76% (942). Majority (>90%) are aware of ethical committee but have poor knowledge (8-35%) about various ethical guidelines laid down at international level; however almost 20% believe that research ethics committees would delay research. A large number of researchers (78%) want some training in research ethics. There is fair knowledge about informed consent among researchers. Conclusions: We conclude that ethical norms should be strictly followed by giving due respect to confidentiality or privacy of research participants to achieve the goal of minimal risks and maximum benefits to patients and there is need of training to researchers and students to make them aware about various research principles. PMID:26668482

  5. Spatial Correlations of Malaria Incidence Hotspots with Environmental Factors in Assam, North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handique, Bijoy K.; Khan, Siraj A.; Dutta, Prafulla; Nath, Manash J.; Qadir, Abdul; Raju, P. L. N.

    2016-06-01

    Malaria is endemic and a major public health problem in north east (NE) region of India and contributes about 8-12 % of India's malaria positives cases. Historical morbidity pattern of malaria in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence) in the state of Assam has been used for delineating the malaria incidence hotspots at health sub centre (HSC) level. Strong spatial autocorrelation (p < 0.01) among the HSCs have been observed in terms of API (Annual Parasite Incidence). Malaria incidence hot spots in the state could be identified based on General G statistics and tested for statistical significance. Spatial correlation of malaria incidence hotspots with physiographic and climatic parameters across 6 agro-climatic zones of the state reveals the types of land cover pattern and the range of elevation contributing to the malaria outbreaks. Analysis shows that villages under malaria hotspots are having more agricultural land, evergreen/semi-evergreen forests with abundant waterbodies. Statistical and spatial analyses of malaria incidence showed a significant positive correlation with malaria incidence hotspots and the elevation (p < 0.05) with villages under malaria hotspots are having average elevation ranging between 17 to 240 MSL. This conforms to the characteristics of two dominant mosquito species in the state Anopheles minimus and An. baimai that prefers the habitat of slow flowing streams in the foot hills and in forest ecosystems respectively.

  6. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  7. Molecular and morphological diversity in locally grown non-commercial (heirloom) mango varieties of North India.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Anju; Muthukumar, M; Ahmad, Israr; Ravishankar, K V; Parthasarthy, V A; Sthapit, Bhuwon; Rao, Ramanatha; Verma, J P; Rajan, S

    2016-03-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) has been cultivated and conserved in different agro-ecologies including Malihabad region in northern part of India, that is well known for housing diverse types (heirloom and commercial varieties). In the present study, 37 mango types comprising of 27 heirloom varieties from Malihabad region and 10 commercial varieties grown in North and Eastern India were assessed for morphological attributes and molecular diversity. The employed SSR markers amplified 2-13 alleles individually, cumulatively amplifying 124 alleles. These were studied for allelic diversity and genetic dissimilarity ranged from 0.035 to 0.892 arranging the varieties in three major clusters. The results revealed that majority of unique heirloom mangoes from Malihabad were different from the eastern part of the country. It is interesting to note Dashehari, a commercial variety from Malihabad was not aligned with heirloom varieties. Commercial varieties like Gulabkhas and Langra were placed in a separate group including Bombay Green, Himsagar, Dashehari, etc., indicating their dissimilarity with heirloom varieties at molecular level and thus, indicating importance for later from conservation point of view. Furthermore, the hierarchical clustering of varieties based on fruit morphology, assembled these into four groups largely influenced by fruit size. The maximum agreement subtree indicated seemingly good fit as thirteen varieties were arrayed in common grouping pattern. Appreciable dissimilarity among the heirloom varieties demonstrated by molecular analysis, underlines the importance for their on-farm conservation.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Echinococcosis from food producing animals in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Balbir Bagicha; Sharma, Jagdish Kamal; Ghatak, Sandeep; Sharma, Rajnish; Bal, Mandeep Singh; Tuli, Aashuma; Gill, Jatinder Paul Singh

    2012-05-25

    Echinococcosis is an important medical, veterinary and economic concern in India. Ten cysts were randomly selected from each intermediate host species (cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat and pigs). Either the germinal layer (sterile cysts) or protoscoleces (fertile cysts) were collected for molecular characterization. A 434 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-1 gene was amplified using PCR from each isolate. Ten representative samples (2 from each intermediate host species) were sequenced in both the directions from which readable sequences were obtained from nine for phylogenetic analysis (NCBI, Blast). Phylogenetic analysis of cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that seven (77.7%) isolates, from cattle (2), pigs (2), buffaloes (1) and goat (2) were clustered with the Indian Buffalo (G3) strain of Echinococcus granulosus, while two (22.2%) isolates from sheep were clustered with the sheep strain (G1) of E. granulosus. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytochrome oxidase-1 gene revealed that the buffalo strain (G3) and common sheep strain (G1) are cycling among livestock in north India and that these strains are highly adapted to cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats and pigs.

  9. Distribution of Hepatitis B virus genotypes among healthy blood donors in eastern part of North India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Kailash; Kumar, Manoj; Rahaman, Sk. H.; Singh, T. B.; Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We evaluated the distribution HBV genotypes among non-remunerated healthy blood donors in eastern North India. Materials and Methods: During screening of donated blood, 176 consecutive HBsAg positive, samples comprised the study. HBV-DNA was quantitative detected in 150 samples by PCR. HBV genotype was determined by identifying genotype-specific DNA band using nested PCR. Results: Majorities were of age group 31-40 yrs (65.3%). Males (92.7%) outnumbered females (7.3%) and were HbeAg-negative HBsAg carriers. Over all, genotype-A was the most prevalent (54%) followed by D (21.3%). We did not find genotype-G and H. Districts under study, divided into four zones: Zone–I genotype-A was most common (62.3%) followed by D (18.8%); Zone–II genotype–C (41.2%) was more frequent followed by D (20.6% and A (17.7%). Zone–III in adjoining Bihar state close to Zone–I, A was more prevalent (81.8%) followed by B and C (9.1%). In Zone-IV adjoining Zone- II had genotype-A (100%) only. Genotype–D had more sporadic distribution. Genotype-E and F were prevalent in Zone I and II (3/150, 2%). Conclusions: Among blood donors HBV genotype-A followed by D was the most prevalent in eastern North India. Genotype–A had pattern of distribution signifying common focus, while D was more sporadic and C had single large pocket (Zone-II) probably common focus but restricting to particular area. Evidences are suggestive of association of HBV genotype in liver dysfunction. An effective treatment and preventive strategies based of genotypes will reduce the disease burden and increase the blood safety. PMID:21897593

  10. Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorder and alternative medicine therapies among dentists of North India: A descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Mathur, Amit; Patil, Gaurav I.; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Jain, Ankita; Jaggi, Namita; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Garg, Purnima

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Health professionals especially the dental professional are the frequent targets of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD). Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can be of some help in managing these MSD especially in. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of CAM therapies as a treatment modality for MSD management among dental professionals of north India. Materials and Methods: Registered dentist of North Indian origin, India (n = 3598) were included in the study. The questionnaire was sent to all the dentists which consisted of the demographic profile, MSD in the past year, CAM therapies utilization and opinion about CAM therapies. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 21 and data were presented in tabular and graphic form. Test of significance was done using chi-square statistics with P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: A response rate of 80% (n = 2879) was obtained, and all complained of MDS in some or the other part of their life. The use of CAM was reported among 70% (n = 2015) of the dentist who suffered from MSD. Other dentists either used conventional treatment or did not use anything. Conclusion: As the name implies, alternative medical systems is a category that extends beyond a single modality and refers to an entire system of theory and practice that developed separately from conventional medicine. CAM should be subject to rigorous scientific inquiry so that interventions that work are systematically distinguished from those that do not. In addition, the use of CAM treatments should be based on evidence of effectiveness and safety as demonstrated in randomized clinical trials. PMID:26692749

  11. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie

    This text examines India's rich and long history, then uses this perspective to focus on present day problems and aspirations. It forces students to reevaluate their stereotyped images of India by presenting a nation that has striven to recover from a past of colonial domination, is presently faced with regional ethnic discord and disparity, and…

  12. India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semaan, Leslie; Lightman, Kathleen

    Not only is India one of the oldest continuous civilizations in the world, it has also become one of the greatest industrial nations. This package explores India's heritage, its people, and the traumatic changes of the 20th century. Contents include: Introduction, Climate, The Land, Cities, Agriculture, Rural Life, History, Religions, Dress, Food,…

  13. Coda Q Attenuation and Source Parameters Analysis in North East India Using Local Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, A. K.; Mohanty, W. K.; Earthquake Seismology

    2010-12-01

    and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) : Qc= 301 f 0.87, Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc=126 fo 0.85. It indicates Northeastern India is seismically active but comparing of all zones in the study region the Shillong Plateau Zone (SPZ): Qc= 126 f 0.85 is seismically most active. Where as the Bengal Alluvium and Arakan-Yuma Zone (BAZ) are less active and out of three the Tibetan Plateau Zone (TPZ)is intermediate active. This study may be useful for the seismic hazard assessment. The estimated seismic moments (Mo), range from 5.98×1020 to 3.88×1023 dyne-cm. The source radii(r) are confined between 152 to 1750 meter, the stress drop ranges between 0.0003×103 bar to 1.04×103 bar, the average radiant energy is 82.57×1018 ergs and the strain drop for the earthquake ranges from 0.00602×10-9 to 2.48×10-9 respectively. The estimated stress drop values for NE India depicts scattered nature of the larger seismic moment value whereas, they show a more systematic nature for smaller seismic moment values. The estimated source parameters are in agreement to previous works in this type of tectonic set up. Key words: Coda wave, Seismic source parameters, Lapse time, single back scattering model, Brune's model, Stress drop and North East India.

  14. Determination of Causative fault for 2011 Sikkim-Nepal border earthquake using GPS baseline observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, S. K.; Pradhan, R.; Kumar, A.; Chopra, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 6.9 Sikkim earthquake occurred on Sikkim-Nepal border at 12:40:48 UTC (epicenter 27.72°N, 88.06°E, depth 20.7 km. ~68 km NW of the Capital city Gangtok) on September 18th 2011. The recent earthquake that struck in Sikkim Himalaya is the strongest earthquake since the instrumentally recorded history. As a result, it is a good opportunity to study the earthquake. The fault plane solution of the earthquake indicates a strike-slip fault motion on either NE-SW or NW-SE nodal plane. The seismological and geological studies so far carried out after Sikkim earthquake could not confirm the causative fault plane. In present study GPS observation are used to ascertain the role of tectonics structure in the generation of the earthquake and its correlation with the seismicity of the region. The coseismic displacements recorded by GPS show maximal displacement of about 1 cm at Tapeljung, near the epicenter. We employ a simple rigid cross fault model with GPS baseline observations to figure out the causative source fault and seismological behavior of the earthquake. It has been observed that the movement represents of the kinematic adjustment of the subsidiary fault as a result of the displacement along the principal fault. In addition, a significant part of the measured deformation across the surface fault zone for this earthquake can be attributed to postseismic creep.

  15. Identification of new cytotypes of Valeriana jatamansi Jones, 1970 (Valerianaceae) from North-Western Himalayan region of India

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Savita; Sharma, Tilak Raj; Kapila, Rakesh; Chahota, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Valeriana jatamansi, a medicinally important species of the family Valerianaceae, has been cytologically studied in different geographical areas of North-Western Himalayan region of India. The tetraploid cytotype with chromosome numbers 2n=32 is in conformity with the earlier reports of the species from different parts of the world. An octoploid cytotype (2n=64) makes a new addition for the species on a worldwide basis, whereas the diploid cytotype (2n=16) is new to India have been reported for the first time in India. These cytotypes (2n=16, 32, 64) show significant variations with respect to morphology as well as geographical distribution in the Western Indian Himalayas. Further, anomalous populations have been marked with meiotic abnormalities in the form of cytomixis, chromosomal stickiness, unoriented bivalents, formation of laggards and bridges resulting in abnormal microsporogenesis, and production of heterogeneous-sized fertile pollen grains along with reduced pollen fertility. PMID:26753070

  16. Health care inequities in north India: Role of public sector in universalizing health care

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Kanavos, Panos; Kumar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Income inequality is associated with poor health. Inequities exist in service utilization and financing for health care. Health care costs push high number of households into poverty in India. We undertook this study to ascertain inequities in health status, service utilization and out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures in two States in north India namely, Haryana and Punjab, and Union Territory of Chandigarh. Methods: Data from National Sample Survey 60th Round on Morbidity and Health Care were analyzed by mean consumption expenditure quintiles. Indicators were devised to document inequities in the dimensions of horizontal and vertical inequity; and redistribution of public subsidy. Concentration index (CI), and equity ratio in conjunction with concentration curve were computed to measure inequity. Results: Reporting of morbidity and hospitalization rate had a pro-rich distribution in all three States indicating poor utilization of health services by low income households. Nearly 57 and 60 per cent households from poorest income quintile in Haryana and Punjab, respectively faced catastrophic OOP hospitalization expenditure at 10 per cent threshold. Lower prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was recorded in higher income groups. Public sector also incurred high costs for hospitalization in selected three States. Medicines constituted 19 to 47 per cent of hospitalization expenditure and 59 to 86 per cent OPD expenditure borne OOP by households in public sector. Public sector hospitalizations had a pro-poor distribution in Haryana, Punjab and Chandigarh. Interpretation & conclusions: Our analysis indicates that public sector health service utilization needs to be improved. OOP health care expenditures at public sector institutions should to be curtailed to improve utilization of poorer segments of population. Greater availability of medicines in public sector and regulation of their prices provide a unique opportunity to reduce public

  17. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India.

    PubMed

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment initiation

  18. Medical barriers to emergency contraception: a cross-sectional survey of doctors in North India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M E; Dixit, Anvita; Bhatnagar, Isha; Brady, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some medical doctors in India have publicly expressed opposition to making emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) easily accessible, even though ECPs are included in the method mix of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare program and as an over-the-counter (OTC) product. Such opposition affects access to ECPs by influencing policy, procurement, and distribution, besides stigmatizing the ECP user. This study was conducted to assess ECP knowledge, attitudes, and practices of doctors in North India. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 83 doctors who provide ECPs, randomly selected from 3 cities in the state of Uttar Pradesh, was conducted in 2011. The quantitative data were complemented by 19 in-depth interviews with purposively selected senior gynecologists and other opinion leaders. Results: All surveyed physicians cited the correct dose and regimen for ECPs. However, the large majority of those surveyed believed that ECPs work by preventing implantation. (The best evidence currently indicates that ECPs do not work by preventing implantation.) Most doctors also believed incorrectly that ECPs have several contraindications and side effects. They also had strong reservations against OTC provision of ECPs by pharmacists and community health workers (CHWs) and negative attitudes toward ECP users, which serve as serious medical barriers to mainstreaming use of ECPs. Conclusion: Physicians and their professional associations exert a strong influence on the operationalization of national contraceptive policies. Evidence-based advocacy and educational campaigns targeting doctors are needed to address and resolve their reservations about ECPs, particularly about its provision as an OTC product and its distribution by CHWs. Partnerships with medical associations can help reduce doctors' negative attitudes and create a conducive environment for influencing clinical practices. Such changes are needed to increase the availability and use of ECPs as part of a

  19. In Silico Studies of Medicinal Compounds Against Hepatitis C Capsid Protein from North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Shilu; Faheem, Muhammad; Archunan, Govindaraju; Ilyas, Muhammad; Begum, Nargis; Jahangir, Syed; Qadri, Ishtiaq; Qahtani, Mohammad Al; Mathew, Shiny

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis viral infection is a leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Over one million people are estimated to be persistently infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. As capsid core protein is the key element in spreading HCV; hence, it is considered to be the superlative target of antiviral compounds. Novel drug inhibitors of HCV are in need to complement or replace the current treatments such as pegylated interferon’s and ribavirin as they are partially booming and beset with various side effects. Our study was conducted to predict 3D structure of capsid core protein of HCV from northern part of India. Core, the capsid protein of HCV, handles the assembly and packaging of HCV RNA genome and is the least variable of all the ten HCV proteins among the six HCV genotypes. Therefore, we screened four phytochemicals inhibitors that are known to disrupt the interactions of core and other HCV proteins such as (a) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (b) ladanein, (c) naringenin, and (d) silybin extracted from medicinal plants; targeted against active site of residues of HCV-genotype 3 (G3) (Q68867) and its subtypes 3b (Q68861) and 3g (Q68865) from north India. To study the inhibitory activity of the recruited flavonoids, we conducted a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR). Furthermore, docking interaction suggests that EGCG showed a maximum number of hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions with all the three modeled capsid proteins with high interaction energy followed by naringenin and silybin. Thus, our results strongly correlate the inhibitory activity of the selected bioflavonoid. Finally, the dynamic predicted capsid protein molecule of HCV virion provides a general avenue to target structure-based antiviral compounds that support the hypothesis that the screened inhibitors for viral capsid might constitute new class of potent agents but further confirmation is necessary using in vitro and in vivo

  20. Complex routes into HIV care for migrant workers: a qualitative study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Tanvi; Lambert, Helen S.; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Migrant workers are designated a bridge population in the spread of HIV and therefore if infected, should be diagnosed and treated early. This study examined pathways to HIV diagnosis and access to care for rural-to-urban circular migrant workers and partners of migrants in northern India, identifying structural, social and individual level factors that shaped their journeys into care. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth interviews with HIV-positive men (n = 20) and women (n = 13) with a history of circular migration, recruited from an antiretroviral therapy centre in one district of Uttar Pradesh, north India. Migrants and partners of migrants faced a complex series of obstacles to accessing HIV testing and care. Employment insecurity, lack of entitlement to sick pay or subsidised healthcare at destination and the household's economic reliance on their migration-based livelihood led many men to continue working until they became incapacitated by HIV-related morbidity. During periods of deteriorating health they often exhausted their savings on private treatments focused on symptom management, and sought HIV testing and treatment at a public hospital only following a medical or financial emergency. Wives of migrants had generally been diagnosed following their husbands' diagnosis or death, with access to testing and treatment mediated via family members. For some, a delay in disclosure of husband's HIV status led to delays in their own testing. Diagnosing and treating HIV infection early is important in slowing down the spread of the epidemic and targeting those at greatest risk should be a priority. However, despite targeted campaigns, circumstances associated with migration may prevent migrant workers and their partners from accessing testing and treatment until they become sick. The insecurity of migrant work, the dominance of private healthcare and gender differences in health-seeking behaviour delay early diagnosis and treatment

  1. Declining Groundwater Levels in North India: Understanding Sources of Irrigation Inefficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last half century, the green revolution has transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country, into the world's third largest grain producer and one of the most intensely irrigated regions on the planet. This is in no small part due to the country's vast water resources along with an increase in tubewells and more advanced abstraction methods. While agricultural intensification has had undeniable benefits, it has, and continues to have a significant impact on water resources. Unless solutions which take into consideration the ever evolving socio-economic, hydrological and climatic conditions are found, India's agricultural future looks bleak.This research examines the irrigation behaviour of farmers, using data collected during field work in the State of Uttar Pradesh within the Ganges Basin of North India. Significant differences in farmer behaviour and irrigation practices are highlighted, not only between State districts but between individual farmers. This includes the volume of irrigation water applied and the price paid, as well as differences in the yields of crops produced. Analyses of results suggest that this is due to a number of factors, particularly the source of irrigation water. Study areas which had access to cheaper, but crucially less reliable, canal water were found to invest in more efficient water saving technologies in order to reduce the overall cost of irrigation during periods where less expensive canal water is not available. As a result, overall water use and irrigation cost is lower and yields are higher despite very similar climatic conditions. While cheap canal water is not an option for all farmers, the results show that the introduction of more efficient water saving technologies, despite the significant capital expenditure is a viable option for many farmers and costs can be recovered in a relatively short space of time. In addition, the reduction of declining water levels mean that water is abstracted from

  2. Larvicidal activity of few select indigenous plants of North East India against disease vector mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dohutia, C; Bhattacharyya, D R; Sharma, S K; Mohapatra, P K; Bhattacharjee, K; Gogoi, K; Gogoi, P; Mahanta, J; Prakash, A

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes are the vectors of several life threatening diseases like dengue, malaria, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis, which are widely present in the north-eastern states of India. Investigations on five local plants of north-east India, selected on the basis of their use by indigenous communities as fish poison, were carried out to study their mosquito larvicidal potential against Anopheles stephensi (malaria vector), Stegomyia aegypti (dengue vector) and Culex quinquefasciatus (lymphatic filariasis vector) mosquitoes. Crude Petroleum ether extracts of the roots of three plants viz. Derris elliptica, Linostoma decandrum and Croton tiglium were found to have remarkable larvicidal activity; D. elliptica extract was the most effective and with LC50 value of 0.307 μg/ml its activity was superior to propoxur, the standard synthetic larvicide. Half-life of larvicidal activity of D. elliptica and L. decandrum extracts ranged from 2-4 days.

  3. Association between ABO blood group and osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder

    2014-12-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine possible associations between ABO blood groups and the risk of osteoporosis among postmenopausal women of North India. This cross-sectional study involved 250 postmenopausal women from North India, ranging in age from 45 to 80 years. Four anthropometric measurements (height, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference), blood sample (ABO status and haemoglobin concentration) and grip strength (dominant as well as non-dominant hand) of all the participants were taken. Bone mineral density (BMD) was evaluated by using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at lumbar spine (L1-L4) and proximal femur. Analysis of data revealed that at lumbar spine (L1-L4) osteoporosis was more prevalent among individuals with blood group A (31.58%), followed by those with blood group B (29.67%), AB (28.57%) and then blood group O (15%), whereas for proximal femur individuals with blood group AB (21.43%) showed the highest prevalence of osteoporosis followed by a decreasing trend from blood group A (17.54%) to B (12.08%) and then O (5%). Total prevalence of osteoporosis was 26.4% in lumbar spine and 13.2% in proximal femur, indicating that lumbar spine had an elevated risk for osteoporosis among postmenopausal women. All the anthropometric variables, haemoglobin concentration as well as grip strength of individuals with blood group O demonstrated non-significant differences with non-O blood group except for weight and body mass index, where differences were statistically significant. Women with blood group O exhibited significantly higher bone mineral density for lumbar spine (0.90 g/cm(2) vs. 0.85 g/cm(2), p<0.05) and proximal femur (0.87 g/cm(2) vs. 0.79 g/cm(2), p<0.05) as compared to those with non-O blood group, thereby suggesting an increasing risk of osteoporosis among individuals with non-O blood group.

  4. Burden Among Caregivers of Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in North India

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ramesh Chand; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Kant, Shashi; Lodha, Rakesh; Kumar, Nand; Singh, Neelima

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to wider access to and free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program, the number of children dying due to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related causes has declined and the nature and duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS caregiving has also dramatically altered. The care of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLHA) places a significant additional burden on the caregivers. Aims: This study was conducted to assess the perceived burden among caregivers of children living with HIV in North India. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study among 156 CLHA-caregiver dyads in North India was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011. Data were collected by using a pretested structured interview schedule. The caregiver burden was measured with a 36-item scale adapted from Burden Assessment Schedule of Schizophrenia Research Foundation (BASS). Child characteristics, caregiver characteristics, caregiving burden, the knowledge of caregivers, and issues related to health care, nutrition, education, and psychological aspects were studied. Results: Caregivers had a mean age of 35.9 ± 10.2 years. Women accounted for over three-fourth (76.9%) of the caregivers. Nearly two-third of them (65.4%) reported as living with HIV. The mean caregiver burden score was 68.7 ± 2.9. A majority of the caregivers reported either low or moderate burden. Standardized percentage score was high in the domains of physical and mental health, external support, patients’ behavior, and caregivers’ strategy and seemed to be comparatively less in the other domains such as support of the patient and taking responsibility. Conclusions: Caring of children is a universal practice but there is a need of special care for children living with HIV. The majority of caregivers who were usually the mothers perceived the burden and need to be assisted in caring for the child. Stigma and discrimination with HIV infection further increased the burden as caregivers did

  5. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia.

  6. Genetic analysis of river, swamp and hybrid buffaloes of north-east India throw new light on phylogeography of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Mishra, B P; Dubey, P K; Prakash, B; Kathiravan, P; Goyal, S; Sadana, D K; Das, G C; Goswami, R N; Bhasin, V; Joshi, B K; Kataria, R S

    2015-12-01

    This study analysed buffaloes from north-east India and compared their nuclear and mitochondrial DNA variations with buffaloes of mainland India, China, Mediterranean and South-East Asia. Microsatellite genotypes of 338 buffaloes including 210 from six north-east Indian buffalo populations and three mainland Indian breeds were analysed to evaluate their genetic structure and evolutionary relationships. Phylogenetic analysis and multidimensional scaling plot of pairwise FST revealed the clustering of all swamp-type buffaloes of north-east India with Lower Assamese (significantly hybrid type) buffaloes in one plane and all the mainland river buffaloes in another plane while the upper Assamese buffaloes being distinct from both these clusters. Analysis of mtDNA D-loop region of 530-bp length was performed on 345 sequences belonging to 23 buffalo populations from various geographical regions to establish the phylogeography of Indian water buffalo. The swamp buffaloes of north-east India clustered with both the lineages of Chinese swamp buffalo. Multidimensional scaling display of pairwise FST derived from mitochondrial DNA data showed clustering of upper Assamese, Chilika and Mediterranean buffaloes distinctly from all the other Indian buffalo populations. Median-joining network analysis further confirmed the distinctness and ancestral nature of these buffaloes. The study revealed north-east region of India forming part of the wider hybrid zone of water buffalo that may probably extend from north-east India to South-East Asia. PMID:25780854

  7. Liquefaction record of the great 1934 earthquake predecessors from the north Bihar alluvial plains of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala; Sanwal, Jaishri

    2016-07-01

    The great 1934 Himalayan earthquake of moment magnitude (Mw) 8.1 generated a large zone of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar, India, in addition to the earthquakes of 1833 (Mw ~7.7) and 1988 (Mw 6.7) that have also impacted this region. Here, we present the results of paleoliquefaction investigations from four sites in the plains of north Bihar and one in eastern Uttar Pradesh. The liquefaction features generated by successive earthquakes were dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, 907-1181, 1130-1376, 1112-1572, 1492-1672, 1733-1839, and 1814-1854. One of the liquefaction events dated at AD 829-971, 886-1090, and 907-1181 may correlate with the great earthquake of AD ~1100, recognized in an earlier study from the sections across the frontal thrust in central eastern Nepal. Two late medieval liquefaction episodes of AD 1130-1376 and 1492-1672 were also exposed in our sites. The sedimentary sections also revealed sandblows that can be attributed to the 1833 earthquake, a lesser magnitude event compared to the 1934. Liquefactions triggered by the 1934 and 1988 earthquakes were evident within the topmost level in some sections. The available data lead us to conjecture that a series of temporally close spaced earthquakes of both strong and large types, not including the infrequent great earthquakes like the 1934, have affected the Bihar Plains during the last 1500 years with a combined recurrence interval of 124 ± 63 years.

  8. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease: A cross-sectional observational study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Mehta, Anurag; Sharma, Mamta; Salhan, Sudha; Kalaivani, Mani; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the birth prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease (CHD) using echocardiography in babies born in a community hospital of North India. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted over a period of 3 years. Newborns born over a specific 8-h period of the day were recruited in the study. They underwent routine clinical examination and pulse oximetry, followed by screening echocardiography for diagnosing a CHD. Results: A total of 20,307 newborns were screened, among which 874 had abnormal echocardiograms; 687 had insignificant CHDs, 164 had significant CHDs, and 24 had other abnormal cardiac findings. The birth prevalence of significant CHDs was 8.07 per 1000 live births; 131 newborns had an acyanotic CHD (79.9%) and 33 a cyanotic CHD (20.1%). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most common acyanotic CHD, present in 116 newborns, giving a prevalence of 5.7/1000 live births. Among the cyanotic CHD, transposition of great arteries was most common (prevalence 0.34/1000 live births). Conclusion: The CHD birth prevalence in our study is similar to the reported worldwide birth prevalence. Acyanotic CHD (mostly VSD) is seen in about three-fourths of babies born with CHD. The more sinister cyanotic CHD is present in remaining 25%. PMID:27625516

  9. Birth prevalence of congenital heart disease: A cross-sectional observational study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Anita; Mehta, Anurag; Sharma, Mamta; Salhan, Sudha; Kalaivani, Mani; Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the birth prevalence and pattern of congenital heart disease (CHD) using echocardiography in babies born in a community hospital of North India. Methods: A cross-sectional observational study conducted over a period of 3 years. Newborns born over a specific 8-h period of the day were recruited in the study. They underwent routine clinical examination and pulse oximetry, followed by screening echocardiography for diagnosing a CHD. Results: A total of 20,307 newborns were screened, among which 874 had abnormal echocardiograms; 687 had insignificant CHDs, 164 had significant CHDs, and 24 had other abnormal cardiac findings. The birth prevalence of significant CHDs was 8.07 per 1000 live births; 131 newborns had an acyanotic CHD (79.9%) and 33 a cyanotic CHD (20.1%). Ventricular septal defect (VSD) was the most common acyanotic CHD, present in 116 newborns, giving a prevalence of 5.7/1000 live births. Among the cyanotic CHD, transposition of great arteries was most common (prevalence 0.34/1000 live births). Conclusion: The CHD birth prevalence in our study is similar to the reported worldwide birth prevalence. Acyanotic CHD (mostly VSD) is seen in about three-fourths of babies born with CHD. The more sinister cyanotic CHD is present in remaining 25%.

  10. A tangled weave: Tracing outcomes of education in rural women's lives in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Malini; Mullick, Disha

    2015-06-01

    This paper is based on the findings of a research study which traced 56 rural women learners 15 years after they had participated in an empowerment and education programme in North India. It attempts to understand, from the perspectives of women from marginalised communities, the ways in which participating in the programme had been empowering for them, or not. While most of the women were indeed able to transform several areas in their lives, this study illustrates that empowering outcomes cannot be assumed or articulated in categorical terms and that bringing about change requires the negotiation of power at various levels. The women's narratives stand in contrast to the prevalent discourses around women's literacy and empowerment, which highlight the importance of literacy only in terms of its positive impact on attaining development goals. Despite the vigorously discussed de-politicisation of the concept of empowerment, the authors show in this paper that empowerment, when informed by a critical feminist understanding, continues to provide a useful framework to analyse women's experiences related to education, as a process enabling women to understand and negotiate structures of power - which are neither static nor wholly dominating - and to find spaces to exercise agency. There are few longitudinal studies which trace the long-term impact of educational programmes on adult women, and most studies are in the nature of impact assessments of programmes. Through this paper the authors argue for the need to analyse the complexities around the relationship between women's education and empowerment.

  11. Profile of Skin Disorders in Unreached Hilly Areas of North India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar Singh, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pattern of skin morbidity in an area depends on climate, geography, socioeconomic status, nutrition, genetics, and habits of the community. Objective. The objective of the present study was to describe the morbidity profile of patients attending dermatology outpatient department in a tertiary care centre of Garhwal hills, North India. Methodology. This is a record based study carried out using the morbidity registers. Patient details, diagnosis, and treatment provided by physicians were documented in the morbidity register. ICD coding was done to categorize the patients. Results. The total number of new episodes of illnesses treated in the skin outpatient department during 2009–2014 was 47465. Adults (>18 years) constituted about 80.9%. Among adults, about 59.9% were males. Overall the infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue were the most common (32.6%) followed by the disorders of skin appendages (19.8%), and dermatitis and eczema (18.8%). Of the total patients 16.9% were affected by dermatitis and 16.7% by acne. Psoriasis, urticaria, melasma, and vitiligo were present in 3.4%, 3.4%, 3.6%, and 3.3% patients, respectively. Conclusion. This knowledge will help in planning appropriate range services to meet the patients' needs and help in training of health staff to meet these needs. PMID:27738425

  12. Head and Neck Tuberculosis: Scenario in a Tertiary Care Hospital of North Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Debajit; Bhuyan, Uttal Taranga; Saikia, Nabajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tuberculosis has affected mankind since time immemorial and with emergence of AIDS both extrapulmonary and pulmonary tuberculosis presents increased morbidity and mortality along with an increased financial burden upon the developing nations. Materials and Methods The study is a hospital based observational study of one year duration carried out in the Department of ENT in a tertiary care hospital of North Eastern India. Results Total of 63 cases were detected. Females comprised 60.3% of the study population as against 39.7% males. Most commonly affected age group were of 15 to 24 years age (57.1%). Cervical tubercular lymphadenitis was the most common lesion 90.5% (57 cases) followed by laryngeal tuberculosis 7.9% (5 cases) and tubercular otitis media with mastoiditis 1.6% (1 case). Level II lymph node was mostly affected either single or in groups (75.4%) followed by level III node (57.9%). Successful outcome of the treatment with Category I regimen was achieved in 96.8% of the cases. Conclusion Head and neck tuberculosis is not an uncommon disease and though cervical lymphadenitis is the most common presentation, isolated involvement of the larynx, ear and other subsites are not an entirely unknown entity. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis of the head and neck region can be varied and often misleading. It is therefore important for the clinician to be aware of the condition and consider it in their differential diagnosis. PMID:26894099

  13. Metabolic syndrome among substance dependent men: A study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Mattoo, Surendra Kumar; Nebhinani, Naresh; Aggarwal, Munish; Basu, Debasish; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2013-01-01

    Background: Substance abuse, alcohol in particular, is associated with increased risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome (MS). The relationship between the substance abuse and MS is complex and the literature is sparse. Objectives: The present research was aimed to study the prevalence and predictors of MS among outpatients with substance dependence. Materials and Methods: Patients with substance dependence were recruited from a deaddiction center in North India, who attended outpatient clinic from 1st January, 2010-31st December, 2010. MS was assessed using International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Results: Out of 250 subjects, 34 (13.6%) of the subjects met the IDF criteria for MS and highest being in alcohol group (21.6%). The commonest abnormality was increased triglycerides (TG; 54%) and increased waist circumference (36.8%). Age, body weight, body mass index, and obesity were significant predictor of MS. Conclusion: MS was highest in subjects with alcohol dependence with the commonest abnormality of TG and blood pressure. Hence, routine screening is advisable in this population to address emerging MS. PMID:24459376

  14. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India.

    PubMed

    Naglot, A; Goswami, S; Rahman, I; Shrimali, D D; Yadav, Kamlesh K; Gupta, Vikas K; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H K; Veer, Vijay

    2015-09-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  15. Geological mapping of the Schuppen belt of north-east India using geospatial technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tanaya; Basu, Surajit; Hazra, Sugata

    2014-01-01

    A revised geologic map of the Schuppen belt of northeast India has been prepared based on interpretation of digitally enhanced satellite images. The satellite image interpretation is supported by limited field work and existing geologic maps. Available geological maps of this fold thrust belt are discontinuous and multi-scaled. The authors are of multiple opinions regarding the trajectory of formation boundaries and fault contacts. Digital image processing of satellite images and limited field surveys have been used to reinterpret and modify the existing geological maps of this fold thrust belt. Optical data of Landsat Thematic Mapper, Enhanced Thematic Mapper and elevation data of ASTER have been used to prepare this revised geological map. The study area extends from Hajadisa in south to Digboi oilfield in north, bounded by Naga thrust in the west and Disang thrust in the east. PCA, Image fusion, Linear Contrast stretch, Histogram Equalization and Painted relief algorithms have been used for the delineation of major geological lineaments like lithological boundary, thrust and strike slip faults. Digital elevation maps have enabled in the discrimination between thrust contacts and lithological boundaries, with the former being located mostly in the valleys. Textural enhancements of PCA, colour composites and Painted relief algorithm have been used to discriminate between different rock types. Few geological concepts about the terrain have been revisited and modified. It is assumed that this revised map should be of practical use as this terrain promises unexploited hydrocarbon reserves.

  16. Hazardous concentrations of selenium in soil and groundwater in North-West India.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Mini; Eiche, Elisabeth; Neumann, Thomas; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2011-05-30

    Soil and groundwater samples were collected for bulk elemental analyses in particular for selenium (Se) concentrations from six agricultural sites located in states of Punjab and Haryana in North-West India. Toxic concentrations of Se (45-341 μg L(-1)) were present in groundwater (76 m deep) of Jainpur and Barwa villages in Punjab. Selenium enrichments were also found in top soil layers (0-15 cm) of Jainpur (2.3-11.6 mg kg(-1)) and Barwa (3.1 mg kg(-1)). Mineralogical analyses confirmed silicates and phyllosilicates as main components of these soils, also reflected by the high content of SiO(2) (40-62 wt.%), Al(2)O(3) (9-21 wt.%) and K(2)O (2.2-3.2 wt.%). Prevailing intensive irrigation practices in Punjab with Se enriched groundwater may be the cause of Se accumulation in soils. Sequential extraction revealed >50% Se bioavailability in Jainpur soils. Appearance of selenite was observed in some of the batch assays with soil slurries under reducing conditions. Although safe Se concentrations were found in Hisar, Haryana, yet high levels of As, Mo and U present in groundwater indicated its unsuitability for drinking purposes. Detailed biogeochemical studies of Se in sediments or groundwater of Punjab are not available so far; intensive investigations should be started for better understanding of the problem of Se toxicity.

  17. Antagonistic Potential of Native Trichoderma viride Strain against Potent Tea Fungal Pathogens in North East India

    PubMed Central

    Naglot, A.; Goswami, S.; Rahman, I.; Shrimali, D. D.; Yadav, Kamlesh K.; Gupta, Vikas K.; Rabha, Aprana Jyoti; Gogoi, H. K.; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous strains of Trichoderma species isolated from rhizosphere soils of Tea gardens of Assam, north eastern state of India were assessed for in vitro antagonism against two important tea fungal pathogens namely Pestalotia theae and Fusarium solani. A potent antagonist against both tea pathogenic fungi, designated as SDRLIN1, was selected and identified as Trichoderma viride. The strain also showed substantial antifungal activity against five standard phytopathogenic fungi. Culture filtrate collected from stationary growth phase of the antagonist demonstrated a significantly higher degree of inhibitory activity against all the test fungi, demonstrating the presence of an optimal blend of extracellular antifungal metabolites. Moreover, quantitative enzyme assay of exponential and stationary culture filtrates revealed that the activity of cellulase, β-1,3-glucanase, pectinase, and amylase was highest in the exponential phase, whereas the activity of proteases and chitinase was noted highest in the stationary phase. Morphological changes such as hyphal swelling and distortion were also observed in the fungal pathogen grown on potato dextrose agar containing stationary phase culture filtrate. Moreover, the antifungal activity of the filtrate was significantly reduced but not entirely after heat or proteinase K treatment, demonstrating substantial role of certain unknown thermostable antifungal compound(s) in the inhibitory activity. PMID:26361476

  18. Perceptions of zoonotic and animal diseases in the Van Gujjar community of North India.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alice; Thrusfield, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Humans living in and around forest areas are at increased risk of zoonotic disease transmission. The transhumant Van Gujjars of North India are one such population, but there is an absence of health data, including evidence of zoonotic diseases, in this community. Pastoral communities can have a wide breadth of knowledge of livestock diseases, but not necessarily of human diseases. This study investigated the perceptions that the Van Gujjars have specifically of zoonotic diseases, using participatory epidemiological methods, including semi-structured interviews, ranking, proportional piling, transect walks and direct observation, triangulated by informal interviews with local veterinarians. The community did not have a wide appreciation of zoonotic diseases, apart from rabies and potentially zoonotic skin diseases. In contrast, animal diseases were of much greater concern to the community; the locally-named surra (trypanosomiasis), ajar, khuriya (foot-and-mouth disease), dakhutra, gheru, taku, and 'blood in urine' (possibly babesiosis), being of most concern. A participatory epidemiological approach was found to be an effective method of data collection and analysis; and the findings suggest that access to health services, particularly veterinary health services, should be improved for Van Gujjars.

  19. Exposure profiles of mercury in human hair at a terai belt of North India.

    PubMed

    Masih, Amit; Taneja, Ajay; Singhvi, Raj

    2016-02-01

    Human hair is frequently used as a bioindicator of mercury exposure. Mercury (Hg) has for centuries been a useful metal in a variety of applications. Unfortunately, this usefulness is counterbalanced by its neurotoxicological health impact. The US Environmental Protection Agency recommends keeping the hair Hg level <1.0 µg/g. Therefore, an investigation has been performed in order to ascertain the hair Hg levels among the people living at the terai belt of North India. Hair samples were collected from 111 individuals and were placed in an identified plastic bag, stapled to prevent the shift of the hair strand. Samples were analyzed by combustion, gold amalgamation, atomic absorption spectrometry (C-GA-AAS). The mean Hg level in hair was 0.28 µg/g for the whole group ranging from 0.0012 to 1.9091 µg/g. The mean hair Hg levels were 0.16 µg/g for men and 0.12 µg/g for women, indicating that men had higher hair Hg levels than women. Total hair Hg was found to be significantly associated with age, gender and fish consumption frequency. 98 % of the total sample had hair Hg concentrations less than 1.0 µg/g, i.e, within safe dose, whereas only 2 % had Hg concentrations greater than 1.0 µg/g, thereby exceeding the safe dose.

  20. Only when the boat has started sinking: a maternal death in rural north India.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Patricia; Jeffery, Roger

    2010-11-01

    This paper uses a close reading of villagers' responses to the death in childbirth of a Muslim woman to raise questions about India's current policy emphasis on institutional delivery as a means of reducing maternal mortality. After introducing the context and methods of our research, we describe recent policy interventions related to maternal health, including the National Rural Health Mission established in 2005. We then outline villagers' commentaries on the specific maternal death, focusing on the costs to women's health (and sometimes life) of high fertility; the lack of care available from rural government facilities and staff and the preference for delivering at home with the aid of local practitioners; the financial constraints that make people hesitate to seek medical treatment; and the high costs of private treatment and the poor treatment experienced in government facilities. Our core argument is that government health care provision in rural Uttar Pradesh is embedded in a moral universe characterised by widespread and long-term mistrust of state services and that encouraging institutional deliveries without addressing the perceptions of potential service users is a seriously flawed approach to reducing maternal mortality. The paper draws primarily on ethnographic research funded by the Wellcome Trust during 2002-2005, in a Muslim village in rural Bijnor district (in north-western Uttar Pradesh). PMID:20561728

  1. Genetic diversity and population structure of rice landraces from Eastern and North Eastern States of India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adaptations to different habitats across the globe and consequent genetic variation within rice have resulted in more than 120,000 diverse accessions including landraces, which are vital genetic resources for agronomic and quality traits. In India the rice landraces of the states West Bengal, Assam, Mizoram, Manipur and Nagaland are worthy candidates for genetic assessment. Keeping the above in view, the present study was conducted with the aim to (i) calculate the genetic distances among the accessions of 83 landraces collected from these states along with 8 check accessions (total 91 accessions) using 23 previously mapped SSR markers and (ii) examine the population structure among the accessions using model-based clustering approach. Results Among the 91 accessions, 182 alleles were identified which included 51 rare and 27 null alleles. The average PIC value was 0.7467/marker. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal was most diverse with 154 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.8005/marker, followed by the aromatic landraces from West Bengal with 118 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.6524/marker, while the landraces from North East ranked third with 113 alleles and an average PIC value of 0.5745/marker. In the dendrogram distinct clusters consisting of predominantly aromatic landraces and predominantly North East Indian landraces were observed. The non-aromatic landraces from West Bengal were interspersed within these two clusters. The accessions were moderately structured, showing four sub-populations (A-D) with an Fst value of 0.398, 0.364, 0.206 and 0.281, respectively. The assigned clustering of accessions was well in agreement in both distance-based and model-based approaches. Conclusions Each of the accessions could be identified unequivocally by the SSR profiles. Genetically the non aromatic landraces from West Bengal were most diverse followed by the aromatic landraces from the same state. The North Eastern accessions ranked third

  2. India.

    PubMed

    1989-03-01

    In 1988, India's population stood at 817 million, 25% of which was concentrated in urban areas. The annual rate of population growth is 2.01%. Life expectancy is currently 56 years, and infant mortality is 90/1000 live births. Education is compulsory to the age of 14 years, but the adult literacy rate is only 36%. Of the work force of 300 million, 70% are engaged in agriculture, 19% are in industry and commerce, 8% work in the services and government sector, and 3% are employed in transport and communications. India's gross national product currently stands at US$246 billion, with a real growth rate of 1.8% and a per capita income of $313. Although India is a federal republic, its central government has greater power in relation to its states than is the case in the US and there is a parliamentary system. Nonetheless, some states have been revitalizing traditional village councils and introducing grassroots democracy at the village level. A relatively sophisticated industrial base and pool of skilled labor have emerged since India achieved independence, although agriculture remains the crucial economic sector. There was a surge in agricultural production in the late 1960s and early 1970s as a result of the "green revolution" that made India largely self-sufficient in grain production through the use of hybrid seeds, irrigation, and fertilizer. However, failed monsoons and severe drought conditions have created fluctuations in the output of the agricultural sector in recent years. Gradual deregulation of industry and trade is providing increased incentives for foreign trade, and the Indian Government is encouraging collaborations that involve the transfer of high technology.

  3. Crop Burning in the North and Northwestern Parts in India and Its Impact on Air Quality and Aerosol Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Crop burning in the North and Northwestern parts of India started sometime in 1986 when the farmers started using mechanized forming. During October-November and April-May crop residues are burnt which is a serious health threat to people living in the areas and also it impacts climate of the northern parts of India including Himalayan region. Detailed analysis of satellite data, MODIS, AIRS and OMI AURA have been carried out to study aerosol and meteorological parameters near the source of biomass burning and also at far region. During crop burning period, pronounced changes in the aerosol and meteorological parameters are observed at different pressure levels. The emissions from the crop burning are spread in the Indo-Gangetic plains from west-east, over the Himalayan region and over the central parts of India depending upon the wind direction and wind speed. The air quality changes anomalously affecting the visibility and aerosol parameters. The emissions from crop burning mixes with the local emissions (vehicular and industrial sources) affecting the trace gas concentrations and aerosol optical parameters as a result dense haze fog and smog are observed during burning period. Long range transport of emissions from crop burning over India and its various climatic and health consequences will be presented.

  4. Cross-sectional study of depression and help-seeking in Uttarakhand, North India

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Kaaren; Goicolea, Isabel; Kermode, Michelle; Singh, Lawrence; Shidhaye, Rahul; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to use a population-based cross-sectional survey to describe depression prevalence, healthcare seeking and associations with socioeconomic determinants in a district in North India. Setting This study was conducted in Sahaspur and Raipur, administrative blocks of Dehradun district, Uttarakhand, in July 2014. Participants A population-based sample of 960 people over the age of 18 years was selected in 30 randomised clusters after being stratified by rural:urban census ratios. Primary outcome measures The survey used a validated screening tool, Patient Health Questionnaire, to identify people with depression, and collected information regarding socioeconomic variables and help-seeking behaviours. Depression prevalence and health seeking behaviours were calculated, and multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between risk factors and depression. Results Prevalence of depression was 6% (58/960), with a further 3.9% (37/960) describing a depressive episode of over 2 weeks in the past 12 months. Statistically significant adjusted OR for depression of more than 2 were found for people who were illiterate, classified as Scheduled Caste/Tribe or Other Backward Castes, living in temporary material housing and who had recently taken a loan. While over three quarters of people with depression (79%) had attended a private or government general medical practitioner in the past 3 months, none had received talking therapy (100% treatment gap) and two people (3.3%) had been prescribed antidepressants. Conclusions There are clear associations between social, educational and economic disadvantage and depression in this population. Strategies that address the social determinants of depression, such as education, social exclusion, financial protection and affordable housing for all are indicated. To address the large treatment gap in Uttarakhand, we must ensure access to primary and secondary mental health providers who can

  5. Antioxidant Potential of Vespa affinis L., a Traditional Edible Insect Species of North East India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Prachurjya; Dey, Tapan; Manna, Prasenjit; Kalita, Jatin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elevated oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of health disorders, like arthritis. Traditionally, Vespa affinis L., a common edible insect among many tribes in North-East India, is believed to have a beneficial role in extenuating health disorders, such as arthritis. The present study investigated the molecular mechanism underlying medicinal benefit of the Aqueous Extract of Vespa affinis L. (AEVA) against oxidative stress pathophysiology. Methods The free radical scavenging activities of AEVA were examined against DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals and the effect on the activities of antioxidant enzyme (GST and CAT) was determined using both recombinant proteins and human plasma. The antioxidant potential of AEVA was again investigated using THP-1 monocytes. Results AEVA possesses a significant free radical scavenging activity as evident from the DPPH, superoxide, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay. Incubation of AEVA (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) with the recombinant antioxidant enzymes, rGST and rCAT significantly increased the enzyme activities compared to those observed in corresponding enzyme alone or AEVA itself. AEVA supplementation (5, 7.5, and 10 μg/μL) also stimulates the activities of GST and CAT when incubated with human plasma. A cell culture study also confirmed the beneficial role of AEVA (0.8 and 1.2 μg/μL) which enhances the activities of GST and CAT, and also reduces the intercellular ROS production in monocytes treated with or without H2O2 and the effects are at par with what is observed in N-acetyl cysteine-treated cells. Conclusion The antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vespa affinis L. may mediate its therapeutic activities in oxidative stress-associated health disorders. PMID:27195807

  6. Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kothawale, D. R.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall mechanism over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during the summer monsoon season has been investigated using dynamic, thermodynamic, cloud microphysics and cloud dynamic (CMCD) forcings. Daily rainfall data has been used to understand rainfall variability. Daily ECMWF wind data for the period 2009-2011 have been used to study the wind divergence, shear and vertical velocity profiles. Daily thermodynamic parameters from upper air soundings of Hyderabad (17.448°N, 78.381°E), have been examined. Aircraft data have been used to study CMCD parameters. The divergence is found between surfaces to 850 hPa level whereas the convergence is at 850 hPa, which comes down to surface level during presence of low pressure systems. The divergence is observed at low (700 hPa), mid (600-300 hPa) and upper (250-150 hPa) tropospheric levels. In consequence of these divergence structures, three types of cloud systems viz. shallow, congestus and deep are developed with bases just above 850 hPa and tops at corresponding three divergent levels. The vertical profiles of relative humidity observed by radiosonde data have been analyzed to get the frequency distribution of shallow, congestus and deep clouds. The highest frequency observed is that of congestus clouds. The thermodynamic structure shows dry surface level and warm and moist middle troposphere with tongues of dry air and multilevel inversions which have been attributed to advection of aerosol-rich dry air. The aircraft observations showed high aerosol concentrations from surface to 5 km, polluted clouds with cloud droplet effective radius smaller than that required for collision-coalescence process. The factors which are responsible for causing low rainfall over the rain-shadow area have been identified.

  7. Aerosol characteristics in the UTLS region: A satellite-based study over north India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Misra, A.; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Devara, P. C. S.

    2016-01-01

    Vertical profiles of aerosol backscatter coefficient and depolarization ratio, obtained from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite, were studied in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region over North India (21-30° N and 72-90° E), covering the highly polluted Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) for one-year period from December 2011 to November 2012. An enhanced aerosol layer was observed between 15 and 18 km altitude, in the vicinity of tropopause, with a broad layer depth of about 2 km. The aerosol layer showed strong seasonal, monthly as well as day and night time variability, with a peak value of backscatter coefficient during monsoon season (˜5.54 × 10-3 sr-1 in September). The corresponding depolarization ratio indicates anisotropic (non-spherical) nature of particles. The aerosol layer was found to be highly linked with the variability in tropopause height, showing a positive correlation between tropopause height and the height of maximum backscatter coefficient (correlation coefficient of 0.8). However, it was found to be negatively correlated with the integrated backscatter coefficient (IBC), with a correlation coefficient of 0.3. We further analyzed outgoing long-wave radiation (OLR) data during the study period to investigate the link between the observed enhanced aerosol layer in the UTLS region and prevailing deep convective activities over the study region. Low values of OLR during monsoon (about 214 W m-2) indicate the occurrence of deep convection over this region, which may cause a large-scale circulation-driven vertical transport of boundary-layer pollution into the atmosphere of UTLS region. Results may have potential implications for better understanding and assessing the chemical and radiative impacts of these aerosols in the tropical UTLS region.

  8. Infection rates of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric lymph nodes from water buffaloes in North India.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Vikrant; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Shanker, Daya

    2014-09-15

    The literature pertaining to prevalence of Linguatula serrata in large ruminants is limited. In abattoir survey, the infection rate of L. serrata in 1440 mesenteric lymph nodes collected from 480 buffaloes from North India was investigated. Results revealed 88 (18.3%) buffaloes and 288 (20.0%) mesenteric lymph nodes having parasite's nymphs. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05), between 1 and 3 years age (51.5%) and above three years of age (48.5%) groups was observed. Nonsignificant difference (P>0.05) between the infection rate of male (51.5%) and female (48.5%) was also observed. Infection in haemorrhagic (57.2%) and black-coloured (67.5%) nymph nodes were significantly (P<0.05) higher than normal-coloured nodes (8.8%). When compared based on consistency, the results showed soft lymph nodes (61.3%) were significantly (P<0.05) more infected than normal (12.8%) and hard (30.0%) lymph nodes. The intensity of infection in normal, haemorrhagic and black lymph nodes were 1.81 ± 0.21, 4.23 ± 0.0.62 and 5.12 ± 0.73, nymphs respectively. The mean numbers of parasites in haemorrhagic and black-coloured lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more than mean number of parasites in normal-coloured nodes. Again intensity of infection in normal, soft and hard lymph nodes was 2.31 ± 0.18, 5.84 ± 0.74 and 3.21 ± 0.68, respectively. When compared based on lymph nodes consistency, the soft lymph nodes were significantly (P<0.0005) more severely infected than normal and hard ones. The study has generated some vital data about the prevalence of this underreported disease amongst the bubaline intermediate hosts along with important gross changes in the affected lymph nodes.

  9. Late Acheulean hominins at the Marine Isotope Stage 6/5e transition in north-central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haslam, Michael; Roberts, Richard G.; Shipton, Ceri; Pal, J. N.; Fenwick, Jacqueline L.; Ditchfield, Peter; Boivin, Nicole; Dubey, A. K.; Gupta, M. C.; Petraglia, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Single-grain optically stimulated luminescence dating was applied to Late Quaternary sediments at two sites in the Middle Son Valley, Madhya Pradesh, India. Designated Bamburi 1 and Patpara, these sites contain Late Acheulean stone tool assemblages, which we associate with non-modern hominins. Age determinations of 140-120 ka place the formation of these sites at around the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 6-5 transition, placing them among the youngest Acheulean sites in the world. We present here the geochronology and sedimentological setting of these sites, and consider potential implications of Late Pleistocene archaic habitation in north-central India for the initial dispersal of modern humans across South Asia.

  10. Three Dimensional Aerosol Climatology over India and the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, A.; Zhang, C.

    2013-12-01

    the CALIPSO algorithm, probably misclassifying marine aerosol as polluted dust. The origin of much of the polluted dust, the most prominent aerosol species in the region, is the mixing of dust and smoke from Africa. Low-level southerly winds south of 10°N transport smoke northward while northerly winds north of 10°N transport dust southward and upward due to orographic lifting. At their area of convergence, zonal wind transports the now elevated polluted dust eastward toward the Indian subcontinent. Subsidence and monsoon circulation reversal during boreal winter and fall limit vertical and horizontal aerosol transport from the India, particularly in the highly populated and always polluted Indo¬-Gangetic Plain. Polluted dust, polluted continental (non-elevated smoke), and smoke aerosols are confined near the surface and located over high population density areas and known biomass burning locations. Himalayan topography is an obvious barrier for the northward extent of aerosol. However, it also acts to create a meridional circulation limiting the southward extent of aerosol. Although transport pathways and the spatial structure of aerosol are well documented in the 2D sense, understanding the mechanisms controlling the vertical structure in concert with observation of the structure will be a valuable tool in reducing the uncertainty of aerosol effects in model simulations.

  11. Aerosol characteristics in north-east India using ARFINET spectral optical depth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, B.; Subba, T.; Dahutia, P.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Moorthy, K. Krishna; Gogoi, M. M.; Babu, S. Suresh; Chutia, L.; Ajay, P.; Biswas, J.; Bharali, C.; Borgohain, A.; Dhar, P.; Guha, A.; De, B. K.; Banik, T.; Chakraborty, M.; Kundu, S. S.; Sudhakar, S.; Singh, S. B.

    2016-01-01

    Four years (2010-2014) of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from 4 Indian Space Research Organisation's ARFINET (Aerosol Radiative Forcing over India) stations (Shillong, Agartala, Imphal and Dibrugarh) in the North-Eastern Region (NER) of India (lying between 22-30°N and 89-98°E) are synthesized to evolve a regional aerosol representation, for the first time. Results show that the columnar AOD (an indicator of the column abundance of aerosols) is highest at Agartala (0.80 ± 0.24) in the west and lowest at Imphal (0.59 ± 0.23) in the east in the pre-monsoon season due to intense anthropogenic bio-mass burning in this region aided by long-range transport from the high aerosol laden regions of the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), polluted Bangladesh and Bay of Bengal. In addition to local biogenic aerosols and pollutants emitted from brick kilns, oil/gas fields, household bio-fuel/fossil-fuel, vehicles, industries. Aerosol distribution and climatic impacts show a west to east gradient within the NER. For example, the climatological mean AODs are 0.67 ± 0.26, 0.52 ± 0.14, 0.40 ± 0.17 and 0.41 ± 0.23 respectively in Agartala, Shillong, Imphal and Dibrugarh which are geographically located from west to east within the NER. The average aerosol burden in NER ranks second highest with climatological mean AOD 0.49 ± 0.2 next to the Indo-Gangetic Plains where the climatological mean AOD is 0.64 ± 0.2 followed by the South and South-East Asia region. Elevated aerosol layers are observed over the eastern most stations Dibrugarh and Imphal, while at the western stations the concentrations are high near the surface. The climate implications of aerosols are evaluated in terms of aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) and consequent heating of the atmosphere in the region which follows AOD and exhibit high values in pre-monsoon season at all the locations except in Agartala. The highest ARF in the atmosphere occurs in the pre-monsoon season ranging from 48.6 Wm-2 in Agartala

  12. Seamless hydrological predictions for a monsoon driven catchment in North-East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhn, Lisei; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Improving hydrological forecasting systems on different time scales is interesting and challenging with regards to humanitarian as well as scientific aspects. In meteorological research, short-, medium-, and long-term forecasts are now being merged to form a system of seamless weather and climate predictions. Coupling of these meteorological forecasts with a hydrological model leads to seamless predictions of streamflow, ranging from one day to a season. While there are big efforts made to analyse the uncertainties of probabilistic streamflow forecasts, knowledge of the single uncertainty contributions from meteorological and hydrological modeling is still limited. The overarching goal of this project is to gain knowledge in this subject by decomposing and quantifying the overall predictive uncertainty into its single factors for the entire seamless forecast horizon. Our study area is the Mahanadi River Basin in North-East India, which is prone to severe floods and droughts. Improved streamflow forecasts on different time scales would contribute to early flood warning as well as better water management operations in the agricultural sector. Because of strong inter-annual monsoon variations in this region, which are, unlike the mid-latitudes, partly predictable from long-term atmospheric-oceanic oscillations, the Mahanadi catchment represents an ideal study site. Regionalized precipitation forecasts are obtained by applying the method of expanded downscaling to the ensemble prediction systems of ECMWF and NCEP. The semi-distributed hydrological model HYPSO-RR, which was developed in the Eco-Hydrological Simulation Environment ECHSE, is set up for several sub-catchments of the Mahanadi River Basin. The model is calibrated automatically using the Dynamically Dimensioned Search algorithm, with a modified Nash-Sutcliff efficiency as objective function. Meteorological uncertainty is estimated from the existing ensemble simulations, while the hydrological uncertainty is

  13. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of a floodplain tree species Barringtonia acutangula from North East India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shikhasmita; Nath, Arun Jyoti; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) on tree phenophases. Quantitative assessment was made at 15 day interval for all the phenophases (leaf initiation, leaf-fall, flowering and fruiting) by tagging 40 (forty) trees over aperiod of two years (2012-14).To test seasonal influence on the phenology of Barringtonia acutangula different phenophases were correlated with environmental variables and statistical spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed. Aridity index was computed that delineate influence of rainfall and temperature together on any phenophases. Leaf initiation showed positively significant correlation with temperature (r(s) = 0.601, p = < .05) during the year 2012-2013 whereas it was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) during the year 2013-2014. Leaf-fall was significant negatively correlated with temperature (r(s) = -0.623, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) for both the studied years. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature (r(s) = 0.639, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) while in one month lag flowering was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.678, p = < .01) in 2012-13. Fruiting was also positively significant with temperature (r(s) = 0.795, P < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) for both the years. During one month lag period fruiting was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall and aridity index in both the years. Temperature, rainfall and aridity index were major

  14. Vegetative and reproductive phenology of a floodplain tree species Barringtonia acutangula from North East India.

    PubMed

    Nath, Shikhasmita; Nath, Arun Jyoti; Das, Ashesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Vegetative and reproductive phenology of Barringtonia acutangula, a floodplain tree species was studied at Chatla floodplain, Assam North East India with the aim to investigate vegetative and reproductive phenology under stressful environment of seasonal submergence and to assess the impact of environmental variables (temperature and precipitation) on tree phenophases. Quantitative assessment was made at 15 day interval for all the phenophases (leaf initiation, leaf-fall, flowering and fruiting) by tagging 40 (forty) trees over aperiod of two years (2012-14).To test seasonal influence on the phenology of Barringtonia acutangula different phenophases were correlated with environmental variables and statistical spearman's rank correlation coefficient was employed. Aridity index was computed that delineate influence of rainfall and temperature together on any phenophases. Leaf initiation showed positively significant correlation with temperature (r(s) = 0.601, p = < .05) during the year 2012-2013 whereas it was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.583, p = < .05) during the year 2013-2014. Leaf-fall was significant negatively correlated with temperature (r(s) = -0.623, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = -0.730, p = < .01) for both the studied years. Flowering was significantly influenced by temperature (r(s) = 0.639, p = < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.890, p = < .01) while in one month lag flowering was significantly correlated with rainfall (r(s) = 0.678, p = < .01) in 2012-13. Fruiting was also positively significant with temperature (r(s) = 0.795, P < .05), rainfall (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) and aridity index (r(s) = 0.835, P < .01) for both the years. During one month lag period fruiting was positively correlated with temperature, rainfall and aridity index in both the years. Temperature, rainfall and aridity index were major

  15. Tattoo Practices in North-East India: A Hospital-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Binod Kumar; Verma, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tattooing has become increasingly popular, particularly among young people. However, little is known about the tattoo practices in North-East India. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to know the reasons and motivations of tattoo application and tattoo removal in individuals asking for tattoo removal. The secondary objective was to identify the demography, methods and safety of tattoo practices in these tattooed individuals. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 212 consecutive individuals seeking tattoo removal. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed for intergroup comparisons. Results: There were 178 (84%) males and 34 (16%) females. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age of individuals seeking tattoo removal was 21.8 ± 4 years. The mean ± SD age of doing tattoo was 15.8 ± 3 years. Most individuals possessed an amateur tattoo (94.3%), 4.2% a professional one and 1.4% had a combination. Sewing needle was the most common instrument used for making tattoos in 51.4%. The individuals made their tattoos in an unsterile manner in 49.1%. The most common reason for doing tattoo was for fashion in 87.7%. The participants wanted tattoo removal to qualify for jobs, especially in armed forces in 49.5% and due to regret in 21.7%. Black was the most preferred colour in 37.3% followed by green in 28.3%. The fabric ink was the choice of ink in maximum number of individuals, i.e. 93.9%. Limitations: It was a hospital-based study done only on individuals seeking tattoo removal. It needs caution to generalise the findings in population. In addition, there may be recall bias in the participants. Conclusion: The tattoo was done mostly below 18 years of age in a crude unsterile way. The individuals had poor risk perceptions about various infections and complications of tattooing. There is an urgent need to caution and educate the youngsters and school-going children about safe tattooing and

  16. Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt.

  17. Molecular characterization of peste-des-petits ruminants virus (PPRV) isolated from an outbreak in the Indo-Bangladesh border of Tripura state of North-East India.

    PubMed

    Muthuchelvan, Dhanavelu; De, Ankan; Debnath, Bikas; Choudhary, Dheeraj; Venkatesan, Gnanavel; Rajak, Kaushal Kishore; Sudhakar, Shashi Bhusan; Himadri, Divakar; Pandey, Awadh Bihari; Parida, Satya

    2014-12-01

    Peste-des-petits- ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious and devastating disease of goats and sheep. Although India is endemic for PPR, Tripura, a state in North East India has never been reported confirmed PPR outbreaks. Recently, an outbreak of PPR occurred in non-descript goats at the Sabroom town of Tripura state in North-East India in June, 2013. The causative agent, PPR virus (PPRV) was confirmed by sandwich ELISA, virus isolation and N gene based RT-PCR and sequencing. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the involvement of lineage IV PPR virus in the outbreak. The outbreak viruses from Tripura state were clustered mainly with circulating viruses from Bangladesh, India, China, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Dubai and Kurdistan. However, the nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 99.2 to 99.6% with the PPR strains circulating in Bangladesh during 2011 and 2012 whereas 95.5-98% homology has been observed with the viruses from India and other countries. These findings suggest the transboundary circulation of PPR virus between India and Bangladesh border, which warrant immediate vaccination across the international border to create an immune belt. PMID:25465184

  18. Phenotyping of Salmonella serotypes isolated from natural sources of water in rural areas of East Sikkim.

    PubMed

    Poonia, S; Singh, T S; Tsering, D C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct bacteriological analysis of water with special reference to Salmonella spp from natural sources of rural habitations of East Sikkim. A total of 28 Salmonella serovars isolated were biotyped, phage typed and tested for their anti-microbial susceptibility. All the isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi belonged to Biotype I. Four isolates of S. typhi belonged to phage type A. All S. paratyphi A isolates belong to phage 2. All the isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, cefixime and amikacin. Untreated natural water sources are unsafe for human consumption. PMID:25560018

  19. Cost of providing inpatient burn care in a tertiary, teaching, hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Rajeev B; Goswami, Prasenjit

    2013-06-01

    There is an extreme paucity of studies examining cost of burn care in the developing world when over 85% of burns take place in low and middle income countries. Modern burn care is perceived as an expensive, resource intensive endeavour, requiring specialized equipment, personnel and facilities to provide optimum care. If 'burn burden' of low and middle income countries (LMICs) is to be tackled deftly then besides prevention and education we need to have burn centres where 'reasonable' burn care can be delivered in face of resource constraints. This manuscript calculates the cost of providing inpatient burn management at a large, high volume, tertiary burn care facility of North India by estimating all cost drivers. In this one year study (1st February to 31st January 2012), in a 50 bedded burn unit, demographic parameters like age, gender, burn aetiology, % TBSA burns, duration of hospital stay and mortality were recorded for all patients. Cost drivers included in estimation were all medications and consumables, dressing material, investigations, blood products, dietary costs, and salaries of all personnel. Capital costs, utility costs and maintenance expenditure were excluded. The burn unit is constrained to provide conservative management, by and large, and is serviced by a large team of doctors and nurses. Entire treatment cost is borne by the hospital for all patients. 797 patients (208 <12 years old) with acute burn were admitted with a mean age of 23.04 years (range 18 days to 83 years). The mean BSA burn was 42.26% (ranging from 2% to 100%). 378/797 patients (47.43%) sustained up to 30% BSA burns, 216 patients (27.1%) had between 31 and 60% BSA and 203 patients (25.47%) had >60% BSA burns. 258/797 patients died (32.37%). Of these deaths 16, 68 and 174 patients were from 0 to 30%, 31 to 60% and >60% BSA groups, respectively. The mean length of hospitalization for all admissions was 7.86 days (ranging from 1 to 62 days) and for survivors it was 8.9 days

  20. Groundwater arsenic contamination in Manipur, one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states of India: a future danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Dipankar; Singh, E. Jayantakumar; Das, Bhaskar; Shah, Babar Ali; Hossain, M. Amir; Nayak, Bishwajit; Ahamed, Sad; Singh, N. Rajmuhon

    2008-11-01

    Manipur State, with a population of 2.29 million, is one of the seven North-Eastern Hill states in India, and is severely affected by groundwater arsenic contamination. Manipur has nine districts out of which four are in Manipur Valley where 59% of the people live on 10% of the land. These four districts are all arsenic contaminated. We analysed water samples from 628 tubewells for arsenic out of an expected total 2,014 tubewells in the Manipur Valley. Analyzed samples, 63.3%, contained >10 μg/l of arsenic, 23.2% between 10 and 50 μg/l, and 40% >50 μg/l. The percentages of contaminated wells above 10 and 50 μg/l are higher than in other arsenic affected states and countries of the Ganga-Meghna-Brahmaputra (GMB) Plain. Unlike on the GMB plains, in Manipur there is no systematic relation between arsenic concentration and the depth of tubewells. The source of arsenic in GMB Plain is sediments derived from the Himalaya and surrounding mountains. North-Eastern Hill states were formed at late phase of Himalaya orogeny, and so it will be found in the future that groundwater arsenic contamination in the valleys of other North-Eastern Hill states. Arsenic contaminated aquifers in Manipur Valley are mainly located within the Newer Alluvium. In Manipur, the high rainfall and abundant surface water resources can be exploited to avoid repeating the mass arsenic poisoning that has occurred on the GMB plains.

  1. Enhanced formation of secondary air pollutants and aggravation of urban smog due to crop residue burning emissions in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Kumar, Vinod; Sinha, Vinayak

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning causes intense perturbations to regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality and is a significant global source of reactive pollutants to the atmosphere (Andreae and Merlet, 2001). In November 2012, large areas in North India including New Delhi experienced several weeks of aggravated smog and poor air quality due to the impact of crop residue burning, which is a biannual post harvest activity that occurs during Oct-Nov and April-May every year in the agricultural belts of North western India. In-situ high temporal resolution (1 measurement every minute) measurements of a suite of volatile organic compounds measured using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) such as acetonitrile (biomass burning tracer) and aromatic hydrocarbons were performed simultaneously with carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone and aerosol mass concentrations (PM 2.5 and PM 10) at a suburban site (30.667°N, 76.729°E and 310 m asl), impacted by air masses that had passed over the burning fields less than 72 hours ago. By using data from the same season but before the post harvest crop residue burning activity had commenced, we were able to quantify enhancements in ambient levels of the measured species due to the crop residue burning activity. When air masses influenced by the fire emissions reached the measurement site, peak values of about 8 ppbV acetonitrile, 4 ppmV CO, 100 ppbV NOx , 30 ppbV toluene and 15 ppbV benzene were observed which represented a factor of 2-5 increase over their ambient levels in the non-fire influenced period. Emission ratios of aromatic hydrocarbons/CO also showed a marked increase. Non fire event (N.F. E.) influenced and fire event (F.E.) influenced air masses had the following emission ratio enhancements: benzene/CO (N.F.E = 3; F.E. = 5), toluene/CO (N.F.E = 4; F.E. = 8.7) and sum of C8 aromatics/CO (N.F.E = 4; F.E. = 7.3) and sum of C9 aromatics/CO (N.F.E = 2.6; F.E. = 3.4). The OH reactivity of air masses which has strong

  2. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity.

  3. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vibhor; Dora, Tapas; Patel, Mehul; Sancheti, Sankalp; Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  4. Crustacean-borne infections with microphallid metacercariae (Digenea: Microphallidae) from focal areas in Meghalaya, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Goswami, L M; Prasad, P K; Biswal, D K; Chatterjee, A; Tandon, V

    2013-06-01

    During a survey of edible Crustacea for recovery of infective stages (metacercariae) of potential helminthozoonoses of trematode origin in north-east India, the crab species Barytelphusa lugubris mansoniana, collected from suspected foci of lungfluke infection in Meghalaya and Assam, was found to harbour metacercarial cysts that were different from the earlier reported infection, in which the lungfluke Paragonimus was confirmed to be implicated. Using morphological criteria, this metacercaria was identified as Microphallus indicus Mukherjee & Ghosh, 1967 of the trematode family Microphallidae. The present study extends the previous work by providing molecular characterization of this parasite using ribosomal internal transcribed spacer regions (rDNA ITS1 and ITS2) and the partial large ribosomal subunit DNA, lsr. These target regions were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using trematode universal primers and sequenced. In BLAST analysis the query sequences were found close to members of Microphallidae and closest to the genus Microphallus.

  5. Heavy metals accumulation in crab and shrimps from Pulicat lake, north Chennai coastal region, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Batvari, B Prabhu Dass; Sivakumar, S; Shanthi, K; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek; Krishnamoorthy, R R; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) was examined in crab (Scylla serrata) and shrimps (Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus monodon) collected from Pulicat lake that receives effluents from industries located in north Chennai, southeast coast of India. The results showed limited difference between crab and prawns as well as significant variations between the organs. Pb is the highly accumulated metal in both crab and shrimps, except P. monodon. The highest metal concentration was mostly found in the liver followed by other organs. The concentration of metals in edible parts (muscle) was within the permissible level and safe for consumption. However, the results of the study clearly indicate the biomagnification of metals in Pulicat lake.

  6. Case Report of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Uterine Cervix Treated at a Semiurban Cancer Centre in North India

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Epari

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoma of the uterine cervix is very rare. We report a case of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) involving the uterine cervix treated at a newly commissioned semiurban cancer centre in north India in 2015. Data for this study was obtained from the hospital electronic medical records and the patient's case file. We also reviewed published case reports of uterine and cervical lymphoma involving forty-one patients. We treated a case of stage IV DLBCL cervix with six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone) and intrathecal methotrexate followed by consolidation with radiotherapy. The patient showed complete response to chemotherapy. We conclude that, in advanced stage lymphoma involving uterus and cervix, combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is effective in short term. PMID:27597906

  7. Virulence determinants in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli from North India and their interaction in in vitro organ culture system.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepika; Sharma, Monica; Sarkar, Subendu; Thapa, B R; Chakraborti, Anuradha

    2016-09-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrhoeal pathogen causing diseases in multiple epidemiological and clinical settings. In developing countries like India, diarrhoeal diseases are one of the major killers among paediatric population and oddly, few studies are available from Indian paediatric population on the variability of EAEC virulence genes. In this study, we examined the distribution of plasmid and chromosomal-encoded virulence determinants in EAEC isolates, and analysed cytokines response generated against EAEC with specific aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF) type in duodenal biopsies using in vitro organ culture (IVOC) mimicking in vivo conditions. Different virulence marker combinations among strains were reflected as a function of specific adhesins signifying EAEC heterogeneity. fis gene emerged as an important genetic marker apart from aggA and aap Further, EAEC infection in IVOC showed upregulation of IL-8, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and TLR-5 expression. EAEC with AAFII induced significant TLR-5 and IL-8 response, conceivably owing to more pathogenicity markers. This study sheds light on the pattern of EAEC pathotypes prevalent in North Indian paediatric population and highlights the presence of unique virulence combinations in pathogenic strains. Thus, evident diversity in EAEC virulence and multifaceted bacteria-host crosstalk can provide useful insights for the strategic management of diarrhoeal diseases in India, where diarrhoeal outbreaks are more frequent. PMID:27493010

  8. 6.9 Sikkim Earthquake and Modeling of Ground Motions to Determine Causative Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Sumer; Sharma, Jyoti; Sutar, Anup; Bansal, B. K.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, source parameters of the September 18, 2011 M w 6.9, Sikkim earthquake were determined using acceleration records. These parameters were then used to generate strong motion at a number of sites using the stochastic finite fault modeling technique to constrain the causative fault plane for this earthquake. The average values of corner frequency, seismic moment, stress drop and source radius were 0.12 Hz, 3.07 × 1026 dyne-cm, 115 bars and 9.68 km, respectively. The fault plane solution showed strike-slip movement with two nodal planes oriented along two prominent lineaments in the region, the NE-oriented Kanchendzonga and NW-oriented Tista lineaments. The ground motions were estimated considering both the nodal planes as causative faults and the results in terms of the peak ground accelerations (PGA) and Fourier spectra were then compared with the actual recordings. We found that the NW-SE striking nodal plane along the Tista lineament may have been the causative fault for the Sikkim earthquake, as PGA estimates are comparable with the observed recordings. We also observed that the Fourier spectrum is not a good parameter in deciding the causative fault plane.

  9. Identification and characterization of metabolic properties of bacterial populations recovered from arsenic contaminated ground water of North East India (Assam).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-12-01

    Diversity of culturable bacterial populations within the Arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater of North Eastern state (Assam) of India is studied. From nine As contaminated samples 89 bacterial strains are isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis reveals predominance of Brevundimonas (35%) and Acidovorax (23%) along with Acinetobacter (10%), Pseudomonas (9%) and relatively less abundant (<5%) Undibacterium, Herbaspirillum, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus, Bosea, Bacillus, Ralstonia, Caulobacter and Rhizobiales members. High As(III) resistance (MTC 10-50 mM) is observed for the isolates obtained from As(III) enrichment, particularly for 3 isolates of genus Brevundimonas (MTC 50 mM). In contrast, high resistance to As(V) (MTC as high as 550 mM) is present as a ubiquitous property, irrespective of isolates' enrichment condition. Bacterial genera affiliated to other groups showed relatively lower degree of As resistance [MTCs of 15-20 mM As(III) and 250-350 mM As(V)]. As(V) reductase activity is detected in strains with high As(V) as well as As(III) resistance. A strong correlation could be established among isolates capable of reductase activity and siderophore production as well as As(III) tolerance. A large number of isolates (nearly 50%) is capable of anaerobic respiration using alternate inorganic electron acceptors [As(V), Se(VI), Fe(III), [NO(3)(2), SO(4)(2), S(2)O(3)(2). Ability to utilize different carbon sources ranging from C2-C6 compounds along with some complex sugars is also observed. Particularly, a number of strains is found to possess ability to grow chemolithotrophically using As(III) as the electron donor. The study reports for the first time the identity and metabolic abilities of bacteria in As contaminated ground water of North East India, useful to elucidate the microbial role in influencing mobilization of As in the region.

  10. Identification and characterization of metabolic properties of bacterial populations recovered from arsenic contaminated ground water of North East India (Assam).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soma; Sar, Pinaki

    2013-12-01

    Diversity of culturable bacterial populations within the Arsenic (As) contaminated groundwater of North Eastern state (Assam) of India is studied. From nine As contaminated samples 89 bacterial strains are isolated. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis reveals predominance of Brevundimonas (35%) and Acidovorax (23%) along with Acinetobacter (10%), Pseudomonas (9%) and relatively less abundant (<5%) Undibacterium, Herbaspirillum, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus, Bosea, Bacillus, Ralstonia, Caulobacter and Rhizobiales members. High As(III) resistance (MTC 10-50 mM) is observed for the isolates obtained from As(III) enrichment, particularly for 3 isolates of genus Brevundimonas (MTC 50 mM). In contrast, high resistance to As(V) (MTC as high as 550 mM) is present as a ubiquitous property, irrespective of isolates' enrichment condition. Bacterial genera affiliated to other groups showed relatively lower degree of As resistance [MTCs of 15-20 mM As(III) and 250-350 mM As(V)]. As(V) reductase activity is detected in strains with high As(V) as well as As(III) resistance. A strong correlation could be established among isolates capable of reductase activity and siderophore production as well as As(III) tolerance. A large number of isolates (nearly 50%) is capable of anaerobic respiration using alternate inorganic electron acceptors [As(V), Se(VI), Fe(III), [NO(3)(2), SO(4)(2), S(2)O(3)(2). Ability to utilize different carbon sources ranging from C2-C6 compounds along with some complex sugars is also observed. Particularly, a number of strains is found to possess ability to grow chemolithotrophically using As(III) as the electron donor. The study reports for the first time the identity and metabolic abilities of bacteria in As contaminated ground water of North East India, useful to elucidate the microbial role in influencing mobilization of As in the region. PMID:24210546

  11. Wild Mushroom Poisoning in North India: Case Series with Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Nipun; Bhalla, Ashish; Kumar, Susheel; Dhiman, Radha K.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom is an important constituent of diet in many ethnic tribes in India. Ethnic Indian tribes are known to consume nearly 283 species of wild mushrooms out of 2000 species recorded world over. Although they are experts in distinguishing the poisonous from edible mushrooms, yet occasional cases of toxicity are reported due to accidental consumption of poisonous mushrooms. We report amanita like toxicity in a family after consumption of wild mushrooms resulting in fatal outcome. PMID:25755582

  12. Cost of Delivering Health Care Services in Public Sector Primary and Community Health Centres in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aditi; Verma, Ramesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Kumar, Dinesh; Kaur, Manmeet; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background With the commitment of the national government to provide universal healthcare at cheap and affordable prices in India, public healthcare services are being strengthened in India. However, there is dearth of cost data for provision of health services through public system like primary & community health centres. In this study, we aim to bridge this gap in evidence by assessing the total annual and per capita cost of delivering the package of health services at PHC and CHC level. Secondly, we determined the per capita cost of delivering specific health services like cost per antenatal care visit, per institutional delivery, per outpatient consultation, per bed-day hospitalization etc. Methods We undertook economic costing of fourteen public health facilities (seven PHCs and CHCs each) in three North-Indian states viz., Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Bottom-up costing method was adopted for collection of data on all resources spent on delivery of health services in selected health facilities. Analysis was undertaken using a health system perspective. The joint costs like human resource, capital, and equipment were apportioned as per the time value spent on a particular service. Capital costs were discounted and annualized over the estimated life of the item. Mean annual costs and unit costs were estimated along with their 95% confidence intervals using bootstrap methodology. Results The overall annual cost of delivering services through public sector primary and community health facilities in three states of north India were INR 8.8 million (95% CI: 7,365,630–10,294,065) and INR 26.9 million (95% CI: 22,225,159.3–32,290,099.6), respectively. Human resources accounted for more than 50% of the overall costs at both the level of PHCs and CHCs. Per capita per year costs for provision of complete package of preventive, curative and promotive services at PHC and CHC were INR 170.8 (95% CI: 131.6–208.3) and INR162.1 (95% CI: 112–219

  13. Influence of smokeless tobacco on periodontal health status in local population of north India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, G. P.; Rizvi, Iram; Gupta, Vivek; Bains, Vivek K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have been published so far, which revealed the association of different types of smokeless tobacco on various periodontal health indicators, including mobility and furcation, on North Indian population. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the effects of commonly used smokeless tobacco forms on periodontal health in Lucknow, North India. Methods: This cross-sectional study investigated the effect of commonly used smokeless tobacco on periodontal health in local population of Lucknow, for which 2045 individuals were evaluated. Amongst them, 1069 individuals were found to be using some kind of tobacco; amongst the tobacco users, n=122 were smokers, n=657 were only using only smokeless tobacco and n=290 were using both smokeless tobacco as well as tobacco in smoking form. After completing the questionnaire, all the participants underwent clinical examination for the various clinical parameters. Results: The impact of smokeless form of tobacco use was significantly higher on all the periodontal health indicators, viz., plaque index, gingival index, calculus, clinical attachment loss, gingival recession, mobility, furcation, lesion, and probing pocket depth. Both duration and frequency of smokeless tobacco use significantly affected the periodontal health. Conclusion: The periodontal health of the general population in the region required immediate attention as majority of subjects irrespective of their habit status had onset of clinical attachment loss and gingival recession, more so amongst the smokeless tobacco users than smoking form of tobacco as well as than from non-tobacco users. PMID:22135693

  14. Conflict and healing in family experience of second-generation emigrants from India living in North America.

    PubMed

    Dugsin, R

    2001-01-01

    In this article, I describe a study that generates a substantive theory of healing from the conflict experienced by second-generation emigrants from India living in North America. Qualitative methodology, specifically, the Grounded Theory method of data analysis and theory building, was used. Literature elucidating the differences between North American and Indian cultural values was used as a basis for exploration. Results suggest that cultural conflict stems from areas such as education and success, pressure from parents to maintain traditional cultural values, family bonds and lack of boundaries, parental control and abuse, and dating and marriage. The results of the conflict are discussed by participants in terms of loneliness and pain, lying, rebellion, or acceptance of cultural values. The factors that mediate the conflict and that determine the degree to which participants rebel or accept the cultural values seem to be linked to the approval and acceptance individuals received from their family or community and their level of self-esteem. Finally, I discuss how individuals can heal from the conflict. Methods of healing include communication with and education for parents, therapy in the areas of anger, resentment, and self-esteem, and developing an alternative support system, which may include other second-generation individuals.

  15. Sources of occupational stress in the police personnel of North India: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shweta; Kar, Sujita Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Police personnel in India are subjected to several distinct occupational stressors which impact their mental health and their work performance negatively. Aim: The study aimed to explore various sources of stress among police personnel. Method: In this study, 100 constables, 100 inspectors and 100 police officers of Uttar Pradesh, were evaluated using the occupational stress questionnaire. This was subjected to the quantitative as well as the qualitative analysis. Result: Occupational stress was commonly perceived among all police personnel, but the major attributes of stress in various groups were diverse. PMID:26023272

  16. Genetic studies among the endogamous groups of Lohanas of North and West India.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, H M; Shanbagh, S R; Baxi, A J; Bapat, J P; Sharma, R S

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of Lohanas, belonging to the Gujarati, Sindhi and Punjabi were studied for various genetic markers. Lohanas have higher B than A and low Rh(D) negative (1.65-4.64%). The Hp1 gene ranges from 0.1557 to 0.2639; Gm1 is lower (0.34-0.55) than in other populations in Southern India. G-6-PD deficiency was prevalent in 3-8%. All the four groups have a high incidence of the thalassaemia trait and possess Hb-D. Hb, J, and L were also observed in two groups. Data was analysed for intergroup differences.

  17. Sociological analysis of migration of agricultural labourers from eastern to north-western region of India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, A K; Arora, D R; Aggarwal, B K

    1988-04-01

    The authors examine rural-to-rural migration of agricultural workers from eastern to northwestern India. "The specific objectives of this study were: (a) to identify the socio-economic characteristics of the immigrant farm workers; (b) to explicate the causes of migration; (c) to analyse the impact of migration on the pattern of employment, wages, acculturation and interpersonal relations; and (d) to examine the socio-cultural and economic impact of migration on the migrants' families." Data are from a 1984-1986 survey. PMID:12283667

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning in our homes - report of two survivors from North India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Amit

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning can result from, e.g., the use of unvented coal-burning heaters, indoor barbecues, or inhalation of exhaust of vehicles. The latter is sometimes used to commit suicide. The most common presentation of carbon monoxide poisoning is cerebral hypoxia. Despite frequent use of indoor coal-burning heaters and stoves during winter months in the northern part of India, carbon monoxide poisoning has been infrequently reported. We describe two cases of carbon monoxide poisoning who reported to the Emergency Department in the early morning of a winter season with un-witnessed, unexplained development of altered level of consciousness.

  19. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks.

  20. Detection of amitraz resistance in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Gelot, I S; Jyoti; Singh, Veer; Rath, S S

    2015-03-01

    Amitraz has become one of the most extensively used chemical acaricide for control of cattle tick due to development of resistance against most of the organophosphates and synthetic pyrethroid acaricides. The resistance status of amitraz was evaluated against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India by adult immersion test (AIT). The different concentrations of amitraz utilized in the AIT were 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1,000 ppm. The adult female ticks showed an upward trend in the mortality percentage with increase in drug concentration. The regression graph of probit mortality of ticks plotted against log values of progressively increasing concentrations of amitraz was utilized for the determination of slope of mortality which was 1.868 ± 0.2068. The lethal concentration (LC95) was calculated as 3098.2 ppm and the RF was 24.78 which indicated level II resistance status. The dose response curves for egg masses, reproductive index and inhibition of oviposition of R. (B.) microplus were also validated and the slope was -0.5165 ± 0.08287, -0.1328 ± 0.04472 and 24.22 ± 8.160, respectively. The current study appears to be the pioneer report of amitraz resistance in R. (B.) microplus from India and the data generated could be of immense help to develop effective control strategies against ticks. PMID:25698859

  1. Private Schooling Industry in North East India: A Trend Analysis of Nagaland State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Biswambhara; Suresh, P. Srinivasa; Rio, K.

    2006-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine the intricacies of the growth of Private School industry in the North-Eastern Indian State of Nagaland. The study was carried out in Kohima, the capital city of Nagaland State. Data were obtained from field studies as well as from published reports of the Government. The main objective of the study was to…

  2. A life crisis and its management a case study from north India.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, B

    1985-10-01

    The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India.

  3. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-01-01

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region. PMID:27515622

  4. A comparison of palmar dermatoglyphics in two ethnic Indian populations of north Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Sen, Jaydip; Kanchan, Tanuj; Mondal, Nitish

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphic print comparisons can be utilized to establish personal identification in forensic cases. The northern part of the state of West Bengal, India, is the home to many ethnic populations. Two such populations are the Rajbanshi and the Mech. Palm prints were collected from 192 adult Rajbanshi (105 men and 87 women) and 100 adult Mech (50 men and 50 women) individuals for print comparison using the standard ink and roll print method. The dermatoglyphic variables studied were mainline formulae, termination of mainline, positional variation of axial triradii, and true pattern of hypothenar and thenar configuration area. There were differences between the Rajbanshi and Mech individuals with respect to these dermatoglyphic variables. The uses of these variables appear to be limited only to ethnic identification, not personal identification. The present investigation further highlights the racial affinity, sex, and bilateral differences among Rajbanshi individuals using dermatoglyphic palmar variables.

  5. Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead from Mizoram, north-eastern India (Teleostei: Channidae).

    PubMed

    Lalhlimpuia, Denis Van; Lalronunga, Samuel; Lalramliana, Lalramliana

    2016-08-04

    Channa aurantipectoralis, a new species of snakehead of the C. gachua species group, is described from Karnaphuli drainage of Mizoram, India. The species is immediately distinguished from all other snakehead species by its unique coloration in life, specifically its brightly-coloured orange pectoral fins, which lack any spots or stripes; and by the presence of a dark V-shaped blotch on the dorsal surface of the head. It can be further distinguished from all other species of the genus by the combination of the following characters: presence of pelvic fins, a large scale on the ventral surface of the lower jaw, 51-64 lateral-line scales, 34-37 dorsal-fin rays, 23-25 anal-fin rays, 13-14 pectoral-fin rays, 5½-6½ /1/ 7½-8½ transverse scale rows, and the absence of scales on the gular region.

  6. Alagille syndrome: experience of a tertiary care center in North India.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anshu; Goel, Deepak; Bolia, Rishi; Poddar, Ujjal; Yachha, Surender Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Alagille syndrome (AGS) is an autosomal dominant disorder of chronic cholestasis characterized by paucity of interlobular bile ducts. The condition has been described only as isolated case reports in India. We describe clinical profile and outcome of nine subjects (six infants and three older children) with AGS. Cholestasis and characteristic facies were present in all, followed by congenital heart disease, vertebral anomalies, and posterior embryotoxon in seven, five, and four cases, respectively. Pruritus was the commonest symptom which was refractory to medical treatment in one third of cases. Two cases developed decompensated liver disease on follow up. High index of suspicion for this multisystemic condition is essential for correct diagnosis and management. PMID:24222371

  7. Euglenoid blooms in the floodplain wetlands of Barak Valley, Assam, North eastern India.

    PubMed

    Duttagupta, S; Gupta, Susmita; Gupta, Abhik

    2004-07-01

    Red blooms of Euglena sp. in the floodplain wetland ecosystems of Barak Valley, Assam, India, were found to be induced by high concentrations of NH3-N, NO3, Fe, Mg and to some extent, PO4, Cu and Zn in their water. The trace elements were rapidly accumulated by the bloom organisms to high levels, whereby their concentrations in the water declined, leading to a collapse of the bloom, which tended to reappear as decomposition again led to the release of the nutrients. The bloom also harboured fairly high density of certain other algae and zooplankton, thereby acting as a sub-system within the wetland ecosystem. The bloom is non-toxic and is exploited as a fish food by the fish-farmers who artificially induce a bloom for augmenting the growth of surface-feeding species of fishes. PMID:15847351

  8. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts. PMID:26345057

  9. Toxocara canis, Trichinella spiralis and Taenia solium helminthozoonoses: seroprevalence among selected populations in north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2015-09-01

    Helminthozoonoses are being considered as a research priority in India and many other tropical and subtropical countries. Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis are emerging public health and food safety issues in the country and the developing world. The asymptomatic Ta. solium carriers act as important risk for neurocysticercosis, leading to adult onset epilepsy in the country. Human toxocariasis is another common zoonosis which occurs due to larvae of Toxocara canis or T. cati. The current study was planned to obtain baseline seropositivity data for Ta. solium, To. canis and Tr. spiralis antibodies among selected populations in Punjab province of northern India. In the present study, 122 human subjects belonging to selected occupations viz. farmers and veterinary practitioners were screened using the RIDASCREEN(®) Ta. solium IgG, RIDASCREEN(®) Toxocara IgG and RIDASCREEN(®) Trichinella IgG enzyme immunoassays for the qualitative determination of IgG antibodies against Ta. solium, Tr. spiralis and To. canis, respectively in human serum. The seropositivity of To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections were found to be 22.13, 5.73 and 11.47 %, respectively in human serum samples. The relative risk of being infected for To. canis, Tr. spiralis and Ta. solium infections was found to be 1.91 (95 % CI 0.786-4.669), 2.61 (95 % CI 0.3258-20.94) and 1.596 (95 % CI 0.427-5.3893) times high respectively in farmers when compared to veterinary practitioners. The present study indicates that exposure to To. canis and Ta. solium is not uncommon among farmers and veterinary practitioners in this part of the country. These results provided evidence of Tr. spiralis among selected human populations in the country and demand more research related to trichinellosis in their respective animal and human hosts.

  10. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  11. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  12. Tracking Seed Fates of Tropical Tree Species: Evidence for Seed Caching in a Tropical Forest in North-East India.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Swati; Datta, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    Rodents affect the post-dispersal fate of seeds by acting either as on-site seed predators or as secondary dispersers when they scatter-hoard seeds. The tropical forests of north-east India harbour a high diversity of little-studied terrestrial murid and hystricid rodents. We examined the role played by these rodents in determining the seed fates of tropical evergreen tree species in a forest site in north-east India. We selected ten tree species (3 mammal-dispersed and 7 bird-dispersed) that varied in seed size and followed the fates of 10,777 tagged seeds. We used camera traps to determine the identity of rodent visitors, visitation rates and their seed-handling behavior. Seeds of all tree species were handled by at least one rodent taxon. Overall rates of seed removal (44.5%) were much higher than direct on-site seed predation (9.9%), but seed-handling behavior differed between the terrestrial rodent groups: two species of murid rodents removed and cached seeds, and two species of porcupines were on-site seed predators. In addition, a true cricket, Brachytrupes sp., cached seeds of three species underground. We found 309 caches formed by the rodents and the cricket; most were single-seeded (79%) and seeds were moved up to 19 m. Over 40% of seeds were re-cached from primary cache locations, while about 12% germinated in the primary caches. Seed removal rates varied widely amongst tree species, from 3% in Beilschmiedia assamica to 97% in Actinodaphne obovata. Seed predation was observed in nine species. Chisocheton cumingianus (57%) and Prunus ceylanica (25%) had moderate levels of seed predation while the remaining species had less than 10% seed predation. We hypothesized that seed traits that provide information on resource quantity would influence rodent choice of a seed, while traits that determine resource accessibility would influence whether seeds are removed or eaten. Removal rates significantly decreased (p < 0.001) while predation rates increased (p = 0

  13. Subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy in North India.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan

    2013-10-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism based on population and trimester specific cut-offs is reported to complicate 1-2% of all pregnancies. Using the recent Endocrine Society guidelines of 2.5 mIU/L of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone as the upper level of normal in the first trimester the reported prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is much higher. Recent publications have also emphasized that there is considerable racial variation in the prevalence of thyroid disorders in pregnancy. Among published literature North Indian women appear to have the highest rates of subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester of pregnancy. More widespread use of universal screening and trimester specific ranges in pregnancy for thyroid hormonal assays will lead to a large number of North Indian women requiring treatment for thyroid disorders in pregnancy. PMID:24251143

  14. β-Thalassaemia and its Co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in Upper Assam Region of North Eastern India: A Hospital Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Rumi; Saikia, Sidhartha Protim; Pathak, Kalyani; Panyang, Rita; Rajkakati, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction β-Thalassaemias are common genetic disorders in the Indian subcontinent and its status has not been well studied in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Aim The aim of the study was to show the prevalence of β- thalassaemias and its co-existence with Haemoglobin E and Haemoglobin S in the Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Materials and Methods A total of 1200 anaemic patients were investigated for β- thalassaemias. Complete Blood Count (CBC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) were done for screening. Results Out of 1200 patients screened, 5.83% β-thalassaemia trait, 2.33% compound Hb E/β-Thalassaemia, 1.33% β-thalassaemia major and 0.42% compound Hb S/β- thalassaemia were detected. A high incidence of thalassaemia is found among the people of Upper Assam region of North Eastern India. Conclusion The only way to prevent the disease is carrier detection and awareness among the people about it. PMID:27190829

  15. Effect of sociocultural cleavage on genetic differentiation: a study from North India.

    PubMed

    Khan, Faisal; Pandey, Atul Kumar; Borkar, Meenal; Tripathi, Manorma; Talwar, Sudha; Bisen, P S; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2008-06-01

    Indian populations possess an exclusive genetic profile primarily due to the many migratory events, which caused an extensive range of genetic diversity, and also due to stringent and austere sociocultural barriers that structure these populations into different endogamous groups. In the present study we attempt to explore the genetic relationships between various endogamous North Indian populations and to determine the effect of stringent social regulations on their gene pool. Twenty STR markers were genotyped in 1,800 random North Indians from 9 endogamous populations belonging to upper-caste and middle-caste Hindus and Muslims. All nine populations had high allelic diversity (176 alleles) and average observed heterozygosity (0.742 +/- 0.06), suggesting strong intrapopulation diversity. The average F(ST) value over all loci was as low as 0.0084. However, within-group F(ST) and genetic distance analysis showed that populations of the same group were genetically closer to each other. The genetic distance of Muslims from middle castes (F(ST) = 0.0090; DA = 0.0266) was significantly higher than that of Muslims from upper castes (F(ST) = 0.0050; DA = 0.0148). Phylogenetic trees (neighbor-joining and maximum-likelihood) show the basal cluster pattern of three clusters corresponding to Muslims, upper-caste, and middle-caste populations, with Muslims clustered with upper-caste populations. Based on the results, we conclude that the extensive gene flow through a series of migrations and invasions has created an enormous amount of genetic diversity. The interpopulation differences are minimal but have a definite pattern, in which populations of different socioreligious groups have more genetic similarity within the same group and are genetically more distant from populations of other groups. Finally, North Indian Muslims show a differential genetic relationship with upper- and middle-caste populations. PMID:19130797

  16. Folate supplementation, MTHFR gene polymorphism and neural tube defects: a community based case control study in North India.

    PubMed

    Deb, Roumi; Arora, Jyoti; Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Gupta, Sangeeta; Verma, Vanita; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava; Saran, Sunil; Kalla, Aloke Kumar

    2011-09-01

    The present study analyses the potential role of MTHFR gene polymorphism, folate supplementation and dietary pattern among the mothers of NTD neonates and controls in heterogeneous populations of North India, with the special focus on their ethnic labels. Results indicated significant increased risk for neural tube defects with respect to low folic acid supplementation and vegetarian diet in univariate and multivariate analyses. There was no significant difference in the genotypic or allelic distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism, however, high frequency of CT genotype, as observed, among controls suggests heterozygous advantage probably due to supplementary folate. Among the two communities, Muslim NTD mothers had higher TT genotype showing increased risk for neural tube defects (adjusted OR: 12.9; 95% CI: 1.21-136.8) and lower folic acid supplementation (adjusted OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.18-10.22). Whereas, marginal increased risk for NTDs with vegetarian diet was observed among Hindus. Cultural and ethnic variation in the risk factors for neural tube defects is highlighted in the study. PMID:21792640

  17. Sperm motility in the fishes of pesticide exposed and from polluted rivers of Gomti and Ganga of north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratap B; Sahu, Vikash; Singh, Vandana; Nigam, Santosh K; Singh, Hement K

    2008-12-01

    Investigation of lethal dose of gamma-HCH (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and chlorpyrifos on spermatozoa motility after 40 days exposure in catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was done under laboratory conditions. The sperm motility was done in the fishes captured from unpolluted ponds of Gujartal considering as reference site and polluted rivers Gomti and Ganga of north India at pre-spermiating stage. Results indicate that 1ppm of gamma-HCH, DDT and chlorpyrifos was lethal dose on sperm motility. The motility of spermatozoa decreased in insecticide exposed fish as well as in the fishes of polluted rivers when compared with their respective controls. The sperm motility was highest at 1:2000 (testicular milt: extender) dilution and duration of sperm motility was 90s after post-activation. The duration of motility also declined in the fishes captured from polluted rivers when compared with the same species captured from the reference site. It is concluded that the insecticides decrease the sperm motility and its duration in exposed fish as well as in the captured fishes from polluted rivers causing the decline in fish population of riverine systems due to influence of xenobiotics on the endocrine system.

  18. Assessment of nitrate contamination due to groundwater pollution in north eastern part of Anantapur District, A.P. India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A G S; Niranjan Kumar, K; Subba Rao, D; Sambashiva Rao, S

    2009-01-01

    The north eastern part of Anantapur district is in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, is significant as it is covered by varied geological formations and has different land use and irrigation practices. Though ground water is the major drinking water source, deterioration in its quality is going unchecked. In such agro-economy based rural areas, the nitrate contamination is rampant and much attention has not been drawn towards this anthropogenic pollution. In the study area ground water samples from different hydrogeological set-up have been collected during the pre and post monsoon seasons and analysed for the major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, CO(3), HCO(3), Cl, SO(4), NO(3) and F. The study revealed that 65% of the samples were found to be unsuitable for drinking purposes in the pre monsoon season and 45% in the post monsoon due to excess nitrate (>45 mg/l) content in the ground water. Among the different seasons and environs, nitrate was in highest concentration in the granitic terrain and canal command areas during pre monsoon season. The nitrate was found to decrease with depth in all the hydrogeological set-ups in both the seasons. Intense agriculture practices, improper sewerage and organic waste disposal methods were observed to contribute nitrate to the shallow and moderately deep aquifers.

  19. Biochemical and biological characterization of Naja kaouthia venom from North-East India and its neutralization by polyvalent antivenom

    PubMed Central

    Das, Diganta; Urs, Nanjaraj; Hiremath, Vilas; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Doley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    This study describes biochemical and biological properties of Naja kaouthia (Indian monocled cobra) venom of North-East India. The LD50 of the crude venom was found to be 0.148mg/kg and neurotoxicitic symptoms like paralysis of lower limbs and heavy difficulty in breathing at sub-lethal dose in mice was observed. The venom exhibited PLA2, indirect hemolytic and myotoxic activities but showed weak proteolytic and low direct hemolytic activities. It did not exhibit any hemorrhage when injected intradermally to mice. Anticoagulant activity was prominent when recalcification, prothrombin and activated partial thrombinplastin time were tested on platelet poor plasma. Rotem analysis of whole citrated blood in presence of venom showed delay in coagulation time and clot formation time. Fibrinogen of whole citrated blood was depleted by venom when analyzed in Sonoclot. Crude venom at 10µg and after 16hr of incubation was found to degrade α chain of fibrinogen. Neutralization study showed that Indian polyvalent antivenom could neutralize some of the biochemical and biological activities as well as its fibrinogenolytic activity. PMID:24349704

  20. Sperm motility in the fishes of pesticide exposed and from polluted rivers of Gomti and Ganga of north India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pratap B; Sahu, Vikash; Singh, Vandana; Nigam, Santosh K; Singh, Hement K

    2008-12-01

    Investigation of lethal dose of gamma-HCH (gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane), DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and chlorpyrifos on spermatozoa motility after 40 days exposure in catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis was done under laboratory conditions. The sperm motility was done in the fishes captured from unpolluted ponds of Gujartal considering as reference site and polluted rivers Gomti and Ganga of north India at pre-spermiating stage. Results indicate that 1ppm of gamma-HCH, DDT and chlorpyrifos was lethal dose on sperm motility. The motility of spermatozoa decreased in insecticide exposed fish as well as in the fishes of polluted rivers when compared with their respective controls. The sperm motility was highest at 1:2000 (testicular milt: extender) dilution and duration of sperm motility was 90s after post-activation. The duration of motility also declined in the fishes captured from polluted rivers when compared with the same species captured from the reference site. It is concluded that the insecticides decrease the sperm motility and its duration in exposed fish as well as in the captured fishes from polluted rivers causing the decline in fish population of riverine systems due to influence of xenobiotics on the endocrine system. PMID:18952138

  1. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  2. Heavy metal accumulation in lichens growing in north side of Lucknow city, India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shalini; Upreti, D K; Sharma, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    Accumulation of Pb, Fe, Cr, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cu and Hg metals in six common lichen species growing on Mangifera indica trees in mango orchard surrounding the north side of the Lucknow city, were analyzed. The study revealed the higher concentration of Pb (3.3 - 15.6 microgg(-1)), Cr (25.6 - 137.5 microgg(-1)), Zn (49.4 - 219.7 microgg(-1)), Cu (10.2 - 66.6 microgg(-1)) and Fe (1748 - 19374 microgg(-1)). PMID:17717985

  3. A LIFE CRISIS AND ITS MANAGEMENT A CASE STUDY FROM NORTH INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Pfleiderer, Beatrix

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of so called traditional patients has been the topic of anthropological research for the last thirty years. Myths have been and constructed and rejected, one being that patients with chronic and less incapacitating illness see rather traditional healers than allopathic medical treatment. The case study with which we are concerned in this paper is the illness of a young girl who is the age in which she is expected to accept a marriage contract. Since she is obviously not willing to do she adopts an illness behaviour which enables her to postpone all role expectations of her age group. She performs a behaviour which is socially accepted and guarantees all the support from her family which she needs and requires. The paper investigates the causes, reason and development of her spirit possession and relates it to the cultural grammar of the patient's group of reference. The data of this case study were obtained at a Muslim shrine in Gujarat, India. PMID:22557510

  4. Climate change impact on soil erosion in the Mandakini River Basin, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Deepak; Mondal, Arun; Kundu, Sananda; Mishra, Prabhash Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Correct estimation of soil loss at catchment level helps the land and water resources planners to identify priority areas for soil conservation measures. Soil erosion is one of the major hazards affected by the climate change, particularly the increasing intensity of rainfall resulted in increasing erosion, apart from other factors like landuse change. Changes in climate have an adverse effect with increasing rainfall. It has caused increasing concern for modeling the future rainfall and projecting future soil erosion. In the present study, future rainfall has been generated with the downscaling of GCM (Global Circulation Model) data of Mandakini river basin, a hilly catchment in the state of Uttarakhand, India, to obtain future impact on soil erosion within the basin. The USLE is an erosion prediction model designed to predict the long-term average annual soil loss from specific field slopes in specified landuse and management systems (i.e., crops, rangeland, and recreational areas) using remote sensing and GIS technologies. Future soil erosion has shown increasing trend due to increasing rainfall which has been generated from the statistical-based downscaling method.

  5. Paleoseismic investigations in the Kopili Fault Zone of North East India: Evidences from liquefaction chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Devender; Reddy, D. V.; Pandey, Anand K.

    2016-04-01

    We report the seismogenic liquefaction signatures observed in the Kopili Fault Zone of the Brahmaputra plains, NE India. This seismically active zone has previously been identified as the "Assam seismic gap" and thus necessitates understanding its past seismicity and implied seismic hazard. With this objective, paleo-seismic studies using seismogenic liquefaction features have been carried out in this region largely covered with the flood plain deposits of Kopili and Kalang rivers. The trenches excavated at two locations revealed extensive liquefaction features with more than 20 sub parallel sand dykes having major orientation in NE-SW direction. A total of 29 samples from marker horizons have been processed to constrain chronology of the liquefaction features using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C (AMS) dating techniques. The age constraints in terms of respective lower and upper bound age brackets for individual dykes suggest three time intervals of their formations i.e. (i) 250 ± 25 yr. BP, (ii) between 400 to 770 yr. BP and (iii) 900 ± 50 yr. BP. These new ages of liquefaction features correspond to the occurrence timings of causative seismic events which are in addition to the known historical earthquakes and thus enhance our understanding of the paleoseismic history of this region during past ~ 1000 years.

  6. Sediment Transport and Channel Morphology of the Kosi River, North Bihar Plain (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaurav, Kumar; Chauvet, Hugo; Metivier, Francois; Devauchelle, Olivier; Sinha, Rajiv

    2013-04-01

    The Kosi River of the northern Bihar plain, India and Nepal, is well-known for the frequent lateral shift of its course. In the last two centuries, it migrated more than 150 km westward (Gole and Chitale, 1966; Wells and Dorr, 1987; Sinha.R, 2008). This westward shift produced a megafan of an area about 16,000 Km2. Today the river shows a braided networks of streams of various magnitude. The large dimension of the Kosi river, its sandy bed, and its avulsive nature makes it an ideal field site to understand sediment transport in large braided rivers. We report measurements of discharge, velocity, width and depth across channels of the Kosi river within its embankment. ADCP measurements were performed during the high flow period in late July to early August 2012. First-hand analysis of the ADCP data shows order-of-magnitude variations of channel aspect ratio, discharge and velocity. We use these measurements to evaluate wether individual threads are close to the threshold for the sediment movement, and to evaluate the relationship between channel shape and discharge. This represents a first step towards the establishment of sediment budgets in a large sandy braided river.

  7. Reasons for non-immunization of children in an urban, low income group in North India.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Joseph L; Babbar, Harsh; Yadav, Sangita

    2002-07-01

    A study was undertaken on 500 children under the age of 5 years belonging to a low income group. All were attending the paediatrics outpatient department of a large teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Only 25% were found to have received complete primary immunization as per the National Immunization Schedule (bacille Calmette-Guérin at birth, three doses of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus and oral poliovirus vaccine at 6,10 and 14 weeks and measles vaccine at 9 months). The major reasons for non-immunization of the children were: migration to a native village (26.4%); domestic problems (9.6%); the immunization centre was located too far from their home (9.6%); and the child was unwell when the vaccination was due (9%). Twelve per cent of mothers could not give any reason for non-immunization. In addition to the migration of children to rural areas, the other significant finding was an indirect effect of intensive OPV administration as part of polio eradication initiative. The lack of awareness and fear of side effects constituted a small minority of reasons for non-immunization.

  8. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332–441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871–1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344–456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313–425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70–105.07, p-value: <0.01) and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21–26.64, p-value: <0.01). High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  9. Spatio-temporal variability of rainfall regime in the Brahmaputra valley of North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deka, R. L.; Mahanta, C.; Nath, K. K.; Dutta, M. K.

    2016-05-01

    Monthly rainfall data, spanning over 110 years (1901-2010), were utilized for trend analysis at different spatial and temporal scales over the Brahmaputra valley, India. The Mann-Kendall statistic and Sen's slope model were used to identify the trends and estimate the magnitude of change, respectively. Statistical significance of the decadal shifts in rainfall from the overall mean was estimated by using Cramer's test. The analysis revealed decrease in annual as well as monsoon rainfall in the Brahmaputra valley during the last 110 years with large spatial and temporal variations. These decreasing trends of rainfall in the eastern part of the valley were statistically significant. Significant decreasing trend of monsoon rainfall during the recent 30-year period was due to significant decrease of July and September rainfall, and this trend was found to be consistent at different spatial scales. In the last decade (2001-2010) in particular, monsoon rainfall exhibited significant negative deviation from the normal due to three deficient years and absence of excess rainfall years. On the contrary, contribution of pre-monsoon and post-monsoon rainfall to annual total in the Brahmaputra valley increased during the recent 30-year period. Winter rainfall in the valley decreased during the last 30 years due to significant decrease of December rainfall in the eastern and central parts.

  10. Dietary Calcium Intake, Serum Calcium Level, and their Association with Preeclampsia in Rural North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anant; Kant, Shashi; Pandav, Chandrakant S.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Rai, Sanjay K.; Misra, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia in pregnancy has been shown to be associated with low serum calcium level. Though the evidence is abundant, it is equivocal. Objectives: The study aimed to estimate the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status among pregnant women, and to document the association of the dietary calcium intake and serum calcium status with incidence of preeclampsia in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site, Ballabgarh, Haryana, India. All pregnant women between 28 weeks and 36 weeks of gestation were interviewed. A semi-structured interview schedule and a 24-h dietary recall questionnaire were administered to assess the dietary calcium intake. AutoAnalyser (Biolis 24i) was used for measuring serum calcium. Results: We enrolled 217 pregnant women. The mean [standard deviation (SD)] dietary calcium intake was 858 (377) mg/day. The mean (SD) serum calcium level was 9.6 mg/dL (0.56). Incidence of preeclampsia was 13.4%. Preeclampsia was not associated with hypocalcemia [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.27-3.98]. Conclusion: The majority of pregnant women had inadequate dietary calcium intake. The prevalence of hypocalcemia was low. Low serum calcium level was not associated with preeclampsia. Calcium supplementation may not reduce preeclampsia in this population. PMID:27385877

  11. Mathematically Derived Body Volume and Risk of Musculoskeletal Pain among Housewives in North India

    PubMed Central

    Bihari, Vipin; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Mathur, Neeraj; Pangtey, Balram Singh; Kamal, Ritul; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Srivastava, Anup Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 demonstrates the impact of musculoskeletal diseases as the second greatest cause of disability globally in all regions of the world. The study was conducted to determine the role of mathematically derived body volume (BV), body volume index (BVI), body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA) and body fat % (BF %) on musculoskeletal pain (MSP) among housewives in National Capital Region (NCR). Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 495 housewives from Gurgaon and New Okhla Industrial Development Area (NOIDA) in National Capital Region (NCR), New Delhi, India. The study includes questionnaire survey, clinical examination and body composition monitoring among housewives. Results A significantly higher BMI, BVI, BV and BSA were observed in subjects with MSP as compared to those who had no MSP. This was also true for subjects with pain in knee for BMI category for overweight. Subjects with pain in limbs had significantly high BMI and BVI as compared to subjects with no MSP. A significant positive correlation of age with BMI, BVI, BV and BSA was observed among subjects having no MSP denoting a direct relationship of age and these body factors. Conclusions The prevalence of MSP among housewives is associated with increasing age, BMI and BVI. This can possibly be used for formulating a strategy for prevention of MSP. PMID:24223218

  12. Economic Burden of Hospitalization Due to Injuries in North India: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prinja, Shankar; Jagnoor, Jagnoor; Chauhan, Akashdeep Singh; Aggarwal, Sameer; Nguyen, Ha; Ivers, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    There is little documentation of the potential catastrophic effects of injuries on families due to out of pocket (OOP) expenditure for medical care. Patients who were admitted for at least one night in a tertiary care hospital of Chandigarh city due to injury were recruited and were followed-up at 1, 2 and 12 months after discharge to collect information on OOP expenditure. Out of the total 227 patients, 60% (137/227) had sustained road traffic injuries (RTI). The average OOP expenditure per hospitalisation and up to 12 months post discharge was USD 388 (95% CI: 332-441) and USD 1046 (95% CI: 871-1221) respectively. Mean OOP expenditure for RTI and non-RTI cases during hospitalisation was USD 400 (95% CI: 344-456) and USD 369 (95% CI: 313-425) respectively. The prevalence of catastrophic expenditure was 30%, and was significantly higher among those belonging to the lowest income quartile (OR-26.50, 95% CI: 6.70-105.07, p-value: <0.01) and with an inpatient stay greater than 7 days (OR-10.60, 95% CI: 4.21-26.64, p-value: <0.01). High OOP expenditure for treatment of injury puts a significant economic burden on families. Measures aimed at increasing public health spending for prevention of injury and providing financial risk protection are urgently required in India. PMID:27384572

  13. Cementum annulations, age estimation, and demographic dynamics in Mid-Holocene foragers of North India.

    PubMed

    Robbins Schug, G; Brandt, E T; Lukacs, J R

    2012-04-01

    One of the principal problems facing palaeodemography is age estimation in adult skeletons and the centrist tendency that affects many age estimation methods by artificially increasing the proportion of individuals in the 30-45-year age category. Several recent publications have indicated that cementum annulations are significantly correlated with known age of extraction or death. This study addresses the question of how demographic dynamics are altered for an archaeological sample when cementum-based age estimates are used as opposed to those obtained via conventional macroscopic methods. Age pyramids were constructed and demographic profiles were compared for the early Holocene skeletal population from Damdama (India). The results demonstrate that the use of cementum annulations for age estimation in only a subset of the skeletal sample has a significant impact on the demographic profile with regard to specific parameters such as mean age at death and life expectancy at birth. This confirms the importance of using cementum annulations to refine age estimates in archaeological samples, which, when combined with a fertility-centred approach to demography, can provide new insights into population dynamics in the past. PMID:22475664

  14. Fluctuations in butyrate-producing bacteria in ulcerative colitis patients of North India

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Reena; Ahuja, Vineet; Paul, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the interplay between butyrate concentration and butyrate-producing bacteria in fecal samples of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients vs control individuals. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 14 control individuals (hemorrhoid patients only) and 26 UC patients (severe: n = 12, moderate: n = 6, remission: n = 8), recruited by the gastroenterologist at the Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Disease activity in UC patients was determined by clinical colitis activity index. We employed fluorescent in situ hybridization in combination with flow cytometry to enumerate the clostridium cluster population targeted by 16S rRNA gene probe. Major butyrate-producing species within this cluster were quantified to see if any change existed in control vs UC patients with different disease activity. This observed change was further validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition to this, we carried out gas chromatography to evaluate the changes in concentration of major short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), namely acetate, n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, in the above samples. Student t test and Graph pad prism-6 were used to compare the data statistically. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease of Clostridium coccoides (control, 25.69% ± 1.62% vs severe, 9.8% ± 2.4%, P = 0.0001) and Clostridium leptum clusters (control, 13.74% ± 1.05% vs severe, 6.2% ± 1.8%, P = 0.0001) in fecal samples of UC patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that some butyrate-producing members of the clostridial cluster, like Fecalibacterium prausnitzii (control, 11.66% ± 1.55% vs severe, 6.01% ± 1.6%, P = 0.0001) and Roseburia intestinalis (control, 14.48% ± 1.52% vs severe, 9% ± 1.83%, P = 0.02) were differentially present in patients with different disease activity. In addition, we also demonstrated decreased concentrations of fecal SCFAs, especially of n-butyrate (control, 24.32 ± 1.86 mmol/μL vs severe, 12.74

  15. Pseudotachylitic breccia from the Dhala impact structure, north-central India: Texture, mineralogy and geochemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pati, J. K.; Reimold, W. U.; Greshake, A.; Schmitt, R. T.; Koeberl, C.; Pati, P.; Prakash, K.

    2015-05-01

    Pseudotachylitic breccia (PTB) occurs in a drill core from the crater floor of the 11 km diameter, Proterozoic Dhala impact structure, India. PTBs were intersected in late Archean granitoids between 348.15 m and 502.55 m depth in the MCB-10 drill core from the center of the Dhala structure. The breccias comprise both cataclastic-matrix as well as melt breccias. The presence of microlites and vesicles in the groundmass and a widely observed flow fabric in the PTB support the presence of melt in the groundmass of some samples. Clasts in PTB are derived from the Archean granitoid basement. PTB matrix, the matrix of impact melt breccia also occurring between 256.50 m and 502.55 m depth, and the target granitoids vary in terms of silica, total alkali, magnesium and iron oxide contents. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of PTB and target granitoids are similar, but the elemental abundances in the PTB are lower. The restricted size of PTB as veins and pods of up to 2.5 cm width, their occurrence at varied depths over a core length of ~ 150 m, the clast population, and the chemical relationships between PTB and their host rocks all suggest the derivation of these breccias locally from the fractured basement granitoids involving in-situ melting. We favor that this took place due to rapid decompression during the collapse and modification stage of impact cratering, with, locally, additional energy input from frictional heating. Locally, amphibolite and dioritic mylonite occur in the host granitoids and their admixture could have contributed to the comparatively more mafic composition of PTB. Alteration of these crater floor rocks could have involved preferential reduction of silica and alkali element abundances, possibly due to impact-induced hydrothermal activity at crater floor level. This process, too, could have resulted in more mafic compositions.

  16. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district". PMID:25494132

  17. Public opinion about smoking and smoke free legislation in a district of North India.

    PubMed

    Goel, S; Singh, R J; D, Sharma; A, Singh

    2014-01-01

    Context: A growing number of cities, districts, counties and states across the globe are going smoke-free. While an Indian national law namely Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) exists since 2003 and aims at protecting all the people in our country; people still smoke in public places. Aim: This study assessed knowledge and perceptions about smoking, SHS and their support for Smoke-free laws among people residing in Mohali district, Punjab. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Mohali district of Punjab, India. A sample size of 1600 people was obtained. Probability Proportional to Size technique was used for selecting the number of individuals to be interviewed from each block and also from urban and rural population. Statistical Analysis Used: We estimated proportions and tested for significant differences by residence, smoking status, literacy level and employment level by means of the chi-square statistics. Statistical software SPSS for Windows version 20 was used for analysing data . Results: The overall prevalence of current smoking among study participants was 25%. Around 96% were aware of the fact that smoking is harmful to health, 45% viewed second-hand smoke to be equally harmful as active smoking, 84.2% knew that smoking is prohibited in public places and 88.3% wanted the government to take strict actions to control the menace of public smoking. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that people aged 20 years and above, unemployed, urban, literate and non-smokers had significantly better perception towards harms of smoking. The knowledge about smoke free provisions of COTPA was significantly better among males, employed individuals, urban residents, and literate people. Conclusions: There was high knowledge about deleterious multi-dimensional effects of smoking among residents and a high support for implementation of COTPA. Efforts should be taken to make Mohali a "smoke-free district".

  18. Risk factors for perforation in microbial corneal ulcers in north India

    PubMed Central

    Titiyal, J S; Negi, S; Anand, A; Tandon, R; Sharma, N; Vajpayee, R B

    2006-01-01

    Aim To identify predisposing factors leading to corneal perforation in patients with microbial keratitis. Method Two groups of 60 patients each, with perforated corneal ulcers and healed/healing corneal ulcers, respectively, were recruited in a case‐control study conducted in northern India. The cases and controls were matched by age and time of presentation. A standardised proforma was used to identify potential predisposing factors for demographic, social, medical, ocular, and treatment history. All participants underwent a detailed ocular examination. Corneal scrapings were performed where relevant. Results The characteristics associated with corneal perforation in microbial keratitis were outdoor occupation (p = 0.005), illiteracy (p = 0.02), excessive alcohol use (p = 0.03), history of “something falling into eye” (p = 0.003), trauma with vegetable matter (p = 0.008), vision less than counting fingers at referral (p<0.001), central location of ulcer (p<0.001), lack of corneal vascularisation (p<0.001), delay in starting initial treatment (p<0.001), failure to start fortified antibiotics (p<0.001), and monotherapy with fluoroquinolones (p = 0.002). The lack of corneal vascularisation (OR 6.4, 95% CI 4.2 to 13.5), delay in starting initial treatment (OR 35.6, 95% CI 6.9 to 68.2), and failure to start fortified antibiotics (OR 19.9, 95% CI 2.7 to 64.7) retained significance on a logistic regression model. Conclusions This study characterises microbial keratitis cases at increased risk of corneal perforation and reinforces the need for standardised referral and treatment protocols for patients with corneal ulcer on their first contact at primary care level in the developing world. PMID:16531425

  19. Using U-Th-Pb petrochronology to determine rates of ductile thrusting: Time windows into the Main Central Thrust, Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Catherine M.; Parrish, Randall R.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Argles, Tom W.; Harris, Nigel B. W.; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative constraints on the rates of tectonic processes underpin our understanding of the mechanisms that form mountains. In the Sikkim Himalaya, late structural doming has revealed time-transgressive evidence of metamorphism and thrusting that permit calculation of the minimum rate of movement on a major ductile fault zone, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), by a novel methodology. U-Th-Pb monazite ages, compositions, and metamorphic pressure-temperature determinations from rocks directly beneath the MCT reveal that samples from ~50 km along the transport direction of the thrust experienced similar prograde, peak, and retrograde metamorphic conditions at different times. In the southern, frontal edge of the thrust zone, the rocks were buried to conditions of ~550°C and 0.8 GPa between ~21 and 18 Ma along the prograde path. Peak metamorphic conditions of ~650°C and 0.8-1.0 GPa were subsequently reached as this footwall material was underplated to the hanging wall at ~17-14 Ma. This same process occurred at analogous metamorphic conditions between ~18-16 Ma and 14.5-13 Ma in the midsection of the thrust zone and between ~13 Ma and 12 Ma in the northern, rear edge of the thrust zone. Northward younging muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages are consistently ~4 Ma younger than the youngest monazite ages for equivalent samples. By combining the geochronological data with the >50 km minimum distance separating samples along the transport axis, a minimum average thrusting rate of 10 ± 3 mm yr-1 can be calculated. This provides a minimum constraint on the amount of Miocene India-Asia convergence that was accommodated along the MCT.

  20. Traditional Practicing with Arsenic Rich Water in Fish Industries Leads to Health Hazards in West Bengal and North-Eastern States of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashyap, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The supply of good quality food is main necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population throughout the globe. This study comes to know the severity of As in the west Bengal and north-eastern states of the India. Over the 75% large population of India lives in villages and associated with farming and its related work. West Bengal is the densest populated area of India, fish and rice is the staple food as well as in north-eastern states. For the fulfil demand of fish large population the area are used fisheries as the business. Arsenic contamination in ground water is major growing threat to worldwide drinking water resources. High As contamination in water have been reported in many parts of the world Chandrasekharam et al., 2001; Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002; Farooq et al., 2010). In context to West Bengal and north-east states of India arsenic is main problem in the food chain. These areas are very rich in arsenic many fold higher concentrations of Arsenic than their respective WHO permissible limits have been reported in the water. Over the 36 million people in Bengal delta are at risk due to drinking of As contaminated water (Nordstrom, 2002). The highest concentration of arsenic (535 μg/L Chandrashekhar et al. 2012) was registered from Ngangkha Lawai Mamang Leikai area of Bishnupur district which is fifty fold of the WHO limit for arsenic and tenfold of Indian permissible limit. With the continuous traditional practicing (As rich water pond) and untreated arsenic rich water in fish industries leads to health hazards. A sustainable development in aquaculture should comprise of various fields including environmental, social, cultural and economic aspects. A scientific study has to be needed for the overcome on this problem and rain harvested water may be used for reduce the arsenic problems in fisheries.

  1. Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur, North East India.

    PubMed

    Asghar, M; Meitei, S Y; Luxmi, Y; Achoubi, N; Meitei, K S; Murry, B; Sachdeva, M P; Saraswathy, K N

    2014-01-01

    Opportunity for natural selection among five population groups of Manipur in comparison with other North East Indian population has been studied. Crow's index as well as Johnston and Kensinger's index for natural selection were calculated based on differential fertility and mortality. The mortality component was found to be lower compared to fertility component in all the populations which may attribute to comparatively improved and easily accessible health care facilities. However, different selection pressures, artificial and natural, seem to be influencing the selection intensity through induced abortion and spontaneous abortion among the two non-tribal migrant groups: Bamon and Muslims, respectively. This study highlights the probable interaction of artificial and natural selection in determining the evolutionary fate of any population group.

  2. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) between left and right feet occur in both the foot breadth measurements (BBAL and BHEL). Foot length measurements (T1 to T5 lengths) did not show any statistically significant bilateral asymmetry. The correlation between stature and all the foot measurements was found to be positive and statistically significant (p-value < 0.001). Linear regression models and multiple regression models were derived for estimation of stature from the measurements of the foot. The present study indicates that anthropometric measurements of foot and its segments are valuable in the estimation of stature. Foot length measurements estimate stature with greater accuracy when compared to foot breadth measurements. Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the

  3. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  4. Intra-seasonal and Inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio over rain-shadow region of North peninsular India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Deshpande, C. G.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-02-01

    Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of Bowen Ratio (BR) have been studied over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India during summer monsoon season. Daily grid point data of latent heat flux (LHF), sensible heat flux (SHF) from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis for the period 1970-2014 have been used to compute daily area-mean BR. Daily grid point rainfall data at a resolution of 0.25° × 0.25° from APHRODITE's Water Resources for the available period 1970-2007 have been used to study the association between rainfall and BR. The study revealed that BR rapidly decreases from 4.1 to 0.29 in the month of June and then remains nearly constant at the same value (≤0.1) in the rest of the season. High values of BR in the first half of June are indicative of intense thermals and convective clouds with higher bases. Low values of BR from July to September period are indicative of weak thermals and convective clouds with lower bases. Intra-seasonal and inter-annual variability of BR is found to be inversely related to precipitation over the region. BR analysis indicates that the land surface characteristics of the study region during July-September are similar to that over oceanic regions as far as intensity of thermals and associated cloud microphysical properties are concerned. Similar variation of BR is found in El Nino and La Nina years. During June, an increasing trend is observed in SHF and BR and decreasing trend in LHF from 1976 to 2014. Increasing trend in the SHF is statistically significant.

  5. Reproductive disorders in dairy cattle under semi-intensive system of rearing in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, M. H.; Manoj, K.; Pramod, S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence of major reproductive problems of dairy cattle reared under a semi-intensive system by small and marginal farmers in Meghalaya province of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods: In a 3 years study, a total of 576 crossbred dairy cattle (212 Holstein Friesian cross and 364 Jersey cross) from all districts (n=11) of Meghalaya were assessed with the survey, clinical examination, and personal observations. Results: Out of the total animal assessed, 33.85% (n=195) were found to be affected with one or more of the clinical reproductive problems. Repeat breeding (RB), anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion were found to be the major clinical reproductive problems. Out of the total animal affected with reproductive disorders, the incidence of anestrus, RB, retention of fetal membrane, and abortion was found to be 31.79% (n=62), 24.61% (n=48), 14.35% (n=28), and 11.25% (n=22), respectively. In addition, dystocia (5.12%), prolapse (1.53%), endometritis (4.61%), and pyometra (6.66%) were minor clinical reproductive problems. There was a significant difference in the incidence of reproductive disorders with respect to breed, age, and parity. Conclusion: It was revealed from this study that RB, anestrus, retention of fetal membrane, and dystocia are the major clinical reproductive problems in Meghalaya. Results indicated unsatisfactory feeding, housing, and health management practices are the main cause of low fertility of dairy cows. Lack of scientific knowledge, low access to breeding, and health services further contributed to low productivity and fertility. PMID:27284229

  6. Subcutaneous Mycosis Due to Cladosporium cladosporioides and Bipolaris cynodontis from Assam, North-East India and Review of Published Literature.

    PubMed

    Nath, Reema; Barua, Shyamanta; Barman, Jahnabi; Swargiary, Pallabi; Borgohain, Mondita; Saikia, Lahari

    2015-12-01

    A large number of phaeoid fungi cause infection in humans and other animals which is characterized by the basic development of sclerotic body, dark-coloured filamentous hyphae as well as yeast-like cells in the invaded tissue. Two cases of subcutaneous mycosis in immunocompetent male patients aged 55 and 58 years attending Dermatology outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Assam, north-east India, are reported. The first case was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis which was caused by Cladosporium cladosporioides. The patient clinically presented with a chronic verrucous and nodular growth of 32-year duration on the left foot and leg. Identification of the species was done by sequencing the D1/D2 region of LSU (large subunit 28S rDNA). The patient was treated with surgical resection and oral itraconazole which showed good clinical response and total regression of lesion after 9 months. The second case due to Bipolaris cynodontis presented as verrucous exophytic growth over the dorsum of the right foot of 1-year duration which was diagnosed as chromoblastomycosis. The identification of the species was done by sequencing the ITS region. The patient was started with oral itraconazole but was lost to follow-up. Chromoblastomycosis due to Cladosporium cladosporioides is rare. Bipolaris cynodontis is not yet reported as a cause of human infection. The aetiological role of this fungus was confirmed by repeated isolation of the fungus from the lesion and direct microscopy. Molecular identification methods can increase the spectrum of black moulds causing human infection in coming years. We are reporting these two cases with review of the available literature.

  7. Analysis of trends in streamflow and its linkages with rainfall and anthropogenic factors in Gomti River basin of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysingha, N. S.; Singh, Man; Sehgal, V. K.; Khanna, Manoj; Pathak, Himanshu

    2016-02-01

    Trend analysis of hydro-climatic variables such as streamflow, rainfall, and temperature provides useful information for effective water resources planning, designing, and management. Trends in observed streamflow at four gauging stations in the Gomti River basin of North India were assessed using the Mann-Kendall and Sen's slope for the 1982 to 2012 period. The relationships between trends in streamflow and rainfall were studied by correlation analyses. There was a gradual decreasing trend of annual, monsoonal, and winter seasonal streamflow ( p < 0.05) from the midstream to the downstream of the river and also a decreasing trend of annual streamflow for the 5-year moving averaged standardized anomalies of streamflow for the entire basin. The declining trend in the streamflow was attributed partly to the increased water withdrawal, to increased air temperature, to higher population, and partly to significant reducing trend of post monsoon rainfall especially at downstream. Upstream gauging station showed a significant increasing trend of streamflow (1.6 m3/s/year) at annual scale, and this trend was attributed to the significant increasing trend of catchment rainfall (9.54 mm/year). It was further evident in the significant coefficient of positive correlation ( ρ = 0.8) between streamflow and catchment rainfall. The decreasing trend in streamflow and post-monsoon rainfall especially towards downstream area with concurrent increasing trend of temperature indicates a drying tendency of the Gomti River basin over the study period. The results of this study may help stakeholders to design streamflow restoration strategies for sustainable water management planning of the Gomti River basin.

  8. Seroprevalence of infectious markers & their trends in blood donors in a hospital based blood bank in north india

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, R.N.; Hegde, Vikas; Chowdhry, Mohit; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Rosamma, N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis infections pose a great threat to blood safety. This study was undertaken to investigate the seroprevalence of serologic markers for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) among blood donors at a hospital based blood centre in north India over a period of nine years. Methods: The results of serologic markers for TTIs (HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and syphilis) of all blood donations (both voluntary and replacement) at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2013 were screened. Additional analysis was conducted to examine the prevalence trends associated with each of the positive marker. Results: The data of 180,477 donors [173,019 (95.86%) males and 7,458 (4.13%) females] were analyzed. Replacement donations [174,939 (96.93%)] represented the majority whereas, only 5,538 (3.06%) donations were from the voluntary donors. The risk of blood being reactive was three times higher in male donors when compared with the female donors. The risk of blood being reactive for one or more infectious markers was 2.1 times higher in replacement donors when compared with the voluntary donors. Seropositivity of HIV, HBsAg, HBcAb, syphilis showed a significant decreasing trend (P<0.05) while there was an increasing trend in HCV infection which was insignificant. Interpretation & conclusions: This study reflects that the risk of TTIs has been decreased over time with respect to HIV, HBV and syphilis, but the trends for HCV remains almost the same in blood donors. Blood transfusion remains a risk factor for the spread of blood-borne infections. Therefore, improvements are needed to strengthen both safety and availability of blood. PMID:26458348

  9. Association of MTHFR (C677T) Gene Polymorphism With Breast Cancer in North India

    PubMed Central

    Waseem, Mohammad; Hussain, Syed Rizwan; Kumar, Shashank; Serajuddin, Mohammad; Mahdi, Farzana; Sonkar, Satyendra Kumar; Bansal, Cherry; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women and is associated with a variety of risk factors. The functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T in the gene encoding 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) may lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect the chemosensitivity of tumor cells. This study was designed to investigate the association of MTHFR gene polymorphism (SNP) in the pathogenesis of breast cancer among the North Indian women population. MATERIALS AND METHODS Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using genomic DNA, extracted from the peripheral blood of subjects with (275 cases) or without (275 controls) breast cancer. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to study C677T polymorphism in the study groups. RESULTS The distribution of MTHFR (C677T) genotype frequencies, ie, CC, TT, and CT, among the patients was 64.7%, 2.18%, and 33.09%, respectively. In the healthy control group, the CC, TT, and CT frequencies were 78.91%, 1.09%, and 20.1%, respectively. The frequencies of C and T alleles were 81.2% and 18.7%, respectively, in the patient subjects, while they were 88.9% and 11.09%, respectively, among the healthy control group. Frequencies of the CT genotype and the T allele were significantly different (P = 0.007 and P = 0.005, respectively) between the control and the case subjects. CONCLUSION This study shows an association of the CT genotype and the T allele of the MTHFR (C667T) gene with increased genetic risk for breast cancer among Indian women. PMID:27721657

  10. Forest fire scenario and challenges of mitigation during fire season in North East India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, K.; Mondal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.; Sudhakar, S.

    2014-11-01

    Forest fires are a major environmental problem in North East Region (NER) with large tracts of forest areas being affected in every season. Forest fires have become a major threat to the forest ecosystems in the region, leading to loss of timber, biodiversity, wildlife habitat and loss to other natural resources. Studies on forest fire have reported that about 50% of forest fire in the country takes place in NE region. The forest fire in NER is anthropogenic in nature. The forest fire hazard map generated based on appropriate weightage given to the factors affecting fire behavior like topography, fuel characteristic and proximity to roads, settlements and also historical fire locations helped to demarcate the fire prone zones. Whereas, during fire season the weather pattern also governs the fire spread in the given area. Therefore, various data on fuel characteristics (land use/land cover, forest type map, forest density map), topography (DEM, slope, aspect) proximity to settlement, road, waterbodies, meteorological data from AWS on wind speed, wind direction, dew point have been used for each fire point to rank its possible hazard level. Near real time fire location data obtained from MODIS/FIRMSwere used to generate the fire alerts. This work demonstrates dissemination of information in the form of maps and tables containing information of latitude and longitude of fire location, fire occurrence date, state and district name, LULC, road connectivity, slope and aspect, settlements/water bodies and meteorological data and the corresponding rating of possibility of fire spread to the respective fire control authorities during fire season.

  11. Generation of buckle folds in Naga fold thrust belt, north-east India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, B.; Dietl, C.

    2009-04-01

    Naga fold thrust belt (NFTB), India, formed as a result of northward migration of the Indian plate initiated in Eocene and its subsequent collision with the Burmese plate during Oligocene. The NW-SE oriented compression generated a spectrum of structures; among them, we intend to focus on the folds- varying from gentle to tight asymmetric in geometry. Large recumbent folds are often associated with thrusting. Buckle folds forming under shallow crustal conditions are frequently reported from NFTB. Buckle folding occurs mainly within sandstones with intercalated shale layers which are in the study area typical for the Barail, Surma and Tipam Groups. We have tried to explain the controlling factors behind the variation of the buckle fold shapes and their varying wavelengths throughout the fold thrust belt with the aid of analogue (sand box) modelling. It is undoubted that competence contrast along with the layer parallel compressive stress are the major influencing factors in generation of buckle folds. Schmalholz and Podladchikov (1999) and Jeng et al. (2002) have shown that when low strain rate and low temperature are applicable, not only the viscosity contrast, but also the elasticity contrast govern the geometry of the developing buckle folds. Rocks deforming under high temperature and high pressure deform in pure viscous manner, whereas, rocks undergoing less confining stress and less temperature, are subjected to pure elastic deformation. However, they are the end members, and most of the deformations are a combination of these two end members, i.e. of viscoelastic nature. Our models are made up of sieved sand (0.5 mm grain size) and mica layers (1-5 mm) This interlayering imparts a mechanical anisotropy in the model. Mica is not a pure viscous material, rather it displays more elastic behaviour. The mica layers in the model produce bedding parallel slip during shortening through internal reorganization of the individual mica crystals leading to the thickening

  12. Anglican Evangelism in North India and the Punjabi Missionary Classroom: The Failure To Educate the Masses, 1860-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allender, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the dominant Anglican missionary schools in Punjab (India). States that the Anglican missions failed to fulfill their original design, but that Hindu schools were successful and played a role in India's movement for independence over British settlements in the northern region. (KDR)

  13. The 2001 Mw7.7 Bhuj, India Earthquake and Eastern North American Ground-Motion Attenuation Relations: Seismic Hazard Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, C. H.; Bhattacharya, S. N.; Kumar, A.

    2002-12-01

    It has been suggested that the Mw7.7 2001 Bhuj, India earthquake occurred in a stable continental region with ground-motion attenuation properties similar to eastern North America (ENA). No strong motion recordings for M7 or greater earthquakes have been recorded in ENA, so, if the two regions share similar properties, then observations from the Bhuj earthquake provide important information for hazard assessments in ENA as well as India. This thesis can be tested using seismic data for the Bhuj mainshock. The Indian Meteorological Department recorded accelerograph and broadband seismograph data at distances of 500 to 1800 km. Accelerograph and engineering seismoscope data were recorded at distances of 40 to 1100 km by the Department of Earthquake Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. We have processed the accelerograph and broadband data for response spectral accelerations and corrected them to a common NEHRP site class using Joyner and Boore (2000) site factors. The geologic conditions at each recording site were determined using the geologic map of India and categorized as Quaternary sediments, Tertiary sediments, or hard rock. Comparisons were then made to available ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and 1.0 s spectral acceleration (Sa), the geologically-corrected Bhuj data generally fall among the ENA ground-motion attenuation relations. The Bhuj mainshock ground-motion data agree with the collective predictions of the ENA relations given the random uncertainty in ground-motion measurements of a factor of two or more plus the ground-motion attenuation relation modeling uncertainty. From an engineering perspective, this comparison supports the thesis that seismic-wave attenuation in stable continental India is similar to eastern North America.

  14. Dynamic recrystallization mechanisms and their transition in the Daling Thrust (DT) zone, Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Bose, Santanu; Mandal, Nibir; Dasgupta, Sujoy

    2016-04-01

    The Daling Thrust (DT) delineates a zone of intense shear localization in the Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) of the Darjeeling-Sikkim Himalaya. From microstructural studies of deformed quartzite samples, we show a transition in the dynamic recrystallization mechanism with increasing distance from the DT, dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) recrystallization closest to the DT, and progressively replaced by sub-grain rotation (SGR) recrystallization away from the thrust. The transition is marked by a characteristic variation in the fractal dimension (D) of grain boundaries, estimated from the area-perimeter method. For the BLG regime, D ≈ 1.046, which decreases significantly to a value as low as 1.025 for the SGR regime. Using the available thermal data for BLG and SGR recrystallization, we infer increasing deformation temperatures away from the DT in the hanging wall. Based on the quartz piezometer our estimates reveal strong variations in the flow stress (59.00 MPa to 16.00 MPa) over a distance of ~ 1.2 km from the DT. Deformation mechanism maps constructed for different temperatures indicate that the strain rates (10- 12 S- 1 to 10- 14 S- 1) comply with the geologically possible range. Finally, we present a mechanical model to provide a possible explanation for the cause of stress intensification along the DT.

  15. Impact of land use change on soil carbon loss of the Sikkim Himalayan piedmont

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokop, Pawel; Ploskonka, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Natural and human causes of change in land use on soil carbon were studied at the outlet of the Tista River from the Sikkim Himalayas over the last 150 years. Analysis of topographic maps and satellite images indicates that the land reforms related to location of tea gardens in the piedmont caused rapid deforestation of terraces in the late 19th century. Continuous population growth after 1930 initiated the replacement of floodplain forest by rice cultivation. Both processes changed soil carbon content and intensified fluvial activity expressed through terrace erosion. The replacement of natural forest by tea cultivation reduced the soil carbon content within terraces from 1.95 kg to 1.77 kg (in 1 m of topsoil) respectively. The replacement of natural forest by rice reduced the soil carbon content within floodplains from 0.42 kg to 0.23 kg (in 1 m topsoil) respectively. Much more dangerous, was terrace erosion leading to permanent removal of sediment including soil. The total loss of soil carbon in a 1 m thick soil layer due to conversion of 5 km2 forest to tea cultivation was about 900 t between 1930 and 2010. While the total soil carbon removed due to 1.8 km2 terrace erosion reached 3510 t in the same period. Result is the outcome of research project 2012/05/B/ST10/00309 of the National Science Centre (Poland).

  16. Comparison of two global datasets of TRMM and WFD with rain gauge data in driving Large-scale hydrological modelling in Beas River, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Xu, C.-Y.; Jain, S.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, large-scale hydrological models have increasingly been used as a main assessment tool for global/regional water resources. During past two decades, numerous datasets have been developed for global/regional hydrological assessment and modeling, but these datasets often show differences in their spatial and temporal distributions of precipitation, which is one of the most critical input variables in global/regional hydrological modeling. This paper aimed at comparing the consistency and difference of two widely used global precipitation datasets in North India, i.e., Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 dataset and the Water and Global Change (WATCH) Forcing Data (WFD), and evaluating the performance of the large scale hydrological model (WASMOD-M) in simulation of water balance of Beas River basin in North India with these two global datasets as inputs. The study was carried out in the following steps. Firstly, the spatial-temporal distribution of TRMM and WFD precipitation in North India was compared by using four statistical analysis methods, which include Mann-Kendall method for testing whether these two datasets reveal the same temporal variability as gauging dataset, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for testing whether these two datasets follow the same distribution pattern, and T and F test for testing whether they have the same mean and variances with those of gauging data. Secondly, the spatial-temporal distribution from rain gauging data in Beas river basin was taken as a benchmark, to compare and bias-correct the TRMM and WFD datasets. Thirdly, these two adjusted datasets were used to drive the large scale hydrological model (WASMOD-M) in water balance simulations of Beas River basin for the period of 1997-2001 when the two datasets overlap. The modeling results were compared and assessed based on the indices of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS), absolute value of the volume error (%) (VE), the performance measure of flow-duration curve

  17. Origin of alternate amphibole and quartz rich bands in amphibole bearing quartzite from North Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, J.; Baidya, A. S.; Pal, D. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    North Khetri Copper Belt (NKCB), located in the northern part of Western Indian shield, is one of most important copper repositories in India. Mineralization is hosted by quartzite containing abundant amphibole in the form of alternation of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite bands. In a succession near Chandmari mine of NKCB, this thick banded unit is laterally extended over few hundreds of meters. Band thickness varies from few millimetres to tens of centimetres. Such banding (commonly appearing as gneissic banding) of amphibole ± albite is unlikely to be generated in a quartzo-feldspathic rock metamorphosed at lower amphibolite facies. Amphibole, under microscope, shows pleochroism in shades of green. Their grains are inclusion free and do not show any orientation. From major oxide analysis, their average composition is found to be Ca2Mg2.5Fe2+1.5Fe3+0.5Al1.5Si7O22(OH)2. Forming Fe-Mg rich amphibole in a quartzo-feldspathic unit is again challenging its metamorphic origin. Also, amphibole of same composition found in the form of veins within the host rock. All these observations inferring that the amphibole is probably of hydrothermal origin. Albite in host rock can supply Si, Al and O. If a fluid containing Fe, Mg and Ca intrudes into the host rock, the amphibole of desirable composition may form. However, such alternating banding of amphibole ± albite and quartz ± albite is enigmatic. It is possible that the banded nature is inherited from an existing banded rock with different mineralogy and mineral solubility, e.g. alternation of impure/siliceous carbonate and siliciclastic rocks. Presence of carbonate, mainly dolomite, has been reported early and also observed in field. When a hydrothermal fluid, containing some Fe, had invaded this unit, it reacted with carbonate units and replaced the carbonate by amphibole. This will result in amphibole of expected composition and will also mimic the inherited banded nature in original succession. Reaction will

  18. Molecular identification and characterization of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in free living non-human primate (Rhesus macaques) from North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, P K; Kumar, A; Singh, B

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) has emerged as major animal pathogen with significant zoonotic concerns, worldwide. MAP infection is endemic in domestic and wild ruminant population in India. However, information on MAP infection in free ranging animal species and non human primates is limited. Present study aimed to estimate the status of MAP infection in free living Rhesus macaques suffering with multiple clinical conditions (coughing and loose stool). A total of 25 stool samples were collected from six colonies of Rhesus macaques from Mathura region (North India) and screened for the presence of MAP, using microscopic examination and IS900 PCR, directly from stool samples. PCR positive DNA samples were further genotyped using IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. Of the 25 stool samples, 10 (40.0%) and 2 (8.0%) were positive for MAP using microscopic examination and direct IS900 PCR, respectively. IS900 PCR positive DNA samples were genotyped as 'Indian Bison type', which is a major MAP genotype infecting domestic and wild ruminant species and human beings in India. Prevalence of MAP in Rhesus macaques (Indian monkeys) was moderately high and confirmed interspecies sharing of MAP between domestic livestock and non-human primates. Presence of MAP in non-human primates, support the etiological role of MAP in inflammatory bowel disease patients. Indian monkeys may serve as model for understanding the role of non-human primates in sustenance, transmission and pathogenesis of MAP infection.

  19. Evaluation of "Indigenous Absorbed ELISA Kit" for the Estimation of Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis Antibodies in Human Beings in North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, A V; Singh, S V; Verma, D K; Yadav, R; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S

    2011-01-01

    In present pilot study aimed to estimate, presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) antibodies in the human serum samples originating from North India using "Indigenous absorbed ELISA kit" (ELISA kit). The phase I, "ELISA kit" was optimized using protoplasmic antigen from native isolate of MAP "Indian Bison type" recovered from the biopsies of Crohn's disease patients. The phase II, sensitivity and specificity of the kit were estimated as 40.0 and 83.3%, respectively, when evaluated in 40 human serum samples (5 Crohn's disease and 22 ulcerative colitis patients and 13 healthy human subjects) with defined MAP status with respect to stool culture. Seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was higher in CD patients (80.0%) as compared to ulcerative colitis patients (4.5%) and normal human subjects (15.3%). The phase III, seroprevalence of MAP antibodies was estimated as 23.4%, on the basis of the screening of 452 human serum samples (without history) from different geographical regions of North India. Region-wise, 34.0, 33.3, 32.8, 25.0, 23.0, 17.7, and 12.5% samples were positive from the states of Punjab, Uttarakhand, New Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir, respectively. Study reported moderately higher presence of MAP antibodies in human population, which necessitates programs to reduce the bioburden of MAP in the environment and in animal population.

  20. Efficacy and well-being in rural north India: The role of social identification with a large-scale community identity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sammyh S; Hopkins, Nick; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Reicher, Stephen David; Ozakinci, Gozde

    2014-01-01

    Identifying with a group can contribute to a sense of well-being. The mechanisms involved are diverse: social identification with a group can impact individuals' beliefs about issues such as their connections with others, the availability of social support, the meaningfulness of existence, and the continuity of their identity. Yet, there seems to be a common theme to these mechanisms: identification with a group encourages the belief that one can cope with the stressors one faces (which is associated with better well-being). Our research investigated the relationship between identification, beliefs about coping, and well-being in a survey (N = 792) administered in rural North India. Using structural equation modelling, we found that social identification as a Hindu had positive and indirect associations with three measures of well-being through the belief that one can cope with everyday stressors. We also found residual associations between participants' social identification as a Hindu and two measures of well-being in which higher identification was associated with poorer well-being. We discuss these findings and their implication for understanding the relationship between social identification (especially with large-scale group memberships) and well-being. We also discuss the application of social psychological theory developed in the urban West to rural north India. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26160989

  1. Low prevalence of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori isolates with A2143G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene in North India.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Valentina; Mahant, Shweta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Das, Kunal; Alam, Jawed; Ghosh, Prachetash; Das, Rajashree

    2016-09-01

    Resistance of Helicobacter pylori to clarithromycin is associated with a single base substitution in the 23S rRNA gene. In this study, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates were analysed for the presence of 23S rRNA gene mutations. H. pylori were isolated from 68 patients suffering from various gastroduodenal diseases in North India. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method, and point mutations in clarithromycin-resistant strains were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and DNA sequencing. Clarithromycin resistance was observed in 11.8% (8/68) of the H. pylori isolates in North India. The A2143G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene was found in 87.5% (7/8) of the clarithromycin-resistant strains, and the A2142G mutation in association with the T2182C mutation was found in 12.5% (1/8). In conclusion, the continued high prevalence of clarithromycin-sensitive H. pylori strains (88.2%) observed in this study allows the use of the triple-therapy regimen for the treatment of H. pylori infection in this region. Surveillance studies need to be conducted at regular intervals for clarithromycin resistance in the population. To our knowledge, this is the first study in India to report that point mutations at position A2143G and at A2142G in association with T2182C are associated with clarithromycin resistance, confirming reports from other parts of the world. PMID:27530837

  2. Analysis of Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA Expression in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma in North-Eastern India: A Chromogenic in Situ Hybridization Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Saikia, Anjan; Raphael, Vandana; Shunyu, N-Brian; Khonglah, Yookarin; Mishra, Jaya; Jitani, Ankit-Kumar; Medhi, Jayanta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common cancer in the North-East region of India. Though the role of environmental contributors of NPC in the North-Eastern part of India is firmly established, EBV as an etiological agent in the region remains unexplored. Material and Methods: Fifty-one patients, who presented at the department of ENT, NEIGRIHMS and were confirmed as NPC upon histopathological examination, were included in the study. Chromogenic in-situ hybridization (CISH) was used for the evaluation of EBER (Epstein Barr Virus Encoded RNA). Presence of nuclear signals was taken as positive for EBER expression. EBER status was correlated with various clinicopathological parameters like age, sex, dietary habits, histological types of NPC, and ethnicity of the patients. Results: The age range of the study group was 25 to 70 years with a mean age of 44.64 years and a male:female ratio of 3:2. Non-keratinizing undifferentiated type of NPC was the most common histological type. EBV was positive in 59% (30/51) of our cases. It showed a statistically significant correlation with the Naga community (P=0.01), with consumption of smoked food (P=0.02), and cigarette smoking (P=0.02). There was no correlation of EBV with age, sex, lymph node metastasis, stage, and histology. Conclusion: Our result indicates that EBV may be an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of NPC in this region of India. So apart from lifestyle modification, a future study for a screening test for EBV viral load even in asymptomatic patients may be considered, for determination of disease susceptibility, early diagnosis, and proper management. PMID:27602338

  3. Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Bacteria Isolated from Natural Sources of Water from Rural Areas of East Sikkim

    PubMed Central

    Poonia, Shubra; Singh, T. Shantikumar; Tsering, Dechen C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%), cefixime (34.5%), tetracycline (29.1%), ceftazidime (26.3%), ofloxacin (25.9%), amikacin (8.7%), and gentamicin (2.7%) but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers. PMID:25136156

  4. Analysis of ANKKI (rs1800497) and DRD2 (rs1079597, rs1800498) variants in five ethnic groups from Punjab, North-West India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Sandhu, Harkirat Singh; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-06-10

    Dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) is one of the essential neurotransmitters in the brain studied extensively in the field of psychiatric disorders, alcoholic behaviors and Pharmacology. It is also a promising gene for studying the evolutionary and genetic variation among populations. The present study was an attempt to understand the extent of genetic variation among five different ethnic groups (Bania, Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Khatri and Scheduled caste) of Punjab (North West India). A total of 1012 individuals belonging to the above mentioned groups were analyzed for three TaqI Polymorphic loci of DRD2 and ankyrin repeat and kinase domain containing 1 (ANKKI) using the allele frequencies and haplotype frequency distribution pattern. All the three loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The average heterozygosity for all loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3936 to 0.4986. The genetic differentiation among the population was observed to be in order of 0.0053.Among of the eight studied haplotypes, only six were shared by all the ethnic groups. TaqID and TaqIB loci were reported to be in significantly higher linkage disequilibrium (LD) in Scheduled Caste only, whereas TaqIA and TaqID showed modest LD in Brahmin, Jat Sikh and Khatri. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that the studied ethnic groups formed a close cluster, suggesting similar genetic structure of these populations which are in close proximity with other Indo European speaking North Indian and western Indian population groups. Overall this study highlights the genomic uniformity among the ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India) owing to their common ancestral history and geographical closeness.

  5. Mechanisms for strain localization within Archaean craton: A structural study from the Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone, north-central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Saheli; Patole, Vishal; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2015-04-01

    The transformation of palaeo-continents involve breakup, dispersal and reassembly of cratonic blocks by collisional suturing that develop a network of orogenic (mobile) belts around the periphery of the stable cratons. The nature of deformation in the orogenic belt depends on the complex interaction of fracturing, plastic deformation and diffusive mass transfer. Additionally, the degree and amount of melting during regional deformation is critical as the presence of melt facilitates the rate of diffusive mass transfer and weakens the rock by reducing the effective viscosity of the deformed zone. The nature of strain localization and formation of ductile shear zones surrounding the cratonic blocks have been correlated with Proterozoic-Palaeozoic supercontinent assembly (Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana reconstruction). Although, a pre-Columbia supercontinent termed as Kenorland has been postulated, there is no evidence that supports the notion due to lack of the presence of shear zones within the Archaean cratonic blocks. In this contribution, we present the detailed structural analysis of ductile shear zones within the Bundelkhand craton. The ductlile shear zone is termed as Bundelkhand Tectonic Zone (BTZ) that extends east-west for nearly 300 km throughout the craton with a width of two-three kilometer . In the north-central India, the Bundelkhand craton is exposed over an area of 26,000 sq. The craton is bounded by Central Indian Tectonic zone in the south, the Great Boundary fault in the west and by the rocks of Lesser Himalaya in the north. A series of tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite gneiss are the oldest rocks of the Bundelkhand craton that also contains a succession of metamorphosed supracrustal rocks comprising of banded iron formation, quartzite, calc-silicate and ultramafic rocks. K-feldspar bearing granites intrude the tonalite-trondjhemite-granodiorite and the supracrustal rocks during the time span of 2.1 to 2.5 Ga. The TTGs near Babina, in central

  6. Study of acute transfusion reactions in a teaching hospital of Sikkim: A hemovigilance initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Dhruva Kumar; Datta, Supratim; Gupta, Amlan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Blood transfusions are inherently associated with risks ranging in severity from minor to life-threatening. Continuous monitoring of transfusion related complications can promote understanding of factors contributing to transfusion reactions and help to formulate necessary remedial measures. This study was designed to analyze the frequency and nature of transfusion reactions reported to the blood bank of a remote North East Indian teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: All acute transfusion reactions (ATRs) reported to the blood bank over a period of 20 months (May 2013 to January 2015) were reviewed and analyzed. The risk of transfusion reactions associated with each individual component was assessed. Results: A total of 3455 units of whole blood and component transfusions were carried out of which a total of 32 (0.92%) ATRs were encountered. Packed red blood cells (PRBCs) (n = 15, P = 0.06) and whole blood (WB) (n = 13, P = 0.83) were most commonly implicated. Allergic reaction was the most frequent transfusion reaction encountered (65.6%), seen most commonly with PRBC (risk of 0.76%, P = 0.42), and WB (risk of 0.68%, P = 0.63) transfusions. This was followed by febrile reactions (28.1%), which were seen more commonly with PRBCs (risk of 0.57%, P = 0.016). No reactions were observed with platelet transfusions. Conclusion: The overall incidence of transfusion reactions in this hospital is slightly higher than those having more advanced transfusion facilities in India. The lack of leukoreduction facilities in our hospital could be a likely cause for the same. The use of leukoreduced WB and PRBCs could possibly reduce the overall incidence of ATRs in general and febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions in particular. PMID:26285707

  7. New species of xerocomoid boletes (Boletaceae) from Himalayan India based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Das, Kanad; Chakraborty, Dyutiparna; Baghela, Abhishek; Singh, S K; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2016-01-01

    Xerocomus doodhcha and Hortiboletus indorubellus (Boletaceae) from broadleaf montane forest in Sikkim, India, are proposed as new. They are described in detail with supporting morphological illustrations and compared with related taxa using molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS and 28S rDNA sequences. Xerocomus doodhcha is characterized by a pale brown pileus, basidiospores with a finely bacillate surface under SEM, and phylogenetic proximity to the type species of Xerocomus, X. subtomentosus Hortiboletus indorubellus is characterized by a dark brown to reddish brown pileus, context that turns brownish to brownish orange on bruising, and phylogenetic proximity to Hortiboletus rubellus.

  8. New species of xerocomoid boletes (Boletaceae) from Himalayan India based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    Das, Kanad; Chakraborty, Dyutiparna; Baghela, Abhishek; Singh, S K; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2016-01-01

    Xerocomus doodhcha and Hortiboletus indorubellus (Boletaceae) from broadleaf montane forest in Sikkim, India, are proposed as new. They are described in detail with supporting morphological illustrations and compared with related taxa using molecular phylogenetic analysis of ITS and 28S rDNA sequences. Xerocomus doodhcha is characterized by a pale brown pileus, basidiospores with a finely bacillate surface under SEM, and phylogenetic proximity to the type species of Xerocomus, X. subtomentosus Hortiboletus indorubellus is characterized by a dark brown to reddish brown pileus, context that turns brownish to brownish orange on bruising, and phylogenetic proximity to Hortiboletus rubellus. PMID:27153883

  9. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  10. Prevalence of household-level food insecurity and its determinants in an urban resettlement colony in north India.

    PubMed

    Chinnakali, Palanivel; Upadhyay, Ravi P; Shokeen, Deepa; Singh, Kavita; Kaur, Manpreet; Singh, Arvind K; Goswami, Anil; Yadav, Kapil; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2014-06-01

    An adequate food intake, in terms of quantity and quality, is a key to healthy life. Malnutrition is the most serious consequence of food insecurity and has a multitude of health and economic implications. India has the world's largest population living in slums, and these have largely been underserved areas. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (2012) estimates that India is home to more than 217 million undernourished people. Various studies have been conducted to assess food insecurity at the global level; however, the literature is limited as far as India is concerned. The present study was conducted with the objective of documenting the prevalence of food insecurity at the household level and the factors determining its existence in an urban slum population of northern India. This cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban resettlement colony of South Delhi, India. A pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting socioeconomic details and information regarding dietary practices. Food insecurity was assessed using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with food insecurity. A total of 250 women were interviewed through house-to-house survey. Majority of the households were having a nuclear family (61.6%), with mean family-size being 5.5 (SD +/- 2.5) and the mean monthly household income being INR 9,784 (SD +/- 631). Nearly half (53.3%) of the mean monthly household income was spent on food. The study found that a total of 77.2% households were food-insecure, with 49.2% households being mildly food-insecure, 18.8% of the households being moderately food-insecure, and 9.2% of the households being severely food-insecure. Higher education of the women handling food (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.92; p < or = 0.03) and number of earning members in the household (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.98; p < or = 0.04) were associated with lesser chance

  11. Gravity anomalies, flexure, and deformation of the converging Indian lithosphere in Nepal and Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Md. Afroz; Khan, Prosanta K.; Tiwari, Virendra M.; Banerjee, Jayashree

    2014-09-01

    Researchers ubiquitously noted that the common processes of partitioning oblique convergence in response to drag from the trench-hanging plate simultaneously produce radial slips, along-strike translation, and extension parallel to the deformation front. Here, we focus on the area between Nepal and Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalayas, and carry out gravity and finite-element stress modeling of the strike-orthogonal converging Indian lithosphere. We delineate the geometries of different layers and their interfaces through gravity modeling. The optimum model parameters along with rheological parameters of different layers are used for finite-element modeling. Finite-element modeling is done with boundary conditions of keeping the upper surface free and rigidly fixing the section of the northern boundary below the Main Himalayan Thrust. We impart on its frontal section an amount of 6 × 1012 N/m force, equivalent to resistive force of the Himalayan-Tibet system, and analyze the maximum and minimum compressive stress fields evolved in the lithosphere. We testify our observations with earthquake database and other geophysical and geological studies. We note that an increasing flexing of the Indian lithosphere beyond the Main Boundary Thrust becomes maxima between the Main Central Thrust and South Tibetan Detachment in both the areas; however, more steepening of the Moho boundary is identified in the Sikkim-Darjeeling Himalaya. This abrupt change in lithospheric geometry beneath the Greater Himalaya is likely correlated with the sharp elevation changes in the topography. Although the highest seismicity concentration is dominant in this zone, the Lesser and the Tethys Himalayas in Sikkim-Darjeeling area also record relatively fair seismic activity. More compressive stress field in different layers right within the sharp bending zone supports this observation. We thus propose that the sharp bending zone beneath the Greater Himalaya is suffering maximum deformation, and the

  12. A Study of Sports Related Occurrence of Traumatic Orodental Injuries and Associated Risk Factors in High School Students in North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Gundeep; Garg, Shalini; Damle, Satyawan Gangaramji; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Kaur, Ambreen; Singla, Shilpy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral and dental injuries contribute to a major part of sports related injuries in children. Trauma occurring in developing years disrupts normal social functioning and brings about a major impact on quality of life due to their cumulative effect. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and causes of various sports related traumatic orodental injuries among 8 to 16 year school students along with identifying the associated risk factors in North India. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study consisting of high school students of different organized sports teams aged 8-16 years was carried out in geographical area of north India. The students were selected by multistage cluster sampling methodology. 1105 students from 19 school teams (sports teams) and sports academies participated in study through structured interview and clinical examination in different sports situations. Results: 30.3% (n = 335) of students suffered from orodental injuries. A higher number of girls had injury (32%) than boys (29%), though the difference was not significant. Most of the students suffered from soft tissue injuries (48%) followed by tooth fractures (43%). Maximum numbers of injuries were reported in high velocity (44.1%) and medium intensity sports (46.6%) (P < 0.001) Maximum injuries occurred in basketball (50%) and lowest in the field of badminton (6.1%) (P < 0.05). Amateurs (52%) suffered the most from injuries as per level of coaching. Only 6% of boys and 2% of girls used mouthguards. Conclusions: The result of the present study confirmed that students participating in different organized sports at high school level are at a very high risk of getting orodental injury. Hence knowledge and education regarding prevention of traumatic injuries is of paramount importance. PMID:25520762

  13. Laboratory wash-resistance and field evaluation of deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting polyethylene netting (Netprotect(®)) against malaria transmission in Assam, north-east India.

    PubMed

    Dev, V; Phookan, S; Padhan, K; Tewari, G G; Khound, K

    2011-08-01

    North-east India is co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria, and disease transmission is perennial and persistent. This study reports the results of a field-based village scale trial of deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting polyethylene netting (Netprotect(®)) conducted in P. falciparum predominant pocket of Assam, north-east India to assess operational feasibility, acceptability and sustainability against disease vectors and malaria transmission. The study monitored the residual efficacy of the long-lasting net in relation to serial washings in the laboratory and malaria prevalence in experimental villages for the first year of investigations from September 2008 to June 2009. The mosquito vector populations of Anopheles minimus were observed to be highly susceptible to deltamethrin (0.05%), and follow up investigations revealed that the vector mosquito had virtually disappeared in Netprotect(®) intervention villages. Concurrently, there was consistent decline in malaria cases in Netprotect(®) villages and transmission reduction was statistically significant compared to untreated net (net without insecticide) and no-net control villages for the corresponding study period. The contact cone-bioassay investigations against malaria transmitting mosquito species revealed that the bioavailability of the insecticide on the net fiber was persistent up to 20th serial wash resulting in ≥80% mortality. Community compliance and acceptance were high, and users reported decreased nuisance due to biting mosquitoes. It was concluded that deltamethrin incorporated polyethylene long-lasting netting was safe, wash-resistant, and assessed to be an operationally feasible, community-based intervention for sustainable management of disease vectors to prevent malaria transmission.

  14. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  15. Genetic and functional characterization of HIV-1 Vif on APOBEC3G degradation: First report of emergence of B/C recombinants from North India

    PubMed Central

    Ronsard, Larance; Raja, Rameez; Panwar, Vaishali; Saini, Sanjesh; Mohankumar, Kumaravel; Sridharan, Subhashree; Padmapriya, Ramamoorthy; Chaudhuri, Suhnrita; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai G; Banerjea, Akhil C

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 is characterized by high genetic heterogeneity which is a challenge for developing therapeutics. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the extent of genetic variations that HIV is undergoing in North India. The objective of this study was to determine the role of genetic and functional role of Vif on APOBEC3G degradation. Vif is an accessory protein involved in counteracting APOBEC3/F proteins. Genetic analysis of Vif variants revealed that Vif C variants were closely related to South African Vif C whereas Vif B variants and Vif B/C showed distinct geographic locations. This is the first report to show the emergence of Vif B/C in our population. The functional domains, motifs and phosphorylation sites were well conserved. Vif C variants differed in APOBEC3G degradation from Vif B variants. Vif B/C revealed similar levels of APOBEC3G degradation to Vif C confirming the presence of genetic determinants in C-terminal region. High genetic diversity was observed in Vif variants which may cause the emergence of more complex and divergent strains. These results reveal the genetic determinants of Vif in mediating APOBEC3G degradation and highlight the genetic information for the development of anti-viral drugs against HIV. Importance: Vif is an accessory HIV-1 protein which plays significant role in the degradation of human DNA-editing factor APOBEC3G, thereby impeding the antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3G. It is known that certain natural polymorphisms in Vif could degrade APOBEC3G relatively higher rate, suggesting its role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. This is the first report from North India showcasing genetic variations and novel polymorphisms in Vif gene. Subtype C is prevalent in India, but for the first time we observed putative B/C recombinants with a little high ability to degrade APOBEC3G indicating adaptation and evolving nature of virus in our population. Indian Vif C variants were able to degrade APOBEC3G well in comparison to Vif B variants. These

  16. Plasma cell leukemia in North India: retrospective analysis of a distinct clinicohematological entity from a tertiary care center and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Bommannan, Karthik; Malhotra, Pankaj; Kumar, Narender; Sharma, Prashant; Naseem, Shano; Ahluwalia, Jasmina; Das, Reena; Varma, Neelam; Prakash, Gaurav; Khadwal, Alka; Srinivasan, Radhika; Varma, Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and aggressive plasma cell neoplasm. In PCL, clonal plasma cells comprise ≥20% of the peripheral blood (PB) leukocytes and/or the absolute clonal PB plasma cell count is ≥2×109/L. Primary PCL (PPCL) originates de novo, whereas, secondary PCL (SPCL) evolves from pre-existing multiple myeloma. Methods Clinicohematological features, immunophenotypic profile, and survival of PCL patients were analyzed retrospectively. Results Between January 2007 and December 2014, ten PPCL and four SPCL patients were investigated (8 PPCLs and 3 SPCLs had complete clinical data). All were North Indians, sharing common geography and ethnicity. Our cohort showed less frequent renal failure, more frequent hepatomegaly, and non-secretory type disease. In contrast to western literature, flow cytometric immunophenotyping of our cohort revealed altered expression of CD138 (67%), CD56 (33%), and CD20 (0%). With novel therapeutic agents, these PPCL patients had a median overall survival of 15 months. Conclusion We highlight that our PPCL patients from North India had distinct clinicohematological and immunophenotypic profiles. The significance of our findings must be tested in a larger patient cohort and must be supported by molecular and cytogenetic investigations to unmask possible significant effects on pathogenesis. PMID:27104188

  17. Delhi, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Delhi is the second largest metropolis in India, with a population of 16 million. Located in northern India along the banks of the Yamuna River, Delhi has the status of a federally-administered union territory. Within it is the district of New Delhi, India's capital. Delhi is one of the oldest continually inhabited cites in the world, with traces of human occupation dating to the second millennium BC. The image was acquired September 22, 2003, covers an area of 30.6 x 34.8 km, and is located near 28.6 degrees north latitude, 77.2 degrees east longitude.

    The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Possible discovery of Chinese lung fluke, Paragonimus skrjabini in Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Shantikumar T; Singh, Deven L; Sugiyama, Hiromu

    2006-01-01

    To obtain more information about Paragonimus species prevalent in Manipur, India, hundreds of freshwater crabs, Potamiscus manipurensis, were captured from mountain streams in the Motbung Mountains in Senapati District, from December 1997 to January 1998. Crab extracts were prepared by digestion, differential filtration, and sedimentation. The filtered sediments were critically examined under a stereomicroscope. Isolated Paragonimus metacercariae were used for morphological study and animal experimentation. Forty-seven metacercariae were fed orally to a 3-month-old male puppy of local breed; at autopsy 155 days after inoculation, 12 adult worms were recovered; 2 were free in the thoracic cavity and 5 pairs were in lung cysts. Two adult worms were flattened and fixed in 70% ethanol and the remaining worms were put directly into 70% ethanol and preserved until July 2005. The former 2 worms were stained with borax carmine for morphological study at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences, Sikkim, India. Two adult worms in the latter group were sent to the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, for morphological identification and DNA sequencing. The morphological features of the borax carmine-stained worms were characteristic of P. skrjabini, although no genetic material for PCR amplification and sequencing could be extracted from the worm.

  19. Molecular evidence of increased resistance to anti-folate drugs in Plasmodium falciparum in North-East India: a signal for potential failure of artemisinin plus sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Pradyumna Kishore; Sarma, Devojit Kumar; Prakash, Anil; Bora, Khukumoni; Ahmed, Md Atique; Sarma, Bibhas; Goswami, Basanta Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Dibya Ranjan; Mahanta, Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    North-east India, being a corridor to South-east Asia, is believed to play an important role in transmitting drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to India and South Asia. North-east India was the first place in India to record the emergence of drug resistance to chloroquine as well as sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine. Presently chloroquine resistance is widespread all over the North-east India and resistance to other anti-malarials is increasing. In this study both in vivo therapeutic efficacy and molecular assays were used to screen the spectrum of drug resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in the circulating P. falciparum strains. A total of 220 P. falciparum positives subjects were enrolled in the study for therapeutic assessment of chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and assessment of point mutations conferring resistances to these drugs were carried out by genotyping the isolates following standard methods. Overall clinical failures in sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and chloroquine were found 12.6 and 69.5% respectively, while overall treatment failures recorded were 13.7 and 81.5% in the two arms. Nearly all (99.0%) the isolates had mutant pfcrt genotype (76 T), while 68% had mutant pfmdr-1 genotype (86 Y). Mutation in dhps 437 codon was the most prevalent one while dhfr codon 108 showed 100% mutation. A total of 23 unique haplotypes at the dhps locus and 7 at dhfr locus were found while dhps-dhfr combined loci revealed 49 unique haplotypes. Prevalence of double, triple and quadruple mutations were common while 1 haplotype was found with all five mutated codons (F/AGEGS/T) at dhps locus. Detection of quadruple mutants (51 I/59 R/108 N/164 L) in the present study, earlier recorded from Car Nicobar Island, India only, indicates the presence of high levels of resistance to sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine in north-east India. Associations between resistant haplotypes and the clinical outcomes and emerging resistance in sulphadoxine

  20. Effectiveness of a multiple-strategy community intervention to reduce maternal and child health inequalities in Haryana, North India: a mixed-methods study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Madhu; Angeli, Federica; van Schayck, Onno C. P.; Bosma, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Background A multiple-strategy community intervention, known as National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), launched in India to improve the availability of and access to better-quality healthcare, especially for rural, poor mothers and children. The final goal of the intervention is to reduce maternal and child health inequalities across geographical areas, socioeconomic status groups, and sex of the child. Extensive, in-depth research is necessary to assess the effectiveness of NRHM, on multiple outcome dimensions. This paper presents the design of a new study, able to overcome the shortcomings of previous research. Objective To propose a comprehensive, methodologically sound protocol to assess the extent of implementation and the effectiveness of NRHM measures to improve maternal and child health outcomes and reduce maternal and child health inequalities. Design A mixed-methods approach (quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this study in Haryana, a state in North India. NRHM's health sector plans included health system strengthening, specific maternal and child healthcare strategies, and communitization. Mission documents and reports on progress, financial monitoring, and common and joint review will be reviewed in-depth to assess the extent of the implementation of plans. Data on maternal and child health indicators will be obtained from demographic health surveys held before, during, and after the implementation of the first phase of the NRHM (2005–2012) and compared over time. Differences in maternal and child health indicators will be used to measure maternal and child health inequalities; these will be compared pre- and post-NRHM. Focus group discussions (FGDs) with service providers and in-depth interviews with program managers, community representatives, and mothers will be conducted until data saturation is achieved, in two districts of Haryana. Using Nvivo software, an inductive qualitative content analysis will be performed to search for the

  1. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  2. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  3. Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of Rice Germplasm from North-Eastern Region of India and Development of a Core Germplasm Set

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R. K.; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N. K.; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  4. Analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of rice germplasm from north-eastern region of India and development of a core germplasm set.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Debjani; Singh, Nivedita; Singh, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sundeep; Srinivasan, Kalyani; Tyagi, R K; Ahmad, Altaf; Singh, N K; Singh, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    The North-Eastern region (NER) of India, comprising of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura, is a hot spot for genetic diversity and the most probable origin of rice. North-east rice collections are known to possess various agronomically important traits like biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, unique grain and cooking quality. The genetic diversity and associated population structure of 6,984 rice accessions, originating from NER, were assessed using 36 genome wide unlinked single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. All of the 36 SNP loci were polymorphic and bi-allelic, contained five types of base substitutions and together produced nine types of alleles. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.004 for Tripura to 0.375 for Manipur and major allele frequency ranged from 0.50 for Assam to 0.99 for Tripura. Heterozygosity ranged from 0.002 in Nagaland to 0.42 in Mizoram and gene diversity ranged from 0.006 in Arunachal Pradesh to 0.50 in Manipur. The genetic relatedness among the rice accessions was evaluated using an unrooted phylogenetic tree analysis, which grouped all accessions into three major clusters. For determining population structure, populations K = 1 to K = 20 were tested and population K = 3 was present in all the states, with the exception of Meghalaya and Manipur where, K = 5 and K = 4 populations were present, respectively. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that accessions were distributed according to their population structure. AMOVA analysis showed that, maximum diversity was partitioned at the individual accession level (73% for Nagaland, 58% for Arunachal Pradesh and 57% for Tripura). Using POWERCORE software, a core set of 701 accessions was obtained, which accounted for approximately 10% of the total NE India collections, representing 99.9% of the allelic diversity. The rice core set developed will be a

  5. Identification and characterization of a distinct banana bunchy top virus isolate of Pacific-Indian Oceans group from North-East India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Amrita; Roy, Somnath; Behere, Ganesh T; Roy, Subhra Saikat; Dutta, Sudip Kumar; Ngachan, S V

    2014-04-01

    Banana bunch top virus (BBTV) is considered to be a serious threat to banana production. A new isolate of the virus (BBTV-Umiam) was identified and characterized from local banana mats growing in mid-hills of Meghalaya in North-East India. The complete nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of six full-length ssDNA components (DNA R, DNA U3, DNA S, DNA M, DNA C and DNA N) sharing major common region (CR-M) and a stem-loop common region (CR-SL). BBTV-Umiam showed a unique deletion of 20 nucleotides in the intergenic region of DNA R, the absence of predicted open reading frame (ORF) in DNA U3 and probability for a small ORF in DNA U3 expecting functional evidence at transcriptional level. Phylogenetic analysis based on 88 complete nucleotide sequence of BBTV DNA R available in GenBank generated two broad clusters of Pacific-Indian Oceans (PIO) and South-East Asian (SEA) groups including BBTV-Umiam within PIO cluster. However, BBTV-Umiam was identified as the most distinct member of the PIO group with 100% bootstrap support. This was further supported by the phylogenetic grouping of each genomic component of BBTV-Umiam at the distant end of PIO group during clustering of 21 complete BBTV sequences. BBTV-Umiam shared relatively less nucleotide identity with PIO group for each genomic component (85.0-95.4%) and corresponding ORF (93.8-97.5%) than that of earlier PIO isolates (91.5-99.6% and 96.0-99.3%, respectively). Recombination analysis revealed two intra-component and five inter-component recombination events in BBTV-Umiam, but none of them was unique. Moreover, the isolate was identified as major parental sequence for intra-component recombination event spanning the replication-associated protein encoding region in Tongan BBTV DNA R. The current study indicated differential evolution of BBTV in North-East India (Meghalaya). The natural occurrence of hybrids of Musa balbisiana and M. acuminata in this geographically isolated region could be the

  6. Relative frequency of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes in selected centres in North Africa, the middle east and India: a review of 971 cases.

    PubMed

    Perry, Anamarija M; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data regarding the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in North Africa, the Middle East and India (NAF/ME/IN) is scarce in the literature. In this study, we evaluated the relative frequencies of NHL subtypes in this region. Five expert haematopathologists classified 971 consecutive cases of newly-diagnosed NHL from five countries in NAF/ME/IN. After review, 890 cases (91·7%) were confirmed to be NHL and compared to 399 cases from North America (NA). The male-to-female ratio was significantly higher in NAF/ME/IN (1·8) compared to NA (1·1; P< 0·05). The median ages of patients with low-grade (LG) and high-grade (HG) B-NHL in NAF/ME/IN (56 and 52 years, respectively) were significantly lower than in NA (64 and 68 years, respectively). In NAF/ME/IN, a significantly lower proportion of LG B-NHL (28·4%) and a higher proportion of HG B-NHL (58·4%) were found compared to NA (56·1% and 34·3%, respectively). Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more common in NAF/ME/IN (49·4%) compared to NA (29·3%), whereas follicular lymphoma was less common in NAF/ME/IN (12·4%) than in NA (33·6%). In conclusion, we found significant differences in NHL subtypes and clinical features between NAF/ME/IN and NA. Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand the pathobiology of these differences. PMID:26684877

  7. Climatology of columnar aerosol properties at a continental location in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north east India: Diurnal asymmetry and association with meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The spectro-temporal variation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and associated physico-optical properties are studied for the period October 2001-November 2010 over a continental location, Dibrugarh (27.3°N, 94.6°E, 111 m amsl) located in the upper Brahmaputra basin of north-east India. The emphasis is on the climatological diurnal asymmetry of AOD and its association with meteorological parameters. AOD is found to be higher during forenoon (FN) hours compared to those in the afternoon (AN) hours in almost all seasons. The mean difference between FN and AN AOD averaged for the period 2001-2010 is 0.18. This variability is found primarily to be driven by the prevailing meteorological conditions including columnar water vapour content. It may also be attributed to the change in the ray path in the forenoon through the polluted industrialised areas located in the east and north-east of Dibrugarh to the cleaner mountain region and river Brahmaputra in the afternoon hours. The estimated CSDs are mostly bimodal in the FN hours while in the AN power law and unimodal character prevails. This indicates dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the forenoon as compared to that in the afternoon. The differences in aerosol modes between FN and AN hours result in the diurnal asymmetry of the modified Ångström coefficients. AOD retrieved from MODIS satellites is also higher in the FN by 0.08 as compared to that in the AN The climatological mean difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua AOD is however, less than the mean difference observed between AOD measured from ground.

  8. Assessment of Universal Healthcare Coverage in a District of North India: A Rapid Cross-Sectional Survey Using Tablet Computers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Tarundeep; Roy, Pritam; Jamir, Limalemla; Gupta, Saurav; Kaur, Navpreet; Jain, D. K.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective A rapid survey was carried out in Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar District of Punjab state in India to ascertain health seeking behavior and out-of-pocket health expenditures. Methods Using multistage cluster sampling design, 1,008 households (28 clusters x 36 households in each cluster) were selected proportionately from urban and rural areas. Households were selected through a house-to-house survey during April and May 2014 whose members had (a) experienced illness in the past 30 days, (b) had illness lasting longer than 30 days, (c) were hospitalized in the past 365 days, or (d) had women who were currently pregnant or experienced childbirth in the past two years. In these selected households, trained investigators, using a tablet computer-based structured questionnaire, enquired about the socio-demographics, nature of illness, source of healthcare, and healthcare and household expenditure. The data was transmitted daily to a central server using wireless communication network. Mean healthcare expenditures were computed for various health conditions. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure was defined as more than 10% of the total annual household expenditure on healthcare. Chi square test for trend was used to compare catastrophic expenditures on hospitalization between households classified into expenditure quartiles. Results The mean monthly household expenditure was 15,029 Indian Rupees (USD 188.2). Nearly 14.2% of the household expenditure was on healthcare. Fever, respiratory tract diseases, gastrointestinal diseases were the common acute illnesses, while heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and respiratory diseases were the more common chronic diseases. Hospitalizations were mainly due to cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal problems, and accidents. Only 17%, 18%, 20% and 31% of the healthcare for acute illnesses, chronic illnesses, hospitalizations and childbirth was sought in the government health facilities. Average expenditure in government health

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hypertension among Male Occupational Bus Drivers in North Kerala, South India: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Arjun; Manikath, Neeraj; Rahim, Asma; Anilakumari, V P

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in a population of male bus drivers in North Kerala, India. Methods. The study population included male bus drivers of Corporation Bus stand Kozhikode, Kerala. Blood pressure, height, and weight of subjects were measured, and relevance was obtained using a structured questionnaire. Results. Age varied from 21 to 60 years (mean 36.5 ± 8.4). Among 179 bus drivers studied, 16.8% (30/179) had normal BP, 41.9% (75/179) had prehypertension, and 41.3% (74/179) had hypertension. Isolated systolic HTN was seen in 6.70% (12/179) individuals. Out of 74 hypertensives, 9 (12.1%) were aware of their hypertension, while 3 (4.0%) were medicated and only 1 (1.3%) had BP adequately controlled. Age > 35 years (P = 0.015), BMI ≥ 23 kg/m(2) (P = 0.007), supporting more than four family members (P = 0.011), and taking main meals from restaurants on most working days (P = 0.017) were independently associated with HTN in binary logistic regression. Conclusion. Prevalence of hypertension was high among bus drivers. Age > 35 years, elevated BMI, supporting a large family, and dietary habits associated with the job showed significant association with hypertension. Primary and secondary prevention strategies need to be emphasized in this occupational group.

  10. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, K. P.; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K. K.

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  11. Babesia infection in naturally exposed pet dogs from a north-eastern state (Assam) of India: detection by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Laha, R; Bhattacharjee, K; Sarmah, P C; Das, M; Goswami, A; Sarma, D; Sen, A

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to detect Babesia infections in pet dogs of a north-eastern state of India. The diagnostic efficacy of Babesia infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been compared with microscopy examination. For this, a total of 111 blood samples of pet dogs presented at clinical complex of the College of Veterinary Science, Guwahati, Assam with clinical signs suspected for Babesia infection subjected to the study. A total of 44 (39.63 %) dogs were diagnosed as positive for Babesia infections after microscopic examination. Among these, Babesia canis infection was diagnosed in 5 dogs (4.50 %) and B. gibsoni infection in 39 (35.13 %) dogs microscopically in Giemsa stained blood smears. Molecular diagnosis using PCR detected 63 (56.75 %) dogs positive for Babesia infection. Single infection with B. canis was found in 9 (8.10 %) dogs while B. gibsoni alone was detected in 3 (2.70 %) dogs. Mixed infections by both these species were detected in 51 (45.94 %) dogs. Overall, PCR detected 54 (48.64 %) dogs as B. gibsoni and 60 (54.05 %) dogs as B. canis positive. PMID:25320489

  12. Uranium (U)-Tolerant Bacterial Diversity from U Ore Deposit of Domiasiat in North-East India and Its Prospective Utilisation in Bioremediation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakshak; Nongkhlaw, Macmillan; Acharya, Celin; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2013-01-01

    Uranium (U)-tolerant aerobic chemo-heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from the sub-surface soils of U-rich deposits in Domiasiat, North East India. The bacterial community explored at molecular level by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) resulted in 51 distinct phylotypes. Bacterial community assemblages at the U mining site with the concentration of U ranging from 20 to 100 ppm, were found to be most diverse. Representative bacteria analysed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing were affiliated to Firmicutes (51%), Gammaproteobacteria (26%), Actinobacteria (11%), Bacteroidetes (10%) and Betaproteobacteria (2%). Representative strains removed more than 90% and 53% of U from 100 μM and 2 mM uranyl nitrate solutions, respectively, at pH 3.5 within 10 min of exposure and the activity was retained until 24 h. Overall, 76% of characterized isolates possessed phosphatase enzyme and 53% had PIB-type ATPase genes. This study generated baseline information on the diverse indigenous U-tolerant bacteria which could serve as an indicator to estimate the environmental impact expected to be caused by mining in the future. Also, these natural isolates efficient in uranium binding and harbouring phosphatase enzyme and metal-transporting genes could possibly play a vital role in the bioremediation of metal-/radionuclide-contaminated environments. PMID:23080407

  13. In Vitro Detection of Acaricidal Resistance Status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus against Commercial Preparation of Deltamethrin, Flumethrin, and Fipronil from North Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer; Patel, K K

    2015-01-01

    Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most common tick species in India infesting cattle and buffaloes and causing significant economic losses to dairy and leather industries by adversely affecting the milk production and quality of hides. A study to evaluate the acaricide resistance status of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil was conducted on the samples collected from organized and unorganized farms of North Gujarat state, where treatment failures were reported frequently. Adult Immersion Test (AIT) and Larval Packet Test (LPT) were conducted using field strain for determination of 50 and 95% lethal concentration of deltamethrin, flumethrin, and fipronil. Results obtained by the Adult Immersion Test showed low grade resistance (level I, RF > 5) has been developed against both deltamethrin and fipronil. However, deltamethrin by performing Larval Packet Test showed moderate grade resistance (level II, RF > 25). Larval packet performed by flumethrin also revealed low grade resistance, level I. The data on field status of acaricide resistance from the area with diversified animal genetic resources will be helpful to adopt suitable strategy to overcome the process of development of resistance in ticks. PMID:26788362

  14. Measuring opportunity for natural selection: Adaptation among two linguistically cognate tribes inhabiting two eco-situations of North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Maitreyee

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous literature on the migration of Mishings point out to the fact that the Mishing and the Minyong are two culturally and linguistically cognate tribes that co-existed in the same ecology in the hills of Arunachal Pradesh. The Mishing tribe after migration, now inhabits flood-prone areas of Brahmaputra valley of Assam. AIM: The study aims to measure the adaptation process of these two cognate tribes inhabiting two different ecologies at present: Hills and plains by calculating the index of selection intensity by Crow’s and Johnston and Kensinger’s formulae. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The reproductive histories of 77 Mishing mothers of completed fertility inhabiting a flood affected village of Assam and 74 Minyong mothers inhabiting a hilly village of Arunachal Pradesh are selected. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Minyongs show higher average fertility than the Mishings. The proportion of embryonic death is higher, and child death is lower among the Mishings (0.1661; 0.1623) than the Minyongs (0.1319; 0.2238). The index of selection due to mortality component is contributing more toward the total index of selection in both the tribes. CONCLUSION: The contribution of mortality component is sizeable to the total selection like many other tribes of North-East India. Higher proportion of embryonic deaths among the Mishings infers that the causes are mostly biological whereas, the higher proportion of child deaths among the Minyongs infers that the causes are mostly socio-cultural. PMID:24019616

  15. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally.

  16. Comparative cost-effectiveness of the components of a behavior change communication campaign on HIV/AIDS in North India.

    PubMed

    Sood, Suruchi; Nambiar, Devaki

    2006-01-01

    Numerous studies show that exposure to entertainment-education-based mass media campaigns is associated with reduction in risk behaviors. Concurrently, there is a growing interest in comparing the cost-effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions taking into account infrastructural and programmatic costs. In such analyses, though few in number, mass media campaigns have fared well. Using data from a mass media communication campaign in the low HIV prevalence states of Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi in Northern India, in this article we examine the following: (1) factors that mediate behavior change in different components of the campaign, comprising a TV drama, reality show for youth audiences, and TV spots; (2) the relative impact of campaign components on the behavioral outcome: condom use; and (3) the cost-effectiveness calculations arising from this analysis. Results suggest that recall of the TV spots and the TV drama influences behavior change and is strongly associated with interpersonal communication and positive gender attitudes. The TV drama, in spite of being the costliest, emerges as the most cost-effective component when considering the behavioral outcome of interest. The analysis of the comparative cost-effectiveness of individual campaign components provides insights into the planning of resources for communication interventions globally. PMID:17148103

  17. Characterization of biochar obtained from weeds and its effect on soil properties of North Eastern Region of India.

    PubMed

    Mandal, S; Verma, B C; Ramkrushna, G I; Singh, R K; Rajkhowa, D J

    2015-03-01

    In the global climate change scenario, application of biochar in soil has become one of the important management practices for carbon sequestration, soil health improvement and climate change mitigation. In this study, an attempt was made to see the effect of biochar prepared from weed biomass on soil properties in subtropical northeast India. Biochar were prepared from seven locally available weed biomass viz. Ageratum conyzoides, Lantana camera, Gynura sp., Setaria sp., Avena fatua, Maize stalk, Pine needles and were characterised. Apot experiment was conducted with maize, where biochar was applied alone and in combination with fertilizers. Results revealed that biochar had significant impact on soil pH, SOC, and available nutrients like N, P and K. It also had significant impact on maize biomass yield. All biochar contained more than 50% stable carbon. Increase in soil pH was in the range of 0.26 to 0.3 and that of SOC from 1.62% in control to 1.74% in biochar added treatments. Biochars alone improved the available nitrogen ranging from 4.5 to 21.3 mg kg(-1), available P from 3.32 to 3.68 mg kg(-1) and increased K content by 20% above control. Weed biomass can be potential alternative to enhance soil and crop productivity through conversion into biochar.

  18. Phenotypic Characterization and Multivariate Analysis to Explain Body Conformation in Lesser Known Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) from North India

    PubMed Central

    Vohra, V.; Niranjan, S. K.; Mishra, A. K.; Jamuna, V.; Chopra, A.; Sharma, Neelesh; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic characterization and body biometric in 13 traits (height at withers, body length, chest girth, paunch girth, ear length, tail length, length of tail up to switch, face length, face width, horn length, circumference of horn at base, distances between pin bone and hip bone) were recorded in 233 adult Gojri buffaloes from Punjab and Himachal Pradesh states of India. Traits were analysed by using varimax rotated principal component analysis (PCA) with Kaiser Normalization to explain body conformation. PCA revealed four components which explained about 70.9% of the total variation. First component described the general body conformation and explained 31.5% of total variation. It was represented by significant positive high loading of height at wither, body length, heart girth, face length and face width. The communality ranged from 0.83 (hip bone distance) to 0.45 (horn length) and unique factors ranged from 0.16 to 0.55 for all these 13 different biometric traits. Present study suggests that first principal component can be used in the evaluation and comparison of body conformation in buffaloes and thus provides an opportunity to distinguish between early and late maturing to adult, based on a small group of biometric traits to explain body conformation in adult buffaloes. PMID:25656215

  19. An integrated approach for aquifer vulnerability mapping using GIS and rough sets: study from an alluvial aquifer in North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid; Khan, Muneeb Hasan

    2014-06-01

    A modified DRASTIC model in a geographic information system (GIS) environment coupled with an information-analytic technique called `rough sets' is used to understand the aquifer vulnerability characteristics of a segment of the lower Kali watershed in western Uttar Pradesh, India. Since the region is a flat plain, topography (T) is removed as a potential control. Other parameters are the same as in DRASTIC, hence the new model is termed as DRASIC. The rough set technique is employed to provide insight into the relative vulnerabilities of different administrative units (blocks) within the study area. Using rough sets, three important factors are computed: strength, certainty and coverage. Strength indicates how the vulnerability characteristics vary in the entire area, certainty gives the relative fractions of low, medium and high vulnerability regions within a particular block, and coverage computes the percentage of a particular vulnerability state in each block. The purpose of the work is to demonstrate the utility of this integrated approach in classifying different administrative blocks in the study area according to their aquifer vulnerability characteristics. This approach is particularly useful for block-level planning and decision making for sustainable management of groundwater resources.

  20. Traditional use of medicinal plants by the Jaintia tribes in North Cachar Hills district of Assam, northeast India

    PubMed Central

    Sajem, Albert L; Gosai, Kuldip

    2006-01-01

    The study of ethnobotany relating to any tribe is in itself a very intricate or convoluted process. This paper documents the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants that are in use by the indigenous Jaintia tribes residing in few isolated pockets of northeast India. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners and has resulted in the documentation of 39 medicinal plant species belonging to 27 families and 35 genera. For curing diverse form of ailments, the use of aboveground plant parts was higher (76.59%) than the underground plant parts (23.41%). Of the aboveground plant parts, leaf was used in the majority of cases (23 species), followed by fruit (4). Different underground plant forms such as root, tuber, rhizome, bulb and pseudo-bulb were also found to be in use by the Jaintia tribe as a medicine. Altogether, 30 types of ailments have been reported to be cured by using these 39 medicinal plant species. The study thus underlines the potentials of the ethnobotanical research and the need for the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge pertaining to the medicinal plant utilization for the greater benefit of mankind. PMID:16899114

  1. Stigma and its correlates among patients with bipolar disorder: A study from a tertiary care hospital of North India.

    PubMed

    Grover, Sandeep; Hazari, Nandita; Aneja, Jitender; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit

    2016-10-30

    This study aimed to assess stigma and its sociodemographic and clinical correlates among patients with bipolar disorder while in remission. 185 patients currently in remission were assessed on Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMIS) for internalized stigma, Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue Stigma Scale for perceived stigma and Participation scale for restriction of activities. About 28% patients reported moderate to high level of self stigma as assessed by ISMIS total score. Discrimination experience (38.9%) was reported to be the most commonly experienced self stigma followed by alienation (28.6%) and social withdrawal (28.6%). On the participation scale, about two-fifth (42%) of the participants had severe restriction of activities. Internalized stigma was higher among those with lower age and lesser income. Higher level of stigma was associated with shorter mean duration of remission, income, mean duration of depressive episodes, higher severity of residual depressive symptoms and current level of functioning. Higher internalized stigma was associated with greater restriction in participation of activities. To conclude, present study suggests that self stigma is highly prevalent among patients with bipolar disorder in India and is associated with clinical variables like duration of depressive episodes and level of functioning. PMID:27479100

  2. Clinico-epidemiological study of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A tertiary care centre study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Kumar, Vijay; Agarwal, Akash; Kumar, Rajendra; Bhatt, M.L.B.; Misra, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) ranks 12th most common cancer in the world. Objective The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the OSCC. Methods A retrospective study of 611 OSCC patients from January 2010 to December 2013 was carried out in Department of Surgical Oncology, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, India. Details of patient's sex, age, tobacco habit and site of cancer were noted. Data were analyzed by Student's t test and chi-squire (χ2) test. Results The prevalence of OSCC was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males (75.9%) than females (24.1%). The mean age of female patients was higher than males (p < 0.001). In both the genders, the buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus were found to be the most affected sites. Moreover, the smokeless form of tobacco was found to be significantly associated with OSCC, especially in females. Conclusion The study concluded that OSCC is more common in men as compared to women, probably due to habit of tobacco consumption. Smokeless tobacco use is an important risk factor, especially in females. PMID:26937366

  3. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  4. P-T history and geochemical characteristics of mafic granulites and charnockites from west of Periya, North Kerala, southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, D.; Chandra Singh, P.; Arima, M.; Singh, Triveni

    2012-11-01

    The study region forms the northern part of Kerala (south India) and constitutes part of granulite-facies rocks of the exhumed Proterozoic south Indian Granulite Terrain (SGT). The SGT consists of a large variety of rock types with a wide range of mineral parageneses and chemical compositions, namely charnockite, mafic granulite, gneiss, schist, anorthosite, granite and minor meta-sedimentary rocks. Garnet-bearing mafic granulites occur as small enclaves within charnockites. We report for the first time P-T constraints on the prograde path preceding peak metamorphism in the northernmost part of Kerala. An increase of the Mg, Fe and decrease of Ca and Mn contents from the core towards the rim of garnet in the mafic granulites suggest prograde garnet growth. The prograde path was followed by peak metamorphism at a temperature of c. 800 °C and a pressure of c. 7.5 kbar as computed by isopleths of XMg garnet, XCa garnet and XAn plagioclase. The resorption of garnet in various reaction textures and the development of spectacular orthopyroxene-plagioclase, biotite-quartz and hornblende-plagioclase symplectites characterize the subsequent stages of metamorphism. The PT path is characteristically T-convex suggesting an isothermal decompression path and reflects rapid uplift followed by cooling of a tectonically thickened crust. Diffusion modeling of Fe-Mg exchange between garnet and hornblende suggests a near-peak cooling rate of 10-70 °C/myr. Such cooling rates are too high to be accounted for by normal isostatic uplift and erosion and suggest that the terrain was tectonically exhumed. Charnockites are richer in SiO2 and lower in MgO and CaO when compared to mafic granulites. Their REE patterns are relatively flat and show prominent negative europium anomalies. The mafic granulites are metamorphosed tholeiitic basalts as revealed by major- and trace-element geochemistry.

  5. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Meyer-Rochow, V Benno; Ghosh, Sampat

    2011-03-31

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another.

  6. Fine mode aerosol chemistry over a rural atmosphere near the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adak, Anandamay; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted on the chemical characterization of fine mode aerosol or PM2.5 over a rural atmosphere near the coast of Bay of Bengal in eastern India. Samples were collected and analyzed during March 2013 - February 2014. The concentration of PM2.5 was found span over a wide range from as low as 3 µg m-3 to as high as 180 µg m-3. The average concentration of PM2.5 was 62 µg m-3. Maximum accumulation of fine mode aerosol was observed during winter whereas minimum was observed during monsoon. Water soluble ionic species of fine mode aerosol were characterized over this rural atmosphere. In spite of being situated near the coast of Bay of Bengal, we observed significantly higher concentrations for anthropogenic species like ammonium and sulphate. The concentrations of these two species were much higher than the sea-salt aerosols. Ammonium and sulphate contributed around 30 % to the total fine mode aerosols. Even dust aerosol species like calcium also showed higher concentrations. Chloride to sodium ratio was found to be much less than that in standard sea-water indicating strong interaction between sea-salt and anthropogenic aerosols. Use of fertilizers in various crop fields and human and animal wastes significantly increased ammonium in fine mode aerosols. Dust aerosol species were accumulated in the atmosphere which could be due to transport of finer dust species from nearby metropolis or locally generated. Non-sea-sulphate and nitrate showed significant contributions in fine mode aerosols having both local and transported sources. Source apportionment shows prominent emission sources of anthropogenic aerosols from local anthropogenic activities and transported from nearby Kolkata metropolis as well.

  7. Vertebrates used for medicinal purposes by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Arunachal Pradesh, the easternmost part of India, is endowed with diverse natural resources and inhabited by a variety of ethnic groups that have developed skills to exploit the biotic resources of the region for food and medicines. Information on animals and animal parts as components of folk remedies used by local healers and village headmen of the Nyishi and Galo tribes in their respective West Siang and Subansiri districts were obtained through interviews and structured questionnaires. Of a total of 36 vertebrate species used in treatments of ailments and diseases, mammals comprised 50%; they were followed by birds (22%), fishes (17%), reptiles (8%) and amphibians (3%). Approximately 20 common complaints of humans as well as foot and mouth disease of cattle were targets of zootherapies. Most commonly treated were fevers, body aches and pains, tuberculosis, malaria, wounds and burns, typhoid, smallpox, dysentery and diarrhoea, jaundice, and early pregnancy pains. Very few domestic animal species (e.g., goat and cattle) were used zootherapeutically. More frequently it was wild animals, including endangered or protective species like hornbill, pangolin, clouded leopard, tiger, bear, and wolf, whose various parts were either used in folk remedies or as food. Some of the animal-based traditional medicines or animal parts were sold at local markets, where they had to compete with modern, western pharmaceuticals. To record, document, analyze and test the animal-derived local medicines before they become replaced by western products is one challenge; to protect the already dwindling populations of certain wild animal species used as a resource for the traditional animal-derived remedies, is another. PMID:21453496

  8. How are our medical students using the computer and internet? A study from a medical college of north India

    PubMed Central

    Maroof, Khan Amir; Parashar, Pawan; Bansal, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    Background: In today's world, use of Internet has become indispensable. Medical students have much to gain from the Internet technology that has revolutionized the medical field. There is a very rapid change in the way communication technology is being handled and our medical students should also be ready to embrace it. Very few studies have been done on this topic in India. The aim was to find out the knowledge, practice, and barriers of Internet use among the medical undergraduates of Subharti Medical College, Meerut. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the MBBS students belonging to the first, second, third, and fourth years of their course during August to October 2009. A pretested questionnaire was used collecting information on their Internet usage patterns, knowledge about information technology, and barriers to using it. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and appropriate statistical tests were applied for analysis. Results: The proportion of respondents having a laptop were more in cohort of students belonging to the admission year 2009 (65.8%) followed by 2008 (54.7%), 2007 (53.0%), and 2006 (38.0%), i.e., a gradual increase in newer cohorts. About half (57.4%) of the students had some sort of formal training in computer and Internet use. Knowledge about Internet was more among the junior cohorts compared to the senior cohorts (P<0.0001). Only about one-fifths of the respondents used Internet for searching literature for projects from medical journals on the Internet. Majority of the respondents accessed Internet for less than 3 hours per week. About one-tenth (8.0%) of the students felt that Internet is totally useless in medical field. The major barrier (54.4% of the respondents) to using Internet was lack of time. Conclusions: Further research should focus on designing and implementing computer and Internet training for medical students. PMID:23271853

  9. Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) Correlation with Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Non-diabetic Patients - A Hospital based Study from North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Bornali; Neginhal, Mahesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels are predictive of cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, however, association of HbA1c with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) in non-diabetics is inconsistent. Aim To evaluate the correlation between HbA1c level and severity of CAD in non-diabetic patients using SYNTAX score in a cohort of proven CAD on angiography at Gauhati Medical College, Guwahati, Assam, India, which is a major tertiary care hospital of North-Eastern India. Materials and Methods We prospectively collected data of non-diabetic patients with proven CAD on angiography from June 2014 to June 2015. Patients were divided into four groups (interquartiles) according to HbA1c levels, less than 4.8%, 4.8% to 5.1%, 5.1% to 5.6%, and 5.6% to 6.5%. Severity of CAD was assessed using SYNTAX score and the number of coronary vessels diseased. We compared different quartiles of HbA1c with regard to SYNTAX score and number of diseased vessels. Results A total of 346 patients were included in the study. Mean age was 58.1±10.4 years. Of the total 91.9% (318) were males, 44.8% (155) were hypertensives, 29.2% (101) were smokers and 34.7% (120) were dyslipidemic. We found that CAD severity by SYNTAX score as well as number of vessels involved was significantly different among quartiles (p-values <0.001 and <0.001 respectively). Increase in HbA1c level was strongly correlated with disease severity and higher SYNTAX score. A significant increase was noted in the mean number of diseased vessels (p-value <0.001) as HbA1c level increases. Age, gender, hypertension and dyslipidemia did not show significant difference among quartiles however smoking was found to be an independent predictor of severity of CAD by SYNTAX score (p <0.05). Conclusion From this clinical study, we can conclude that a significant correlation exists between HbA1c and severity of CAD by SYNTAX score as well as number of vessels involved in non- diabetes. PMID:27790487

  10. Evidence of pre-Gondwana tectono-thermal event from the Bhilwara Supracrustal units of Rajasthan, north-west India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Lopamudra; Sarkar, Saheli; Rakshit, Nibedita; Nasipuri, Pritam

    2014-05-01

    In the Indian subcontinent, two pre- Gondwana (pre- Pan African) orogenies are mostly recorded and well-studied from the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt: (i) >1.1 Ga and (ii) ~950 Ma. During the ~950Ma orogeny, the pre-existing granulites have been re-melted under granulite facies conditions at ~8 kbar, 800-850ºC in the sillimanite stability field with formation of garnet-orthopyroxene in the restites. In this study we report garnet-sillimanite bearing and garnet-staurolite-kyanite bearing supracrustal rocks from the Bhilwara Supergroup in Rajasthan, N-W India. Peak assemblage in the garnet-sillimanite bearing metapelite is: garnet-sillimanite-biotite-plagioclase-quartz. Garnet porphyroblasts contain sillimanite-biotite bearing inclusion trails. Matrix foliations consist of biotite, sillimanite, quartz. Peak pressure-temperature calculated for garnet formation are ~7-8 kbar, 800ºC. Garnet is replaced along the margins by biotite during retrogression. Within garnet-staurolite-kyanite schist, peak assemblage is formed of garnet-staurolite-biotite-kyanite quartz, where garnet and staurolite occur as porphyroclasts and the matrix foliations are formed of kyanite-biotite-quartz. Mineral assemblages and compositions in the rock indicate peak pressure-temperature >8 kbar, 600ºC. The ages of the metamorphic events at sillimanite and kyanite facies are not well-constrained. However since the Bhilwara supracrustal units occur close to the Grenvillian orogenic belt at Sandmata Complex, the timing of the peak metamorphism can be constrained at ~1.0 Ga. Garnet-sillimanite-bearing assemblages noted in the Bhilwara Supracrustal Belt, has also been noted from the Grenvillian belts in the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt. So the question that needs to be addressed is whether the Grenvillian orogenic belt recorded form the Sandmata Complex in Rajasthan and that of the Eastern Ghat Belt had been a continuous orogenic belt? Such possibilities can be addressed by establishing detailed structural

  11. Characterization of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli isolated from cases of diarrhoea & haemolytic uremic syndrome in north India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Taneja, Neelam; Bharti, Bhavneet; Sharma, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important zoonotic foodborne pathogen, capable of causing haemorrhagic colitis (HC) and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). As data from India on human infections caused by STEC are limited, this study was carried out for hospital based surveillance for STEC as a causative agent of diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and HUS at a tertiary care centre and to study the virulence gene profile and strain relatedness by multi locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Methods: A total of 600 stool samples were studied. Stool samples of every fifth patient presenting with non-bloody diarrhoea, all cases of bloody diarrhoea and diarrhoea associated HUS (D+HUS) were collected from October 2009 to September 2011. Stool samples were cultured for STEC and characterization of STEC was done by serogrouping, virulence genes analysis, and MLVA typing. Results: STEC were isolated as a sole pathogen from 11 stool samples [5 of 290 (1.7%) non-blood diarrhoea and 5 of 300 (1.6%) blood diarrhoea cases]. STEC was also isolated from one fatal case of HUS who was an eight month old child. Only six of 11 isolates were positive for stx2 gene, whereas stx1 was present in all 11 isolates. Only one isolate was positive for eae. Other adhesion genes present were iha in five isolates, followed by toxB and efa1 in two each and saa gene in one, isolate. Among the plasmid encoded genes, espP, hly and etpD were each present in one isolate each. In the MLVA typing, diverse profiles were obtained except two untypeable isolates from different patients shared the same MLVA profile. Both these isolates were not epidemiologically linked. Interpretation & conclusions: This study demonstrated that STEC could be a causative agent of diarrhoea, bloody diarrhoea and sporadic HUS. However, further work needs to be done to study and explore the prevalence of these organisms in the food chain in this region. PMID:25758577

  12. Markers of Oxidative Stress and Clinical Outcome in Critically ill Septic Patients: A Preliminary Study from North India

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naushad Ahmad; Singh, Harpreet; Chhoda, Ankit; Mattoo, Sahil; Gupta, Basant Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in non-coronary Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Oxidative stress is one of the important features in pathogenesis of sepsis. Aim This study was undertaken to evaluate levels of oxidants and antioxidants in patients with sepsis admitted to ICU. Study Design: This was a non-interventional clinical case-control study undertaken at a tertiary level teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. Materials and Methods Forty-six consecutive non-pediatric patients admitted to ICU with sepsis were included and subjected to detailed history, physical examination and investigations. Blood samples were drawn to evaluate oxidant Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant (alpha-tocopherol) levels. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Organ Dysfunction and/or Infection (ODIN) scores were calculated and patients followed up for outcomes. Twenty age and sex matched healthy subjects served as controls. Results Mean levels of malondialdehyde were higher in patients than controls (17.2±3.8nm/ml versus 4.6±1.6nm/ml, p<0.001) while levels of alpha-tocopherol were lower (3.2±1.3μg/ml versus 9.9±2.0μg/ml, p<0.001). The mean APACHE II and ODIN scores were 18.1±9.3 and 1.7±1.3 respectively in patients. These scores were two to three fold higher in non survivor patients (n=22) in comparison with survivors (n=18) (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in oxidants and antioxidants levels (p>0.05). However, a significant and positive correlation was observed between oxidant -antioxidant levels and APACHE II, ODIN and International Normalized Ratio (INR) scores in septic patients overall. Conclusion The oxidants in septic patients were significantly higher while antioxidants were significantly lower than healthy controls. There was also a significant correlation with APACHE II and ODIN scores. A large patient population based study may draw more specific conclusions. PMID:27656484

  13. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric particulate carbon fractions and identification of secondary sources at urban sites in North India.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sailesh N; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-09-01

    An intensive measurement campaign was undertaken to characterize eight fractions of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particulate matter (PM) at four urban sites with different pollution characteristics during summer, post-monsoon, and winter at Kanpur, India. Speciation samplers were used to collect particulate samples on quartz filters followed by analysis of OC and EC using Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE)-based thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method. Based on 24-h average results at each site, the highest levels of OC and EC were observed during winter as 96.7 ± 26.9 and 31.8 ± 9.8 μg/m(3) at residential site and traffic site, respectively. The levels of OC at residential sites during winter appeared to be more than twice of that during summer. The site close to the road traffic had the least value of OC/EC, as 1.77 ± 0.28 during post-monsoon, and the site influenced by emissions of domestic cooking and heating had the highest value of OC/EC, as 4.05 ± 0.79 during winter. The average abundances of OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, OP, EC1, EC2, and EC3 in total carbon (TC) at all sites for three seasons were 10.03, 19.04, 20.03, 12.32, 10.53, 33.39, 3.21, and 1.99 %, respectively. A sharp increase in levels of OC1 and EC1-OP during winter at two residential sites revealed that biomass burning could be a significant contributor to carbonaceous aerosols. From the application of EC-tracer method, it was observed that contribution of secondary organic carbon (SOC) to PM mass increased from 5 % during post-monsoon to 16 % during winter at residential sites and from 2 % during post-monsoon to 7 % during winter at traffic sites. Therefore, it could be inferred that increase in primary emissions coupled with unfavorable meteorological conditions could cause particle agglomeration and hygroscopic growth, leading to unpleasant pollution episode during winter.

  14. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  15. Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

    PubMed

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-12-24

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

  16. Food-Safety Hazards in the Pork Chain in Nagaland, North East India: Implications for Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Fahrion, Anna Sophie; Jamir, Lanu; Richa, Kenivole; Begum, Sonuwara; Rutsa, Vilatuo; Ao, Simon; Padmakumar, Varijaksha P.; Deka, Ram Pratim; Grace, Delia

    2013-01-01

    Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments. PMID:24368430

  17. The use of remote sensing for rapid post-disaster assessment - an example from Kedarnath, Uttarakhand, north India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petley, D. N.

    2013-12-01

    Kedarnath is small town built around in important Hindu temple in the Rudraprayag district, Uttarakhand in northern India. Located at an elevation of 3,583 m, it is situated in a remote valley with no vehicular access. In summer, the temple is an important pilgrimage destination, with thousands of visitors per day, all of whom have to access the location via a 14 km trek or horse ride along a paved pathway, or via a helicopter ride. Between 14th and 17th June 2013, Uttarakhand was affected by unusually heavy early monsoonal rainfall. Whilst the rainfall totals did not reach record levels, the precipitation fell onto thawing snow, inducing very large debris flows. Kedarnath was affected by two major debris flows. According to eyewitness reports the first struck without warning in the evening of 16th June at about 7 pm local time. The second, larger, event occurred the following morning at about 6 am. The two debris flows destroyed most of the buildings in Kedarnath, although the temple survived with some damage. Across Uttarakhand it is estimated that about 5700 people died in the debris flows; the majority of these losses were at Kedarnath and in the immediate downstream communities. In the aftermath of the disaster there was considerable uncertainty as to the cause of the debris flows, with much speculation about the possibility that either a rock avalanche had developed on the flanks of the adjacent mountains or that there had been a catastrophic glacial collapse event upstream of the town. On 18th June the Indian Remote Sensing Organisation (IRSO) captured and released a RISAT-1 image of Kedarnath. Although the resolution was insufficient to determine what had occurred to trigger the disaster, it served to highlight two potential sources of the debris flows. One of these was an area of disturbance at the snout of the Charobari Glacier upslope from the town; the other was a possible landslide scar on an adjacent slope. On 23rd June 2013 NASA captured a Landsat 8

  18. Knowledge of men and women about reproductive tract infections and AIDS in a rural area of north India: impact of a community-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Duggal, Mona

    2004-12-01

    This study of a community-level health-education intervention on reproductive tract infections/sexually transmitted diseases (RTIs/STDs) was conducted in three villages of Haryana in north India. The study was aimed at increasing awareness among men and women of reproductive age about the prevention and treatment of RTIs, modes of HIV/AIDS transmission, and methods of prevention. Health education was imparted through one-to-one interactions with men and women during home visits, at village-based clinics and health camps, and through health-education talks with men and women. Cumulative effects of the intervention were examined at the end of the survey by comparing the change in knowledge from the baseline. Records of clinic attendance were examined to assess the probable impact of the intervention on clinic attendance. Baseline and follow-up evaluations revealed that there was an improvement in the median total knowledge score of women from 0 to 6, whereas it remained at 5 for men both at baseline and follow-up. Knowledge about RTI/STIs increased among both men and women from the median score of 0 to 2 and from 0 to 3 respectively. The median knowledge score on HIV/AIDS declined among men from 4 to 2 but increased from 0 to 3 among women. Clinic attendance for RTI/STI cases, referred to the Naraingarh hospital, showed an eight-fold rise from an average of four cases per month in 1998-1999 to an average of 35 cases per month in 1999-2000. The findings of the study suggest that health-education strategy through home visits, RTI case management and counselling, and organizing a weekly clinic and occasional camps and health-education talks can increase the level of awareness about RTIs/STIs among both men and women and improve clinic attendance.

  19. Assessment of Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude and Self-Care Practice Among Adolescents - A State Wide Cross- Sectional Study in Manipur, North Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Kshetrimayum, Nandita; Wahengbam, Brucelee Singh; Nandkeoliar, Tanya; Lyngdoh, Daiasharailang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization global strategy of promoting oral health have shown vast improvements in developed countries but the scenario is glum among underprivileged communities due to lacunae in implementation of these promotional programs. Manipur, a North Eastern state in India, is one such marginalized area. Aim The study aimed to evaluate Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) towards oral health in 15-18 year adolescents residing in Manipur together with the association of these variables to sociodemographic factors. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 810 healthy adolescents drawn from various primary health care centers spanning in all the nine districts of Manipur. A closed ended questionnaire for the purpose of collecting data was used in the survey. Results Of the total participants 90.9% had high knowledge, 79.8% had favorable attitude and 70.4% had adequate practice towards oral health. Education of the parents and respondents was the only factor significantly associated with all three variables, knowledge, attitude and practice. Significant and positive linear correlation between knowledge-attitude (r=0.369, p<0.01) knowledge-practice (r=0.405, p<0.01) and attitude-practice (r =0.353, p<0.01), were observed. Conclusion An overwhelming majority of the respondents had high knowledge, favorable attitude and sound practice with respect to oral health. A positive linear correlation exists between the knowledge, attitude and practice. Evidence based reinforcement programs should be introduced to further reduce the gap between knowledge, attitude and practice. The study will also serve as a reference value for use in future evaluation to help measure the effectiveness of the planned activities. Future research needs to focus on establishing the dental caries prevalence and oral hygiene status of Manipuri youth. PMID:27504414

  20. Genetic Environment of Plasmid Mediated CTX-M-15 Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamases from Clinical and Food Borne Bacteria in North-Eastern India

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Supriya; Hussain, Abbas; Mishra, Shweta; Maurya, Anand Prakash; Bhattacharjee, Amitabha; Joshi, Santa Ram

    2015-01-01

    Background The study investigated the presence of CTX-M-15 type extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), compared their genetic arrangements and plasmid types in gram negative isolates of hospital and food origin in north-east India. From September 2013 to April 2014, a total of 252 consecutive, non-duplicate clinical isolates and 88 gram negative food isolates were selected. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of ESBL genes was performed. Presence of integrons and gene cassettes were analyzed by integrase and 59 base-element PCR respectively. The molecular environments surrounding blaCTX-M and plasmid types were investigated by PCR and PCR-based replicon typing respectively. Transformation was carried out to assess plasmid transfer. Southern blotting was conducted to localize the blaCTX-M-15 genes. DNA fingerprinting was performed by ERIC-PCR. Results Prevalence of ESBL was found to be 40.8% (103/252) in clinical and 31.8% (28/88) in food-borne isolates. Molecular characterization revealed the presence of 56.3% (58/103) and 53.5% (15/28) blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates respectively. Strains of clinical and food origin were non-clonal. Replicon typing revealed that IncI1 and IncFII plasmid were carrying blaCTX-M-15 in clinical and food isolates and were horizontally transferable. The ISEcp1 element was associated with blaCTX-M-15 in both clinical and food isolates. Conclusions The simultaneous presence of resistance determinants in non-clonal isolates of two different groups thus suggests that the microbiota of common food products consumed may serve as a reservoir for some of the drug resistance genes prevalent in human pathogens. PMID:26361395

  1. Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of North Central peninsular India during monsoon withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morwal, S. B.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Kothawale, D. R.; Dani, K. K.; Burger, R.; Bruintjes, R. T.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Cloud characteristics over the rain-shadow region of the north central peninsular India has been studied using C-band radar data for the period 21 September-30 October 2011. The period covers withdrawal and post-withdrawal periods of monsoon 2011. Though the study has been carried out for one season, it has been shown that it is representative of climatic feature over the region. The cloud characteristics have been discussed in the context of large scale dynamical and thermodynamical conditions over the region using NCEP wind data and radiosonde data, respectively. The large scale dynamic and thermodynamical conditions were found favorable for occurrence of widespread and deep convection. The cloud top heights show tri-modal distribution with peaks at 2-3, 4-6 and 8-12 km which are associated with cumulus, congestus and cumulonimbus clouds, respectively. The tops of these three types of the clouds are found to be associated with the stable layers in the atmosphere. The frequency of congestus clouds was the highest. The cloud characteristics over the region differ from other tropical land and oceanic regions in respect of maximum height, mean duration and cumulative frequency distribution. Distribution of cloud top height and duration show deviation from lognormality in the lower ends. It indicates that the cloud growth mechanism is different than that observed over other tropical land and oceanic regions and also due to the large wind shear prevailed over the region. During the period, a large number of suitable clouds were found available for hygroscopic and glaciogenic cloud seeding.

  2. Does intrapleural length and position of the intercostal drain affect the frequency of residual hemothorax? A prospective study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Agarwal, Nitin; Rattan, Amulya; Rathi, Vinita

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thoracic trauma causes significant morbidity; however, many deaths are preventable and few patients require surgery. Intercostal chest drainage (ICD) for hemo/pneumothorax is simple and effective; the main problem is residual hemothorax, which can cause lung collapse and empyema. Aims: Our study aimed to analyze the relationship between radiological chest tube parameters (position and intrathoracic length) and the frequency of residual hemothorax. Settings and Design: This prospective analytical study was conducted in a large tertiary care hospital in north India over 2 years till March 2013. Materials and Methods: Patients of chest trauma aged 18-60 years, with hemothorax or hemopneumothorax requiring ICD insertion were included in the study. Bedside ICD insertion was performed as per current standards. Immediate post-ICD chest radiographs were used to record lung status and ICD position (chest tube zone and intrapleural length). Residual hemothorax was defined as any collection identified on radiological investigations after 48 hours of ICD placement. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis was performed with the chi-square test or Student's t-test as appropriate, while multivariate analysis using stepwise logistic regression; a P-value < 0.05 was significant. Results: Out of 170 patients of chest trauma, 154 underwent ICD insertion. Most patients were young (mean age: 31.7 ± 12 years) males (M:F = 14:1). Ninety-seven patients (57.1%) had isolated chest injuries. Blunt trauma (n = 119; 77.3%) and motor vehicle accidents (n = 72; 46.7%) were the commonest causes. Mean hospital stay was 9 ± 3.94 days, and mortality 2/154 (1.1%). Residual hemothorax was seen in 48 (31%). No ICD zone or length was significantly associated with residual hemothorax on univariate or multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Intrapleural ICD zone or length does not affect the frequency of residual hemothorax. PMID:25400388

  3. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Results: Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties. PMID:25538349

  4. Adverse Respiratory Health and Hematological Alterations among Agricultural Workers Occupationally Exposed to Organophosphate Pesticides: A Cross-Sectional Study in North India

    PubMed Central

    Fareed, Mohd.; Pathak, Manoj Kumar; Bihari, Vipin; Kamal, Ritul; Srivastava, Anup Kumar; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. Objective This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. Materials and Methods A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. Results Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05) the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001) lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001) among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet count were

  5. A Study on Genetic Variants of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 (FGFR2) and the Risk of Breast Cancer from North India

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Sarah; Chattopadhyay, Shilpi; Akhtar, Md. Salman; Najm, Mohammad Zeeshan; Deo, S. V. S.; Shukla, N. K.; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    associated with a significantly increased risk compared to the common (ACA) haplotype (OR = 1.365, 95% CI = 1.086–1.717, P = 0.008). Our results suggest that intron 2 SNPs of FGFR2 may contribute to genetic susceptibility of breast cancer in North India population. PMID:25333473

  6. Petrological and geochemical studies of ultramafic-mafic rocks from the North Puruliya Shear Zone (eastern India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Aditi; Ray, Arijit

    2015-12-01

    Ultramafic and mafic rocks occur within a linear belt, trending nearly E-W along North Puruliya Shear Zone of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC). These rocks are classified as gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite, dolerite, diorite, olivine-websterite and lherzolite. Mafic rocks (Group 1) often occur in association with ultramafic variants (Group 2) and sometimes in isolation. A genetic link has been established between these mafic and ultramafic rocks using disposition of ultramafic and mafic rocks in the outcrop, systematic variation in modal mineralogy, co-linearity of plots in biaxial chemical variation diagram. Chemical composition of biotite and clinopyroxene reveal calc-alkaline nature and arc signature in these mafic-ultramafic rocks and whole rock geochemical characters indicate similarity with arc magma in subduction zone setting. The high values of Mg no. (47-81) and Al 2 O 3 (5.5-17.9) of mafic rocks indicate primitive, aluminous nature of the parental melt and presence of amphibole and biotite indicate its hydrous nature. The parent mafic melt evolved through fractionation of olivine, spinel, clinopyroxene and plagioclase. The crystal cumulates gave rise to the ultramafic rocks and the associated mafic rocks formed from residual melt. Crustal contamination played an important role in magmatic evolution as evident from variation in abundance of Rb in different lithomembers. Mafic-ultramafic rocks of the present study have been compared with intra-cratonic layered complexes, mafic-ultramafic rocks of high grade terrain, Alaskan type ultramafic-mafic complex and ophiolites. It is observed that the ultramafic-mafic rocks of present study have similarity with Alaskan type complex.

  7. Glacier changes in the Ravi basin, North-Western Himalaya (India) during the last four decades (1971-2010/13)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chand, Pritam; Sharma, Milap Chand

    2015-12-01

    A glacier inventory of the Ravi basin, north-western Himalaya has been generated for the year 2002 using Landsat ETM + and ASTER Global DEM (GDEM V2) as the baseline data for the change analysis. The Ravi basin consists of 285 glaciers (> 0.02 km2) covering an area of 164.5 ± 7.5 km2, including 71 debris-covered glaciers with an area of 36.1 ± 2.1 km2 (22% of total glacierized area) in 2002. Change analysis based on Corona KH-4B (1971), Worldview (2010) and Landsat 8 OLI/TRIS (2013) images was restricted to a subset of 157 glaciers (covering an area of 121.4 ± 5.4 km2 in 2002) due to cloud cover. Glacier area decreased from 125.8 ± 1.9 km2 (1971) to 119.9 ± 4.8 km2 (2010/13), a loss of 4.7 ± 4.1% or 0.1 ± 0.1% a- 1. The glacier recession rate has decreased, to a minimum for the recent decades (2002-2010/13). The debris-covered glacier area increased by 19.2 ± 2.2% (0.5 ± 0.05% a- 1) in the Ravi basin. However, there were significant variation in its sub-basins i.e. in Budhil and Upper Ravi sub-basin, where the debris-covered area increased by 28.6 ± 3.1% (0.7 ± 0.1% a- 1) and 14 ± 1.6% (0.3 ± 0.04% a- 1), respectively, between 1971 and 2010/13. Field investigation of selected glaciers (2010-2014) supports glacier recession trend from remote sensing data. Glacier retreat rates in the Ravi basin were lower than previously reported for selected glaciers in the similar basin and other basins (e.g. Chenab, Beas, Parbati, Baspa and Tirungkhad) of the Himachal Himalaya.

  8. Aerosol characterization over Sundarban mangrove forest at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Das, Sanat Kumar; Sarkar, Chirantan; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Singh, Soumendra; Roy, Arindam

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on chemical characterization of size segregated and cumulative aerosols during winter, 2015 and summer 2016 over a remote mangrove forest at Sundarban at the north-east coast of Bay of Bengal. Aerosols originated from the surf zone at the land-ocean boundary of Sundarban mangrove forest and aerosols advected from Kolkata and other metropolitan and urban cities at Indo-Gangetic Plain were characterized in terms of major water soluble inorganic species. Attempt was made to investigate the combined effect of locally generated sea-salt and advected anthropogenic aerosols could change the pristine marine character at this region during the above mentioned periods. Significant chloride depletion from sea-salt aerosols was observed in coarse and ultrafine mode compared to fine mode in winter whereas reverse trend was observed during summer. On an average the chloride to sodium ratio in PM10 aerosol was found to be around 0.6 which was much lower than that in sea-water. It was observed that non-sea-sulphate and nitrate aerosols were the major species depleting chloride from sea-salt aerosols. This supported the interaction between fresh marine and polluted anthropogenic aerosols. The average concentration of PM10 aerosols was 64 μg m-3 in winter and 89 μg m-3 in summer. Major water soluble ionic species were used for the source apportionment of aerosol during the two seasons. On an average it was observed that 60-70 % of total PM10 aerosols were constituted by the major water soluble ionic species. Emission flux and deposition flux of aerosols were also studied over this remote forest region. It was also observed that anthropogenic ionic species were mostly accumulated in the ultrafine and fine mode region both during winter and summer. On the other hand sea-salt species were mostly accumulated in the coarse mode region. Sulphate aerosol showed bimodal distribution with prominent peaks both at ultrafine/fine and coarse mode region

  9. India gears up to host aLIGO lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padma, T. V.

    2016-05-01

    India is on track to build an Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (aLIGO), with discussions under way to select a site from a shortlist of two options in western and north-western India.

  10. Kinematic analyses of orogen-parallel L-tectonites from Pelling-Munsiari thrust of Sikkim Himalayan fold thrust belt: Insights from multiple, incremental strain markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Jyoti Prasad; Bhattacharyya, Kathakali; Mookerjee, Matty; Ghosh, Pritam

    2016-09-01

    Fault rocks associated with the Pelling thrust (PT) in the Sikkim Himalayan fold thrust belt (FTB) change from SL tectonites to local, transport-parallel L-tectonites that are exposed in discontinuous klippen south of the PT zone. By estimating the incremental kinematic vorticity number (Wk) from quartz c-axes fabric, oblique fabric, and subgrains, we reconstruct a first-order, kinematic path of these L-tectonites. Quartz c-axes fabric suggests that the deformation initiated as pure-shear dominated (∼56-96%) that progressively became simple-shear dominated (∼29-54%), as recorded by the oblique fabric and subgrains in the L-tectonites. These rocks record a non-steady deformation where the kinematic vorticity varied spatially and temporally within the klippen. The L-tectonites record ∼30% greater pure-shear than the PT fault rocks outside the klippen, and the greatest pure-shear dominated flow among the published vorticity data from major fault rocks of the Himalayan FTB. The relative decrease in the transport-parallel simple-shear component within the klippen, and associated relative increase of transport-perpendicular, pure-shear component, support the presence of a sub-PT lateral ramp in the Sikkim Himalayan FTB. This study demonstrates the influence of structural architecture for fault systems for controlling spatial and temporal variations of deformation fabrics and kinematic path of deforming thrust wedges.

  11. Assessment of aerosol radiative forcing in the North-Eastern region of India using radiative transfer model and regional climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Binita; Bhuyan, Pradip

    Regional characterization of atmospheric aerosols is essential from the viewpoint of reducing the current uncertainties in the understanding of their climate implications at regional and global scale. The north-eastern part of India owing to its unique topography and geography located at sub Himalayan range and the middle of Indian Subcontinent and South-East Asian region as well as with scattered local hilly regions persevere complex aerosol environment. Collocated measurements of parameters corresponding to aerosol optical and physical properties i.e., spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) by a 10 channel Multi-Wavelength solar Radiometer (MWR), near surface aerosol mass concentration of composite aerosols by a Quartz Crystal Microbalance Impactor (QCM) and Black Carbon (BC) mass concentration by an Aethalometer have been used in the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model to estimate the optical properties of composite aerosols over Dibrugarh (27.3ºN, 94.6ºE, 111 m amsl) for the short wavelength range. The OPAC outputs are then used as inputs to the Rdiative Transfer model ‘Santa Barbara DISORT Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SBDART)’, developed by the University of California, Santa Barbara, to derive the shortwave aerosol radiative properties. The aerosol optical depth shows maximum value in pre-monsoon season and minimum in post-monsoon season. Columnar aerosols are bimodal in nature with dominant contribution from fine mode aerosols. Unlike columnar aerosols surface aerosol concentration including black carbon shows maximum value in winter and minimum in monsoon season. The aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) estimated for the period pre-monsoon 2008-winter 2013 shows maximum value in the pre-monsoon season at the surface as well as in the atmosphere corresponding to highest columnar aerosol loading. The surface forcing varies between -37 Wm-2 in Pre-monsoon 2009 and 2011 to -13 Wm-2 in Post-monsoon 2008 while forcing in the Atmosphere

  12. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may

  13. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may

  14. Heat and PAHs Emissions in Indoor Kitchen Air and Its Impact on Kidney Dysfunctions among Kitchen Workers in Lucknow, North India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarnath; Kamal, Ritul; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Gupta, Manoj Kumar; Satyanarayana, Gubbala Naga Venkata; Bihari, Vipin; Shukla, Nishi; Khan, Altaf Hussain; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair

    2016-01-01

    Indoor air quality and heat exposure have become an important occupational health and safety concern in several workplaces including kitchens of hotels. This study investigated the heat, particulate matter (PM), total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions in indoor air of commercial kitchen and its association with kidney dysfunctions among kitchen workers. A cross sectional study was conducted on 94 kitchen workers employed at commercial kitchen in Lucknow city, North India. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to collect the personal and occupational history of the kitchen workers. The urine analysis for specific gravity and microalbuminuria was conducted among the study subjects. Indoor air temperature, humidity, wet/ dry bulb temperature and humidex heat stress was monitored during cooking activities at the kitchen. Particulate matter (PM) for 1 and 2.5 microns were monitored in kitchen during working hours using Hazdust. PAHS in indoor air was analysed using UHPLC. Urinary hydroxy-PAHs in kitchen workers were measured using GC/MS-MS. Higher indoor air temperature, relative humidity, PM1 and PM2.5 (p<0.001) was observed in the kitchen due to cooking process. Indoor air PAHs identified are Napthalene, fluorine, acenaphthene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and indeno [1,2,3-cd) pyrene. Concentrations of all PAHs identified in kitchen were above the permissible OSHA norms for indoor air. Specific gravity of urine was significantly higher among the kitchen workers (p<0.001) as compared to the control group. Also, the prevalence of microalbuminuria was higher (p<0.001) among kitchen workers. Urinary PAH metabolites detected among kitchen workers were 1-NAP, 9-HF, 3-HF, 9-PHN and 1-OHP. Continuous heat exposure in kitchens due to cooking can alter kidney functions viz., high specific gravity of urine in kitchen workers. Exposure to PM, VOCs and PAHs in indoor air and presence of urinary PAHs metabolites may

  15. A possible link between North Atlantic cooling and dry events in the core SW monsoon region identified from Lonar Lake in central India: Indication of a connection between solar output and monsoon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, P.; Gaye, B.; Prasad, S.; Plessen, B.; Stebich, M.; Anoop, A.; Riedel, N.; Basavaiah, N.

    2013-12-01

    Former comparison of climate sensitive proxies from natural archives of the northern monsoon domain with proxy data from mid and high latitude archives have proven a correlation between the proxies of both regions. But still some ambiguities concerning the mechanisms that drive this correlation exist. During our investigation of a sediment core from Lonar Lake in central India, which covers the complete Holocene sedimentation history of the lake, we could identify several phases of centennial scale climate alteration on the basis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, mineralogy, and amino acid derived degradation proxies. These phases correlate with climate sensitive proxies from the North Atlantic region as well as with 14C nuclide production rate, which indicates changes in solar output. The results from this first continuous, high resolution record of Holocene climate history from central India indicate sensitivity of monsoon climate to solar forcing. Additionally, a connection between North Atlantic climate and the climate of a region that is not affected by the Westerlies or shifts of the summer ITCZ to a position south of the investigation site could be identified.

  16. Gut bacterial diversity of the tribes of India and comparison with the worldwide data

    PubMed Central

    Dehingia, Madhusmita; Thangjam devi, Kanchal; Talukdar, Narayan C.; Talukdar, Rupjyoti; Reddy, Nageshwar; Mande, Sharmila S.; Deka, Manab; Khan, Mojibur R.

    2015-01-01

    The gut bacteria exert phenotypic traits to the host but the factors which determine the gut bacterial profile (GBP) is poorly understood. This study aimed to understand the effect of ethnicity and geography on GBP of Mongoloid and Proto-Australoid tribes of India. Fecal bacterial diversity was studied in fifteen tribal populations representing four geographic regions (Assam, Telangana, Manipur and Sikkim) by DGGE followed by NGS analysis on Illumina MiSeq platform. Geography and diet had significant effect on GBP of the Indian tribes which was dominated by Prevotella. The effects were more prominent with lower taxonomic levels, indicating probable functional redundancy of the core GBP. A comparison with the worldwide data revealed that GBP of the Indian population was similar to the Mongolian population (Mongolia). The bacterial genera Faecalibacterium, Eubacterium, Clostridium, Blautia, Ruminococcus and Roseburia were found to be core genera in the representative populations of the world. PMID:26689136

  17. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  18. Vitamin A supplementation every 6 months with retinol in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Clark, Sarah; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India, vitamin A deficiency (retinol <0·70 μmol/L) is common in pre-school children and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We aimed to assess whether periodic vitamin A supplementation could reduce this mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised trial were pre-school children in the defined catchment areas of 8338 state-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks (clusters) were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford, UK, between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of retinol effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial vitamin A to sample blood (for retinol assay, technically reliable only after mid-study), examine eyes, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at ages 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly retinol supplements was 86%. Among 2581 versus 2584 children surveyed during the second half of the study, mean plasma retinol was one-sixth higher (0·72 [SE 0·01] vs 0·62 [0·01] μmol/L, increase 0·10 [SE 0·01] μmol/L) and the prevalence of severe deficiency was halved (retinol <0·35 μmol/L 6% vs 13%, decrease 7% [SE 1%]), as was that of Bitot's spots (1·4% vs 3·5%, decrease 2·1% [SE 0·7%]). Comparing the 36 retinol-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths per child

  19. Seismotectonic domains of northeastern India and adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, D. R.; Dasgupta, Sujit

    Eastern Himalaya, Meghalaya plateau, upper Assam valley, northern part of the Indo-Burmese arc and the Mishmi block constitute major tectonostratigraphic domains in northeastern India. Many lineaments of faults, both parallel and oblique to the Himalayan trend, are already known. Interpretation of satellite images combined with surface geological studies suggest that many such oblique lineaments transgress the boundary of individual tectonic domains and some continue from the Tethyan Himalaya to the foredeep or cut across both Himalayan and Burmese arcs. The entire area is highly seismic; seismicity pattern, focal mechanism solutions, geological set up and fault/lineament fabric when studied together clearly defines several seismotectonic domains. In east Nepal-Sikkim, the northward push of India is accommodated through conjugate shear failure wherein seismic strike-slip movement occurs mostly along NE faults. Further east NW/WNW Kopili-Bomdila faults are associated with many large earthquakes and lateral motion along them allows a bulk southeastward movement of this segment of Himalaya towards the Burmese arc. The Mishmi block, structurally oblique to both the Himalayan and Burmese arcs, also indicates a net southeast tectonic transportation. The upper Assam valley is aseismic and arguably does not represent an area of seismic gap. Seismicity in both Meghalaya plateau and Sylhet plains is unrelated to movements along the Dauki fault.

  20. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene.

  1. The prevalence and distribution of gastrointestinal parasites of stray and refuge dogs in four locations in India.

    PubMed

    Traub, Rebecca J; Pednekar, Riddhi P; Cuttell, Leigh; Porter, Ronald B; Abd Megat Rani, Puteri Azaziah; Gatne, Mukulesh L

    2014-09-15

    A gastrointestinal parasite survey of 411 stray and refuge dogs sampled from four geographical and climactically distinct locations in India revealed these animals to represent a significant source of environmental contamination for parasites that pose a zoonotic risk to the public. Hookworms were the most commonly identified parasite in dogs in Sikkim (71.3%), Mumbai (48.8%) and Delhi (39.1%). In Ladakh, which experiences harsh extremes in climate, a competitive advantage was observed for parasites such as Sarcocystis spp. (44.2%), Taenia hydatigena (30.3%) and Echinococcus granulosus (2.3%) that utilise intermediate hosts for the completion of their life cycle. PCR identified Ancylostoma ceylanicum and Ancylostoma caninum to occur sympatrically, either as single or mixed infections in Sikkim (Northeast) and Mumbai (West). In Delhi, A. caninum was the only species identified in dogs, probably owing to its ability to evade unfavourable climatic conditions by undergoing arrested development in host tissue. The expansion of the known distribution of A. ceylanicum to the west, as far as Mumbai, justifies the renewed interest in this emerging zoonosis and advocates for its surveillance in future human parasite surveys. Of interest was the absence of Trichuris vulpis in dogs, in support of previous canine surveys in India. This study advocates the continuation of birth control programmes in stray dogs that will undoubtedly have spill-over effects on reducing the levels of environmental contamination with parasite stages. In particular, owners of pet animals exposed to these environments must be extra vigilant in ensuring their animals are regularly dewormed and maintaining strict standards of household and personal hygiene. PMID:25139393

  2. Paleomagnetic investigation of the Early Permian Panjal Traps of NW India; regional tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovic, Denis; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Ali, Jason R.; Ahmad, Talat; Dar, Reyaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The ∼289 Ma Panjal Traps of NW India (Kashmir) are part of a series of rift-related mafic suites (Abor, Sikkim etc.) that were erupted onto northern India (present-day coordinates) around the same time as separation of the Cimmerian blocks of Qiangtang and Sibumasu. We report new data from only the second paleomagnetic investigation of this unit. Standard alternating field and thermal demagnetization methods were used to isolate characteristic magnetizations from seven outcrops at three locations within the Kashmir Valley, NW India. Analysis of four sections (14 individual cooling units) from close to Srinagar, that together form a tectonically coherent sequence spanning ∼3 km of stratigraphy, yield a single-component, primary magnetization with a mean direction of Dec: 134.8°, Inc: 55.3° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 21.0). An inclination-only mean of 52.5° (α95 = 8.9°, k = 47.2) gives a paleolatitude of ∼33°S (±5°). A paleopole of 110.5°E 8.4°S (A95 = 10.7) is also calculated. Assuming the magnetization records a portion of the reverse polarity Kiaman Superchron, the new result indicates extrusion of the Panjal Traps basalts at mid-latitudes in the southern hemisphere. By inference this constrains the location of central Gondwana, and informs debates related to Cimmeria's detachment from Gondwana.

  3. Drinking habits in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Ottilingam; Raghavan, D. Vijaya; Murthy, A. G. Tejus

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of one or other form of intoxicating substances has been present throughout the history of the world. This article traces such use in the Indian subcontinent, both in North and South India. References to the use of intoxicants are to be found in the Vedas, the Great Epics, and the ancient Tamil literature. PMID:26985113

  4. Arsenic groundwater contamination and sufferings of people in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Mandal, Badal Kumar; Chowdhury, Tarit Roy; Sengupta, Mrinal Kumar; Chowdhury, Uttam Kumar; Lodh, Dilip; Chanda, Chitta Ranjan; Basu, Gautam Kumar; Mukherjee, Subhash Chandra; Saha, Kshitish Chandra; Chakraborti, Dipankar

    2003-01-01

    To understand the magnitude of the arsenic calamity in West Bengal, a detailed study spanning 7 years was made in North 24-Parganas, one of the nine arsenic affected districts. Area and population of North 24-Parganas district are 4093.82 sq. km and 7.3 million, respectively. Fourty eight thousand and thirty water samples were analyzed from hand tubewells of North 24-Parganas in use for drinking, cooking and 29.2% of the tubewells were found to have arsenic above 50 microg/L, the maximum permissible limit of World Health Organization (WHO) and 52.8% have arsenic above 10 microg/L, WHO recommended value of arsenic in drinking water. Out of the 22 blocks of North 24-Parganas, in 20 blocks arsenic has been found above the maximum permissible limit and so far in 16 blocks people have been identified as suffering from arsenical skin lesions. From the generated data, it is estimated that about 2.0 million and 1.0 million people are drinking arsenic contaminated water above 10 microg/L and 50 microg/L level, respectively in North 24-Parganas alone. So far, in our preliminary study 33,000 people have been examined at random from arsenic affected villages in North 24-Parganas and 2274 people have been registered with arsenical skin lesions. Extrapolation of the available data indicates about 0.1 million people may be suffering from arsenical skin lesions from North 24-Parganas alone. A sum of 21,000 hair, nail, and urine samples analyses from arsenic affected villages show 56%, 80%, and 87% people have arsenic in biological specimen more than normal/toxic (hair) level, respectively. Thus, many may be subclinically affected. Due to use of arsenic contaminated groundwater for agricultural irrigation, rice and vegetable are getting arsenic contaminated. Hence there is an additional arsenic burden from food chain. People from arsenic affected villages are also suffering from arsenical neuropathy. A followup study indicates that many of the victims suffering from severe

  5. Compliance of mothers following recommendations to breastfeed or withhold breast milk during rotavirus vaccination in North India: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neutralizing antibodies in breast milk may adversely influence the immune response to live oral vaccines. Withholding breastfeeding around the time of vaccine administration has been suggested for improving vaccine performance. However, we do not know whether mothers find withholding breastfeeding around the time of vaccination acceptable and how they perceive this recommendation. Methods In a clinical study designed to examine predictors of poor immune response to rotavirus vaccine in infants in India, Rotarix® was administered to infants at 6 and 10 weeks with other childhood vaccines. For the study, 400 mother–infant pairs were randomized into two groups in a 1:1 ratio. Mothers were either recommended to withhold breastfeeding or were encouraged to breastfeed half an hour before and after administration of Rotarix®. The mother–infant pairs were observed and the breastfeeding intervals were recorded during this period. Mothers were administered a questionnaire about their perception of the intervention after the infants received the second dose of Rotarix®. Results Almost 98% (391/400) of the infants received both doses of Rotarix®. Adherence to the recommendations was high in both groups. All mothers in the group who were asked to withhold breastfeeding did so, except one who breastfed her infant before the recommended time after the first dose of Rotarix®. Of the mothers, 4% (7/195) reported that the recommendation to withhold breastfeeding was difficult to follow. All mothers in this group reported that they would withhold breastfeeding at the time of vaccination if they were asked to by a health-care provider. Only one mother responded that withholding breastfeeding would be a reason for not giving rotavirus vaccine to her infant. Conclusions Withholding breastfeeding half an hour before and after vaccination appears to be acceptable to mothers in this setting. If withholding breastfeeding produces an improvement in the performance of the

  6. Dietary beliefs and eating patterns influence metabolic health in type 2 diabetes: A clinic-based study in urban North India

    PubMed Central

    Colles, Susan L.; Singh, Shweta; Kohli, Chhavi; Mithal, Ambrish

    2013-01-01

    Background: Almost 15% of India's urban adult populace now lives with type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to characterize the eating patterns, knowledge, beliefs, and determinants of food choice, and assess associations with the metabolic health among urban Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 258 individuals (mean age 55.7 ± 10 years; body mass index 27.1 ± 4.8 kg/m2; diabetes duration 10.1 ± 6.5 years) attending two out-patient clinics in New Delhi, India. Food-related information was collected during a semi-structured interview. Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical data were recorded. Results: Beliefs related to health and diabetes played a role determining food choice and dietary patterns; erroneous views were associated with the poor food choices and greater metabolic perturbations. Average consumption of fruits/vegetables was low. Intakes were positively associated with intentions to manage diabetes; inversely associated with the waist circumference and negatively correlated with one's degree of personal responsibility for food choice. Household saturated fat usage was common. High fat intakes were positively associated with the taste preference, ratings of perceived “health-value;” waist circumference, glycosylated haemoglobin percentage (HbA1c%) and lipids. Conclusions: Strategies to enhance diabetes control among Asian Indians are required and should encourage fruit/vegetable intake, personal accountability, and consider individual beliefs and preferences. Greater emphasis and resources directed to regular dietary and behavioral counseling may assist. PMID:24381886

  7. Monitoring of groundwater chemistry in terms of physical and chemical parameters of Gajraula, a semi-urbanized town of North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bineet; Jain, Vikas; Mohan, Anuraag

    Groundwater happens to be a major source of drinking water for urban and rural India. With rapid growth in industrial sector, the shallow groundwater regime has become more vulnerable to industrial contamination and human activity. In this study, the drinking water quality of Gajraula and its suburbs, a semi-urbanized town of northern India, was assessed. The water samples from pre-identified 14 wells with different depths were analyzed for 2 years, i.e. 2008 and 2009. The samples were taken thrice a year in May (summers), August (monsoon) and December (winters). The compiled results were compared with recommended values of World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) for drinking water. The analysis showed that concentration levels of TDS, BOD, NO3- and Ca2+ exceeded the desirable limits of WHO and BIS in certain wells. The levels of trace metals Fe and Pb exceeded the limits in almost all the wells, while pH, Cl-, SO42-, Mg2+, Zn, Cr and Ni were well within the limits. The contamination levels in most cases were higher during summers as compared to monsoon and winters, which may be due to high build-up of dissolved solids. The quality of water from shallow hand pumps in vicinity to industries were unsuitable for human consumption as compared to public deep bore wells. Agro-chemicals, irrigation by effluent discharge and wastewater from commercial cum residential area were the main sources of groundwater pollution. A study based on long-term surveillance of water systems, incorporating individual exposure assessment of users of private wells, should be considered for a lasting solution.

  8. Copy number polymorphism of glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 & GSTT1) in susceptibility to lung cancer in a high-risk population from north-east India

    PubMed Central

    Ihsan, Rakhshan; Chauhan, Pradeep Singh; Mishra, Ashwani Kumar; Singh, L.C.; Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Zomawia, Eric; Verma, Yogesh; Kapur, Sujala; Saxena, Sunita

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Genetic polymorphisms in glutathione-S-transferase genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1) have been studied intensively for their potential role in lung cancer susceptibility. However, most of the studies on association between the polymorphisms and lung cancer do not distinguish between genotypes with one or two copies of the genes. The present study investigates the gene dosage effects of GSTT1 and GSTM1 copy number and their environmental interactions to examine the association of lung cancer risk with trimodular genotypes of the GSTs in a high-risk population from north-east India. Methods: A total of 154 lung cancer cases and 154 age and sex matched controls from the high risk region of north-east India were analyzed by multiplex real-time PCR to determine the trimodal genotypes (+/+, +/- and -/-) in both the genes (GSTM1 and GSTT1). Results: No significant association and gene dosage effect of GSTM1 gene copy number with lung cancer risk (Ptrend=0.13) were found. However, absence of GSTT1 conferred 68 per cent (OR=0.32;95%CI=0.15-0.71; P=0.005) reduced risk compared to the two copy number of the gene. There was evidence of gene dosage effect of GSTT1 gene (Ptrend=0.006). Tobacco smoking was a major environmental risk factor to lung cancer (OR=3.03;95%CI=1.73-5.31; P<0.001). However, its interaction with null genotype of GSTT1 conferred significant reduced risk to lung cancer (OR=0.30;95%CI=0.10-0.91; P=0.03). Further in only tobacco smokers, null genotype was associated with increased reduced risk [0.03(0.001-0.78)0.03; Ptrend=0.006]. No effect modification of GSTM1 was observed with lung cancer risk by environmental risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that absence of GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a reduced risk of lung cancer and the effect remains unchanged after interaction with smoking. PMID:25027082

  9. Causative source of Mw 6.9 Sikkim-Nepal border earthquake of September 2011: GPS baseline observations and strain analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Rashmi; Prajapati, Sanjay K.; Chopra, Sumer; Kumar, Ashok; Bansal, B. K.; Reddy, C. D.

    2013-07-01

    The recent earthquake of Mw 6.9 which occurred on September 18, 2011 in Sikkim-Nepal border region (epicenter 27.72°N, 88.06°E, depth 20.7 km, ˜68 km NW of the Capital city Gangtok) is the strongest earthquake in the instrumentally recorded history of the region. The fault plane solution of this earthquake indicates a strike-slip motion. However, the seismological and geological studies carried out so far after the earthquake could not confirm the causative fault plane. In the present study, GPS observations are used to ascertain causative source in the generation of earthquake and its correlation with the observed seismic data of the region. The co-seismic displacements recorded by GPS show maximum displacement of ˜11 mm at Phodong and ˜9 mm at Taplejung station, near the epicenter. A simple rigid cross fault model using GPS baseline observations was employed to figure out the causative fault plane and seismological characteristic of the region. It is inferred that the movement represents the kinematic adjustment of the subsidiary faults as a result of the displacement along the NW-SE principal plane. Strain analysis using GPS baseline inferred that the region southeast of epicenter has undergone large deformation. In addition, a significant part of the measured deformation across the surface fault zone for this earthquake can be attributed to post-seismic creep.

  10. Assessment of traditional knowledge of the antidiabetic plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas in the context of recent phytochemical and pharmacological advances.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rakhi; Roy, Swarnendu; Mandal, Vivekananda

    2016-09-01

    Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the efficacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientific evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out locally or elsewhere. PMID:27641606

  11. Assessment of traditional knowledge of the antidiabetic plants of Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas in the context of recent phytochemical and pharmacological advances.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Rakhi; Roy, Swarnendu; Mandal, Vivekananda

    2016-09-01

    Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas, a part of Eastern Himalayan Hotspot, is characterized by its richness of plant diversity. Herbal medicine has been one of the most popular and reliable healing practices among the different ethnic groups of this region for ages. However, the lack of documentation practice by the traditional healers has led to obscurity regarding the efficacy of herbal medicine among the present generation, though they have to depend on the same quite often. Meanwhile, several reviews have attempted to document the plants used for the treatment of diabetes from this region, but interestingly, very few research works can be obtained regarding the characterization of antidiabetic properties of the plants of this region. Therefore, it demands a better understanding of the potentiality of these plants in the purview of scientific evidence. This review article reports 55 such plant species which have been reported to be frequently used in the treatment of hyperglycemia and our objective was to validate the potentiality of the plants in the light of recent phytochemical and pharmacological researches being carried out locally or elsewhere.

  12. The paleoposition of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Hotton, Nicholas

    In most of the plate tectonic models of paleocontinental assembly, the supercontinent Pangea has been disassociated into independent Laurasia and Gondwana, separated by a vast oceanic Tethys. The position of India remains problematical, but geological and geophysical data support a Pangea reconstruction. Traditionally India has always been regarded as a part of Gondwana as it shares two unique geologic features with other southern continents. These are the Upper Paleozoic glacial strata and the Glossopteris flora. However, neither line of evidence definitely proves continuity of land; together they indicate zonation of cold climates. The recent discovery of Upper Paleozoic glacial strata in the U.S.S.R., southern Tibet, Saudi Arabia, Oman, China, Malaya, Thailand, and Burma demonstrates that the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation was far more extensive beyond the Gondwana limit than is usually thought. Similarly the Glossopteris flora has been found farther north of the Indian Peninsula, in the Himalaya, Kashmir and Tibet. Moreover the floral similarities are explained easily by wind and insect dispersal. On the other hand, the distribution of large terrestrial tetrapods is strongly influenced by the distribution of continents. To terrestrial tetrapods, sea constitutes a barrier. In consequence, they are more reliable indicators of past land connections than are plants, invertebrates and fishes. The postulated separation of India from Antarctica, its northward journey, and its subsequent union with Asia, as suggested by the plate tectonic models, require that during some part of the Mesozoic or Early Tertiary India must have been an island continent. The lack of endemism in the Indian terrestrial tetrapods during this period is clearly inconsistent with the island continent hypothesis. On the contrary, Indian Mesozoic and Tertiary vertebrates show closest similarities to those of Laurasia, indicating that India was never far from Asia. The correlation of faunal

  13. Formation of Se (0) Nanoparticles by Duganella sp. andAgrobacterium sp. isolated from Se-laden soil of North-East Punjab, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, but is toxic at high concentrations. Depending upon the geological background, the land use or on anthropogenic pollution, different amounts of Se may be present in soil. Its toxicity is related to the oxyanions selenate and selenite as they are water soluble and bioavailable. Microorganisms play an important role in Se transformations in soil and its cycling in the environment by transforming water-soluble oxyanions into water insoluble, non-toxic elemental Se (0). For this study, soil samples were collected from selenium-contaminated agricultural soils of Punjab/India to enrich and isolate microbes that interacted with the Se cycle. Results A mixed microbial culture enriched from the arable soil of Punjab could reduce 230 mg/l of water soluble selenite to spherical Se (0) nanoparticles during aerobic growth as confirmed by SEM-EDX. Four pure cultures (C 1, C 4, C 6, C 7) of Gram negative, oxidase and catalase positive, aerobic bacteria were isolated from this mixed microbial consortium and identified by 16 S rDNA gene sequence alignment as two strains of Duganella sp. (C 1, C 4) and two strains of Agrobacterium sp.(C 6, C 7). SEM/TEM-EDX analyses of the culture broth of the four strains revealed excretion of uniformly round sharply contoured Se (0) nanoparticles by all cultures. Their size ranged from 140–200 nm in cultures of strains C 1 and C 4, and from 185–190 nm in cultures of strains C 6 and C 7. Both Duganella sp. revealed better selenite reduction efficiencies than the two Agrobacterium sp. Conclusions This is the first study reporting the capability of newly isolated, aerobically growing Duganella sp. and Agrobacterium sp. from soils of Punjab/India to form spherical, regularly formed Se (0) nanoparticles from water soluble selenite. Among others, the four strains may significantly contribute to the biogeochemical cycling of Se in soil. Bioconversion of toxic selenite to non-toxic Se (0

  14. A study on characterization of new bacteriocin produced from a novel strain of Lactobacillus spicheri G2 isolated from Gundruk- a fermented vegetable product of North East India: A novel bacteriocin production from Lactobacillus spicheri G2.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2015-09-01

    Bacteriocin producing Lactobacillus spicheri G2, isolated from Gundruk - a traditional fermented vegetable product of North East India. L. spicheri G2 identified by morphological, biochemical techniques followed by 16S rRNA gene technique. The 16Sr RNA sequence of bacteriocin producer is registered in NCBI under accession no. JX481912. The bacteriocin producing potential of L. spicheri is being reported for the first time in the present investigation. Bacteriocin of L. spicheri G2 showed strong antagonism against food spoiling and pathogenic bacteria viz. Listeria monocytogenes, Staphlococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Bacillus cereus. Bacteriocin production of L. spicheri G2 was enhanced by optimization of production time, pH of medium and incubation temperature by following one variable at a time method. Maximum bacteriocin activity (2000 AU/ml) was recorded in MRS broth at 34 h with an initial pH of 4.0 after incubating at 35 °C. The bacteriocin was purified by single step gel exclusion chromatography. Molecular weight of this novel bacteriocin was determined by SDS PAGE which was found to be 43 kDa. Purified bacteriocin was found resistant to high temperature and varied pH range but sensitive to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin and proteinase k, the characters desirable for food preservation.

  15. Assessment of the potential for soil acidification in North India using the critical load approach and locally derived data for acidic and basic inputs.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Gur Sumiran; Lawrence, A J; Lakhani, A; Taneja, Ajay

    2003-12-01

    Major ions (Cl-, NO3(-), SO4(2-), Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and NH4(+)) were analysed in wet and dry deposition samples collected for 2 years using a polyethylene bottle and funnel collector at Agra in India. The deposition of ionic components (Ca2+ and Mg2+) derived from natural sources i.e. soil were higher than those of anthropogenic origin. In rainwater samples, non-sea-salt fraction was found to be 60-90%. In both wet and dry deposition Ca2+ was found to be the dominant ion which may be due to its large particle diameter. Results suggest that most of the acidity, which occurs due to NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl- is neutralized by alkaline constituents, which originate from airborne local soil and dust transported from the Thar desert. Acid neutralizing capacity of soil has also been quantified and found to be 33 x 10(3) neqg(-1). Using deposition data, the critical load for acidity of soil with respect to Ashoka and Eucalyptus was evaluated. The present level of deposition of S and N was found to be much lower than critical loads calculated for S and N. Critical load of exceedance in terms of deposition acidity was also calculated and found to be negative. This indicates that with respect to these species, the ecosystem is protected at the current level of deposition.

  16. A study of HIV-concordant and -discordant couples attending voluntary counselling and testing services at a tertiary care center in North India.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Bhanu; Bhalla, Preena; Rawat, Deepti; Kishore, Jugal

    2015-01-01

    A large number of Indian couples are exposed to the risk of heterosexual human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. The present records-based study was undertaken at the voluntary counselling and testing facility of a tertiary care hospital in New Delhi, India to determine HIV prevalence among Indian couples; to assess the magnitude of seroconcordance and discordance among HIV-affected couples; and to compare the concordant and discordant partnerships for sociodemographic determinants and cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts. Of the 1309 couples included in the study, 249 (19%) were HIV-affected, and of them 113 (45.4%) were concordantly and 136 (54.6%) discordantly affected by HIV. Males were the HIV-infected partners in 72% of the serodiscordant partnerships analyzed. Seroconcordance was significantly associated with the occupation status of being a housewife (P = 0.009). The contribution of discordant partnerships to the burden of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is significant, warranting novel couple-targeted counselling strategies and preventive measures, including safe sexual behavior and possibly preexposure HIV prophylaxis of the uninfected partner.

  17. Impact assessment of on-site sanitation system on groundwater quality in alluvial settings: A case study from Lucknow city in North India.

    PubMed

    Jangam, Chandrakant; Ramya Sanam, S; Chaturvedi, M K; Padmakar, C; Pujari, Paras R; Labhasetwar, Pawan K

    2015-10-01

    The present case study has been undertaken to investigate the impact of on-site sanitation on groundwater quality in alluvial settings in Lucknow City in India. The groundwater samples have been collected in the areas of Lucknow City where the on-site sanitation systems have been implemented. The groundwater samples have been analyzed for the major physicochemical parameters and fecal coliform. The results of analysis reveal that none of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) limits for all the parameters. Fecal coliform was not found in majority of the samples including those samples which were very close to the septic tank. The study area has a thick alluvium cover as a top layer which acts as a natural barrier for groundwater contamination from the on-site sanitation system. The t test has been performed to assess the seasonal effect on groundwater quality. The statistical t test implies that there is a significant effect of season on groundwater quality in the study area.

  18. India: Gujarat

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... title:  Dewatering Effects from the Gujarat Earthquake     View Larger Image ... India's Republic Day is normally celebrated, a devastating earthquake hit the state of Gujarat. About 20,000 people died and millions were ...

  19. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  20. Demographic profile, host, disease & viral predictive factors of response in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Vasudevan, Sreejith; Shalimar; Kavimandan, Amit; Kalra, Nancy; Nayak, Baibaswata; Thakur, Bhaskar; Das, Prasenjit; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Panda, Subrat Kumar; Acharya, Subrat Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Standard of care for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in India is peginterferon and ribavirin (RBV). The response to treatment in real life stetting is unclear. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the demographic profile and assess the virological response and predictors of response in CHC patients. Methods: Consecutive patients with CHC were included in this study. Detailed clinical history, risk factors, and predictive factors of response were noted. Patients were treated with peginterferon α2b (1.5 µg/kg/wk) and RBV (12 mg/kg/day) for 6 to 18 months based on response. Results: A total of 211 patients were included in the analysis, mean age 40.6±12.3 yr, 144 (68%) were males and 71 (34%) had compensated cirrhosis. Commonest risk factor for acquiring CHC was previous transfusion and surgery (51%). Genotype 3 (72%) was most common followed by genotype 1 (23%). Overall sustained virologic response (SVR) was 64 per cent [95% CI 57.1%-70.4%]. The SVR was 66.5 per cent [95% CI 58.34-73.89%] for genotype 3 and 61.2 per cent [95% CI 46.23 to 74.80%] for genotype 1. Non-cirrhotics had better SVR rates compared to cirrhotics (76 vs 41%, P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, BMI ≥23 kg/m2, HOMA-IR ≥2, compliance (≤80%), and fibrosis >2 were predictors of low SVR. Interpretation & conclusions: Genotype 3 was the commonest HCV genotype. The commonest source of infection was previous transfusion and surgery. SVR rates for genotypes 3 were better than genotype 1 patients. Predictors of non-response were high BMI, insulin resistance, significant fibrosis and inadequate compliance. PMID:27241647

  1. An epidemiological study on the predictors of health status of food handlers in food establishments of teaching hospitals of North India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun; Katyal, Rashmi; Chaudhary, Varsha; Narula, Kusum; Upadhayay, Deepak; Singh, Shailendra Pratap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USDHHS-CDC 1996) revealed that the outbreaks of food borne diseases include inadequate cooking, heating, or re-heating of foods consumption of food from unsafe sources, cooling food inappropriately and allowing too much of a time lapse. As we all know that the food handlers have been working in various types of community kitchen and their health status can affect the status of food hygiene which can lead to contamination of foods attributing to acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning in various subgroups of the population e.g., medical/dental/nursing students. The background characteristics of these food handlers may have important role to affect health status of these handlers. Methods: The indexed study was carried out among the food handlers working in the food establishments the 5 teaching hospitals of Bareilly city in U.P. India during one year i.e., from August 2013 to July 2014. The survey method using schedule was conducted to get information about the background characteristics and food handlers and each food handler was examined clinically for assessing health status. Chi-Square test was used as test of significance and regression analysis was also done to nullifying the effect of confounders. Results: The health status of the mess workers was found to be significantly associated with use of gloves, hand washing after toilet and hand washing before cooking and serving food. Conclusion: The rationale of this study was that though many studies have been carried out to show the health status of the food handlers and their background characteristics, no study has highlighted the association of these background characteristics and personal hygiene practices with the health status of food handlers. PMID:26957813

  2. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  3. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India).

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Jharna; Ghosh, Sampat; Meyer-Rochow, Victor Benno

    2011-01-14

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses.

  4. Practices of entomophagy and entomotherapy by members of the Nyishi and Galo tribes, two ethnic groups of the state of Arunachal Pradesh (North-East India)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We prepared a consolidated list of edible and therapeutic insects used in Arunachal Pradesh (N.E. India) by two tribal societies (i.e., the Nyishi of East Kameng and the Galo of West Siang). The list is based on thorough, semi-structured field-interviews with 20 informants of each tribal group. At least 81 species of local insects, belonging to 26 families and five orders of insects, namely Coleoptera (24 species), Orthoptera (17 species), Hemiptera (16 species), Hymenoptera (15 species) and Odonata (9 species), are being used as food among members of these two indigenous societies. However, Nyishi use overall more species of insects as food than Galo people do and consume mostly Coleoptera and Hemiptera; amongst the Galo, on the other hand, Odonata and Orthoptera dominate. The selection of the food insects amongst the Nyishi and Galo is dictated by traditional tribal beliefs as well as the taste and availability of the insects. Depending on the species, only particular or all developmental stages are consumed. Some food insects may be included in the local diet throughout the year, others only when seasonally available. Commonly specimens are being prepared for consumption by roasting, frying or boiling. Twelve species of insects are deemed therapeutically valuable by the locals and are being used by the tribes investigated to treat a variety of disorders in humans and domestic animals. Members of the Galo use a greater number of insect species for remedial purposes than the Nyishi. With the degradation of natural resources, rapid population growth, and increasing influence of 'westernization', the traditional wisdom of entomophagy and entomotherapy is at risk of being lost. There is thus an urgent need to record the role insects play as components of local diets and folk remedies and to assess insect biodiversity in the light of these uses. PMID:21235790

  5. Prevalence study of oral mucosal lesions, mucosal variants, and treatment required for patients reporting to a dental school in North India: In accordance with WHO guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Puneet; Rai, Shalu; Bhatnagar, Gunjan; Kaur, Mandeep; Goel, Sumit; Prabhat, Mukul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions (OML) in adult patients reporting to the dental outpatient department at the Institute of Dental Studies and Technologies, Modinagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. The purpose was to determine the priorities in oral health education, preventive measures, and identify the group in urgent need of treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months in 2010, when 8866 subjects were offered structured interviews and standardized extraoral and intraoral examinations according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Result: Overall prevalence of OML was 1736 (16.8%), the most prevalent being smoker's palate (10.44%) followed by leukoplakia (2.83%), oral submucous fibrosis (1.97%), oral candidiasis (1.61%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (1.53%), oral lichen planus (0.8%) and others (0.78%). The highest prevalence of the tobacco habit in both forms was recorded in the group aged 40–44 yearsand those aged between 60 and 64 years who wore dentures. Lesions were most prevalent in those aged 40–44 years with a significant predominance of males at 3:1 (M = 12.6% and F = 4.3%). Patients who consumed tobacco in any form or wore dentures had a significantly higher prevalence of OML (P < 0.001). The highest number of lesions were on the palate (59.7%) followed by buccal mucosa (19.9%). Various normal mucosal variants were recorded. Fordyce's granules (0.13%), fissured tongue (3.3%), leukoedema (1.47%), and lingual varices (2.73%) were also recorded. The tongue showed the highest number of variants (64.4%). Patients were grouped according to the treatment needed under the WHO criteria. One hundred and ninety-seven patients were given oral hygiene instructions only, whereas 1422 patients were advised on change of habit and a follow-up and 674 patients needed definitive treatment. Conclusion: This study thus highlights diagnostic criteria, multifactorial risk factors to

  6. AB152. Inborn errors of metabolism spectrum in symptomatic children of north India: 5-year prospective data from tertiary care centre

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Somesh; Lomash, Avinash; Varughese, Bijo; Bidhan, Sourabh; Khalil, Sumaira; Polipalli, Sunil K.; Kapoor, Seema

    2015-01-01

    Background Children with high suspicion of IEM is a more effective screening strategy in a resource limited country like India. We present a prospective analysis of symptomatic children with red flag signs suggestive of IEM referred for analysis by LCMSMS. This study investigated the spectrum of IEM in symptomatic children over a period of 5 years (1st June 2010 to May 31st 2015). Methods A total of 3,250 symptomatic children for IEM were screened. Dried blood spots were collected and processed by MS/MS (API-2000 & 3200 Qtrap), using a non derivatized kit, analysed by R-4 Stork algorithm. Results A total of 3,250 children, 1,803 boys (56.34%), 1,397 girls (43.66%) with a median age of 20.8 months (range, 0.04-148.2 months) were screened. The 125 were diagnosed with an inborn error of metabolism, with a detection rate of 3.90%. Of these, 78 (62.40%) were males and 47 (38.60%) were females with a median age of 6.55 months. Clinical variation among the patients were unexplained encephalopathy, seizures, convulsions, delayed milestones with global developmental delay, persistent metabolic acidosis with increase anion GAP. The commonest group was amino acid disorders affecting 61 (48.8%) with phenylketonuria (n=5), hyperphenylalaninemia (n=4), maple syrup urine disease (n=8), hypermethioninemia (n=3), hyperglycemia (n=14), tyrosinemia (n=5), classic neonatal onset citrullinemia (n=4), 3 with hyperornithinemia, 10 with rasied alanine (as a secondary indicator), 3 with argininemia and 2 with remethylation defect. Organic acidemias 37 (29.60%) were methylmalonic academia (n=15), malonic aciduria (n=3), propionic aciduria (n=5), glutaric academia type I (n=5) and with 3-Methyl crotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (n=9). Fatty acids disorders were seen in 27 (21.60%) children with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency being the commonest (n=5), and very-long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (n=2), carnitine palmitoyl-transferase Ia deficiency (n=12), carnitine

  7. The collision of India with Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, L. T.; Lister, G. S.

    2012-05-01

    We review the relative motion of India and Asia for the last 100 million years and present a revised reconstruction for the India-Antarctica-Africa-North America-Eurasia plate circuit based on published motion histories. Deformation of these continental masses during this time introduces uncertainties, as does error in oceanic isochron age and location. Neglecting these factors, the data ipso facto allow the inference that the motion of India relative to Eurasia was distinctly episodic. Although motion is likely to have varied more smoothly than these results would allow, the geological record also suggests a sequence of distinct episodes, at about the same times. Hence we suggest that no single event should be regarded as the collision of India with Asia. The deceleration of the Indian plate commencing at ˜65 Ma is matched by an equally significant prior acceleration and this aspect must be taken into account in geodynamic scenarios proposed to explain the collision of India with Asia.

  8. Evolution of the great river systems of southern Asia during the Cenozoic India-Asia collision: Rivers draining north from the Pamir syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, M. E.

    2008-08-01

    During uplift of the Tibetan plateau and surrounding ranges, tectonic processes have interacted with climatic change and with local random effects (such as landslides) to determine the development of the major river systems of Asia. Rivers draining northward from the Pamir syntaxis have three distinctive patterns that are controlled by different tectonic and climatic regimes. West of the Pamir, the rivers have moderate but irregular gradients and drain northwards to disappear into arid depressions. Relatively steady uplift of the Hindu Kush in northern Afghanistan allowed rivers to cut across the rising ranges, modified by the shear along the Harirud fault zone, local faulting, and by increasing rain-shadow effects from the rising Makran. In the transition to the Pamir the rivers have steeper but more even gradients suggesting more even flow and downcutting during uplift, possibly related to larger glacial sources. In the central Pamir, only one antecedent river, the Pyandzh appears to have kept its northward course with compression and uplift of the indenter, and its course strangely corresponds with a major geophysical boundary (a distorted subducted slab) but not a geological boundary: the other rivers are subsequent rivers developed along deformation fronts during development and northward displacements of the Pamir structural units. The above areas have sources north of the Cretaceous Karakorum-South Pamir Andean margin. On the eastern flank of the Pamir, in the Kunlun and northern Tibetan plateau, the rivers rise similarly north of the Cretaceous Andean margin of southern Tibet, but then flow with low gradients across the plateau, before cutting and plunging steeply down across the Kunlun to disappear into the arid Tarim. These steep profiles are the result of late Neogene uplift of the northern Tibetan plateau and Kunlun possibly modified by glacial diversion and river capture. The drainage history of the Pamir indenter can be reconstructed by restoring the

  9. Association of genetic variants in INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) with type 2 diabetes (T2D): a case-control study in three ethnic groups from North-West India.

    PubMed

    Sokhi, Jasmine; Sikka, Ruhi; Raina, Priyanka; Kaur, Ramandeep; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Arora, Punit; Bhanwer, Ajs

    2016-02-01

    Genetic contributions towards Type 2 diabetes (T2D) have been assessed through association studies across different world populations with inconsistencies. The majority of the T2D susceptibility loci are common across different races or populations but show ethnicity-specific differences. The pathogenesis of T2D involves genetic variants in the candidate genes. The interactions between the genes involved in insulin signaling and secretory pathways are believed to play an important role in determining an individual's susceptibility towards T2D. Therefore, the present study was initiated to examine the differences, if any, in the contribution of polymorphisms towards T2D susceptibility in the background of different ethnic specifications. The present case-control study included a total of 1216 T2D cases and healthy controls from three ethnic groups (Jat Sikhs, Banias and Brahmins) of North-West India. Polymorphisms were selected on the basis of information available in the literature for INS (rs689), INSR (rs1799816) and PP1G.G (rs1799999) in context to T2D. The genotyping was done using PCR-RFLP method. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. The analyses revealed that INS (rs689) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D susceptibility in all the three ethnic groups whereas INSR (rs1799816) polymorphism conferred risk towards T2D in Brahmins only and PP1G.G (rs1799999) polymorphism indicated T2D risk in Jat Sikhs only. Furthermore, interaction analyses indicated the cumulative role of three genetic variants in modulating T2D susceptibility in the three ethnic groups. In conclusion, our results substantiated the evidences for the role of ethnicity in differential susceptibility to T2D in the background of same genetic variants.

  10. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) Genetic Variation with Type 2 Diabetes and End Stage Renal Disease in Two Large Population Samples from North India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Priyanka; Sikka, Ruhi; Kaur, Ramandeep; Sokhi, Jasmine; Singh, Virinder

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Geographic and ethnic differences impart an immense influence on the genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), a ubiquitously expressed pro-fibrotic cytokine plays a pivotal role in mediating the hypertrophic and fibrotic manifestations of DN. The present study is aimed to study the association of TGF-β1 g.869T>C (rs1800470) and g.-509C>T (rs1800469) polymorphism in T2D and end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases from the two geographically and ethnically different populations from North India. A total of 1313 samples comprising 776 samples from Punjab (204 with ESRD, 257 without ESRD, and 315 healthy controls) and 537 samples from Jammu and Kashmir (150 with ESRD, 187 without ESRD, and 200 controls) were genotyped for TGF-β1 (rs1800470 and rs1800469) using ARMS-PCR. The CC genotype of rs1800470 increased ESRD risk by 3.1–4.5-fold in both populations. However, for rs1800469, the TT genotype provided 5.5-fold risk towards ESRD cases from Jammu and Kashmir and no risk for the cases from Punjab. The haplotype C-T conferred nearly a 2–3-fold risk towards T2D and ESRD and diplotype CC-CT conferred a 4-fold risk towards ESRD. Our results conclude that TGF-β1 (rs1800470) may increase the risk of both ESRD and T2D in both populations, but TGF-β1 (rs1800469) provided risk for only ESRD in the population of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study is one of the large sample sized genetic association studies of T2D and ESRD from Indian population and adds to the scholarship on global health omics. PMID:25871499

  11. Association of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (TGF-β1) Genetic Variation with Type 2 Diabetes and End Stage Renal Disease in Two Large Population Samples from North India.

    PubMed

    Raina, Priyanka; Sikka, Ruhi; Kaur, Ramandeep; Sokhi, Jasmine; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Singh, Virinder; Bhanwer, A J S

    2015-05-01

    Geographic and ethnic differences impart an immense influence on the genetic susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and diabetic nephropathy (DN). Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1), a ubiquitously expressed pro-fibrotic cytokine plays a pivotal role in mediating the hypertrophic and fibrotic manifestations of DN. The present study is aimed to study the association of TGF-β1 g.869T>C (rs1800470) and g.-509C>T (rs1800469) polymorphism in T2D and end stage renal disease (ESRD) cases from the two geographically and ethnically different populations from North India. A total of 1313 samples comprising 776 samples from Punjab (204 with ESRD, 257 without ESRD, and 315 healthy controls) and 537 samples from Jammu and Kashmir (150 with ESRD, 187 without ESRD, and 200 controls) were genotyped for TGF-β1 (rs1800470 and rs1800469) using ARMS-PCR. The CC genotype of rs1800470 increased ESRD risk by 3.1-4.5-fold in both populations. However, for rs1800469, the TT genotype provided 5.5-fold risk towards ESRD cases from Jammu and Kashmir and no risk for the cases from Punjab. The haplotype C-T conferred nearly a 2-3-fold risk towards T2D and ESRD and diplotype CC-CT conferred a 4-fold risk towards ESRD. Our results conclude that TGF-β1 (rs1800470) may increase the risk of both ESRD and T2D in both populations, but TGF-β1 (rs1800469) provided risk for only ESRD in the population of Jammu and Kashmir. The present study is one of the large sample sized genetic association studies of T2D and ESRD from Indian population and adds to the scholarship on global health omics.

  12. Interplay between grain size reduction, chemical reaction, and shear localization in lower crustal rocks: a case study from Archaean Bundelkhand Craton, North-Central India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Ankit; Nasipuri, Pritam; Saha, Lopamudra; Pati, Jayanta Kumar; Sarkar, Saheli; Purohit, Rohan

    2016-04-01

    Weakening of the rocks is pronounced during the formation of shear zone. Crustal scale shear zones at the plate boundary develop due to grain size reduction, either by mechanical breakdown of minerals or by the development of new minerals due to change in pressure (P) - temperature (T) conditions. In either of the mechanisms for grain size reduction, the Gibb's free energy of the system should be minimum in value to stabilize the mineral.In this contribution, we have studied the deformation mechanism and P-T conditions from acrustal scale shear zone, in the North Central Part of Archaean Bundelkhand Craton. In the Archaean Buldelkhand craton, tens of kilometre wide E-W trending shear zone developed in the sodic-potassic granite. The undeformed rock (protolith) is characterized by euhedral to subhedral sodic feldspar (XAb =0.80) and subordinate quartz, whereas the deformed rock is characterized by the development of extremely deformed feldspar and quartz associated with chlorite. The onset of the strain localization and shear zone formation in the proto-mylonite has been accompanied by developing brittle fractures in the euhedral feldspar grains. In contrast to the brittle deformation in feldspar, quartz grains are characterized by development of small bulges around the grain boundary. Chlorite develops at the fractures in the feldspar that are indicative of fluid infiltration in the proto-mylonite.In the extremely deformed samples (ultramylonite) grain size reduction occurs by bulging recrystallization in quartz. Flow stress obtained from grain size analysis of quartz indicates that the palaeo-stress varies from ~44-46 MPa in proto-mylonite to ~ 61-63 MPa in Ultra-mylonite. Mineral chemical analysis of undeformed feldspar grains in the protolith and mylonite indicate significant changes in the chemical composition that leads to minimum Gibbs energy. Also the presence of chlorite indicates hydration reaction, which has reduced the chemical energy of the system

  13. Internet India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews a number of Internet sites containing information on every aspect of life in Modern India. The various sites provide information on such diverse topics as the Indian film industry, politics, the booming Indian computer industry, changing status of women, and financial and political issues. (MJP)

  14. Argon behaviour in an inverted Barrovian sequence, Sikkim Himalaya: The consequences of temperature and timescale on 40Ar/39Ar mica geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Catherine M.; Warren, Clare J.; Halton, Alison M.; Kelley, Simon P.; Harris, Nigel B. W.

    2015-12-01

    40Ar/39Ar dating of metamorphic rocks sometimes yields complicated datasets which are difficult to interpret in terms of timescales of the metamorphic cycle. Single-grain fusion and step-heating data were obtained for rocks sampled through a major thrust-sense shear zone (the Main Central Thrust) and the associated inverted metamorphic zone in the Sikkim region of the eastern Himalaya. This transect provides a natural laboratory to explore factors influencing apparent 40Ar/39Ar ages in similar lithologies at a variety of metamorphic pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions. The 40Ar/39Ar dataset records progressively younger apparent age populations and a decrease in within-sample dispersion with increasing temperature through the sequence. The white mica populations span ~ 2-9 Ma within each sample in the structurally lower levels (garnet grade) but only ~ 0-3 Ma at structurally higher levels (kyanite-sillimanite grade). Mean white mica single-grain fusion population ages vary from 16.2 ± 3.9 Ma (2σ) to 13.2 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ) from lowest to highest levels. White mica step-heating data from the same samples yields plateau ages from 14.27 ± 0.13 Ma to 12.96 ± 0.05 Ma. Biotite yield older apparent age populations with mean single-grain fusion dates varying from 74.7 ± 11.8 Ma (2σ) at the lowest structural levels to 18.6 ± 4.7 Ma (2σ) at the highest structural levels; the step-heating plateaux are commonly disturbed. Temperatures > 600 °C at pressures of 0.4-0.8 GPa sustained over > 5 Ma, appear to be required for white mica and biotite ages to be consistent with diffusive, open-system cooling. At lower temperatures, and/or over shorter metamorphic timescales, more 40Ar is retained than results from simple diffusion models suggest. Diffusion modelling of Ar in white mica from the highest structural levels suggests that the high-temperature rocks cooled at a rate of ~ 50-80 °C Ma- 1, consistent with rapid thrusting, extrusion and exhumation along the Main

  15. Sero-prevalence of bovine Johne's disease in buffaloes and cattle population of North India using indigenous ELISA kit based on native Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis 'Bison type' genotype of goat origin.

    PubMed

    Singh, S V; Singh, A V; Singh, R; Sharma, S; Shukla, N; Misra, S; Singh, P K; Sohal, J S; Kumar, H; Patil, P K; Misra, P; Sandhu, K S

    2008-09-01

    Present pilot study is the first attempt in the country to estimate sero-prevalence of Bovine Johne's disease (BJD) by screening cattle and buffaloes representing large population belonging to farmer's and farm herds in the home tracts (Uttar Pradesh (UP) and Punjab) of Hariana cattle and Murrah buffaloes in North India. Indigenous and in-house plate ELISA kit (using protoplasmic antigen from native Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis 'Bison type' strain of goat origin), originally developed for goats and sheep was standardized in bovines and used for screening. For this study, 33 villages of south and west UP were randomly selected and surveyed from 2001 to 2003. There were 7943 farmer's families having 38,251 livestock, including cattle, buffaloes, goats and sheep (per family 4.8% livestock). Numerically, buffaloes and cattle were 54.7% and 22.1%, respectively. Serum samples were collected from 726 animals (4.2% of 16, 981 livestock with 4375 farmer's families) located in 33 randomly surveyed villages. Serum samples (699), submitted to Epidemiology Department of Veterinary College (Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana), in the year 2004 by farmer's and organized farm herds (Buffaloes, 372, Cattle, 327), were screened by this ELISA kit. Soluble protoplasmic antigen was prepared from Map (S 5) 'Bison type' strain isolated from a terminally sick goat with Johne's disease. Of the total 1425 bovine (Buffaloes and cattle) serum samples screened using indigenous ELISA kit, sero-prevalence of Johne's disease was 29.0% (28.6% in buffalo and 29.8% in cattle) in Northern India. State-wise sero-prevalence was 31.9% and 23.3% in UP and Punjab, respectively. In UP, of the 601 randomly sampled buffaloes, sero-prevalence was 40.3% (16.6% in young and 40.9% adults) and 25.5% (10.5% in young and 26.3% adults) in south and west UP, respectively. Of the 125 cattle screened, sero-prevalence was 42.6% (nil in young and 44.4% adults) and 30.0% (nil in young and 30.6% adults

  16. Utilization study of antidiabetic agents in a teaching hospital of Sikkim and adherence to current standard treatment guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Satpathy, Sushrut Varun; Datta, Supratim; Upreti, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Diabetes has gradually emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in our country. This underlines the need for timely disease detection and decisive therapeutic intervention. This prospective cross-sectional observational study aims at analyzing the utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a remote North-East Indian tertiary care teaching hospital in the perspective of current standard treatment guidelines. Materials and Methods: Diabetic patients receiving antidiabetic medication, both as outpatients and inpatients in our hospital over a period of 12 months (May 2013–May 2014), were included in this study. The data obtained were sorted and analyzed on the basis of gender, type of therapy, and hospital setting. Results: A total of 310 patients were included in the study. Metformin was the single most frequently prescribed antidiabetic agent (66.8%) followed by the sulfonylureas group (37.4%). Insulin was prescribed in 23.2% of the patients. Combination antidiabetic drug therapy (65.1%) was used more frequently than monotherapy (34.8%). The use of biguanides (P < 0.0001) and sulfonylureas (P = 0.02) in combination was significant as compared to their use as monotherapy. A total of 48% of all antidiabetic combinations used, comprised metformin and sulfonylureas (n = 96). Insulin use was significantly higher as monotherapy and in inpatients (P < 0.0001). The utilization of drugs from the National List of Essential Medicines was 51.2%, while 11% of antidiabetics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusion: The pattern of utilization largely conforms to the current standard treatment guidelines. Increased use of generic drugs is an area with scope for improvement. PMID:27413351

  17. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic analysis of Citrus (L) from north-east India as revealed by meiosis, and molecular analysis of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA.

    PubMed

    Hynniewta, Marlykynti; Malik, Surendra Kumar; Rao, Satyawada Rama

    2014-12-01

    The north-eastern region of India is reported to be the center of origin and rich in diversity of Citrus (L.) species, where some wild and endangered species namely Citrus indica, Citrus macroptera, Citrus latipes, Citrus ichagensis and Citrus assamensis exist in their natural and undisturbed habitat. In order to have comprehensive information about the extent of genetic variability and the occurrence of cryptic genomic hybridity between and within various Citrus species, a combined approach involving morphological, cytogenetical and molecular approaches were adopted in the present study. Cytogenetic approaches are known to resolve taxonomic riddles in a more efficient manner, by clearly delineating taxa at species and sub species levels. Male meiotic studies revealed a gametic chromosome number of n = 9, without any evidence of numerical variations. Bivalents outnumbered all other types of associations in pollen mother cells (PMCs) analyzed at diplotene, diakinesis and metaphase I. Univalents were frequently encountered in nine species presently studied, though their presence appropriately did not influence the distributional pattern of the chromosomes at anaphases I and II. The molecular approaches for phylogenetic analysis based on sequence data related to ITS 1, ITS 2 and ITS 1 + 5.8 s + ITS 2 of rDNA using maximum parsimony method and Bayesian inference have thrown light on species inter-relationship and evolution of Citrus species confirming our cytogenetical interpretations. The three true basic species i.e. Citrus medica, Citrus maxima and Citrus reticulata with their unique status have been resolved into distinct clades with molecular approaches as well. C. indica which occupies a unique position in the phylogenetic ladder of the genus Citrus has been resolved as a distinct clade and almost behaving as an out-group. The presences of quadrivalents in C. indica also echo and support its unique position. From our study it is amply clear that C

  18. Adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers associated with first birth: a hospital-based case-control study in a tertiary care hospital in North-East India

    PubMed Central

    Medhi, Robin; Das, Banani; Das, Arpana; Ahmed, Mansur; Bawri, Sonika; Rai, Suditi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the adverse obstetrical and perinatal outcome of adolescent mothers associated with first birth. Patients and methods This prospective case-control study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital of North-East India between January 2014 and December 2014. All adolescent primigravidae completing 28 weeks of gestation with singleton pregnancy and delivered at our institution were included in the study group. Primigravidae aged between 20 and 25 years were taken as a control group. Mothers having pregnancy complicated with diabetes mellitus, renal disorder, thyroid disorders, and cardiac diseases were excluded from the study. Demographic data, maternal complications like severe anemia, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, and postpartum complications were compared. Among fetal complications, low-birth weight, preterm birth, neonatal intensive care unit admission, still birth, and early neonatal death were compared. All the patients were interviewed regarding contraceptive knowledge and its use preceding the pregnancy. Results Quality antenatal care was received by 80.6% of adolescent mothers. The adolescent mothers had a higher incidence of pre-eclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.017 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.045–3.894, P=0.03), preterm deliveries (OR: 1.655, 95% CI: 1.039–2.636, P=0.03). Among fetal outcomes, the low- birth weight babies (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.016–2.478), low mean birth weight (2,544.4±622.09 g versus 2,701.6±582.51 g), and higher admission to neonatal intensive care unit (OR: 1.957, 95% CI: 1.120–3.417) were significantly associated with adolescent mothers. There was no significant difference found regarding the mode of delivery, still birth, and early neonatal death. Moreover, contraceptive knowledge and its use were found to be poor among adolescent mothers. Conclusion With quality antenatal, intranatal, and postnatal care, the obstetric risk of childbirth in adolescent mothers

  19. Bombay, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Formerly known as Bombay, the city of Mumbai is situated on India's west coast, on the Arabian Sea, roughly 500 km (310 miles) south of the Tropic of Cancer. Its large harbor and ideal location facing Africa, Europe, and the Middle East make it an excellent city for trade. Sometimes referred to as the 'Gateway of India,' Mumbai handles more than one third of the country's foreign trade. The city supports a population of more than 12 million people in an area of roughly 619 square km (239 square miles). The port was acquired in 1534 by Portugal, which named it Bom Bahia, meaning 'beautiful bay.' Originally, the city rested upon seven small islands, mostly basaltic bedrock from earlier lava flows. These islands are now connected to one another by reclaimed land, but each island, or neighborhood, still retains a distinct identity within the city. (For more details, visit Welcome to Bombay: The Gateway of India.) The blue-grey pixels in this false-color image are urban areas. The dark green areas are heavily vegetated surfaces while the light brown regions are more sparsely vegetated. This image of Mumbai was acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+), flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. July 23, 2002, marks the 30th anniversary of the Landsat program. (Click to read the press release-Celebrating 30 Years of Imaging the Earth.) The Landsat program has been particularly instrumental in tracking land use and land cover changes-such as increased urban growth-over the last three decades. Image courtesy Ron Beck, USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  20. Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sucharita; Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Nath, B Nagender

    2015-08-15

    This study describes the geochemical distribution of lead (Pb) and identifies the critical factors that significantly control Pb distribution and speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments around India by using published data from the literature. Crustal sources influence the abundance of Pb in coastal sediment from the south-east and central-west coast of India. Parts of north-east, north-west, and south-west coast of India were polluted by Pb. Distribution of Pb in sediments, from the north-east and north-west coasts of India, were controlled by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide mineral phases of the sediments. However, organic carbon (OC) seemed to be a dominant factor in controlling the distribution of Pb in sediments from the central-east and south-west coasts of India. The outcome of this study may help in decision-making to predict the levels of Pb from natural and anthropogenic sources and to control Pb pollution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

  1. India: Kachchh

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... The earthquake may have occurred on the Kachchh Mainland Fault, which extends from the region of the epicenter westward along the curved ... the Kachchh region which lies north of the Kachchh Mainland Fault includes the Banni Plains and the Rann of Kachchh. It is a low, flat ...

  2. Maternal mortality in southern India.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S; Amalraj, A

    1994-01-01

    In a 4 year prospective community survey of 20,000 women randomly selected in North Arcot District of Tamil Nadu State in South India, the maternal mortality rates per 1,000 liveborn were estimated to be 17.4 and 16.6 for rural and semi-urban areas, respectively. The rates based only on direct causes were 11.9 in rural and 14.4 in semi-urban areas. As expected, these figures are considerably higher than those based on official or hospital statistics. Factors associated with such high mortality and the implications for programme planning and implementation are discussed. PMID:7855917

  3. TLR2∆22 (-196-174) significantly increases the risk of breast cancer in females carrying proline allele at codon 72 of TP53 gene: a case-control study from four ethnic groups of North Eastern region of India.

    PubMed

    Devi, K Rekha; Chenkual, Saia; Majumdar, Gautam; Ahmed, Jishan; Kaur, Tanvir; Zonunmawia, Jason C; Mukherjee, Kaustab; Phukan, Rup Kumar; Mahanta, Jagdish; Rajguru, S K; Mukherjee, Debdutta; Narain, Kanwar

    2015-12-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cancer in women. In the North Eastern Region (NER) of India, BC is emerging as an important concern as evidenced by the data available from population and hospital-based cancer registries. Studies on genetic susceptibility to BC are important to understand the increase in the incidence of BC in NER. The present case control study was conducted to investigate the association between tumour suppressor gene TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and innate immune pathway gene TLR2∆22 (-196-174) polymorphism with BC in females of NER of India for the identification of novel biomarker of BC. Four hundred sixty-two histopathologically confirmed BC cases from four states of NER of India, and 770 healthy controls were included by organizing community surveys from the neighbourhood of cases. In our study, no significant association between TP53 codon 72 polymorphisms and the risk of BC was found. However, our study has shown that TP53 codon 72 polymorphism is an important effect modifier. In the present study it was found that females carrying 22 base-pair deletion in the promoter region of their TLR2 gene had two times (AOR= 2.18, 95 % CI 1.13-4.21, p=0.019 in dominant model; AOR= 2.17, 95 % CI 1.09-4.34, p=0.027 in co-dominant model) increased risk of BC whwn they also carry proline allele at codon 72 of their TP53 gene. PMID:26188904

  4. HIV testing in India.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Srikanth; Pereira, Michael; Tripathy, Sriram Prasad

    2012-06-01

    The National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) has initiated programs for HIV/AIDS control in India. Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed for India. NACO programs have resulted in HIV situation improving over the last decade.

  5. The India Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul-Alim, Jamaal

    2012-01-01

    Even though lawmakers in India don't seem likely to pass any laws that would enable foreign universities to set up shop in India anytime soon, opportunities still abound for institutions of higher learning in the United States to collaborate with their Indian counterparts and to engage and recruit students in India as well. That's the consensus…

  6. Kinship Institutions and Sex Ratios in India

    PubMed Central

    CHAKRABORTY, TANIKA; KIM, SUKKOO

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between kinship institutions and sex ratios in India at the turn of the twentieth century. Because kinship rules vary by caste, language, religion, and region, we construct sex ratios by these categories at the district level by using data from the 1901 Census of India for Punjab (North), Bengal (East), and Madras (South). We find that the male-to-female sex ratio varied positively with caste rank, fell as one moved from the North to the East and then to the South, was higher for Hindus than for Muslims, and was higher for northern Indo-Aryan speakers than for the southern Dravidian-speaking people. We argue that these systematic patterns in the data are consistent with variations in the institution of family, kinship, and inheritance. PMID:21308567

  7. Modern Education and the Revolt of 1857 in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Parimala V.

    2016-01-01

    In May 1857, a number of battalions in the Bengal army of the East India Company rebelled against their immediate British officers and the British administration in the North Western Provinces (NWP), Oudh and Bihar. The protracted conflict that stretched over a year was extremely violent, killed thousands of British officers and civilians and…

  8. Reductions in India's crop yield due to ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghude, Sachin D.; Jena, Chinmay; Chate, D. M.; Beig, G.; Pfister, G. G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Ramanathan, V.

    2014-08-01

    This bottom-up modeling study, supported by emission inventories and crop production, simulates ozone on local to regional scales. It quantifies, for the first time, potential impact of ozone on district-wise cotton, soybeans, rice, and wheat crops in India for the first decade of the 21st century. Wheat is the most impacted crop with losses of 3.5 ± 0.8 million tons (Mt), followed by rice at 2.1 ± 0.8 Mt, with the losses concentrated in central and north India. On the national scale, this loss is about 9.2% of the cereals required every year (61.2 Mt) under the provision of the recently implemented National Food Security Bill (in 2013) by the Government of India. The nationally aggregated yield loss is sufficient to feed about 94 million people living below poverty line in India.

  9. Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia.

    PubMed

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe J J; Lippert, Peter C; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; McQuarrie, Nadine; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Spakman, Wim; Torsvik, Trond H

    2012-05-15

    Cenozoic convergence between the Indian and Asian plates produced the archetypical continental collision zone comprising the Himalaya mountain belt and the Tibetan Plateau. How and where India-Asia convergence was accommodated after collision at or before 52 Ma remains a long-standing controversy. Since 52 Ma, the two plates have converged up to 3,600 ± 35 km, yet the upper crustal shortening documented from the geological record of Asia and the Himalaya is up to approximately 2,350-km less. Here we show that the discrepancy between the convergence and the shortening can be explained by subduction of highly extended continental and oceanic Indian lithosphere within the Himalaya between approximately 50 and 25 Ma. Paleomagnetic data show that this extended continental and oceanic "Greater India" promontory resulted from 2,675 ± 700 km of North-South extension between 120 and 70 Ma, accommodated between the Tibetan Himalaya and cratonic India. We suggest that the approximately 50 Ma "India"-Asia collision was a collision of a Tibetan-Himalayan microcontinent with Asia, followed by subduction of the largely oceanic Greater India Basin along a subduction zone at the location of the Greater Himalaya. The "hard" India-Asia collision with thicker and contiguous Indian continental lithosphere occurred around 25-20 Ma. This hard collision is coincident with far-field deformation in central Asia and rapid exhumation of Greater Himalaya crystalline rocks, and may be linked to intensification of the Asian monsoon system. This two-stage collision between India and Asia is also reflected in the deep mantle remnants of subduction imaged with seismic tomography.

  10. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  11. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A.; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-01-01

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80–40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70–43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52–51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma. PMID:26395973

  12. Magmatic record of India-Asia collision.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Di-Cheng; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Cawood, Peter A; Niu, Yaoling; Liu, Sheng-Ao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Mo, Xuan-Xue

    2015-09-23

    New geochronological and geochemical data on magmatic activity from the India-Asia collision zone enables recognition of a distinct magmatic flare-up event that we ascribe to slab breakoff. This tie-point in the collisional record can be used to back-date to the time of initial impingement of the Indian continent with the Asian margin. Continental arc magmatism in southern Tibet during 80-40 Ma migrated from south to north and then back to south with significant mantle input at 70-43 Ma. A pronounced flare up in magmatic intensity (including ignimbrite and mafic rock) at ca. 52-51 Ma corresponds to a sudden decrease in the India-Asia convergence rate. Geological and geochemical data are consistent with mantle input controlled by slab rollback from ca. 70 Ma and slab breakoff at ca. 53 Ma. We propose that the slowdown of the Indian plate at ca. 51 Ma is largely the consequence of slab breakoff of the subducting Neo-Tethyan oceanic lithosphere, rather than the onset of the India-Asia collision as traditionally interpreted, implying that the initial India-Asia collision commenced earlier, likely at ca. 55 Ma.

  13. India: Degree Verification Fees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Grady

    2004-01-01

    According to the USEFI (United States Education Foundation in India) Web site, (www.fulbright-india.org/eas/eas-general.htm), there are currently 74,603 Indian students in the United States. This immense cultural and educational exchange brings with it both rewards and difficulties for the students and the institutions who enroll them. One of the…

  14. The Myths of India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Frederick A.

    1988-01-01

    Stating that superficial stereotypes hinder the understanding of people and places, Day presents several well-known over-generalizations about India. Attempts to update readers about recent changes within the country while dispelling some popular myths. Discusses India's large population, poverty, economic growth, women's roles, and culture, along…

  15. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  16. Overweight and Obesity in School Children of a Hill State in North India: Is the Dichotomy Urban-Rural or Socio-Economic? Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kandpal, S. D.; Aggarwal, Pradeep; Sati, Hem Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Overweight and obesity are a public health problem in India not only in adults but also in children. The authors sought to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school-going children of 6–17 years of age and examine its demographic and dietary correlates in context of their urban-rural status and socio-economic status. Methods In this cross-sectional survey height and weight were measured in 1266 school children in government and private schools of urban and rural areas. Dietary assessment was done using single day 24-hour dietary recall method. The data were analyzed using SPSS (IBM SPSS Statistics Version 19) and WHO AnthroPlus Software. Factorial ANOVA was used for testing interaction within and between subgroups for continuous variables and Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Results It was found that the overall prevalence of overweight was 15.6% of which 5.4% were obese, with maximum prevalence in boys attending urban private schools. The mean caloric intake in the study population with 24-hour dietary recall method was 1558.2 kilocalories (SD: 428 kilocalories). Conclusion Overweight and obesity is a significant problem in school-going children. Higher socio-economic status continues to remain an important driver of this epidemic in the younger generation and affects demographic and dietary determinants of this problem. PMID:27227780

  17. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  18. Clinical trials in India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Rituparna; M, Raghavendra

    2007-07-01

    The concept of outsourcing for the development and global studies on new drugs has become widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry due to its cost and uncertainty. India is going to be the most preferred location for contract pharma research and development due to its huge treatment naïve population, human resources, technical skills, adoption/amendment/implementation of rules/laws by regulatory authorities, and changing economic environment. But still 'miles to go' to fulfill the pre-requisites to ensure India's success. In spite of all the pitfalls, the country is ambitious and optimist to attract multinational pharmaceutical companies to conduct their clinical trials in India.

  19. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  20. History of Nuclear India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  1. Geological factors contributing to landslides: case studies of a few landslides in different regions of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasudevan, Nirmala; Ramanathan, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Landslides - mass movements of rock, debris or earth down a slope - are worldwide phenomena which cause significant damage and an estimated 5000 fatalities each year. They are caused by the interplay of various natural and anthropogenic factors and occur under diverse geoenvironmental conditions. In India, landslides occur primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of South India. This paper reports the results of field investigations for six landslide sites in North, Northeast and South India. We provide explanations as to why several landslides occurred at each of the sites. Our goal is to gain a deeper insight into the causes and precursors of landslides, which will facilitate more accurate identification of landslide-prone locations and enable early detection of landslide events.

  2. Premonsoon aerosol optical properties from AERONET retrievals and its probable source fields in Eastern India urban environment (Kolkata): evaluating spatial variability and its comparison with MODIS retrievals.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    B, P.; Verma, S.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol characteristics were examined using Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and MODIS retrievals (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) during the period, February to June 2009 in Eastern India, Kolkata (KOL). AERONET retrievals results for the study period manifested an aerosol optical depth - AOD (Angstrom exponent - α) in the range 0.65 - 0.81 (0.66 - 0.97) with an intermittent influence of dust. A substantial dominance of finer (coarser) particles were found in February (April) and an equal dominance of both in June. Aerosol size distribution (ASD) revealed a high volume in fine mode during June and that in April for the coarse mode. A few areas of in and around KOL, Odisha, and Sikkim influenced AOD ascertained using the Potential source contribution function (PSCF). Cluster analysis revealed preferred pathway as continental during February and both continental and marine during March to June. Episodic days identified for dust occurrence was examined and was further corroborated by MODIS Rapid response images. Further, comparative results of seven collateral AERONET sites in India, revealed a high AOD (α) at KOL during February to May (March and April) with Fine mode - FM (Coarse mode - CM) AOD of KOL being high during March and April (February to April) than other locations. Single scattering albedo (SSA) at 0.67 μm at KOL was slightly lower during February and March, with being equivalent and or higher than other sites during April to June. Comparison of AERONET - MODIS AOD at 0.55 µm for KOL (entire study period) for the collateral days revealed underestimation of MODIS during February to April and overestimation during May and June than AERONET. AERONET - MODIS AOD comparison for seven locations, during low (February) and high (June) aerosol loading, showed good agreement for few stations and divulged discrepancy for other sites.

  3. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  4. India. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickler, Paul

    This curriculum packet on politics and international relations in India contains an essay, three lessons and a variety of charts, maps, and additional readings to support the unit. The essay is entitled "India 1994: The Peacock and the Vulture." The lessons include: (1) "The Kashmir Dispute"; (2) "India: Domestic Order and International Affairs, A…

  5. Spatial Variation of Dew over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, T.; Sharan, G.

    2010-07-01

    Dew harvest systems - devices to condense and collect dew water - have been developed for use in arid coastal region of the north-west India. These are installed over building roofs, over open ground and along boundary walls of large properties. Several installations, some as large as 850 m2 condensing surface, have been functioning in the region for several years. There is potential to deploy these in other areas where dew occurs and water is in short supply. However, lack of reliable data on dew occurrence hinders their adoption and diffusion. Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) monitors dew deposition using Duvdevani gauges at 79 locations in the country. Data includes dew fall amount over a six month span (October to March), number of dew nights. The north-east region has the highest dew resource. Other parts that have high accumulation are along the coast. Using data from 79 locations, spatial variation of dew amount has been characterized using variogram. Spatial clustering has been done to indicate areas with similar accumulation. Kriging is used to determine expected dew accumulation by extrapolation in areas for which measured data is not available but which lie near one or other monitoring station. The results of this analysis would be of use to those who need to assess the potential of dew harvesting in various parts of India especially in coastal zones.

  6. VENEREOLOGY IN INDIA

    PubMed Central

    Thappa, Devinder Mohan; Sivaranjini, Ramassamy

    2011-01-01

    Venereology-the study of venereal diseases or more recently, the sexually transmitted infections (STI) includes a variety of pathogens namely viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa for which the common factor is the mode of transmission and acquisition: Sexual relations between human beings. Medical and other historians have often suggested that well-known diseases such as syphilis, gonorrhea, chancroid and lymphogranuloma venereum have existed since earliest times. However, it is difficult to identify modern disease entities based on written historical record. Studying the origin of STIs helps us to learn the political, economic and moral conditions that led to the disease. Effective management of STI rests on three pillars of diagnosis, prevention and treatment. For most of past 50 years in India, the diagnostic pillar has been the least well-supported. Until well into present century, diagnosis of STI in India was clinical. Treatment of STIs in India followed the methods used in England. Of course in the 19th century, in many parts of the world, only a few had access to modern methods of treatment; in India, there was extensive use of Ayurvedic treatment with traditional medicines. This article thus gives just an overview and evolution of venereology in India with regard to venereal diseases (now more often known as STIs/disease), control measures, academic, association and journal development and finally future perspective. PMID:21965840

  7. Critical care in India.

    PubMed

    Udwadia, F E; Guntupalli, K K; Vidyasagar, D

    1997-04-01

    India is a vast democracy of nearly one billion people. Before the British rule ended in 1947, the life span of an Indian was a mere 21 years. Within a short span of 50 years, it increased to an impressive 63 years, largely due to public health measures initiated by the government. This created a pool of more than 300 million middle class Indians who could afford the benefits of modern and specialized care when needed. Critical care medicine, as practiced in the West, is still confined to large Metropolitan areas. A large pool of expatriate Indian physicians from all over the world are helping bridge the resource gap between the West and India by transfer of technology and providing appropriate training to physicians and paramedical personnel. This article describes the history and current status of development of critical care medicine in India. PMID:9107510

  8. Biosimilars in India.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Anurag S

    2015-09-01

    Biosimilars have been defined as biotech drugs that have been shown to have comparable quality, safety and efficacy to the original product. The past decade has seen a significant increase in interest in these products from the biotech industry. Major developments have occurred with respect to establishing a regulatory path for approval of these products as well as in our understanding of how the different quality attributes of a biosimilar impact its safety and efficacy. India is globally regarded to have great potential to become a significant player in development and commercialization of biosimilars. This short communication aims to provide a brief discussion on where India is with respect to development and commercialization of biosimilars, major challenges it faces, and finally the significant role that proteomics can play in establishing analytical comparability of biosimilars.This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics in India.

  9. India Through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Teaching India. Part I: India Through the Ancient Classics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald; Johnson, Jean

    The past and the present interweave in contemporary India. To understand India, one must know of the traditional stories. Two short pocket books make them accessible and acceptable to students: 1) The Dance of Shiva and Other Tales from India by Oroon Ghosh, published by the New American Library in New York; and, 2) Gods, Demons, and Others by R.…

  10. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  11. PV opportunities in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Jack L.; Ullal, Harin S.

    1996-01-01

    The growing middle class in India, coupled with a need for electricity to provide basic services to the masses, provides an opportunity to deploy photovoltaic systems in cost-effective applications ranging from grid-connected to isolated location requirements. This need is being satisfied by aggressive government programs, the availability of funds from agencies such as the World Bank, and the desire of Indian industries to form joint ventures for in-country manufacturing. The relaxed restrictions on doing business in India makes today's opportunities timely indeed.

  12. India's Cities in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryjak, George J.

    1984-01-01

    Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)

  13. Can India's "Literate" Read?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method…

  14. Planting Trees in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, James M.

    Reforestation is desperately needed in India. Three-fourths of the country's ground surface is experiencing desertification, and primitive forests are being destroyed. Reforestation would help moderate temperatures, increase ground water levels, improve soil fertility, and alleviate a wood shortage. In the past, people from the United States, such…

  15. Women's Work in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  16. Vocationalising Education in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacheti, A. K.; Ray, S.

    Since India gained its independence in 1947, three important commissions have examined the issue of educational reform. The first (in 1948) recommended a vocational emphasis in the intermediate (predegree) courses without sacrificing emphasis on preparation for university education. In 1954, the Secondary Education Commission resulted in the…

  17. Medical biotechnology in India.

    PubMed

    Lohray, Braj B

    2003-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology has just began to emerge in the 20th century. After the full knowledge of human genomes is available, biotechnology is going to play a major role in shaping the concept of future drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostic methodology, clinical trials, and to a great extent the major lifestyle of the human society. This article is a comprehensive review of the major impact of biotechnology in diagnostics, antibiotics, r-proteins, vaccines, and antibodies production. It also highlights the future aspects of gene therapy in the management of healthcare. A comprehensive list of biotech products in healthcare management has been given. Also, the growth of biotechnology throughout the world at large and in the Indian industries in particular has been highlighted. Constraints, concerns and difficulties in biotechnology in India have been addressed mainly related to human resources, training institutions in India, funding in biotechnology, patent-related issues and regulatory hurdles. Like in information technology, India has great potential in bioinformatics as well. Some of the recent information on bioinformatics centers in India has been summarized. Indian biotechnology industries have the potential to use the modern discoveries in life sciences to reach an enviable position in the world of biotechnology.

  18. North America

    SciTech Connect

    Field, Christopher B.; Mortsch, Linda D.; Brklacich, Michael; Forbes, Donald L.; Kovacs, Paul; Patz, Jonathan A.; Running, Steven W.; Scott, Michael J.

    2007-08-06

    The United States (U.S.) and Canada will experience climate changes through direct effects of local changes (e.g., temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events), as well as through indirect effects, transmitted among regions by interconnected economies and migrations of humans and other species. Variations in wealth and geography, however, lead to an uneven distribution of likely impacts, vulnerabilities, and capacities to adapt. This chapter reviews and synthesizes the state of knowledge on both direct and indirect impacts, vulnerability and adaptations for North America 9 (comprising Canada and the U.S).

  19. Female feticide in India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nehaluddin

    2010-01-01

    Women are murdered all over the world. But in India a most brutal form of killing females takes place regularly, even before they have the opportunity to be born. Female feticide--the selective abortion of female fetuses--is killing upwards of one million females in India annually with far-ranging and tragic consequences. In some areas, the sex ratio of females to males has dropped to less than 8000:1000. Females not only face inequality in this culture, they are even denied the right to be born. Why do so many families selectively abort baby daughters? In a word: economics. Aborting female fetuses is both practical and socially acceptable in India. Female feticide is driven by many factors, but primarily by the prospect of having to pay a dowry to the future bridegroom of a daughter. While sons offer security to their families in old age and can perform the rites for the souls of deceased parents and ancestors, daughters are perceived as a social and economic burden. Prenatal sex detection technologies have been misused, allowing the selective abortions of female offspring to proliferate. Legally, however, female feticide is a penal offence. Although female infanticide has long been committed in India, feticide is a relatively new practice, emerging concurrently with the advent of technological advancements in prenatal sex determination on a large scale in the 1990s. While abortion is legal in India, it is a crime to abort a pregnancy solely because the fetus is female. Strict laws and penalties are in place for violators. These laws, however, have not stemmed the tide of this abhorrent practice. This article will discuss the socio-legal conundrum female feticide presents, as well as the consequences of having too few women in Indian society.

  20. Epidemiology of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma in India.

    PubMed

    Nair, Reena; Arora, Neeraj; Mallath, Mohandas K

    2016-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) is a common hematological malignancy. The age-adjusted incidence rates for NHL in men and women in India are 2.9/100,000 and 1.5/100,000, respectively. These are about one fourth of the incidence rates reported from Western Europe or North America. Within India, the incidence is several-fold higher in urban cancer registries compared to rural areas; the incidence being higher in metropolitan cities and Indian immigrants suggesting that urban lifestyles and economic progress may increase the cancer incidence. Compared to developed nations, the key differences in the presentation in India include: median age of 54 years (almost a decade less), higher male to female ratio, higher proportion of patients with B-symptoms (40-60 vs. 20-30%), poor ECOG performance status (≥2) at diagnosis (50 vs. 20-30%), higher frequency of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (60-70 vs. <40%), lower frequency of follicular NHL (<20 vs. 30-40%) and T-cell type in 10-20 vs. <10%. The estimated mortality rate due to NHL is higher in India than in North America and Western Europe. Diagnostic and treatment delays, incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate or suboptimal treatment may be possible reasons for the poor outcome. Any improvement in the outcomes for NHL in India will require a nationwide approach, e.g. creation of several regional and district-level centers with expertise in lymphoma management. Collection of data on patient- and disease-related characteristics, treatment outcome, development of infrastructure, centralized review of histopathology subtype, novel treatment protocols, rigorous follow-up, training of staff, and financial support towards treatment could be possible strategies to improve the outcome. PMID:27462703

  1. [North] Yemen.

    PubMed

    1987-11-01

    The Yemen Arab Republic, also called North Yemen, is a small republic on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula facing the Red Sea. Yemen has a temperate interior suitable for agriculture. 8.7 million people of Semetic Arab origin are growing at a rate of 3.1% yearly. The infant mortality rate is 173/1000; the life expectancy is 44 years, and the per capita income is about $550. Yemen was once self-sufficient in food production, exporting fine coffee. Years of civil wars, emigration to Saudi Arabia for work, production of the cash crop "qat" for internal consumption, and the recent drought have contributed to the decline of agriculture. Yemen's economy is maintained by foreign aid from Saudi Arabia, the Soviet Union, China, and the United States. U.S. aid has centered around food, roads and other development projects and primary health care such as immunization and reduction of child mortality.

  2. Epilepsy surgery in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, V P

    2011-10-01

    Modern epilepsy started in India in 1995 at Sri Chitra Tirunal Institute of Medical Science and Technology, Trivandrum and at All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. At both centres the attempt was to get the program going with patients having surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes -who could be evaluated with non invasive investigations. The mainstay of the evaluation was a good quality epilepsy specific MRI and video EEG coupled with a SPECT study and a neuropsychological evaluation. Concordance of the focus on all investigations was critical to a good outcome. There were several problems on the way - but they were managed keeping in consideration our local needs and requirements. Intraoperative electocorticography was done and good outcomes attained. The critical determinants of success were the formation of a team with various interdisciplinary specialists and a strong will to succeed. PMID:22069424

  3. Severe Flooding in India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Floods devestated parts of eastern India along the Brahmaputra River in June 2000. In some tributaries of the Brahmaputra, the water reached more than 5 meters (16.5 feet) above flood stage. At least 40 residents died, and the flood waters destroyed a bridge linking the region to the rest of India. High water also threatened endangered Rhinos in Kaziranga National Park. Flooded areas are shown in red in the above image. The map was derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data taken on June 15, 2000. For more information on observing floods with satellites, see: Using Satellites to Keep our Head above Water and the Dartmouth Flood Observatory Image by the Dartmouth Flood Observatory

  4. Mass spectrometry in India.

    PubMed

    Vairamani, M; Prabhakar, S

    2012-01-01

    This review emphasizes the mass spectrometry research being performed at academic and established research institutions in India. It consists of three main parts covering the work done in organic, atomic and biological mass spectrometry. The review reveals that the use of mass spectrometry techniques started in the middle of the 20th century and was applied to research in the fields of organic, nuclear, geographical and atomic chemistry. Later, with the advent of soft and atmospheric ionization techniques it has been applied to pharmaceutical and biological research. In due course, several research centers with advanced mass spectrometry facilities have been established for specific areas of research such as gas-phase ion chemistry, ion-molecule reactions, proscribed chemicals, pesticide residues, pharmacokinetics, protein/peptide chemistry, nuclear chemistry, geochronological studies, archeology, petroleum industry, proteomics, lipidomics and metabolomics. Day-by-day the mass spectrometry centers/facilities in India have attracted young students for their doctoral research and other advanced research applications.

  5. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  6. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment.

  7. India's misconceived family plan.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, J L

    1991-01-01

    India's goal of reducing the national birth rate by 50% by the year 2000 is destined to failure in the absence of attention to poverty, social inequality, and women's subordination--the factors that serve to perpetuate high fertility. There is a need to shift the emphasis of the population control effort from the obligation of individual women to curtail childbearing to the provision of the resources required for poor women to meet their basic needs. Female children are less likely to be educated or taken for medical care than their male counterparts and receive a lower proportion of the family's food supply. This discrimination stems, in large part, from parents' view that daughters will not be able to remunerate their families in later life for such investments. The myth of female nonproductivity that leads to the biased allocation of family resources overlooks the contribution of adult women's unpaid domestic labor and household production. Although government statistics state that women comprise 46% of India's agricultural labor force (and up to 90% of rural women participate in this sector on some basis), women have been excluded systematically from agricultural development schemes such as irrigation projects, credit, and mechanization. In the field of family planning, the Government's virtually exclusive focus on sterilization has excluded younger women who are not ready to terminate childbearing but would like methods such as condoms, diaphragms, IUDs, and oral contraceptives to space births. More general maternal-child health services are out of reach of the majority of poor rural women due to long distances that must be travelled to clinics India's birth rate could be reduced by 25% by 2000 just by filling the demand for quality voluntary family planning services. Without a sustained political commitment to improve the status of women in India, however, such gains will not be sustainable.

  8. Hepatocellular carcinoma in India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Gouri Shankar; Babu, K Govind; Malhotra, Hemant; Ranade, Anantbhushan A; Murshed, Shaiqua; Datta, Debasis

    2013-12-01

    Cancers of the liver are one of the commonest cancers that occur in the world, the commonest of which is the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is considered to be the 5th commonest cancer in the world. In the areas that are endemic for hepatitis B and C, it is extremely common. Unfortunately, India which is an endemic zone for hepatitis B, there has been no comprehensive analyzed data for HCC. Incidence of HCC in India occurs at two peaks, one at a young age between 40 to 55 years and another above 60 years. Eighty per cent of all HCCs occurring in India occur with cirrhosis of liver in the background and 60% of all these cases are hepatitis B positive carriers. Symptoms are reflective of late presentation with advanced disease. Surgery, the only curative modulus available, unfortunately is not possible in 95% of HCC patients. Majority of the patients are treated with palliative and supportive care and life spans are limited. Sorafenib is used in a small section of patients. Characterization of HCC with molecular sub-typing is the need of the hour.

  9. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  10. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Chaly, Preetha Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a 'smoking epidemic' in developing countries. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations. PMID:17347536

  11. Paragonimus & paragonimiasis in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, T. Shantikumar; Sugiyama, Hiromu; Rangsiruji, Achariya

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the first indigenous case in 1981, paragonimiasis has gained recognition as a significant food borne parasitic zoonosis in India. The data available on the occurrence of paragonimiasis, until today, may be just the tip of an iceberg as the study areas covered were restricted to Northeast Indian States. Nevertheless, the results of research on paragonimiasis in India have revealed valuable information in epidemiology, life cycle, pathobiology and speciation of Indian Paragonimus. Potamiscus manipurensis, Alcomon superciliosum and Maydelliathelphusa lugubris were identified as the crab hosts of Paragonimus. Paragonimus miyazakii manipurinus n. sub sp., P. hueit’ungensis, P. skrjabini, P. heterotremus, P. compactus, and P. westermani have been described from India. P. heterotremus was found as the causative agent of human paragonimiasis. Ingestion of undercooked crabs and raw crab extract was the major mode of infection. Pulmonary paragonimiasis was the commonest clinical manifestation while pleural effusion and subcutaneous nodules were the common extra-pulmonary forms. Clinico-radiological features of pulmonary paragonimiasis simulated pulmonary tuberculosis. Intradermal test, ELISA and Dot-immunogold filtration assay (DIGFA) were used for diagnosis and epidemiological survey of paragonimiasis. Phylogenitically, Indian Paragonimus species, although nested within the respective clade were distantly related to others within the clade. PMID:22960885

  12. Bioinformatics education in India.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Kale, Urmila; Sawant, Sangeeta; Chavan, Vishwas

    2010-11-01

    An account of bioinformatics education in India is presented along with future prospects. Establishment of BTIS network by Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India in the 1980s had been a systematic effort in the development of bioinformatics infrastructure in India to provide services to scientific community. Advances in the field of bioinformatics underpinned the need for well-trained professionals with skills in information technology and biotechnology. As a result, programmes for capacity building in terms of human resource development were initiated. Educational programmes gradually evolved from the organisation of short-term workshops to the institution of formal diploma/degree programmes. A case study of the Master's degree course offered at the Bioinformatics Centre, University of Pune is discussed. Currently, many universities and institutes are offering bioinformatics courses at different levels with variations in the course contents and degree of detailing. BioInformatics National Certification (BINC) examination initiated in 2005 by DBT provides a common yardstick to assess the knowledge and skill sets of students passing out of various institutions. The potential for broadening the scope of bioinformatics to transform it into a data intensive discovery discipline is discussed. This necessitates introduction of amendments in the existing curricula to accommodate the upcoming developments.

  13. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  14. Medicine in South India

    PubMed Central

    McHenry, Malcolm M.

    1978-01-01

    A three-month sabbatical allowed a superficial overview of Indian medical history and practice. As in Western nations, cost is a major determinant of health care delivery in India; poverty and fiscal shortages, however, deny care to many. The education of Indian physicians is similar to that in Western nations and a high level of clinical competence is seen. However, physician compensation is woefully low by Western standards. India possesses its own indigenous medical systems, purported to be the oldest in the world and predating Hippocrates by several millenia. Most Indians are cared for by native practitioners whose medical techniques are intricately related to the Hindu and Islamic religions. Many of their herbal medicines have been assimilated into contemporary Western practice. Diseases unknown to us except by textbooks are commonly seen and effectively treated. On the other hand, Western diseases such as coronary arteriosclerosis are not uncommon in a land of massive overpopulation and malnutrition. The humbling aspect of this experience is the realization that medical practice dating back several millenia can be made more modern and carried out competently by contemporary physicians. A Western physician working in India finds an unparalleled variety of disease in a totally different medical-religious environment allowing him to reorganize his priorities and to rediscover himself in the world within which he lives. PMID:716392

  15. Stroke program for India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Nishant K.; Khadilkar, Satish V.

    2010-01-01

    India is silently witnessing a stroke epidemic. There is an urgent need to develop a national program towards “Fighting Stroke”. This program should be specific to our national needs. In order to recommend on who should lead an Indian fight-stroke program, we examined the published opinions of stroke clinicians and the official documents on stroke care training abroad. We identified the resources that already exist in India and can be utilized to develop a national fight-stroke program. Through a review of published literature, we noted different opinions that exist on who would best manage stroke. We found that because stroke is a cardiovascular disorder of the central nervous system, its management requires a multi-disciplinary approach involving clinicians with background not limited to neurology. India has very few neurologists trained in stroke medicine and they cannot care for all stroke patients of the country. We propose a mechanism that would quickly put in place a stroke care model relevant in Indian context. We recommend for tapping the clinical expertise available from existing pool of non-neurologist physicians who can be trained and certified in stroke medicine (Strokology). We have discussed an approach towards developing a national network for training and research in Strokology hoping that our recommendations would initiate discussion amongst stroke academicians and motivate the national policy makers to quickly develop an “Indian Fight Stroke Program.” PMID:20436743

  16. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H.; Shukla, P.R.

    1994-07-01

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  17. Mental hospitals in India.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, K; Venugopal, D; Alimchandani, A K

    2000-04-01

    This review traces the history of the mental hospital movement, initially on the world stage, and later in India, in relation to advances in psychiatric care. Mental hospitals have played a significant role in the evolution of psychiatry to its present statusThe earliest hospital in India were established during the British colonial rule. They served as a means to isolate mentally ill persons from the societal mainstream and provide treatments that were in vogue at the time. Following India's independence, there has been a trend towards establishing general hospital psychiatry units and deinstitutionalization, while at the same time improving conditions in the existing mental hospitals.Since 1947, a series of workshops of superintendents was conducted to review the prevailing situations in mental hospitals and to propose recommendations to improve the same. Implementation of the Mental Health Act, 1987, and grovernmental focus upon mental hospital reform have paved way for a more specific and futuristic role for mental hospitals in planning psychiatric services for the new millenium, especially for severe mental illnesses. PMID:21407925

  18. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  19. Dengue in India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country. PMID:23041731

  20. Dengue in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nivedita; Srivastava, Sakshi; Jain, Amita; Chaturvedi, Umesh C

    2012-09-01

    Dengue virus belongs to family Flaviviridae, having four serotypes that spread by the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. It causes a wide spectrum of illness from mild asymptomatic illness to severe fatal dengue haemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Approximately 2.5 billion people live in dengue-risk regions with about 100 million new cases each year worldwide. The cumulative dengue diseases burden has attained an unprecedented proportion in recent times with sharp increase in the size of human population at risk. Dengue disease presents highly complex pathophysiological, economic and ecologic problems. In India, the first epidemic of clinical dengue-like illness was recorded in Madras (now Chennai) in 1780 and the first virologically proved epidemic of dengue fever (DF) occurred in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and Eastern Coast of India in 1963-1964. During the last 50 years a large number of physicians have treated and described dengue disease in India, but the scientific studies addressing various problems of dengue disease have been carried out at limited number of centres. Achievements of Indian scientists are considerable; however, a lot remain to be achieved for creating an impact. This paper briefly reviews the extent of work done by various groups of scientists in this country.

  1. Occupational health in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Tushar Kant; Smith, Kirk R

    2002-01-01

    The population of India has crossed the billion mark; only one other country (China) shares this distinction. A declining female population and low literacy are negatives in an otherwise vibrant country. The empowerment of females and their role in society has become a point of debate, and radical economic changes are likely, to allow India to join the global economy. Problems in occupational health and safety (OHS) include: OHS legislation that covers only a minority of the working population; child labour; a physician-driven OHS model; little attention to industrial hygiene; poor surveillance of occupational diseases (making it impossible to gauge the burden of illness due to occupational exposures); and a fragile OHS academic base. A silver lining comprises the inclusion of OHS in national health policy and the decision by the Indian Medical Association to educate its members in occupational health. India urgently requires modern OHS legislation with adequate enforcement machinery, and establishment of centres of excellence in occupational medicine, to catch up with the rest of the world.

  2. Fog and precipitation chemistry at Delhi, North India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K.; Momin, G. A.; Tiwari, S.; Safai, P. D.; Chate, D. M.; Rao, P. S. P.

    Fog water samples were collected during three consecutive winters from the year 2000 to 2003 and their chemical compositions were studied to describe and assess the air quality in Delhi. It was found that all the samples were alkaline in nature in comparison to the neutrality of atmospheric CO 2 equilibrated pure water. Neutralization of fog acidity by cations occurs in the order of NH 4+>Ca 2+>Mg 2+. Comparison of the chemical composition of fog water and that of rain water, which were collected during the same period, indicates that nearly all the chemical constituents were higher in fog water than those in rain water except for one case of rain water which occurred on 25 December 2003. On account of much less amount of rainfall on the very occasion, all the ionic species showed very high concentration. Concentration of nitrate both in fog and temporally nearest rain water samples was nearly the same except for the rain sample of 25 December 2003, which indicates that while fog water drags only the lower tropospheric NO 3-, rain water collects an appreciable amount of NO 3- from aloft as well. Major contribution to the total lower tropospheric NH 4+ ion was made through human and animal excretion during winter season. Finally, natural source of cations like Ca 2+, K + and Mg 2+ dominated over the anthropogenically produced acidic anions. Correlation analysis between different chemical species was computed, but no concrete conclusion is drawn on the basis of this result, because the data set is statistically very small. Nevertheless, it gives an idea about the source of different ions and their chemical composition.

  3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: first reported case from Rohtak, North India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Naveen; Bhaskar, Hemlata; Duggal, Shalini; Ghalaut, Pratap S; Kundra, Shailja; Arora, Des R

    2009-06-01

    A fatal case of primary amoebic encephalitis (PAM) in a 20 year old boy, a proven case of acute leukemic leukemia (ALL) type L2, in remission is described. No history of swimming could be elicited. The clinical presentation, the isolation of the amoeba from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the poor response to amphotericin B, and the ultimately fatal outcome are all consistent with the diagnosis of PAM. On the basis of its ability to grow at temperature 42 degrees C and 45 degrees C, morphology of trophozoite, and the presence of flagellate forms in CSF, the amoeba was identified as Naegleria fowleri. Other drugs used in combination with amphotericin B are tetracycline, rifampicin, and miconazole. A possibility of PAM should always be considered in all cases of acute purulent meningoencephalitis in which no bacteria or fungus are found.

  4. Hymenolepis diminuta infection in a young boy from rural part of Northern India.

    PubMed

    Mane, Pratibha; Sangwan, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Hymenolepis diminuta (H. diminuta) is primarily a parasite of rats and mice. Humans are infected by eating meal contaminated with these arthropods. This infection is not seen commonly in Indian population. We present here a case report of infection with H. diminuta in a young boy from a rural area of the North India. PMID:27453865

  5. Slowing of India's convergence with Eurasia since 20 Ma and its implications for Tibetan mantle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, Peter; Stock, Joann M.

    2009-06-01

    Reconstructions of the relative positions of the India and Eurasia plates, using recently revised histories of movement between India and Somalia and between North America and Eurasia and of the opening of the East African Rift, show that India's convergence rate with Eurasia slowed by more than 40% between 20 and 10 Ma. Much evidence suggests that beginning in that interval, the Tibetan Plateau grew outward rapidly and that radially oriented compressive strain in the area surrounding Tibet increased. An abrupt increase in the mean elevation of the plateau provides a simple explanation for all of these changes. Elementary calculations show that removal of mantle lithosphere from beneath Tibet, or from just part of it, would lead to both a modest increase in the mean elevation of the plateau of ˜1 km and a substantial change in the balance of forces per unit length applied to the India and Eurasia plates.

  6. Astronomy of the Korku Tribe of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vahia, M. N.; Halkare, Ganesh; Dahedar, Purushottam

    2016-08-01

    The Korku are an ancient tribe of India believed to be of Austro-Asian origin. They trace their origin to the eastern Indian region of Chota Nagpur but large numbers of these people are settled in the forest reserves of central India. We visited twelve villages almost exclusively populated by Korku people in Northern Maharashtra about 200 km north of the city of Amravati, and focused on recording their astronomical beliefs. While living in the same Satpuda Mountain ranges, these groups differ in their astronomical beliefs from other tribes in the region. They focus on the Big Dipper (part of Ursa Major), and also show an understanding of some other aspects of the sky. They are particularly fascinated by eclipses (but treat solar and lunar eclipses the same) and have elaborate ways of measuring time. They also are aware of conjunctions of Mars and Venus and consider these to be of importance for marriages. They also are fascinated by Taurus. In this paper we report on the astronomical beliefs of the Korkus and compare these with the astronomical beliefs of other tribes in the region that have already been reported.

  7. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  8. India Co2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, S.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.

    2010-12-01

    Is there a way to find a balance between improving living conditions for the people on the margins and also reducing emissions while limiting our negative impacts on the climate? This is a critical question today because there are many arguments between developed and developing countries about who is responsible for global warming. Developed countries believe that it is the poor countries because they are not educated enough to know about how they are affecting the climate. While the developing countries hold wealthy nations responsible because they are using the most resources. However it is important to acknowledge the fact that if there was no gap in between the developed and developing countries our emissions total would be much higher. This “gap” has been a natural controlling factor in climate change. This is why I wanted to see if I could plot what it would look like if a developing country such as India were to produce emissions that the US or Switzerland or Norway are producing as developed countries. India has a population total of 1.1 billion compared to the US with only 298 million, Switzerland with 7.5 million, and Norway with 4.6 million people. When the population is compared to the emissions output in metric tons, per capita, India produced the least emissions out of these countries, 1.4 tons per person while having the second largest population in the world, while the US produced 19 tons per capita, Switzerland produced 5.6 and Norway produced 8.7 tons per capita in 2006. The emissions rate is growing every year and increases widely and globally. If India was producing emissions that equal Norway, Switzerland and the US the total emissions it would be producing annually would be 9 billion for Norway, 6 billion for Switzerland and 20 billion emissions for the US, all in the year 2006 alone. This shows how the balance between countries with huge populations and very little emission output and average population and high emission out put has

  9. Precipitation and temperature changes in eastern India by multiple trend detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Chandra Shekhar; Panda, Sudhindra N.; Pradhan, Rudra P.; Singh, Amanpreet; Kawamura, Akira

    2016-11-01

    The present study deals with spatial and temporal trend analysis of precipitation and temperature (1970-2004) in eastern India. Long-term trend direction and magnitude of change over time (annual and seasonal) were detected and analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, Least square linear regression, Spearman rank correlation and Sequential Mann-Kendall test. In addition to it, correlation analysis was also performed. Trend analysis of annual rainfall by different methods indicated similar annual trends in eastern India. North-eastern, south-eastern and western parts of eastern India indicated increasing trend, whereas the north-western, central and southern parts showed decreasing trend. A similar trend was observed by different methods in case of seasonal rainfall. During winter season, decreasing trend was observed in the central part, whereas similar results were obtained for pre-and post-monsoon in the western part. The trend during monsoon season was found similar to annual rainfall trend. Abrupt change in trend of rainfall with time was lacking in eastern India. Maximum temperature analysis indicated increasing trend in the western part for all the seasons (except in monsoon) and decreasing trend in the eastern part. On the contrary, increasing trend was observed in the eastern part and decreasing trend in the western half of the study area for all the seasons in case of minimum temperature. Significant changes were observed during monsoon season as compared to other seasons. A decreasing trend in mean temperature was observed in the central, southern and north western parts, whereas it was found to be increasing in the north-eastern, western and south-eastern parts. In majority of the eastern India region, any abrupt change of trend in temperatures with time was not clearly observed. Negative correlation between rainfall and maximum temperature was observed in the entire eastern India. Similar results were observed in case of minimum temperature

  10. Diversity of sickle cell trait in Jharkhand state in India: Is it the zone of contact between two geographically and ethnically distinct populations in India?

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rachana; Raman, Rajiva

    2015-09-01

    Incidence of sickle cell trait in India is high in peninsular south, south-eastern, central and south-western India, while in north and north-eastern India, it is absent. Unicentric origin of SCD in the tribals of nilgiri hills in southern India has been proposed. The present study on the frequency of HbS trait and beta-globin gene haplotypes was conducted in the tribal-rich states of Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand to get an insight into the uneven distribution of HbS in India. Jharkhand borders with the HbS-high Odisha and Chhattisgarh, and HbS-low UP, Bihar and Bengal. Cellulose acetate gel electrophoresis was performed on the collected blood samples, to detect sickle haemoglobin (HbS) followed by DNA analysis. HbS associated beta-gene haplotype was constructed for the samples positive for HbS and all the tribals by PCR-RFLP. Out of 805 (Chhattisgarh - 261, Jharkhand - 544; greater than 36 percent tribals) samples analysed HbS frequency was 13 percent in Chhattisgarh and 3.3 percent in Jharkhand. Within Jharkhand, frequencies varied considerably from 10 percent in Tatanagar to nil in Sahibganj. The Arab-India (AI) haplotype of beta-globin cluster occurred in low frequency, confined mainly to Chhattisgarh. The most abundant haplotype in all the populations was the East Asian, + - - - - - +, rare in HbS, mainly in Sahibganj in east Jharkhand, which lacked AI. Our results indicate that besides the heterozygote advantage againstmalaria, the uneven regional distribution of HbS trait is because of restricted movement of two different populations, Dravidian from the south and Tibeto-Burman from the east into the Indianmainland which failed tomeet, we conjecture, due to severe climatic conditions (deserts and heat) prevailing through parts of central India. Apparently, Jharkhand became a zone of contact between them in recent times.

  11. Epidemiology of childhood overweight & obesity in India: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Harish; Mehreen, T.S.; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Garg, Renu; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Childhood obesity is a known precursor to obesity and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood. However, the magnitude of the problem among children and adolescents in India is unclear due to paucity of well-conducted nationwide studies and lack of uniformity in the cut-points used to define childhood overweight and obesity. Hence an attempt was made to review the data on trends in childhood overweight and obesity reported from India during 1981 to 2013. Methods: Literature search was done in various scientific public domains from the last three decades using key words such as childhood and adolescent obesity, overweight, prevalence, trends, etc. Additional studies were also identified through cross-references and websites of official agencies. Results: Prevalence data from 52 studies conducted in 16 of the 28 States in India were included in analysis. The median value for the combined prevalence of childhood and adolescent obesity showed that it was higher in north, compared to south India. The pooled data after 2010 estimated a combined prevalence of 19.3 per cent of childhood overweight and obesity which was a significant increase from the earlier prevalence of 16.3 per cent reported in 2001-2005. Interpretation & conclusions: Our review shows that overweight and obesity rates in children and adolescents are increasing not just among the higher socio-economic groups but also in the lower income groups where underweight still remains a major concern. PMID:27121514

  12. Seismic Structure of India from Regional Waveform Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.

    2003-12-01

    We use a neighborhood adaptive grid search procedure and reflectivity synthetics to model regional distance range (500-2000~km) seismograms recorded in India and to determine the variation in the crust and uppermost mantle structure across the subcontinent. The portions of the regional waveform which are most influenced by the crust and uppermost mantle structure are the 10-100~s period Pnl and fundamental mode surface waves. We use the adaptive grid search algorithm to match both portions of the seismogram simultaneously. This procedure results in a family of 1-D path average crust and upper mantle velocity and attenuation models whose propagation characteristics closely match those of the real Earth. Our data set currently consist of ˜20 seismograms whose propagation paths are primarily confined to the Ganges Basin in north India and the East Dharwar Craton of south India. The East Dharwar Craton has a simple and uniform structure consisting of a 36+/-2 km thick two layer crust, and an uppermost mantle with a sub-Moho velocity of 4.5~km/s. The structure of northern India is more complicated, with pronounced low velocities in the upper crustal layer due to the large sediment thicknesses in the Ganges basin.

  13. Tectonic interactions between India and Arabia since the Jurassic reconstructed from marine geophysics, ophiolite geology, and seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Carmen; Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Spakman, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Gondwana breakup since the Jurassic and the northward motion of India toward Eurasia were associated with formation of ocean basins and ophiolite obduction between and onto the Indian and Arabian margins. Here we reconcile marine geophysical data from preserved oceanic basins with the age and location of ophiolites in NW India and SE Arabia and seismic tomography of the mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The North Somali and proto-Owen basins formed due to 160-133 Ma N-S extension between India and Somalia. Subsequent convergence destroyed part of this crust, simultaneous with the uplift of the Masirah ophiolites. Most of the preserved crust in the Owen Basin may have formed between 84 and 74 Ma, whereas the Mascarene and the Amirante basins accommodated motion between India and Madagascar/East Africa between 85 and circa 60 Ma and 75 and circa 66 Ma, respectively. Between circa 84 and 45 Ma, oblique Arabia-India convergence culminated in ophiolite obduction onto SE Arabia and NW India and formed the Carlsberg slab in the lower mantle below the NW Indian Ocean. The NNE-SSW oriented slab may explain the anomalous bathymetry in the NW Indian Ocean and may be considered a paleolongitudinal constraint for absolute plate motion. NW India-Asia collision occurred at circa 20 Ma deforming the Sulaiman ranges or at 30 Ma if the Hindu Kush slab north of the Afghan block reflects intra-Asian subduction. Our study highlights that the NW India ophiolites have no relationship with India-Asia motion or collision but result from relative India-Africa/Arabia motions instead.

  14. India`s first solar chicken brooder

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturvedi, P.; Naryanaswamy, T.S.; Kumar, A.; Choudhary, U.; Sharma, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A 1,200 bird solar chicken brooder was indigenously designed and operated by the Indian scientists for the first time in the country as a Project under funding by the Ministry of Non Conventional Energy Sources to the All India Women`s Conference. This multi disciplinary project was taken up on the International Sun Day, May 3, 1993 and completed on May, 1994. Data has been collected for the first nine months of operation. Its successful operation has justified multi disciplinary approach. The solar chicken brooder incorporates modern poultry concepts of breeding under controlled temperatures. In view of the mixed climate of Delhi, provision was made for heating and cooling both to take care of the 24 hour cycle. Comfort conditions have been identified and maintained (as is done in the their genetic characteristics) at different temperatures for a period of 8--10 weeks to grow them to a uniform weight of 2.0 kg. Growing them under controlled temperature for the first 4 weeks and then at room temperature was another new concept to grow hard stock. This development has opened avenues for new food industry based on processing of chicken utilizing internationally available technologies.

  15. Ancient India: The Asiatic Ethiopians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carolyn McPherson

    This curriculum unit was developed by a participant in the 1993 Fulbright-Hays Program "India: Continuity and Change." The unit attempts to place India in the "picture frame" of the ancient world as a part of a whole, not as a separate entity. Reading materials enable students to draw broader general conclusions based on the facts presented. The…

  16. Teaching about India. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, S. Rex

    Although world history and global studies programs in U.S. public schools have expanded in recent years, teaching about India and South Asia has remained insufficient. As a result, students often develop cultural misunderstandings and false stereotypes. India, as a focus of study, provides students with the opportunity to examine an ancient…

  17. A Tale of Two Indias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidhu, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    The latest battle between India's increasingly successful haves and left-behind have-nots is playing out in the country's educational system. India's Supreme Court recently upheld a stay against a quota system for low-caste and historically oppressed Indians, who are officially called Other Backward Classes. The decision could halt quotas for…

  18. India's Trade in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Shailendra

    2015-01-01

    India has had an extremely adverse balance of trade in education. Though only a minor education exporter through Mode 2, India is the world's second largest student-sending country. Nevertheless, given English as the medium of instruction especially in apex institutions, low tuition and cost of living, quite a few world-class institutions, and a…

  19. Indigenisation of Psychology in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalal, Ajit K.

    2011-01-01

    Academic psychology which made a new beginning in India in the early part of 20th century was modelled on the Western scientific tradition. The teaching of psychology was very much on the British pattern since the colonial rule, whereas the research was mostly an extension of the Western work in India. Psychology went through massive expansion…

  20. Passages from India, Vol. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geils, Kenneth, Ed.

    This is compendium of readings designed for use in the secondary classroom to assist with the study of India. There are seventeen categories of readings: (1) introduction to the subcontinent; (2) description of society; (3) caste and its continuing impact; (4) leadership roles; (5) women in India; (6) role playing in society; (7) marriage; (8)…

  1. Environment and Culture in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuthold, David

    India suffers from severe environmental problems with respect to deforestation, flooding, and pollution. These problems are associated with industrialization, lack of money to enforce anti-pollution practices, climatic and population pressures, and cultural factors. Half of India's forests have been cut in the last 40 years. Deforestation is the…

  2. Adult Education in India & Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Nikhil Ranjan

    A survey is made of various aspects of adult education in India since 1947, together with comparative accounts of the origin, development, and notable features of adult education in Denmark, Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States. Needs and objectives in India, largely in the eradication of illiteracy, are set forth, and pertinent…

  3. Astronomy and Astrophysics in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narlikar, J.; Murdin, P.

    2001-07-01

    The growth in astronomy and astrophysics (A&A) in India has been mostly since the country achieved independence in 1947. The present work is carried out in a few select research institutes and in some university departments. The Astronomical Society of India has around 300 working A&A scientists as members, with another 50-60 graduate students....

  4. Science and Technology in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Assesses the current status of science and technology in India, focusing on developments in agriculture, energy, medicine, space, basic sciences, and engineering. Indicates that although India has benefited in many fields from international collaboration during the last 30 years, the country's leaders have also placed particularly strong emphasis…

  5. India and the Green Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilden, Clark G.

    In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…

  6. Status of women in India.

    PubMed

    Buxi, L S

    The status of women in India can only be improved through a joint program between the media and the community in providing Indian women with the power of literacy. Women in India are divided into unequal halves. Of 368 million women in India, 278 reside in rural areas, and most are illiterate. The majority of illiterate women number 75%, 25% are semi-literate, and only 5% may be considered educated. In an effort to integrate women into the mainstream of Indian social life, a campaign of providing literacy to all women has been undertaken. The welfare state of India has taken up the responsibility of providing education, and maternity and child welfare to these women. It has gone further in incorporating the media in educating people regarding these various programs. This approach will help integrate women more fully into the economic, political, and social mainstream of independent India.

  7. Medical tourism in India.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Das, Poonam

    2012-06-01

    The term 'medical tourism' is under debate because health care is a serious business and rarely do patients combine the two. India is uniquely placed by virtue of its skilled manpower, common language, diverse medical conditions that doctors deal with, the volume of patients, and a large nonresident Indian population overseas. Medical tourism requires dedicated services to alleviate the anxiety of foreign patients. These include translation, currency conversion, travel, visa, posttreatment care system,and accommodation of patient relatives during and after treatment. PMID:22727009

  8. Astronomical Instruments in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Sreeramula Rajeswara

    The earliest astronomical instruments used in India were the gnomon and the water clock. In the early seventh century, Brahmagupta described ten types of instruments, which were adopted by all subsequent writers with minor modifications. Contact with Islamic astronomy in the second millennium AD led to a radical change. Sanskrit texts began to lay emphasis on the importance of observational instruments. Exclusive texts on instruments were composed. Islamic instruments like the astrolabe were adopted and some new types of instruments were developed. Production and use of these traditional instruments continued, along with the cultivation of traditional astronomy, up to the end of the nineteenth century.

  9. Multiple personality in India: comparison with hysterical possession state.

    PubMed

    Varma, V K; Bouri, M; Wig, N N

    1981-01-01

    This article reports probably the first case of multiple personality from India and compares and contrasts it with the hysterical possession syndrome. Attention is drawn to the apparent rarity of multiple personality in contrast to the great prevalence of the possession syndrome in India (and other underdeveloped societies), while the reverse applies to Western Europe and North America. It is postulated that the disparity of frequency between the two manifestations of personal-identity disturbance derives from certain basic cultural differences. It is argued that polytheism and belief in reincarnation and spirits may be related to the possession syndrome, whereas high social approval of deliberate role-playing may foster the multiple personality syndrome.

  10. Tracking Arabia-India motion from Miocene to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Fournier, M.

    2009-12-01

    Although small, the present-day Arabia-India motion has been captured by several global and regional geodetic surveys that consistently show dextral motion of a few mm/yr, either transpressive or transtensive (Fournier et al., 2008). This motion is accommodated along the Owen Fracture Zone, an active strike-slip boundary that runs for more than 700 km from the Somalia-India-Arabia triple junction in the south to the Dalrymple trough in the north. Two recent marine cruises conducted along this fault aboard the BHO Beautemps-Beaupré (AOC 2006 and OWEN 2009) using a high resolution multibeam sounder (Simrad EM120, 10 m vertical resolution) provided a complete map of the active fault and confirmed a present-day pure dextral motion. The surface breaks closely follow a small circle of the Arabia-India motion, with several pull-part basins at the junctions between the main segments of the fault. Geomorphologic offsets reach 10 km, suggesting that the mapped fault has been active with the same style for past several million years. When did this motion start? The difficulty in tracking the past Arabia-India motion is that there is no direct kinematic indicator available, since the boundary has been strike-slip and/or convergent during the Tertiary. Motion was most probably sinistral during the rapid northward travelling of India towards Eurasia in the early Tertiary, Arabia being rigidly attached to Africa until the opening of the Gulf of Aden. However, the nature and location of the Arabia-India boundary at that time remain speculative. Throughout the Miocene, the relative motion between India and Arabia has been indirectly recorded at the Sheba and Carslberg ridges, the former recording Arabia-Somalia motion (opening of the Gulf of Aden) and the latter India-Somalia motion (Indian Ocean opening). Both ridges have been studied with some details recently, using up to date magnetic lineations identification (Merkouriev and DeMets, 2006; Fournier et al., 2009). We combine

  11. India`s low-tech energy success

    SciTech Connect

    Sampat, P.

    1995-11-01

    This article describes a program by the Indian government which develops a inexpensive, readily available resource into electricity. A very simple method for converting cow dung into a flammable gase, biogas, has been used to improve the lives of over 10 million rural inhabitants of India. The dung provides cooking fuel, electric power, and as a by product an even better fertilizer than manure. Topics covered include the following: why biogas works in India; the economics of self-sufficiency in rural India; finding a strategy that works; tapping into the potential in the rural areas.

  12. Afghanistan structure, greater India concept and Eastern Tethys evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, Jean

    1981-02-01

    The large and complex area between Central Asia and the Arabia—India block includes, from north to south, the Tien Shan and Hindu Kush—Kun Lun Hercynian belts, the Turkman—Farah Rud and Tanghla Shan Neokimmerian belt, the Zagros—Makran—Baluch—Himalayan Alpine belt and relics of corresponding oceanic spaces. The Angarian or Gondwanian affinities of the different blocks separated by these successive peri-Indian belts are discussed. An interpretation is proposed for the paleogeographic and structural evolution of this area, from Early Paleozoic to Present. This interpretation is based on geologic and paleomagnetic data and on global tectonic considerations. The Hindu Kush—Kun Lun pre-Hercynian ocean probably separated Laurasia from Gondwanaland. It was an Early Paleozoic Tethys (Tethys 1). The Tien Shan ocean may have been a marginal basin for the Hindu Kush—Kun Lun ocean. The Turkman-Farah Rud—Tanghla Shan pre-Neokimmerian ocean resulted from the break-up of the Gondwanaland margin. Its opening seems to have been related to the pre-Hercynian ocean closure resulting in the formation of a new Tethys (Tethys 2). Its subsequent closure may also have been related to the opening of the Zagros—Baluch—Indus—Tsang Po pre-Alpine ocean (Tethys 3). According to this interpretation, Eurasia appears to have increased from Early Paleozoic to Cenozoic by successive accretion of cratonic blocks which came from the south through the Tethys. This evolution can be compared to the similar Mediterranean evolution. This interpretation is in agreement with the Greater India concept. However, the northern border of Greater India differs according to the stage of the Gondwanaland evolution which is considered. Actually, Greatest India extended north to the Caledonian belt and consequently has recorded the whole history of the Eastern Tethys.

  13. Prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan: a review.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Ehtisham; Bilal, Saira; Kiani, Adnan; Haque, Uzma

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of rheumatoid arthritis worldwide suggest that prevalence of arthritis is higher in Europe and North America than in developing countries. Prevalence data for major arthritis disorders have been compiled in West for several decades, but figures from the third world are just emerging. A coordinated effort by WHO and ILAR (International League Against Rheumatism) has resulted in collecting data for countries like Philippines, China, Malaysia, Indonesia, and rural South Africa but the information about prevalence of arthritis in India and Pakistan is scarce. Since both countries, i.e., India and Pakistan, share some ethnic identity, we reviewed published literature to examine the prevalence of arthritis in these countries. Medline and Pubmed were searched for suitable articles about arthritis from 1980 and onwards. Findings from these articles were reviewed and summarized. The prevalence, clinical features, and laboratory findings of rheumatoid arthritis are compiled for both India and Pakistan. Data collected from these two countries were compared with each other, and some of the characteristics of the disease were compared with Europe and North America. It is found to be quite similar to developed countries. Additionally, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis is of different variety than reported in West. It is more of polyarticular onset type while in West pauciarticular predominates. Additionally, in systemic onset, JRA uveitis and ANA are common finding in developed countries; on the other hand, they are hardly seen in this region. Although the prevalence of arthritis in Pakistan and India is similar to Western countries, there are inherent differences (clinical features, laboratory findings) in the presentation of disease. The major strength of the study is that it is the first to pool reports to provide an estimate of the disease in the Indian subcontinent. Scarcity of data is one of the major limitations. This study helps to understand the pattern of

  14. Pharma industry in India.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, V M

    2008-01-01

    Globally ranked fourth by volume and 13th in value, the Indian pharma industry is a leading producer of high-quality, low-cost generic drugs. Its 14% share of the USD 57 billion world generic market is expected to increase to 50% by 2010. With the advantages of cost competitiveness, ability and experience in reverse engineering, availability of skilled scientific and engineering personnel and the capability to produce raw materials for a wide range of drugs from the basic stage, the industry delivers the entire range of therapeutic products. McKinsey & Co. predict that India's pharmaceutical market could reach a size of USD 20 billion by 2015, becoming one of the top 10 drug markets in the world. Generic versions of the cardiovascular drug carvedilol, ANDA-approved allopurinol, verapamil SR and the anticancer drug paclitaxel are some of the recent products introduced by Indian companies, with Caraco, Ranbaxy, Dabur, Dr. Reddy's, Nicholas Piramal India, leading the list. Setting up of integrated drug development companies and aggressive entries into the Japanese drug market have provided further impetus to the country's pharma manufacturing arena. PMID:18301810

  15. Holocene aridification of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponton, Camilo; Giosan, Liviu; Eglinton, Tim I.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Johnson, Joel E.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Tim S.

    2012-02-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ˜4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ˜4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India.

  16. Holocene aridification of India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponton, C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T.I.; Fuller, D.Q.; Johnson, J.E.; Kumar, P.; Collett, T.S.

    2012-01-01

    Spanning a latitudinal range typical for deserts, the Indian peninsula is fertile instead and sustains over a billion people through monsoonal rains. Despite the strong link between climate and society, our knowledge of the long-term monsoon variability is incomplete over the Indian subcontinent. Here we reconstruct the Holocene paleoclimate in the core monsoon zone (CMZ) of the Indian peninsula using a sediment core recovered offshore from the mouth of Godavari River. Carbon isotopes of sedimentary leaf waxes provide an integrated and regionally extensive record of the flora in the CMZ and document a gradual increase in aridity-adapted vegetation from ???4,000 until 1,700 years ago followed by the persistence of aridity-adapted plants after that. The oxygen isotopic composition of planktonic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber detects unprecedented high salinity events in the Bay of Bengal over the last 3,000 years, and especially after 1,700 years ago, which suggest that the CMZ aridification intensified in the late Holocene through a series of sub-millennial dry episodes. Cultural changes occurred across the Indian subcontinent as the climate became more arid after ???4,000 years. Sedentary agriculture took hold in the drying central and south India, while the urban Harappan civilization collapsed in the already arid Indus basin. The establishment of a more variable hydroclimate over the last ca. 1,700 years may have led to the rapid proliferation of water-conservation technology in south India. Copyright 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Evolution of Anklesvar anticline, Cambay basin, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, M.K.

    1981-02-01

    The Anklesvar structure, discovered productive by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) in May 1960, is the best hydrocarbon-bearing anticline known in the Cambay basin of India. Situated south of the Narmada River, the structure is a 15 x 2.5-km, doubly plunging, northeast-southwest-trending, asymmetric anticline limited on the south by the South Anklesvar fault system. Regional paleostructural profiles across Anklesvar from Broach on the north to Kosamba on the south suggest that, at the end of the Cretaceous, the regional slope was south. By middle Eocene time, this regional slope had been removed. After the Oligocene, the regional relief of the entire area was reversed, resulting in regional north tilt. The south Anklesvar fault system, a zone of reverse faults, originated probably during the period of reversal. Growth of the Anklesvar anticline was, however, initiated during the Paleocene. One fault on the northern limb developed during the Oligocene. Anklesvar anticline grew into an asymmetric fold in post-Oligocene time as a result of differential movement of the blocks across the strike faults present on both the limbs of the anticline.

  18. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  19. The biological sciences in India

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Karen

    2009-01-01

    India is gearing up to become an international player in the life sciences, powered by its recent economic growth and a desire to add biotechnology to its portfolio. In this article, we present the history, current state, and projected future growth of biological research in India. To fulfill its aspirations, India's greatest challenge will be in educating, recruiting, and supporting its next generation of scientists. Such challenges are faced by the US/Europe, but are particularly acute in developing countries that are racing to achieve scientific excellence, perhaps faster than their present educational and faculty support systems will allow. PMID:19204144

  20. The geographic and phylogenetic position of sauropod dinosaurs from the Kota formation (Early Jurassic) of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillette, David D.

    2003-03-01

    The earliest sauropods are the Late Triassic Isanosaurus from Thailand, the Early Jurassic Barapasaurus and Kotasaurus from the Kota Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Basin of India and Vulcanodon from Zimbabwe, and a variety of Middle Jurassic genera from many localities in Gondwana and Laurasia except North America. These early sauropod genera are related, but their phylogenetic positions remain unresolved. Sauropods originated in Laurasia (Thailand and vicinity) or Pangea (broadly, Thailand, China, India), with at least three additional steps involving expansion and diversification through the Middle Jurassic.

  1. Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Surabi; Hansen, James; Nazarenko, Larissa; Luo, Yunfeng

    2002-09-01

    In recent decades, there has been a tendency toward increased summer floods in south China, increased drought in north China, and moderate cooling in China and India while most of the world has been warming. We used a global climate model to investigate possible aerosol contributions to these trends. We found precipitation and temperature changes in the model that were comparable to those observed if the aerosols included a large proportion of absorbing black carbon (``soot''), similar to observed amounts. Absorbing aerosols heat the air, alter regional atmospheric stability and vertical motions, and affect the large-scale circulation and hydrologic cycle with significant regional climate effects.

  2. Human distomatosis due to Fasciola hepatica infection in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Narain, K; Biswas, D; Rajguru, S K; Mahanta, J

    1997-06-01

    A seven year old girl in a rural area of Upper Assam was found to be infected with Fasciola hepatica. The girl gave history of eating watercress. Besides the presence of eggs in the stools, her liver was enlarged and tender. Liver function tests revealed hepato-biliary involvement with increase in serum AKP and ALT. Ultrasonography revealed presence of adult fluke in gall bladder, and a marginal thickening of gall bladder wall. However, the echo pattern of her liver parenchyma was normal. The case is reported for its public health significance and is a maiden report from north eastern India. PMID:9282516

  3. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India.

  4. Blood bank regulations in India.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Desai, Priti

    2012-06-01

    Successful blood services depend on legally empowered regulatory services. Blood transfusion services are important constituents of national health services. Blood transfusion services in India are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and its subsequent amendments. The Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 specifies about accommodation, manpower, equipment, supplies and reagents, good manufacturing practices, and process control to be followed in Indian blood transfusion services.Regulatory affairs in the Indian blood banking system are controlled by central and provincial Drug Control authority under Drug Controller General of India. National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) acts as a facilitator to Indian blood transfusion services on behalf of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India,especially to the government sector. The National Blood Policy was published by the Government of India in 2002 and it provides objectives to provide safe, adequate quantity of blood, blood components, and products.

  5. Biobanking and Privacy in India.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Sachin; Srinivas, Krishna Ravi; Muthuswamy, Vasantha

    2016-03-01

    Biobank-based research is not specifically addressed in Indian statutory law and therefore Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines are the primary regulators of biobank research in India. The guidelines allow for broad consent and for any level of identification of specimens. Although privacy is a fundamental right under the Indian Constitution, courts have limited this right when it conflicts with other rights or with the public interest. Furthermore, there is no established privacy test or actionable privacy right in the common law of India. In order to facilitate biobank-based research, both of these lacunae should be addressed by statutory law specifically addressing biobanking and more directly addressing the accompanying privacy concerns. A biobank-specific law should be written with international guidelines in mind, but harmonization with other laws should not be attempted until after India has created a law addressing biobank research within the unique legal and cultural environment of India. PMID:27256123

  6. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  7. GPS Measurements Of The Relative Motion Between India And Sundaland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socquet, A.; Vigny, C.; Pubellier, M.; Chamot-Rooke, N.; Rangin, C.

    GPS measurements acquired in the framework of the GEODYSSEA project have pro- vided significant new information on the present day plate tectonics in South East Asia. In order to further investigate the relative motion between India and South East Asia, we have performed a combined processing the THAICA, APRGP, MYANMAR, GEODYSSEA and RTSD data (10 GPS campaigns from 1994 to 2000) including 90 stations in South East Asia. Global plate motion model Nuvel-1A [DeMets et al., 1994] predicts a relative motion of India with respect to Eurasia of about 5.5 cm/yr oriented around N20rE on the east- ern border of the Indian plate in Myanmar. Our geodetic results allow us to confirm That India motion is actually slower than this value in agreement with the results ob- tained by Paul et al., 2001. In addition, since the block along which India is sliding is not stable Eurasia but rather the Sundaland block [Michel et al., 2001], the relative motion expected between India and Sundaland on the Myanmar boundary reduces to about 4.5 cm/yr and rotates towards North. The local Myanmar velocity field [Vigny et al.,2001] show that, out of the 4.5 cm/yr of India versus Sundaland rate, only 3 cm/yr are accommodated in Myanmar, distributed between 2 cm/yr on the Sagaing fault and 1 cm/yr in the Myanmar Central Basins. Therefore, 1.5 cm/yr have to be taken elsewhere. Our results indicate that about 0.5 cm/yr can be accommodated in a large shear zone in Indochina, the remaining motion being accommodated in the Andaman trench. DeMets, C., R. G. Gordon, D. Argus, and S. Stein, Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Letters., 21, 2191-2194, 1994. Michel, G., Y. Yu, S. Zhu, C. Reigber, M. Becker, E. Reinhart, W. Simons, B. Am- brosius, C. Vigny, N. Chamot-Rooke, X. LePichon, P. Morgan, and S. Matheussen, Crustal motion and block behavior in SE-Asia from GPS measurements,.Earth and Physics Science letters, 187, 289

  8. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India.

    PubMed

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E; Fleischer, Robert C; Jhala, Yadvendradev V

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  9. Phylogeography of the Golden Jackal (Canis aureus) in India

    PubMed Central

    Yumnam, Bibek; Negi, Tripti; Maldonado, Jesús E.; Fleischer, Robert C.; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.

    2015-01-01

    The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is one of the most common and widely distributed carnivores in India but phylogeographic studies on the species have been limited across its range. Recent studies have observed absence of mitochondrial (mt) DNA diversity in European populations while some North African populations of golden jackal were found to carry gray wolf (Canis lupus lupaster) mtDNA lineages. In the present study, we sequenced 440 basepairs (bp) of control region (CR) and 412 bp of cytochrome b (cyt b) gene of mtDNA from 62 golden jackals sampled from India (n = 55), Israel (n = 2) and Bulgaria (n = 5), to obtain a total of eighteen haplotypes, comprising sixteen from India and one each from Israel and Bulgaria. Except for three previously described haplotypes represented by one cyt b and one CR haplotype both from India, and one CR haplotype from Bulgaria, all haplotypes identified in this study are new. Genetic diversity was high in golden jackals compared to that reported for other canids in India. Unlike the paraphyletic status of African conspecifics with the gray wolf, the Indian (and other Eurasian) golden jackal clustered in a distinct but shallow monophyletic clade, displaying no evidence of admixture with sympatric and related gray wolf and domestic dog clades in the region. Phylogeographic analyses indicated no clear pattern of genetic structuring of the golden jackal haplotypes and the median joining network revealed a star-shaped polytomy indicative of recent expansion of the species from India. Indian haplotypes were observed to be interior and thus ancestral compared to haplotypes from Europe and Israel, which were peripheral and hence more derived. Molecular tests for demographic expansion confirmed a recent event of expansion of golden jackals in the Indian subcontinent, which can be traced back ~ 37,000 years ago during the late Pleistocene. Our results suggest that golden jackals have had a potentially longer evolutionary history in India

  10. Aging research in India.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Badithe T; Ali, Rashid

    2003-06-01

    Research on aging in India has been well documented since ancient times. As way back as 3000-1500 BC, the Indian medical system of Ayurveda was used as a means for the prevention of the effects of aging and generation of disease in organs or the whole organism, respectively. In recent years, the focus has been demographic studies on different aspects of aging and has been in isolation. Molecular aspects of aging have been addressed only by a few groups of scientists which has focused on regulation of gene expression, DNA damage and repair, development of immunochemical reagents to detect oxidative DNA damage and assessing the levels of circulating antibodies to reactive oxygen species modified DNA (ROS-DNA), etc. This review aims to recapitulate various research studies on aging since 3000 BC to date. PMID:12814794

  11. Can India's ``literate'' read?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Brij; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata

    2010-12-01

    This paper takes a close look at India's literacy rate by exploring whether the officially "literate" can read and at what level. In a large sample, aged 7+, drawn from four Hindi-speaking states, two methods were used to measure literacy. One was the standard Census Method (CM) which relies on self-reporting and the other was a Reading Method (RM) which required the same individuals to actually read a simple text at grade 2 level. The findings revealed a substantial difference between the reading literacy rates obtained by CM and RM. CM over-reported RM by 16%. The overestimation was higher for males. Decoding skills were found to erode in most cases after completion of primary schooling, assuming no further education. A minimum grade 8-9 education was required for decoding skills to not deteriorate after schooling.

  12. India's Worsening Uranium Shortage

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.

    2007-01-15

    As a result of NSG restrictions, India cannot import the natural uranium required to fuel its Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs); consequently, it is forced to rely on the expediency of domestic uranium production. However, domestic production from mines and byproduct sources has not kept pace with demand from commercial reactors. This shortage has been officially confirmed by the Indian Planning Commission’s Mid-Term Appraisal of the country’s current Five Year Plan. The report stresses that as a result of the uranium shortage, Indian PHWR load factors have been continually decreasing. The Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL) operates a number of underground mines in the Singhbhum Shear Zone of Jharkhand, and it is all processed at a single mill in Jaduguda. UCIL is attempting to aggrandize operations by establishing new mines and mills in other states, but the requisite permit-gathering and development time will defer production until at least 2009. A significant portion of India’s uranium comes from byproduct sources, but a number of these are derived from accumulated stores that are nearing exhaustion. A current maximum estimate of indigenous uranium production is 430t/yr (230t from mines and 200t from byproduct sources); whereas, the current uranium requirement for Indian PHWRs is 455t/yr (depending on plant capacity factor). This deficit is exacerbated by the additional requirements of the Indian weapons program. Present power generation capacity of Indian nuclear plants is 4350 MWe. The power generation target set by the Indian Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) is 20,000 MWe by the year 2020. It is expected that around half of this total will be provided by PHWRs using indigenously supplied uranium with the bulk of the remainder provided by breeder reactors or pressurized water reactors using imported low-enriched uranium.

  13. Neurosurgery in India: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    This overview of neurosurgery in India during the last six decades gives a holistic perspective of the phenomenal advances made. Neurosurgical education, the change in clinical spectrum of diseases and their presentation, evolution of various subspecialties and societies, the state of research, the issues peculiar to India, including the urban-rural health divide, the increasing role of information and communication technology in neurosurgery, and the gradual but definite global recognition of Indian neurosurgery will be addressed.

  14. Seasonal Drought Prediction in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is among the most costly natural disasters in India. Seasonal prediction of drought can assist planners to manage agriculture and water resources. Such information can be valuable for a country like India where 60% of agriculture is rain-fed. Here we evaluate precipitation and temperature forecast from the NCEP's CFSV2 for seasonal drought prediction in India. We demonstrate the utility of the seasonal prediction of precipitation and temperature for drought forecast at 1-2 months lead time at a high spatial resolution. Precipitation from CFSv2 showed moderate correlations with observed up to two months lead. For one month lead, we found a significant correlation between CFSv2 and observed precipitation during winter season. Air temperature from the CFSv2 showed a good correlation with observed temperature during the winter. We forced the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model with the CFSv2 forecast of precipitation and air temperature to generate forecast of hydrologic variables such as soil moisture and total runoff. We find that errors of the prediction reduce for the two month lead time in the majority of the study domain except the northern India. Skills of Initial Hydrologic Conditions combined with moderate skills of forcings based on the CFSv2 showed ability of drought prediction in India. The developed system was able to successfully predict observed top layer soil moisture and observed drought based on satellite remote sensing in India.

  15. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes. PMID:27235937

  16. Scaling up of HIV-TB collaborative activities: Achievements and challenges in India.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rajesh; Shah, Amar; Sachdeva, K S; Sreenivas, A N; Gupta, R S; Khaparde, S D

    2016-01-01

    India has been implementing HIV/TB collaborative activities since 2001 with rapid scale-up of infrastructure across the country during past decade in National AIDS Control Programme and Revised National TB Control Programme. India has shown over 50% reduction in new infections and around 35% reduction in AIDS-related deaths, thereby being one of the success stories globally. Substantial progress in the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities has occurred in India and it is marching towards target set out in the Global Plan to Stop TB and endorsed by the UN General Assembly to halve HIV associated TB deaths by 2015. While the successful approaches have led to impressive gains in HIV/TB control in India, there are emerging challenges including newer pockets with rising HIV trends in North India, increasing drug resistance, high mortality among co-infected patients, low HIV testing rates among TB patients in northern and eastern states in India, treatment delays and drop-outs, stigma and discrimination, etc. In spite of these difficulties, established HIV/TB coordination mechanisms at different levels, rapid scale-up of facilities with decentralisation of treatment services, regular joint supervision and monitoring, newer initiatives like use of rapid diagnostics for early diagnosis of TB among people living with HIV, TB notification, etc. have led to success in combating the threat of HIV/TB in India. This article highlights the steps taken by India, one of the largest HIV/TB programmes in world, in scaling up of the joint HIV-TB collaborative activities, the achievements so far and discusses the emerging challenges which could provide important lessons for other countries in scaling up their programmes.

  17. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  18. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. India Culture Trunk. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad, 1997 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doeksen, Peggy

    This unit is intended to provide students with a general knowledge of the history and culture of India. Activities include: (1) "What Do You Know about India?"; (2) "What Is All This Stuff For?"; (3) "Name That Spice and Why It's Nice"; (4) "Where and How Are These Elephants Marching?"; (5) "Why Is India What It Is?"; (6) "Why is India the Cover…

  20. Occurrence of a new species of Letana (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) in India.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Rajendra; Swaminathan, R

    2015-01-01

    A new species of the Oriental genus Letana, Walker (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae), proposed as Letana dentata sp. nov., collected from the North-eastern province, Meghalaya, India (Ri bhoi 90°55'15 to 91°16' latitude and 25°40' to 25°21' longitude, 993 MSL), is described together with the morphological characterization of eight reported species. Of these, Letana rubescens (Stål, 1861) collected from Shalimar, Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir (India) is being reported for the first time from India. The other species of Letana include: L. atomifera, L. bulbosa, L. inflata, L. infurcata, L. pyrifera and L. rufonatata. Taxonomic and diagnostic characters with illustrations of the head, pronotum, ventral view of left tegmina to show stridulatory file teeth and the genitalia (supra-anal plate and subgenital plate) including the phallus sclerite has been given. PMID:26624719

  1. High bat (Chiroptera) diversity in the Early Eocene of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Thierry; Rana, Rajendra S.; Missiaen, Pieter; Rose, Kenneth D.; Sahni, Ashok; Singh, Hukam; Singh, Lachham

    2007-12-01

    The geographic origin of bats is still unknown, and fossils of earliest bats are rare and poorly diversified, with, maybe, the exception of Europe. The earliest bats are recorded from the Early Eocene of North America, Europe, North Africa and Australia where they seem to appear suddenly and simultaneously. Until now, the oldest record in Asia was from the Middle Eocene. In this paper, we report the discovery of the oldest bat fauna of Asia dating from the Early Eocene of the Cambay Formation at Vastan Lignite Mine in Western India. The fossil taxa are described on the basis of well-preserved fragments of dentaries and lower teeth. The fauna is highly diversified and is represented by seven species belonging to seven genera and at least four families. Two genera and five species are new. Three species exhibit very primitive dental characters, whereas four others indicate more advanced states. Unexpectedly, this fauna presents strong affinities with the European faunas from the French Paris Basin and the German Messel locality. This could result from the limited fossil record of bats in Asia, but could also suggest new palaeobiogeographic scenarios involving the relative position of India during the Early Eocene.

  2. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship.

  3. Decriminalising homosexuality in India.

    PubMed

    Misra, Geetanjali

    2009-11-01

    This paper examines the successful fight against the provision in Section 377 of the Penal Code of India that criminalised private consensual sex between adults of the same sex. This law had led to serious discrimination against people engaging in homosexual acts, who were subjected to frequent beatings and blackmail attempts by police, who used the threat of prosecution against them. NGOs working with sexual minorities have also been harassed and sometimes charged under Section 377. By stigmatising homosexuality and threatening gay men with prison, the law is also likely to have impeded the battle against HIV. The provision was read down in July 2009 after an innovative, sustained, mass media campaign by activists. The Voices Against 377 coalition brought together sexuality and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) organisations, who were previously marginalised, with groups working in areas such as children's rights and feminist groups, showing that support for non-discrimination towards sexual minorities was broad-based. Further legal and social changes are needed for LGBT individuals to gain full acceptance and equality within Indian society. However, the judgement transcended the LGBT issue with the implication of protection for all minorities and introduced for the first time in South Asia the idea of sexual citizenship. PMID:19962634

  4. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    PubMed

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  5. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  6. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts. PMID:21305798

  7. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country.

  8. Incredible India: the inconvenient truth.

    PubMed

    Mundkur, Bal

    2011-01-01

    The author's objective is to correct many of the misconceptions about India and to combat mistaken analysis. He highlights the hundreds of millions who live in poverty, the rampant corruption and the incompetence of the administration. He asserts that comparisons with China are always to the disadvantage of India, except in the field of democracy, and suggests that the Indian Space Programme is symptomatic of a wide-spread misallocation of resources. And to suggest that the traffic problems in Delhi and Mumbai are being caused by more motor vehicles is a misdiagnosis. The real cause is an increase in the number of bullock carts.

  9. HIV in India: the Jogini culture

    PubMed Central

    Borick, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Jogini is the name for a female sexually exploited temple attendant and is used interchangeably with Devadasi in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Jogini are twice more likely than other women who are used for sexual intercourse in India to be HIV positive, and their rate of mortality from HIV is 10 times the total mortality rate for all women in India. The four states in India with the most Jogini also have the highest prevalence of HIV. The following case is unfortunately typical of the Jogini and sheds light on a potentially disastrous public health problem in rural South India. PMID:25015167

  10. Cholera outbreaks in India.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Sharma, Naresh C

    2014-01-01

    Cholera is a global health problem as several thousands of cases and deaths occur each year. The unique epidemiologic attribute of the disease is its propensity to occur as outbreaks that may flare-up into epidemics, if not controlled. The causative bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae prevails in the environment and infects humans whenever there is a breakdown in the public health component. The Indian subcontinent is vulnerable to this disease due its vast coastlines with areas of poor sanitation, unsafe drinking water, and overcrowding. Recently, it was shown that climatic conditions also play a major role in the persistence and spread of cholera. Constant change in the biotypes and serotypes of V. cholerae are also important aspects that changes virulence and survival of the pathogen. Such continuous changes increase the infection ability of the pathogen affecting the susceptible population including the children. The short-term carrier status of V. cholerae has been studied well at community level and this facet significantly contributes to the recurrence of cholera. Several molecular tools recognized altering clonality of V. cholerae in relation with the advent of a serogroup or serotype. Rapid identification systems were formulated for the timely detection of the pathogen so as to identify and control the outbreak and institute proper treatment of the patients. The antimicrobials used in the past are no longer useful in the treatment of cholera as V. cholerae has acquired several mechanisms for multiple antimicrobial resistance. This upsurge in antimicrobial resistance directly influences the management of the disease. This chapter provides an overview of cholera prevalence in India, possible sources of infection, and molecular epidemiology along with antimicrobial resistance of V. cholerae.

  11. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute. PMID:12158002

  12. Girl prostitution in India.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, K K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the nature, magnitude, causes, and consequences of female child prostitution in India and offers measures for control and prevention of girl prostitution. Data are obtained from the 6-city study of prostitution and the author's own research. An estimated 85% of all prostitutes in Calcutta and Delhi entered the work at an early age. The numbers are rising. The promotion of tourism is linked with prostitution. Girl prostitutes are primarily located in low-middle income areas and business districts and are known by officials. Brothel keepers regularly recruit young girls. An estimated 33% of prostitutes are young girls. In Bangalore, Calcutta, Delhi, and Hyderabad, there are an estimated 10,000 girl prostitutes. UNICEF estimates about 300,000 child prostitutes. Girl prostitutes are grouped as common prostitutes, singers and dancers, call girls, religious prostitutes or devdasi, and caged brothel prostitutes. Religious prostitutes are mainly found in the South. Caged ones are found in Bombay. A little over 50% of prostitutes come from other countries, such as Nepal and Bangladesh. The girls tend to come from urban slums and poor rural areas. High prostitute supply regions include Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengel states. About 85% are Hindus, and about 66% are from scheduled castes and tribes. Bangalore and Bombay have a higher proportion of girl prostitutes. The causes of prostitution include ill treatment by parents, bad company, family prostitutes, social customs, inability to arrange marriage, lack of sex education, media, prior incest and rape, early marriage and desertion, lack of recreational facilities, ignorance, and acceptance of prostitution. Economic causes include poverty and economic distress. Psychological causes include desire for physical pleasure, greed, and dejection. Most enter involuntarily. A brief profile is given of the life of a prostitute.

  13. Aerosol properties over south india during different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaprasad, P.; Babu, C. A.; Jayakrishnan, P. R.

    Aerosols play an important role in the radiation balance and cloud properties, thereby affect the entire climatology of the earth-atmosphere system. Besides natural sources like dust, seasalt and natural sulphates, anthropogenic activities also inject aerosols like soot and industrial sulphates. Of these sea-salt and sulphates scatter the solar radiation. Soot is an absorbing aerosol while soil dust and organic matters are partly absorbing aerosols. Wind and rainfall are major factors affecting the transportation and deposition of the aerosols. India is a country blessed with plenty of monsoon rains. Winter (December to February), summer (March to May), monsoon (June to September) and post monsoon (October to November) are the four seasons over the region. Aerosol properties vary according to the season. Natural aerosols blown from the deserts have a major role in the aerosol optical depth over India. Of this, dust from Arabian desert that is carried by the winds are most important. The aerosol optical depth of south India is entirely different from that of north India. Maximum aerosol concentration is found over Gangetic plane in most of the seasons, whereas entire south India shows less aerosol optical depth. In the present study the aerosol properties of south India is analysed in general. Particular analysis is carried out for the four regions in the east and west coasts around Chennai, Kolkotha, Mumbai and Cochin. Chennai and Kolkotha are situated in the east coast whereas Cochin and Mumbai are in the west coast. These are industrial cities in India. Chennai region does not get monsoon rainfall since it is situated in the leeward side of Western ghats. But in the post monsoon season Chennai gets good amount of rainfall. Other three regions get good amount of rainfall during monsoon season. The study uses Terra MODIS, TOMS, NCEP/NCAR and TRMM data. Aerosol properties are analysed using Terra MODIS and Nimbus TOMS data. The variations of the aerosol optical

  14. Floods in Northeast India and Bangladesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For the past two weeks floods have ravaged Bangladesh (center) and eastern India (draped around Bangladesh to the north), killing over 50 people and displacing hundreds of thousands from their homes. These false-color images acquired on July 15 and 16, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Terra satellite show some of the worst flooding. The dark brown, swollen river in the images (top right on July 16; center on July 15) is the Brahmaputra River, which flows through the middle of the Indian state of Assam at the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains. A large, black area south of the Brahmaputra (partially obscured by clouds) shows flooded areas in Bangladesh. Floods of this magnitude have been known to occur in southern Bangladesh and are caused by storms washing seawater over coastal regions. This year, however, unrelenting torrential rains across the entire eastern sub-continent gave rise to the deluge. The massive amounts of rainwater that fell on Nepal and Assam drained into an already waterlogged eastern Bangladesh. Normally, the Brahmaputra River and its tributaries would resemble a tangle of thin lines, and the large black patches in Bangladesh would be the color of the rest of the land surface, tan. In these false-color images, land is tan, and clouds are pink and white. Water comes across as black or dark brown, depending on its sediment level, with clearer water being closer to black. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. India - Mahabharata. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1994 (India).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Carole; DeVito, Pasquale

    This lecture is accompanied by slides of India. The lecture is used an introduction to the first of the three videotapes of Peter Brook's "Mahabharata," providing students with preliminary background on Hinduism and on the Hindu epic. The objective is also to have students think about the basic values of ancient and modern Hindus. (EH)

  16. Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis India 2014 conference report.

    PubMed

    Kole, Prashant; Barot, Deepak; Kotecha, Jignesh; Raina, Vijay; Rao, Mukkavilli; Yadav, Manish

    2014-01-01

    Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India 23-26 February 2014, Ahmedabad, India The fifth Applied Pharmaceutical Analysis (APA) India meeting was held in February 2014 at Hyatt Ahmedabad, India. With the theme of 'The Science of Measurement: Current status and Future trends in Bioanalysis, Biotransformation and Drug Discovery Platforms', the conference was attended by over 160 delegates. The agenda comprised advanced and relevant research topics in the key areas of bioanalysis and drug metabolism. APA India 2014 provided a unique platform for networking and professional linking to participants, innovators and policy-makers. As part of the global research community, APA India continues to grow and receive considerable attention from the drug discovery and development community of India.

  17. India-Eurasia collision triggers formation of an oceanic microplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Kara; Müller, Dietmar; Sandwell, David

    2016-04-01

    Detailed mapping of seafloor tectonic fabric in the Indian Ocean, using high-resolution satellite-derived vertical gravity gradient data, reveals an extinct Pacific-style oceanic microplate - the Mammerickx Microplate - west of the Ninetyeast Ridge. It is one of the first Pacific-style microplates to be mapped outside the Pacific basin, suggesting that geophysical conditions during formation probably resembled those that have dominated at eastern Pacific ridges. The microplate formed at the Indian-Antarctic ridge and is bordered by an extinct ridge in the north and pseudofault in the south, whose conjugate is located north of the Kerguelen Plateau. Independent microplate rotation is indicated by asymmetric pseudofaults and rotated abyssal hill fabric, also identified in multibeam data. Magnetic anomaly picks and age estimates calculated from published spreading rates suggest formation during chron 21o (~47.3 Ma). Plate reorganizations can trigger ridge propagation and microplate development, and we propose that formation of the Mammerickx Microplate is linked with the initial 'soft' stage of the India-Eurasia collision. The collision altered the stress regime at the Indian-Antarctic ridge, leading to a change in segmentation and ridge propagation from an establishing transform fault. Fast Indian-Antarctic spreading that preceded microplate formation, and Kerguelen Plume activity may have facilitated ridge propagation via the production of thin and weak lithosphere. However, both factors had been present for tens of millions of years and are therefore unlikely to have triggered the event. Prior to the collision, this combination of fast spreading and plume activity was responsible for the production of a wide region of undulate seafloor to the north of the extinct ridge and 'W' shaped lineations that record back and forth ridge propagation. Microplate formation provides a means of dating the onset of the India-Eurasia collision, and is completely independent of and

  18. Genome Assembly of Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, a Psychrotolerant Bacterium with Cold Active Proteases, Isolated from East Rathong Glacier in India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dharam; Swarnkar, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    We report here the genome assembly of a psychrotolerant bacterium, Chryseobacterium polytrichastri ERMR1:04, which secretes cold-active proteases. The bacterium was isolated from a pristine location, the East Rathong Glacier in the Sikkim Himalaya. The 5.53-Mb genome provides insight into the cold-active industrial enzyme and adaptation in the cold environment. PMID:26543128

  19. Chikungunya Outbreak, South India, 2006

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Prabhdeep; Ponniah, Manickam; Murhekar, Manoj V.; Ramachandran, Vidya; Ramachandran, Ramakrishnan; Raju, Hari Kishan; Perumal, Vanamail; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated chikungunya outbreaks in South India and observed a high attack rate, particularly among adults and women. Transmission was facilitated by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in peridomestic water containers, as indicated by a high Breteau index. We recommended vector control measures and health education to promote safe water storage practices. PMID:18826830

  20. International Nurse Recruitment in India

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Binod

    2007-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the practice of international recruitment of Indian nurses in the model of a “business process outsourcing” of comprehensive training-cum-recruitment-cum-placement for popular destinations like the United Kingdom and United States through an agency system that has acquired growing intensity in India. Findings Despite the extremely low nurse to population ratio in India, hospital managers in India are not concerned about the growing exodus of nurses to other countries. In fact, they are actively joining forces with profitable commercial ventures that operate as both training and recruiting agencies. Most of this activity is concentrated in Delhi, Bangalore, and Kochi. Conclusions Gaps in data on nursing education, employment, and migration, as well as nonstandardization of definitions of “registered nurse,” impair the analysis of international migration of nurses from India, making it difficult to assess the impact of migration on vacancy rates. One thing is clear, however, the chain of commercial interests that facilitate nurse migration is increasingly well organized and profitable, making the future growth of this business a certainty. PMID:17489924

  1. Tanjore: Mystical Painting of India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Tanjore (or Thanjavur or Thanlavoor) paintings are one of the most popular traditional art forms in Southern India. These ornate religious paintings involve Hindu mythology. The paintings are noted for their adornment of gold and semiprecious stones such as rubies, emeralds, and pearls. Currently, the semiprecious stones are often substituted…

  2. Understanding Child Rights in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  3. History of Cardiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  4. History of Cardiology in India.

    PubMed

    Das, Mrinal Kanti; Kumar, Soumitra; Deb, Pradip Kumar; Mishra, Sundeep

    2015-01-01

    History as a science revolves around memories, travellers' tales, fables and chroniclers' stories, gossip and trans-telephonic conversations. Medicine itself as per the puritan's definition is a non-exact science because of the probability-predictability-sensitivity-specificity factors. Howsoever, the chronicles of Cardiology in India is quite interesting and intriguing. Heart and circulation was known to humankind from pre-Vedic era. Various therapeutics measures including the role of Yoga and transcendental meditation in curing cardiovascular diseases were known in India. Only recently there has been resurgence of the same globally. There have been very few innovations in Cardiology in India. The cause of this paucity possibly lie in the limited resources. This has a vicious effect on the research mentality of the population who are busy in meeting their daily requirements. This socio-scientific aspect needs a thorough study and is beyond the scope of the present documentation. Present is the future of past and so one must not forget the history which is essentially past that give the present generation the necessary fulcrum to stand in good stead. The present article essentially aims to pay tribute to all the workers and pioneers in the field of Cardiology in India, who in spite of limited resources ventured in an unchartered arena. PMID:26071301

  5. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  6. Landscaping biostatistics education in India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ranjana; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Sharma, Kavya; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ughade, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    Biostatistics plays an important role in measuring, understanding, and describing the overall health and well-being of a population. Biostatistics as a subject evolved from the application of statistics in various research aspects of biology, biomedical care, and public health. However, with a recent increase in number of health and pharmacy related research, the demand for trained biostatisticians is also increasing. The present paper is an attempt to undertake a situational analysis of biostatistics education in India. A systematic, predefined approach, with three parallel strategies was used to collect and assemble the data regarding training in biostatistics in India. Our study results show that there is paucity of programs providing specialized training in biostatistics in India. Only about 19 institutions in India are offering various courses in biostatistics/medical statistics/health statistics/biometry. It is important to look into the current capacity building initiatives in this domain. Some other means for giving importance to biostatistics could be by making it a separate branch/specialization in a majority of the institutions, particularly in medical colleges.

  7. Education and Caste in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauhan, Chandra Pal Singh

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the policy of reservation for lower castes in India. This policy is similar to that of affirmative action in the United States. The paper provides a brief overview of the caste system and discusses the types of groups that are eligible for reservation, based on data from government reports. The stance of this paper is that…

  8. Climate change, zoonoses and India.

    PubMed

    Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S; Aulakh, R S; Banga, H S

    2011-12-01

    Economic trends have shaped our growth and the growth of the livestock sector, but atthe expense of altering natural resources and systems in ways that are not always obvious. Now, however, the reverse is beginning to happen, i.e. environmental trends are beginning to shape our economy and health status. In addition to water, air and food, animals and birds play a pivotal role in the maintenance and transmission of important zoonotic diseases in nature. It is generally considered that the prevalence of vector-borne and waterborne zoonoses is likely to increase in the coming years due to the effects of global warming in India. In recent years, vector-borne diseases have emerged as a serious public health problem in countries of the South-East Asia region, including India. Vector-borne zoonoses now occur in epidemic form almost on an annual basis, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. New reservoir areas of cutaneous leishmaniosis in South India have been recognised, and the role of climate change in its re-emergence warrants further research, as does the role of climate change in the ascendancy of waterborne and foodborne illness. Similarly, climate change that leads to warmer and more humid conditions may increase the risk of transmission of airborne zoonoses, and hot and drier conditions may lead to a decline in the incidence of disease(s). The prevalence of these zoonotic diseases and their vectors and the effect of climate change on important zoonoses in India are discussed in this review.

  9. Designing Citizens in Transnational India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irani, Lilly Christine

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the politics of design practice in urban India through an ethnography of a Delhi-based design and innovation studio. The dissertation focuses on the ideological continuities between the profession of design and middle class Indian citizenship post-liberalization, twinning arts of governance through the shaping of the…

  10. India: From SITE to INSAT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhri, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    Identifies core of India's illiteracy problem and describes use of educational technology to educate rural children. Highlights include descriptions of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) project; motivation behind low-cost educational aids development in rural areas; an educational radio pilot project; and development and…

  11. [Women's organizations in India].

    PubMed

    Patel, V

    1985-01-01

    Community development projects in India during the 1950s and 60s viewed women as beneficiaries, but in fact few women benefitted measurably. The realization among field motivators of the necessity of improving the status of women prompted formation of women's organizations based on the participation of women in development. Non-government organizations and militant organizations have had greater success than government sponsored organizations in creation of employment for women. Some employment-generating organizations directed by high caste women or by men merely continue the oppression of poor women, providing abysmal pay for long hours, but a women's cooperative serving textile workers in Bombay has been successful because of the large number of unaccompanied males migrating to the city who desire reasonably priced home-cooke