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  1. 40 CFR 81.234 - North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Central West Virginia Intrastate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.234 North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The North Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial...

  2. Regional modeling of wind erosion in the North West and South West of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirmousavi, S. H.

    2016-08-01

    About two-thirds of the Iran's area is located in the arid and semiarid region. Lack of soil moisture and vegetation is poor in most areas can lead to soil erosion caused by wind. So that the annual suffered severe damage to large areas of rich soils. Modeling studies of wind erosion in Iran is very low and incomplete. Therefore, this study aimed to wind erosion modeling, taking into three factors: wind speed, vegetation and soil types have been done. Wind erosion sensitivity was modeled using the key factors of soil sensitivity, vegetation cover and wind erodibility as proxies. These factors were first estimated separately by factor sensitivity maps and later combined by fuzzy logic into a regional-scale wind erosion sensitivity map. Large areas were evaluated by using publicly available datasets of remotely sensed vegetation information, soil maps and meteorological data on wind speed. The resulting estimates were verified by field studies and examining the economic losses from wind erosion as compensated by the state insurance company. The spatial resolution of the resulting sensitivity map is suitable for regional applications, as identifying sensitive areas is the foundation for diverse land development control measures and implementing management activities.

  3. The effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in Australia's North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin J. F.; Lowe, Ryan J.; Ivey, Greg N.; Jones, Nicole L.; Péquignet, Christine A.

    2017-05-01

    The numerical wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore) and historical wave buoy observations were used to investigate the response of surface wave fields to tropical cyclone (TC) wind forcing on the Australian North West Shelf (NWS). Analysis of historical wave data during TC events at a key location on the NWS showed that an average of 1.7 large TCs impacted the region each year, albeit with high variability in TC track, intensity and size, and also in the surface wave field response. An accurately modeled TC wind field resulted in a good prediction of the observed extreme wave conditions by SWAN. Results showed that the presence of strong background winds during a TC and a long TC lifetime (with large variations in translation speed) can provide additional energy input. This potentially enhances the generated swell waves and increases the spatial extent of the TC generated surface wave fields. For the TC translation speeds in this study, a positive relationship between TC translation speed and the resulting maximum significant wave height and wave field asymmetry was observed. Bottom friction across the wide NWS limited the amount of wave energy reaching the coastal region; consistently reducing wave energy in depths below 50 m, and in the case of the most extreme conditions, in depths up to 100 m that comprise much of the shelf. Nevertheless, whitecapping was still the dominant dissipation mechanism on the broader shelf region. Shelf-scale refraction had little effect on the amount of wave energy reaching the nearshore zone; however, refraction locally enhanced or reduced wave energy depending on the orientation of the isobaths with respect to the dominant wave direction during the TC.

  4. Effects of tropical cyclone characteristics on the surface wave fields in the Australian North West region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drost, Edwin; Lowe, Ryan; Péquignet, Christine; Ivey, Greg; Jones, Nicole

    2015-04-01

    The northwestern Australian coastline is subject to frequent extreme wave forcing resulting from tropical cyclones (TCs) during the summer months on Australia's North West Shelf (NWS). Compared to the northern hemisphere, knowledge about the wave climate, and TC generated waves in particular on the NWS is limited. TCs on the NWS show considerable variability in paths: some move predominantly parallel to the coastline, while others propagate in a coast-normal direction. It has been suggested that surface wave fields generated by coast-parallel moving TCs are different compared to TCs moving in a coast-normal direction across the shelf. In particular, wave heights generated by coast-parallel storms may be limited in size due to both refraction and bottom friction effects. First, this study evaluates the performance of a numerical wave model (SWAN) to hindcast the surface wave fields under different TC conditions forced by a parametric TC wind model of the region. Hindcast simulations were run for 4 case studies: the coast-parallel TCs Nicholas (2008) and Bianca (2011), and the coast-normal TCs Lua (2012) and Christine (2013). Model output was compared both temporally and spatially by in situ wave buoy data and satellite altimeter data and generally showed a good agreement for throughout the history of these TCs. However, for the more intense and larger system TC Lua, the model was found to overestimate the significant wave heights, especially in the left front quadrant of the storm. A modified SWAN model using adjusted wave energy dissipation terms was found to improve model output under these conditions. Second, output from the numerical simulations is used to analyse the mechanisms behind the generation and dissipation of the wave field and to relate them to tropical cyclone characteristics including the radius of maximum winds and the storm translation speed and direction.

  5. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  6. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  7. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    PubMed

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  8. Epidemio-Clinico-Microbiological Study of Mycotic Keratitis in North-West Region of Rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Binnani, Abhishek; Gupta, Priyanka Soni; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-12-29

    Mycotic keratitis, with its diverse clinical presentation and difficulties in treatment, makes it a challenging task for clinicians and an important object of study. The aim of present study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and epidemiological association with identification of fungal isolates from mycotic keratitis cases. This was a prospective and observational study conducted in Mycology Laboratory, Department of Microbiology, S.P. Medical College, Bikaner, on corneal scrapings and swabs of a total of 480 patients attending the Ophthalmology OPD, P.B.M. Hospital, Bikaner, during July 2005 to June 2012. Out of 480 suspected cases, 180 were found to be positive for fungus by smear/culture examination. Increased incidence was seen in the months of May to September with Aspergillus fumigatus being the most common isolate. Mycotic keratitis, though an age-old disease, still presented with challenging aspects of diagnosis and treatment. The study showed fungal keratitis is prevalent in rural parts of north-west Rajasthan, mainly found in males (age group 21-40 years) with low socio-economic status (farm or factory workers). The most common cause of fungal keratitis was found to be species of Aspergillus.

  9. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Climate change and West Nile virus in a highly endemic region of North America.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen C; Jenkins, Emily; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S; Soos, Catherine

    2013-07-22

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010-2039), 2050 (2040-2069) and 2080 (2070-2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29-27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06-2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08-2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces.

  11. Climate Change and West Nile Virus in a Highly Endemic Region of North America

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen C.; Jenkins, Emily; Epp, Tasha; Waldner, Cheryl; Curry, Philip S.; Soos, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The Canadian prairie provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta have reported the highest human incidence of clinical cases of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Canada. The primary vector for WVN in this region is the mosquito Culex tarsalis. This study used constructed models and biological thresholds to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of Cx. tarsalis and WNV infection rate in the prairie provinces under a range of potential future climate and habitat conditions. We selected one median and two extreme outcome scenarios to represent future climate conditions in the 2020 (2010–2039), 2050 (2040–2069) and 2080 (2070–2099) time slices. In currently endemic regions, the projected WNV infection rate under the median outcome scenario in 2050 raised 17.91 times (ranged from 1.29-27.45 times for all scenarios and time slices) comparing to current climate conditions. Seasonal availability of Cx. tarsalis infected with WNV extended from June to August to include May and September. Moreover, our models predicted northward range expansion for Cx. tarsalis (1.06–2.56 times the current geographic area) and WNV (1.08–2.34 times the current geographic area). These findings predict future public and animal health risk of WNV in the Canadian prairie provinces. PMID:23880729

  12. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  13. Prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in the North-West region of Russia: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Karonova, T; Andreeva, A; Nikitina, I; Belyaeva, O; Mokhova, E; Galkina, O; Vasilyeva, E; Grineva, E

    2016-11-01

    Russia is a country with geographic and economic preconditions for development of vitamin D deficiency. We analyzed serum 25(OH)D level in residents from North-West region (59-61° North latitude) of Russia to study the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency and its associations with gender, age, obesity and diet. The study population included 1664 residents (1544 adults 18-75 y.o. and 120 children/adolescents of 3-17 y.o.). Serum 25(OH)D was determined in 1226 participants by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. We used a questionnaire to check the frequency of dairy and fish products intake as well as the use of vitamin supplements. The serum 25(OH)D level was 9.8-147.5nmol/L, mean level in adults population was 54.8±0.7nMol/L, in children/adolescents-46.8±1.6 nmol/L. We revealed that 16.8% of the study population had a 25(OH)D level more than 75nMol/L, 37.5% had insufficiency and 45.7% had vitamin D deficiency. Serum 25(OH)D level in women was lower than in men (53.9±0.8 and 67.2±2.2nmol/L; p<0.01). We did not find association between vitamin D status and age. Patients with normal BMI had higher 25(OH)D level than those with overweight and obesity (52.5±2.8 and 44.8±2.0 nmol/L, p<0.05). Negative correlations between 25(OH)D and BMI (r=-0.17, p=0.03) and WC (r=-0.15, p=0.02) were found. Questionnaire analyses showed that regular fish intake (minimum once per week) was associated with higher 25(OH)D level, while dairy products and vitamin supplements intake did not seem to have any effect on vitamin D status. This study showed high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in adults and adolescent population from North-West region of Russia, and an association of low serum 25(OH)D level with female gender, obesity and low fish products diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality in neurofibromatosis 1: in North West England: an assessment of actuarial survival in a region of the UK since 1989.

    PubMed

    Evans, D Gareth R; O'Hara, Catherine; Wilding, Anna; Ingham, Sarah L; Howard, Elizabeth; Dawson, John; Moran, Anthony; Scott-Kitching, Vilka; Holt, Felicity; Huson, Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) is a comparatively common autosomal dominant disorder. However, relatively few studies have assessed lifetime risk; and information about the effect of NF1 on mortality remains uncertain. NF1 patients were identified using The North West regional family Genetic Register, which covers the 4.1 million people living in North West England, including the regions of Greater Manchester, Cheshire and Cumbria. Data relating to tumours and malignancies were obtained from The North West Cancer Intelligence Service. Death data for the general North West population were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. We identified 1186 individuals with NF1, of whom 1023 lived within the strict regional boundaries (constituting a region of North West England bound by The Pennines to the east and Irish Sea to the west, but excluding the conurbation of Liverpool (Merseyside) and the Wirral peninsula) and 131 had died. MPNST and glioma were found to be the two most common causes of reduced life expectancy among NF1 patients. In Kaplan-Meier analyses the median survival for NF1 patients was shown to be 71.5 years, with women living ∼7.4 years longer than men. On average both men and women lived ∼8 years less than their counterparts in the general population. Reduction in life expectancy for NF1 patients was found to be much lower (8 years) than the previously estimated 15-year decrease. Limitations relating to the underreporting of NF1 on death certificates were once again highlighted and should be considered in future investigations.

  15. 10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top of north abutment and oblique of railing panels looking northwest - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  16. Urban and community forests of the North Central West region: Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community...

  17. The Intermountain West Region Waterbird Plan

    Treesearch

    Gary Ivey

    2005-01-01

    The planning process for the Intermountain West Region component of the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan began in November 2001. This is one of several region-specific plans being developed as part of the Waterbird Conservation for the Americas initiative (Kushlan et al. 2002), as called for in the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan. The plan...

  18. Regional organisation of neonatal intensive care in the North-west.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, M L; Davies, P; Bate, R; Dryburgh, E; Gordon-Nesbitt, D

    1979-07-28

    From January 1976 to July 1978, 234 ill neonates were transported to the regional neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) of St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, from 26 maternity hospitals three to 120 miles (4.8-193.1 km) away. Ninety per cent were transferred from 15 hospitals within a 30-mile (48.3 km) radius of the ICU. Most referring hospitals had more than 2000 births a year and offered good nursing supervision of high-risk neonates in conventional special care baby units (SCBUs). In 200 of the 234 babies respiratory symptoms precipitated referral, hyaline membrane disease being the most common final diagnosis. Altogether 143 babies received definitive mechanical ventilation, and most of them were ventilated in the ambulance en route to the ICU. The neonatal survival rates for all babies and for those who received mechanical ventilation were 61% and 45% respectively. Lethal inoperable malformations and tentorial tears accounted for 23 of the 92 deaths.A crisis-orientated referral service directed towards the treatment of babies with impending or actual respiratory failure needs close collaboration between the regional ICU and referring SCBUs, with parallel development of their facilities and skills. A complementary but distinct pattern of referral is necessary to cater for those high-risk but not critically ill babies who are born in hospitals that lack staff and facilities to provide the vigilant and anticipatory care that is so necessary.

  19. Regional organisation of neonatal intensive care in the North-west

    PubMed Central

    Chiswick, Malcolm L; Davies, Pat; Bate, R; Dryburgh, Elizabeth; Gordon-Nesbitt, D

    1979-01-01

    From January 1976 to July 1978, 234 ill neonates were transported to the regional neonatal intensive care unit (ICU) of St Mary's Hospital, Manchester, from 26 maternity hospitals three to 120 miles (4·8-193·1 km) away. Ninety per cent were transferred from 15 hospitals within a 30-mile (48·3 km) radius of the ICU. Most referring hospitals had more than 2000 births a year and offered good nursing supervision of high-risk neonates in conventional special care baby units (SCBUs). In 200 of the 234 babies respiratory symptoms precipitated referral, hyaline membrane disease being the most common final diagnosis. Altogether 143 babies received definitive mechanical ventilation, and most of them were ventilated in the ambulance en route to the ICU. The neonatal survival rates for all babies and for those who received mechanical ventilation were 61% and 45% respectively. Lethal inoperable malformations and tentorial tears accounted for 23 of the 92 deaths. A crisis-orientated referral service directed towards the treatment of babies with impending or actual respiratory failure needs close collaboration between the regional ICU and referring SCBUs, with parallel development of their facilities and skills. A complementary but distinct pattern of referral is necessary to cater for those high-risk but not critically ill babies who are born in hospitals that lack staff and facilities to provide the vigilant and anticipatory care that is so necessary. PMID:476405

  20. Determinants of childhood diarrhea among underfive children in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is second only to pneumonia as the cause of child mortality worldwide. Developing countries particularly in Sub Saharan Africa including Ethiopia have a high burden of this disease. Studies showed that different factors were associated with the occurrence of childhood diarrhea. Therefore, this study was aimed to identify determinant factors of diarrhea in underfive children in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State, western Ethiopia. Method Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data of 2011 was used for this study. The data was extracted from the National DHS data using data extraction tools. A total of 925 under five children were selected. The logistic regression model was employed to examine the determinants of childhood diarrhoea. Both bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS version 16.0. Result The results of this study indicated that low level of maternal education [AOR = 1.81, 95% CI (1.12,2.76)], absence of toilet facility [AOR = 3.5, 95% CI (2.4, 5.2)], improper child stool disposal methods [AOR = 2.05, 95%CI (1.36, 3.10)], having more than two under five children [AOR = 1.73, 95% CI (1.03, 2.93)], higher birth order [AOR = 6.1, 95% CI (3.1,12.2)] and the age of children [AOR = 1.9, 95% CI (1.2, 3.6)] were found to be the risk factors for childhood diarrhea after adjusting for other variables. When toilet facility was stratified by maternal education, it showed that children of mothers who had no education were the most vulnerable in the absence of toilet facilities [OR = 9.16, 95% CI (5.79, 14.48)]. Conclusion Under poor environmental conditions, mothers with primary education and above protected their children against diarrhea better than mothers with no education. Thus, implementing effective educational programs that emphasize environmental health and sanitation practices and encouraging female school enrolment would reduce childhood diarrheal morbidity in the region. PMID:24731601

  1. Anopheles ziemanni a locally important malaria vector in Ndop health district, north west region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria transmission in Cameroon is mediated by a plethora of vectors that are heterogeneously distributed across the country depending on the biotope. To effectively guide malaria control operations, regular update on the role of local Anopheles species is essential. Therefore, an entomological survey was conducted between August 2010 and May 2011 to evaluate the role of the local anopheline population in malaria transmission in three villages of the Ndop health district in the northwest region of Cameroon where malaria is holoendemic, as a means to acquiring evidence based data for improved vector intervention. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled both indoor and outdoor for four consecutive nights in each locality during each month of survey. Sampling was done by the human landing catch method on volunteers. Anopheles species were identified morphologically and their ovaries randomly dissected for parity determination. Infection with Plasmodium falciparum was detected by Circumsporozoite protein ELISA. Members of An. gambiae complex were further identified to molecular level by PCR and RFLP PCR. Results An. ziemanni was the main malaria vector and whether outdoor or indoor. The man biting rate for the vectors ranged from 6.75 to 8.29 bites per person per night (b/p/n). The entomological inoculation rate for this vector species was 0.0278 infectious bites per person per night (ib/p/n) in Mbapishi, 0.034 ib/p/n in Mbafuh, and 0.063 ib/p/n in Backyit. These were by far greater than that for An. gambiae. No difference was observed in the parity rate of these two vectors. PCR analysis revealed the presence of only An. colluzzi (M- form). Conclusions An. ziemanni is an important local malaria vector in Ndop health district. The findings provide useful baseline information on the anopheles species composition, their distribution and role in malaria transmission that would guide the implementation of integrated vector management strategies in the locality. PMID

  2. KPC enzymes in the UK: an analysis of the first 160 cases outside the North-West region.

    PubMed

    Findlay, Jacqueline; Hopkins, Katie L; Doumith, Michel; Meunier, Danièle; Wiuff, Camilla; Hill, Robert; Pike, Rachel; Loy, Richard; Mustafa, Nazim; Livermore, David M; Woodford, Neil

    2016-05-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) have been increasingly reported in the UK since 2003. We analysed patient and isolate data for KPC-positive bacteria confirmed by the national reference laboratory from UK laboratories from August 2003 to August 2014, excluding North-West England, where the epidemiology has previously been studied. MICs were determined by BSAC agar dilution. Carbapenem-resistant isolates lacking imipenem/EDTA synergy were tested by PCR for blaKPC. MLST and blaKPC sequencing were performed on a subset of isolates. Plasmid analysis was performed by transformation, PCR-based replicon typing and, in some cases, whole-plasmid sequencing. Patient data provided by the sending laboratories were reviewed. Two hundred and ten isolates with KPC enzymes were submitted from 71 UK laboratories outside North-West England, representing 160 patients. All were Enterobacteriaceae, predominantly K. pneumoniae (82%; 173/210), and most (91%; 191/210) were from hospitalized patients. Analysis of 100 isolates identified blaKPC-2 (62%), blaKPC-3 (30%) and blaKPC-4 (8%). Clonal group (CG) 258 was dominant among K. pneumoniae (64%; 54/84), but 21 unrelated STs were also identified. Plasmid analysis identified a diverse range of plasmids representing >11 different replicon types and found in multiple STs and species. Most (34/35) plasmids with IncFIB/FIIK replicons exhibited >99% sequence identity to pKpQIL. KPC enzymes are increasingly detected in Enterobacteriaceae in the UK, albeit without the major outbreaks seen in North-West England. K. pneumoniae CG258 are the dominant hosts, but plasmid spread plays a major role in KPC dissemination between other K. pneumoniae STs and enterobacterial species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 6. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE WATER, ALSO SHOWING FOUNDATIONS FOR AN UNIDENTIFIED STRUCTURE AT RIGHT. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. Characterization of HIV-1 CRF90_BF1 and putative novel CRFs_BF1 in Central West, North and Northeast Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Reis, Mônica Nogueira da Guarda; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick Lindenmeyer; Stefani, Mariane Martins Araújo

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian AIDS epidemic has been characterized by an increasing rate of BF1 recombinants and so far eight circulating recombinant forms/CRFs_BF1 have been described countrywide. In this study, pol sequences (protease/PR, reverse transcriptase/RT) of 87 BF1 mosaic isolates identified among 828 patients living in six Brazilian States from three geographic regions (Central West, North, Northeast) were analyzed. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were performed to investigate the evolutionary relationship and mosaic structure of BF1 isolates. Those analyses showed that 20.7% of mosaics (18 out of 87) were CRFs-like isolates, mostly represented by CRF28/CRF29_BF-like viruses (14 out of 18). We also identified five highly supported clusters that together comprise 42 out of 87 (48.3%) BF1 sequences, each cluster containing at least five sequences sharing a similar mosaic structure, suggesting possible new unidentified CRFs_BF1. The divergence time of these five potential new CRFs_BF1 clusters was estimated using a Bayesian approach and indicate that they probably originated between the middle 1980s and the middle 1990s. DNA was extracted from whole blood and four overlapping fragments were amplified by PCR providing full/near full length genomes (FLG/NFLG) and partial genomes. Eleven HIV-1 isolates from Cluster # 5 identified in epidemiologically unlinked individuals living in Central West and North regions provided FLG/NFLG/partial genome sequences with identical mosaic structure. These viruses differ from any known CRF_BF1 reported to date and were named CRF90_BF1 by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This is the 9th CRF_BF1 described in Brazil and the first one identified in Central West and North regions. Our results highlight the importance of continued molecular screening and surveillance studies, especially of full genome sequences to understand the evolutionary dynamics of the HIV-1 epidemic in a country of continental dimensions as Brazil.

  5. Rapid fixation of a distinctive sequence motif in the 3' noncoding region of the clade of West Nile virus invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-09-15

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I-->T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3' noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the noncoding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3'NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV.

  6. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  7. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  8. The seasonal cycles of stratification and circulation in the Thermaikos Gulf Region Of Freshwater Influence (ROFI), north-west Aegean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, P.; Simpson, J. H.; Christopoulos, S.; Krestenitis, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The Thermaikos Gulf is a shallow basin in the north-west Aegean. Communication with the open Aegean is restricted by the long (170 km), narrow (˜50 km) nature of the Gulf and the weak tidal flows. In consequence, the northern section of the Gulf experiences severe water quality problems arising from the untreated sewage from the city of Thessaloniki (population 1.1 million), pollutant discharges from industry around the Gulf, and nutrient input from three rivers, which flow in near the head of the Gulf. New observations over a 16-month period during 1994-95 indicate distinct winter and summer circulation regimes. In winter (December-April), strong freshwater input (˜350 m 3/s) generates a thin (5 m), low salinity, surface layer which flows southward over much of the Gulf, above relatively homogeneous high-salinity waters that flow to the north. In the low-salinity layer, close to the river deltas, short pulses of extremely low-salinity water occur daily, principally as the result of releases from the Aliakmon hydro-electric power dam. Between October and February, a cold, dense water mass is observed in the deeper water of the eastern Gulf, which appears to originate in the shallow waters of central Saloniki Bay as the result of cooling during northerly gales. During winter it appears that buoyancy forcing from high run-off, in combination with persistent southward wind stress results in wind-enhanced estuarine exchange. In summer (July-September), the surface low-salinity layer is not well defined and is confined to the western Gulf in the vicinity of the river sources. Throughout the Gulf, a thicker (10-20 m) mixed layer with low salinity, warm waters overlies a strong pycnocline. A weak barotropic gyre is observed in the Gulf at this time. Monthly estimates of the total freshwater content of the northern Gulf indicate that this layer results in an accumulation of freshwater in the Gulf over the summer, when the local river input is at a minimum. It appears

  9. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Rapid Fixation of a Distinctive Sequence Motif in the 3′Noncoding Region of the Clade of West Nile Virus Invading North America

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I→T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3′ noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the non-coding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3′NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV. PMID:17587514

  11. Primary total knee replacement: a comparison of a nationally agreed guide to best practice and current surgical technique as determined by the North West Regional Arthroplasty Register.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, M. H. A.; Chougle, A.; Pradhan, N.; Gambhir, A. K.; Porter, M. L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In 1999, a statement of best practice in primary total hip replacement was approved by the Council of the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and by the British Association for Surgery of the Knee (BASK) to provide a basis for regional and national auditable standards: we have compared practice in the North West of England to this document to ascertain adherence to this guide to best practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A direct comparison of data held on the North West Hip Arthroplasty Register for 2001/2002 and BASK/BOA guidelines was performed. 86 surgeons from 26 hospitals were included in the study. RESULTS: A mean of 93.3% of operations were performed in the surgeon's usual theatre. All of these theatres had vertical laminar air flow systems. 42.2% of respondents routinely used exhaust suits and 68.1% of respondents routinely used impermeable disposable gowns. All surgeons use some form of anti-thromboembolic prophylaxis; 66.2% use a combination of both mechanical and chemical means. All surgeons used antibiotic prophylaxis. The most popular choice of antibiotic was a cephalosporin. 93.7% of surgeons routinely use antibiotic-loaded cement. The PFC and Kinemax prostheses were the most commonly used prostheses. Interestingly, 97.7% of all first-choice implants were cemented. Only 2 surgeons used uncemented total knee replacement. 69.8% of surgeons used a posterior cruciate retaining design. A midline longitudinal skin incision is used by 87.2% of surgeons, a medial longitudinal skin incision by 7.0% and a lateral longitudinal skin incision by 5.8% of surgeons. A medial parapatellar capsular incision is preferred by 91.9% with the remainder using mid vastus or trivector retaining capsulotomy. Closure of capsulotomies is performed in flexion by 65.1% and in extension by 34.9%. In patients with osteoarthritis, 38.4% routinely resurfaced the patella, 34.9% never resurfaced the patella and 26.7% selectively resurfaced. This was in direct contrast to

  12. Tracking Chemical Characteristics of Aerosols during major Dust Storm events in the North-West region of India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, D.; Kulshrestha, U. C.

    2016-12-01

    Dust storms mark a major natural event in north India which loads the atmosphere with enormousamount of aerosols. Thus, this study aimed at tracking the key features of aerosol composition,particularly on the days of major dust storms, along the trajectory of dust storms in the Indianregion. Dustfall was monitored at five sites, with important geological locations, in the northwesternregion from April to June, 2015. The dustfall flux was the highest at western most sites of Jaipur(JP) (1206 mg/m2/day) and Bikaner (BK) (516.3 mg/m2/day). These sites not only mark the entrypoint of dust storms from middle east and African regions but also are surrounded by the IndianThar desert, as seen in the NOAA HYSPLIT model trajectories during dust storm period.Interestingly, Ca fluxes varied in accordance with the dustfall fluxes which were also found to bethe highest at JP (87.9 mg/m2/day) followed by BK (59.1 mg/m2/day). The variation of Ca fluxfurther matched well with the pattern of SO42- flux, where again JP (11.9mg/m2/day) recorded thehighest value followed by BK (9.5mg/m2/day). This is indicative of the scavenging of the SO42- byCa present in the resuspended dust.The following eastward sites of Hisar (HS), the capital city ofDelhi (DL) and Agra (AG) represent a shift of geology and also the source of aerosols as are urbancentres. These urban centres, on the other hand recorded the fluxes of NO3- ( DL - 0.9 mg/m2/day)and F- (HS - .1 mg/ m2/day). These findings shed light on the nature of chemical composition ofaerosols from dust, along the trajectory of dust storms in the northwestern region of Indian.

  13. Seabird population trends along the west coast of North America: causes and the extent of regional concordance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ainley, D.G.; Sydeman, W.J.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Wilson, U.W.

    1994-01-01

    We compared trends in breeding population size among cormorants, gulls, alcids, and others, among the Farallon Islands, and sites in northern California and Washington, Gulf of Alaska, and Bering Sea, but in most cases only during the last two decades. For a given species, trends were usually concordant within the same oceanographic domain, except for Rhinoceros Auklet, which increased across all domains in its northeastern Pacific range. Overall, humans and their domestic animals have had severe negative impacts to individual islands, but recent restoration efforts have had spectacular results. On the other hand, the California Current and the eastern Bering Sea now seem unable to support historic populations of natural, top-trophic predators. The major factor responsible appears to be overfishing by humans of important seabird prey, especially, in a period when climate has been unstable. Notable trends indicating these general patterns were as follows: 1) The Ashy Storm-Petrel on the Farallon Islands, where 80% of this species breeds, may have decreased in response to the increase of gulls in the storm-petrel breeding habitat. 2) Brandt's and Pelagic cormorants in the central California Current declined radically owing to El Nino and antropogenic factors in the early 1980s, and have since failed to recover, contrary to trends in the 1970s; farther north, populations fluctuated slightly but at low levels during this period. 3) Large Larus gulls have increased. 4) Common Murres in the central and northern portions of the California Current exhibited a marked decline during the early 1980s and have since failed to recover. 5) Most Common Murre populations in the Gulf of Alaska appear to be stable; whereas those in the eastern Bering Sea are decreasing. 6) Rhinoceros Auklet has increased throughout its range and has (re-)colonized new sites in the southern portion of it. 7) Tufted Puffin has ceased recovery in the California Current, but in Alaska it has continued to

  14. Primary total hip replacement: a comparison of a nationally agreed guide to best practice and current surgical technique as determined by the North West Regional Arthroplasty Register.

    PubMed Central

    Malik, M. H. A.; Gambhir, A. K.; Bale, L.; Pradhan, N.; Porter, M. L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1999, a statement of best practice in primary total hip replacement was approved by the Council of the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA) and by the British Hip Society (BHS) to provide a basis for regional and national auditable standards. We have compared practice in the North West Region of England to this document to ascertain adherence to this guide to best practice. METHODS: A total of 86 surgeons from 26 hospitals were included in a questionnaire study. RESULTS: A mean of 93.3% of operations were performed in the surgeon's usual theatre. All of these theatres had vertical laminar air flow systems. Of respondents, 42.2% routinely used exhaust suits, 68.1% routinely used impermeable disposable gowns, and 26.1% used impermeable re-usable gowns. The Charnley femoral and acetabular prostheses were the most commonly used prostheses. All surgeons used some form of anti-thromboembolic prophylaxis: 66.2% use a combination of both mechanical and chemical means. All surgeons used antibiotic prophylaxis. The most popular choice of antibiotic was a cephalosporin--70.7% used a 3-dose regimen over 24 h, 2.6% of surgeons continued antibiotic prophylaxis for 48 h after surgery, and 93.7% of surgeons routinely use antibiotic-loaded cement. All surgeons routinely cleaned, irrigated and dried the acetabulum and femur before cement insertion. Only one surgeon did not use any form of femoral canal occlusion. 69.4% used an intramedullary bone block. Retrograde filling of the femoral shaft by means of a cement gun was practised by 65.1%. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated considerable variation of practice in total hip arthroplasty across the North West Region and significant divergence from the statement of best practice approved by the BOA and BHS. The introduction of a properly funded national hip register will surely help to clarify the effect of such diverse practice on patient outcome. We would recommend that all trusts locally audit their practices

  15. Urban and community forests of the Southern Atlantic region: Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia; and the District of Columbia by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry...

  16. 19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View west, foreground, north facade of Forest East Suites, background north & east facades of Forest Hall. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  17. North West Shelf Unmanned Aerial System Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    North West Shelf Unmanned Aerial System Trial Duncan Craig Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Division Defence... Unmanned Aerial System Trial Executive Summary In response to a government policy announcement issued during the lead-up to the 2004...federal election, Defence invited General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Incorporated (GA-ASI) and Northrop Grumman (NG) to participate in an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS

  18. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  19. 6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHWEST, SHOWING NORTH & WEST FACADES WITH SHED ROOF BUILDING 8 JUTTING FROM NORTH FACADE OF WEST BAY. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  20. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  1. Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west side, camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. A preliminary analysis of some epidemiological factors involved in porcine cysticercosis in Bafut and Santa subdivisions, North West Region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ngwing, Nchang Allo Nicoline; Poné, J Wabo; Mbida, Mpoame; Pagnah, A Zoli; Njakoi, H; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-10-01

    To examine the magnitude and some risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in Bafut and Santa, two sub-divisions noted for pig farming in the North West Region of Cameroon. A total of 499 pigs in 300 households were examined by tongue inspection and serologically by Ag-ELISA. Information was sought on the age and sex of the animals, prevailing husbandry systems, types of feed, the state of each pen and the state of toilets. Futhermore, a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to determine their awareness on taeniasis/cysticercosis and related factors. The prevalence of the disease was significantly higher in Santa (10.2%) than in Bafut (4.2%), although there was a higher level of awareness in both localities (62.3%). Age of pigs, traditional rearing systems (roaming, tethered, earth floor pen, raised floor pen), faecal disposal in the environment and poor sanitation significantly influenced the seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis in both localities. Most farmers (79.7%) used a combination of concentrate, grass and kitchen waste to feed pigs. Financial loss from porcine cysticercosis was estimated at 346 900 CFA representing 2% of total income. Control measures advanced here include sensitization campaigns, periodic examination and treatment of infected pigs by veterinarians, improved husbandry systems, proper use of standard latrines regularly inspected by sanitary officers, and sound hygienic and sanitary practices. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. QTL for yield and associated traits in the Seri/Babax population grown across several environments in Mexico, in the West Asia, North Africa, and South Asia regions.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Marta S; Reynolds, Matthew P; McIntyre, C Lynne; Mathews, Ky L; Jalal Kamali, M R; Mossad, Moussa; Feltaous, Yousef; Tahir, Izzat S A; Chatrath, Ravish; Ogbonnaya, Francis; Baum, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Heat and drought adaptive quantitative trait loci (QTL) in a spring bread wheat population resulting from the Seri/Babax cross designed to minimize confounding agronomic traits have been identified previously in trials conducted in Mexico. The same population was grown across a wide range of environments where heat and drought stress are naturally experienced including environments in Mexico, West Asia, North Africa (WANA), and South Asia regions. A molecular genetic linkage map including 475 marker loci associated to 29 linkage groups was used for QTL analysis of yield, days to heading (DH) and to maturity (DM), grain number (GM2), thousand kernel weight (TKW), plant height (PH), canopy temperature at the vegetative and grain filling stages (CTvg and CTgf), and early ground cover. A QTL for yield on chromosome 4A was confirmed across several environments, in subsets of lines with uniform allelic expression of a major phenology QTL, but not independently from PH. With terminal stress, TKW QTL was linked or pleiotropic to DH and DM. The link between phenology and TKW suggested that early maturity would favor the post-anthesis grain growth periods resulting in increased grain size and yields under terminal stress. GM2 and TKW were partially associated with markers at different positions suggesting different genetic regulation and room for improvement of both traits. Prediction accuracy of yield was improved by 5 % when using marker scores of component traits (GM2 and DH) together with yield in multiple regression. This procedure may provide accumulation of more favorable alleles during selection.

  4. Designing Australia's North West Shelf offshore pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.; Craze, D.J.; Ruinen, W.

    1984-05-07

    Design studies for the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project in Australia commenced in the early 1970s. The trunkline from the North Rankin A platform to shore has recently been completed as the first part of the offshore pipeline system for the North West Shelf project. This pipeline originates from the platform in a water depth of 125 m (410 ft), enters the mouth of Mermaid Sound, and terminates just south of Withnell Bay on the Burrup Peninsula, on the North West coastline of Western Australia. The pipeline is 1,016 mm (40 in.) in diameter and 134.2 km (83.4 miles) long. It will operate in two-phase flow, bringing both gas and condensate to an onshore plant near its landfall. A slugcatcher has been constructed within the plant to receive liquidhydrocarbon slugs from the pipeline. The trunkline to shore will initially serve only the one offshore platform and operate at about 25% of its capacity to supply the Western Australian domestic gas market. The domestic gas plant on the Burrup Peninsula is being constructed by Woodside to produce pipeline-quality gas for delivery to the State Energy Commission and condensate for shipment by coastal tankers.

  5. 16. LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST FROM WEST END OF NORTH SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST FROM WEST END OF NORTH SIDE, VIEW IS NORTH SIDE OF NORTH PLANTER-LIGHT SHOWING PORTION OF SUPERSTRUCTURE - Ravine Bluffs Development Bridge, Spanning ravine at Sylvan Road, Glencoe, Cook County, IL

  6. 1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG NORTH AVENUE. BRIDGE No. Z-2 AT CENTER LEFT OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa.

    PubMed

    Conley, Amy K; Fuller, Douglas O; Haddad, Nabil; Hassan, Ali N; Gad, Adel M; Beier, John C

    2014-06-24

    The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson's r=0.774, r=0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r=0.666,r=0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of independent surveys or previous disease outbreaks. Cx

  8. Modeling the distribution of the West Nile and Rift Valley Fever vector Culex pipiens in arid and semi-arid regions of the Middle East and North Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Middle East North Africa (MENA) region is under continuous threat of the re-emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley Fever virus (RVF), two pathogens transmitted by the vector species Culex pipiens. Predicting areas at high risk for disease transmission requires an accurate model of vector distribution, however, most Cx. pipiens distribution modeling has been confined to temperate, forested habitats. Modeling species distributions across a heterogeneous landscape structure requires a flexible modeling method to capture variation in mosquito response to predictors as well as occurrence data points taken from a sufficient range of habitat types. Methods We used presence-only data from Egypt and Lebanon to model the population distribution of Cx. pipiens across a portion of the MENA that also encompasses Jordan, Syria, and Israel. Models were created with a set of environmental predictors including bioclimatic data, human population density, hydrological data, and vegetation indices, and built using maximum entropy (Maxent) and boosted regression tree (BRT) methods. Models were created with and without the inclusion of human population density. Results Predictions of Maxent and BRT models were strongly correlated in habitats with high probability of occurrence (Pearson’s r = 0.774, r = 0.734), and more moderately correlated when predicting into regions that exceeded the range of the training data (r = 0.666,r = 0.558). All models agreed in predicting high probability of occupancy around major urban areas, along the banks of the Nile, the valleys of Israel, Lebanon, and Jordan, and southwestern Saudi Arabia. The most powerful predictors of Cx. pipiens habitat were human population density (60.6% Maxent models, 34.9% BRT models) and the seasonality of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) (44.7% Maxent, 16.3% BRT). Maxent models tended to be dominated by a single predictor. Areas of high probability corresponded with sites of

  9. 14. View of west elevation looking north to south to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View of west elevation looking north to south to illustrate the archaeological features just west of the west wall of the cabin, particularly the brick paving in front of the door into the north pen - The Hermitage, East Cabin, 4580 Rachel's Lane, Hermitage, Davidson County, TN

  10. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  11. 1. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View of north side of East Ward Street west of North Coweta Avenue, facing northwest. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  12. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  15. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  16. VIEW OF BOTTOMLAND FOREST, WEST OF RAILROAD CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOTTOMLAND FOREST, WEST OF RAILROAD CORRIDOR, NORTH OF OVERHILLS LAKE, FACING WEST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  17. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  18. VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST END, FACING SOUTHEAST, LOOKING DOWN ARCADE AND ACROSS COURTYARD - Roosevelt Base, Arcade, West Virginia Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. BUILDING 1: FIRST FLOOR (Center Section), WEST AND NORTH WALLS, SHOWING TWO TIERS OF COLUMNS WITH SECOND FLOOR REMOVED - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 422. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Administration-Laboratory- Change House-Bomb Rail, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 530 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. 19. VIEW TO NORTH. ALONG WABASH AVENUE WEST GROUND LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW TO NORTH. ALONG WABASH AVENUE WEST GROUND LEVEL. PROFILE WEST STATION HOUSE SOUTH FACE. ELEVATION SOUTHWEST STAIRCASE TO MEZZANINE LEVEL. - Union Elevated Railroad, Randolph-Wabash Avenue Station, Randolph Street & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1703. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ammunition Demolition Building, 3250 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 1750 feet West of E Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  3. Building No. 909, north (long) and west (short) sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building No. 909, north (long) and west (short) sides - Presidio of San Francisco, Enlisted Men's Barracks Type, West end of Crissy Field, between Pearce & Maudlin Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of windows at north portion of west elevation; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  5. Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Magazine No. 2, Railroad Avenue, west side near intersection with Imhoff Road, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 346. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 346. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Storage Warehouse for Incendiary Clusters, 1659 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2060 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  8. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING 23 FROM WEST EDGE OF PARKING LOT, FACING SOUTHEAST - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The increasing number of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium strains warrants exploration of new anti-malarials. Medicinal plant research has become more important, particularly after the development of Chinese anti-malarial drug artemisnin from Artemisia annua. The present study shows evaluation of anti-malarial effects of two plants commonly used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya, in order to discover the herbal-based medicine. Methods In vitro anti-plasmodial sensitivity of plant extracts was assessed using schizont maturation and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. Cytotoxic activities of the examined extracts were determined on L-6 cells of rat skeletal muscle myoblast. The 4-day test for anti-malarial activity against a chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain in Swiss albino mice was used for monitoring in vivo activity of plant extracts. Results Chloroform extract of H. antidysenterica (HA-2) and petroleum ether extract of V. canescens (VC-1) plants significantly reduced parasitaemia in P. berghei infected mice. The extract HA-2 showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity with its IC50 value 5.5 μg/ml using pLDH assay and ED50 value 18.29 mg/kg in P. berghei infected Swiss albino mice. Similarly petroleum ether extract of V. canescens (VC-1) showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity with its IC50 value 2.76 μg/ml using pLDH assay and ED50 15.8 mg/kg in P. berghei infected mice. The extracts coded as HA-2 at 30 mg/kg and VC-1 at 20 mg/kg exhibited parasite inhibition in mice: 73.2% and 63.0% respectively. Of these two plant extracts, petroleum ether extract of V. canescens was found slightly cytotoxic. Conclusion The present investigation reflects the use of these traditional medicinal plants against malaria and these plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for the treatment of malaria. PMID:21288335

  10. Anti-malarial activity of Holarrhena antidysenterica and Viola canescens, plants traditionally used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Verma, Gaurav; Dua, Virendra K; Agarwal, Dau Dayal; Atul, Pravin Kumar

    2011-02-02

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium strains warrants exploration of new anti-malarials. Medicinal plant research has become more important, particularly after the development of Chinese anti-malarial drug artemisnin from Artemisia annua. The present study shows evaluation of anti-malarial effects of two plants commonly used against malaria in the Garhwal region of north-west Himalaya, in order to discover the herbal-based medicine. In vitro anti-plasmodial sensitivity of plant extracts was assessed using schizont maturation and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) assay. Cytotoxic activities of the examined extracts were determined on L-6 cells of rat skeletal muscle myoblast. The 4-day test for anti-malarial activity against a chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK65 strain in Swiss albino mice was used for monitoring in vivo activity of plant extracts. Chloroform extract of H. antidysenterica (HA-2) and petroleum ether extract of V. canescens (VC-1) plants significantly reduced parasitaemia in P. berghei infected mice. The extract HA-2 showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity with its IC50 value 5.5 μg/ml using pLDH assay and ED50 value 18.29 mg/kg in P. berghei infected Swiss albino mice. Similarly petroleum ether extract of V. canescens (VC-1) showed in vitro anti-plasmodial activity with its IC50 value 2.76 μg/ml using pLDH assay and ED50 15.8 mg/kg in P. berghei infected mice. The extracts coded as HA-2 at 30 mg/kg and VC-1 at 20 mg/kg exhibited parasite inhibition in mice: 73.2% and 63.0% respectively. Of these two plant extracts, petroleum ether extract of V. canescens was found slightly cytotoxic. The present investigation reflects the use of these traditional medicinal plants against malaria and these plants may work as potential source in the development of variety of herbal formulations for the treatment of malaria.

  11. 101. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    101. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS LEAF TRUSS (BRACKET) UNDER SILL - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 100. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS LEAF TRUSS (BRACKET) UNDER SILL - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 102. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. TOWER STAIRHALL, WEST WALL ABOVE STAIRS, WINDOW, NORTH ACANTHUS LEAF TRUSS (BRACKET) UNDER SILL - Independence Hall Complex, Independence Hall, 500 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. View of north front and west sides of hall, facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north front and west sides of hall, facing south - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  15. 18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detail of stonework, north side, immediately west of western abutment reinforcing, facing south. - Dubbs Bridge, Spinnerstown Road (State Route 2031) spanning Hosensack Creek, Dillingerville, Lehigh County, PA

  16. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  17. 4. WEST WEB OF BRIDGE AND PORTION OF NORTH APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST WEB OF BRIDGE AND PORTION OF NORTH APPROACH GUARDRAIL, FROM STREAMBANK. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rock Valley Bridge, Spanning North Timber Creek at Old U.S. Highway 30, Marshalltown, Marshall County, IA

  18. Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of north rear and west side, also showing north hall at far left. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (rear) elevations - view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Electrolytic Manganese Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  20. 3. TENSTALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TEN-STALL GARAGE. NORTH AND WEST SIDES. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rainbow Hydroelectric Facility, Ten Stall Garage, On north bank of Missouri River 2 miles Northeast of Great Falls, & end of Rainbow Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  1. 8. Oil house, view southeast, north and west sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Oil house, view southeast, north and west sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  2. 4. Keeper's house, view southeast, north and west sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Keeper's house, view southeast, north and west sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  3. West (front) and south (side) elevations, view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West (front) and south (side) elevations, view to north - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  4. 2. North (side) and west (front) elevations, view to south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North (side) and west (front) elevations, view to south - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Research Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  5. North (side) and west (front) elevations, view to southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North (side) and west (front) elevations, view to southeast - Bureau of Mines Boulder City Experimental Station, Titanium Development Plant, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  6. Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view lookin southeast to west elevation and north gable end; note change in grade and banked quality of north and east elevations. - Roulette Farm, Springhouse-Kitchen, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  7. Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of blacksmith shop, showing north and west (rear) elevations; camera facing southeast - Lemmon-Anderson-Hixson Ranch, Blacksmith Shop, 11220 North Virginia Street, Reno, Washoe County, NV

  8. 19. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, NORTH SIDE RETAINING WALL; WEST FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST, NORTH SIDE RETAINING WALL; WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING, FIRST FLOOR (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST; WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE MBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST; WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE MBE BUILDING, THIRD AND SECOND FLOORS (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. 3. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  11. 10. DETAIL VIEW NORTH AND WEST OF GENERATOR (LEFT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW NORTH AND WEST OF GENERATOR (LEFT AND CENTER) AND BELT (RIGHT) - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  12. 3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 0503, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH LOADING DOCK AND GABLE ROOFED SHED. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Powerhouse east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Powerhouse - east, north and west elevations and operating machinery, battery storage building, and typical span of steel service bridge - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  14. View of west end of north elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west end of north elevation of Building No. 37. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 37, North side of Foothill Avenue, east of South Twenty-sixth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  15. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking north along the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, A view looking north along the west corridor. Rooms 179 and 180 are beyond to the north - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, B Building, One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  16. 15. View north. Detail of west end of link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north. Detail of west end of link span, north chord, showing expansion joint and typical scupper inside of plate, girder web. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  17. 4. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING WEST TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING WEST TO DOUBLE LOG BARN - Williams Place, Crib, SC secondary Road 113, 3/4 mile North of SC secondary Road 235, Glenn Springs, Spartanburg County, SC

  18. West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West view; Street Car Waiting House, east elevation - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. NorthEast view; Mechanical Building, south and west elevations North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Mechanical Building, south and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Mechanical Building, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Two Perspectives on Reforming the Regional System of Vocational Education. Based on the Pilot Project in the North-West Regions of the Russian Federation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    European Training Foundation, Turin (Italy).

    This report informs readers on the state of regional vocational training reform in Russia and shares experiences on how present problems and challenges have been addressed by a joint international development project. The three chapters of Part I present information from the perspective of the European Training Foundation: "Introduction to…

  1. 4. View of north side of East Ward Street west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View of north side of East Ward Street west of Dewey Avenue, facing northeast. - Gaskin Avenue Neighborhood, Bounded by Dart Street to east, CSX Railroad to south, Pearl & Madison Avenues to west, & Wilson & Gordon Streets to north, Douglas, Coffee County, GA

  2. 13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF WEST WALL CAPSTONES, SHOWING CONNECTING STRAPS AND RETAINING STRAP - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  3. Alcohol and Drug Use in Injured Drivers – An Emergency Room Study in a Regional Tertiary Care Centre of North West India

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil; Singh, Dalbir; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-01-01

    Background Statistics show an increasing proportion of alcohol and drug use in drivers in more recent times throughout the world. It has been found that among the various human factors, alcohol consumption, using drugs and subsequent driving on the roads are major risk factors. Traffic regulations in India penalises drivers who drive beyond permissible alcohol limit of 30 mg%. Consumption of psychoactive drugs such as opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines has been reported mainly among youngsters. Hardly any data is available in Indian context particularly from North-West Zone of India. Study objective To study the pattern of alcohol, opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines use in injured drivers presenting to a designated trauma centre in Chandigarh zone of North-West India. Materials and Methods Consenting injured drivers who presented to the trauma centre in Chandigarh from September 2013 to January 2014 were included. Urine samples collected from the subjects were screened for abusive drug exposure (opioid, cannabis and benzodiazepines) and alcohol using commercial bedside urine immunoassay kits. In urine alcohol positive cases blood samples were collected and analysed for alcohol concentration using standard gas chromatography. Retrograde extrapolation method was used to assess BAC at the time of accident. Results A total of 200 injured drivers were included in this study. We found substance consumption in 54.5% of drivers and alcohol (40.5%) was the most prevalent substance consumed followed by opiates (13%), cannabis (7%) and benzodiazepines (7%). More than one substance was shown in urine of 11.5% of drivers. Among 81 alcohol positive screening cases, the quantitative analysis was successfully done for 76 cases. Except one, all cases showed BAC value more than 30 mg% which is the legal limit for driving any vehicle in India. The values of alcohol concentration in blood at the time of accident were in the range of 20 to 391 mg%. Conclusion This study has shown

  4. 29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of May 1908 photograph showing the north side and west rear of powerhouse and car barn. The windows on the north wall of the building were later bricked up. Note the wooden roof trusses of the main building, and the different construction techniques used in rebuilding the 'annex,' closest to the viewer. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  6. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH, WITH BROWN MARX BUILDING (BOTTOM CENTER TO RIGHT), EMPIRE BUILDING (CENTER TOP) WITH ITS TERRACOTTA-CLAD 20TH STREET AND FIRST AVENUE FACADES, AND JOHN HAND BUILDING - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. Climate Variability and Predictability in North West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddour, O.; Djellouli, Y.

    2003-04-01

    North West Africa defined here as the area including Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, it occupies a large territory in North Africa with more than 3.5 Millions KM2. The geographical contrast is very important: while most of the southern part is desert, the northern and north western part exhibits a contrasting geography including large flat areas in the western part of Morocco, northern Algeria and eastern part of Tunisia, And also the formidable Atlas mountains barrier that extends from south west of Morocco toward north west of Tunisia crossing central Morocco and north Algeria.Agriculture is one of major socio-economic activity in the region with an extensive cash-crop for exporting to Europe especially from Morocco and Tunisia. The influence of the recurring droughts during 80s and 90s was very crucial for the economic and societal aspects of the region. In Morocco, severe droughts has caused GDP fluctuation within past 20 years from 10% increase down to negative values in some particular years. Most of weather systems occurs during frontal excursion through the Atlantic and Europe bringing cold air and cloud and precipitation systems. The active precipitation period extends from October to May with almost 80% of the total rainfall. The dry season extends from June to September. Nevertheless some convective clouds develop occasionally during the dry season due to subtropical humid air mass that converge into the region and trigger the convection especially in the high area and Sahara. These less frequent precipitation systems could lead to weather hazards such as flash floods with damage to population and infrastructure. (The example of OURIKA in August 1995 in Morocco). The far south of the region experiences some tropical influence during August period especially in the south of Algeria when the ITCZ can migrate from the SAHEL area to its northernmost position in the region. Recent studies have investigated seasonal rainfall variability and prediction over

  8. ERTS-1 imagery as an aid to the understanding of the regional setting of base metal deposits in the North West Cape Province, South Africa. [mineral exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viljoen, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A number of base metal finds have recently focussed attention on the North Western Cape Province of South Africa as an area of great potential mineral wealth. From the point of view of competitive mineral exploration it was essential that an insight into the regional geological controls of the base metal mineralization of the area be obtained as rapidly as possible. Conventional methods of producing a suitable regional geological map were considered to be too time-consuming and ERTS-1 imagery was consequently examined. This imagery has made a significant contribution in the compilation of a suitable map on which to base further mineral exploration programmes. The time involved in the compilation of maps of this nature was found to be only a fraction of the time necessary for the production of similar maps using other methods. ERTS imagery is therefore considered to be valuable in producing accurate regional maps in areas where little or no geological data are available, or in areas of poor access. Furthermore, these images have great potential for rapidly defining the regional extent of metallogenic provinces.

  9. 1. LONG VIEW OF NORTH FACE FROM WEST BANK. OLD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LONG VIEW OF NORTH FACE FROM WEST BANK. OLD HAPPY ISLES BRIDGE (CA-110) IS VISIBLE UNDER ARCH IN DISTANCE. - Happy Isles Bridge, Spanning Merced River on Service road, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  10. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 728 FROM CHEMICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 728 FROM CHEMICAL STORAGE TANK. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Mustard Filling & Storage Building, 280 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2130 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. ...

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    Oblique view showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  12. 1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE WEST BANK ...

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    1. A LONG VIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM THE WEST BANK OF LITTLE WALNUT CREEK TOWARD THE SOUTH (DOWNSTREAM) SIDE OF THE BRIDGE - Putnam County Bridge No. 111, Spanning Little Walnut Creek on County Road 50, Greencastle, Putnam County, IN

  13. GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW AT THE WEST ANNEX LOOKING NORTH FROM ...

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    GENERAL INTERIOR VIEW AT THE WEST ANNEX LOOKING NORTH FROM COLUMN LINE AA-45 SHOWING SECURITY BALCONY TO THE RIGHT. - Offutt Air Force Base, Glenn L. Martin-Nebraska Bomber Plant, Building D, Peacekeeper Drive, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  14. 4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides ...

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    4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  15. 2. NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, (WITH ...

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    2. NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE ELEVATIONS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, (WITH TOM SHAW IN PHONE BOOTH) - Paris Mountain State Park, Bathhouse, Paris Mountain State Park, off SC Route 253, Greenville, Greenville, SC

  16. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT ...

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    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, FIRE PUMP HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Ortona Lock, Lock No. 2, Water Treatment Plant, Caloosahatchee River, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Ortona, Glades County, FL

  17. Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north ...

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    Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north sides; view to southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  18. Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator ...

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    Front (west side) and north side of building with incinerator smokestack (building 615) in right background - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Incinerator Building, 540 feet East-Northeast of intersection of East Bushnell Avenue & South Van Valzah Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 1. Ferry slip, view looking north. On the right, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ferry slip, view looking north. On the right, west side of the main dock: on the left, east side of the Sand and Gravel Wharf. - Curtis Wharf, Ferry Slip & Sand & Gravel Wharf, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  20. 1. LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OFFICE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OFFICE; LABORATORY AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. - Standard Lime & Stone Quarry, Office, County Route 27, Millville, Jefferson County, WV

  1. North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, west part. Administration building is visible at far right. - San Bernardino Valley College, Life Science Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. Facility No. 171, oblique view of west side and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility No. 171, oblique view of west side and north end, with Facility Nos. 170 and S169 in the background - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Inert Ammunition Storehouses, Avocet and Kingfisher Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. J SERIES MAGAZINE. #J107 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. #J107 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH END. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in background to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. 14. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE OVERHANG, WEST SIDE OF NORTH PORTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF ENTRANCE OVERHANG, WEST SIDE OF NORTH PORTION. SAME FEATURE AS A-13. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  9. 78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    78. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF GREENE STREET LOOKING WEST FROM SIDEWALK IN FRONT OF SACRED HEART CHURCH - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  10. 7. North addition of Clubhouse. Elevation view of west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. North addition of Clubhouse. Elevation view of west side with connections to Paddock Club at right. Camera pointed E. (May 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  11. 8. Oil house, view southeast, north side and west front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Oil house, view southeast, north side and west front - Pumpkin Island Light Station, Pumpkin Island, at northern end of Eggemoggin Beach, off northwest end of Little Deer Island, Eggemoggin, Hancock County, ME

  12. 3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE NORTH FACADE AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE NORTH FACADE AND WEST SIDE OF THE SOUTHERN-MOST CAR BARN AT CENTRAL AVENUE AND BOND STREET - Johnstown Passenger Railway Company, Car Barns, 726 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. 6. West rear and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast.' - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Main Port Building, U.S. Highway 93, immediately south of U.S.-Canadian border, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  14. 6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW WEST, WOODLYNNE AVENUE FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  15. 8. Oil house, view southsoutheast, north front and west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Oil house, view south-southeast, north front and west side - Squirrel Point Light Station, Off Highway 127, Steen Road to end of Bald Head Road, .8 mile down footpath, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  16. FACILITY 1523, NORTH SIDE AND WEST END OF QUONSET HUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 1523, NORTH SIDE AND WEST END OF QUONSET HUT VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Air Station Barbers Point, Quonset Hut Type 1 - 40' x 100', Between John F. Kennedy & Harrison Streets, south of Bismarck Sea Road, Ewa, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE NORTH END AND WEST SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE NORTH END AND WEST SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM A BOAT. BUILDING NO. 14 IS VISIBLE AT THE EXTREME RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Pier 4, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  18. 6. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WEST PORTION, NORTH SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW OF THE WEST PORTION, NORTH SIDE, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING STAIRWAY TO PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY. - Grand Avenue Viaduct, U.S. Highway 20, Business & State Highway 12, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  19. 9. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF TYPE IA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF TYPE IA PIER HOUSE, SHOWING ROLLER GATE TRACK, DAM - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 15, Upper Mississipi River (Arsenal Island), Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH SIDE WITH WEST END TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FACING EAST-SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Aviation Storehouse, Vincennes Avenue at Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. 2. NORTH VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, SOUTHWEST CORNER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH VIEW OF SOUTH AND WEST SIDES, SOUTHWEST CORNER. BUNK HOUSE ROOF IS VISIBLE BEYOND THIS STRUCTURE - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine & Camp Residence, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  2. North and west sides of the cooling tower, utility building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west sides of the cooling tower, utility building (building 2606) is in the background at right - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Cooling Tower, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  3. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 519. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 519. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Acetylene Gas Holder Building, 530 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1020 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. 4. DRY DOCK NO. 4, LOOKING NORTH FROM WEST END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DRY DOCK NO. 4, LOOKING NORTH FROM WEST END OF CAISSON. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Dry Dock No. 4, Broad Street south of Government Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. 1. Environmental view of Leipsic showing north and west sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Environmental view of Leipsic showing north and west sides of dwelling, looking southeast - Captain Kenny Wright-Mary S. Reed House, Little Creek Hundred, South side of east end of Lombard Street, Leipsic, Kent County, DE

  6. INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR SECOND FLOOR- EAST END LOOKING WEST AT NORTH ROW OF MUSHROOM COLUMNS. - Colt Fire Arms Company, South Armory Building, 36-150 Huyshope Avenue, 17-170 Van Dyke Avenue, 49 Vredendale Avenue, Hartford, Hartford County, CT

  7. 4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ROOM, WEST WALL, THIRD FLOOR. NOTE PLAIN MANTLEPIECE AND ORIGINAL WINDOW. See also PA-1345 C-5 - Marshall's Court Area Study, David Simpson House, 411 Marshall's Court, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING WEST FACADE AND NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST SHOWING WEST FACADE AND NORTH SIDE OF HOUSE - Greenwood Furnace, Ironmaster's Mansion, East of McAlevy's Fort on State Route 305, McAlevys Fort, Huntingdon County, PA

  9. VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WEST AND NORTH FACADES OF STANDARDIZING MAGNETIC OBSERVATORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Carnegie Institution of Washington, Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Standardizing Magnetic Observatory, 5241 Broad Branch Drive Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 7. NORTH WEB AND WEST PORTAL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH WEB AND WEST PORTAL. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST FROM BLAIR RAILROAD BRIDGE. - Abraham Lincoln Memorial Bridge, Spanning Missouri River on Highway 30 between Nebraska & Iowa, Blair, Washington County, NE

  11. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF BUILDINGS 25. 26; NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST FRONT OF BUILDINGS 25. 26; NORTH FRONT OF BUILDING 24: ROOF GABLE OF BUILDING 27 - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Soil Conservation Service Cluster, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  12. Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view, north end and west side, Burton Park Club House, view to south (90mm lens). - Burton Park, Club House & Amphitheater, Adjacent ot south end of Chestnut Avenue, San Carlos, San Mateo County, CA

  13. NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  14. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH (FRONT) AND WEST SIDE OF POST BUILDING FROM ABOVE, WITH STONE COTTAGE TO RIGHT AND MAIN LODGE IN BACKGROUND - Burntside Lodge, Post, Off County Road 88, Ely, St. Louis County, MN

  16. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 752. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 752. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Carpentry Shop-Surveillance Magazine, 1075 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2540 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Detail view of the north end of the west elevation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the north end of the west elevation to show entrance (Duplicate view of HABS DC-833-6) - Ambassador Bruce House, 1422 Thirty-Fifth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Perspective view of the north end of the west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of the north end of the west elevation, looking northwest to southeast (Duplicate view of HABS DC-833-4) - Ambassador Bruce House, 1422 Thirty-Fifth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. 81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM SHOWING LAMP STANDARDS FOR NIGHT LIGHTNING. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  20. 9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. NORTH FLANK AND (WEST) REAR WITH REAR OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ACROSS GARDEN FROM TOWER GROVE SOUTH PORCH - Missouri Botanical Garden, Henry Shaw Townhouse, 2345 Tower Grove Avenue, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  1. Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Vallejo family sleeping space, west wing, upper floor, looking north from the south end. The doorway at far right connects with the dining area. - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  2. Interior view of west and north walls (with instrumentation and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of west and north walls (with instrumentation and equipment) of Oxidizer Conditioning Structure (T-28D) - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Oxidizer Conditioning Structure, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  3. 14. Credit JTL. View of north and west elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Credit JTL. View of north and west elevations of powerhouse and switch house. Note water-cooled transformers. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  4. 1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 724. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 724. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Pesticide Incinerator-Precipitator, 260 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1840 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  5. VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FACING NORTH OF WEST QUARRY WALL, WITH METAL MOUNTING BOLT FOR DERRICK VISIBLE - Granite Hill Plantation, Quarry No. 1, South side of State Route 16, 1.3 miles northeast east of Sparta, Sparta, Hancock County, GA

  6. View of first level, north access, from west. Hoist motors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of first level, north access, from west. Hoist motors for 200-ton derrick with "American" label in mid-ground right of center. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  7. View southeast of west and north sides of Fire Warehouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of west and north sides of Fire Warehouse and attached "fire cache" (firewood shed on far left, gas-and-oil house in far right) - Fire Warehouse, 730 Laurel Street, Butte Falls, Jackson County, OR

  8. location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    location plan, floor plan, building section, north elevation, west elevation, louver window detail, mechanical room door profile, partition profile - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Staff Bath House, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  9. Oblique view of west front and north side facing southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of west front and north side facing southeast - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Swimming Pool, Southeast corner of East Nineteenth Place (formerly East McAfee Avenue) & Wheeling Street (formerly South Van Valzah Street), Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. PERSPECTIVE LOOKING WEST OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PERSPECTIVE LOOKING WEST OF EAST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 34. NOTE COVERED WALKWAYS AND PICNIC AREA - New York State Soldiers & Sailors Home, Building No. 34, Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 76 Veterans Avenue, Bath, Steuben County, NY

  11. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, FACING SOUTHEAST Cape ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, FACING SOUTHEAST - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 34, Operations Support Building, Freedom Road, Southwest of Launch Stand CX-34, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  12. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO SOUTHEAST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Airmen Dining Hall, Connecticut Road, between Illinois Drive & Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  13. Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of Beaver River, with train on bridge. - Pittsburgh, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad, Bridge No. 13, Spanning Beaver River, South of State Route 288 Bridge, Wampum, Lawrence County, PA

  14. Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of north elevation, looking SE from west bank of Beaver River. - Pittsburgh, Youngstown & Ashtabula Railroad, Bridge No. 13, Spanning Beaver River, South of State Route 288 Bridge, Wampum, Lawrence County, PA

  15. North side and west end. Machine shop section of roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side and west end. Machine shop section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) in background. View to southeast - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Foundry, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  16. 2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 514. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Lewisite Reactor & Distilled Mustard Distillation Building, 420 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. 4. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 515. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Crude Mustard Distillation Building, 550 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 400 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Ice Plant interior, west section, looking north. Crib wall of stacked 4' X 6' 's in foreground. Opening leads to refrigeration equipment area. Freezer room to the rear. - Curtis Wharf, Ice Plant, O & Second Streets, Anacortes, Skagit County, WA

  19. NORTH (REAR) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (REAR) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. NORTH (REAR) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (REAR) AND WEST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Police Entry Control Building, Off Perimeter Road in Weapons Storage Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  1. 6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  2. 7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from heat sink (south to north), west oblique of missile site control building, emphasizing southwest face - Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard Complex, Missile Site Control Building, Northeast of Tactical Road; southeast of Tactical Road South, Nekoma, Cavalier County, ND

  3. Lock 1 View north of wall west of lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 - View north of wall west of lock 1. Note the wood pile and plank foundation (believed to be similar under lock 1 walls) - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  4. 7. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WEST SIDE OF THE BASEMENT MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT ROOM. - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, Building No. 3210, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  5. View of west end of north elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of west end of north elevation of Building No. 35. Foothill Avenue in foreground. Looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 35, Southeast corner of Foothill Avenue & South Twenty-sixth Street, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. 1. GENERAL VIEW FROM STREET, LOOKING NORTH WEST, SHOWING VERMONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW FROM STREET, LOOKING NORTH WEST, SHOWING VERMONT AVENUE STREETSCAPE. MARY McLEOD BETHUNE HOUSE IS THE THIRD BAY FROM THE LEFT. - 1318 Vermont Avenue, Northwest (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SIDEWALK, LOOKING NORTH WEST, SHOWING VERMONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. GENERAL VIEW FROM SIDEWALK, LOOKING NORTH WEST, SHOWING VERMONT AVENUE STREETSCAPE. MARY McLEOD BETHUNE HOUSE IS THE THIRD BAY FROM THE LEFT. - 1318 Vermont Avenue, Northwest (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Close Up View Of Vermont Avenue Streetscape, Looking North West, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Close Up View Of Vermont Avenue Streetscape, Looking North West, Mary McLeod Bethune Council House National Historic Site Is The Second Door From The Left. - 1318 Vermont Avenue, Northwest (House), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. 8. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST END OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING THE LIGHTHOUSE SITE OFFSHORE, AND THE UNIDENTIFIED STRUCTURE FOUNDATIONS ONSHORE AT FAR RIGHT. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SIDE WALL CONSTRUCTION, NORTH TRAINING WALL, LOOKING WEST FROM THE SAME POINT AS VIEW NO. 21. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. 26. VIEW OF NORTH AND PART OF WEST ELEVATIONS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF NORTH AND PART OF WEST ELEVATIONS FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF SIXTH AND CHESTNUT STREETS WITH INDEPENDENCE HALL AND OLD CITY HALL IN THE BACKGROUND - Congress Hall, Sixth & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF SIXTH AND CHESTNUT STREETS WITH INDEPENDENCE HALL AND OLD CITY HALL IN THE BACKGROUND. 1975. - Congress Hall, Sixth & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 25. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS FROM NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF SIXTH AND CHESTNUT STREETS WITH INDEPENDENCE HALL AND OLD CITY HALL IN THE BACKGROUND - Congress Hall, Sixth & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  14. 2. VIEW OF NORTH AND PART OF WEST ELEVATIONS FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF NORTH AND PART OF WEST ELEVATIONS FROM NORTHWEST CORNER OF SIXTH AND CHESTNUT STREETS WITH INDEPENDENCE HALL AND OLD CITY HALL IN THE BACKGROUND. 1975. - Congress Hall, Sixth & Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. 4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. AN IMAGE, LOOKING NORTH WEST, OF THE TRACK, BALLAST AND CONCRETE BALUSTRADES, SHOWING HOW THE BRIDGE WAS DESIGNED TO TAKE TWO SETS OF TRACK. - Vandalia Railroad Bridge, Spanning U.S. Route 40, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  16. 3. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WEST LONGITUDINAL ELEVATION OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING WEST LONGITUDINAL ELEVATION OF NORTH END SPAN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  17. OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FIRE PUMP HOUSE WITH MAINTENANCE DEPOT SLIP AND DOCKS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST - Moore Haven Lock, Fire Pump House, Cross-State Canal, Okeechobee Intracoastal Waterway, Moore Haven, Glades County, FL

  18. View facing southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View facing southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's Residence (left) and Garage (right), with stone pillar in foreground - Toney Residence, 10700 Escondido Canyon Road, Agua Dulce, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 2. VIEW OF BUILDING 128: NORTH (GABLE END) AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BUILDING 128: NORTH (GABLE END) AND WEST SIDES FROM HOWE STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. - Fort McPherson, World War II Station Hospital, Hospital Wards, Anderson Way & Howe Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. 8. NORTH FLAME DEFLECTOR, VIEW TOWARDS WEST. Glenn L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTH FLAME DEFLECTOR, VIEW TOWARDS WEST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-2, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. 2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 543. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 543. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Maintenance Shop, 1050 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1550 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. 16. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MAIN SHAFT, WEST BASCULE OPERATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW NORTH, DETAIL OF MAIN SHAFT, WEST BASCULE OPERATING MECHANISM, SHOWING BEVEL GEARS THAT PERMIT MANUAL OPERATION - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1616. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1616. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, General Purpose Building, 2380 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 3390 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  4. View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north, west (back) wall of canal, mu shed in background. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Long Slip Canal, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  5. Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view along Blake Avenue showing north and west elevations; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  6. 18. INTERIOR NORTH BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. TRACKS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR NORTH BAY DETAIL VIEW, FACING WEST. TRACKS FOR MOVEMENT OF MATERIALS, STORAGE BINS ABANDONED ON SITE. - NASA Industrial Plant, Missile Research Laboratory, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey NORTH CELL BLOCK, WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey NORTH CELL BLOCK, WEST SIDE Blakeslee-Lane, Photographer October 1958 - Baltimore City Jail, 801 Van Buren & East Madison Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  8. 17. WEST (FRONT) PORCH, VIEWED FROM NORTH END TOWARDS THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WEST (FRONT) PORCH, VIEWED FROM NORTH END TOWARDS THE SOUTH A. C. Eschete, photographer, September 24, 1977 - Bagatelle Plantation, East River Road (moved to Iberville Parish), Donaldsonville, Ascension Parish, LA

  9. 117. NORTH FACADE, WEST END Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. NORTH FACADE, WEST END Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HABS-GS05-T-2626-205R. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Photocopy of E, west, north and south elevations of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of E, west, north and south elevations of the C.B. & Q. R.R. Roundhouse and Locomotive Shops. June 1980. - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  11. 7. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTHEAST, NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  12. 16. INTERIOR, NORTH INSPECTION TRACK, FACING WEST Delaware, Lackawanna ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR, NORTH INSPECTION TRACK, FACING WEST - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad Freight & Rail Yard, Multiple Unit Light Inspection Shed, New Jersey Transit Hoboken Terminal Rail Yard, Hoboken, Hudson County, NJ

  13. 1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1506. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1506. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Storage Building, 3320 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 30 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1501. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Sarin Manufacturing Building, 3350 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 250 feet East of Road NS-4, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 3. View west. North elevation Walpole span in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View west. North elevation - Walpole span in foreground, link span; Westminster span in background. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  16. 1. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WAREHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF WAREHOUSE WITH SAW FRAME IN BACKGROUND - Juniata Mill Complex, Warehouse, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  17. 1. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTH AND WEST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTH AND WEST SIDES - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine & Camp Residence, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  18. 3. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTH AND WEST SIDES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTHWEST CORNER, NORTH AND WEST SIDES - Juniata Mill Complex, Mill Camp Shed, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  19. 3. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES, WITH MORNING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES, WITH MORNING GLORY TUNNEL (COLLAPSED OPENING) ON RIGHT OF PHOTO - Juniata Mill Complex, Mine & Camp Residence, 22.5 miles Southwest of Hawthorne, between Aurora Crater & Aurora Peak, Hawthorne, Mineral County, NV

  20. 60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. 451 MADISON AVENUE, DRAWING ROOM, NORTH WALL, WEST MURAL PAINTING SHOWING A WOMAN (See NY-5635-54 for original location) - Villard Houses, 451-457 Madison Avenue & 24 East Fifty-first Street, New York County, NY

  1. 3. View southeast of north and west elevations. Natick ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View southeast of north and west elevations. - Natick Research & Development Laboratories, Climatic Chambers Building, U.S. Army Natick Research, Development & Engineering Center (NRDEC), Natick, Middlesex County, MA

  2. 1. View Southeast, North Front and Portion of West Side, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View Southeast, North Front and Portion of West Side, Including Rectory and Church - St. Mary's Roman Catholic School, Northwest corner of Church Avenue & Guthrie Street, McKees Rocks, Allegheny County, PA

  3. Detail of main entrance at west end of north front, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of main entrance at west end of north front, with original air force emblems on doors - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. Seen from intersection of copeland and cross roads. Looking 2186 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, East of Red Hill Avenue between Edinger Avenue & Barranca Parkway, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  5. Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Site overview. North and west sides of hangar no. 1. Seen from intersection of copeland and cross roads. Looking 2186 S. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. General view of thurmond, looking west along north side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of thurmond, looking west along north side of tracks, showing post office at right. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  7. General view of thurmond, looking west along north side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of thurmond, looking west along north side of tracks, showing commercial buildings and signal tower left of center. - Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad, Thurmond Yards, East side New River, mouths of Arbuckle & Dunlop Circles, Thurmond, Fayette County, WV

  8. 5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  9. 11. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE WEST INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. A DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH, OF THE WEST INCLINED END POST, AND OF THE PIN CONNECTION OF THE SOUTHWESTERN VERTICAL MEMBER. - Wells County Bridge No. 74, Spanning Rock Creek Ditch at County Road 400, Bluffton, Wells County, IN

  10. 8. West side of north end of bridge resting on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. West side of north end of bridge resting on approach abutment. Oblique detail view northeast (from below roadbed level, beside bridge). 150 mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  11. 3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION NORTH WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING EAST ELEVATION NORTH WING WALL (SCALE ROD IS MEASURED IN FEET) - Mulladay Hollow Bridge, Spanning Mulladay Hollow Creek at County Road No.61, Eureka Springs, Carroll County, AR

  12. 30. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WEST CORRIDOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE WEST CORRIDOR OF THE BASEMENT IN THE HOT DISASSEMBLY AREA. ELECTRIC MOTORS LINE THE WEST WALL. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  13. 3. West end. Note arched basement entrance at north half ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West end. Note arched basement entrance at north half of west endwall. Sand tower (MN-99-E) at right. View to east. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Oil House, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  14. 50. Rail Yards to North and West of Breaker, Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Rail Yards to North and West of Breaker, Looking West along Rock Belt Line Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown Originally taken by Glen Alden Safety Department, 18 August 1954; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  15. Understory composition of hardwood stands in north central West Virginia

    Treesearch

    M.J. Twery

    1991-01-01

    Understory composition was measured on 960 10.5 m2 plots in 16 stands on the West Virginia University Forest in north-central West Virginia. The overstory composition was dominated by oaks (Quercus spp.) on 50% of the stands and by a mixture of oaks and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) on 50%. All...

  16. 15. DETAIL OF NORTH PYLON, WEST SIDE, BEARING INSCRIPTION, "STATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF NORTH PYLON, WEST SIDE, BEARING INSCRIPTION, "STATE NEW JERSEY 1934." LOOKING WEST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  17. 30. Photographic copy of photo of the north and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photographic copy of photo of the north and west elevations of Bowditch Hall, c. 1960, taken from building photo files in Caretaker Site Office, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, New London. Copyright-free. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  18. 136. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. The indigenous Somba cattle of the hilly Atacora region in North-West Benin: threats and opportunities for its sustainable use.

    PubMed

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously

  20. Magnetotelluric array data analysis from north-west Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Jones, A. G.; Pedersen, L. B.; Becken, M.; Biolik, M.; Cherevatova, M.; Ebbing, J.; Gradmann, S.; Gurk, M.; Hübert, J.; Jones, A. G.; Junge, A.; Kamm, J.; Korja, T.; Lahti, I.; Löwer, A.; Nittinger, C.; Pedersen, L. B.; Savvaidis, A.; Smirnov, M.

    2015-06-01

    New magnetotelluric (MT) data in north-west Fennoscandia were acquired within the framework of the project "Magnetotellurics in the Scandes" (MaSca). The project focuses on the investigation of the crustal and upper mantle lithospheric structure in the transition zone from stable Precambrian cratonic interior to passive continental margin beneath the Caledonian orogen and the Scandinavian Mountains in western Fennoscandia. An array of 59 synchronous long period and 220 broad-band MT sites was occupied in the summers of 2011 to 2013. We estimated MT transfer functions in the period range from 0.003 to 105 s. The Q-function multi-site multi-frequency analysis and the phase tensor were used to estimate strike and dimensionality of MT data. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 2-D behaviour of the data with 3-D effects at some sites and period bands. In this paper we present 2-D inversion of the data, 3-D inversion models are shown in the parallel paper. We choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Seven crustal-scale and four lithospheric-scale 2-D models are presented. The resistive regions are images of the Archaean and Proterozoic basement in the east and thin Caledonian nappes in the west. The middle and lower crust of the Svecofennian province is conductive. The southern end of the Kittilä Greenstone Belt is seen in the models as a strong upper to middle crustal conductor. In the Caledonides, the highly conductive alum shales are observed along the Caledonian Thrust Front. The thickest lithosphere is in the Palaeoproterozioc Svecofennian Domain, not in the Archaean. The thickness of the lithosphere is around 200 km in the north and 300 km in the south-west.

  1. 132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. NORTH PLANT CHEMICAL STORAGE TANKS WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO NORTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  2. Sides (west) and rears (north) of building 254. Water tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sides (west) and rears (north) of building 254. Water tower, building 239 (HABS no. CO-172-B) is in the distance. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 254, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Side (west) and rear (north) of building 256. Water tower, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side (west) and rear (north) of building 256. Water tower, building 239 (HABS No. CO-172-B) is in the distance. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. Interior, north end, upper level, looking west. This photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, north end, upper level, looking west. This photograph taken inside the refrigeration room whose door is in the background of CO-172-AQ-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 3. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH SUPERSTRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM NEAR OBSERVATION POST NO. 3. Looking south southeast from below. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 7. EXTERIOR OF FRONT (WEST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. EXTERIOR OF FRONT (WEST END) AND NORTH SIDE SHOWING PROJECTED PURLINS AND EXPOSED RAFTER UNDER THE EAVES, AND SATELLITE TELEVISION DISH ON NORTH SIDE OF HOUSE. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  9. 5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH AND 30 WEST FROM ROUTE 130 NORTH ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  10. Credit BG. North and west facades of the warehouse as ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. North and west facades of the warehouse as seen from 1st Street. Building 4401 (Hangar No. 1) appears at extreme right of view - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Supply & Equipment Warehouse, First Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. View of north and west elevation of Building No. 21. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north and west elevation of Building No. 21. South Twenty-sixth Street at right, and Building No. 41 at left rear. Note boulders as landscape design element. Looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW TO NORTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MBE BUILDING IN RELATION TO U.S. POST OFFICE TERMINAL ANNEX BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  14. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CA. 1960 OPEN STORAGE STRUCTURE, BRICK-WALLED NORTH PART, AND CORRUGATED-STEEL SOUTH PART, CAMERA FACING SOUTHEAST. - New Haven Rail Yard, Work Equipment Shop, Vicinity of Cedar & Lamberton Streets, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  15. 3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND NORTH ELEVATIONS, SHOWING CONVEYOR HOUSE AND RETARDING CONVEYOR (LEFT), WITH SCREENING ROOM (CENTER), AND COAL STORAGE SILO (RIGHT), LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Nuttallburg Mine Complex, Tipple, North side of New River, 2.7 miles upstream from Fayette Landing, Lookout, Fayette County, WV

  16. West Nile Disease Epidemiology in North-West Africa: Bibliographical Review.

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, A; El Harrak, M; Belkadi, B

    2016-12-01

    West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile disease (WND) is a mosquito-borne viral disease that can affect birds, humans and horses. West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. WNV is maintained in a mosquito-bird-mosquito transmission cycle, whereas humans and horses are considered dead-end hosts. In human and horses, symptoms range from unapparent infection to mild febrile illness, meningitis, encephalitis or death. WNV has a wide geographical range that includes portions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia (Kunjin virus), and in North, Central and South America. Migratory birds are thought to be primarily responsible for virus dispersal, including reintroduction of WNV from endemic areas into regions that experience sporadic outbreaks (Fields Virology, 2001, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 1043-1125). The occurrence of disease in humans and animals along with birds and mosquitoes surveillance for WNV activity demonstrates that the virus range has dramatically expanded including North, Central and South America as well as Europe and countries facing the Mediterranean Basin. WND infection in humans has been reported in Morocco in 1996 (Virologie, 1, 1997, 248), in Tunisia in 2007 (Ann. N. Y. Acad., 951, 2001, 117) (Med. Trop., 61, 2001, 487) and 2003 (Epidémiologie de la fièvre West Nile, 2012, Thèse de doctorat, Université Montpellier II, Sciences et techniques du Langueduc, Montpellier, France), and in Algeria in 1994 (Rev. Sci. Tech., 31, 2012, 829). Outbreaks of equine encephalitis have been also reported in Morocco in 1996 (Bull. OIE, 11, 1996, 867), in 2003 (Emerg. Infect. Dis., 11, 2005, 306) and in 2010 (World Animal Health Information Database. WAHID, 2010). Serological evidence of WNV has been demonstrated in the three countries in many species. The aim of this review was to assess the epidemiological situation of WND in north-west Africa comprising Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, with

  17. 2. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE NORTH END OF BUILDING F, CENTER, SHOWING THE CORNER OF BUILDING D AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING AT THE FAR LEFT. BUILDING E IS VISIBLE BY THE PALM TREE AT RIGHT CENTER, JUST NORTH OF BUILDING F. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Mud flat frac. [North Sea coastline of West Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    In a region of shallow water, sandbars, and tidal flats off the far northwest coast of W. Germany, Halliburton Co. Germany took unusual steps to successfully perform a large fracturing treatment in June, 1980. The job required pumping for 7 hr at pressures expected to exceed 11,000 psi, using 200,000 gal of gelled water and 300,000 lb of super prop proppant. The wellhead, without any working area around it, no platform or such, was in the North Sea near the coast west of the town of Norden where the sea comes in to meet the Ems River. To do the job, Halliburton would need 16 ht-400 skid units, 4 ht-1000 intensifiers, two 50-bbl blenders, a 25-bbl blender, four 20,000-gal horizontal tanks, a 10,000-gal horizontal tank, eight 16,000-gal vertical tanks, and 2 bulk sand silos. Nearly 1-1/4 acres of pontoon barge were used by Halliburton Germany to assemble equipment at the site of the shallow-water North Sea well.

  19. Block 2. Photograph represents general view taken from the north/west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Block 2. Photograph represents general view taken from the north/west region of the May D & F Tower. Photograph shows the main public gathering space for Skyline Park and depicts a light feature and an “Information” sign - Skyline Park, 1500-1800 Arapaho Street, Denver, Denver County, CO

  20. 2. Credit PSR. View looks south at north and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Credit PSR. View looks south at north and west facades of hangar, with attached lean-to structures containing offices and workshops. Building at right midground is Building 4307 Supply & Equipment Warehouse. Building 4308 is a fenced electrical transformer substation appearing in the extreme left of the view. - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Unicon Portable Hangar, First & C Streets, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, LOOKING WEST. IN THE FOREGROUND ON THE FIRST BENCH, POWDER HILLS ARE PRIMED FOR DOLOMITE EXTRACTION. ON THE SECOND BENCH, THE DRILL TEAM IS LAYING OUT THE NEXT SHOTS. ON THE TOP BENCH, A 245 CATERPILLAR LOADER FILLS A 55-TON CATERPILLAR ROCK TRUCK WITH EXTRACTED DOLOMITE FOR TRANSPORT TO THE DOLOMITE CRUSHING AND SCREENING PLANT. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  2. 31. Interior view, north end of the west wall looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior view, north end of the west wall looking at the section between the front door and the northwestern corner of the building, with scale (note position of post fire partition wall and floor joists as recorded in the brickwork) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  3. 3. GENERAL VIEW, INCLUDING NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS (CROPPED PRINT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW, INCLUDING NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS (CROPPED PRINT FROM 2-1/4 x 2-3/4 NEGATIVE) - U.S. General Services Administration, Central Heating Plant, C & D Streets between Twelfth & Thirteenth Streets Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  4. 9. Elevation view of north end of west wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Elevation view of north end of west wall of South Section. Bulkhead is visible on right. This photo makes an extended elevation panorama with photo WA-116-E-7 and WA-116-E-8. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 3, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OIL HOUSE IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF OIL HOUSE IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, WITH EMBANKMENT (MI-100-A) IN LEFT FOREGROUND, AND POWERHOUSE (MI-100-B) AND SUBSTATION (MI-100-C) AT CENTER AND LEFT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - Hardy Hydroelectric Plant, Oil House, 6928 East Thirty-sixth Street, Newaygo, Newaygo County, MI

  6. Modelling Trajectories through the Educational System in North West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Roger; Berridge, Damon

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to identify those school-level and locality-level factors that significantly affect each of the three stages in a young adult's educational trajectory in North West England: GCSE results, track taken at age 16 and "A"-level scores. By applying three-level models to data collected as part of the EFFNATIS…

  7. 8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW NORTHEAST, ROUTE 130 NORTH FROM ROUTE 30 WEST FROM WOODLYNNE AVENUE ISLAND - White Horse Pike Rond Point, Intersection of Crescent Boulevard (U.S. Route 130), White Horse Pike (U.S. Route 30), & Clay Avenue, Collingswood, Camden County, NJ

  8. 8. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF WEST BOILER ROOM LUDOWICI TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF WEST BOILER ROOM LUDOWICI TILE ROOF. TWO 600,00 GALLON RESERVOIRS FOR BOILER FEED WATER ARE ON THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 1. BUILDING 8814, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE. BUILDING 8832, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUILDING 8814, NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE. BUILDING 8832, TEST STAND 1-E, IN LEFT DISTANCE. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunker 1-D-3, Test Area 1-125, northwest end of Altair Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 2. View looking southeast at north and west facades of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View looking southeast at north and west facades of Test Stand 'D' workshop 4222/E-23, with Test Stand 'D' tower in background and tunnel access shed to the right. Equipment on 4222/E-23 roof is for air conditioning. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand D, Workshop, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. EAST WEST NORTH ELEVATIONS OF MULTICURIE CELL ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS REMOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST WEST NORTH ELEVATIONS OF MULTICURIE CELL ARCHITECTURAL DETAILS REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627). INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-00627-00-706-050245. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER AED-D-245. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE PHOTO OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) LOOKING SOUTHEAST. LABORATORY AND OFFICE BUILDING (CPP-602) APPEAR ON LEFT IN PHOTO. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-22-2-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/1998 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH WEST OVER CENTRAL ATLANTIC WITH ATLANTIC OCEAN IN THE FOREGROUND. DENNIS HOTEL, BLENHEIM HOTEL, AND MARLBOROUGH HOTEL (LEFT TO RIGHT) ARE LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CLARIDGE HOTEL IS THE HIGHRISE IMMEDIATELY TO THE RIGHT OF THE MARLBOROUGH HOTEL - Marlborough, Blenheim & Dennis Hotels (aerial views), Between Park Place, Michigan Avenue & Boardwalk, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  14. 6. DETAIL: LOOKING NORTH, OF THE SOUTH WEST PORTAL SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL: LOOKING NORTH, OF THE SOUTH WEST PORTAL SHOWING THE TERMINUS OF THE BANNISTER AND SIDEWALK RADIUS. RILEY PARK ANNEX ROAD IS IN THE IMMEDIATE FOREGROUND - Delphi Bridge on U.S. Route 421, Spanning Deer Creek at U.S. Route 421, Delphi, Carroll County, IN

  15. 43. TOP PART OF UMBILICAL MAST, NORTH AND WEST SIDES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. TOP PART OF UMBILICAL MAST, NORTH AND WEST SIDES. AIR CONDITIONING DUCTING IS VISIBLE ON INTERIOR OF MAST. RAIL IS VISIBLE LEFT OF THE MAST. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Credit PSR. This view shows the north and west facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This view shows the north and west facades of the building as seen when looking east southeast (1100). This structure was used to test regenerative fuel cells in 1995 - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Weigh & Test Preparation Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 6. VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM WEST BANK LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGHWAY BRIDGE PIER AND LANDED ARCHES OF RAILROAD BRIDGE. Copy photograph of photogrammetric plate LC-HAER-PS13-2000-702. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Schuylkill River Viaduct, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 131; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; SMALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 131; LOOKING SOUTHEAST; SMALL BUILDING IN FOREGROUND IS BUILDING 110; BUILDING 301 IS AT RIGHT CENTER; BUILDING 88 IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME LEFT - Rath Packing Company, Cold Storage Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  20. 10. THIS PHOTOGRAPH, LOOKING WEST ALONG THE NORTH SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. THIS PHOTOGRAPH, LOOKING WEST ALONG THE NORTH SIDE OF THE SPAN, SHOWS THE BROKEN EDGE OF THE BALUSTRADE AND A CLEAR PROFILE OF THE UPSTREAM SHEARWATER. - Putnam County Bridge No. 111, Spanning Little Walnut Creek on County Road 50, Greencastle, Putnam County, IN

  1. View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west from beneath state route 18 bridge (which lies along previous alignment of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  2. 2. North side and west rear. Main section of roundhouse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North side and west rear. Main section of roundhouse (MN-99-A) in background at left. Top of sand tower (MN-99-E) visible above main roundhouse section. Machne shop section of roundhouse in background at right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Office, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  3. 7. MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH FROM INTERSECTION OF WEST THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MAIN STREET LOOKING NORTH FROM INTERSECTION OF WEST THIRD STREET. THE 1932 POST OFFICE IS ON THE LEFT. SANDSTONE FROM INDIANA AND BRICK WERE USED FOR THE EXTERIOR WALLS, WHILE WASTE BRICK FROM THE SMELTER WAS USED FOR THE INTERIOR FOUNDATION AND BASEMENT WALLS - Anaconda Historic District, Park & Commercial Streets, Main Street vicinity, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  4. 86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER, BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEY'S ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-12. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  5. 12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NORTH AND EAST WINGS, FROM THE WEST. SHOWS THREE GLAZE KILN CHIMNEYS ON THE LEFT. CISTERN TOWER. BOILER AND TWO BISCUIT KILN CHIMNEYS ARE ON THE RIGHT. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE INDIAN HOUSE TOWER. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. 7. OVERVIEW OF THE WEST END OF THE NORTH TRAINING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERVIEW OF THE WEST END OF THE NORTH TRAINING WALL, FROM THE WATER, WITH YERBA BUENA ISLAND AND THE SAN FRANCISCO-OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE IN THE DISTANCE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  7. FACING NORTH ALONG CLAY STREET, SHOWING BUILDINGS ON THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTH ALONG CLAY STREET, SHOWING BUILDINGS ON THE WEST SIDE OF CLAY STREET, FROM LEFT TO RIGHT: JOHN BREUNER AND COMPANY BUILDING (FOREGROUND), HOTEL TOURAINE (MIDDLE), AND THE PACIFIC GAS AND ELECTRIC CO. BUILDING - John Breuner & Company Building, 1515 Clay Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. Modelling Trajectories through the Educational System in North West England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Roger; Berridge, Damon

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to identify those school-level and locality-level factors that significantly affect each of the three stages in a young adult's educational trajectory in North West England: GCSE results, track taken at age 16 and "A"-level scores. By applying three-level models to data collected as part of the EFFNATIS…

  9. 10. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF END OF WEST BASCULE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF END OF WEST BASCULE NORTH RACK QUADRANT, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT LINK AT TOP LEFT, WITH COUNTERWEIGHT IN CENTER; LADDERS ARE ATTACHED TO FIXED APPROACH SPAN GIRDERS - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  10. 9. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF OUTBOARD WEST BASCULE NORTH TRUNNION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTHWEST, DETAIL OF OUTBOARD WEST BASCULE NORTH TRUNNION POST, SHOWING DRIVE PINION AT BOTTOM, MAIN TRUNNION AT TOP, AND PIN FOR COUNTERWEIGHT LINK ARM NEAR CENTER - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  11. Perspective view, showing west front and north side, with ca. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view, showing west front and north side, with ca. 1974-1975 outdoor regulatory pumps at right, and hydraulic gate check cylinders on the afterbay structure on the crest of the hill in left background - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. 135. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. NORTH PLANT RAILSIDE LOADING FACILITY WEST OF CASE FILLING PLANT (BUILDING 1601). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (LR) NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COOKE DAM POND AND UPSTREAM (WEST) SIDE OF (L-R) NORTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-A), SPILLWAY (MI-98-B), PENSTOCK ENTRANCES, POWERHOUSE (MI-98-C), AND SOUTH EMBANKMENT (MI-98-E). VIEW TO NORTHEAST - Cooke Hydroelectric Plant, Cook Dam Road at Au Sable River, Oscoda, Iosco County, MI

  14. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  15. Detail, L, connection of west truss (north span) from northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, L, connection of west truss (north span) from northwest and below, showing pin connection at L, bottom chord, floor beam, stringers, and portion of lateral bracing and concrete deck - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  16. Exterior oblique view of the north and west sides, Facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior oblique view of the north and west sides, Facility No. 7 is on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Paint & Oil Storage, Near intersection of Avenue E & Seventh Street, adjacent to Facility Nos. 3A & 56, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of west gallery of inside machine shop 36; the gallery housed turret, engine and toolroom lathes, small milling machines and drill presses used for machining small parts. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. North-South Migration of West Coast Low Pressure Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, C. Barron

    1974-01-01

    Monthly maps of low pressure centers are presented here to attempt a concrete representation that may help students to understand the seasonal change from dry months to wet months along the mid-latitude west coast as a seasonal north-south migration of factors controlling rain and drought. (Author/JH)

  19. LOOKING NORTH AT ENTRY WEST OF BEDROOM WING. Stereopair No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTH AT ENTRY WEST OF BEDROOM WING. Stereopair No. B1983-300-11, Neg. Nos. L6 & R5 - Lake Hotel, .5 mile East of Grand Loop Road & 1.3 miles southwest of Lake Junction, Lake, Teton County, WY

  20. Cetaceans of the Atlantic Frontier, north and west of Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, C. R.; Pollock, C.; Cronin, C.; Taylor, S.

    2001-05-01

    Surveys carried out to the north and west of Scotland have recorded 15 species of cetacean between 1979 and 1998. These were fin whale ( Balaenoptera physalus) , sei whale ( B. borealis) , minke whale ( B. acutorostrata) , humpback whale ( Megaptera novaeangliae) , sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus) , northern bottlenose whale ( Hyperoodon ampullatus) , Sowerby's beaked whale ( Mesoplodon bidens) , killer whale ( Orcinus orca) , long-finned pilot whale ( Globicephala melas) , Atlantic white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus acutus) , white-beaked dolphin ( L. albirostris) , Risso's dolphin ( Grampus griseus) , bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus) , common dolphin ( Delphinus delphis) and harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) . Atlantic white-sided dolphin was the most abundant species in the region with a total of 6317 animals recorded. Harbour porpoise was the most frequently sighted cetacean species. The geographical distribution of sightings indicate that cetacean species have varying ecological requirements, with species such as sperm whale, pilot whale and white-sided dolphin favouring deep water off the continental shelf edge, while minke whale, white-beaked dolphin and harbour porpoise were apparently limited to the continental shelf. The diversity of species recorded in the region suggests that the Atlantic Frontier is an important habitat for cetaceans.

  1. West Germany's first North Sea production due

    SciTech Connect

    Bleakley, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Deutsche Texaco A.G. will be the first operator on behalf of itself and Wintershall A.G. to produce oil from the German sector of the North Sea, with its first oil due end of 1986 from the Mittelplate pilot project. Texaco also was the first to produce oil from the Baltic Sea when Schwedeneck-See field, near Kiel Bay, went on production last year. The pilot project at Mittelplate will yield more data on the reservoirs confirmed by four wells drilled in 1980-1981, and will be carried out in spite of adverse operating conditions. Problems facing Texaco engineers in their project design include: A mud-flat location dry at low tide but submerged at high tide. Efforts to convince environmental groups that no permanent harm would result from company activities. Shipment of low-gravity crude containing asphaltenes. Logistics of transporting equipment and supplies on a schedule dictated by tides.

  2. Winter extreme precipitation along the North American west coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Michael D.

    Most extreme precipitation events that occur along the North American west coast are associated with winter atmospheric river (AR) events, causing flooding, landslides, extensive property damage, and loss of life. The studies contained within this dissertation use a combination of NCDC precipitation observations, NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, a 10-model ensemble of historical and future CMIP5 climate model simulations, and an NCEP-NCAR reanalysis driven regionally downscaled WRF model simulation to characterize the synoptic evolution of AR events along the North American west coast, the spatial variability of precipitation along the coast and inland, and changes in AR intensity and frequency that are expected by the end of the 21st century. Most regional flooding events are associated with precipitation periods of 24 hours or less, and two-day precipitation totals identify nearly all major events. Precipitation areas of major events are generally narrow, roughly 200 km in width, and most are associated with ARs. Composite evolutions indicate negative anomalies in sea-level pressure and upper-level height in the central Pacific, high-pressure anomalies over the southwest U.S., large positive 850-hPa temperature anomalies along the coast and offshore, and enhanced precipitable water and integrated water vapor fluxes in southwest- to northeast-oriented swaths. A small subset of extreme precipitation events over the southern portion of the domain is associated with a very different synoptic evolution: a sharp trough in northwesterly flow and post-cold-frontal convection. High precipitable water values are more frequent during the summer but are not associated with heavy precipitation because of upper-level ridging over the eastern Pacific and weak onshore flow that limits upward vertical velocities. Global climate models have sufficient resolution to simulate synoptic features associated with AR events, such as high values of vertically integrated vapor transport (IVT

  3. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  4. Analysis of Sociodemographic Parameters of Patients Admitted in a Newly Established Palliative Care Center in a Regional Cancer Institute of North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Mukesh Kumar; Kapoor, Akhil; Bagri, Puneet Kumar; Singh, Daleep; Nirban, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Narender; Kumar, Harvindra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background: After 4 months of the establishment of palliative care center (PCC) in our institute, we present an audit of the sociodemographic parameters of admitted patients. Such an audit can help to recognize the lacuna in the management and thus help to identify the specific requirements of cancer patients that might be overlooked in a busy cancer center. Materials and Methods: A total of 234 patients were admitted in our PCC since its inception in October 2013. The study design was retrospective, collecting the data from the medical records of the patients. The descriptive statistics of all these data were calculated in terms of frequencies and percentage of categorical variables. Results: Out of 234 patients admitted in PCC, 156 (66%) were male. The median age of the patients was 54 years. A total of 44% patients had primary malignancy of head and neck, 14% of cervical, 17% of lung cancer, 6% of breast, and 5% of colon, respectively. Metastatic disease was present in 76% of the patients admitted in the PCC. Liver was the most common (46%) metastatic site. Total 13 symptoms were identified with mean number of symptoms per patient at admission in PCC being 5.17. Conclusions: Palliative care services are an indispensable part of a tertiary regional cancer care center. The oncologists should be made aware of the requirement of better relief of pain and other distressing symptoms to provide better quality of life to the patients suffering from advanced cancer. PMID:25191011

  5. 35. SECOND FLOOR WEST ROOM LOOKING NORTH. The two trusses ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. SECOND FLOOR WEST ROOM LOOKING NORTH. The two trusses above this room date from 1812. They differ from the 1755 salvaged trusses in that they are made of pine rather than poplar, their numbering system differs, and they do not have pockets for joists. These two trusses were added to extend the plan of the building when it was re-erected in 1812. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Credit BG. View shows the north and west facades of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View shows the north and west facades of the building as seen when looking east southeast (124°). Igniters for solid rocket motors were built and tested here. This building was rated for a maximum of 20 pounds (9.1 Kg) of class 1.1 materials and four personnel. Note the lightning rods on roof corners and the exterior electrical system - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Igniter Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Ecology of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The introduction, dispersal and establishment of West Nile virus in North America were reviewed, focusing on factors that may have enhanced receptivity and enabled the invasion process. The overwintering persistence of this tropical virus within temperate latitudes was unexpected, but was key in the transition from invasion to endemic establishment. The cascade of temporal events allowing sporadic amplification to outbreak levels was discussed within a future perspective. PMID:24008376

  8. 1. West portal of Tunnel 1, contextual view to north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of Tunnel 1, contextual view to north, 135mm lens. The Central Pacific originally built Tunnel 1 in 1868; Southern Pacific widened it in 1913 to accommodate both the original and new mainline as it continued its double-tracking efforts east from Colfax to Blue CaÏon. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 1, Milepost 164.34, Blue Canyon, Placer County, CA

  9. 10. 100 foot through truss north west bearing abutment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. 100 foot through truss - north west bearing abutment of the second through truss, showing the diagonal sway bracing to its alternate pier. This bearing point is on a concrete extension of the original bearing point now covered by rock and soil. Note that the bearing point is to the backmost position on the concrete pier. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  10. 17. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING THE MILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS, SHOWING THE MILL IN RELATION TO ITS SOURCE OF WATER POWER, THE OHIO AND ERIE CANAL. LOCK NO. 37 IS JUST OUT OF VIEW IN THE FOREGROUND. THE SHED-ROOFED CINDER BLOCK ADDITION WAS ADDED IN 1948. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 23. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING GLAZE KILN No. 1 IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. KILN No 1 IS THE LEAST ALTERED OF THE ORIGINAL KILNS AND WAS USED UNTIL 1984. ALL KILNS ARE OF COMBINATION UPDRAFT/DOWNDRAFT DESIGN, AND BURNED WOOD AND COAL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  12. 91. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    91. THE FIRST FLOOR HALLWAY, NORTH WING LOOKING WEST SHOWING GLAZE KILN No. 1 IN THE RIGHT FOREGROUND. KILN No. 1 IS THE LEAST ALTERED OF THE ORIGINAL KILNS AND WAS USED UNTIL 1984. ALL KILNS ARE OF COMBINATION UPDRAFT/DOWNDRAFT DESIGN, AND BURNED WOOD AND COAL SAME VIEW AS PA-107-23. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  13. Credit BG. The north and west sides of this structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. The north and west sides of this structure appear as seen when looking east (88°). Building E-67, the tunnel entrance, gives personnel access to the tunnel system. The Assembly Building served as a shop for test crews; it contained a small lathe and other tools for making specialized parts. No explosives were allowed in this structure. Air conditioning ducts are on the roof - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Assembly Building, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of West Nile Virus in North America

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Brian R.; McMullen, Allison R.; Swetnam, Daniele M.; Barrett, Alan D. T.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was introduced to New York in 1999 and rapidly spread throughout North America and into parts of Central and South America. Displacement of the original New York (NY99) genotype by the North America/West Nile 2002 (NA/WN02) genotype occurred in 2002 with subsequent identification of a novel genotype in 2003 in isolates collected from the southwestern Unites States region (SW/WN03 genotype). Both genotypes co-circulate to date. Subsequent WNV surveillance studies have confirmed additional genotypes in the United States that have become extinct due to lack of a selective advantage or stochastic effect; however, the dynamic emergence, displacement, and extinction of multiple WNV genotypes in the US from 1999–2012 indicates the continued evolution of WNV in North America. PMID:24135819

  15. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M.; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Backgroud Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. Methods We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Principal Findings The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Conclusions Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G

  16. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. among School Children in a Rural Area of the Amhara Region, North-West Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    de Lucio, Aida; Amor-Aramendía, Aranzazu; Bailo, Begoña; Saugar, José M; Anegagrie, Melaku; Arroyo, Ana; López-Quintana, Beatriz; Zewdie, Derjew; Ayehubizu, Zimmam; Yizengaw, Endalew; Abera, Bayeh; Yimer, Mulat; Mulu, Wondemagen; Hailu, Tadesse; Herrador, Zaida; Fuentes, Isabel; Carmena, David

    2016-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are enteric protozoan causing gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are not formally considered as neglected tropical diseases, but belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases that impair the development and socio-economic potential of infected individuals in developing countries. We report here the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in children attending rural primary schools in the Bahir Dar district of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Stool samples were collected from 393 children and analysed by molecular methods. G. duodenalis was detected by real-time PCR, and the assemblages and sub-assemblages were determined by multilocus sequence-based genotyping of the glutamate dehydrogenase and β-giardin genes of the parasite. Detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species was carried out by sequencing of a partial fragment of the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The PCR-based prevalences of G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. were 55.0% (216/393) and 4.6% (18/393), respectively. A total of 78 G. duodenalis isolates were successfully characterized, revealing the presence of sub-assemblages AII (10.3%), BIII (28.2%), and BIV (32.0%). Discordant typing results AII/AIII and BIII/BIV were identified in 7.7% and 15.4% of the isolates, respectively. An additional five (6.4%) isolates were assigned to assemblage B. No mixed infections of assemblages A+B were found. Extensive genetic variation at the nucleotide level was observed within assemblage B (but no within assemblage A), resulting in the identification of a large number of sub-types. Cryptosporidium diversity was demonstrated by the occurrence of C. hominis, C. parvum, and C. viatorum in the population under study. Our data suggest an epidemiological scenario with an elevated transmission intensity of a wide range of G. duodenalis genetic variants. Importantly, the

  17. NorthEast view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Street Car Waiting House, south (front) and west elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. SouthWest view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South-West view, Street Car Waiting House, north and east elevations - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 4. WEST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE No. Z2, LOOKING ACROSS NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST ELEVATION OF BRIDGE No. Z-2, LOOKING ACROSS NORTH BRANCH OF CHICAGO RIVER. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-2, Spanning North Branch Canal at North Cherry Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. Tectonic evolution of the West Junggar Region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Coleman, R. G.; Tilton, G.; Xiao, X.

    1989-08-01

    young as Late Devonian. These ophiolites record ocean crust formation in the Early to Middle Paleozoic within the Junggarian ocean, and their present tectonic setting indicates continental accretion and imbrication shortly after their formation. Associated blueschist blocks in the ophiolite melange further supports the concept of imbrication brought about by B-type subduction and associated obduction. Postcollisional alkali granites intrude the oceanic sequences of the West Junggar Region and are considered to represent melted lower crustal material. Lead isotopic systematics on feldspars from six separate granite plutons indicate ratios that could only be considered oceanic as far as the magmas are concerned. The implications of this finding is that the Junggar Basin basement rocks in the north and west are probably oceanic. Evidence presented in this study shows a complex history for the development of the West Junggar region. Major movements of consolidating plates in the Late Paleozoic followed by rejuvenation of these same zones of closure during the Himalayan tectonic event of the Late Tertiary demonstrates that convergence zones and fold belts may respond to vertical and horizontal stress even after many million years of inactivity.

  1. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  2. North west cape-induced electron precipitation and theoretical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhen-xia; Li, Xin-qiao; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Lun-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Enhancement of the electron fluxes in the inner radiation belt, which is induced by the powerful North West Cape (NWC) very-low-frequency (VLF) transmitter, have been observed and analyzed by several research groups. However, all of the previous publications have focused on NWC-induced > 100-keV electrons only, based on observations from the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites. Here, we present flux enhancements with 30-100-keV electrons related to NWC transmitter for the first time, which were observed by the GOES satellite at night. Similar to the 100-300-keV precipitated-electron behavior, the low energy 30-100-keV electron precipitation is primarily located east of the transmitter. However, the latter does not drift eastward to the same extent as the former, possibly because of the lower electron velocity. The 30-100-keV electrons are distributed in the L = 1.8-2.1 L-shell range, in contrast to the 100-300-keV electrons which are at L = 1.67-1.9. This is consistent with the perspective that the energy of the VLF-wave-induced electron flux enhancement decreases with higher L-shell values. We expand upon the rationality of the simultaneous enhancement of the 30-100- and 100-300-keV electron fluxes through comparison with the cyclotron resonance theory for the quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. In addition, we interpret the asymmetry characteristics of NWC electric power distribution in north and south hemisphere by ray tracing model. Finally, we present considerable discussion and show that good agreement exists between the observation of satellites and theory. Supported by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite Mission Ground-Based Verification Project of the Administration of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization Project (APSCO-SP/PM-EARTHQUAKE).

  3. 1. Credit PSR. This view displays the north and west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Credit PSR. This view displays the north and west facades of Test Stand "G" (Vibration Facility) as seen when looking east southeast (110°). Test Stand "G" no longer houses the vibrator; it now houses an autoclave due to the changing nature of the testing work. The Vibration Facility was Test Stand "G"'s historic function. Test Stand "E" is at the far right. The Vibration Facility subjected motor and engine assemblies to various vibration patterns in order to simulate flight conditions and evaluate the durability of engine and motor designs. - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Test Stand G, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. View looking north west showing the boom, top of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking north west showing the boom, top of the center mast and boom angle reeving of the 175-ton derrick. Note in the background of the view, just above the center mast is the F-1 Static-Test Stand used for test firing the Saturn V engines and subsequent program's engine testing. Also in the background center is the Redstone Static Test Stand (center right) and it's cold calibration tower (center left). - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  5. 1. West portal of Tunnel 3, contextual view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of Tunnel 3, contextual view to north from milepost 537.6, 210mm lens. The single-lens searchlight-type block signals are Southern Pacific Common Standard signals, a type in use since the 1920s. Many of these have been replaced system-wide as a result of various mergers since the 1980s. Located in the Diamond Peak Wilderness of Willamette National Forest, Tunnel 3 passes beneath Pengra Pass. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 3, Milepost 537.77, Odell Lake, Klamath County, OR

  6. Credit BG. View shows north and west sides of structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit BG. View shows north and west sides of structure as seen when looking east southeast (124°). The thick walls of this building are solid concrete, and the rooms are isolated from each other. The magazine is rated for a maximum of 100 pounds (45.4 Kg) of class 1.1 materials, and two personnel. Handles, attached to walls next to door handles, are static electric discharge points for personnel to touch before entering magazine doors. Note the lightning rods on roof corners and the exterior electrical system for interior lighting - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Igniter Magazine, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. Credit PSR. This view shows the west and north facades ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. This view shows the west and north facades of the storage facility as seen when approaching from Circle Drive, looking east (92°). The metal shed at right was the original structure; the second shed is a later addition. All structures are metal frame covered with metal cladding, grounding them electrically and rendering them fireproof. The entire facility was rated for a maximum of 100,000 pounds (45,450 Kg) of class 1.3 materials, and four personnel - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Solid Oxidizer Storage, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 17. DETAIL, WEST ABUTMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING CONCRETE ABUTMENT, L0 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL, WEST ABUTMENT, FROM NORTH, SHOWING CONCRETE ABUTMENT, L0 JOINT AND BEARING, AND BEARING SEAT OF WEST ABUTMENT - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  9. 1. 185/189D in center, north end west facades (190D front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 185/189-D in center, north end west facades (190-D front left and west facade; 195-D rear right). Looking south. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. 11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. WEST PART OF NORTH TRAINING WALL, ABOUT 1,000 FEET EAST OF THE CHANNEL MOUTH, LOOKING WEST TO SAN FRANCISCO. - Oakland Harbor Training Walls, Mouth of Federal Channel to Inner Harbor, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  11. Seabirds at risk around offshore oil platforms in the north-west Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Wiese, F K; Montevecchi, W A; Davoren, G K; Huettmann, F; Diamond, A W; Linke, J

    2001-12-01

    Seabirds aggregate around oil drilling platforms and rigs in above average numbers due to night lighting, flaring, food and other visual cues. Bird mortality has been documented due to impact on the structure, oiling and incineration by the flare. The environmental circumstances for offshore hydrocarbon development in North-west Atlantic are unique because of the harsh climate, cold waters and because enormous seabird concentrations inhabit and move through the Grand Banks in autumn (storm-petrels, Oceanodroma spp), winter (dovekies, Alle alle, murres, Uria spp), spring and summer (shearwaters, Puffinus spp). Many species are planktivorous and attracted to artificial light sources. Most of the seabirds in the region are long-distance migrants, and hydrocarbon development in the North-west Atlantic could affect both regional and global breeding populations. Regulators need to take responsibility for these circumstances. It is essential to implement comprehensive, independent arm's length monitoring of potential avian impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms in the North-west Atlantic. This should include quantifying and determining the nature, timing and extent of bird mortality caused by these structures. Based on existing evidence of potential impacts of offshore hydrocarbon platforms on seabirds, it is difficult to understand why this has not been, and is not being, systematically implemented.

  12. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region.

    PubMed

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-07-16

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken together, these findings expand

  13. Diversification of West Nile virus in a subtropical region

    PubMed Central

    Chisenhall, Daniel M; Mores, Christopher N

    2009-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across North, Central, and South America since its introduction in 1999. At the start of this spread, Florida was considered a potentially important area with regards to transmission due to its geographic, climatological, and demographic conditions. Curiously, the anticipated high levels of transmission or disease outbreaks have not been observed. As other studies have predicted that the lack of intense WNV transmission is not due to vector incompetence, we sought to evaluate the role of viral strain diversity in WNV transmission in Florida. Therefore, a phylogentic analysis was carried out on several isolates collected from three distinct locations in Florida. Results Contrasting with a positive control collected in Indian River County, Florida during 2003 that contains the original NY99 genotype with valanine at amino acid 159 of the envelope region, all of the isolates collected in 2005 contain the WN02 genotype composed of a substation with alanine at that position indicating the window of introduction of the WN02 genotype occurred between 2003 and 2005. From the eight isolates collected in Duval, Indian River, and Manatee Counties; there is also a silent nucleotide substitution that differentiates the isolates collected on the Atlantic side of the state compared to the isolate collected on the Gulf side, which groups closer to isolates from other locations near the Gulf. Conclusion As a whole, the Florida isolates contained numerous variable nucleotide and amino acid sites from the reference sequences, as well as each other; indicating greater nucleotide diversity within the Florida 2005 isolates than within other regions. Finally, a series of three amino acid substitutions surrounding a set of histidines located in the envelope coding region that hypothesized to play a role in conformational changes was found in the isolate collected in Indian River County, perhaps changing the antigenicity of the homodimer. Taken

  14. North American Grasslands & Biogeographic Regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    North American grasslands are the product of a long interaction among land, people, and animals. Covering over one billion hectares across Canada, the United States, and Mexico, a defining trait of the realm is its vast surface area. From subtropical grasslands interspersed with wetlands in the sout...

  15. Regional paleogeographic evolution of west Africa: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Hempton, M.R.; Rosen, M.A.; Coughlin, R.M.; Scardina, A.D.; Hagen, E.S.; Nordstrom, P.J. )

    1991-03-01

    New paleogeographic reconstructions of west African continental margins provide a regional framework to contrast differences in hydrocarbon habitat and tectonostratigraphic style. Five regional provinces are delineated: (1) Northwest Africa margin from mauritania to Sierra Leone, (2) Transform margin from Liberia to Benin, (3) Niger delta of Nigeria, Cameroon, and Equatorial Guinea, (4) South Atlantic Salt basin margin from Cameroon to Angola, and (5) Southwest Africa margin of Namibia and South Africa. Computer-constrained paleogeographic reconstructions based on exploration data depict the separation of west Africa from South and North America during the Late Triassic to the present along three rift systems. In northwest Africa rifting began in the Late Triassic associated with the opening of the Central Atlantic. In southwest Africa rifting began between the southern tips of Africa and South America in the Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and propagated northward to the Benue Trough, a broad zone of left-lateral shear and extensional basins that began to open in the Aptian. Between these two rift systems, the Transform margin rift system initiated in the Early Cretaceous (Barremain) as a wrench-fault dominated eastward extension of the Proto-Caribbean ocean that propagated to the Benue Trough by the middle Albian. The most important variables affecting the tectonostratigraphic and hydrocarbon evolution of the west African margins include (1) the geometry, kinematics, and duration of rifting; (2) distribution of rift basins relative to paleoclimate zones (which affects the deposition of lacustrine source rocks and evaporites while influencing the type and quantity of sediment derived from land); (3) sea-level fluctuations; and (4) distribution of deltaic and turbiditic depocenters.

  16. Regional paleogeographic evolution of West Africa: Implications for hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Hempton, M.R. )

    1993-11-01

    New paleogeographic reconstructions of west African continental margins provide a regional framework to contrast differences in hydrocarbon habitat and tectonostratigraphic style. The framework consists of five regional provinces: (1) northwest Africa margin from Mauritania to Sierra Leone, (2) transform margin from Libera to Benin, (3) Niger Delta of Nigeria, Cameroon, and equatorial Guinea, (4) South Atlantic Salt Basin margin from Cameroon to Angola, and (5) southwest Africa margin of Namibia and South Africa. Computer-constrained paleogeographic reconstructions based on exploration data depict the separation of west Africa from South and North America along three rift systems during the Late Triassic to the Holocene. In northwest Africa, rifting began in the Late Triassic associated with the opening of the central Atlantic. In southwest Africa, rifting began between the southern tips of Africa and South America in the Early Cretaceous and propagated northward to the Benue trough, a broad zone of left-lateral shear and extensional basins that began to open in the Aptian. Between these two rift systems, the transform margin rift system initiated in the Early Cretaceous (Barremian) as a wrench-fault-dominated eastward extension of the Proto-Caribbean ocean that propagated to the Benue trough by the middle Albian. The most important variables affecting the tectonostratigraphic and hydrocarbon evolution of the west African margins include (1) the geometry, kinematics, and duration of rifting, (2) distribution of rift basins relative to paleoclimate zones (which affects the deposition of lacustrine source rocks and evaporites while influencing the type and quantity of sediment derived from land), (3) sea level fluctuations, and (4) distribution of deltaic and turbiditic depocenters.

  17. Tree biomass in the North Central Region.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; Pamela J. Jakes

    1982-01-01

    Methods for calculating tree biomass are outlined, and the biomass on commercial forest land is estimated for 11 north-central states. Tree biomass in the North Central Region totals 3.6 billion tons, or 50 tons per commercial forest acre. For all species, total tree biomass is concentrated in growing-stock boles.

  18. Unconformity structures controlling stratigraphic reservoirs in the north-west margin of Junggar basin, North-west China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kongyou; Paton, Douglas; Zha, Ming

    2013-03-01

    Tectonic movements formed several unconformities in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin. Based on data of outcrop, core, and samples, the unconformity is a structural body whose formation associates with weathering, leaching, and onlap. At the same time, the structural body may be divided into three layers, including upper layer, mid layer, and lower layer. The upper layer with good primary porosity serves as the hydrocarbon migration system, and also accumulates the hydrocarbon. The mid layer with compactness and ductility can play a role as cap rock, the strength of which increases with depth. The lower layer with good secondary porosity due to weathering and leaching can form the stratigraphic truncation traps. A typical stratigraphic reservoir lying in the unconformity between the Jurassic and Triassic in the north-west margin of the Junggar basin was meticulously analyzed in order to reveal the key controlling factors. The results showed that the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic onlap reservoirs was controlled by the onlap line, the hydrocarbon distribution in the stratigraphic truncation reservoirs was confined by the truncation line, and the mid layer acted as the key sealing rock. So a conclusion was drawn that "two lines (onlap line and truncation line) and a body (unconformity structural body)" control the formation and distribution of stratigraphic reservoirs.

  19. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  20. Examination of regional hardwood roundwood markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Delton Alderman; William Luppold

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia's large and diverse hardwood resource ranges from oak-hickory forests in the southern and northwestern regions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia is home to a diverse group of primary hardwood processing industries including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  1. North American Gross Primary Productivity: Regional Characterization and Interannual Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, I. T.; Denning, A.; Stockli, R.

    2009-12-01

    Seasonality and variability in North American photosynthetic activity are investigated. Using the Simple Biosphere Model (SiB) we simulate 24 years (1983-2006) and evaluate regional and seasonal contribution to annual mean Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) as well as its interannual variability. The largest productivity occurs in tropical Mexico, the southeast U.S. and small areas in the Pacific Northwest. Annual variability is largest in tropical Mexico, the desert Southwest, and the Midwestern corridor that separates the eastern forests from the intermountain west. We find that several areas (Midwest, Northeast, SouthWest, Boreal Canada) have an elevated contribution to interannual variability when compared to other regions, but no single region or season consistently determines continental annual GPP anomaly on an annual basis. GPP variability in NA is highly heterogeneous in space and time. We find that GPP variability is generally dependent upon soil moisture in low- and mid-latitudes, and on temperature in the north. Soil moisture is a better metric than raw precipitation as it integrates precipitation events temporally. EOF analysis shows no significance on an annual basis, but a band from the central plains through New England shows a coherent signal for springtime GPP anomalies. As the springtime anomaly is the largest contributor to the annual GPP variability in almost half of the years simulated (11 of 24), we can posit that this region has significant influence over annual North American GPP variability. However, when regressed against climate modes such as El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Pacific-North America (PNA) patterns, we find that no climate mode can be associated with variability over the entire region highlighted by the EOF analysis. Furthermore, we find that while a general response to temperature is seen (warmer spring implies longer growing season implies anomalous GPP uptake of carbon), in some regions the

  2. North by north-west: climate change and directions of density shifts in birds.

    PubMed

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Virkkala, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate change shifts species distributions towards poles and mountain tops. However, most studies are based on presence-absence data, and either abundance or the observation effort has rarely been measured. In addition, hardly any studies have investigated the direction of shifts and factors affecting them. Here, we show using count data on a 1000 km south-north gradient in Finland, that between 1970-1989 and 2000-2012, 128 bird species shifted their densities, on average, 37 km towards the north north-east. The species-specific directions of the shifts in density were significantly explained by migration behaviour and habitat type. Although the temperatures have also moved on average towards the north north-east (186 km), the species-specific directions of the shifts in density and temperature did not correlate due to high variation in density shifts. Findings highlight that climate change is unlikely the only driver of the direction of species density shifts, but species-specific characteristics and human land-use practices are also influencing the direction. Furthermore, the alarming results show that former climatic conditions in the north-west corner of Finland have already moved out of the country. This highlights the need for an international approach in research and conservation actions to mitigate the impacts of climate change.

  3. Transports across the north-west European shelf edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huthnance, John M.

    2015-04-01

    The project FASTNEt - Fluxes across sloping topography of the North East Atlantic - has made a variety of measurements in three contrasted areas around the edge of the Celtic Sea, Malin-Hebrides shelf and West Shetland shelf. Modelling is under way to diagnose and estimate the contribution of various processes to cross-slope transports and exchange. This presentation aims to describe estimates obtained so far; overall transport estimates from drifters and moored current meters; effective "diffusivity" from drifter dispersion and salinity surveys; other estimates of velocity variance contributing to exchange. Possible process contributions which may be estimated include internal waves and their Stokes drift, tidal pumping, lenses, eddies and Ekman transports, in a wind-driven surface layer and in a bottom layer below along-slope flow.

  4. Burden of paediatric pyoderma and scabies in North West Queensland.

    PubMed

    Whitehall, John; Kuzulugil, Deniz; Sheldrick, Kyle; Wood, Angela

    2013-02-01

    The study aims to assess the health burden of children admitted with 'scabies' to Mt Isa Hospital, the referral centre for North West Queensland, from 2006 to 2010. This is a retrospective chart audit of admissions of children with 'scabies' including age, sex, date, residence, Indigenous status, result of skin swabs and length of stay, and the number of admissions with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and acute post-streptococcal glomerulo-nephritis (APSGN) in that period. Financial burden was estimated from daily bed costs and transportation. There were 113 admissions with mean age of 23/12: 11% were <2/12 and mean stay was 4.5 days. 19 were admitted twice, 5 thrice and 2 four times. 7 individuals accounted for 25% of admissions. 'Scabies' accounted for 10.1% of medical admissions <5 years of age. Admissions increased from 10 in 2005 to 39 in 2010. The minimum cost per admission was $9584.07. Seventy-one per cent of swabs grew Group A streptococcus, all sensitive to penicillin. Sixty-three per cent of these were accompanied by Staphylococcus aureus, which was the sole organism in 18%. Sixty-four per cent of S. aureus were methicillin resistant. There were 29 admissions for ARF and 23 with APSGN. All children with 'scabies' and ARF and all but three with APSGN were Indigenous. Pyoderma and scabies are major health burdens in North West Queensland, requiring organised community-based prevention. The number of repeat admissions emphasises the futility of individual treatment. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. A General Survey of Religious Concepts and Art of North, East, South, and West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Rohn

    This paper, a summary of a multi-carousel slide presentation, reviews literature on the cultures, religions, and art of African people. Before focusing on West Africa, highlights of the lifestyles, religions, and icons of non-maskmaking cultures of North, West and South African people are presented. Clarification of West African religious concepts…

  6. Oral urgent treatment (OUT) - a volunteer led training programme in North West Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K E; Wilson, I; Holmes, R D

    2012-05-11

    Oral health is recognised as a fundamental contributor to general health. In many developing countries resources are scarce and access to oral healthcare is often limited, particularly in rural areas. An approach to solving the problem of providing oral healthcare in developing nations is the Basic Package of Oral Care (BPOC), which promotes the community-oriented promotion of oral health and affordable and effective interventions. The aim of this paper is to focus on one component of the BPOC, by presenting a model for the provision of a local training programme of oral urgent treatment (OUT), delivered by volunteers, in a region of North West Tanzania.

  7. An Examination of Regional Hardwood Roundwood Markets in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman; Delton Alderman

    2005-01-01

    West Virginia?s hardwood resource is large and diverse ranging from oak-hickory forests in the southern and western portions of the state to northern hardwood stands in the northeastern region. West Virginia also has a diverse group of primary hardwood- processing industries, including hardwood grade mills, industrial hardwood sawmills, engineered wood-product...

  8. Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-positive tuberculosis patients in North-West and West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Leyla; Ansarin, Khalil; Hoffner, Sven; Mohajeri, Parviz; Mohammadi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among chronic infectious diseases. The goal of this cross-sectional study (2012–2014) was to examine the prevalence of Mycobacterium TB (MTB) Beijing strains in regions near the Iranian border and to identify any epidemiological links. Materials and Methods: To this end, MTB isolates were harvested, from 64 HIV-negative, pulmonary smear-positive TB patients from the Iranian border provinces of East Azerbaijan (North-West), Kurdistan (West), and Kermanshah (West) (2012–2014). Isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, using the insertion sequence IS6110 as a probe (IS6110 RFLP), and drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method. We gathered demographic and clinical data using a questionnaire and reviewing patient records. Results were analyzed with Gel Compare II 6.6 and SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 years and 46.9% were male. The prevalence of Beijing strains among the isolates was 9.4% (17.6% in the Western provinces and 0% in East Azerbaijan). There was a statistically significant relationship between the Beijing strains and drug resistance and also between these strains, and the recurrence of TB in patients that had previously received treatment (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: Finally, the prevalence of Beijing strains in Western Iran was greater than expected. Our results therefore indicate that regional and cross-border tracing may be necessary to control spread of this organism. PMID:28028521

  9. Extensive nitrogen loss from permeable sediments off North-West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokoll, Sarah; Lavik, Gaute; Sommer, Stefan; Goldhammer, Tobias; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Holtappels, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The upwelling area off North-West Africa is characterized by high export production, high nitrate and low oxygen concentration in bottom waters. The underlying sediment consists of sands that cover most of the continental shelf. Due to their permeability sands allow for fast advective pore water transport and can exhibit high rates of nitrogen (N) loss via denitrification as reported for anthropogenically eutrophied regions. However, N loss from sands underlying naturally eutrophied waters is not well studied, and in particular, N loss from the North-West African shelf is poorly constrained. During two research cruises in April/May 2010/2011, sediment was sampled along the North-West African shelf and volumetric denitrification rates were measured in sediment layers down to 8 cm depth using slurry incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate. Areal N loss was calculated by integrating volumetric rates down to the nitrate penetration depth derived from pore water profiles. Areal N loss was neither correlated with water depth nor with bottom water concentrations of nitrate and oxygen but was strongly dependent on sediment grain size and permeability. The derived empirical relation between benthic N loss and grains size suggests that pore water advection is an important regulating parameter for benthic denitrification in sands and further allowed extrapolating rates to an area of 53,000 km2 using detailed sediment maps. Denitrification from this region amounts to 995 kt yr-1 (average 3.6 mmol m-2 d-1) which is 4 times higher than previous estimates based on diffusive pore water transport. Sandy sediments cover 50-60% of the continental shelf and thus may contribute significantly to the global benthic N loss.

  10. 59 FR- Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic River Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-12-15

    ... INTERIOR [OR-030-03-1220-04: GS-043] Prohibited Acts in West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and... and restrictions within the boundaries of the West Little and North Fork Owyhee Rivers as established in the Main, West Little and North Fork Owyhee National Wild and Scenic Rivers Management...

  11. Mitochondrial DNA transit between West Asia and North Africa inferred from U6 phylogeography

    PubMed Central

    Maca-Meyer, Nicole; González, Ana M; Pestano, José; Flores, Carlos; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2003-01-01

    Background World-wide phylogeographic distribution of human complete mitochondrial DNA sequences suggested a West Asian origin for the autochthonous North African lineage U6. We report here a more detailed analysis of this lineage, unraveling successive expansions that affected not only Africa but neighboring regions such as the Near East, the Iberian Peninsula and the Canary Islands. Results Divergence times, geographic origin and expansions of the U6 mitochondrial DNA clade, have been deduced from the analysis of 14 complete U6 sequences, and 56 different haplotypes, characterized by hypervariable segment sequences and RFLPs. Conclusions The most probable origin of the proto-U6 lineage was the Near East. Around 30,000 years ago it spread to North Africa where it represents a signature of regional continuity. Subgroup U6a reflects the first African expansion from the Maghrib returning to the east in Paleolithic times. Derivative clade U6a1 signals a posterior movement from East Africa back to the Maghrib and the Near East. This migration coincides with the probable Afroasiatic linguistic expansion. U6b and U6c clades, restricted to West Africa, had more localized expansions. U6b probably reached the Iberian Peninsula during the Capsian diffusion in North Africa. Two autochthonous derivatives of these clades (U6b1 and U6c1) indicate the arrival of North African settlers to the Canarian Archipelago in prehistoric times, most probably due to the Saharan desiccation. The absence of these Canarian lineages nowadays in Africa suggests important demographic movements in the western area of this Continent. PMID:14563219

  12. Porcine cysticercosis in village pigs of North-West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Shey-Njila, O; Zoli, P A; Awah-Ndukum, J; Nguekam; Assana, E; Byambas, P; Dorny, P; Brandt, J; Geerts, S

    2003-12-01

    A study was carried out in two villages and one marketplace of the Batibo sub-division in North-West Cameroon to determine the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis. The results showed that 4.44% of 383 pigs were positive at tongue examination whereas ELISA detected circulating antigens in 27.7% of 271 pig sera. A questionnaire survey in 140 pig-raising households indicated that 59.3% of them lacked latrines while in 75.7% of the households members defecated directly into pigpens. The seroprevalence of porcine cysticercosis was significantly higher in households without latrines than in those with latrines. Similarly, significantly more seropositive pigs were present in households that defecated in the pig pens (35.5%) than in those that did not (14.4%). Although 91.4% of pig raising households did know of pig cysticercosis, only 28.6% were aware of the link with human taeniasis and only 10.7% were aware of human cysticercosis.

  13. Large human outbreak of West Nile virus infection in north-eastern Italy in 2012.

    PubMed

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-11-22

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation.

  14. Large Human Outbreak of West Nile Virus Infection in North-Eastern Italy in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Pagni, Silvana; Lavezzo, Enrico; Squarzon, Laura; Martello, Thomas; Russo, Francesca; Nicoletti, Loredana; Rezza, Giovanni; Castilletti, Concetta; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Salcuni, Pasquale; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Human cases of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have been reported in Italy since 2008. So far, most cases have been identified in north-eastern Italy, where, in 2012, the largest outbreak of WNV infection ever recorded in Italy occurred. Most cases of the 2012 outbreak were identified in the Veneto region, where a special surveillance plan for West Nile fever was in place. In this outbreak, 25 cases of West Nile neuroinvasive disease and 17 cases of fever were confirmed. In addition, 14 WNV RNA-positive blood donors were identified by screening of blood and organ donations and two cases of asymptomatic infection were diagnosed by active surveillance of subjects at risk of WNV exposure. Two cases of death due to WNND were reported. Molecular testing demonstrated the presence of WNV lineage 1 in all WNV RNA-positive patients and, in 15 cases, infection by the novel Livenza strain was ascertained. Surveillance in other Italian regions notified one case of neuroinvasive disease in the south of Italy and two cases in Sardinia. Integrated surveillance for WNV infection remains a public health priority in Italy and vector control activities have been strengthened in areas of WNV circulation. PMID:24284876

  15. Local populations and inaccuracies: Determining the relevant mitochondrial haplotype distributions for North West European cats.

    PubMed

    Wesselink, Monique; Desmyter, Stijn; Kuiper, Irene

    2017-09-01

    Typing of different portions of the feline mitochondrial control region has illustrated pronounced differences in haplotype distributions between cats from the Netherlands and other parts of the world. To gain a better understanding of the haplotype distribution of North West Continental Europe, 605bp of mitochondrial DNA was typed from randomly selected cats from the Netherlands (N=146), Belgium (N=64) and South West Germany (N=128). The genetic differences between these randomly sampled European populations correlate to the geographical distances, with the Dutch and the South West German populations furthest apart and the Belgian population as an intermediate (Fst values 0.01-0.03). Comparison of North West European mainland distributions to published feline mitochondrial haplotype distributions illustrated moderate to large genetic differentiation (Fst values 0.01-0.32). In this comparison, the correlation between geographical and genetic distance was absent, leading to founder effects and human impact on cat population structure and dispersion being considered as important parameters. When an accurate estimation of feline haplotype distribution is required in forensics, care should be taken when deciding whether extrapolating the frequency data from a certain source to a larger area (country/continent) is justified or whether additional typing of local populations is necessary. This may differ from case to case as local frequencies can be relevant, but can also be deceitful. To improve the applicability of forensic feline mitochondrial DNA studies, documentation and publishing of sampling strategies is advised, as is the implementation of measures to help eliminate potentially erroneous haplotypes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of north Pacific atmospheric circulation on streamflow in the west

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Peterson, David H.

    1989-01-01

    The annual cycle and nonseasonal variability of streamflow over western North America and Hawaii is studied in terms of atmospheric forcing elements. This study uses several decades of monthly average streamflow beginning as early as the late 1800's over a network of 38 stations. In addition to a strong annual cycle in mean streamflow and its variance at most of the stations, there is also a distinct annual cycle in the autocorrelation of anomalies that is related to the interplay between the annual cycles of temperature and precipitation. Of particular importance to these lag effects is the well-known role of water stored as snow pack, which controls the delay between peak precipitation and peak flow and also introduces persistence into the nonseasonal streamflow anomalies, with time scales from 1 month to over 1 year. The degree to which streamflow is related to winter atmospheric circulation over the North Pacific and western North America is tested using correlations with time averaged, gridded sea level pressure (SLP), which begins in 1899. Streamflow fluctuations show significant large-scale correlations for the winter (December through February) mean SLP anomaly patterns over the North Pacific with maximum correlations ranging from 0.3 to about 0.6. For streams along the west coast corridor the circulation pattern associated with positive streamflow anomalies is low pressure centered off the coast to the west or northwest, indicative of increased winter storms and an anomalous westerly-to-southwesterly wind component. For streams in the interior positive streamflow anomalies are associated with a positive SLP anomaly stationed remotely over the central North Pacific, and with negative but generally weaker SLP anomalies locally. One important influence on streamflow variability is the strength of the Aleutian Low in winter. This is represented by the familiar Pacific-North America (PNA) index and also by an index defined herein the “CNP” (Central North

  17. Exterior, looking southeast at north and west elevations OvertheHorizon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking southeast at north and west elevations - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Moscow Radar Site Transmit Sector Three Transmitter Building, At the end of Steam Road, Moscow, Somerset County, ME

  18. Exterior, looking southeast at north and west elevations OvertheHorizon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior, looking southeast at north and west elevations - Over-the-Horizon Backscatter Radar Network, Bangor Air National Guard Base Operations Building, At the end of Maine Road, Bangor, Penobscot County, ME

  19. 9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. 3/4 of north elevation and west entrance to station looking southeast - Sinclair Service Station, Natchez Street (State Highway 15) & Pine Street intersection, southeast corner, Wisner, Franklin Parish, LA

  20. 7. NORTH WING OF BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NORTH WING OF BUILDING 741/742. VIEW TO WEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Refrigeration Napalm & Incendiary Bomb Warehouse-Bomb Filling, 825 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 2425 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  1. VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF FILTER ROOM/BATHHOUSE BUILDING S-196, FACING SOUTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Outdoor Swimming Pool, Corner of Liscome Bay Street & St. Lo Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior 3/4 view of north and west sides of la casa, showing entrance to first story, view towards the south. - Pou Coffee Processing Structure, Casa No. 2, Highway 139, Kilometer 12, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  3. 2. WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF OFFICE/SHOWROOM. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF OFFICE/SHOWROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, International Harvester Company Showroom, Office & Warehouse, 10 South Main Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  4. 2. WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF SERVICE STATION/LUNCHROOM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF SERVICE STATION/LUNCHROOM WITH RANGER STATION IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTH. - Chinquapin Service Station & Lunch Room, Glacier Point Road & State Highway 41, Wawona, Mariposa County, CA

  5. North wing, west wall, looking northeast U.S. Veterans Hospital, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North wing, west wall, looking northeast - U.S. Veterans Hospital, Jefferson Barracks, Neuropsychiatric Hospital Infirm Building, VA Medical Center, Jefferson Barracks Division 1 Jefferson Barracks Drive, Saint Louis, Independent City, MO

  6. Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Setting, distant view looking east/southeast toward north and west elevations of Ranger's Residence, with rock formations in the background - Toney Residence, 10700 Escondido Canyon Road, Agua Dulce, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 7. VIEW TO NORTH. FROM WEST PLATFORM. SAME AS IL1D3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW TO NORTH. FROM WEST PLATFORM. SAME AS IL-1D-3, AFTER TRAIN HAS DEPARTED EAST PLATFORM. - Union Elevated Railroad, Randolph-Wabash Avenue Station, Randolph Street & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  9. Earthquake Activity in the North Greenland Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Tine B.; Dahl-Jensen, Trine; Voss, Peter H.

    2017-04-01

    Many local and regional earthquakes are recorded on a daily basis in northern Greenland. The majority of the earthquakes originate at the Arctic plate boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates. Particularly active regions away from the plate boundary are found in NE Greenland and in northern Baffin Bay. The seismograph coverage in the region is sparse with the main seismograph stations located at the military outpost, Stations Nord (NOR), the weather station outpost Danmarkshavn (DAG), Thule Airbase (TULEG), and the former ice core drilling camp (NEEM) in the middle of the Greenland ice sheet. Furthermore, data is available from Alert (ALE), Resolute (RES), and other seismographs in northern Canada as well as from a temporary deployment of BroadBand seismographs along the north coast of Greenland from 2004 to 2007. The recorded earthquakes range in magnitude from less than 2 to a 4.8 event, the largest in NE Greenland, and a 5.7 event, the largest recorded in northern Baffin Bay. The larger events are recorded widely in the region allowing for focal mechanisms to be calculated. Only a few existing focal mechanisms for the region can be found in the ISC bulletin. Two in NE Greenland representing primarily normal faulting and one in Baffin Bay resulting from reverse faulting. New calculations of focal mechanisms for the region will be presented as well as improved hypocenters resulting from analysis involving temporary stations and regional stations that are not included in routine processing.

  10. MTR WING, TRA604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604. ELEVATIONS OF NORTH, WEST AND SOUTH SIDES. EAST SIDE CONNECTS TO TRA-603'S WEST SIDE. REFERENCE TO PANEL TYPES A, B, C, D, E, H. WINDOWS IN BANKS OF FOUR. DETAILS OF ENTRY ON WEST SIDE: CANOPY, GLASS BLOCK. FAN DECK. BLAW-KNOX 3150-804-5, 11/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0604-00-098-100630, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. ARMF, TRA660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ARMF, TRA-660. NORTH, WEST AND EAST ELEVATIONS. PUMICE BLOCK WALLS. VERTICAL LIFT DOOR IN WEST WALL. WINDOWS AND LOUVERS WERE LATER COVERED. H.K. FERGUSON 8956 MTR-ETR-660-53, 9/1959. INL INDEX NO. 531-0660-00-279-101994, REV. 3. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America has been associated with high mortality in the native avifauna and has raised concerns about the long-term impact of WNV on bird populations. Here, we present results from a longitudinal analysis of annual counts of six bird species, using North American Breeding Bird Survey data from ten states (1994 to 2010). We fit overdispersed Poisson models to annual counts. Counts from successive years were linked by an autoregressive process that depended on WNV transmission intensity (annual West Nile neuroinvasive disease reports) and was adjusted by El Niño Southern Oscillation events. These models were fit using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results Model fit was mostly excellent, especially for American Crows, for which our models explained between 26% and 81% of the observed variance. The impact of WNV on bird populations was quantitatively evaluated by contrasting hypothetical count trajectories (omission of WNV) with observed counts. Populations of American crows were most consistently affected with a substantial cumulative impact in six of ten states. The largest negative impact, almost 60%, was found in Illinois. A regionally substantial decline was also seen for American Robins and House Sparrows, while the other species appeared unaffected. Conclusions Our results confirm findings from previous studies that single out American Crows as the species most vulnerable to WNV infection. We discuss strengths and limitations of this and other methods for quantifying the impact of WNV on bird populations. PMID:21831324

  13. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources.

  14. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Hobson, Keith A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  15. Chemical and biological impacts of ocean acidification along the west coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, Richard A.; Alin, Simone R.; Carter, Brendan; Bednaršek, Nina; Hales, Burke; Chan, Francis; Hill, Tessa M.; Gaylord, Brian; Sanford, Eric; Byrne, Robert H.; Sabine, Christopher L.; Greeley, Dana; Juranek, Lauren

    2016-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the west coast of North America is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) within the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we adapt the multiple linear regression approach to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast Ocean Acidification (WCOA) cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012, and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast, with the lowest values (37-55 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions off southern Oregon and northern California and higher values (51-63 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Coastal dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations are also elevated due to a natural remineralized component (Cbio), which represents carbon accumulated through net respiration in the seawater that has not yet degassed to the atmosphere. Average surface Canth is almost twice the surface remineralized component. In contrast, Canth is only about one third and one fifth of the remineralized component at 50 m and 100 m depth, respectively. Uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since the preindustrial period so that undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the shell dissolution of living pteropods. Our data show that the most severe biological impacts occur in the nearshore waters, where corrosive waters are closest to the surface. Since the pre-industrial times, pteropod shell dissolution has, on average, increased approximately 19-26% in both nearshore and offshore waters.

  16. 4. Views of McKenzieRichey House showing west and north sides. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Views of McKenzie-Richey House showing west and north sides. Note walkway, root cellar and covered well in the background, facing southeast. - McKenzie Property, House, North Bank of Sailor Gulch, 750 feet northwest of intersection of U.S.F.S. Roads 651 & 349, Placerville, Boise County, ID

  17. 2. North and west elevation, facing southeast (Note: B/W scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. North and west elevation, facing southeast (Note: B/W scale on north elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. West Nile Virus Outbreak in North American Owls, Ontario, 2002

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV. PMID:15663850

  19. West Nile virus outbreak in North American owls, Ontario, 2002.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Dibernardo, Antonia; McKeever, Katherine; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    From July to September 2002, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) caused a high number of deaths in captive owls at the Owl Foundation, Vineland, Ontario, Canada. Peak death rates occurred in mid-August, and the epidemiologic curve resembled that of corvids in the surrounding Niagara region. The outbreak occurred in the midst of a louse fly (Icosta americana, family Hippoboscidae) infestation. Of the flies tested, 16 (88.9 %) of 18 contained WNV RNA. Species with northern native breeding range and birds >1 year of age were at significantly higher risk for WNV-related deaths. Species with northern native breeding range and of medium-to-large body size were at significantly higher risk for exposure to WNV. Taxonomic relations (at the subfamily level) did not significantly affect exposure to WNV or WNV-related deaths. Northern native breeding range and medium-to-large body size were associated with earlier death within the outbreak period. Of the survivors, 69 (75.8 %) of 91 were seropositive for WNV.

  20. Regional analysis of convective systems during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Bradley Nicholas

    characteristics (e.g. total precipitation and vertical reflectivity profiles) at the inland and maritime sites. The wave regime also resulted in an increased population of the largest observed mesoscale convective systems observed near the coast, which led to an increase in stratiform precipitation. Despite this increase, differentiation of convective strength characteristics was less obvious between wave and no-wave regimes at the coast. Due to the propagating nature of these advecting mesoscale convective systems, interaction with the regional thermodynamic and dynamic environment appears to result in more variability than enhancements due to the wave regime, independent of location. A 13-year (1998-2010) climatology of mesoscale convective characteristics associated with the West African monsoon are also investigated using precipitation radar and passive microwave data from the NASA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite. Seven regions defined as continental northeast and northwest, southeast and southwest, coastal, and maritime north and south are compared to analyze zonal and meridional differences. Data are categorized according to identified African easterly wave (AEW) phase and when no wave is present. While some enhancements are observed in association with AEW regimes, regional differences were generally more apparent than wave vs. no-wave differences. Convective intensity metrics confirm that land-based systems exhibit stronger characteristics, such as higher storm top and maximum 30-dBZ heights and significant 85-GHz brightness temperature depressions. Continental systems also contain a lower fraction of points identified as stratiform. Results suggest that precipitation processes also varied depending upon region and AEW regime, with warm-rain processes more apparent over the ocean and the southwest continental region and ice-based microphysics more dominant over land, including mixed-phase processes. AEW regimes did show variability in stratiform fraction and

  1. Correlation of the major late Jurassic —early Tertiary low- and highstand cycles of south-west Egypt and north-west Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycisk, Peter

    1994-12-01

    The mainly continental deposits of northwest Sudan and south-west Egypt have been correlated with coeval shallow marine and marine deposits in northern Egypt along a north-south running cross-section, based on surface and subsurface data. The palaeodepth curve of northern Egypt illustrates the gradual seal-level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous with conspicuous advances during the Aptian and late Cenomanian. A general highstand is also recorded during the Campanian-Maastrichtian in north-west Sudan. A detailed facies correlation is given for the Aptian and late Cenomanian highstand in western Egypt. The correlation of the Cenomanian Bahariya and Maghrabi formations displays short-term relative sealevel fluctuations. The interpretation illustrates the extensiveness of related erosional processes in the hinterland, partly intensified by temporarily uplift of the Uweinat-Aswan High in the south. Regional uplift and constant erosion took place in south-west Egypt during Coniacian and Santonian times. The regional stratigraphic gaps and uncertain interpretation of the Bahariya Uplift are induced by the influence of the Trans-African Lineament, especially during the Late Cretaceous. Low-stand fluvial sheet sandstones characterized by non-cyclic sequence development and high facies stability occur, especially in the Neocomian and early Turonian. During the Barremian and Albian, fluvial architecture changes to more cyclic fluvial sequences and increasing soil formation, due to increasing subsidence, more humid climatic conditions and the generally rising sea level, culminating in the extensive shallow marine Abu Ballas and Maghrabi formations.

  2. Decadal reanalysis of biogeochemical indicators and fluxes in the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciavatta, S.; Kay, S.; Saux-Picart, S.; Butenschön, M.; Allen, J. I.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents the first decadal reanalysis simulation of the biogeochemistry of the North West European shelf, along with a full evaluation of its skill, confidence, and value. An error-characterized satellite product for chlorophyll was assimilated into a physical-biogeochemical model of the North East Atlantic, applying a localized Ensemble Kalman filter. The results showed that the reanalysis improved the model simulation of assimilated chlorophyll in 60% of the study region. Model validation metrics showed that the reanalysis had skill in matching a large data set of in situ observations for 10 ecosystem variables. Spearman rank correlations were significant and higher than 0.7 for physical-chemical variables (temperature, salinity, and oxygen), ˜0.6 for chlorophyll and nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate), and significant, though lower in value, for partial pressure of dissolved carbon dioxide (˜0.4). The reanalysis captured the magnitude of pH and ammonia observations, but not their variability. The value of the reanalysis for assessing environmental status and variability has been exemplified in two case studies. The first shows that between 325,000 and 365,000 km2 of shelf bottom waters were vulnerable to oxygen deficiency potentially threatening bottom fishes and benthos. The second application confirmed that the shelf is a net sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide, but the total amount of uptake varies between 36 and 46 Tg C yr-1 at a 90% confidence level. These results indicate that the reanalysis output data set can inform the management of the North West European shelf ecosystem, in relation to eutrophication, fishery, and variability of the carbon cycle.

  3. 3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EXTERIOR/STREET LEVEL VIEW, LOOKING WEST ALONG FIRST AVENUE NORTH WITH (LEFT TO RIGHT) CALDWELL-MILNER, MCADORY, JOHN HAND, WOODWARD BUILDINGS AND BROWN MARX BUILDING (RIGHT). ALSO PICTURED IS THE BANK FOR SAVINGS BUILDING (TOP RIGHT) AND THE RAILROAD RESERVATION (TOP LEFT TO RIGHT). VIEW TAKEN AS CITY THAWS FROM A MARCH BLIZZARD. - Heaviest Corner on Earth (Commercial), First Avenue, North & Twentieth (20th) Street, North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  4. Suicide in the Mountain West Region of the United States.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Carolyn M

    2017-03-24

    The Mountain West region of the United States consistently reports the highest rates of suicide in the country. This pattern could reflect a regional culture-of-suicide script in support of suicide that implicitly influences individual's behavior. The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether suicide rates are elevated in the Mountain West across a wide range of demographic groups, thereby supporting a regional cultural script. Suicide rates in the Mountain West between 1999 and 2014 were compared to the rest of the country across a wide range of demographic categories and levels of population density using the Center for Disease Control Multiple Causes of Death dataset published on the WONDER online database. Suicide rates are elevated in the Mountain West for men and women, all racial groups, all age groups, and at every level of population density compared to the rest of the country. Missing and suppressed data, the use of coroner reports, and the arbitrary nature of state and regional boundaries are all discussed as possible limitations to this study. These findings support a broad culture-of-suicide script that is pervasive in this region across demographic groups and all levels of population density.

  5. Regional shifts in snowfall, melt in the intermountain west

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The freshwater supplies of the American West rely, for the most part, on snow. The Colorado River, the Rio Grande, and other rivers in the intermountain west—bounded by the Sierra Nevada and Cascade mountains to the west and the Rockies to the east—are the main sources of water for one of the driest parts of the continent, and their flows are predominantly fed by the springtime melt of snow accumulated over the winter. With winter mean temperatures rising in some places by as much as 2.5°C in the past 2 decades, some scientists are concerned that the current hydrological regime of the region could be overthrown, with snow giving way to rain as the dominant form of precipitation. Decreasing snow accumulation and earlier snowmelt onset have been observed in Colorado. Whether these trends extend to the larger intermountain west region, however, is unknown.

  6. A Regional Approach to Market Monitoring in the West

    SciTech Connect

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2006-10-01

    Market monitoring involves the systematic analysis of pricesand behavior in wholesale power markets to determine when and whetherpotentially anti-competitive behavior is occurring. Regional TransmissionOrganizations (RTOs) typically have a market monitoring function. Becausethe West does not have active RTOs outside of California, it does nothave the market monitoring that RTOs have. In addition, because the Westoutside of California does not have RTOs that perform centralized unitcommitment and dispatch, the rich data that are typically available tomarket monitors in RTO markets are not available in the West outside ofCalifornia. This paper examines the feasibility of market monitoring inthe West outside of California given readily available data. We developsimple econometric models of wholesale power prices in the West thatmight be used for market monitoring. In addition, we examine whetherproduction cost simulations that have been developed for long-runplanning might be useful for market monitoring. We find that simpleeconometric models go a long ways towards explaining wholesale powerprices in the West and might be used to identify potentially anomalousprices. In contrast, we find that the simulated prices from a specificset of production cost simulations exhibit characteristics that aresufficiently different from observed prices that we question theirusefulness for explaining price formation in the West and hence theirusefulness as a market monitoring tool.

  7. Geological history of the outer North West Shelf of Australia: A synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exon, N. F.; Colwell, J. B.

    This paper uses information contained in other papers in this issue of the AGSO Journal together with the scientific literature to produce a synthesis of the geological development of the outer continental margin of northwest Australia, and the adjacent plateaus and abyssal plains, with special emphasis on the northern Exmouth Plateau and Rowley Terrace. In the Palaeozoic, the outer North West Shelf formed part of the continental crust of East Gondwana. The region was stretched in the Late Palaeozoic, and subsequently subsided to form the Westralian Superbain on the southern margin of Tethys. The superbasin filled with thick Triassic sediments, and variable thicknesses of Jurassic sediments, before progressive breakup in Callovian-Valanginian time.

  8. Waveform Tomography of the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Nicolas Luca; Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Gaina, Carmen

    2016-04-01

    The enormous volumes of newly available, broadband seismic data and the continuing development of waveform tomography techniques present us with an opportunity to resolve the structure of North Atlantic at a new level of detail. Dynamics of the North Atlantic Ridge and the Iceland Hotspot, evolution of the passive margins on both sides of the ocean, and the nature of the upper-mantle flow beneath the region are some of the important fundamental problems that we can make progress on using new, more detailed and accurate models of seismic structure and anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. We assemble a very large waveform dataset including all publicly available data in the region, from both permanent and temporary seismic networks and experiments conducted in Northern and Western Europe, Iceland, Canada, USA, Greenland and Russia. The tomographic model is constrained by vertical-component waveform fits, computed using the Automated Multimode Inversion of surface, S and multiple S waves. Each seismogram fit provides a set of linear equations describing 1D average velocity perturbations with respect to a 3D reference velocity model within an approximate sensitivity region between the source and the receiver. The equations are then combined into a large linear system and jointly inverted for a model of shear- and compressional-wave speeds and azimuthal anisotropy within the lithosphere and underlying mantle. The isotropic-average shear speeds reflect the temperature and composition at depth, offering important new information on both regional- and basin-scale lithospheric structure and evolution. Azimuthal anisotropy provides evidence on the past and present deformation in the lithosphere and asthenosphere beneath the region, which can be interpreted together with other evidence from geological and geophysical data and recent plate kinematic models.

  9. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  10. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  11. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  12. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  13. Hunting poisons of the North Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Bisset, N G

    1976-01-01

    The hunting poisons of the North Pacific region are discussed. The most important one used by the Ainu was based on Aconitum species (surku or suruku): on Hokkaido, to some extent A. japonicum Thumb. but probably mainly A. yezoense Nakai and A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; on southern Sakhalin, perhaps A. fischeri Reichb., A. maximum Pall. ex DC., and/or A. sachalinense Fr. Schm.; and on the Kuril Islands, A. maximum Pall. ex DC. Poison from the Japanese stingray Dasyatis akajei (Müller et Henle) (aikor chiep) was also much used, alone or mixed with aconite, and was believed by some Ainu to be better than aconite. Adjuvants to these poisons were numerous and varied in each locality. Daphne kamtschatica Maxim. var. yezoensis (Maxim.) Ohwi (ketuhas) was used in hunting walrus. The use of Cynanchum caudatum (Miq.) Maxim. (penup) enabled birds to be caught. Juglans ailanthifolia Carr (nesko) was a fish poison. A critical evaluation of the accounts by Krasheninnikov, Steller, Harms, and others, indicates that the inhibitants of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kamchadal (Itelmen), hunted with a poison derived from Aconitum maximum Pall. ex DC. This same species was almost certainly used in the Aleutian Islands and the Kodiak Island region, principally for hunting whales. There is some evidence that the inhabitants of the far north-eastern part of Siberia and of the Alaskan coasts opposite may also have used poison in hunting. The chemistry and toxicology of the poisons are briefly considered.

  14. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  15. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important. PMID:27442074

  16. Contact Zone of Asian and European Wild Boar at North West of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khalilzadeh, Parinaz; Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Fadakar, Davoud; Serati, Malihe; Aliabadian, Mansour; Haile, James; Goshtasb, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Wild boar (Sus scrofa) are widely distributed throughout the Old World. Most studies have focused on Europe and East Asia with the genetic diversity of West Asia being less well studied. In particular, the genetic variability and genetic structure of the Iranian populations are not yet known; gaps which prevent scientists from resolving the genetic relationships of the Eurasian wild boar. This paper is the first attempt to provide information about genetic relationships among modern Iranian populations of the Eurasian wild boar (S. scrofa) by sequencing 572 bp of the mitochondrial (mt) DNA control region. As a result of this investigation, it was discovered that Iran contains not only Middle Eastern haplotypes, but also shares haplotypes with Europe and East Asia. The Italian clade, which is endemic in Italy, is not identified in Iran, while all other clades, including Asiatic, European, Near East 1, and Near East 2 are found based on the phylogenetic tree and median-joining network. The results of this study illustrate that north west of Iran (specifically Southwest Caspian Sea) is the contact zone between the Asian (Near Eastern and Far Eastern), and the European clades. In light of the fact that the domestication of pigs occurs in Anatolia, this finding is important.

  17. Receiver function survey of Earthscope sites in the Pacific North West; preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, A.; Marshall, B.; Levin, V. L.; Park, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Receiver function gathers constructed from teleseismic source data allow probing for velocity contrasts at crustal and upper mantle depths and relating them to regional tectonic settings. In this presentation we show and discuss the results of our preliminary work with the newly available Earthscope dataset; a set of receiver function profiles from seismic stations throughout the Cascadia region of the Pacific North West. We use receiver function methodology to constrain upper crustal structure throughout the region and assign data quality ranking to all regional Earthscope sites. Preliminary results allow us to discern differences in subsurface velocity structure between stations based on their position relative to the subduction trench axis. We group stations based on similarity of receiver function signatures and discuss possible tectonic conditions to accommodate this similarity. Dense spacing of Earthscope sites allows tracking the changes of receiver function signatures across shorter distances than permanent station spacing previously allowed. Of particular interest are RFs from stations that lie ~100 km from the coast where the slab crosses 35-45-km depth, where a strongly anisotropic layer is evident, with strong spatial variation in apparent deformation geometry. Hypothetically suctioned upward by slab rollback, a deformed sliver of serpentinite-rich rock above the slab interface would likely display the observed spatial variation in anisotropic symmetry axis within the layer.

  18. Diphtheria infection in North West Canada, 1969, 1970 and 1971

    PubMed Central

    Jellard, C. H.

    1972-01-01

    In three years, Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from 1238 people, consisting of 820 North American Indians or Metis, 318 people of Caucasian origin, 97 Eskimos and 3 Asiatic Indians. Diphtheria infection of the throat, nose, ears and skin was common in the North American Indian and Metis people, but rarely caused severe symptoms. The infection occurred less often in white people but was more serious; of 27 cases of toxic respiratory diphtheria, 25 were white people. The public health significance of the endemic infection of the North American Indian and Metis people is discussed. PMID:4627266

  19. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Lunar mosaic of 1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole.

  20. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P < 0·001) total soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  1. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Mascara (North West of Algeria).

    PubMed

    Benarba, Bachir; Belabid, Lakhdar; Righi, Kada; Bekkar, Ahmed Amine; Elouissi, Mouffok; Khaldi, Abdelkader; Hamimed, Abderrahmane

    2015-12-04

    Medicinal plants are considered as a rich source of bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to document the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in Mascara, North-west Algeria. The present study was carried out in Mascara (North West of Algeria). Ethnobotanical data were recorded from 43 traditional healers practicing in Mascara. Data collected was analysed using quantitative indices such as the use value (UV), fidelity level (FL) and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC). Traditional healers reported 141 medicinal plant species belonging to 54 families and 125 genera for the treatment of different ailments grouped into 14 ailments categories. Lamiaceae were the most represented family with 19 species (13.57%) followed by Asteracea, Apiaceae and Fabaceae. Thymus vulgaris L. was the most frequently used by local informants, with the highest UV of 0.883 (38 use reports). Our findings revealed that 39 species have not been previously reported as medicinal plants in the region. Furthermore, we report for the first time a total of 100 new therapeutic uses for 37 known plant species. FIC values ranged from 0.125 to 0.658. Gastro-intestinal diseases had the highest FIC (0.658) with 60 species and 261 use reports. The present study revealed the important local knowledge as showed by the variety of species used to treat several ailments. Recorded species with high UV should be subjects of further pharmacological studies to validate their popular use and to isolate the bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear Transformation of Intense Internal Tides On The Australian North West Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, P.; Serebryany, A.

    The Australian North West Shelf is well known as a region of extreme amplitude in- ternal waves. Heights of semidiurnal internal tidal waves here propagating at a depth close to 100 m achieve as much as 40-50 meters, i.e. half water column depth. This circumstance leads to strong nonlinear deformations of the propagating internal tides. We have analyzed data of long-term observations (more than 2-month duration) which were made by 3 moorings moored at the Australian North West Shelf break in a line oriented normal to the isobaths. Each of the moorings was equipped with a set of current meters spaced at 6 or 7 levels. Average spectra of observed currents and tem- perature fluctuations have a significant peak at the frequency of semidiurnal period, as well as peaks at the inertial frequency and in the range of short-period internal waves (close to 2-3 cph). The peak connected with semidiurnal periodicity was formed by internal tidal waves whose forms, in most cases, are not sinusoidal waves, but are strong nonlinear waves. We revealed five main types of observed internal tidal forms and made their statistics. They are internal bores with steep front face and bores with steep back face, square waves and quasi-sinusoidal waves of small and big ampli- tudes. Most of the internal tides propagated through the moorings without changing their type. However, it was possible to observe transformation of a bore with a steep front face to small-amplitude wave and vise a versa or transformation of a bore on the back face to bore on the front face. Detailed analysis of all cases was carried out. Observed features in the transformation of nonlinear internal tades can be attributed to variability in background characteristics of the medium through which the waves propagate.

  3. Intensity attenuation relation at Chamba-Garhwal area in north-west Himalaya with epicentral distance and magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, G. K.; Mahajan, A. K.

    2013-02-01

    Seismic hazard assessment of any region depends on the attenuation relation which relates the seismological data with parameters of engineering interest. In the absence of sufficient strong motion data for northwest Himalayan region, isoseismal maps of previous earthquakes were the only source of information for computing the attenuation characteristics of that region. The northwest Himalayan region had experienced major and moderate earthquakes in the past and isoseismal maps had been developed by various authors for each of these earthquakes representing intensity pattern and decay of intensity in different directions. With this information, attenuation relations of intensity with distance can be obtained. The present study includes 10 moderate and major earthquakes ( Ms ≥ 4.9) that had occurred during the last 100 years. These are primarily Kangra (1905), Chamba-1 (1945), Chamba-2 (1995), Kinnaur (1975), Dharamsala (1986), Uttar Kashi (1991), Garhwal-1 (1996), Garhwal-2 (1996), Sundarnagar (1997) and Chamoli (1999) earthquakes. Miezoseismal zones in majority of the isoseismal maps show two major directions, i.e., either the longest axis of these isoseismal maps which are aligned in NW-SE direction following the major longitudinal features or north-northwest to south-southeast direction, following the tectonic features which are transverse to the Himalayan trend. Isoseismal maps of Kangra (1905), Chamba (1945) and Uttar Kashi (1991) earthquakes are more symmetrical and elongated in south-east direction, but compressed in north-east and north-west directions, thus indicating fast attenuation characteristics in north-east and north-west directions reflecting lithological variation. On the other hand, Sundernagar (1997) and Kinnuar (1975) earthquakes show circular pattern of intensity distribution. Combining decay patterns from different magnitude earthquakes in different directions, two attenuation relationships have been developed using regression relationship

  4. Geomorphic evidence for ancient seas in west Deuteronilus Mensae, Mars-1: Regional geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    The fretted terrain in west Deuteronilus Mensae consists of extensive cratered upland penninsulas or isolated plateaus cut by long, finger-like canyons typically 10 to 20 km wide and upwards of 300 km long. The longest of these canyons trend roughly north-south to north-northeast, which may reflect some local structural and/or topographic control. At least three geomorphic zones roughly parallel to the lowland/upland boundary, suggestive of increasing modification northward, can be recognized on the fretted region of the region. The southern-most zone (zone A) consists of sharply defined fretted terrain. The middle zone (zone B) consists of well defined fretted terrain in which the plateau surfaces appear smoother, with a somewhat darker and much less varied albedo surface than those of zone A. The northern-most zone (zone C) consists of rounded or softened fretted terrain. The zones were interpreted as surface exposures of successively lower stratigraphic units.

  5. Brominated flame retardant trends in aquatic birds from the Salish Sea region of the west coast of North America, including a mini-review of recent trends in marine and estuarine birds.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) increased in many matrices during the 1990s and early 2000s. Since voluntary restrictions and regulations on PBDEs were implemented in North America circa early 2000s, decreases in PBDEs have occurred in many of these same matrices. To examine temporal trends in the North Pacific, we retrospectively analysed PBDEs and eight non-PBDE flame retardants (FR) in eggs of two aquatic bird species, great blue herons, Ardea herodias, and double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus, collected along the British Columbia coast, Canada from 1979 to 2012. Increasing PBDE concentrations were observed in both species followed by significant decreases post-2000 for all dominant congeners and ΣPBDE. Non-PBDE FRs were generally undetected in cormorant eggs, or detected at very low levels in heron eggs, except for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD). HBCDD, currently unregulated in North America, was not detected in early sampling years; however low concentrations were observed in both species in recent sampling years (2003-2012). Dietary tracers (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) did not change significantly over time, indicating that temporal changes in PBDEs are likely caused by implemented regulations. A comparison with recently published temporal trends of ΣPBDE in marine birds from North America and Europe is given.

  6. ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR CONTROL BUILDING, TRA-647. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF ETR BUILDING, TRA-642. NORTH SIDE IS IN SHADOW. ORIGINAL PUMICE BLOCK SIDING HAS BEEN COVERED WITH INSULATED HORIZONTAL METAL LAP SIDING. CAMERA FACING EAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-6. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  8. Development of a regional food composition table for West Africa.

    PubMed

    Stadlmayr, Barbara; Charrondière, U Ruth; Burlingame, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Knowledge of the nutrient content of foods is fundamental for virtually all nutrition-related projects, programmes and policies. Low quality compositional data may lead to inappropriate policies and funds spent unnecessarily. Existing food composition tables (FCT) for most West African countries date back to 1960 and 1970 and contain in general few foods and components without documentation. As a result of the recommendations by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Nutrition forum and other high level meetings, FAO/INFOODS, WAHO/ECOWAS and Bioversity International developed the West African FCT. It contains 472 foods and 28 components. Emphasis was given to include data on food biodiversity by incorporating cultivars/varieties and underutilized foods. The West African FCT enables users to address diet-related health problems, strengthen local development, enhance trade and promote biodiversity. In addition it contributes to poverty alleviation in both rural and urban areas. The FCT needs to be updated regularly and it is the most recent example of INFOODS for regional food composition activities. Copyright © 2012 The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Lassa fever in West African sub-region: an overview.

    PubMed

    Ogbu, O; Ajuluchukwu, E; Uneke, C J

    2007-03-01

    Lassa fever is an acute viral zoonotic illness caused by Lassa virus, an arenavirus known to be responsible for a severe haemorrhagic fever characterised by fever, muscle aches, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and, chest and abdominal pain. The virus exhibits persistent, asymptomatic infection with profuse urinary virus excretion in the ubiquitous rodent vector, Mastomys natalensis. Lassa fever is endemic in West Africa and has been reported from Sierra Leone, Guinea, Liberia, and Nigeria. Some studies indicate that 300,000 to 500,000 cases of Lassa fever and 5000 deaths occur yearly across West Africa. Studies reported in English, that investigated Lassa fever with reference to West Africa were identified using the Medline Entrez-PubMed search and were used for this review. The scarcity of resources available for health care delivery system and the political instability that characterise the West African countries would continue to impede efforts for the control of Lassa fever in the sub-region. There is need for adequate training of health care workers regarding diagnostics, intensive care of patients under isolation, contact tracing, adequate precautionary measures in handling infectious laboratory specimens, control of the vector as well as care and disposal of infectious waste.

  10. 78 FR 2390 - CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CSOLAR IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC, CSOLAR IV North, LLC v. California Independent System Operator Corporation; Notice of Complaint Take notice... IV South, LLC, Wistaria Ranch Solar, LLC, CSOLAR IV West, LLC and CSOLAR IV North, LLC (collectively...

  11. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  12. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  13. Complex molecules in the W51 North region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Jialei; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zapata, Luis A.; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular-line observations in two 2-GHz wide bands centred at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, towards the massive star-forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular-line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen- and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large number of transitions of acetone (CH3COCH3) and methyl formate (CH3OCHO), which might suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of massive stars. We have also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium, with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities and rotation temperatures are estimated. We have found that the oxygen-bearing molecules have considerably higher column densities and fractional abundances than the nitrogen-bearing molecules. The rotation temperatures range from 100 to 200 K, suggesting that the molecular emission could originate from a warm environment. Finally, based on the gas distributions, fractional abundances and the rotation temperatures, we conclude that CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3COCH3 and CH3CH2CN might be synthesized on the grain surface, while gas phase chemistry is responsible for the production of CH3OCH3, CH3OCHO and CH2CHCN.

  14. Forest Planting Sites in North Mississippi and West Tennessee

    Treesearch

    Walter M. Broadfoot

    1951-01-01

    Forest plantations in north central Mississippi and western Tennessee can produce merchantable timber on much land which erosion has made useless for other crops Forest plantings usually can decrease, stop, or forestall erosion economically. This paper describes the most important sites in the area, predicts what may be expected if they are planted to trees, and...

  15. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  16. The Hydroclimatology of West Virginia Spatial and Temporal Trends and their Relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Carson

    Global air temperature has risen 0.74°C over the last 100 years, and is one of several factors influencing climate and streamflow variability at global, regional, and local scales. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is another important factor contributing to climate variability by influencing the intensity of storms entering the eastern US. The Southeastern US is receiving less precipitation and streamflow is decreasing while the northeastern US is receiving greater amounts of precipitation and increasing streamflows. West Virginia is typically overlooked being on the border of both of these regions; therefore the objective of this study is to fill knowledge gaps surrounding WV's historical hydroclimatological trends. Understanding West Virginia's climate and streamflow variability is important to inform governmental policy about future problems related to water availability, water withdraws, and pollution loading. To investigate variability related to climatic change in West Virginia, we analyzed long term streamflow records (1930-2011) using the non-parametric Mann Kendall trend tests. The non-parametric Mann Kendall trend test was selected to assess for systematic change over time within non-normally distributed streamflow data. In addition, NAO indices were correlated with modeled precipitation data and mean seasonal streamflow to investigate and characterize hydroclimatological variability. Results show that NAO is correlated with precipitation within West Virginia and that streamflow is increasing, however results show that streamflow is not correlated with NAO suggesting other controls not accounted for in this study.

  17. Canadian forest products shipped into the north-central region.

    Treesearch

    Eugene M. Carpenter

    1972-01-01

    Documents the imports of Canadian forest products into the north central region and relates import trends to the potential for expanding markets for the region's surplus volume of hardwood growing stock. More than 42% of the $2.1 billion of forest products imported from Canada in 1969 came into the north central region. The value of forest imports has increased...

  18. Cumulus cloud formation over West Atlantic Ocean north of South America

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1962-10-03

    S62-06613 (3 Oct. 1962) --- Cumulus cloud formation over West Atlantic Ocean north of South American during the fourth orbit pass of the Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) mission by astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. with a hand-held camera. Photo credit: NASA

  19. Academic Staff's Apathy towards Formal Professional Development Programmes at North West University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makunye, M. M.; Pelser, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for academics' apathy towards formal professional development programmes at North-West University. The research design was essentially descriptive, employing both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to gather and analyse data. Three techniques, namely, questionnaire surveys, analysis of…

  20. MTR WING, TRA604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR WING, TRA-604, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. WEST CORRIDOR. CAMERA FACES NORTH. HVAC AREA IS AT RIGHT OF CORRIDOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-13-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  1. Credit PSR. View looks west southwest (238°) at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. View looks west southwest (238°) at the north and east elevations of the liner lab. Solid rocket motor casings receive specially formulated rubber insulating liners that protect the casings from the heat generated by burning solid motors - Jet Propulsion Laboratory Edwards Facility, Liner Laboratory, Edwards Air Force Base, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Neuroinvasive Disease and West Nile Virus Infection, North Dakota, USA, 1999–2008

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Paul J.; Borchardt, Stephanie M.; Custer, Brian; Prince, Harry E.; Dunn-Williams, Joan; Winkelman, Valerie; Tobler, Leslie; Biggerstaff, Brad J.; Lanciotti, Robert; Petersen, Lyle R.

    2012-01-01

    To determine risk for West Nile virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in North Dakota, we tested plasma samples from blood donors for WNV IgG and compared infection rates with reported WNV neuroinvasive disease incidence. We estimate that 1 in 244 WNV infections leads to neuroinvasive disease; risk is substantially increased among men and older persons. PMID:22469465

  3. Excellence in Workplace Literacy, Large Business Winner, 2001: The North West Company. Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alison

    The North West Company (NWC), which is the leading retailer of food and everyday products and services to remote communities across northern Canada and Alaska, was the large business winner of the Excellence in Workplace Literacy award in 2001. NWC's workplace literacy program was selected for an award because of the improvements it brought, not…

  4. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography (Part II: North, South, West). Training & Methods Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.

    Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…

  5. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDINGS 471/473. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDINGS 471/473. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Thionyl Chloride Reaction-Drum Loading Building, 1190 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 1070 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  6. Academic Staff's Apathy towards Formal Professional Development Programmes at North West University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makunye, M. M.; Pelser, T. G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore reasons for academics' apathy towards formal professional development programmes at North-West University. The research design was essentially descriptive, employing both qualitative and quantitative research techniques to gather and analyse data. Three techniques, namely, questionnaire surveys, analysis of…

  7. 33 CFR 334.850 - Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....850 Lake Erie, west end, north of Erie Ordnance Depot, Lacarne, Ohio. (a) The danger zone: Consists of the waters of Lake Erie within: (1) Danger Area I. The sector of a circle with a radius of 6,500 yards... and automatic weapons impact area. (c) Authorized dates and hours of firing: (1) Danger Area I. 6...

  8. 159. ARAIII Guard house (ARA609). Shows west and north elevation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. ARA-III Guard house (ARA-609). Shows west and north elevation, floor plan, and section details. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-609-A-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0609-00-013-103683. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. Rural Development in Africa: A Bibliography (Part II: North, South, West). Training & Methods Series, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Land Tenure Center.

    Compiled in December 1971, this bibliography lists approximately 940 books, journals, periodicals, and unpublished mimeographs dealing with rural development in north, west, and southern Africa. All materials are dated between 1953 and 1971. Entries are listed by country under the following headings: agriculture, economic affairs, social affairs,…

  10. The Irish Language in Britain: A Case Study of North West England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, Mairead Nic; Leyland, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Sketches presence of Irish language in Britain in nineteenth and twentieth centuries. First, reviews emigration of Irish-speakers from Ireland in nineteenth century. Attention focuses on problems encountered by speakers of Irish in England in last century. Offers a profile of number of people who learn Irish in evening classes in North West of…

  11. West Nile virus epizootiology, central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002-2005.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jeffrey A; Brewer, Christina M; Mickelson, Nathan J; Garman, Gabriel W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2006-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification.

  12. West Nile Virus Epizootiology, Central Red River Valley, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2002–2005

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; Brewer, Christina M.; Mickelson, Nathan J.; Garman, Gabriel W.

    2006-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) epizootiology was monitored from 2002 through 2005 in the area surrounding Grand Forks, North Dakota. Mosquitoes were tested for infection, and birds were surveyed for antibodies. In 2003, WNV was epidemic; in 2004, cool temperatures precluded WNV amplification; and in 2005, immunity in passerines decreased, but did not preclude, WNV amplification. PMID:16965705

  13. Provision of Educational Technology at Secondary School Level in North West Frontier Province Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akhtar, Sajjad Hayat

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The study looked into a descriptive research to evaluate the use of educational technology at secondary school level North West Frontier Province (Pakistan). The study has defined the availability, usefulness, problems, emerging trends and status of educational technology. The main focus of the study was the utilization and availability…

  14. 1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607, WITH DISCHARGED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND NORTH SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607, WITH DISCHARGED TON CONTAINERS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  15. 2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607, WITH DISCHARGED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 1601/1606/1607, WITH DISCHARGED TON CONTAINERS IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Cluster Bomb Assembly-Filling-Storage Building, 3500 feet South of Ninth Avenue; 2870 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  16. NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP627) LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH AND WEST ELEVATIONS OF REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) LOOKING SOUTHEAST. HEADEND PLANT (CPP-640) APPEARS IN THE BACKGROUND. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-22-1-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/1998 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., 085°45′34″ W; East point—30°14′56″ N, 085°43′45″ W; South point—30°14′01″ N, 085°44′59″ W; West point...

  18. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  19. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  20. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  1. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  2. 40 CFR 81.131 - Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Southern Tier West Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.131 Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  3. 40 CFR 81.131 - Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Southern Tier West Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.131 Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  4. 40 CFR 81.131 - Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Southern Tier West Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.131 Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern Tier West Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (New York) consists of the territorial...

  5. 40 CFR 81.235 - Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.235 Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southern West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  6. 40 CFR 81.264 - West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Illinois Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.264 West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Illinois Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  7. 40 CFR 81.231 - Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central West Virginia Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.231 Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central West Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  8. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  9. Chasma Boreale in the North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This images shows a Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) full-resolution 'targeted image' of the edge of Mars' north polar cap. The region in the image, Chasma Boreale, is a valley several kilometers or miles deep that cuts about 400 kilometers (about 250 miles) into the edge of the cap.

    This image was acquired at 0851 UTC (4:51 a.m. EDT) on Oct. 1, 2006, near 84.6 degrees north latitude, 3.6 degrees east longitude. It covers an area about 13 kilometers (8 miles) long and, at the narrowest point, about 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide. At the center of the image the spatial resolution is as good as 18 meters (60 feet) per pixel. The image was taken in 544 colors covering wavelengths of 0.36 to 3.92 micrometers. Two renderings of the data are shown here, both draped over topography without vertical exaggeration, and then viewed from a perspective diagonally above the site. The top view is an approximately true-color representation. The bottom view, constructed from infrared wavelengths, shows strength of the spectral signature of ice. Brighter areas are rich in ice, and dark areas have little ice.

    The polar cap has long been recognized to contain layers composed of dust and ice, and hence has been named the polar layered deposit. This sits atop an underlying 'basal unit.' The upper part of the basal unit is dark at visible wavelengths and steeply sloped, whereas the lower part of the basal unit is brighter, redder, and layered like the polar layered deposits. The chasma floor is cratered, and in the foreground it is covered by dunes that are outliers of a north polar sand sea that surrounds the polar cap. The polar layered deposits and the basal unit form a steeply sloping scarp about 1.1 kilometers (0.7 miles) high.

    CRISM's image of this region shows a number of previously unrecognized characteristics of the polar layered deposits and the basal unit. First, the ice-rich polar layered deposits exhibit coherent banding both at

  10. West Nile Virus Surveillance in the Lombardy Region, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Chiari, M; Prosperi, A; Faccin, F; Avisani, D; Cerioli, M; Zanoni, M; Bertoletti, M; Moreno, A M; Bruno, R; Monaco, F; Farioli, M; Lelli, D; Lavazza, A

    2015-08-01

    In 2013, the circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) was detected in the Lombardy region and the following year a surveillance programme was activated with the aim of early identification of the viral distribution in mosquitoes and wild birds. A total of 50 959 Culex spp. mosquitoes grouped in six hundred and forty-seven pools as well as 1400 birds were screened by RT-PCR for the presence of West Nile virus leading to the identification of the viral genome in 32 mosquito pools and 13 wild birds. The surveillance was able to detect the WNV circulation on an average of 42 days (CI 95% 29.98-53.86; Student's t-distribution) before the occurrence of human West Nile disease (WND) cases in the same area. These results demonstrate the presence of WNV in the Lombardy region and confirm entomological and wild birds surveillance as an effective measure for the early identification of WNV circulation in infected areas, thus providing a useful and cost-effective tool for the public health authorities in the application of measures to prevent human infection. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Crude oils of the northern region of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkhchiyan, M.A.; Driatskaya, Z.V.; Kaminskii, E.F.; Titkina, G.I.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents results of studies of the physiocochemical characteristics and hydrocarbon compositions of crude oils from the northern oil and gas province. It establishes that the oils are all nearly identical in properties (with the exception of the Russkaya crude from the Cenomanian deposits) and that they differ from the crudes and products obtained in other oil and gas districts of West Siberia. The crudes from the northern region are low-sulfur (below 0.5%), and that the potential content of distillates below 350/sup 0/C is extremely high, reaching levels of 91% and 84% by weight for the Kharvutte and Tarko-Salinsk crudes, respectively. It is recommended that these crudes should be segregated from the others of West Siberia in order to take advantage of their particular qualities.

  12. Chemical and Biological Impacts of Ocean Acidification Along the West Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feely, R. A.; Alin, S. R.; Carter, B.; Bednarsek, N.

    2015-12-01

    The continental shelf region off the Washington-Oregon-California coast is seasonally exposed to water with a low aragonite saturation state by coastal upwelling of CO2-rich waters. To date, the spatial and temporal distribution of anthropogenic CO2 (Canth) contribution to the CO2-rich waters is largely unknown. Here we use an adaptation of the linear regression approach described in Feely et al. (2008) to utilize the GO-SHIP Repeat Hydrography data set from the northeast Pacific to establish an annually updated relationship between Canth and potential density. This relationship was then used with the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program West Coast cruise data sets from 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013 to determine the spatial variations of Canth in the upwelled water. Our results show large spatial differences in Canth in surface waters along the coast with the lowest values (40-45 μmol kg-1) in strong upwelling regions of off northern California and southern Oregon and higher values (50-70 μmol kg-1) to the north and south of this region. Canth contributes an average of about 70 % of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon in the upwelled waters at the surface relative to what would be expected from physical circulation and exchange with a preindustrial atmosphere alone. In contrast, Canth contributes an average of about 31%, and 16% of the increased amount of dissolved inorganic carbon at 50 m depth, and at 100 m depth respectively. The remaining contributions are either due to respiration processes in the water that was upwelled and transported to coastal regions or respiration processes that occurs locally during the course of the upwelling season. The uptake of Canth has caused the aragonite saturation horizon to shoal by approximately 30-50 m since preindustrial period so that the undersaturated waters are well within the regions of the continental shelf that affect the biological communities.

  13. North West Shelf pipeline design. Part 2. Oceanographic studies, route selection detailed for north west shelf line

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, E.V.

    1981-09-07

    The early planning stages for the North Rankin pipeline system focused on gathering and analyzing oceanographic and meteorological data - records of currents, waves, tides, and seawater temperature and salinity. An extensive hydrographic study and soil investigation included conventional bathymetric and geophysical work and provided the data for the seafloor and sub-bottom profiles needed for selecting the pipeline route, which skirts four problem areas and reaches land at a small, sandy beach near the proposed LNG plant site.

  14. Climate influence on the North West African fisheries: a large-scale perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Parages, Jorge; Rodriguez-Fonseca, Belén; Brochier, Timothee; Auger, Pierre-Amaël; Gaetan, Carlo; Rubino, Angelo; Keenlyside, Noel; Zanchettin, Davide; Woldeyes Arisido, Maeregu

    2017-04-01

    There are still many questions about the environmental forcings on marine biological ecosystems that need to be addressed. Of special relevance are those associated with the so-called Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS) due to their great climatic and socio-economic importance, being the latter specially crucial for some regions along the globe such as the North West African region (hereinafter NW Africa). In this study, some possible teleconnections involving large-scale climatic phenomena and the small pelagic fishes dynamics in the NW Africa, have been addressed. These possible teleconnections would be interesting on its own, but those associated with the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) processes are of special importance, since they could noticeably contribute to the development of a seasonal prediction system of fisheries. To this aim, we have used data provided by the couple model compounded by the Regional Oceanic Modeling System ROMS configured for the NW African upwelling system and by the biogeochemical model PISCES, which simulates plankton productivity and carbon biomass based upon the main nutrients. This coupled model has been run over the period 1980-2009 using interannual atmospheric forcings and consistent oceanic boundary conditions (from NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis). Finally, an evolutionary individual-based Lagrangian model has been used to simulate the spatio-temporal behavior of the small pelagic fishes, at different stages, according to the environmental constraints obtained from ROMS. The results obtained, though preliminary, point out that the well known El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability mode (ENSO) could act as a possible large-scale climatic forcing of the NW African fishes, which could open a window of opportunity for the development of an effective seasonal prediction system in the aforementioned region.

  15. Stress-induced seismic azimuthal anisotropy in the upper crust across the North West Shelf, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Lisa J.; Lumley, David

    2016-02-01

    Seismic azimuthal anisotropy (SAA) is observed in many areas of the Earth, and fast polarized directions (ϕ) have been mapped using earthquake surface waves and teleseismic S wave splitting over large regional and tectonic scales. Higher-resolution petroleum exploration data, including 3-D seismic surveys and dipole shear logs, often exhibit azimuthal anisotropy; however, we are unaware of any published studies mapping SAA from exploration-scale data to study large-scale regional and tectonic SAA trends. The physical mechanisms causing SAA in earthquake data are a subject of great interest; comparing regional ϕ trends to the higher-resolution exploration trends may help understand these mechanisms. We present a SAA analysis using seismic exploration data across the North West Shelf (NWS) of Australia. We map the fast polarization directions ϕ from 34 dipole shear logs and two 3-D seismic surveys and compare them to in situ maximum horizontal stress orientations (σH). Our results show that the ϕ and σH trends correlate across a geographical area spanning almost 2000 km and are similar to published results in the region from earthquake seismology. These results suggest that differential horizontal stress is the likely mechanism causing SAA at a wide range of spatial scales on the NWS of Australia. We also show that SAA is not observed at exploration scales in some areas of the NWS and propose a lithology-dependent stress sensitivity model in which SAA is strongest in clean, unconsolidated quartz-dominated sandstones and weaker or nonexistent in well-consolidated cemented rocks and shale-dominated sediments.

  16. North Pole Region of the Moon as Seen by Clementine

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-03

    Lunar mosaic of ~1500 Clementine images of the north polar region of the moon. The projection is orthographic centered on the north pole. The polar regions of the moon are of special interest because of the postulated occurrence of ice in permanently shadowed areas. The north pole of the moon is absent of the very rugged terrain seen at the south pole. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00002

  17. Governor Moore Discusses Past and Present Changes in the Region and in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    West Virginia Governor Arch Moore discusses past and present changes in the Appalachian Region and in West Virginia spurred by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Changes in West Virginia's tax structure, job creation, economic diversification, and public energy facilities are noted as efforts to prepare for the future. (NEC)

  18. 40 CFR 81.70 - Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.70 Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Parkersburg (West Virginia)-Marietta (Ohio) Interstate...

  19. Governor Moore Discusses Past and Present Changes in the Region and in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appalachia, 1986

    1986-01-01

    West Virginia Governor Arch Moore discusses past and present changes in the Appalachian Region and in West Virginia spurred by the Appalachian Regional Commission. Changes in West Virginia's tax structure, job creation, economic diversification, and public energy facilities are noted as efforts to prepare for the future. (NEC)

  20. Winter in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a wintertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. Much of the hydrogen is hidden at this time beneath a layer of carbon dioxide frost (dry ice). A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Summer in Mars' North Polar Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Observations by NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft show a summertime view of the north polar region of Mars in intermediate-energy, or epithermal, neutrons. The map is based on data acquired by the high-energy neutron detector, one of the instruments in Odyssey's gamma-ray spectrometer suite. Soil enriched by hydrogen is indicated by the purple and deep blue colors on the map, which show a low intensity of epithermal neutrons. Progressively smaller amounts of hydrogen are shown in the colors light blue, green, yellow and red. The hydrogen is believed to be in the form of water ice. In some areas, the abundance of water ice is estimated to be up to 90 percent by volume. A shaded-relief rendition of topography is superimposed on this map for geographic reference.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. Investigators at Arizona State University in Tempe, the University of Arizona in Tucson, and NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, operate the science instruments. The gamma-ray spectrometer was provided by the University of Arizona in collaboration with the Russian Aviation and Space Agency and Institute for Space Research (IKI), which provided the high-energy neutron detector, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, which provided the neutron spectrometer. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  2. Regional and economic geology of Pennsylvanian age coal beds of West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repine, T.E.; Blake, B.M.; Ashton, K.C.; Fedorko, N.; Keiser, A.F.; Loud, E.I.; Smith, C.J.; McClelland, S.W.; McColloch, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    West Virginia is the only place in the United States where an entire section of Pennsylvanian age (Upper Carboniferous) strata can be seen. These strata occur within a wedge of rock that thins to the north and west from the southeastern part of the State. The progressive north-northwesterly termination of older Pennsylvanian geologic units beneath younger ones prominently outlines the center of the Appalachian basin of West Virginia. Over most of West Virginia, Lower and/or Middle Pennsylvanian strata unconformably overly Upper Mississippian (Lower Carboniferous) strata. Sediment deposition was accomplished by a complex system of deltas prograding north and west from an eastern and southeastern source area. More than 100 named coal beds occur within the Lower, Middle, and Upper Pennsylvanian rocks of West Virginia and at least 60 of these have been or are currently being mined commercially. Collectively, these coal beds account for original in-ground coal resources of almost 106.1??109 t (117??109 tons). West Virginia ranks fourth in the United States in demonstrated coal reserves. In 1988, West Virginia produced 131.4??106 t (144.9??106 T) of coal, third highest in the United States. Of this annual production, 75% was from underground mines. In 1988, West Virginia led the nation in the number of longwall mining sections currently in place. West Virginia's low-volatile coal beds are known worldwide as important metallurgical-grade coals, while the higher-volatile coal beds are utilized primarily for steam production. ?? 1993.

  3. Impacts of forestry planting on primary production in upland lakes from north-west Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark A; McGowan, Suzanne; Anderson, N John; Foy, Robert H; Leavitt, Peter R; McElarney, Yvonne R; Engstrom, Daniel R; Pla-Rabés, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Planted forests are increasing in many upland regions worldwide, but knowledge about their potential effects on algal communities of catchment lakes is relatively unknown. Here, the effects of afforestation were investigated using palaeolimnology at six upland lake sites in the north-west of Ireland subject to different extents of forest plantation cover (4-64% of catchment area). (210)Pb-dated sediment cores were analysed for carotenoid pigments from algae, stable isotopes of bulk carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N), and C/N ratios. In lakes with >50% of their catchment area covered by plantations, there were two- to sixfold increases in pigments from cryptophytes (alloxanthin) and significant but lower increases (39-116%) in those from colonial cyanobacteria (canthaxanthin), but no response from biomarkers of total algal abundance (β-carotene). In contrast, lakes in catchments with <20% afforestation exhibited no consistent response to forestry practices, although all lakes exhibited fluctuations in pigments and geochemical variables due to peat cutting and upland grazing prior to forest plantation. Taken together, patterns suggest that increases in cyanobacteria and cryptophyte abundance reflect a combination of mineral and nutrient enrichment associated with forest fertilization and organic matter influx which may have facilitated growth of mixotrophic taxa. This study demonstrates that planted forests can alter the abundance and community structure of algae in upland humic lakes of Ireland and Northern Ireland, despite long histories of prior catchment disturbance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Port Eliza cave: North American West Coast interstadial environment and implications for human migrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, B. C.; Wilson, M. C.; Nagorsen, D. W.; Nelson, D. E.; Driver, J. C.; Wigen, R. J.

    2003-06-01

    The timing of Late Pleistocene glacial advance, retreat, relative sea level and environmental viability between 25 and 12.5 ka ( 14C yrs BP) remain a key issue in the feasibility of a coastal migration route for the first North Americans. This is discussed on the basis of stratigraphic, radiometric and faunal data for Port Eliza cave, a raised sea cave, on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Ice cover is indicated by the occurrence of 2 m of laminated clay, representing deposition in a subglacial lake. From immediately below this clay a diverse vertebrate fauna of marmot, vole, marten, cervid and various species of birds and fish was recovered, yielding ages of 18-16 ka. These dates and others from the region show that ice cover on the outer coast was brief, from ca 15.5-14 ka. The fish species indicate that relative sea level was close to the cave and that salmon runs were likely present. The terrestrial vertebrate fauna is consistent with a cool, open parkland environment with maximum summer temperatures cooler than present; these conditions lasted until at least 16 ka. With a diverse fauna and favorable climate, humans could have survived here on a mixed marine-terrestrial diet, confirming the viability of the coastal migration hypothesis for this portion of the route.

  5. Prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in north-west Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The frequency of pregnancy-associated malaria is increasingly being documented in American countries. In Colombia, with higher frequency of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum infection, recent reports confirmed gestational malaria as a serious public health problem. Thick smear examination is the gold standard to diagnose malaria in endemic settings, but in recent years, molecular diagnostic methods have contributed to elucidate the dimension of the problem of gestational malaria. The study was aimed at exploring the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in women who delivered at the local hospitals of north-west Colombia, between June 2008 and April 2011. Methods A group of 129 parturient women was selected to explore the prevalence of gestational, placental and congenital malaria in a descriptive, prospective and transversal (prevalence) design. Diagnosis was based on the simultaneous application of two independent diagnostic tests: microscopy of thick blood smears and a polymerase chain reaction assay (PCR). Results The prevalence of gestational malaria (thick smear /PCR) was 9.1%/14.0%; placental malaria was 3.3%/16.5% and congenital malaria was absent. A history of gestational malaria during the current pregnancy was significantly associated with gestational malaria at delivery. Plasmodium vivax caused 65% of cases of gestational malaria, whereas P. falciparum caused most cases of placental malaria. Conclusions Gestational and placental malaria are a serious problem in the region, but the risk of congenital malaria is low. A history of malaria during pregnancy may be a practical indicator of infection at delivery. PMID:24053184

  6. First record of Lagocephalus laevigatus (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) from Galician waters (north-west Spain), a northernmost occurrence in the north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bañón, R; Santás, V

    2011-05-01

    The first record of the smooth puffer Lagocephalus laevigatus from Galician waters (north-west Spain) is reported. Three possible mechanisms of introduction of the specimen are considered: natural displacement, the aquarist trade and transport in ballast water.

  7. Clinical and pathologic features of West Nile virus infection in native North American owls (Family strigidae).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, S D; Patterson, J S; Kiupel, M; Simmons, H A; Grimes, S D; Sarver, C F; Fulton, R M; Steficek, B A; Cooley, T M; Massey, J P; Sikarskie, J G

    2003-01-01

    Since the initial report of West Nile virus in the northeastern United States in 1999, the virus has spread rapidly westward and southward across the country. In the summer of 2002, several midwestern states reported increased cases of neurologic disease and mortality associated with West Nile virus infection in various native North American owl species. This report summarizes the clinical and pathologic findings for 13 captive and free-ranging owls. Affected species were all in the family Strigidae and included seven snowy owls (Nyctea scandiaca), four great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), a barred owl (Strix varia), and a short-eared owl (Asio flammeus). Neurologic signs identified included head tilt, uncoordinated flight, paralysis, tremors, and seizures. Owls that died were screened for flaviviral proteins by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed tissues, followed by specific polymerase chain reaction assay to confirm West Nile virus with fresh tissues when available. Microscopic lesions were widespread, involving brain, heart, liver, kidney, and spleen, and were typically nonsuppurative with infiltration by predominantly lymphocytes and plasma cells. Lesions in owls were much more severe than those previously reported in corvids such as crows, which are considered highly susceptible to infection and are routinely used as sentinel species for monitoring for the presence and spread of West Nile virus. This report is the first detailed description of the pathology of West Nile virus infection in Strigiformes and indicates that this bird family is susceptible to natural infection with West Nile virus.

  8. West Nile Virus: A Threat to North American Avian Species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The introduction and extensive expansion of WNV in the US in the last three years is having a dramatic impact on native wildlife. The disease continues to cause significant mortality in a variety of bird species throughout the eastern US, particularly in American crow and blue jay populations. As the virus expands to new habitats in the southern, midwestern and western states, new bird species will be at risk and different patterns of transmission will develop. In the western states, many additional species of Corvidae (crows, jays, ravens, magpies and nutcrackers) may be affected. Once it becomes well established in states with warm climates, like Florida where mosquitoes are active year round to sustain almost continuous transmission; these states could serve as annual sources of WNV for migratory birds to re-introduce the virus to northern states in the spring. The rapid increase in geographical distribution of WNV activity that has occurred throughout the eastern US and the rapid increase in the infection and mortality rates in birds during the last three years indicate the emergence of an epizootic disease of major importance to North American birds.

  9. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling.

    PubMed

    Auger, P A; Machu, E; Gorgues, T; Grima, N; Waeles, M

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical-biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates.

  10. ["I am but mad north-north-west"--Hamlet's portrayed delusion].

    PubMed

    Schulte Herbrüggen, H

    1996-01-01

    Whereas science refers to the real world existing independently and conditioned by cause and effect, the world of literature is fictitious, created by the artist in our imagination by means of language, an artefact conditioned by aesthetic laws, a world sui generis. Accordingly, Hamlet is no person, but a literary figure, doing, saying, thinking and feeling only what the poet dictated him word for word. The essential difference between the two worlds is often overlooked. That "blind spot" has a long-standing tradition in European intellectual history and goes back i.a. to the German "Hamlet experience" in the eighteenth, the "Hamlet fever" and the felt spiritual kinship (Seelenverwandtschaft) in the nineteenth century. Teleological literary criticism, centering around Hamlet's "character" and isolating his psychologically evaluated monologues (e.g. Bradley), refrained from Hamlet's fictionality and role-play and led to blurring beyond recognition the boundaries between real person and literary figure (e.g. Freud, Jones) and assisted in reducing a dramatic role to a medical case history. Speaking of Hamlet, one has to start from Shakespeare's text, our subject matter. A dramatic play being a plot turned into dialogue, the poet's vocabulary used (but indirectly also the vocabulary not used) is particularly informative. When referring to Hamlet's "antic disposition", Shakespeare uses a wide range of over 20 different terms, the most frequented being mad/madness (44 times). Evidence of primary importance are the five occasions after the apparition of his father's ghost, when Hamlet speaks of hist "madness" as an assumed role. In Act I "madness occurs first as a mere possibility when Hamlet informs his friends, he might "put an antic disposition on"; in Act II vis-a-vis Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ("I am but mad north-north-west") it is his deliberate action under certain conditions; in Act III it occurs thrice, first in his declaration of intent ("They are coming to

  11. 1. AERIAL VIEW OF WEST/FRONT AND NORTH/SIDE FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AERIAL VIEW OF WEST/FRONT AND NORTH/SIDE FACADES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (FROM LEFT TO RIGHT): VA-1272 Ball Building, 1437 N. Court House Road. VA-1273 Jesse Building, 1423-27 N. Court House Road. VA-1276 Jesse-Hosmer Building, 1419 N. Court House Road. VA-1275 Moncure (Adams, Porter, Radigan) Building, N. 1415 Court House Road. VA-1274 Rucker Building, N. 1403 Court House Road. - Lawyers' Row Block, North Court House Road between Fourteenth & Fifteenth Streets, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  12. [Epidemiology of Lyme disease in a healthcare area in north-west Spain].

    PubMed

    Vázquez-López, María Esther; Pego-Reigosa, Robustiano; Díez-Morrondo, Carolina; Castro-Gago, Manuel; Díaz, Pablo; Fernández, Gonzalo; Morrondo, Patrocinio

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of some risk factors on the incidence rate of Lyme disease and the main clinical manifestations. A retrospective study of Lyme disease (2006-2013) was performed in north-west Spain; we included only patients who fulfilled the epidemiological surveillance criteria defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The incidence rate varied between 2.64 and 11.61/100,000 inhabitants/year. Significant differences were found in relation to habitat, age and area of residence. Patients showed neurological (67.59%), dermatological (47.22%), rheumatological (15.74%) and cardiac (13.88%) manifestations, alone or combined. Due to the increase of the disease in north-west Spain and the differences observed between the different areas, epidemiological studies are needed that increase the index of diagnostic suspicion and lead to the implementation of effective prevention measures. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity.

  14. Regional variation of climatic influences on West Nile virus outbreaks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wimberly, Michael C; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-10-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics.

  15. Regional Variation of Climatic Influences on West Nile Virus Outbreaks in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wimberly, Michael C.; Lamsal, Aashis; Giacomo, Paolla; Chuang, Ting-Wu

    2014-01-01

    The national resurgence of human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in 2012 raised questions about the factors responsible for WNV outbreaks. Interannual climatic variations may influence WNV amplification and transmission to humans through multiple pathways, including mosquito breeding habitats, gonotrophic cycles, extrinsic incubation, avian communities, and human behavior. We examined the influences of temperature and precipitation anomalies on interannual variation in human WNV cases in three regions of the United States. There were consistent positive influences of winter temperatures, weaker and more variable positive effects of spring and summer temperatures, and highly variable precipitation effects that ranged from positive to negative. The overwintering period may be a particularly important climatic constraint on the dynamics of WNV in cold-temperate regions of North America. Geographic differences in the seasonal timing and relative importance of climatic drivers of WNV risk likely reflect underlying variability in key ecological and social characteristics. PMID:25092814

  16. NORTH SECTION OF WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH SECTION OF WEST ELEVATION OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601) LOOKING EAST. HOT PILOT PLANT BUILDING (CPP-640) APPEARS IN RIGHT OF PHOTO. THE REMOTE ANALYTICAL FACILITY (CPP-627) WAS LOCATED ON CONCRETE PAD IN FOREGROUND. INL PHOTO NUMBER HD-54-33-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 7/2006 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Agricultural landscapes dynamic at the North-West of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzel, N.

    2012-04-01

    The process of reduction of agrolandscapes has taken place some decades in the North-Western European Russia. During 100 last years the area of agricultural lands have reduced in 1,4 times on the Karelian Isthmus. The most part of it had been abandoned after change of State border after of the Second World War. The processes of overgrowing of the former agricultural lands are studied on the landscapes base. The types of landscapes are distinguished on the based of the morphological relief symptoms, characteristics of the structure rock and the humid regime. Agricultural lands occupy landscapes such as kames, sandy, sandy-loam, clayey plains, sometimes with excess moistening, sandy fluvioglacial plains, loamy morainic plains, mesotrophic and evtrophic peat-bogs. Four stages can be revealed. I - (period to 20 years after termination of agricultural use) - grass-herb meadow with unclosed brush II - (20 - 40) - shrub layer with closed or low-closed canopy and unclosed or low closed small-leaved regrowth III - (40 - 80) - closed small-leaved forest, sometime including the coniferous trees IY - predomination of the coniferous on small-leaved trees Reestablish vegetation successions can be realised by different ways, with different rate, including various trees and ecological groups of species in different landscapes. In the different sites many traits in common are discovered during this processes. The processes taking place in soil of abandoned agricultural lands are expressed more poorly than in vegetation as soil is more "conservative" element of landscape. Now most area occupies former agricultural lands, inhering on III stage and presenting itself small-leaved forest. Over the last decade because of a change in the socio-political situation there has emerged a tendency towards an increase in the area of the cultivated land in the Karelian Isthmus including the secondary development of previously abandoned lands. However, this process is going on spontaneously; there

  18. Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, North-West Nigeria: Hospital-Based Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ugwa, EA

    2015-01-01

    Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) remains a common problem worldwide and the role of douching as a predisposing factor is unclear. Aim: This study was undertaken to highlight the prevalence and predisposing factors of VVC in North-west Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: This was a prospective study done at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), North-west. AKTH is a 500-bed tertiary hospital located in Kano, the most populous state in Nigeria. Ethical clearance was obtained. Three hundred patients with VVC were recruited from the gynecologic and general outpatients’ clinics of AKTH. Research structured questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic and clinical information. The data obtained were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Frequency, mean and simple percentages were used to analyze data. Result: Candida albicans was the most frequent cause of the positive high vaginal swabs constituting 84.5% (316/374) while Proteus vulgaris was the least frequent cause constituting 0.53% (2/374). Fifty-three percent (143/270) of those with VVC were aged 26–35 years; the married were 80% (216/270) and those who were unmarried were 20% (54/270). Douching was the commonest predisposing factor occurring in 42.5% (115/270) of cases. Conclusion: VVC was the most prevalent cause of vaginosis in North-west Nigeria, and douching was the commonest predisposing factor. PMID:26229716

  19. Aerobiology of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in north-west Croatia.

    PubMed

    Hrga, Ivana; Mitić, Bozena; Alegro, Antun; Dragojlović, Dragoslav; Stjepanović, Barbara; Puntarić, Dinko

    2010-06-01

    The aims of the study were to analyse characteristics of the Castanea airborne pollen and to compare aeropalynological data obtained from two sampling stations in north-west Croatia. The study was conducted in Zagreb and Samobor during the 2003-2006 periods, using the seven-day volumetric samplers of the Hirst design. In both study areas, the seasons of chestnut pollination were similar and lasted from June to the end of July, which is comparable to other European cities. A general rule was noticed--the shorter the main pollen season, the higher the pollen peak concentration. Although the pollen season of Fagales pollen is prolonged to summer in the area of inland west-north Croatia due to the genus Castanea summer pollination, the number of days with pollen air concentration higher than 50 per m3 was low and was not likely to have any major effects in allergic individuals. Airborne pollen concentration of Castanea showed positive statistically significant correlation with air temperature and negative non-significant correlation with precipitation. Because of the non-significant differences between the two stations, for a possible long-term forecast model for Fagales airborne pollen for this part of north-west Croatia, aerobiological data obtained from only one station are sufficient.

  20. Development of a regional model for the North Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaman, Hasibur; Ravichandran, M.; Sengupta, Debasis; Harrison, Matthew J.; Griffies, Stephen M.

    2014-03-01

    We have developed a one-way nested Indian Ocean regional model. The model combines the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory's (GFDL) Modular Ocean Model (MOM4p1) at global climate model resolution (nominally one degree), and a regional Indian Ocean MOM4p1 configuration with 25 km horizontal resolution and 1 m vertical resolution near the surface. Inter-annual global simulations with Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II) surface forcing over years 1992-2005 provide surface boundary conditions. We show that relative to the global simulation, (i) biases in upper ocean temperature, salinity and mixed layer depth are reduced, (ii) sea surface height and upper ocean circulation are closer to observations, and (iii) improvements in model simulation can be attributed to refined resolution, more realistic topography and inclusion of seasonal river runoff. Notably, the surface salinity bias is reduced to less than 0.1 psu over the Bay of Bengal using relatively weak restoring to observations, and the model simulates the strong, shallow halocline often observed in the North Bay of Bengal. There is marked improvement in subsurface salinity and temperature, as well as mixed layer depth in the Bay of Bengal. Major seasonal signatures in observed sea surface height anomaly in the tropical Indian Ocean, including the coastal waveguide around the Indian peninsula, are simulated with great fidelity. The use of realistic topography and seasonal river runoff brings the three dimensional structure of the East India Coastal Current and West India Coastal Current much closer to observations. As a result, the incursion of low salinity Bay of Bengal water into the south-eastern Arabian Sea is more realistic.

  1. Health professionals' experiences of tuberculosis cohort audit in the North West of England: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Selina K; Jehan, Kate; Woodhead, Mark; Cleary, Paul; Dee, Katie; Farrow, Stacey; McMaster, Paddy; Wake, Carolyn; Walker, Jenny; Sloan, D J; Squire, S B

    2016-03-16

    Tuberculosis cohort audit (TBCA) was introduced across the North West (NW) of England in 2012 as an ongoing, multidisciplinary, systematic case review process, designed to improve clinical and public health practice. TBCA has not previously been introduced across such a large and socioeconomically diverse area in England, nor has it undergone formal, qualitative evaluation. This study explored health professionals' experiences of the process after 1515 cases had been reviewed. Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Respondents were purposively sampled from 3 groups involved in the NW TBCA: (1) TB nurse specialists, (2) consultant physicians and (3) public health practitioners. Data from the 26 respondents were triangulated with further interviews with key informants from the TBCA Steering Group and through observation of TBCA meetings. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Participants described the evolution of a valuable 'community of practice' where interprofessional exchange of experience and ideas has led to enhanced mutual respect between different roles and a shared sense of purpose. This multidisciplinary, regional approach to TB cohort audit has promoted local and regional team working, exchange of good practices and local initiatives to improve care. There is strong ownership of the process from public health professionals, nurses and clinicians; all groups want it to continue. TBCA is regarded as a tool for quality improvement that improves patient safety. TBCA provides peer support and learning for management of a relatively rare, but important infectious disease through discussion in a no-blame atmosphere. It is seen as an effective quality improvement strategy which enhances TB care, control and patient safety. Continuing success will require increased engagement of consultant physicians and public health practitioners, a secure and ongoing funding stream and establishment of clear reporting

  2. Health professionals’ experiences of tuberculosis cohort audit in the North West of England: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Kate; Woodhead, Mark; Cleary, Paul; Dee, Katie; Farrow, Stacey; McMaster, Paddy; Wake, Carolyn; Walker, Jenny; Squire, S B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Tuberculosis cohort audit (TBCA) was introduced across the North West (NW) of England in 2012 as an ongoing, multidisciplinary, systematic case review process, designed to improve clinical and public health practice. TBCA has not previously been introduced across such a large and socioeconomically diverse area in England, nor has it undergone formal, qualitative evaluation. This study explored health professionals’ experiences of the process after 1515 cases had been reviewed. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Respondents were purposively sampled from 3 groups involved in the NW TBCA: (1) TB nurse specialists, (2) consultant physicians and (3) public health practitioners. Data from the 26 respondents were triangulated with further interviews with key informants from the TBCA Steering Group and through observation of TBCA meetings. Analysis Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using the framework approach. Results Participants described the evolution of a valuable ‘community of practice’ where interprofessional exchange of experience and ideas has led to enhanced mutual respect between different roles and a shared sense of purpose. This multidisciplinary, regional approach to TB cohort audit has promoted local and regional team working, exchange of good practices and local initiatives to improve care. There is strong ownership of the process from public health professionals, nurses and clinicians; all groups want it to continue. TBCA is regarded as a tool for quality improvement that improves patient safety. Conclusions TBCA provides peer support and learning for management of a relatively rare, but important infectious disease through discussion in a no-blame atmosphere. It is seen as an effective quality improvement strategy which enhances TB care, control and patient safety. Continuing success will require increased engagement of consultant physicians and public health practitioners, a secure and ongoing

  3. Young People's Participation in Extracurricular Physical Education: A Study of 15-16 Year Olds in North-West England and North-East Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andy; Thurston, Miranda; Green, Ken; Lamb, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the levels and forms of participation in extracurricular physical education (PE) of a cohort of 1010 15-16 year olds attending seven state schools in north-west England and north-east Wales. The data reveal that extracurricular PE provision in all schools retained a particular focus on competitive team sports alongside a number…

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  5. Regional Model Nesting Within GFS Daily Forecasts Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Worrell, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    The study uses the RM3, the regional climate model at the Center for Climate Systems Research of Columbia University and the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (CCSR/GISS). The paper evaluates 30 48-hour RM3 weather forecasts over West Africa during September 2006 made on a 0.5 grid nested within 1 Global Forecast System (GFS) global forecasts. September 2006 was the Special Observing Period #3 of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). Archived GFS initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions for the simulations from the US National Weather Service, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration were interpolated four times daily. Results for precipitation forecasts are validated against Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite estimates and data from the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS), which includes rain gauge measurements, and forecasts of circulation are compared to reanalysis 2. Performance statistics for the precipitation forecasts include bias, root-mean-square errors and spatial correlation coefficients. The nested regional model forecasts are compared to GFS forecasts to gauge whether nesting provides additional realistic information. They are also compared to RM3 simulations driven by reanalysis 2, representing high potential skill forecasts, to gauge the sensitivity of results to lateral boundary conditions. Nested RM3/GFS forecasts generate excessive moisture advection toward West Africa, which in turn causes prodigious amounts of model precipitation. This problem is corrected by empirical adjustments in the preparation of lateral boundary conditions and initial conditions. The resulting modified simulations improve on the GFS precipitation forecasts, achieving time-space correlations with TRMM of 0.77 on the first day and 0.63 on the second day. One realtime RM3/GFS precipitation forecast made at and posted by the African Centre of Meteorological Application for Development (ACMAD) in Niamey, Niger

  6. A Regional Model Study of Synoptic Features Over West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Saloum, Mahaman; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Synoptic weather features over West Africa were studied in simulations by the regional simulation model (RM) at the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies. These pioneering simulations represent the beginning of an effort to adapt regional models for weather and climate prediction over West Africa. The RM uses a cartesian grid with 50 km horizontal resolution and fifteen vertical levels. An ensemble of four simulations was forced with lateral boundary conditions from ECMWF global analyses for the period 8-22 August 1988. The simulated mid-tropospheric circulation includes the skillful development and movement of several African wave disturbances. Wavelet analysis of mid-tropospheric winds detected a dominant periodicity of about 4 days and a secondary periodicity of 5-8 days. Spatial distributions of RM precipitation and precipitation time series were validated against daily rain gauge measurements and ISCCP satellite infrared cloud imagery. The time-space distribution of simulated precipitation was made more realistic by combining the ECMWR initial conditions with a 24-hr spin-up of the moisture field and also by damping high frequency gravity waves by dynamic initialization. Model precipitation "forecasts" over the Central Sahel were correlated with observations for about three days, but reinitializing with observed data on day 5 resulted in a dramatic improvement in the precipitation validation over the remaining 9 days. Results imply that information via the lateral boundary conditions is not always sufficient to minimize departures between simulated and actual precipitation patterns for more than several days. In addition, there was some evidence that the new initialization may increase the simulations' sensitivity to the quality of lateral boundary conditions.

  7. West margin of North America - A synthesis of recent seismic transects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    A comparison of the deep structure along nine recent transects of the west margin of North America shows many important similarities and differences. Common tectonic elements identified in the deep structure along these transects include actively subducting oceanic crust, accreted oceanic/arc (or oceanic-like) lithosphere of Mesozoic through Cenozoic ages. Cenozoic accretionary prisms, Mesozoic accretionary prisms, backstops to the Mesozoic prisms, and undivided lower crust. Not all of these elements are present along all transects. In this study, nine transects, including four crossing subduction zones and five crossing transform faults, are plotted at the same scale and vertical exaggeration (V.E. 1:1), using the above scheme for identifying tectonic elements. The four subduction-zone transects contain actively subducting oceanic crust. Cenozoic accretionary prisms, and bodies of basaltic rocks accreted in the Cenozoic, including remnants of a large, oceanic plateau in the Oregon and Vancouver Island transects. Rocks of age and composition (Eocene basalt) similar to the oceanic plateau are currently subducting in southern Alaska, where they are doubled up on top of Pacific oceanic crust and have apparently created a giant asperity, or impediment to subduction. Most of the subduction-zone transects also contain Mesozoic accretionary prisms, and two of them, Vancouver Island and Alaska, also contain thick, technically underplated bodies of late Mesozoic/early Cenozoic oceanic lithosphere, interpreted as fragments of the extinct Kula plate. In the upper crust, most of the five transform-fault transects (all in California) reflect: (1) tectonic wedging of a Mesozoic accretionary prism into a backstop, which includes Mesozoic/early Cenozoic forearc rocks and Mesozoic ophiolitic/arc basement rocks: and (2) shuffling of the subduction margin of California by strike-slip faulting. In the lower crust, they may reflect migration of the Mendocino triple junction northward

  8. Crustal structure of the West Greenland margin in North Baffin Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damm, V.; Block, M.; Berglar, K.; Ehrhardt, A.; Heyde, I.; Schnabel, M.; Schreckenberger, B.; Altenbernd, T.; Suckro, S.

    2012-04-01

    The tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Baffin Bay is interpreted to be closely associated with mantle dynamics and plume activity. The initial opening of the Baffin Bay coincides with the volcanic activity along the West Greenland margin between 60.7 and 59.4 Ma (Storey at al., 1998), attributed to the arrival of the Iceland plume beneath Greenland (Lawver and Müller, 1994, Larsen and Saunders, 1998). Rifting in the Baffin Bay is linked to oceanic spreading in the Labrador Sea, but there is no consensus about the nature of the underlying crust in central Baffin Bay. The geodynamic evolution of the Baffin Bay and plate tectonic reconstructions for Greenland relative to North America are still a matter of debate though they are of special importance in the circum-Arctic geodynamic framework. Due to lack of data the plate boundary between the North American plate and the Greenland plate is not well defined and the nature of the continent-ocean transition zone is widely unknown. Evidence indicating that the deep sea area of the Baffin Bay crust is oceanic has been provided by Keen and Barrett (1972) based on seismic refraction data. However, Reid and Jackson (1997) did not find evidence for layered oceanic crust and interpreted the deep part of Baffin Bay as serpentinized mantle material. They suggest that rifting was amagmatic and separation of passive continental margins was comparable to ultra-slow spreading ridges. Linear magnetic anomaly patterns in this region were not clearly identified. The position of the extinct spreading axis was defined by a northwest-trending linear gravity anomaly of central Baffin Bay (Chalmers and Pulvertaft, 2001). Spreading in the Baffin Bay took obviously place in Paleocene and Eocene times in two phases which may be distinguished by a reorientation of the directions of plate motion for Greenland starting about 55 Ma ago (Chalmers and Pulvertaft, 2001). It is not fully explained how a postulated major transform fault

  9. Interlending and document supply trends in NHS North West health libraries 2003/2004 to 2006/2007.

    PubMed

    Glover, Steven William; Addison, John; Gleghorn, Colette; Aalai, Elham; Annis, Shan

    2009-03-01

    The Library and Information for Health Network North West (LIHNN) represents health libraries in Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Isle of Man, Lancashire, Merseyside and Wirral. LIHNN members take part in a regional co-operative network supporting interlending and document supply. Data were analysed over a 4-year period to identify trends and patterns. In addition, a literature review was conducted to compare trends seen in NHS libraries to those trends seen in other sectors and in other countries. RESULTS/TRENDS: Between 2003/2004 and 2006/2007 there was a significant drop in document supply activity reported by NHS North West libraries from 59 321 to 37 134 copies, representing a fall of 37.4%. During the same period, lending between libraries stayed constant. The NHS supplies a significant number of documents to its users and it is investigating a number of options to increase efficiencies. The observed fall in document supply activity has been reported in several sectors and has been attributed to a number of cofactors. Although the fall in document supply activity is expected to continue, a critical mass of information is likely to remain behind subscription barriers and this, in turn, will necessitate supply from external sources.

  10. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-11

    Mexicano de Asuntos Internacionales. The Task Force describes and prescribes solutions for policy gaps that have emerged since the inception of NAFTA...prevent competing coalitions from forming, it may be prudent to build a coalition in our own back yard, so to speak , through a strategy of North...likely to have conflict over natural resources in the future since they generally follow the rule of law, so to speak , that provides a mechanism to

  11. Surgical morbidity in the North Coast Health Region.

    PubMed

    Brand, N; Clarke, Q; Eather, L; Garbutt, M; Leedow, M; Perry, J; Spencer, O; Spillane, P

    1994-06-01

    A comparison of morbidity following 20 selected surgical procedures was conducted in the North Coast Health Region of NSW in 1988. Morbidity rates between procedures, hospitals and hospital levels were compared and the effects of age, gender and the American Society of Anesthesiologists rating on morbidity were examined. The respective perceptions of doctors and patients regarding complications were also compared. The study gives conditional support to the continuation of a surgical programme in Level 3 hospitals in the North Coast Health Region.

  12. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  13. Study of the North West Cape electron belts observed by DEMETER satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinqiao; Ma, Yuqian; Wang, Ping; Wang, Huanyu; Lu, Hong; Zhang, Xuemin; Huang, Jianping; Shi, Feng; Yu, Xiaoxia; Xu, Yanbing; Meng, Xiangcheng; Wang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Parrot, M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyzed observation data collected by the Instrument for the Detection of Particles (IDP) on board the DEMETER satellite during a period of 17 months in 2007 and 2008. In the meantime, the VLF transmitter located at North West Cape (NWC) ground station was shut down during 7 months and working for a total of 10 months. By an (on-off) method, our analysis for the first time revealed in detail the transient properties of the space electron precipitation belt which is induced by the man-made VLF wave emitted from NWC. We mapped the electron flux distribution and figured out the space regions that the NWC belt covered. The NWC electron spectrograms have been investigated in a wide range of the McIlwain parameter L (1.1-3.0). Furthermore, we obtained the averaged energy spectra of the NWC electrons within the drift loss cone and compared their characteristics during daytime and nighttime. Our results confirm the previous studies of the enhancement of NWC electrons, the wisp structure, and the day/night difference of the electron flux. In addition, more detailed information is provided. We provide not only evidence of a momentary flux enhancement up to 3 orders of magnitude but also a flux reduction at higher L shells with a maximum up to 60% of the original value. For the first time, the energy spectra of NWC electrons covering the entire IDP energy band are presented for both nighttime and daytime and are quantitatively compared. At the end, our results are discussed, and their agreement with the theory of wave-particle interactions is checked.

  14. Near-inertial ocean response to tropical cyclone forcing on the Australian North-West Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayson, M. D.; Ivey, G. N.; Jones, N. L.; Lowe, R. J.; Wake, G. W.; McConochie, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied to the Australian North-West Shelf (NWS) to hindcast the ocean response to four intense historical tropical cyclones (TCs). While the four cyclones had very different trajectories across the NWS, all passed within 150 km of a long-term vertical mooring located on the continental shelf in 125 m depth. The observed ocean response at this relatively shallow, Southern Hemisphere shelf site was characterized by the development of a peak in the counter-clockwise (CCW) near-inertial kinetic energy, mixed layer deepening, and subsequent restratification. Strong near-inertial isotherm oscillations were also observed following two of the cyclones. ROMS reproduced these features and also showed that the peak in the near-inertial CCW kinetic energy was observed on the left side of each cyclone trajectory. The time rate of change of near-inertial kinetic energy depended strongly on the storm Rossby number, i.e., defined based on the storm speed, the storm length scale, and the Coriolis frequency. The shallow water depth on the NWS resulted in first, a more rapid decay of near-inertial oscillations than in the deep ocean, and second a generation efficiency (the ratio of near-inertial power to the rate of wind work) of up to 10%, smaller than found for cyclones propagating across deeper water. The total energy put into near-inertial motions is nevertheless large compared to the background tidal energy. The rapid decay of near-inertial motions emphasizes the importance of frictional effects in characterizing the response to cyclone forcing in shallow seas.

  15. Predictors of depression among patients on art in a rural health district in North West Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Asangbeh, Serra Lem; Sobngwi, Joëlle Laure; Ekali, Gabriel Loni; Eyoum, Christian; Msellati, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Depression in people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) (PLWHA) increases risky HIV transmission behaviour, disease progression to AIDS, negatively affects drug adherence and is thus a risk for the development of drug-resistant strains. This study sought to identify predictors of depression in rural Cameroon. A cross-sectional analytic study was carried out from September 2013 to November 2013 in the Mbengwi district hospital of the North West region. We measured depression (PHQ-9 (nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire)), clinical and demographic characteristics of patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Means, proportions and a stepwise logistic regression model were fit to describe participants' characteristics and predictors of depression in the study population. Of the 202 recruited patients, 58(28.7%) had a positive depression screen. Independent predictors of depression included monthly income less than 20,000 FCFA (US$40), (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.47; 95% CI = 1.18-5.18), CD4 count <200 cls/µl (aOR = 7.56; 95% CI = 2.46-23.30) and presence of AIDS symptoms (aOR = 4.29; 95% CI = 2.09-8.81). There was no significant correlation between duration on ART, marital status, age, gender and depression. Early diagnosis and treatment of depressed patients need to be incorporated into intervention programmes, which might improve patient outcomes. More research is needed to investigate the impact of antidepressant therapy in PLWHA on the evolution of treatment.

  16. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Gebregziabiher, Berhane; Assefa, Abraham; Lakew, Wubishet; Belew, Zewdu; Hailu, Asrat; Boelaert, Marleen; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in north-west Ethiopia is causing an overwhelming case load among adult migrant workers that masked the disease burden in children. This study describes the clinical profile and explores comorbidities in paediatric VL patients. A prospective study at two hospitals in this region (Gondar and Humera) was conducted in a year period, 2011-2012. The clinical manifestations and comorbidities such as malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection were assessed, and treatment outcomes noted. A total of 122 children with VL were detected during the study period with median age of 8.5 years (IQR 5-12 years); 23% were under 5 years. Eighty-five (69.7%) cases were male. The clinical manifestations were similar to the adult patients. High rates of malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis (47.5%) and hypovitaminosis D (56.4%) were detected. The proportion of stunting and wasting was 63% and 22.2% in children aged under five years, and 50.5% and 75.9% in 5-year and older children, respectively, using WHO standard growth curves. Only one child had HIV infection. In 95% of the cases, sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) was used for treatment. The treatment success rate at end of therapy was 98.3%, but the definitive outcome at 6 months could not be determined because of a high loss to follow-up (80.2%). While HIV co-infection was rare, malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency were frequent indicating the need for further research on their role in the pathophysiology. Meanwhile, systematic assessment and management of malnutrition and intestinal parasitosis in VL programmes is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Genetic structure and admixture in urban populations of the Argentine North-West.

    PubMed

    Alfaro, E L; Dipierri, J E; Gutiérrez, N I; Vullo, C M

    2005-01-01

    From the ethnic point of view, the Argentine North-West (ANW) constitutes one of the most noticeable areas in the country due to the cultural peculiarities that integrate it to the Andean world and the ethno-historical and demographic characteristics of how it became populated. The study analysed the genetic structure and diversity of the ANW urban populations, and the contribution of parental populations to its genetic pool. Previously reported data on allele frequencies of HLA-A and HLA-B loci of 1293 individuals from Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca and La Rioja were used. Our estimates include: (a) genetic intra-population diversity; (b) genetic distances between populations; (c) linkage disequilibrium (LD); (d) admixture rates and genetic distances with respect to three parental populations (European, American Indian and African). Low intra-population genetic differentiation and low genetic distances between populations were found. Differential LD distribution varied according to province, with 60% variance due to intra-population differences. The Spanish contribution (50%) predominated in ANW, followed by the American Indian (40%) and African (10%) contributions, and a marked inter-population heterogeneity of genetic admixture rates was observed. The shortest genetic distance was found in the American Indian parental population, and the longest in the African parental population. Five hundred years after the Spanish conquest, urban populations at ANW that have probably been subject to the same evolutionary forces present low genetic diversity and a similar genetic structure. Genetic distances and admixture percentages observed agree with census and ethno-historical data on settlement in the region.

  18. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in Jujuy, north-west Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marin, Oscar; Hasui, Kazuhisa; Remondegui, Carlos; Sato, Eiichi; Aye, Moe Moe; Takenouchi, Norihiro; Izumo, Shuji; Tajima, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is prevalent in native Americans living in the Andes. Some of their malignant lymphomas (ML) show a peculiar histology suggestive of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). To determine whether ML resembling ATLL are indeed ATLL, re-analysis of 34 cases occurring in Jujuy, a province of Argentina, was conducted, concentrating on immunological phenotype, integration of HTLV-1 proviral DNA, expression of HTLV-1 p40Tax and p27Rex, and infection of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The ML were 22 cases of mature peripheral T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasm (mT/NKN), 11 B-cell malignant neoplasms and one Hodgkin's lymphoma. Polymerase chain reaction against the HTLV-1 proviral DNA, using DNA extracted from paraffin sections, indicated integration of the HTLV-1 proviral DNA in three cases of eight mT/NKN. Two other cases of mT/NKN were positive for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies. Expression of p40Tax and p27Rex was detected in all five of these mT/NKN cases associated with HTLV-1. As such, these five mT/NKN were rediagnosed as ATLL. In situ hybridization signals for EBV-encoded small nuclear early region-1 were detected in nine cases of mT/NKN, of which five cases of NK-cell lymphoma were found to have cytoplasmic CD3 expression, a CD56 phenotype and positivity of TIA1. According to the new World Health Organization classification, the mT/NKN class includes five cases of ATLL and five cases of NK-cell lymphomas. The five cases of ATLL were of native American extraction from an HTLV-1-endemic area around Jujuy, north-west Argentina.

  19. Direct and indirect contacts between cattle farms in north-west England.

    PubMed

    Brennan, M L; Kemp, R; Christley, R M

    2008-05-15

    Little is known regarding the types and frequencies of contact that exist between farms and which of these may act as pathogen transmission routes; however it is likely that farms demonstrate considerable heterogeneity in such contacts. In this cross-sectional study, we explored the direct and indirect contact types and frequencies that exist between cattle farms within a region, focusing on potential routes of pathogen transmission. The owners/managers of 56 farms located in a 10 km by 10 km study area in north-west England were administered an interview-based questionnaire between June and September 2005. Information was obtained relating to contact types and frequencies, including those involving animal movements, equipment sharing between farms and any contractors or companies visiting the farms. The data was explored using hierarchical cluster analysis and network analysis. There was considerable variation between farms arising from different contact types. Some networks exhibited great connectivity, incorporating approximately 90% of the farms interviewed in a single component, whilst other networks were more fragmented, with multiple small components (sets of connected farms not linked with other farms). A range of factors influencing contact between farms were identified. For example, contiguous farms were more likely to be linked via other contacts, such as sharing of equipment and direct farm-to-farm animal movements (p<0.001 and p=0.02, respectively). The frequency of contacts was also investigated; it is likely that the amount of contact a farm receives from a company or contractor and whether or not biosecurity is performed after contact would impact on disease transmission potential. We found considerable heterogeneity in contact frequency and that many company and contractor personnel undertook little biosecurity. These findings lead to greater understanding of inter-farm contact and may aid development of appropriate biosecurity practices and

  20. Breastfeeding Practices in Infants in the West Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Chiabi, A; Kamga, BG; Mah, E; Bogne, JB; Nguefack, S; Fokam, P; Tafen, W; Tchokoteu, PF

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of breast-feeding in the West region of Cameroon. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in two health facilities on 195 mother-infant pairs, seen at the out patient and vaccination units of the Bafoussam Regional Hospital over a period of one month from 1st to 30th September 2008. The socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, knowledge on breastfeeding and the practice of breastfeeding were studied. Data was analyzed using the SPSS software. The chi square and student t- test were used for comparison and results considered significant for P< 0.05. Results: Breastfeeding was practised by 99.48% of the mothers. Only 33.8% of the mothers knew that they had to exclusively breastfeed up to 6 months, and 20% effectively breastfed up to 6 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 5.06 months and negatively correlated with the number of children and the profession of the mother. In 69.74% of the women, nothing was given to the baby before the first breastfeed. Discontinuation of breastfeeding was done averagely around 15.24 months and earlier in married women and in those with a higher educational level. Conclusion: Although the majority of parents practised breast feeding, only a minority understood its benefits, so more should be done to educate the community on the benefits of exclusive breast-feeding for up to six months. PMID:23113068