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Sample records for north xinjiang china

  1. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.

  2. Chlorantraniliprole susceptibility in Leptinotarsa decemlineata in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Hua; Lu, Wei-Ping; Guo, Wen-Chao; Xia, Zhen-Han; Fu, Wen-Jun; Li, Guo-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)) in the north Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region has evolved resistance to various types of insecticides. Chlorantraniliprole is a novel anthranilic diamide insecticide that binds and activates ryanodine receptors. It exhibited excellent efficacy against L. decemlineata in several field trails in Europe. In the present paper, the susceptibility of L. decemlineata fourth-instar larvae derived from six field populations and L. decemlineata adults derived from three field populations to chlorantraniliprole was determined by a topical application. The fourth-instar larvae were substantially more susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than adults, although the range of susceptibility was far greater among the fourth-instar larvae. Regarding stomach toxicities, adult beetles were less susceptible to chlorantraniliprole than larvae. Chlorantraniliprole was most toxic to second-instar larvae, followed by third- and fourth-instar larvae. These data suggested that the appropriate timing for chlorantraniliprole spraying is the early larval stage. Moreover, the synergistic activities of chlorantraniliprole in combination with triphenyl phosphate, diethyl maleate, or piperonyl butoxide against fourth-instar larvae from two field populations and adults from one field population were tested. Piperonyl butoxide had synergistic effects with chlorantraniliprole against fourth-instar larvae but not against adult beetles. Conversely, triphenyl phosphate and diethyl maleate exerted little synergistic effects. It appears that there is a potential risk of resistance against chlorantraniliprole resulting from cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. PMID:22606826

  3. Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rock studies of north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Xiao, Z.; Liang, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, C.

    1989-03-01

    Ongoing outcrop and accompanying pyrolysis studies of Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan retroarc foreland basins, northwestern China, have demonstrated the existence of potential oil-prone and gas-prone petroleum source rocks. Lithologies include Jurassic coals from all three basins and Triassic coals from Tarim. Jurassic coals collected from the Mesozoic depocenters of the Junggar and Tarim basins are oil prone, yielding S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values that range from 0.80 to 0.99 and average 0.96, hydrogen index (HI) values that range from 117.9 to 213.4 and average 150.8, and oxygen index (OI) values that range from 1.1 to 31.6 and average 7.67. In contrast, Triassic coals of Tarim and Jurassic coals of Turpan contain more conventional type III gas-prone kerogens and yield S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values ranging from 0.04 to 0.52 and averaging 0.22, HI values ranging from 3.2 to 130.2 with a mean of 33.6, and OI values ranging from 30.9 to 223.7 and averaging 115.9. Coals of all three basins are slightly immature to mature with respect to oil generation, as indicated by T/sub max/ values ranging from 425/degrees/ to 449/degrees/C (average = 343/degrees/C) and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64 (average = 0.57). Thus, given the widespread abundance and significant thicknesses of Mesozoic and especially Jurassic coals in all three basins, it is very likely that Mesozoic contributions to Xinjiang's oil and gas reserves are significant. This is particularly important in the north Tarim basin, where recent Chinese oil and gas discoveries have been made and the existence of significant pre-Mesozoic source beds remains unproven.

  4. Regional distribution of longevity population and chemical characteristics of natural water in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Lin; Luo, Kun-Li; Lin, Xiao-Xu; Gao, Xing; Ni, Run-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Bin; Tian, Xing-Lei

    2014-03-01

    Xinjiang Province, China is recognized for the longevity of its inhabitants. To study the temporal and spatial variation of longevity region and chemical characteristics of natural water of longevity region in Xinjiang, three population censuses on county-level and 51 natural water samples from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang were collected and analyzed. 103 natural water samples were collected from the public papers. Population statistics on county-level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC) in Southern Xinjiang was 7.4(year 1990), 4.9(year 2000) and 2.1 times (year 2010) more than that of Northern Xinjiang, respectively. And distribution of the longevity index (LI%), centenarity index (CI%) and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65 year-old subjects (UC) on county-level decreased from south to north. Natural water in Northern Xinjiang was mainly fresh soft water, and it was mainly fresh hard water and brackish hard water in Southern Xinjiang. Water quality of natural water in Northern Xinjiang was superior compare to that of Southern Xinjiang, while number of centenarians 65 year-old & over per 10,000 subjects in Northern Xinjiang were less than that of Southern Xinjiang before 2010. The research indicates that keeping on drinking water with high total hardness (TH) and Mg/Ca ratio might be good for the health.

  5. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  6. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess–paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  7. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  8. Maternal and paternal diversity in Xinjiang Kazakh population from China.

    PubMed

    Shan, W; Ren, Zh; Wu, W; Hao, H; Abulimiti, A; Chen, K; Zhang, F; Ma, Z; Zheng, X

    2014-11-01

    The ancient silk road of China passed through Xinjiang and facilitated gene exchanges from the East and the West which impacted on the genetic variation and structure of the nomadic Kazakh population residing there. In order to understand the nature of this genetic variation; 151 Xinjiang Kazakh samples were obtained from four main Kazakh groups and were analyzed using mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers. The Xinjiang Kazakh population is heterogeneous, showing the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with different origins. No genetic differentiation of mtDNA is observed among the four different regional Xinjiang Kazakh populations in Xinjiang by AMOVA and Networks. The genetic diversity of Y-STR loci is higher in Xinjiang Kazakhs (0.968 ± 0.014) than the Kazakhs from Kazakhstan (0.629 ± 0.071) and Russia (0.835 ± 0.020). East Eurasians make a more than 50% contribution to the maternal and paternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakhs. There is more gene flow from West Eurasian into the maternal lineages of Xinjiang Kazakh than to the Kazakhs from Russia and Kazakhstan. Moreover, mtDNA and Y-STR displayed high polymorphism in Xinjiang Kazakhs (the haplotype diversity and power of discrimination were 0.990 ± 0.003, 0.9137 for mtDNA HVS and 0.968 ± 0.014, 0.9489 for Y-STR system, respectively), suggesting they would be very useful and important markers for forensic analysis and population genetic studies.

  9. Comparison of Hybrid Classifiers for Crop Classification Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series: A Case Study for Major Crops in North Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pengyu; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A range of single classifiers have been proposed to classify crop types using time series vegetation indices, and hybrid classifiers are used to improve discriminatory power. Traditional fusion rules use the product of multi-single classifiers, but that strategy cannot integrate the classification output of machine learning classifiers. In this research, the performance of two hybrid strategies, multiple voting (M-voting) and probabilistic fusion (P-fusion), for crop classification using NDVI time series were tested with different training sample sizes at both pixel and object levels, and two representative counties in north Xinjiang were selected as study area. The single classifiers employed in this research included Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and See 5 (C 5.0). The results indicated that classification performance improved (increased the mean overall accuracy by 5%~10%, and reduced standard deviation of overall accuracy by around 1%) substantially with the training sample number, and when the training sample size was small (50 or 100 training samples), hybrid classifiers substantially outperformed single classifiers with higher mean overall accuracy (1%~2%). However, when abundant training samples (4,000) were employed, single classifiers could achieve good classification accuracy, and all classifiers obtained similar performances. Additionally, although object-based classification did not improve accuracy, it resulted in greater visual appeal, especially in study areas with a heterogeneous cropping pattern. PMID:26360597

  10. Comparison of Hybrid Classifiers for Crop Classification Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series: A Case Study for Major Crops in North Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Hao, Pengyu; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A range of single classifiers have been proposed to classify crop types using time series vegetation indices, and hybrid classifiers are used to improve discriminatory power. Traditional fusion rules use the product of multi-single classifiers, but that strategy cannot integrate the classification output of machine learning classifiers. In this research, the performance of two hybrid strategies, multiple voting (M-voting) and probabilistic fusion (P-fusion), for crop classification using NDVI time series were tested with different training sample sizes at both pixel and object levels, and two representative counties in north Xinjiang were selected as study area. The single classifiers employed in this research included Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and See 5 (C 5.0). The results indicated that classification performance improved (increased the mean overall accuracy by 5%~10%, and reduced standard deviation of overall accuracy by around 1%) substantially with the training sample number, and when the training sample size was small (50 or 100 training samples), hybrid classifiers substantially outperformed single classifiers with higher mean overall accuracy (1%~2%). However, when abundant training samples (4,000) were employed, single classifiers could achieve good classification accuracy, and all classifiers obtained similar performances. Additionally, although object-based classification did not improve accuracy, it resulted in greater visual appeal, especially in study areas with a heterogeneous cropping pattern.

  11. Classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma and human herpesvirus 8 infection in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Dilnur, P; Katano, H; Wang, Z H; Osakabe, Y; Kudo, M; Sata, T; Ebihara, Y

    2001-11-01

    We report 17 cases of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang, which is located in the north-western area of China surrounded by Mongolia in the east, Russia in the north and Kazakhstan in the west. Fifteen of the patients were of the Uygur people. All patients were male and did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Most of the lesions were found in the lower and/or upper extremities, with 16 patients showing multiple lesions. Immunohistochemical examination of the lesions revealed that human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen was expressed in the nuclei of spindle-shaped tumor cells. HHV-8 DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in all seven cases examined. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that DNA sequences of the HHV-8-encoded K1 gene in the seven Kaposi's sarcoma cases were classified as subtype C that was common in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and East Asian countries. In addition, using immunofluorescence we investigated the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in 73 Uygur patients with diseases other than Kaposi's sarcoma. Surprisingly, the serological study revealed that 34 of the patients (46.6%) were positive for antibodies against HHV-8, suggesting that HHV-8 infection is widespread in Xinjiang area. The occurrence of the classic type of Kaposi's sarcoma with a high seropositivity rate implies that Xinjiang is the most endemic area for HHV-8 infection in the world known to date. Considering that Xinjiang is located at the middle point of the Silk Road that used to extend from Rome to China, these data imply that the virus may have been in circulation in this area due to the migration of the people via the Silk Road.

  12. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  13. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  14. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  15. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2016-05-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index (I A), Erinç's aridity index (I m), and Sahin's aridity index (I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  16. Response of sand-dust weather to climate change in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qing; Yang, Qing; Yuan, Chunqiong; Pan, Xiaoling; Li, Hongjun

    2004-01-01

    Using the observations from 8 weather stations in northern Xinjiang, eight weather stations in southern Xinjiang and 8 weather stations in Tianshan Mountains area, we analyzed changing features of sandstorm, floating dust, blowing-sand. The observations were collected from 1961-2000 in Xinjiang, China. The results show that southern Xinjiang was the area where sandstorm and blowing-sand occurred more often, and the occurrence was 3-5 times higher than those in northern Xinjiang. Days of floating-dust appearing in southern Xinjiang were 50 times more than those in northern Xinjiang; in Tianshan Mountains area sand-dust weather appeared less. In the last 40 years, the long-term change trend of these sand-dust weather in southern Xinjiang was similar to those in northern Xinjiang, that had been obviously decreasing since the 1990"s the total days of sand-dust weather in southern Xinjiang in spring had a linear relationship with air temperature and precipitation of the same period, respectively.

  17. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  18. Geochemistry and petrology of nephrite from Alamas, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan; Deng, Jun; Shi, Guanghai; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Zhang, Guibin; Abuduwayiti, Maituohuti; Yang, Liqiang; Sun, Xiang

    2011-08-01

    The Hetian nephrite deposit is one of the largest nephrite deposits worldwide. Located within the Hetian deposit, Xinjiang, Northwest China, the Alamas ore body occurs as veins on the contact between the Late Variscan granodiorite and Precambrian dolomitic marble. Petrographic studies and electronic microprobe analyses reveal two possible nephrite formation processes: (1) dolomitic marble → tremolite and (2) dolomitic marble → diopside → tremolite. Nephrite veins show continuous coloration zones, ranging from white and white-green zones to a green zone towards the granodiorite, with increasing concentrations of Cr, FeO and TFe 2O 3. All these nephrite samples have quite low Cr and Ni contents (8.95-178.7 ppm and 0.05-3.95 ppm, respectively) relative to serpentinite-related nephrite (Cr 2O 3, 0.07-0.43 wt.%; NiO, 0.08-0.36 wt.%). Their bulk-rock REE patterns exhibit strong negative Eu anomalies (0.03-0.21) with declined LREE, flat HREE and low ΣREE concentration (2.84-84.81 ppm), similar to those of host dolomitic marble samples with negative Eu anomalies (0.15-0.23), declined LREE, flat HREE and lower ΣREE concentration (8.48-11.1 ppm), indicating a close genetic relationship between them. Homogenization temperatures analyses on the fluid inclusions in tremolite yield a minimum temperature 293 °C for the nephrite formation. Nephrites have oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the range from +3.2 to +6.2 per mil and -83.0 to -94.7 per mil, respectively. The corresponding equilibrated fluids have isotope compositions of δ 18O = +3.1 to +6.1 (293 °C). Combined with field observation, there are at least three possible fluid sources: meteoric water, magmatic water and CO 2 derived from decarbonation of dolomite, and a metasomatic and dolomite-related origin is suggested for the Alamas ore body in the Hetian nephrite deposit, Xinjiang, NW China.

  19. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  20. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xin; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0. PMID:25254259

  1. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)). PMID:27260143

  2. Spatiotemporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Xin; Wang, Jiang-li; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0.

  3. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)).

  4. Socio-Demographic Predictors and Distribution of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang, China: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wubuli, Atikaimu; Xue, Feng; Jiang, Daobin; Yao, Xuemei; Upur, Halmurat; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Xinjiang is one of the high TB burden provinces of China. A spatial analysis was conducted using geographical information system (GIS) technology to improve the understanding of geographic variation of the pulmonary TB occurrence in Xinjiang, its predictors, and to search for targeted interventions. Methods Numbers of reported pulmonary TB cases were collected at county/district level from TB surveillance system database. Population data were extracted from Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook (2006~2014). Spatial autocorrelation (or dependency) was assessed using global Moran’s I statistic. Anselin’s local Moran’s I and local Getis-Ord statistics were used to detect local spatial clusters. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, spatial lag model (SLM) and geographically-weighted regression (GWR) models were used to explore the socio-demographic predictors of pulmonary TB incidence from global and local perspectives. SPSS17.0, ArcGIS10.2.2, and GeoDA software were used for data analysis. Results Incidence of sputum smear positive (SS+) TB and new SS+TB showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2013. Pulmonary TB incidence showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2010 and a rising trend since 2011 mainly caused by the rising trend of sputum smear negative (SS-) TB incidence (p<0.0001). Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the presence of positive spatial autocorrelation for pulmonary TB incidence, SS+TB incidence and SS-TB incidence from 2005 to 2013 (P <0.0001). The Anselin’s Local Moran’s I identified the “hotspots” which were consistently located in the southwest regions composed of 20 to 28 districts, and the “coldspots” which were consistently located in the north central regions consisting of 21 to 27 districts. Analysis with the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic expanded the scope of “hotspots” and “coldspots” with different intensity; 30 county/districts clustered as “hotspots”, while 47 county/districts clustered as

  5. Late paleozoic base and precious metal deposits, East Tianshan, Xinjiang, China: Characteristics and geodynamic setting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Wang, Y.; Hart, C.J.; Wang, Z.; Yang, J.

    2005-01-01

    The East Tianshan is a remote Gobi area located in eastern Xinjiang, northwestern China. In the past several years, a number of gold, porphyry copper, and Fe(-Cu) and Cu-Ag-Pb-Zn skarn deposits have been discovered there and are attracting exploration interest. The East Tianshan is located between the Junggar block to the north and early Paleozoic terranes of the Middle Tianshan to the south. It is part of a Hercynian orogen with three distinct E-W-trending tectonic belts: the Devonian-Early Carboniferous Tousuquan-Dananhu island arc on the north and the Carboniferous Aqishan - Yamansu rift basin to the south, which are separated by rocks of the Kanggurtag shear zone. The porphyry deposits, dated at 322 Ma, are related to the late evolutionary stages of a subduction-related oceanic or continental margin arc. In contrast, the skarn, gold, and magmatic Ni-Cu deposits are associated with post-collisional tectonics at ca. 290-270 Ma. These Late Carboniferous - Early Permian deposits are associated with large-scale emplacement and eruption of magmas possibly caused by lithosphere delamination and rifting within the East Tianshan.

  6. Forecast model analysis for the morbidity of tuberculosis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Li-Ping; Zhang, Xue-Liang; Wang, Kai; Zheng, Yu-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major global public health problem, which also affects economic and social development. China has the second largest burden of tuberculosis in the world. The tuberculosis morbidity in Xinjiang is much higher than the national situation; therefore, there is an urgent need for monitoring and predicting tuberculosis morbidity so as to make the control of tuberculosis more effective. Recently, the Box-Jenkins approach, specifically the autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model, is typically applied to predict the morbidity of infectious diseases; it can take into account changing trends, periodic changes, and random disturbances in time series. Autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARCH) models are the prevalent tools used to deal with time series heteroscedasticity. In this study, based on the data of the tuberculosis morbidity from January 2004 to June 2014 in Xinjiang, we establish the single ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12 model and the combined ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12-ARCH (1) model, which can be used to predict the tuberculosis morbidity successfully in Xinjiang. Comparative analyses show that the combined model is more effective. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to establish the ARIMA model and ARIMA-ARCH model for prediction and monitoring the monthly morbidity of tuberculosis in Xinjiang. Based on the results of this study, the ARIMA (1, 1, 2) (1, 1, 1)12-ARCH (1) model is suggested to give tuberculosis surveillance by providing estimates on tuberculosis morbidity trends in Xinjiang, China. PMID:25760345

  7. Modeling and Analyzing the Transmission Dynamics of HBV Epidemic in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tailei; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which affects livers. In this paper, we formulate a hepatitis B model to study the transmission dynamics of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. The epidemic model involves an exponential birth rate and vertical transmission. For a better understanding of HBV transmission dynamics, we analyze the dynamic behavior of the model. The modified reproductive number σ is obtained. When σ < 1, the disease-free equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable, when σ > 1, the disease-free equilibrium is unstable and the disease is uniformly persistent. In the simulation, parameters are chosen to fit public data in Xinjiang. The simulation indicates that the cumulated HBV infection number in Xinjiang will attain about 600,000 cases unless there are stronger or more effective control measures by the end of 2017. Sensitive analysis results show that enhancing the vaccination rate for newborns in Xinjiang is very effective to stop the transmission of HBV. Hence, we recommend that all infants in Xinjiang receive the hepatitis B vaccine as soon as possible after birth. PMID:26422614

  8. Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Wu, Nan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133(T) and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168(T) (96.5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133(T) had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133(T) (=KCTC 19987(T) =CCTCC AA 2010012(T)).

  9. A Dynamic Model of Human and Livestock Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Li, Aiqiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    We establish a dynamical model for tuberculosis of humans and cows. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number R0. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamical behaviors of the model. By epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis among humans and livestock from 2007 to 2014 in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, we estimate the parameters of the model and study the transmission trend of the disease in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The reproduction number in Urumqi for the model is estimated to be 0.1811 (95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.281). Finally, we perform some sensitivity analysis of several model parameters and give some useful comments on controlling the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:27525034

  10. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  11. Genetic relationships of introduced Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata populations in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jie; Yang, Juan; Li, Ying-Chao; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Run-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an infamous invasive species worldwide that aggressively attacks potato and other Solanaceae crops. CPB was first found in China in 1993 and has since spread across 2.77 × 10(5) km(2) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. To better understand genetic variation and migration patterns, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to elucidate the genetic relationships and gene flow among 10 CPB populations across Xinjiang. (i) Overall low levels of genetic diversity were detected on the entire population in Xinjiang but most of the diversity was retained among populations during invasion. (ii) The mean pairwise FST was low (0.071 ± 0.043) among populations. The genetic differentiation was little (pairwise FST 0.038 ± 0.016) between the five interior populations (Wusu, Urumqi, Jimsar, Qitai and Mulei) and Tacheng population. The six populations might come from the same genetic group via Bayesian clustering and were closely related on a neighbor-joining tree. Combining the history data, the five interior populations may have originated from Tacheng. (iii) Gene flow was frequent, especially among the five interior populations. Individuals from the interior populations could be assigned to Tacheng at higher probabilities (means 0.518 ± 0.127) than vice versa (means 0.328 ± 0.074), suggesting that the beetle population has spread from the border to the interior in Xinjiang. PMID:23955877

  12. Genetic relationships of introduced Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata populations in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Jie; Yang, Juan; Li, Ying-Chao; Liu, Ning; Zhang, Run-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    The Colorado potato beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an infamous invasive species worldwide that aggressively attacks potato and other Solanaceae crops. CPB was first found in China in 1993 and has since spread across 2.77 × 10(5) km(2) in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. To better understand genetic variation and migration patterns, we used seven polymorphic microsatellite loci to elucidate the genetic relationships and gene flow among 10 CPB populations across Xinjiang. (i) Overall low levels of genetic diversity were detected on the entire population in Xinjiang but most of the diversity was retained among populations during invasion. (ii) The mean pairwise FST was low (0.071 ± 0.043) among populations. The genetic differentiation was little (pairwise FST 0.038 ± 0.016) between the five interior populations (Wusu, Urumqi, Jimsar, Qitai and Mulei) and Tacheng population. The six populations might come from the same genetic group via Bayesian clustering and were closely related on a neighbor-joining tree. Combining the history data, the five interior populations may have originated from Tacheng. (iii) Gene flow was frequent, especially among the five interior populations. Individuals from the interior populations could be assigned to Tacheng at higher probabilities (means 0.518 ± 0.127) than vice versa (means 0.328 ± 0.074), suggesting that the beetle population has spread from the border to the interior in Xinjiang.

  13. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  14. Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov., a novel halophilic actinomycete isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Guan, Tong-Wei; Wu, Nan; Xia, Zhan-Feng; Ruan, Ji-Sheng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Li-Li

    2011-05-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 40133(T), was isolated from a hypersaline habitat of Tarim basin in Xinjiang Province, north-west China. Its taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic approach. Phylogenetic analysis based on an almost-complete 16S rRNA gene sequence of the strain showed that it formed a well-seperated sub-branch within the radiation of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The highest levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity was found between the strain TRM 40133(T) and Saccharopolyspora qijiaojingensis YIM 91168(T) (96.5%). The chemotaxonomic characteristics of the isolate are typical for the genus Saccharopolyspora. It contained meso-DAP as the diagnostic diamino acid. Whole cell hydrolysate contained arabinose, xylose, ribose and glucose. The diagnostic phospholipids were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and two unknown phospholipids. The main menaquinone was MK-9(H(6)) and MK-9(H(4)). No mycolic acid was detected. The predominant cellular fatty acids were iso-C(16:0) and anteiso-C(17:0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. In addition, the strain TRM 40133(T) had a phenotypic profile that readily distinguished it from the recognized representatives of the genus Saccharopolyspora. The strain TRM 40133(T) therefore represents a novel species of the genus Saccharopolyspora, for which the name Saccharopolyspora lacisalsi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TRM 40133(T) (=KCTC 19987(T) =CCTCC AA 2010012(T)). PMID:21461999

  15. Study on oasis soil heterogeneity in the watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe (Xinjiang, NW-China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhao-Peng; Bai, Xiang; Jin, Hai-Long; Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    The change of oasis stability is essential for the investigation of oases in arid areas. Physical and chemical soil properties are the important components of oasis stability. Given identical climatic conditions, spatial heterogeneity (generally characteristic for soil resources of arid regions) is the main aspect contributing to the formation of plant patterns, and, hence, has a strong influence on oasis stability. The watersheds of Bohe and Jinghe in Xinjiang (NW-China) are representative as far as processes of eco-environmental change in the Junggar basin are concerned. So far, frequent human activities have severely affected the local eco-environment and social development. For the first time, physical and chemical soil properties of this region are analyzed, which in¬clude pH and the contents of nutrients, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, rapidly-available-potassium and salt. We have found that soil fertility is not high and even lower than that 20 years ago. This is due to the existence of large soil particles, low soil organic matter, and high alkaline levels. Regular patterns of soil fertility, based on Kriging interpolation method, have been studied leading to the result, that the soil fertility in the south-east is higher than that in the north-west. Finally, we investigated the driving factors of soil heterogeneity by grey correlation analysis. While cultivation of land and chemical fertilizer wastage are the major human-driven factors, evaporation and disaster weather are the major natural factors. Among the variety of factors which affect soil heterogeneity, the human-driven factors dominate the natural factors. Our findings will be helpful for the return and reconstruction of the eco-environment of the Bohe and Jinghe watersheds.

  16. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years.

  17. Sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Zheng, X G; Adili, G Z; Wei, Y R; Ma, W G; Xue, X M; Mi, X Y; Yi, Z; Chen, S J; Du, W; Muhan, M; Duhaxi, C; Han, T; Gudai, B; Huang, J

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). While PPR mainly affects domestic goats and sheep, it also affects wild ungulates such as ibex, blue sheep, and gazelle, although there are few reports regarding PPRV infection in wild animals. Between January 2015 and February 2015, it was found for the first time that wild ibexes died from PPRV infection in Bazhou, Xinjiang, China, where a total of 38 ibexes (including young and adult ibexes) were found to have died abnormally from PPR-related issues. First, we tested for the presence of the F gene of PPRV by RT-PCR. Then, we compared the sequence of the isolated F gene from the ibex strain, termed PPRV Xinjiang/Ibex/2015, with those previously identified from small domestic ruminants from local areas near where the reported isolate was collected as well as those from other regions. The current sequence was phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus, and shared a high level of sequence identity (99.7%) with a previously described Xinjiang PPRV isolate. PMID:27323119

  18. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index (I m), Sahin's index (I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature (T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation (P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height (U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  19. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China. PMID:27448954

  20. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China.

  1. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  2. Isolation and identification of myxobacteria from saline-alkaline soils in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xianjiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zhuoping; Xie, Xiaolin; Zhu, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-eight terrestrial and salt-tolerant myxobacteria were isolated from the saline-alkaline soils collected from Xinjiang, China. Based on the morphologies and the 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates were assigned into 6 genera, Myxococcus, Cystobacter, Corallococcus, Sorangium, Nannocystis and Polyangium. All the strains grew better with 1% NaCl than without NaCl. Some Myxococcus strains were able to grow at 2% NaCl concentration, suggesting that these strains may be particular type of terrestrial myxobacteria. PMID:23936436

  3. Agronomic threshold of soil available phosphorus in grey desert soils in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, H.; Hao, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, J. S.; Li, J. M.; Ma, Y. B.

    2016-08-01

    Based on 23 years of data, yields of maize, wheat and cotton were modelled under different fertilizer management practices and at different levels of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) in soil. Three types of threshold models were used, namely linear-linear (LL), linear- plateau (LP), and Mitscherlich type exponential (Exp). The agronomic thresholds of available phosphorus were 25.4 mgkg-1 for cotton, 14.8 mgkg-1 for wheat, 13.1 mgkg-1 for maize and 25.4 mgkg-1 for the grey desert soil regions of Xinjiang in China as a whole.

  4. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  5. Sustainable Agricultural Paradigm Of mountain-Oasis-Ecotone-Desert System in Inland Manasi River Basin, Xinjiang Province, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiming; Chen, Weiming; Dong, Xiaobin; Zhang, Xinshi

    Manasi River basin is located in the north foot of Tianshan Mountain, south edge of Zhunger Basin, central-north Xinjiang province, with typical aridfeatures of northern China. As the pressure on water resources in Manasi river basin is mounting because of rapid economic development, its conservation becomes ever more important. Climate change is another major threat to the future of water resources of Manasi river basin. How the water resourcechanges in Manasi river basin caused by glacial ablation, will affect the typical mountain-basin terrestrial ecosystems and agricultural production in Manasi river basin? What can we cope with the ecological issues caused by glacial ablation? In this paper we show how the water-saving stratagem such asconstructing reservoir in the mountainous region, building water pipes and be used in combination with the potential of water-saving resources, and build up sustainable agricultural paradigm of mountain-oasis-ecotone-desert system to coping with the glacier retreat and ablation. The potential of water-saving instudy area were calculated which presumed that if mountainous reservoirs and water pipes were built and water-saving technology were adopted, optimized eco-productive paradigm for mountain-basin system in Manasi river basin is proposed in desertification controlling, constructing artificial grassland in the oasis is the measure to protect vegetation in the downstream desert in Manasi river basin, and stopping grazing or forbidding grazing in the downstream of serious degradation in Manasi river basin.

  6. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur.

  7. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur. PMID:27521159

  8. Prevalence of Congenital Heart Disease in Xinjiang Multi-Ethnic Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Chen, Bang-Dang; Huang, Ying; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong; Gao, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The prevalence and risk factors of congenital heart disease among Xinjiang, northwestern part of China is currently unknown. Methods This multiple-ethnic, community-based, cross-sectional study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution of congenital heart disease (CHD) in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Four major ethnics, Uygur, Han, Kazak, and Hui children in this region were investigated during February 2010 and May 2012. Results A total of 14,530 children (0–18 yr) were examined. Of these children, 240 (boys, 43.8%, and girls, 56.3%) were identified with CHD, giving an overall prevalence of 16.5‰ (17.7‰ in Uygur, 6.9‰ in Han, 11.4‰ in Kazak, and 38.1‰ in Hui Chinese, respectively). Ventricular septal defect (VSD, 29.2%), atrial septal defect (ASD, 20.8%), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA, 13.7%), acleistocardia (13.7%), Bicuspid aortic valve (7.9%), pulmonary valve stenosis (5.4%), and tetralogy of fallot (TOF, 4.2%) were common cyanotic and cyanotic defects observed. Compared to non-CHD children, children with CHD had a higher percentage of history of abortion, CHD history of family, consanguinity and premature birth (all P<0.05). In CHD children, 24% of mothers caught a cold, 10% had a febrile illness and 6.7% received antibiotic treatment during the first trimester of pregnancy, that were higher than non-CHD group (all P<0.05). Conclusion The overall prevalence of CHD in four ethnic children at ages 0–18 yr in Xinjiang was 16.5‰. VSD, ASD and TOF were the most common acyanotic and cyanotic congenital heart defects, respectively. This study also identified some modifiable risk factors that may contribute to the incidence of CHD among the 4 ethnic groups. PMID:26317413

  9. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  10. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

  11. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26733295

  12. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P < 0.05). The average positive rates of nasal swabs and lungs were 10.18 and 28.89 %, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic trees of 16S RNA gene, the isolates were closest to those strains isolated from inland areas of China, indicating that these epidemic isolates came from the trans-province introductions. Our survey suggests that quarantine is necessary for sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  13. Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Hai-Yan, Gong; Tun-Hai, Xu; Tian, Shuge

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. PMID:21120028

  14. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East.

  15. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years. PMID:24468441

  16. Epidemiology and phylogenetic analysis of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in xinjiang, china.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Dai, Xiang; Aishan, Muhetaer; Wang, Xinhui; Meng, Weiwei; Feng, Conghui; Zhang, Fuchun; Hang, Changshou; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Yujiang

    2009-08-01

    In 2004 and 2005, an epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was conducted in Xinjiang, China. A total of 5,629 serum samples of human and livestock were collected and tested for the CCHFV antibody, and 17,319 ticks were collected for viral identification. Reverse passive hemagglutination inhibition assays showed that the average prevalence of CCHFV antibody was 1.7% for the humans and 12.7% for the livestock. A relatively high antibody prevalence, ranging from 19.1% to 23.4%, was found in the livestock of the northwest, southwest, and northeast parts of the Tarim Basin. When the ticks were pooled to inoculate suckling mice, followed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) to detect CCHFV RNA, the average RT-PCR-positive rates for Hyalomma asiaticum kozlovi and H. asiaticum asiaticum were 12.9% and 2.6%, respectively. A significant correlation was found between the antibody prevalence in the livestock and the CCHFV prevalence in H. asiaticum of the same geographic region. No CCHFV RNA was detected in Dermacentor nivenus, Rhipicephalus turanius, or Rhipicephalus sanguineus. A total of 27 partial S segments of CCHFVs were sequenced and used for phylogeny analysis. All but one Chinese isolate grouped into the Asia 1 clade, which contains the strains from Xinjiang and Uzbekistan, while the other strain, Fub90009, grouped with strains from the Middle East. PMID:19553586

  17. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  18. Mapping Water Use Efficiency for the Xinjiang Province in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W.; Li, Q.; Dong, Q.; van Roey, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Tarim river basin, one of the basins integrated in the UNESCO - HELP Programme, is located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwestern China. It is one of the world's largest closed hydrological drainage systems, and has ideal soils for agriculture, if enough water is available. Farmers in the province produce one- sixth of China's total cotton production. Since the 1950's however, excessive land reclamation, over-grazing and increased utilization of water resources in the upper reaches of the basin intensified environmental degradation. This impacted on cattle stock reduction (by water shortage), withered poplars and vegetation, along the lower reaches of the basin. Riparian forest degraded with a reduction in its area of 200 000 ha in total. Higher water use combined with a gradual mean yearly temperature increase due to climate change caused serious hydrological problems in the basin. Since the 1970's a strong drying out of the lower region is elicited. This phenomenon degraded the basin's downstream ecosystems, with an expansion of desertification as a consequence. Quite conspicuously, the Tarim river has shortened by 320 km, onward the period mentioned above. In the lower region of the basin, the situation is very serious. It can in fact be described as an ecological disaster, with dying trees and vegetation, the drying out of rivers and as consequence a regression of the river fish population as well as increased salt deposits. In the ARCHIMOD bilateral project between Belgium and China, important objectives are the description of the phenomena cited above using hydraulic modelling for some sub-basins of the Tarim as well as the application of remote sensing to estimate evapotranspiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC) and water use efficiency (WUE) at the scale of the Xinjiang province. Te estimate WUE at this scale the carbon exchange model C-Fix was applied. Our paper focusses on the application of remote sensing to map WUE for the Xinjiang

  19. A camerate-rich late carboniferous (Moscovian) crinoid fauna from volcanic conglomerate, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, N.G.; Waters, J.A.; Maples, C.G.; Marcus, S.A.; Liao, Z.-T.

    1996-01-01

    A low-diversity camerate-rich crinoid fauna from the Qijiagou Formation, Taoshigo Valley near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uygar Autonomous Region, China was collected during field work in May, 1993. The crinoid fauna is dominated by species of Platycrinites. Other camerate crinoids include a species in the Paragaricocrinidae, Actinocrinites, a hexacrinitid, and an acrocrinoid. The only other non-North American occurrence of this latter family is Springeracrocrinus from the Moscovian of Russia. In addition to the camerates, there are several advanced cladid inadunates more typical of Upper Carboniferous crinoid faunas, including an erisocrinoid (possibly Sinocrinus), Graphiocrinus, ?Cromyocrinus, and an agassizocrinoid (Petschoracrinus) represented by partly fused infrabasal cones. A single radial plate with angustary facet may represent a cyathocrinoid, There also is a catillocrinoid, assigned here to Paracatillocrinus. The fauna, which resembles Moscovian crinoids described from Russia, is preserved in graded volcanic conglomeratic debris flows that overlie a carbonate mound and contain clasts up to 3 m in dimension. The crinoids are fragmentary, with many calyces seemingly torn into two or three pieces and dumped in with the pyroclastic debris. Camerates are represented by large thecal scraps consisting of numerous plates, or by large individual plates or circlets. Other fossils include rare solitary rugose corals, tabular bryozoans, Neospirifer, and other fragmentary brachiopods. We suspect that the crinoids may have been swept off of a nearby carbonate mound and deposited as debris-flow bedload.

  20. Understanding the complexity of temperature dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from multitemporal scale and spatial perspectives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Liu, Zuhan; Wei, Chunmeng; Tang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD), classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1) The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2) The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3) The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform.

  1. Buried in Sands: Environmental Analysis at the Archaeological Site of Xiaohe Cemetery, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Feng; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Hueber, Francis M.; Li, Wen-Ying; Hu, Xin-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhuo; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP) in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation. PMID:23894382

  2. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  3. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  4. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  5. A Novel Recombinant Enterovirus Type EV-A89 with Low Epidemic Strength in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qin; Zhang, Yong; Hu, Lan; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Sikandaner, Huerxidan; Tang, Haishu; Wang, Dongyan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhu, Shuangli; Xu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus A89 (EV-A89) is a novel member of the EV-A species. To date, only one full-length genome sequence (the prototype strain) has been published. Here, we report the molecular identification and genomic characterization of a Chinese EV-A89 strain, KSYPH-TRMH22F/XJ/CHN/2011, isolated in 2011 from a contact of an acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) patient during AFP case surveillance in Xinjiang China. This was the first report of EV-A89 in China. The VP1 coding sequence of this strain demonstrated 93.2% nucleotide and 99.3% amino acid identity with the EV-A89 prototype strain. In the P2 and P3 regions, the Chinese EV-A89 strain demonstrated markedly higher identity than the prototype strains of EV-A76, EV-A90, and EV-A91, indicating that one or more recombination events between EV-A89 and these EV-A types might have occurred. Long-term evolution of these EV types originated from the same ancestor provides the spatial and temporal circumstances for recombination to occur. An antibody sero-prevalence survey against EV-A89 in two Xinjiang prefectures demonstrated low positive rates and low titres of EV-A89 neutralization antibody, suggesting limited range of transmission and exposure to the population. This study provides a solid foundation for further studies on the biological and pathogenic properties of EV-A89. PMID:26685900

  6. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  7. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  8. Genetic structure and differention of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xumai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Linjing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guifang; Gu, Fengxue; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    RAPD technique was applied to study intraspecific genetic polymorphism and differentiation of Suaeda acuminata populations in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. By analysis of RAPD data, higher genetic variability was found in the populations of S. acuminata, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 98.9%. Both estimations by Shannon diversity index and by Nei's gene diversity index from RAPD data, it was found identically that about 72% of molecular variation existed within the subpopulations, while about 28% of which existed among subpopulations. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the populations of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analytical result between the soil factures and the genetic diversity indicted that there was a significant positive relation between genetic diversity and concentrations of Mg++, conductivity (CO) and absorbed water(W) in soil, while there was no significant relation between genetic distance among subpopulations and geographical distance. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis between the five subpopulations showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the population of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. No correlation existed between genetic distance among subpopulations and their locations in oasis-desert transitional zone. Adaptation to its habitats and restricted gene flow among subpopulations may be a cause of genetic differentiation of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang.

  9. Burden and Correlates of Geriatric Depression in the Uyghur Elderly Population, Observation from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Results Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18–13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35–1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42–2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92–3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09–4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. Conclusion High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang

  10. [Pathological Diagnoses and Whole-genome Sequence Analyses of the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sufang; Liang, Tian; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Dianqing; Si Junqiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Sheng, Jinliang

    2015-05-01

    To carry out pathologic diagnoses and whole-genome sequence analyses of the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Xinjiang, China, we first observed sheep suspected to have the JSRV. Then, the extracted virus suspension was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total RNAs from lungs of JSRV-infected sheep were extracted and reverse-transcribed using a cDNA synthesis kit. Six pairs of primers were designed according to the exogenous reference virus strain (AF105220). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out from JSRV-infected tissue, and the whole genome of the JSRV sequenced. Our results showed: flow of nasal fluid ("wheelbarrow test"); different sizes of adenoma lesions in the lungs; papillary hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells; alveolar cavity filled with macrophages; dissolute nuclei in central lesions. TEM revealed JSRV particles with a diameter of 88 nm to 125. 4 nm. The full-length of the viral genome sequence was 7456 bp. BLAST analyses showed nucleotide homology of 96% and 95% compared with that of the representative strain from the USA (AF105220) and UK (AF357971). Nucleotide homology was 89.8% and 89.9% compared with the endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, Inner Mongolia strain (DQ838493) and USA strain (EF680300). The specific pathogenic amino-acid sequence "YXXM" was found in the TM district, similar to the exogenous JSRV: this gene has been reported to be oncogenic. This is the first report of the complete genomic sequence of the exogenous JSRV from Xinjiang, and could lay the foundation for study of the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of the pulmonary adenomatosis virus in sheep. PMID:26470525

  11. Three new species of the genus Conophyma Zubovsky, 1898 (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Catantopidae, Conophyminae) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Long; Xu, Qiang; Zhang, Dao-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Three new species of the genus Conophyma Zobovsky, 1898 from Xinjiang, West China are described in this paper. The Conophyma xiai sp. nov. is similar to C. olive Huang, 2006, but differs from latter by: vertical diameter of eyes 1.7 times subocular furrow, minimum width of interspace of mesosternum 1.6 times length, hind tibia yellow and furculae smaller. The new species Conophyma nigrifemora sp. nov. is similar to C. xiai sp. nov., but differs from latter by: vertex of head longer, apex narrower; posterior margin of pronotum straight; minimum width 1.6 times its length in interspace of mesosternum; posterior margin of epiproct with curve projection in the middle; epiphallus almost straight on the lower margin, The new species Conophyma hejinensis sp. nov. is similar to C. rufitibia Li & Ti, 1995, but differs from latter by: anterior and posterior margin of pronotum excised in the middle, minimum width of interspace of mesosternum 1.2 times length, hind tibia yellow and posterior margin of epiproct straight, with acute projection in the middle. Type specimens are deposited in the Natural Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China. PMID:26624643

  12. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  13. Ethnic stratification in northwest China: occupational differences between Han Chinese and national minorities in Xinjiang, 1982-1990.

    PubMed

    Hannum, E; Xie, Y

    1998-08-01

    The debate on market reforms and social stratification in China has paid very little attention to China's ethnic minorities. We explored rising occupational stratification by ethnicity in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Analyses of census data from 1982 and 1990 pointed to educational disadvantages faced by ethinic minorities as the most plausible explanation for the change. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant increase in the effect of education on high-status occupational attainment but no change in the effect of ethnicity. Net of education, ethnic differences in high-status occupational attainment were negligible. In contrast, large ethnic differences in manufacturing and agricultural occupations persisted after education and geography were statistically controlled.

  14. Earthquake-ponded sediments as a high-resolution archive of Anthropocene climate change on the Fuyun Fault (Xinjiang, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Stephen; Gouramanis, Chris; Etchebes, Marie; Klinger, Yann; Gao, Mingxing; Switzer, Adam; Tapponnier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution, late-Holocene climate patterns in arid central Asia, in particular the behaviour of the Asian Monsoon and occurrences of precipitation events, are not yet fully understood. In particular, few high-resolution palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate studies are available from the Junggar-Altay region in the Xinjiang Province, northwestern China. This area is tectonically active and the last large earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred along the Fuyun strike-slip fault in 1931, resulting in ˜6m of right-lateral movement. South of the epicentre at Karaxingar, this earthquake resulted in the construction of large scarp-bounded ponds (46o43'N, 89o55'E) now filled with sediment. Sediment samples were collected every centimetre at a two-meter deep trench where the main pond was the deepest. The majority of the AMS 14C ages of charcoal and plant fibre samples are modern (56±34 to 171±34 yr BP) with the exception of a few much older carbon (842±26 to 2017±26 yr BP) at the base of the trench. The post-1931 age of the pond is validated by the 137Cs and 210Pb age-depth chronology. Each sediment sample was analysed for organic, carbonate and clastic contents and particle-size. This high-resolution analysis revealed eleven upward-fining sequences, with three prominent grain size peaks at depths of 1.7m, 0.95m and 0.6m below ground surface, suggesting three major modern precipitation events. The 11 grain-size peaks since 1931 in the pond coincide with 11 periods of increased precipitation measured in high-elevation tree-ring records ˜50 km north of the pond. Thus, low-altitude post-seismic sedimentary depocentres provide excellent high-resolution palaeoclimate archives that can fill a significant data gap where other proxy records are not available.

  15. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  16. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  17. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  18. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  19. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  20. [Study on RHCE genotyping of Rh blood group in Uygur nationality of Xinjiang in China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Hua; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Li; Zhou, Hua-You

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of RHCE genotyping of Xinjiang Uygur nationality population in China. Primers for detecting RHCE genes were designed according to the references, 89 Uygur nationality RhD-negative samples, 233 Han nationality RhD-negative samples and 109 Han nationality RhD-positive samples were detected by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) for RHCE genotyping. All above-mentioned samples were unrelated. The results indicated that RHE/e genotyping results were consistent with the serological test results in the samples of Uygur and Han nationality, regardless of the RhD-negative samples or the RhD-positive samples. The RHC/c genotyping results from 89 RhD-negative samples of Uygur nationality were consistent with serological test results. However, total error of RHC/c genotyping from 233 RhD-negative and 109 RhD-positive samples of Han nationality was 5.05%. In conclusion, this method of RHCE genotyping is suitable for the analysis of the RHE/e genotyping of Uygur nationality, no erroneous RHC/c genotyping of Uygur nationality was found in this study, but this method needs to be further studied.

  1. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  2. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  3. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  4. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  5. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  6. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  7. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  8. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  9. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. Methods: The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009–2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Results: Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Conclusions

  10. New observations of the early land plant Eocooksonia Doweld from the Pridoli (Upper Silurian) of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jinzhuang; Wang, Qi; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yi; Hao, Shougang

    2015-04-01

    As an early land plant previously reported from the Upper Silurian (Pridoli) of Xinjiang, Northwest China and Central Kazakhstan, the circumscription of Eocooksonia sphaerica (Senkevitsch) Doweld remains ill-defined because of the paucity of specimens and poor preservation in marine deposits. New specimens of this plant are described from the Pridoli-aged Wutubulake Formation of the Junggar Basin, Xinjiang. New observations and comparisons with the type material from Kazakhstan confirm the pseudomonopodial branching pattern, which forms an apparent main axis with lateral dichotomously branching systems. Our specimens demonstrate that the terminal sporangia of Eocooksonia Doweld consist of a central body and a border with four to eight elongate-triangular emergences, a character shown in the published illustrations of the type material but not mentioned in the original diagnosis. Eocooksonia may be close to Cooksonia Lang and Pertonella Fanning, Edwards et Richardson in affinities, particularly to the latter that has terminal discoidal sporangia with spiny emergences. It is deduced that the sporangial central body of Eocooksonia contains sporogenous tissues, which are covered by a distal surface wall with radiated emergences. One sporangium specimen of an unnamed plant is also described from the Wutubulake Formation of Xinjiang; it shows a central body with a wide border lacking emergences, and represents a taxon superficially similar to Eocooksonia.

  11. The moisture sources and transport for the northern Xinjiang of China during 1979 to 2013 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    From the perspective of the recycling precipitation, this work examines the moisture sources of the northern Xinjiang during the summer season through the regionally unbounded dynamic recycling model (DRM) with Lagrangian back-trajectory track method by using the ERA-interim reanalysis during 1979~2013. The 10-day moisture trajectories identify the majority humidity contributions to the precipitation of northern Xinjiang are from the upwind westerly water transport and the sources can be traced to the North Atlantic and Arctic region. Furthermore, the moist air evaporated from Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea provides a large of amount moisture through west to east moist transport belt to the northern Xinjiang. Although the westerly moisture transport is the main source for the precipitation of the study region, the strongest moisture transport belt starting from eastern margin of Tibet plateau and then swinging northward and along the southern Tianshan Moutian arriving the domain. Moreover, the moisture contribution from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and more easterly water streams cannot be ignored during the heavy rainfall events in the study region.

  12. Analysis on spatio-temporal trends and drivers in vegetation growth during recent decades in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaqiang; Shu, Jianmin; Yin, Junqi; Yuan, Xinjie; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Xiong, Shanshan; He, Ping; Liu, Weiling

    2015-06-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. In this study, a non-stationary 1982-2012 AVHRR NDVI3g time series, the newest dataset, were used to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation changes in Xinjiang province of China at regional, biome and pixel scales over progressively longer periods from 18 to 31 years, starting in 1982, and their linkages to climatic factors and human activities were analyzed. At regional scale, the increases were statistically significant for autumn NDVI during fourteen periods, for growing season and summer NDVI during the most periods, and for spring only during the first four periods. The rates of NDVI increase in growing season and all seasons significantly decreased over fourteen periods. At pixel scale, areas with significant browning rapidly increased over fourteen periods for growing season and all seasons, and these areas were mainly concentrated in northern desert of Xinjiang. Vegetation growth in Xinjiang was regulated by both moisture and thermal conditions: the response of NDVI in spring and autumn was more sensitive to thermal factors, such as temperature and potential evapotranspiration, and correlations between NDVI and precipitation and between NDVI and humidity index were stronger in summer and growing season. Extensive use of fertilizers and expanded farmland irrigated area increased vegetation growth for cropland. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation may reduce spring NDVI in the part of farmlands. Trend analysis during the multiple nested time series may contribute to a better and deep understanding of NDVI dynamic and foreseeing changes in the future. Accordingly, NDVI in Xinjiang will continuously increase at regional scale and the areas showing significant browning will also furthermore grow.

  13. Distribution and Determinants of Non Communicable Diseases among Elderly Uyghur Ethnic Group in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xihua; Hu, Zhi; Ma, Ying; Tang, Weiming; Ben, Yanli; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Wang, Faxing

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates. Results Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17–1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53–2.61) and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00–2.34). Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs. Conclusion Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems

  14. Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yapeng; Liu, Yongbo; Li, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed. PMID:22392285

  15. Progress, challenges and prospects of eco-hydrological studies in the Tarim river basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaning; Xu, Changchun; Chen, Yapeng; Liu, Yongbo; Li, Weihong

    2013-01-01

    Eco-hydrological research in arid inland river basins has been a focus of geologists and ecologists as it is crucial for maintaining the sustainable development of socio-economy, particularly in ecologically vulnerable areas. Based on the research work carried out in the Tarim River basin of Xinjiang, northwestern China, this paper summarizes synthetically the climate change and associated responses of water resources in the mountainous area, land use and land cover in the oasis, and plants responding to environmental stresses in the desert area of the river basin. Research gaps, challenges, and future perspectives in the eco-hydrological studies of the Tarim River basin are also discussed.

  16. A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hong-En; Li, Xiao; Zhao, You-Xing; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Bera, Subir; Wang, Yu-Fei; Zhao, Liang-Cheng; Liu, Chang-Jiang; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2006-12-01

    A cache of shoots, leaves and fruits dated by (14)C at 2500 years B.P. were unearthed in the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan District in Xinjiang, China. By comparing the morphological and anatomical characteristics of the plant remains found in the tomb and specimens of modern plants, it is shown that the remains belong to Cannabis. Based on the shamanistic background of the deceased man and ancient customs, it is assumed that the Cannabis was utilized for ritual/medicinal purposes. PMID:16879937

  17. Evolutionary Process of the Climate of Lop Nur Region, Xinjiang, China, Since Mid- Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Liu, W.; Chang, H.; An, Z.

    2008-12-01

    Climate variation since Mid-Pleistocene is studied based on a multi-proxy in core LS2 drilled from the Lop Nur region (88°23'18.2"E, 39°46'39.3"N), in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geochemical properties, including carbonate content, total organic carbon content, total nitrogen content and carbon / nitrogen, have been determined to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of the area since Mid- Pleistocene. Our results indicate that the paleoclimate fluctuation can be divided into seven stages: I, depth of 115-103m, the climate changed from warm-arid to cold- arid; II, depth of 102-82 m, dominated by cold-humid; III, depth of 81-67 m, characterized by warm-arid; IV, depth of 66-57m, extreme cold-humid period; V, depth of 56-46 m, warm-arid period; VI, depth of 45-18 m, cold-humid episode with three warm-arid periods sub-fluctuations; VII, depth of 17-0 m, the climate gradually turned to extreme arid. The paleoclimate evolutionary process indicates the instability of the climate system and the hydro-thermal characteristic of climate variation between cold-humid and warm-arid in the region since Mid-Pleistocene. Also, the paleoclimate variation in Lop Nur area correlates well with climate change records indicated by marine oxygen isotope. This indicates the climate in Lop Nur area responds to global climate change and maybe influenced by the global ice volume. This study gives information about the paleoclimate evolutionary process in Lop Nur area and also has contribution to the global paleoclimate change investigation. Keywords: Lop Nur; carbonate content; total organic carbon content; total nitrogen content; Carbon / Nitrogen; climate.

  18. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G.

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  19. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Fluvial sedimentology of a Mesozoic petrified forest assemblage, Shishu Formation, Junggar foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.L.; Gan, O.; Carroll, A.R.; Dilcher, D.; Zhao, M.; Liang, Y.H.; Graham, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic(.) Shishu Formation of the eastern Junggar basin, Xinjiang, northwest China, is a fluvial sand unit containing an important assemblage of well-preserved, silicified tree trunks and rooted stumps. Numerous logs, up to 83 ft (25.5 m) long, occur at several levels within a 33.6-ft (10.3 m) stratigraphic section of fluvial sand, gravel, and mud and several paleosol horizons. The uppermost logbearing layer includes a number of rooted tree stumps in growth position, with diameters of up to 8 ft (2.5 m). The maximum root length observed is 40 ft (12.3 m). The trees have been identified by Chinese paleontologists as Cupressinoxylon. The petrified forest assemblage is preserved on the northeast margin of the Mesozoic Junggar foreland basin, a large continental basin subsiding under thrust loading from the south. Logs found within channel gravel units are oriented with their log axes parallel to the channel axis. Sedimentary structures, including epsilon and trough cross-stratification and imbricated channel gravels, indicate paleocurrent flow generally to the south, toward the basin center. The size of the logs suggests the presence of a major fluvial system. The epsilon cross-sets suggest a channel depth of 26 ft (8 m). The oriented silicified logs and their enclosing clastic sediments provide important information on the depositional systems active on the northeastern margin of the Junggar basin in the Late Jurassic(.) time. Hopefully, further detailed study of the fossil trees, including the spacing of the rooted stumps, will provide new information on the paleoecology of Mesozoic forests and the climatic conditions prevailing in the region at the time of deposition.

  1. Virgibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov., isolated from a Salt Lake of Xin-jiang Province in China.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Che Ok; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Park, Dong-Jin; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2009-12-01

    A strictly aerobic Gram-positive, moderately halophilic spore forming bacterium, designated strain SL6-1(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xin-jiang province, China. Growth of strain SL6-1(T) was observed at NaCl concentrations of 0 approximately 20% (w/v) (the optimum being 5 approximately 7%, w/v). The peptidoglycan type of strain SL6-1(T) was Algamma-meso-diaminopimelic acid and its major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(14:0) and iso-C(16:0) and ante-iso-C(15:0). The major respiratory isoprenoid quinone was MK-7 and the G+C content of the genomic DNA was 44.5 mol%. The major cellular phospholipids were phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SL6-1(T) formed a phylogenetic lineage within the genus Virgibacillus. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the strain was most closely related to Virgibacillus olivae E(30)8(T), Virgibacillus kekensis YIM kkny16(T), Virgibacillus marismortui DSM 12325(T) with 97.1%, 97.1%, and 97.0% gene sequence similarities, respectively and the sequence similarities to other related taxa were less than 96.7%. The DNA relatedness values between strain SL6-1(T) and V. olivae E(30)8(T), V. kekensis YIM kkny16(T), V. marismortui DSM 12325(T) were 16.7%, 51.0%, and 22.8%, respectively. On the basis of physiological, biochemical and phylogenetic properties, strain SL6-1(T) represents a novel species, for which the name Virgibacillus xinjiangensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SL6-1(T) (=KCTC 13128(T) =DSM 19031(T)). PMID:20127463

  2. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Brucella isolates from patients in Xinjiang China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Li, Zhiwei; La, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiumin; Zhang, Yaoxin; Ji, Ping; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Jianbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to characterize and identify the human Brucella strains in Xinjiang, China with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme. Methods: Brucella strains were isolated and cultured from 62 brucellosis patients. The bacteria strains were subjected to the oxidase, catalase, rapid urease, and nitrate reduction tests, and the species identification was performed using the VITEK-2 Compact system. These Brucella strains were further identified and characterized using the 16 VNTR loci in a MLVA-16 methodology. Results: Twelve Brucella strains had been identified out of 62 patients, which were all recognized as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) according to the results from the VITEK-2 Compact system. Based on panel 1 (MLVA-8), these 12 Brucella isolates were clustered into three known genotypes and two new genotypes, in which 7 strains were clustered into genotype 45 (1-5-3-12-2-2-3-2), 1 strain was classified as genotype 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2), 1 stain was with genotype 62 (1-3-3-13-2-2-3-2), and the other 3 trains revealed two new genotypes, i.e., (1-5-3-12-2-3-3-2) and (1-5-3-11-2-3-3-2). Using panel 2A+2B (MLVA-16), we found that no genotypes of these strains were identical to the known genotypes, generally with differences in 2-4 loci. However, three strains shared the same genotype. Conclusion: Brucella strains in 62 brucellosis patients from Xinjiang are all identified as B. melitensis. Based on MLVA-8, two new genotypes have been discovered. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26629067

  3. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  4. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  5. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  6. Observed near-surface atmospheric moisture content changes affected by irrigation development in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Songjun; Tang, Qiuhong; Xu, Di; Wang, Shaoli; Yang, Zhiyong

    2016-08-01

    The effects of irrigation development on observed near-surface atmospheric moisture changes remain unclear in arid Xinjiang. In this study, cultivated land fractions (CFs) within a 4-km radius of 90 meteorological stations over Xinjiang, which are inferred from the 2000 land use map, are used as a quantitative indicator of irrigation intensity. Trends of observed water vapor pressure and relative humidity during the growing season (May to September) from 1959 to 2006 are significantly positively correlated with CFs of the meteorological stations. Stations with larger CFs experience a more rapid increase in near-surface atmospheric moisture than stations with small CFs. Results indicate that growing season near-surface atmospheric moisture wetting is enhanced by irrigation development for stations with high levels of cultivated land uses. The land use around stations should be considered when analyzing the observed near-surface atmospheric moisture changes in Xinjiang.

  7. Seoul virus in the Brown Rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, Xinjiang, Northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Sheng, Jinliang; Wu, Xiran; Wang, Yuanzhi; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Xun; Yao, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections among human populations are linked to the geographic distribution of the host rodents that carry the viruses. To determine the presence and distribution of hantaviruses in the northern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China, 844 rodents were captured from five locations in four dissimilar habitats during 2010-14 and examined for Hantavirus infection. Hantavirus nucleic acids were firstly detected in the brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, China, indicating that the Hantavirus was transmitted into Ürümqi in XUAR and circulated by the brown rat. Our results suggest that the brown rat may act as a natural reservoir for the virus in XUAR.

  8. Seoul virus in the Brown Rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, Xinjiang, Northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Gang; Sheng, Jinliang; Wu, Xiran; Wang, Yuanzhi; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Xun; Yao, Hua

    2016-07-01

    Hantavirus infections among human populations are linked to the geographic distribution of the host rodents that carry the viruses. To determine the presence and distribution of hantaviruses in the northern region of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR), northwestern China, 844 rodents were captured from five locations in four dissimilar habitats during 2010-14 and examined for Hantavirus infection. Hantavirus nucleic acids were firstly detected in the brown rat ( Rattus norvegicus ) from Ürümqi, China, indicating that the Hantavirus was transmitted into Ürümqi in XUAR and circulated by the brown rat. Our results suggest that the brown rat may act as a natural reservoir for the virus in XUAR. PMID:27258409

  9. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  10. The Application of Gravity and CSAMT Survey on Baishan Molybdenum Deposit, Hami, Xinjiang,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Lu, H.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Baishan molybdenum deposit is located in the eastern Tianshan Carboniferous rift at Hami, Xinjiang, China, where exposed upper Carboniferous Gandun formation. Molybdenum ore appeared at thermal contact metamorphism hornfelsed banded quartz stockwork in the concealed porphyritic granite top, Potassium and metal sulfide mineralization existed in the top of concealed rockbody.The Baishan molybdenum ore bodies were delineated 2700 meters long and 40 meters thickness, with molybdenum @ 0.59%. The main orebody shows in stratoid, small orebody appears in lenticular and vein.In order to predict potential resources, we proposes a combined method of CSAMT and GS technology,and has applied it to the survey of concealed molybdenum deposit in the Baishan.This combind method can explore to larger depths, discriminate anomalies well and has higher resolution to deep objects, thus it is an efficient tool for surveys.By drilling, we found there exsit a hidden granite body in 1400 meters deep of Hami Baishan molybdenum mine, it confirmed that Baishan molybdenum mine is a porphyry molybdenum ore. Cataclastic hornfelsed zone in the coping granite are the product of heat contact metamorphism, the ore materials are mainly derived from deep magma hydrothermal solution. The CSAMT and Gravity Survey were able to reflect the space and intrusive boundary in rough of buried granite body clearly, deep hidden granite showed high-resistivity and high-gravity anomaly and the low-resistivity anomaly distributied around them, drilling verified that 200-2500Ω low-resistivity anomaly range at top of high-resistivity corresponded to the molybdenum ore horizon. Line 15 of southern section shows two low resistance anomaly zone, and the surface of them is corresponding to the granite and intrusive contact parts,inferring it was caused by the fault structure.In granite gravity anomaly is obviously high and the width is about 560m,Δg residual value is 400 × 10-8m/s2. According to the control of

  11. Land cover of oases and forest in XinJiang, China retrieved from ASTER data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhe, Aosier; Tsuchiya, K.; Kaneko, M.; Ohtaishi, N.; Halik, Mahmut

    ASTER aboard NASA’s satellite Terra is a high-resolution multispectral radiometer of 14 bands. The spatial resolution is 15 m in VNIR, 30 m in SWIR and 90 m in TIR spectra, respectively. With the data observed with ASTER, the land cover classification is produced for the Tarim Diversifolious Poplar Protection Area along the Tarim River in the northern Tarim Basin (Taklamakan Desert) in XinJiang, China. The classification of the vegetation (plants) in the arid and semiarid regions using remote-sensing technology is very difficult. Because the cause has low vegetable cover density and the influence of reflection from background soil is large. ASTER data are effective in studying the spectrum characteristics of land cover in arid and semiarid regions. The sensor has several bands in the shortwave infrared wavelength region that is designed for exploration of earth resources and study of the arid and semiarid region natural environment. However, we are not clear combination of which band is the most effective in research of the arid region like the Taklamakan desert in the data of 14 bands of ASTER. The optimum index factor (OIF), based on total variance within bands and correlation coefficient between bands, is a statistical approach to rank all possible three-band combinations. In the process of analyzing the data, the pixel sizes of all the data are converted (layer stacking and re-sampling) into consistent same size of 15 m. The three-band composite with the largest OIF value will have most information (as measured by variance) with the least amount of duplication (as measured by correlation). We used the OIF technique to rank all three-band combinations of ASTER original 14-band data over Tarim River Poplar Protection Area. Our study indicates that RGB color overlay using atmospheric corrected ASTER original bands 2, 3 (VNIR), and 6 (SWIR) has the highest OIF. When NDVI is considered as one ASTER band, highest OIF will have by carrying out bands 3 (VNIR), 4

  12. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  13. Tectonic evolution and continental crust growth of Northern Xinjiang in northwestern China: Remnant ocean model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qin-Qin; Ji, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Lei; Gong, Jun-Feng; Zhou, Jing; He, Guo-Qi; Zhong, Da-Lai; Wang, Jin-Duo; Griffiths, Lee

    2013-11-01

    The Northern Xinjiang region is located in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB, also known as the Altaid Tectonic Collage). Despite extensive research aimed at understanding the crustal growth of the CAOB and the evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, the tectonic evolution mechanism of continental crust growth in Northern Xinjiang remains controversial. The geology of Northern Xinjiang is characterized by widespread ophiolites, granitoids, intermediate-basic dikes. Most of the ophiolites were generated in the early Paleozoic. The ophiolites are widely spread around the Junggar Basin, but their distribution does not indicate a well-defined band. Their outcrops are generally related to various faults. The basic rocks widespread in Northern Xinjiang are grouped into two categories: (i) gabbros, diabases basalts of the ophiolites and (ii) basic dikes that intrude into the Paleozoic strata granite plutons. The basic rocks associated with the early Paleozoic ophiolites were reworked by later geothermal events with a peak 40Ar/39Ar age of 310-290 Ma. The basic dikes intruded into Paleozoic strata and granite plutons during the Carboniferous-Jurassic, displaying three peaks of emplacement at 260-250 Ma, 220 Ma, and 200-190 Ma. These two types of basic rocks and the documented Variscan magmatic rocks were derived from the same source. Their isotope geochemical characteristics and widespread distribution suggest that since the Paleozoic, a large geochemical province has existed in Northern Xinjiang with an affinity to mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) and ocean island basalts (OIB), which is related to a long-lived remnant ocean and the underlying early Paleozoic oceanic crust. The existence of remnant oceanic crust in Northern Xinjiang was confirmed by seismic, gravity and aeromagnetic data. Therefore, we propose the following remnant ocean model for the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of Northern Xinjiang. It consists of three stages: 1) oceanic crust

  14. Remote sensing and GIS-based analysis of desertification changes in Turpan Basin Plain region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhihui; Fang, Shifeng; Pei, Huan; Maimaiti, Dilixiati; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Heze; Den, Mingjiang; Wang, Zhijie

    2006-01-01

    The plain region in Turpan Basin, Xinjiang, China is a typical arid area. As its conditions of physical geography are terrible and the human influence on it, the problems of desertification and other eco-environment is getting severe. The fused images of Landsat TM with SPOT-4 (Panchromatic) and SPOT-5 (XS/XI) data were used to calculate the extent of different land-cover types and their changes each other in the plain region. Through combining supervised classification and unsupervised classification the maps of 1990, 1999 and 2004 of vegetation, wind erosion, desertification and salinization were obtained, and then their changes were detected by Geographic Information System (GIS). The relations among climate, soil, vegetation, terrain, salinization, human and desertification were analyzed. The results showed that although the area of desertification in plain region of Turpan Basin appears to be reduced during recent years from macroscopical sense, the area of desert and salinization is increasing continually. Simultaneously, the extent of oasis is expanding on the whole, but the types of land cover between oasis and desert is decreasing. The results not only reflect the changes of desertification in Turpan Basin, Xinjiang, but also could support the sustainable development of this region.

  15. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus uberis isolates from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis in Southern Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijun; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Lili; Zhu, Yaxin

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of dairy cow mastitis throughout the world. The failure to control bovine mastitis caused by S. uberis is largely attributed to the little known about the epidemiology of this bacteria, especially strain differences in the same area. To define the local epidemiology of S. uberis in the south of Xinjiang, China, we explored the genetic diversity of 28 bovine subclinical mastitis field isolates of S. uberis, collected from 3 Chinese farms during 2009 and 2010, which was examined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for clustering of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to assess the relationship between PFGE patterns and to identify genetic lineages. The 28 isolates were grouped into 13 pulsotypes (U1 to U13), and 1 PFGE type (U1) accounted for almost half of the isolates (13/28, 46.4%). This major type was herd specific, indicating either cow-to-cow transmission or infection with isolates from the same environmental reservoirs. The remaining 12 PFGE types of isolates were from different herds, strongly suggesting environmental sources of S. uberis infection. All 28 isolates were analyzed by MLST and clustered into 8 sequence types (STs), of which 7 STs were found to be novel, either with 5 new alleles of 6 housekeeping and virulence genes (ST158, ST159) or with different combinations of previously assigned alleles (ST153, ST154, ST155, ST156, ST157). To our knowledge, this is the first report that documents molecular typing studies of bovine isolates of S. uberis from southern Xinjiang Province, China, which were shown to represent novel genomic backgrounds of this pathogen. PMID:24005178

  16. Paleomagnetic and geochronological study of the Halaqiaola basalts, southern margin of the Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang: Constraints on neotectonic convergent patterns north of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Baochun; Piper, John D. A.; He, Huaiyu; Zhang, Chunxia; Zhu, Rixiang

    2006-01-01

    A combined geochronological and paleomagnetic study is reported from Miocene basalts from Halaqiaola and Paleocene to Eocene red beds from Fuyun at the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang. Three new 40Ar/39Ar ages determined by fresh matrix from the Halaqiaola basalts collectively confirm the presence of Cenozoic magmatic activity in the northern Xinjiang. Alternating field and thermal demagnetization identify stable characteristic remanences with single reversed polarity in the basalts and red beds. Rock magnetic analysis identifies pseudosingle-domain titanomagnetites as carriers of remanence in the basalts. Paleomagnetic results from the Fuyun red beds indicate that inclination shallowing is present in this rock facies as also found in previous red bed studies from central Asia. In contrast, the time-averaged paleomagnetic direction from the basalts shows that no paleomagnetically discernible northward convergence has occurred north of Junggar since early Miocene times. Analysis of available Cretaceous and Cenozoic paleomagnetic data from volcanic rocks in central Asia shows that Neogene and Quaternary paleolatitudes are statistically concordant with predicted values from Eurasian references, suggesting that no significant northward convergence has occurred north of Tibet during the last 20 Myr. Cretaceous and Paleogene paleolatitudes lie ˜5-6 ± 7° south of predicted values from the Eurasian path and suggest that neotectonic convergence of the order of several hundred kilometers has occurred north of the southwest Tian Shan. It is possible that neotectonic northward convergence north of Tibet will prove to be paleomagnetically undetectable, but more data are required to confirm this.

  17. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  18. [Detection of the Siberian Tick-borne Encephalitis Virus in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, northwestern China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ran; Zhang, Guilin; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Yuchang; Zheng, Zhong; Sun, Xiang; Yang, Yinhui

    2016-01-01

    Until the recent emergence/re-emergence of human-pathogenic viruses in ticks, tick-borne viruses have been neglected as causative agents of human disease (particularly in China). To gain insight into the diversity of tick-borne viruses in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (northwestern China), we conducted illumina deep sequencing-based screening for virus-derived small RNAs in field-collected Ixodes persulcatus ticks. We found 32, 631 unique virus-matched reads. In particular, 77 reads mapped to the tick-borne group within the genus of Flavivirus, and covered 3.8%-2.4% viral genomes. In addition, 32 unique reads were specific to the Siberian subtype of tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEV-Sib) which have never been reported in Chinese TBE loci. We confirmed the potential existence of TBEV-Sib by amplification (using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) of genomic fragments from the envelope gene or 3' genomic terminus from the pools of examined ticks. Both sequences demonstrated high homology to TBEV-Sib strains attached geographically to southern Siberia with nucleotide identity of 97.2%-95.5% and aminoacid identity of 99.4%-98.3%, respectively. In conclusion, we report, for the first time, detection of TBEV-Sib in the natural TBE loci of China. These novel data may provide genetic information for further isolation and epidemiologic investigation of TBEV-Sib.

  19. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. Multi-proxy evidence for Late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic and environmental changes in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, C.; Yang, D.; Peng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Weiguo, L.; He, J.; Zhou, C.

    2008-01-01

    A 10.35-m-long sediment core from the Luobei depression in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China, provides detailed information about environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene. The samples taken every 5 cm of the core were analyzed for 10 environmental proxies, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate and loss on ignition (LOI), and pH value. The chronology data are provided by the uranium/thorium disequilibrium dates. The sediments of the section were deposited during the last 32000 years. The results of analysis of 10 proxies were examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the principal components were calculated. According to the results, the Late Pleistocene sequence contains four climatic and environmental stages appearing in the cycles of cold-wet and warm-dry changes. During 10-9 ka BP, it was the earliest warm episode in the Holocene. Environmental changes in this district were restricted by global change, as suggested by the analysis of glacial-interglacial cycles. But it was different from the mutative trend of a monsoon region in East China because of its own characteristics, which was the situation of cold-wet and warm-dry climate-environment change. The candidate reason may be the uplift of the Tibet Plateau and the westerly wind circulation. ?? Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008.

  1. Prevalence of Cystic Echinococcosis in Slaughtered Sheep as an Indicator to Assess Control Progress in Emin County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shijie; Wu, Weiping; Tian, Tian; Zhao, Jiangshan; Chen, Kang; Wang, Qinyan; Feng, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid disease imposing serious threat on human health and great loss in live¬stock pastoralism remains a major public health problem in western China. To assess and monitor the effect of control program on transmission dynamics, we used the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep at slaughterhouse as an indicator during the period of 2007 to 2013 in Emin County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. The results showed a significant decline trend of prevalence in all age groups during the 7 years when the control program was implemented; particularly, the rate was reduced by 72% after first 3 years. Among the sheep slaughtered, the age distribution evidenced that the prevalence increased significantly as the sheep grew older. The baseline data indicated that the rate was 4.5% at the age <1, 6.7% at age 2~, and reached to the highest 17.9% at age ≥4 years. Earlier response to the intervention pressure was seen in the sheep at the younger age. Significant decline started from 2008 at the age <1, from 2009 at age of 1~, 2010 at 2~ to 3~, and the latest, in 2012 at age ≥4. This study demonstrated that the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis in slaughtered sheep may be used as an indicator to assess and monitor the transmission status during and after control program providing information for betterment of performance to sustain control strength. PMID:26174832

  2. Population genetic structure in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers in southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Chen, Xuesen; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-11-01

    Population-wide genetic structure was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers on 85 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars collected from Kuche, Kashi, Hetian in the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different eco-geographical populations. Based on the results from this study, 8 pairs of fluorescent-AFLP primers showed clear electrophoregram and high polymorphism amongst the 64 pairs of EcoR|/Mse|(Mse|--a FAM fluorescent marked primer) primers screened. There was a significant polymorphic difference for the same primer pair in different populations and for the same population with different primer pairs. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) at species level was higher than Kuche, Hetian, Kashi population levels, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) at species level were higher than those of Kuche, Hetian, and Kashi at population level, respectively. H and I of Kuche population were the highest amongst the three populations. Apricot population genetic diversity was found mainly within the population. Genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.0882. Gene flow Nm between the populations was 5.1689. Population genetic identity was between 0.9772-0.9811 and genetic distance was between 0.0191-0.0232. These results further indicated that the similarity between populations was higher and the genetic distance between populations was smaller. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicates that the geographical populations at Kuche, Kashi, Hetian were relatively independent Mendelian populations. Concurrently, there was also partial gene exchange between the populations. All the evidences indicated that the genetic diversity in Kuche population was the highest, suggesting that it could be a transition population from wild apricot to cultivated apricot. There were abundant genetic

  3. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  4. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  5. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  6. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  7. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of Xinjiang, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-11-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of southern Xinjiang, northwest China. Land cover classifications of Landsat images in 1990, 2000 and 2008 were performed based on the multistage supervised classification scheme using the maximum likelihood classifier integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes, which improved overall accuracies by 4-5% compared to the standard classification method. Based on the detection of changes in land cover during 1990-2008 using remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS), it can be found that the oasis significantly (+35%) increased, while the area of ecotone decreased (-43%). The major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone. These changes were mainly a result of the intensified human activities such as land and water exploitation as well as overgrazing. The results of this study indicate that the oasis environment will be deteriorated by increase in potential areas of land degradation if the trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone continues over the next decades.

  8. Purification and characterization of a novel bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047 isolated from koumiss from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Lanhua; Dang, Ying; Wu, Jingli; Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Xiaojiao; Liu, Bianfang; Zhou, Yuan; Lu, Xin

    2016-09-01

    The growing emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the food industry needs to be controlled with effective antimicrobials. In this study, bacteriocin MN047 A (BMA) was found to have antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria. It was produced by Lactobacillus crustorum MN047, which was first isolated from koumiss, a traditional fermented dairy product from Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. It was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography, and reversed-phase chromatography. It had a low molecular mass of 1,770.89 Da according to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the sequence was identified as QLPWQILGIVAGMFQA by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and MASCOT searching. It was proteinaceous in nature: the bacteriocin was digested by protease but not by α-amylase or lipase. It showed broad pH toleration (pH 2-11), good thermostability, and good storage stability. It had a broad inhibitory spectrum, including both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Growth curve and time-kill kinetics indicated that it was bactericidal to the indicator strains, and this finding was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope after treatment with BMA. As well, BMA halted the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in the G1 and G2/M phases according to cell-cycle analysis by flow cytometry, indicating that BMA had comprehensive inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. PMID:27423943

  9. Comparison of horizontal dust fluxes simulated with two dust emission schemes based on field experiments in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xinchun; Huo, Wen; He, Qing; Mamtimin, Ali; Zhang, Qingyu

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal dust fluxes were simulated with two different dust emission schemes developed by Marticorena and Shao (hereinafter referred to as the M scheme, S scheme, and S scheme corrections), based on field experiments over a bare desert surface and a vegetated desert surface from May 19 to June 18, 2010 in Xinjiang, China. The M scheme produced a much higher dust emission than the S schemes over different surface conditions, with the emission being about 4 times larger than that produced by the S schemes over the bare desert, and 3 to 200 times larger over the vegetated surface. Compared to observations, the missing report rate of wind erosion events was about 30 % for the S schemes and about 10 % for the M scheme over the bare desert surface, while all schemes had a false alarm rate of wind erosion events over the vegetated desert surface. The total dust emission from the bare desert surface during the study period was 674.4, 551.5, 595.2, and 2995.8 kg/m for observation, the S scheme, S scheme correction 2, and M scheme, respectively. Total dust emission from the vegetated desert surface was 1.6, 0, 55.5, 0.9, and 227.7 kg/m for observation, the S scheme, S scheme correction 1, S scheme correction 2, and M scheme, respectively.

  10. Impacts of nomad sedentarization on social and ecological systems at multiple scales in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2014-09-01

    China's government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project's sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSP's impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas. PMID:24092595

  11. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum’s oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10–30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900–1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski’s horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  12. Environmental Reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and Its Bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes’ adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  13. Dynamics of environmental supplementation of iodine: four years' experience of iodination of irrigation water in Hotien, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, X M; Cao, X Y; Jiang, J Y; Tai, M; James, D W; Rakeman, M A; Dou, Z H; Mamette, M; Amette, K; Zhang, M L; Delong, G R

    1997-01-01

    Hotien prefecture, Xinjiang Province, China, in the Taklamakan Desert, is an area of severe iodine deficiency. Because usual methods of iodine supplementation failed here, we began supplementation in 1992 with potassium iodate, which was added to irrigation water (Lancet 1994; 334:107-110). We report 4 y experience with this method in 3 townships that contained a total treated population of 37,000. Potassium iodate was dripped into irrigation water (to a concentration 10-80 microg/l) during a 2- to 4-wk period. During the 3 y that followed, no further supplementation was made, and iodine concentrations increased several fold in crops and plants, sheep and chicken thyroid glands, and meat and in urine of children 2-6 y of age and of women who were of childbearing age. Infant mortality decreased 50%, and sheep production increased 43%. Iodine repletion of soil through irrigation water is an effective and cost-efficient way of providing iodine in appropriate situations.

  14. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  15. Impacts of nomad sedentarization on social and ecological systems at multiple scales in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingming; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Chengcheng; Li, Lanhai

    2014-09-01

    China's government is now promoting the Nomad Sedentarization Project (NSP) in large areas of grassland as a solution for ecological restoration and poverty alleviation. To examine the effects of this policy, we conducted in-depth interviews at two of the project's sites and examined the social and ecological systems at village, county, and catchment scales in Jinghe County of Xinjiang. We found that (1) the NSP in one village greatly improved the household standard of living and changed their resource utilization modes; (2) the success in this village can be attributed to resources imported from the social and ecological systems at larger scales, and could not be repeated in a second nearby village with different constraints; and (3) the NSP is poorly adapted to local ecosystem characteristics, and may therefore have negative impacts at larger scales. To avoid these problems, holistic assessments are necessary to judge the NSP's impacts on social and ecological systems at multiple scales, and the program must be implemented cautiously to account for the potential risks in ecologically vulnerable areas.

  16. Influence of climatic factors on tree-ring maximum latewood density of Picea schrenkiana in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Lili; Yin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The influence of temperature and precipitation on maximum latewood density (MXD) was mainly discussed in this paper, based on the samples of Picea schrenkiana from the Manas River Basin, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analysis between MXD and instrumental records from the Shihezi Meteorological Station showed that the MXD was positively related to the mean maximum temperature throughout the growing season at high elevations. Comparatively, the ring-width at low altitudes was limited by the precipitation in May-June. The composite chronology by MXD sequences was highly correlated with the mean maximum temperature in July-August ( r = 0.54, p<0.001), which was then reconstructed by the composite chronology. The comparative analysis on the reconstructed temperatures, observed values, and drought indices ( Is) revealed that precipitation would affect MXD when the absolute value of Is was greater than 1.5σ (i.e., | Is|>2.5) in the period of 1953-2008 A.D. or close to 1.5σ for 2-3 consecutive years. The response characteristics are linked with the semiarid climate in the study area. In a single year or consecutive years of extreme dryness, the lack of precipitation would limit the thickening of latewood cell walls and thus impact the MXD. All in all, if a MXD chronology is aimed to reconstruct temperature history, the moisture conditions at the sampling site should be considered prudently.

  17. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum's oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10-30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900-1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski's horses rest and forage in these areas.

  18. Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: a contingent valuation study of Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Yang, Zhaoping; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate publics' willingness to pay (WTP) for environment conservation and analyze factors influencing WTP. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) was carried out at Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Seventy-three percent of the 412 respondents were willing to pay at different levels, and the mean WTP value was RMB 54.60 ($8.03). The results of this survey struck an optimistic note that publics were willing to contribute to improve environmental quality. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare the characteristics of those who were and were not willing to pay. Chi-square tests were administered to identify the relationships between various explanatory factors and WTP. Conclusions and implications of the empirical study can be provided to policy makers and site managers. In a wider sense, the findings of this study should make a good contribution to the literature related to WTP for environment conservation of natural attractions. PMID:21107901

  19. Land use/land cover change and their effects on landscape patterns in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang (China).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian; Wang, Shengli

    2013-12-01

    Human modification of land use and land cover change (LUCC) drives the change of landscape patterns and limits the availability of products and services for human and livestock. LUCC can undermine environmental health. Thus, this study aimed to develop an understanding of LUCC in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China, an arid area experiencing dramatic water and land resource use. A time series of satellite images (1964, 1973, 1989, 1999, and 2009) were used to calculate the index of landscape patterns to study the processes involved in changes to land uses and landscape patterns and the influence of this changes on landscape patterns. The results show that land uses in the Yanqi Basin have changed dramatically since 1964 with grassland being mainly converted to cropland. Landscape fragmentation and diversity have decreased in the study area, although landscape fragmentation increased from 1964 to 1999 and then decreased by 2009. The index of landscape diversity decreased from 1.64 in 1964 to 0.71 in 2009. The heterogeneity and complexity of the landscape increased during this period. In contrast, the index of dominance decreased from 0.85 in 1964 to 0.83 in 2009. Land use change drives landscape patterns of the development of the watershed toward diversity and a fragmented structure. Population growth, economic development, and industrial policies were the dominant driving forces behind LUCC in the Yanqi Basin. Sustainable use of land resources is a significant factor in maintaining economic development and environmental protection in this arid inland river basin.

  20. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations of triple-negative breast cancer patients in Xinjiang multiple ethnic region of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The screening of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer, early-onset breast cancer and bilateral breast cancer patients. There is still some controversy about whether this screening should be done in triple-negative breast cancers. Therefore, we evaluated the BRCA mutation prevalence in patients with triple-negative breast cancer in a multi-ethnic region of China. Methods A total 96 women who were diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer in the Xinjiang region of China were enrolled in this study. BRCA1 and BRCA2 screening was performed by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (PCR-DHPLC) sequencing analysis. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results The prevalence of a BRCA1/2 germline mutation was about 25% (24/96) in the Xinjiang region of China. Among 35 selected cases with a family history and/or bilateral breast cancers, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 25.7% (9/35). Of the remaining 61 patients with unselected triple-negative breast cancer, the BRCA1/2 mutation prevalence was 24.6% (15/61), and all 15 individuals with these mutations were premenopausal patients. Conclusions These results suggest that premenopausal women with triple-negative breast cancer may be candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1/2 in the Xinjiang region of China, even in the absence of a family history or bilateral breast cancer. PMID:24961674

  1. Molecular Characterization of Enteroviruses Including a New Type EV-C99 Isolated from Xinjiang Students in Shandong, China in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Zexin; Yuan, Qun; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Suting; Liu, Yao; Ji, Feng; Xiong, Ping; Cui, Ning; Song, Lizhi; Wang, Mei; Xu, Aiqiang

    2014-01-01

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994. In 2011, a poliomyelitis outbreak caused by imported wide-type poliovirus occurred in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region. Here, we report the results of enterovirus (EV) isolation from Xinjiang students that returned to school in Shandong after summer vacation during this outbreak. Stool specimens from 376 students were collected and 10 EV strains were isolated including 4 polioviruses (All Sabin strains), 1 coxsackievirus (CV) A13, 3 CVA17 and 2 EV-C99. VP1 sequence analysis revealed these CVA13, CVA17 and EV-C99 strains had 71.3–81.8%, 76.5–84.6% and 74.2–82.9% nucleotide similarity with strains from other countries within a serotype, respectively. EV-C99 strains had 82.7–92.8% VP1 similarity with two previously reported Xinjiang strains. Complete genome analysis on EV-C99 strains revealed intra-serotypic genetic recombination events. These findings reflect great genetic divergence between Chinese strains and strains from other countries of the three types, and provide valuable information on monitoring EV transmission over long distance. PMID:25298041

  2. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  3. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  4. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations. PMID:27298587

  5. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  6. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  7. Analysis of patterns and ecological security trend of modern oasis landscapes in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junfang; Wang, Ranghui; Zhang, Huizhi

    2007-11-01

    Ecological security has become so important that it will affect the national security and social sustainable development. In this paper, a case study on the ecological security indexes of modern oasis landscapes in Beitun Oasis, Xinjiang, was carried out. The spatial neighbouring parameters, such as the contiguous length, measure of area and patch quantity of oasis landscape patches, affected by desert landscape patches were calculated by using GIS-based buffer analysis, the method of calculating ecological security indexes of oasis landscape was developed, and the dynamic changes of patterns and ecological security indexes of the oasis landscapes since recent 30 years were analyzed. The results showed that soil salinization or alkalization and paludification were major factors affecting the ecological security in Beitun Oasis. Therefore, measures should be taken actively to prevent and control secondary salinization and paludification. The ecological security indexes of the oasis landscape in 1972, 1990 and 2005 were 78.91, 82.28 and 83.86, respectively, which showed the degree of security is improving, and the environment was developing harmoniously between human and nature. The methods of evaluating ecological security based on the spatial neighbouring relations between landscape patches can be used to reflect preliminarily the ecological security patterns of landscapes.

  8. Association of MTHFR genetic polymorphisms with venous thromboembolism in Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Yadav, Umesh; Mahemuti, Ailiman; Tang, Bao-Peng; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the association between Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene mutations (C677T, A1298C and C1317T) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Han and Uyghur population in Xinjiang. Material and method: We conducted a case control study composed of 246 cases, including 86 Uyghur and 160 Han ethnic diagnosed VTE were admitted in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University between January 2008 to December 2012, and 292 population including 122 Uyghur ethnic and 170 Han ethnic were studied as controls. To detect the polymorphism of MTHFR gene C677T, A1298T, and C1317T, Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was applied. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay was adopted to determine the plasma levels Homocysteine (Hcy), folic acid and vitaminB12 (VitB12). The association of the polymorphism of MTHFR and levels Hcy, folic acid and VitB12 with VTE was analyzed. Results: The MTHFR gene C677T genotypes distribution in Uyghur VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.91% vs. 12.29%), CT (41.86% vs. 52.46%) and CC (30.23% vs. 35.25%), respectively; and in Han VTE patients and control groups were: TT (27.49% vs. 14.71%), CT (44.38% vs. 53.53%) and CC (28.13% vs. 31.76%), respectively, and there were significant differences in TT genotype of MTHFRC677T between VTE patients and controls in both Uyghur and Han ethnic (Uyghur: x2=8.070, P=0.005; Han: x2=8.159, P=0.004). However, there were no significant differences in the MTHFR gene A1298T and C1317T genotyping distribution frequency in Uygur and Han ethnic between VTE patients and controls (P>0.05). Plasma levels of Hcy in MTHFR gene TT genotype were statistically higher than CT and CC genotype (P<0.05). After adjusting for age, gender, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and MTHFR genotype for plasma Hcy levels, multifactor logistic regression analysis showed (OR=1.025, 95% CI 1.003-1.046, P=0

  9. Analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of red deer subspecies in XinJiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bin; Li, Ren-Yan; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Yan, Gen-Qiang; Xi, Ji-Feng; Blair, Hugh T; Li, Da-Quan; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhao, Xi-Tang

    2011-08-01

    Polymorphisms for seven microsatellite loci in three red deer subspecies (9 populations) found in XinJiang were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 12% nondenaturation polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the Sanguinetti silver staining method. Numbers of alleles, average effective numbers of alleles (E) and the average rate of homozygosity, allelic frequencies of seven microsatellite loci, polymorphism information content (PIC), mean heterozygosity (H) and genetic distances among the populations were calculated for each population. Dendrograms were constructed based on genetic distances by the neighbor-joining method (NJ), utilizing molecular evolutionary genetics analysis software PHYLIP (3.6). The phylogenetic tree was constructed based on allelic frequencies using maximum likelihood (ML); the bootstrap value was estimated by bootstrap test in the tree. Lastly, phylogenesis was analyzed. The results showed that four of the seven microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic, but BMS2508 and Celjp0023 showed no polymorphism and BM5004 was a neutral polymorphism. It is our conclusion that the four microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the analysis of genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among the three red deer subspecies. The mean PIC, H and E-values across the microsatellite loci were 0.5393, 0.5736 and 2.64, which showed that these microsatellite loci are effective DNA markers for the genetic analysis of red deer. C.e. songaricus populations from Regiment 104, 151 and Hami are clustered together. C.e. yarkandensis populations from Regiment 35, Xaya and Alaer are clustered together. These two clusters also cluster together. Lastly, C.e. sibiricus populations from Burqin, Regiment 188 and the first two clusters were clustered together. The phylogenetic relationship among different red deer populations is consistent with the known origin, history of breeding and geographic distributions of populations. PMID:21794008

  10. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  11. Potential of Carbon Sequestration as Soil Carbonate in Arid and Semi-arid Region of North China: Impacts of Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbonate (SIC) exceeds organic carbon (SOC) greatly in (semi-)arid lands, thus may be important for carbon sequestration. However, field data for studying SIC dynamics and quantifying SIC accumulation have been lacking. This paper consists of two parts. We first present our recent findings of SIC accumulation in the croplands of north China (Wang et al., 2014; 2015). We then report a meta-analysis of field based SIC data from 745 soil profiles in China. Our recent findings were based on two sets of data: >100 soil samples recently collected from the Yanqi Basin of central Xinjiang and ~200 archived soil samples from four long-term experiment (LTE) sites in the north China. Our study showed that intensive cropping in the arid and semi-arid region leaded to a greater increase in SIC than in SOC; organic amendments enhanced SIC accumulation in the cropland of north China. Our meta-analysis shows that despite a large variation of SIC stock (5-42 kg C m-2), SIC storage in agricultural soils is generally higher relative to non-agricultural soils. We provide assessment how land use change may affect SIC storage in north China.

  12. Geological emission of methane from the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junhong; Bao, Zhengyu; Xiang, Wu; Gou, Qinghong

    2008-01-01

    A static flux chamber method was applied to study natural emissions of methane into the atmosphere in the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China. Using an online method, which couples a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) together, the 13C/12C ratios of methane in the flux chambers were measured. The results demonstrated that methane gases were liable to migrate from deep oil/gas reservoir to the surface through microseepage and pervasion, and that a part of the migrated methane that remained unoxidized could emit into the atmosphere. Methane emission rates varied less in the oil/gas field because the whole region was homogeneous in geology and geography, with a standard deviation of less than 0.02 mg/(m2 x h). These were the differences in methane emission flux in the day and at night in the oil/gas field. The maximum methane emission flux reached 0.15 mg/(m2 x h) at 5:00-6:00 early in the morning, and then decreased gradually. The minimum was shown 0.10 mg/(m2 x h) at 17:00-18:00 in the afternoon, and then increased gradually. The daily methane released flux of the study area was 2.89 mg/(m2 x d), with a standard deviation of 0.43 mg/(m2 x d), using the average methane flux of every hour in a day for all chambers. delta13C of methane increased with the increase of methane concentration in the flux chambers, further indicating that the pyrogenetic origin of methane was come from deep oil/gas reservoirs.

  13. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  14. Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Lop Nur salt lake in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Zhou, Yu; Ja, Man; Shi, Rong; Chun-Yu, Wei-Xun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)). PMID:22622623

  15. Circulation of multiple serotypes of highly divergent enterovirus C in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Fan, Qin; Song, Yang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiaolei; Huang, Guohong; Ji, Tianjiao; Hu, Lan; Wang, Dongyan; Yang, Qian; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Xinjiang EV-C strains had larger variation compared to the prototype and other modern strains. Additionally, the results showed unique characteristics of Xinjiang EV-Cs, such as the cytopathicity of CV-A1 strains to RD cells; the high divergence in CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, and CV-A20 strains; the divergence of Xinjiang CV-A24 from AHC-related CV-A24 variant stains distributed worldwide; and the circulation of two novel EV-C serotypes (EV-C96 and EV-C99). Evaluations of this dense and diverse EV-C ecosystem will help elucidate the processes shaping enteroviral biodiversity. This study will improve our understanding of the evolution of enteroviruses and the recombination potential between polioviruses and other EV-Cs. PMID:27642136

  16. Circulation of multiple serotypes of highly divergent enterovirus C in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Fan, Qin; Song, Yang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiaolei; Huang, Guohong; Ji, Tianjiao; Hu, Lan; Wang, Dongyan; Yang, Qian; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Xinjiang EV-C strains had larger variation compared to the prototype and other modern strains. Additionally, the results showed unique characteristics of Xinjiang EV-Cs, such as the cytopathicity of CV-A1 strains to RD cells; the high divergence in CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, and CV-A20 strains; the divergence of Xinjiang CV-A24 from AHC-related CV-A24 variant stains distributed worldwide; and the circulation of two novel EV-C serotypes (EV-C96 and EV-C99). Evaluations of this dense and diverse EV-C ecosystem will help elucidate the processes shaping enteroviral biodiversity. This study will improve our understanding of the evolution of enteroviruses and the recombination potential between polioviruses and other EV-Cs. PMID:27642136

  17. Retrospective Study to Determine Diagnostic Utility of 6 Commonly Used Lung Cancer Biomarkers Among Han and Uygur Population in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of People's Republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Yang-Chun, Feng; Min, Feng; Di, Zhang; Yan-Chun, Huang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Early diagnosis was the main way to improve the survival rate of lung cancer patients. At present, the methods to diagnose lung cancer were varied, but early diagnosis of lung cancer was still difficult. In experimental and clinical studies, lung cancer related tumor markers were helpful to the early diagnosis of lung cancer. So far, there were many studies about lung cancer related tumor markers in China, but the subjects in these studies were almost the Han population. There were few studies about the Uygur population. Xinjiang was a multi-ethnic region in China, the ratios of Han and Uygur population were 40% and 45%, respectively. Xinjiang also was a high incidence area of lung cancer in China. The purpose of this study was to research the application of 6 tumor markers in Uygur and Han lung cancer patients in XinJiang, China. The study collected 342 cases who were diagnosed as lung cancer in Tumor Hospital Affiliated to XinJiang Medical University from May 2012 to December 2012. Serum concentrations of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), cytokeratin fragment 19 (CYFRA21-1), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), precursor of gastrin-releasing peptide (Pro-GRP), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were tested for every patient before radiation, chemotherapy, or surgery. The serum concentrations of SCC, CYFRA21-1, CEA, CA125, and Pro-GRP were assayed using the micro-particle luminescence analysis testing by the Abbott ARHCITECT i2000SR immunoanalyzer. NSE was assayed by the electrochemical luminescence analysis testing using Roche Cobas E601 electrochemical luminescence analyzer. Serum levels of SCC were different between 2 ethnic populations, smoking should be the influence factor to create the difference. Cluster analysis showed that the NSE and Pro-GRP were helpful to identify small cell lung cancer (SCLC), and CEA, CA125, SCC, CYFRA21-1 were beneficial to diagnose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The compare of diagnosis

  18. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China.  PMID:25081273

  19. The bumblebees of North China (Apidae, Bombus Latreille).

    PubMed

    An, Jiandong; Huang, Jiaxing; Shao, Youquan; Zhang, Shiwen; Wang, Biao; Liu, Xinyu; Wu, Jie; Williams, Paul H

    2014-07-08

    Bumblebees are important pollinators for wild flowers and agricultural crops. North China is a region of varied geomorphology and vegetation, with plateaus, plains, mountains and deserts, and is part of the greatest hotspot of bumblebee diversity worldwide. We report on a field survey of the bumblebees of North China made between 2005-2012. A sample of 21,636 bumblebee specimens are assigned to 76 species. One older specimen held in London added one more species to this list. Together, these 77 species represent 10 subgenera of the genus Bombus. Seven species are recorded from North China for the first time: B. (St.) distinguendus, B. (Th.) anachoreta, B. (Th.) pseudobaicalensis, B. (Th.) exil, B. (Ps.) campestris, B. (Pr.) infirmus and B. (Ag.) validus. We provide identification keys for both males and females, photographs of the common colour patterns, and distribution maps for all species. We describe variation in local species richness and abundance, and list the food plants used by bumblebees in North China. The most abundant 10 bumblebee species are: B. (Ml.) pyrosoma, B. (Bo.) lantschouensis, B. (Bo.) patagiatus, B. (St.) melanurus, B. (Sb.) sibiricus, B. (Bo.) ignitus, B. (Th.) hedini, B. (Pr.) picipes, B. (Mg.) trifasciatus and B. (Mg.) longipes. Bumblebees are distributed widely within North China, from low elevations near the edge of the North-China plain to high elevations at the edge of the east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (65-4011 m). The highest species richness is found in meadows of the high elevation east Qinghai-Tibetan plateau and in forests of the Qilianshan mountains in southwestern Gansu. The 337 food plant species recorded here belong to 49 families, showing that bumblebees play an important role in interconnecting agricultural and natural ecosystems in North China

  20. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Choiniere, Jonah N; Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Guo, Yu; Han, Fenglu

    2010-01-29

    The fossil record of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs closely related to birds remains poor. A new theropod from the earliest Late Jurassic of western China represents the earliest diverging member of the enigmatic theropod group Alvarezsauroidea and confirms that this group is a basal member of Maniraptora, the clade containing birds and their closest theropod relatives. It extends the fossil record of Alvarezsauroidea by 63 million years and provides evidence for maniraptorans earlier in the fossil record than Archaeopteryx. The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb.

  1. Isotopes and sustainability of ground water resources, North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Zongyu, Chen; Zhenlong, Nie; Zhaoji, Zhang; Jixiang, Qi; Yunju, Nan

    2005-01-01

    Ground water in deep confined aquifers is one of the major water resources for agricultural, industrial, and domestic uses in the North China Plain. Detailed information on ground water age and recharge is vital for the proper management of these water resources, and to this end, we used carbon 14 of dissolved inorganic carbon and tritium in water to measure the age and determine the recharge areas of ground water in the North China Plain. These isotopic data suggest that most ground water in the piedmont part of the North China Plain is <40 years old and is recharged locally. In contrast, ground water in the central and littoral portions of the North China Plain is 10,000 to 25,000 years old. The delta18O (deltaD) values of this ground water are 1.7 per thousand (11 per thousand) less than that in the piedmont plain ground water and possibly reflect water recharged during a cooler climate during the last glaciation. The temperature of this recharge, based on delta18O values, ranges from 3.7 degrees C to 8.4 degrees C, compared to 12 degrees C to 13 degrees C of modern recharge water. The isotopic data set combined indicates that ground water in the central and littoral part of the North China Plain is being mined under non-steady state conditions.

  2. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  3. The prevalence and adverse profiles of fatty liver disease among different ethnic public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Guan, Jie; Xie, Xiang; Zhao, Wei-Yun; Abulaiti, Palida; Wang, Yu; Cheng, Zhi-Qin; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this survey was to confirm the prevalence and adverse profiles of fatty liver disease among different ethnic public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang. Methods: The cross-sectional study were implemented among serving and retired public servants who participated in the annual physical check-up including abdominal ultrasonography from April 2012 to April 2013 at the health promotion center of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University in Urumqi. The information including questionnaires, anthropometric indexes and biochemical profiles were collected to analyze. Results: There were 46612 individuals ranging from 20 to 93 years of age included in the analysis. There were 39120 of Han, 4148 of Uygur, 877 of Kazakh, 2098 of Hui, and 369 of other ethnic groups. The prevalence of FLD in total, Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh and other ethnic group were 32.0%, 31.2%, 31.5%, 39.3%, 36.4% and 32.8%. Uygur was significantly higher than the other ethnic groups both male and female (P < 0.01) and male was higher than female regardless of ethnicity (P < 0.01). FLD co-exiting with DM, hypertension, obesity, overweight and dysliplidemia (especially for hypertriglyceridemia) were common and distribution of these diseases were significantly different among various ethnicity (P < 0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that there were different in adverse factors including age, gender, DM, obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension of FLD among ethnicity and obesity having higher OR value in each ethnic group can be as predictive index of FLD. Conclusions: The high prevalence of FLD is present among public servants in Urumqi of Xinjiang, China. The prevalence of FLD is significantly different in different ethnic groups and genders. Distributions of adverse factors are disparate in different ethnicity. Comprehensive strategies for the prevention and treatment of FLD should be explored basing on the ethnic differences. PMID:26309579

  4. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  5. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  6. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  7. Geochronology and isotope geochemistry of the Baogutu porphyry copper deposit in the West Junggar region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ping; Shen, Yuanchao; Pan, Hongdi; Li, Xian-hua; Dong, Lianhui; Wang, Jingbin; Zhu, Heping; Dai, Huawu; Guan, Weina

    2012-04-01

    The Baogutu copper deposit, a newly-discovered middle-sized porphyry copper deposit, is located in the West Junggar region of Xinjiang, NW China. Baogutu is associated with a Late Carboniferous intrusive complex that was emplaced into Lower Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary strata. The intrusive complex comprises main-stage diorites and minor late-stage diorite porphyries. Their intrusive activity occurred in 313.0 ± 2.2 Ma to 312.3 ± 2.2 Ma based on U-Pb zircon SIMS analyses. Molybdenite separated from ore-bearing quartz veins yields Re-Os model ages from 309.4 ± 4.4 Ma to 314.1 ± 4.5 Ma with a weighted mean age of 312.4 ± 1.8 Ma. Biotites, separated from fresh diorite and hydrothermal breccias in main-stage diorites, yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 308.26 ± 1.88 and 305.69 ± 1.76 Ma, respectively. These dates obtained from three independent dating techniques constrain the ore-forming age of the Baogutu deposit. Stable isotopes (H, O, S) and radiogenic isotope (Pb) have been used to discriminate the sources of the ore-forming fluid at Baogutu. The δ18O (1.14-1.74‰) and δD (-74‰ to -98‰) data indicate that the water of the ore-forming fluids was derived from magmatic water. The δ34S values (-0.24‰ to +0.4‰) show that the sulfur isotope composition of the ore fluids is characterized by magma sulfur. Lead isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 17.92-18.89, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.45-15.62, 208Pb/204Pb = 37.68-38.36) indicate that the lead of the ore fluids is derived from the mantle. These data confirm the occurrence of a Cu-Au-Mo mineralizing event at Late Carboniferous in the Baogutu region and the ore-forming fluids are mainly derived from the mantle. The event is inferred to be associated with Late Carboniferous Junggar oceanic crust subduction.

  8. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland. PMID:26675454

  9. Geomorphic assessment of the tectonic activity of Qiulitagh fold-belt, Kuqa foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint Carlier, Dimitri; Graveleau, Fabien; Delcaillau, Bernard; Hurtrez, Jean-Emmanuel; Vendeville, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Qiulitagh fold belt is an anticline structure located in the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (southern Tian Shan, China), whose active folding is well documented by structural and palaeomagnetic studies (Chen et al., 2007; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2007; Li et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2011). The topography of Quilitagh fold belt can be divided into two SW-NE parallel ridges: 1) a 90 km long northern ridge, composed of the Northern Qiulitagh anticline and the Yakelike anticline, and 2) a 165km long southern ridge, composed of the Southern Qiulitagh anticline and the Mishikantage anticline. Due to the current absence of vegetation and relative homogeneity of outcropping lithologies (mainly Neogene detrital sandstone and silstone), these anticlines provide exceptional field cases for investigating the dynamic relationships between fold growth mechanisms, the subsurface structures, the geomorphic entities and the drainage network evolution. We used free topographic and satellite image datasets to carry out a morphometric study of the Quilitagh fold-belt and investigate the kinematics of active folding. Topographic datasets include Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from the NASA SRTM V.4.0 and ASTER programs, whereas satellite images are extracted from Landsat 7 shots and Google Earth. These datasets were incorporated in GIS software where three scales of observation were investigated: 1) a global fold scale, 2) a drainage basin scale and 3) a valley scale. At the drainage basin scale, we selected about 250 items and quantified several geomorphic indices of relative active tectonic growth. These are the basin mean slope, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and local relief. We also used published seismic profiles to link the 3D subsurface geometry of the salt-related Qiulitagh fold belt with the geomorphic signal. Results indicate that the morphometry of Quilitagh drainage basins (hypsometry, drainage basin asymmetry, local relief, valley incision, steepness index) change

  10. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  11. The incidence and species composition of Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Li, Kai; Hu, De-Fu

    2016-02-15

    A survey was conducted on the detection of the larval Gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in Xinjian, China, from 2008 to 2013. All 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval Gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (L2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (L3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of L2:L3=1:17. Over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. The highest totals of L2 and L 3 larvae in any one animal were 1208 in Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), 2491 in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), and 1785 in the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus). Six species of Gasterophilus were identified, with the following proportions of overall parasite abundance: Gasterophilus pecorum 88.94%, Gasterophilus nigricornis 4.94%, Gasterophilus nasalis 3.93%, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1.91%, Gasterophilus intestinalis 0.19%, and Gasterophilus inermis 0.087%. A majority of equines (n=32, 35.57%) was infested with five Gasterophilus species, while 29 animals (32.22%) harboured four species, 13 animals (14.44%) had six, 12 animals (13.33%) had three, three (3.33%) had two, and one (1.11%) had only one species. The percentage of Przewalski's horses infested was higher than local domestic horse or Mongolian wild ass.

  12. The incidence and species composition of Gasterophilus (Diptera, Gasterophilidae) causing equine myiasis in northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Li, Kai; Hu, De-Fu

    2016-02-15

    A survey was conducted on the detection of the larval Gasterophilus species in 90 equines via necropsy or after administering oral ivermectin in Xinjian, China, from 2008 to 2013. All 90 (100%) equines were infested by larval Gasterophilus, and 3723second instar larvae (L2) and 63,778 third instar larvae (L3) were collected from faecal samples and the digestive tract, a ratio of L2:L3=1:17. Over 84.45% of the animals contained ≤1500 larvae and 7.78% had >2000 larvae. The highest totals of L2 and L 3 larvae in any one animal were 1208 in Mongolian wild ass (Equus hemionus hemionus), 2491 in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), and 1785 in the domestic horse (Equus ferus caballus). Six species of Gasterophilus were identified, with the following proportions of overall parasite abundance: Gasterophilus pecorum 88.94%, Gasterophilus nigricornis 4.94%, Gasterophilus nasalis 3.93%, Gasterophilus haemorrhoidalis 1.91%, Gasterophilus intestinalis 0.19%, and Gasterophilus inermis 0.087%. A majority of equines (n=32, 35.57%) was infested with five Gasterophilus species, while 29 animals (32.22%) harboured four species, 13 animals (14.44%) had six, 12 animals (13.33%) had three, three (3.33%) had two, and one (1.11%) had only one species. The percentage of Przewalski's horses infested was higher than local domestic horse or Mongolian wild ass. PMID:26827858

  13. Multicultural Education and the Acculturation of Students in the Interior-Region Xinjiang Senior Middle School Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Jihua

    2010-01-01

    Starting in 2000, the state began to set up interior-region Xinjiang senior middle school classes (the Xinjiang Class) in developed cities in China's interior ("neidi"). Cross-cultural adaptation is a very important issue for students from Xinjiang if they are to study and live in China's interior regions. Based on the perspective of cultural…

  14. Holocene environmental fluctuations of Lake Bosten (Xinjiang, China) inferred from ostracods and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischke, S.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Bosten is an oligohaline lake in an intermontane basin of the Tianshan Mountains in northwestern China. The open-basin lake receives water from a large catchment area (56,000 km2) with the Kaidu River as its main tributary. A core of 9.25 m length was drilled at 6.25 m water depth in the southwestern part of the lake near the Kaidu river inflow. Sediments of the core contain authigenic carbonate materials, including calcitic shells of ostracods, charophyte-oogonia and stem incrustations. Five AMS-dating results provided the base to establish the chronology of the core which extends back to about 8.4 cal. ka BP. The majority of the ostracod taxa from the core may be classified into two different groups comprising littoral taxa (Cyclocypris ovum, Cypridopsis vidua, Darwinula stevensoni, Fabaeformiscandona hyalina, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, Heterocypris salina) and taxa reflecting profundal conditions (Candona neglecta, Cytherissa lacustris and Fabaeformiscandona caudata). Among these taxa, C. neglecta and D. stevensoni were the most abundant ostracod species providing more than 50 % of the fossil shells in most core samples. Where C. neglecta peaks D. stevensoni often shows minima abundances and vice versa. Stable isotope data derived from ostracod calcite display large variations throughout the core. d18O and d13C values vary over a range of 10 ‰ and 6.7 ‰ respectively. These large ranges may reflect that Lake Bosten responded like a semi-closed lake at least. Low lake levels inferred from species assemblages correspond to lowest d18O values thus indicating the influence of isotopically light river water at the core site and a low residence time and salinity. High d18O values correspond to higher abundances of Candona neglecta and low abundances of littoral taxa pointing towards deeper conditions, a higher distance of the core site from the river inflow, a higher residence time and corresponding salinity of the lake water. On the base of ostracod and stable

  15. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  16. Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

  17. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

  18. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (⩽0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, Σ14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and δ 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y

  19. Cross-sectional study of sociodemographic patterning of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in three isolated-based subgroups of the Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jingmei; Wufuer, Mayila; Simayi, Amuti; Nijiati, Muyesai; Fan, Ming; Zhu, Pengcheng; Chen, Fenghui; Shan, Guangliang; Xue, Fang; Tian, Xiaobing; Li, Feng; Hou, Lei; Han, Wei; Cheng, Zuheng; Qiu, Changchun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the sociodemographic patterning of risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in three isolated-based subgroups of the Uyghur population in Xinjiang, China. Design A cross-sectional study. Between 2005 and 2008, a non-probability sampling design method was used to select three specific groups of the Uyghur rural populations based on their potential socioeconomic status (ie, isolated, semi-isolated and open-environment status). Setting Three communities (named Desert, Turpan and Yuli Rob) in Southern Xinjiang autonomous region, China. Participants 1656 people were included in this study. The inclusion criteria were that all participants were 18 years or older, they were descendants of at least three generations living in the same region, and there was no history of intermarriage. Main outcome measures The prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, tobacco use, alcohol use, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, etc) was assessed. Results Compared with the Desert and Turpan communities, Yuli Rob had the highest levels of obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension, and the Desert had the lowest levels of CVD risk factors. Age standardisation slightly altered the estimates, though the patterns remained unchanged. Some unique characteristics were also found. For example, the Desert group displayed significantly lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) level compared with Yuli Rob and Turpan groups. The mean values were 0.63, 1.06 and 1.45 mmol/l for men and 0.64, 1.22 and 1.51 mmol/l for women (p<0.0001). The HDLC levels in the Desert group increased with increase in body mass index and fasting glucose levels, which was inconsistent with previous studies. Conclusions Identifying the unique CVD risk factors of the ethnic-specific populations is very important in development of tailored strategies for the prevention of CVD. PMID:23503578

  20. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton. PMID:15602559

  1. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China.

  2. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. PMID:27241206

  3. Analysis of carbon monoxide budget in North China.

    PubMed

    Peng, Li; Zhao, Chunsheng; Lin, Yunping; Zheng, Xiangdong; Tie, Xuexi; Chan, Lo-Yin

    2007-01-01

    A global chemical transport model (MOZART-2; model of ozone and related tracers, version 2) was used to assess physical and chemical processes that control the budget of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) in North China. Satellite observations of CO from the measurements of pollution in the troposphere (MOPITT) instrument are combined with model results for the analysis. The comparison between the model simulations and the satellite observations of total column CO (TCO) shows that the model can reproduce the spatial and temporal distributions. However, the model results underestimate TCO by 23% in North China. This underestimation of TCO may be caused by the uncertainties of emissions. The tropospheric CO budget analysis suggests that in North China, surface emission is the largest source of tropospheric CO. The main sinks of tropospheric CO in this region are chemical reaction and stratosphere_and_troposphere exchange. The analysis also shows that most of inflow CO to Pacific regions comes from the upwind regions of North China. This transport of CO is significant during Winter and Spring time. PMID:17092540

  4. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.

  5. The population distribution pattern in Xinjiang autonomous region.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X

    1994-01-01

    Population distribution in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in China follows a high-density horseshoe-shaped pattern of oases surrounded by mountains and desert comprising 70% of the territory. The Region has the largest geographic area of all provinces, has 15.8 million people, and a population density of 9.5/sq. km. 90% of the total population lives in the more than 500 oases, with a population density of 200 people/sq. km. About 80% of the population has lived in the northwestern part of the province over the past 40 years; density is 15.5 people/sq. km compared to only 3.2 people/sq. km in the southeast. Population concentration is affected by natural resource distribution (water), industrial and agricultural production, transportation, and immigration. Population density increased by 4.7 times in northern Xinjiang, 1.2 times in the south, and 2.9 times in the east. Population concentration is also affected by elevation patterns. The largest population (46.33%) is situated in areas 1000-1500 meters above sea level, with declines at either increased or decreased elevations. Population density declines as elevation increases. Most of the old oases were situated in basins between 500 and 1000 meters in the north and between 1000 and 1500 meters in the south. Areas below 500 meters in the north and areas below 100 meters in the south are desert. Population distribution varied among the southern slope of the Altay Mountains, the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains between 100 and 2500 meters, the eastern part of the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the southern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the western part of the southern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains, in Pamirs and the eastern slope of the Tianshan Mountains, and old oases at 500-1000 meters in the heart of Xinjiang, where major transportation routes cross China.

  6. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: a case-control study in north-west China.

    PubMed

    Tang, L; Lee, A H; Xu, F; Zhang, T; Lei, J; Binns, C W

    2014-01-01

    The north-western region of China carries a big burden of esophageal cancer with incidence above the national average. This study ascertained the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of esophageal cancer in this remote part of China. A case-control study was undertaken in Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China, between 2008 and 2009. Participants were 359 incident esophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. Information on habitual fruit and vegetable consumption was obtained by face-to-face interview using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the strength of the associations. The esophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less fruits (mean 364.3, standard deviation [SD] 497.4 g) and vegetables (mean 711.4, SD 727.9 g) daily than their counterparts without the disease (mean 496.5, SD 634.4 g and mean 894.5, SD 746.1 g, respectively). The adjusted odds ratios were 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.33-0.71) and 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.32-0.68) for consuming at least 515 g of fruits and 940 g of vegetables per day, respectively, relative to at most 170 g and 520 g. With respect to nutrients contained in fruits and vegetables, intakes of vitamin C, vitamin E, β-cryptoxanthin, potassium, and magnesium at high levels also reduced the esophageal cancer risk. In conclusion, inverse associations were evident between consumption of fruits and vegetables and the risk of esophageal cancer for adults residing in north-west China.

  7. Early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Ren; Wei, Hong-Hong; Wu, Guo-Li; Duan, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton based on investigations of Triassic-Middle Jurassic successions and age determinations of some lithostratigraphic units and dikes cutting tilted early Mesozoic strata. It used to be regarded that the northern North China craton experienced fold-thrust deformations in the Triassic to Early Jurassic based on the occurrences of unconformity beneath Triassic/Lower Jurassic units, synorogenic conglomerate, and Late Triassic thrusting. We revisited early Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Xiabancheng basin in the middle Yanshan belt to restore tectonic environments during that period of time. Detrital zircon data reveal that the Liujiagou and Ermaying Formations are actually of Middle and Late Triassic ages, respectively. Field observations show that the Ermaying and Xingshikou Formations are conformable, making up a sequence from fluvial to alluvial-fan facies. It is also noticeable that Lower-Middle Jurassic Xingshikou through Xiahuayuan succession is typified by fining- and deepening-upward depositional trend and contains abundant volcaniclastic rocks, indicative of continued subsidence of the Xiabancheng basin in a volcanic setting. All the results cast doubts on the long-held view that the first phase of shortening in the northern North China craton happened in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. The angular unconformity beneath Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan volcanics registered shortening in the northern North China craton, which plausibly took place around 170 Ma on account of zircon U-Pb ages of two dikes penetrating deformed Middle Triassic-Lower Jurassic strata and ages of Tiaojishan volcanics above the unconformity. Given the widespread occurrence of magmatism, rift basins and metamorphic core complexes during the Triassic and Early Jurassic, it follows that the northern North China craton was more likely under an extensional setting during the early Mesozoic.

  8. Area integrated emission of biogenic nitric oxide by Lagrangian dispersion modeling (LASAT): Milan oasis, Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, M.; Wu, Z.; Behrendt, T.; Fechner, A. D.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mamtimin, B.

    2012-04-01

    Today's knowledge of soil biogenic NO emission rates from arid and hyper-arid land is based on a total of about 20 experimental studies. Nevertheless, biogenic NO emissions even from non-managed arid and hyper-arid soils are significant and may range between 1-10 ng m-2 s-1 (in terms of nitrogen, if conditions for soil NO production are favourable (optimum soil moisture, high soil temperatures). Irrigated and fertilized oases, ranging about 3000 km long around the great Central Asian Taklimakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). Recent and future development of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. Up to today, only a few studies have preliminarily addressed soil biogenic NO emissions from the Taklimakan desert. In our contribution, we will focus on the quantification of the area integrated NO emission from the Milan oasis located on the most southern fringe of the Takalimkan desert (39.26° N, 88.91° E). At a first step, the 3D distribution of ambient NO concentration is calculated using a state-of-the-art commercially available dispersion model (LASAT 3.2, Lagrange Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). Performing the dispersion simulation, transport and turbulent diffusion are simulated for a group of representative "simulation particles" by means of a stochastic process (Lagrange simulation). Surface sources (individual cotton fields, Jujube orchards) are known: their geographical location as well as their areal extent, their stage of vegetation growth as well as irrigation and fertilization events and amounts, soil temperatures and soil water contents. This information is used to up-scale our results of field specific potential net NO emission, which has been parameterized in terms of soil temperature, soil water content, and soil nutrient

  9. The Hatu gold anomaly, Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, China - testing the hypothesis of aeolian transport of gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Theobald, P.K.; Shiquan, S.; Tianxiang, R.; Zhihui, H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration was initiated to evaluate the origin of the Hatu gold anomaly. The anomaly is located in the Hatu mining district in the northwest corner of Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region in northwest China. The climate is semiarid to arid and wind erosion predominates. A regional soil survey of the Hatu district, based on samples collected on a 200 by 500 m grid and composited prior to chemical analysis to a density of one sample per square km, delineated a series of south-southeast-trending Au anomalies. Anomalous Au values range from 5 ppb to more than 700 ppb. The Hatu anomaly, the most prominent of these anomalies, is more than 30 km long and about 5 km wide. The mining town of Hatu and the economic gold deposits of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2 are at the northern end of this anomaly. The axis of the Hatu anomaly cuts across mapped structure and stratigraphy in the district, but is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. This observation led to the hypothesis that the Hatu anomaly is the result of acolian dispersion of gold from the vicinity of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2. The alternative interpretation, that the anomalies reflected additional primary gold occurrences, was not consistent with existing information on the known occurrences and the geology. The investigation led to the identification of three types of gold in heavy-mineral concentrates derived from stream sediments that were collected along the axis of the Hatu anomaly: (1) free gold, (2) gold in pyrite, and (3) gold included in quartz. Gold in quartz was only observed within 2 km of Qiqu 1. The size of the gold particles and the number of gold particles in these samples did not decrease with distance from Qiqu 1 as would be expected from aeolian or fluvial dispersion from a point source. Instead, both the size and amount of gold increased significantly at a distance of 3.5 km from Qiqu 1 and this

  10. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  11. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China.

    PubMed

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7-1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia.

  12. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  13. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  14. A methodology of characterizing status and trend of land changes in oases: a case study of Sangong River watershed, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, G P; Zhou, C H; Chen, X; Li, Y

    2008-09-01

    Land change is often studied with Markov models to develop a probability transition matrix. The existing methods dependent on such matrixes cannot effectively characterize some important aspects associated with land change such as status, direction, trend and regional variations. This study presents mathematical models to quantify these elements, defining unbalanced, quasi-balanced and balanced status, one- and two-way transitions and the rising or falling trends. Using these models and remote-sensing imageries, the landscape was studied for a case area, the oasis of Sangong River in Xinjiang, Northwest China where typical arid conditions prevail. Land expansion and contraction among various land types and for the entire oasis were analyzed for the periods of 1978-1987, 1978-1998 and 1987-1998. The changes were closely related to a strong economic growth after the land-reform campaign and adoption of the market economy in China in the 1980s to early 1990s, a process not strictly Markovian that requires stationarity and randomness. Information on land-change status and trend is important for a better understanding of the underlying driving processes but also for land-use planning and decision-making.

  15. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  16. Re Os dating of two Cu Ni sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang, NW China and its geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zuoheng; Mao, Jingwen; Du, Andao; Pirajno, Franco; Wang, Zhiliang; Chai, Fengmei; Zhang, Zhaochong; Yang, Jianmin

    2008-03-01

    Mafic-ultramafic intrusions in northern Xinjiang are located along major fault zones. Some of these intrusions host Cu-Ni sulfide deposits and amongst these are two economically important Cu-Ni deposits - Kalatongke (also called Karatungk) and Huangshan East (Huangshandong). Sulfides from these deposits were selected for a Re-Os geochronological study in order to understand the tectonic and metallogenic environment of the mafic-ultramafic intrusions and the associated Cu-Ni sulfide deposits in northern Xinjiang. Re-Os dating of Cu-Ni sulfide ores in the Nos. 1 and 2 intrusions of the Kalatongke ore district and Huangshan East deposit gave isochron ages of 282.5 ± 4.8, 290.2 ± 6.9 and 284 ± 14 Ma, respectively, with initial 187Os/ 188Os ratios of 0.2563 ± 0.0073, 0.2721 ± 0.0053 and 0.241 ± 0.092. The γOs values of the Kalatongke and Huangshan East deposits range from 100.6 to 124.2 and from -25.6 to 235.9. These results indicate that the Cu-Ni sulfide mineralization in both deposits formed during the Early Permian (280-290 Ma). Integrating our field observations with published literature and the Re-Os data presented in this work, we suggest that the mafic-ultramafic rocks investigated were emplaced in a post-collisional extensional setting and the Cu-Ni sulfide ores were segregated from crustally contaminated magmas.

  17. Potential transport pathways of dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, in arid northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yongxiao; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Ma, Long; Wu, Na; Liu, Dongwei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the HYSPLIT model, driven with reanalysis meteorological data from 1978 to 2013, was used to understand the potential transport characteristics of dust and salt dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China. Daily air parcel trajectories were computed forward for 8 days from an origin centered over Ebinur Lake at 100 m above ground level. Air parcel trajectory density plots were mapped for seven levels: 0-100 m agl., 100-500 m agl., 500-1000 m agl., 1000-1500 m agl., 1500-2000 m agl., 2000-3000 m agl., and 3000-5000 m agl. These show that potential dust transport pathways have clear seasonal differentiation. The potential transport distance of dust and salt dust is greatest in spring and summer. In autumn and winter, the potential transport of the high-density air trajectory is below 1000 m traveling a shorter distance. Potential dust transport pathways showed notifying directivity in different seasons and heights. Southeast in spring and summer, and north to northeast in autumn and winter are the two main potential transport channels of dust and salt dust. Accordingly, dust and salt dust from the playa of Ebinur Lake may influence the atmospheric processes and biogeochemical cycles of a vast region. The main area of influence of dust and salt dust is close to the source area, and will significantly accelerate the melting of snow and ice in the Tianshan Mountains. This highlights the urgent need to combine remote sensing, isotope and other methods to further research the transport characteristics of dust and salt dust from the playa of the Ebinur Lake.

  18. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  19. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  20. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  1. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes. PMID:20480391

  2. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected by routine pap smear in Uyghur-Muslim women from Karasay Township Hotan (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mijit, Fatima; Ablimit, Tangnur; Abduxkur, Guzalnur; Abliz, Guzalnur

    2015-11-01

    HPV infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. We investigated HPV genotypes in the Uyghur female population of Karasay Township, Hotan region. A population-based cervical cancer screening was conducted for 4,500 women in Karasay Township, Xinjiang Hotan, China. A total of 900 women were selected by systematic sampling with a 5:1 proportion (ages 20-69). The subjects completed a questionnaire and consented to HPV typing and Pap smear examination. Colposcopic biopsies were performed for patients with cytological abnormalities (≥ ASCUS). A total of 117 of the 900 women (13%) assessed were infected with HPV. The most common subtype was HPV-16, and other common high-risk types included HPV-58 and HPV-39. A total of 40 women (4.44%) were identified with abnormal cytology (≥ ASCUS) by Pap smear. A significant link was found between HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis. The HPV infection rates for the patients with cervical inflammation, CIN, and cancer were 18.18%, 64.71%, and 100%, respectively. Significant differences in HPV infection rates were found among the patients with the three groups of pathological results. In Karasay, the HPV infection rate in Uyghur women is lower than previously reported; however, the proportion infected with HR-HPV is higher. HPV-16, HPV-58, and HPV-39 are the most prevalent genotypes.

  3. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10−6) and lower than priority risk levels (10−4) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4). PMID:27669274

  4. Double sampling for stratification for the monitoring of sparse tree populations: the example of Populus euphratica Oliv. forests at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tzeng Yih; Kleinn, Christoph; Coenradie, Bodo

    2011-04-01

    Desertification is a pressing issue in the dry Tarim River basin, which is under anthropogenic stresses. In this study, double sampling for stratification (DSS) is employed to inventory Populus euphratica Oliv. forests in the lower reaches of the Tarim River Basin in Xinjiang, China. The two objectives were evaluating DSS as a sampling technique for monitoring desertification and generating baseline information for permanent observation. Here, DSS consists of two phases: in phase 1, crown cover is observed on a large sample of plots on a high resolution satellite image, and these photo-plots are stratified into five crown cover strata. Phase 2 is a stratified random sample from these photo-plots and the sampled plots are field observed. Approximately 32% of the study area is without P. euphratica trees. As expected, estimated mean poplar tree density and basal area increase with crown cover. DSS takes advantages of stratification (fieldwork efficiency and statistical precision) without the need for a priori strata delineation. It proves feasible for inventory the sparse poplar population and holds promise for the assessment of trees outside the forest, where density varies considerably and pre-stratification is intractable. It can be integrated into permanent observation systems for monitoring vegetation changes.

  5. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    SciTech Connect

    Avouac, J.P.; Peltzer, G. |

    1993-12-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  6. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  7. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  8. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny.

  9. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes detected by routine pap smear in uyghur‐muslim women from Karasay Township Hotan (Xinjiang, China)

    PubMed Central

    Mijit, Fatima; Ablimit, Tangnur; Abduxkur, Guzalnur

    2015-01-01

    HPV infection is an important public health problem in developing countries. We investigated HPV genotypes in the Uyghur female population of Karasay Township, Hotan region. A population‐based cervical cancer screening was conducted for 4,500 women in Karasay Township, Xinjiang Hotan, China. A total of 900 women were selected by systematic sampling with a 5:1 proportion (ages 20–69). The subjects completed a questionnaire and consented to HPV typing and Pap smear examination. Colposcopic biopsies were performed for patients with cytological abnormalities (≥ASCUS). A total of 117 of the 900 women (13%) assessed were infected with HPV. The most common subtype was HPV‐16, and other common high‐risk types included HPV‐58 and HPV‐39. A total of 40 women (4.44%) were identified with abnormal cytology (≥ASCUS) by Pap smear. A significant link was found between HPV prevalence and cytological diagnosis. The HPV infection rates for the patients with cervical inflammation, CIN, and cancer were 18.18%, 64.71%, and 100%, respectively. Significant differences in HPV infection rates were found among the patients with the three groups of pathological results. In Karasay, the HPV infection rate in Uyghur women is lower than previously reported; however, the proportion infected with HR‐HPV is higher. HPV‐16, HPV‐58, and HPV‐39 are the most prevalent genotypes. J. Med. Virol. 87:1960–1965, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26081269

  10. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)). PMID:27669274

  11. Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiwo, J. P.; Tao, F.

    2015-06-01

    Worsening water storage depletion (WSD) contributes to environmental degradation, land subsidence and earthquake and could disrupt food production/security and social stability. There is need for efficient water use strategies in North China, a pivotal agrarian, industrial and political base in China with a widespread WSD. This study integrates satellite, model and field data products to investigate WSD and land subsidence in North China. In the first step, GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mass rates are used to show WSD in the region. Next, GRACE total water storage (TWS) is corrected for soil water storage (SWS) to derive groundwater storage (GWS) using GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation System) data products. The derived GWS is compared with GWS obtained from field-measured groundwater level to show land subsidence in the study area. Then GPS (Global Positioning System) data of relative land surface change (LSC) are used to confirm the subsidence due to WSD. A total of ~ 96 near-consecutive months (January 2002 through December 2009) of datasets are used in the study. Based on GRACE mass rates, TWS depletion is 23.76 ± 1.74 mm yr-1 or 13.73 ± 1.01 km3 yr-1 in the 578 000 km2 study area. This is ~ 31 % of the slated 45 km3 yr-1 water delivery in 2050 via the South-North Water Diversion Project. Analysis of relative LSC shows subsidence of 7.29 ± 0.35 mm yr-1 in Beijing and 2.74 ± 0.16 mm yr-1 in North China. About 11.53 % (2.74 ± 0.18 mm or 1.58 ± 0.12 km3) of the TWS and 8.37 % (1.52 ± 0.70 mm or 0.88 ± 0.03 km3) of the GWS are attributed to storage reductions accompanying subsidence in the region. Although interpretations of the findings require caution due to the short temporal and large spatial coverage, the concurrence of WSD and land subsidence could have adverse implications for the study area. It is critical that the relevant stakeholders embark on resource-efficient measures to ensure water availability, food security, ecological

  12. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  13. Geology of petroleum and coal deposits in the North China Basin, eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The North China Basin evolved from a rifted intercratonic graben system on the east-central Sino-Korean Platform during the Jurassic through Paleogene tectonic movement, and contains significant petroleum and coal resources. Petroleum production in the North China Basin ranks second after the Songliao Basin in China. The ultimate recoverable oil and gas reserves are 11,251 million barrels of oil and 8,425 billion ft{sup 3} of gas. Of the six petroleum-producing depressions within the basin, The Jiyang Depression ranks first, and is followed by the Jizhong Depression, where the rich Tertiary lacustrine source beds and deltaic sandstone reservoirs are extensive in areal distribution. Late Carboniferous to Permian coal reserves in the basin are estimated to be about 30 percent of total reserves (411.3 billion tons in the North China region). Because of deep burial of the coal beds (1,800 m) coal-mining activities are confined to the basin border.

  14. Biomarkers for the evaluation of population health status 16 years after the intervention of arsenic-contaminated groundwater in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Faye F; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Jian; Ng, Jack C

    2013-11-15

    The arsenicosis endemic area in the region of Kuitun and Chepaizi, Dzungaria district, Xinjiang, People Republic of China was the first identified arsenic endemic area in China where arsenic concentration of up to 850 μg/L in the groundwater was reported. An intervention was put in place in 1985 by government to provide an alternative water source at a centralized community level. Sixteen years on since the intervention, we evaluated the health status of 178 villagers from endemic and 179 villagers from control sites. Biomarkers in their urine, included arsenic, porphyrins and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured and the prevalence of skin lesions was also assessed. The average urinary arsenic (117 ± 8.3 μg/g of creatinine) from the endemic-villages was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of the controls (73.6 ± 3.2 μg/g of creatinine) while no significant difference was found in urinary porphyrins and malondialdehyde concentrations in the overall studies subjects from these two areas. However when the urinary arsenic was higher than 150 μg/g of creatinine, MDA and porphyrins were higher in the endemic-villagers compared to the controls. Fifty-one out of 178 people from the arsenic endemic area showed skin lesions related to arsenicosis but these were absent among villagers from the control site. Of particular concern, skin lesions related to arsenicosis were observed in 4 out of 9 subjects 16 years of age or younger who were from different villages and born after the completion of water intervention. Although sporadic exposure and/or voluntary drinking contaminated water were thought to be a contributor of arsenicosis after the water intervention, the contribution from other dietary arsenic intakes remain unclear.

  15. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources. PMID:24564152

  16. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources.

  17. Evaluation of dust activity and climate effects in North China.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiang-ao; Liang, Feng; Wang, Ming-xing

    2004-01-01

    TOMS/AI data with nearly 20 years are utilized in the paper to evaluate dust activities in North China. Combined with simultaneous NCEP reanalysis climate data, climate effects on dust activities are assessed. The results showed that the whole North China suffers impact by dust aerosols, with three centers standing out in TOMS/AI spring average map that are western three basins, which are characterized by lower annual precipitation and elevation. Gobi deserts in Mongolia Plateau do not attain higher TOMS/AI value due to cloud contamination and relative higher elevation. Spring is the season with the highest TOMS dust aerosol index; within the western three basins, high dust aerosol index appears in both spring and summer, especially in Tarim Basin. Wind speed in spring and precipitation in previous rainy season play important roles in controlling dust activities, higher wind speed and less precipitation than the normal are in favor of dust activities in spring. Temperature in spring and previous winter also affect dust activity to a certain extent, but with contrary spatial distribution. Temperature in winter exert effect principally in west part, contrarily, temperature effect in spring is mainly shown in east part. Both of them have negative correlation with dust activity.

  18. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  19. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem. PMID:27228607

  20. Multi-scale response of runoff to climate fluctuation in the headwater region of Kaidu River in Xinjiang of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ling; Chen, Zhongsheng; Xu, Jianhua; Li, Weihong

    2016-08-01

    Based on the hydrological and meteorological data in the headwater region of the Kaidu River during 1960-2009, the multi-scale characteristics of runoff variability were analyzed using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), and the aim is to investigate the oscillation mode structure characteristics of runoff change and its response to climate fluctuation at different time scales. Results indicated that in the past 50 years, the overall runoff of Kaidu River in Xinjiang has showed a significant nonlinear upward trend, and its changes have obviously exhibited an inter-annual scale (quasi-3 and quasi-6-year) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-10 and quasi-25-year). Variance contribution rates of each component manifested that the inter-decadal change had been playing a more important role in the overall runoff change for Kaidu River, and the reconstructed inter-annual variation trend could describe the fluctuation state of the original runoff anomaly during the study period. The reconstructed inter-decadal variability effectively revealed that the runoff for Kaidu River changed over the years, namely the states of abundance and low water period appear alternately. In addition, we found that runoff has a positive correlation to precipitation and temperature at different time scales, but they are most significant and relevant at inter-decadal scale, indicating the inter-decadal scale is most suitable for investigating the responses of runoff dynamics to climate fluctuation. At the same time, the results also suggested that EEMD is an effective method to analyze the multi-scale characteristics of nonlinear and non-stationary signal.

  1. Characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Jiang, Fu-qiang; Xue, Chun-xiao; Xin, Guo-wei; Li, Kai-chong; Yang, Yin-hai

    2015-02-01

    Based on detailed long-term data of wind regimes collected from typical ventilation sites along the railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, this study systematically analyzes the characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along the railways by combining gradient sand sampling data collected by a wind-drift sand monitoring system and site survey data. Wind direction and speed rose diagrams revealed the prevailing wind direction in each wind area along the railways, and this is the wind direction from which the maximum frequency of sandstorms occurred. Drift potential characteristic parameters (RDP, RDD) and the direction variability (RDP/DP) showed that each wind area along the Gobi railway featured a long wind period, with strong power in a single wind direction. The special geological environment of the Gobi determines the wind-drift sand that features gravel of large grain size and unsaturation, which are different from the wind-drift sand in deserts. With increasing wind velocity, the density of the wind-drift sand increased steadily; however, at a certain critical value, the density surged. This study on the wind-sand environment of the Gobi has significance for railway safety. The critical value of wind velocity corresponded to an abrupt increase in the wind-drift sand density and should be taken into account during the planning process of railway safety passage, since this will lead to a decrease in frontal visual distance, and an associated decrease in safety. Additionally, the specific features of wind-drift sand activities, such as the abruptness and higher than usual sand height, should be considered during the process of designing sand-damage-control engineering measures.

  2. [Canopy light distribution and its correlation with photosynthetic production in super-high yielding cotton fields of Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Yi; Yao, Yan-Di; Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Ya-Li; Du, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Wang-Feng; Xia, Dong-Li; Dong, Heng-Yi

    2012-05-01

    Taking the super-high yielding cotton fields (lint yield > or = 4000 kg x hm(-2)) in Xinjiang as the objects, this paper studied the canopy light distribution, photosynthetic rate, and dry matter accumulation at different growth stages, as well as the relationships between the characteristics of canopy light environment and the photosynthetic production. From full flowering stage to late full bolling stage, the light absorption proportion in the upper, middle and lower canopy layers in the super-high yielding cotton fields was 2:2:1, and the canopy transmission coefficients for radiation penetration and diffuse penetration were 0.20-0.55 and 0.22-0.56, respectively, being at reasonable level. The leaves in the middle and lower canopy layers could well accept light, and the leaf photosynthetic rate had little difference among different canopy layers. Compared with high yielding (3500 kg x hm(-2)) and generally high yielding (3000 kg x hm(-2)) cotton fields, super-high yielding cotton field had higher leaf area index and the highest canopy photosynthesis rate at early full boiling stage, and slowly decreased leaf area index, higher canopy photosynthesis rate, increased contribution of non-foliar organs to photosynthetic production, and larger dry matter accumulation from early boll-opening stage to full boll-opening stage. In cotton cultivation, to adjust the canopy structure for the equidistribution of light and canopy photosynthesis capacity in vertical direction could be the important strategy for the efficient utilization of absorbed light energy and the realization of super-high yielding.

  3. Two episodes of 13C-depletion in organic carbon in the latest Permian: Evidence from the terrestrial sequences in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Changqun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Lujun; Shen, Shuzhong; Summons, Roger E.

    2008-06-01

    New analyses reveal two intervals of distinctly lower δ13C values in the terrestrial organic matter of Permian-Triassic sequences in northern Xinjiang, China. The younger negative δ13C org spike can be correlated to the conspicuous and sharp δ13C drops both in carbonate carbon and organic carbon near the Permian-Triassic event boundary (PTEB) in the marine section at Meishan. The geochemical correlation criteria are accompanied by a magnetic susceptibility pulse and higher abundances of distinctive, chain-like organic fossil remains of Reduviasporonites. The older negative δ13C org spike originates within a latest Permian regression. Significant changes in organic geochemical proxies are recorded in the equivalent interval of the marine section at Meishan. These include relatively higher concentrations of total organic carbon, isorenieratane, C 14-C 30 aryl isoprenoids and lower ratios of pristane/phytane that, together, indicate the onset of anoxic, euxinic and restricted environments within the photic zone. The massive and widespread oxidation of buried organic matter that induced these euxinic conditions in the ocean would also result in increased concentrations of 13C-depleted atmospheric CO 2. The latest Permian environmental stress marked by the older negative δ13C org episode can be correlated with the distinct changeover of ostracod assemblages and the occurrences of morphological abnormalities of pollen grains. These observations imply that biogeochemical disturbance was manifested on the land at the end of the Permian and that terrestrial organisms responded to it before the main extinction of the marine fauna.

  4. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2016-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  5. A non-plume model for the Permian protracted (266-286 Ma) basaltic magmatism in the Beishan-Tianshan region, Xinjiang, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Sheng-Chao; Li, Chusi; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    The convenient mantle plume model for the Permian protracted mafic-ultramafic intrusions and mafic dykes (266-286 Ma) in the Beishan-Tianshan region, northern Xinjiang, western China can be rejected, because their temporal-spatial distribution does not show a hotspot track predicted by such model. New zircon U-Pb ages reveal that two small mafic dyke clusters (Podong, 280.5 ± 2 Ma; Luodong, 266.2 ± 3.2 Ma) that are separated by only ~ 20 km in the Pobei area, the southernmost part of the Beishan-Tianshan region, have a large age difference of ~ 18 Ma. The older mafic dykes are characterized by nearly flat mantle-normalized rare-earth-element patterns, pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and positive εNd(t) values from 5.5 to 7.5, similar to the majority of the Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the region. The younger mafic dykes are characterized by significant light rare-earth-element enrichments as well as pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies, plus lower εNd(t) (- 1.2 to 2.6) values and higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the older mafic dykes. The observed compositional variations can be explained by source mantle heterogeneity plus different degrees of crustal contamination. Overall, the Permian mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Beishan-Tianshan region are geochemically consistent with the products of basaltic magmatism induced by lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere upwelling in a convergent tectonic zone.

  6. The Late Triassic and Late Jurassic stress fields and tectonic transmission of North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Guiting; Wang, Yanxin; Hari, K. R.

    2010-09-01

    The transmission of the tectonic regime from the Paleo-Asian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean during Mesozoic era was reconstructed using the modeling of Late Triassic (T 3) and Late Jurassic (J 3) stress fields employing two dimensional linear finite element models (2-D FEM). The model at T 3 proposes that Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogens coevally collided and the model J 3 proposes that Subei block continued to collide with the North China block along the Sulu orogen while the collision of the Qinling-Dabie orogen was terminated. The stress fields at T 3 and J 3 during the two episodes were calculated based on mechanical conditions under different deviatoric stresses acting along the boundaries of the North China craton by elastic finite modeling. The transmission between two episodes of stress fields resulted from Qinling-Dabie-Sulu collision between North China and South China in the Late Triassic period, and from continued collision between the Subei block and North China by the NW-trending movement of Izanagi plate during Late Jurassic. The results from modeling of the Mesozoic stress fields of the North China suggest that late Jurassic was the key transmission period of the tectonic regime of the North China block when large scale thrusting triggered the subsequent destruction of the North China craton.

  7. Petrogenesis of the Seleteguole granitoids from Jinhe county in Xinjiang (West China): Implications for the tectonic transformation of Northwest Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Su, Wen-Chao; Tang, Hong-Feng; Yan, Jia-Hui; Cao, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The Seleteguole Cu-Mo deposit in Jinghe County, Xinjiang is tectonically located on the northern margin of the Northwestern Tianshan. Three major intrusions including biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have been identified. The biotite granite, with a zircon U-Pb age of 307 ± 3 Ma, intruded carbonates and clastic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous Dongtujin Formation. The younger diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, with an identical zircon U-Pb age of 302 ± 3 Ma, locally intruded the biotite granite; where the granite in contact with the two porphyries were characterized by phyllic alteration. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that all granitoids in Seleteguole belong to calc-alkaline I-type. These granitoids are enriched in LILE relative to HFSE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, typical of arc-related rocks. All three granitoids have positive zircon εHf(t) values, low Mg# ratios (34-39), and low Cr (< 60 ppm) and Ni (< 15 ppm) contents, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from juvenile lower crust that has probably originated from cooling of mantle-derived magmas as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. Subducted sediments were involved in the source of the granitoids in Seleteguole. Compared to biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have higher Th/La ratios but lower zircon εHf(t) values, indicating that more subducted sediments contributed in the latter two. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Late Carboniferous igneous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that Late Carboniferous I-type granitoids, with juvenile Sr-Nd-(Hf) isotopic signatures, formed in a continent-marginal arc setting as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the Early Permian granitoids in the region, we suggest that the tectonic setting of

  8. Characteristics of groundwater recharge on the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiu-Cui; Wu, Jing-Wei; Cai, Shu-Ying; Yang, Jin-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater recharge is an important component of the groundwater system. On the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater is the main water supply. Because of large-scale overexploitation, the water table has declined, which has produced severe adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem. In this article, tracer experiment and watershed model were used to calculate and analyze NCP groundwater recharge. In the tracer experiment, average recharge was 108 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.16. With its improved irrigation, vegetation coverage and evapotranspiration modules, the INFIL3.0 model was used for calculation of groundwater recharge. Regional modeling results showed an average recharge of 102 mm/year and recharge coefficient 0.14, for 2001-2009. These values are very similar to those from the field tracer experiment. Influences in the two methods were analyzed. The results can provide an important reference for NCP groundwater recharge.

  9. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  10. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  11. Two modes of extension in the North China Craton: Insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.

    2013-12-01

    The North China Craton was formed around 1.8 Ga by collision and amalgamation of the Eastern and Western blocks. It remained tectonically stable since then until Mesozoic, when its eastern part experienced wide-distributed extension and volcanism. This distributed extension waned down in the early Cenozoic, and was replaced by localized extension (rifting) in the western part of the North China Craton. We have developed a series of viscoplastic finite element models to investigate the lithospheric conditions associated with these changing modes of extension in the North China Craton. Our results show that the wide-distributed extension in North China requires a thin and hot lithosphere, which is probably the result of delamination or thermal erosion of the lithospheric root under the eastern part of the North China Craton. The localized rifting during the late Cenozoic in the western part of the North China Craton indicates a relatively cold and thick lithosphere. Furthermore, preexisting lithospheric weakening was needed to explain the formation of the Late Cenozoic rift zones. These preexisting weakening zones may be inherited from the Paleoprotozoic collision that formed the North China Craton.

  12. Formation of the Shanxi Rift in North China: The control of preexisting lithospheric weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F.; Liu, M.; Ye, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Shanxi Rift is an active seismic zone in North China, developed mainly since Pliocene (~5 Ma). Its formation has been associated with the Indo-Asian collision; other hypothesized causes include a regional extensional stress field associated with subduction of the western pacific plate and mantle upwelling under the North China Plain. However, these mechanisms do not explain why the rift system did not form along the western boundary of the North China Plain, where lithospheric thickness changes sharply from more than 150 km under the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains to the west, to less than 70 km under the North China Plain. We have used a viscoplastic finite element model to explore the conditions for localized rifting in North China. Our results show that, for all the hypothesized causes, the preferred site of rifting would be along the boundary zone of changing lithospheric thickness. The only way to initiate the Shanxi rift in its current location, which is between the Ordos block and the Taihangshan Mountains with thick lithosphere, is to have preexisting lithospheric weakening there. This lithospheric weakness was likely formed during the collision between the Easter North China block and the Western North China block during the Paleoproterozoic (~1.8 Ga). Hence the ancient tectonic event still controls the young continental rifting.

  13. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  14. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant. PMID:23564427

  15. The making and remaking of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.

    2004-12-01

    The North China Block (NCB) consists of two major Archaean crustal nuclei that collided together by ca. 1800 Ma (e.g., Zhao, 2001), although some argue that they came together as early as ca. 2500 Ma (e.g., Zhai and Liu, 2003; Kusky and Li, 2004). No orogenic event is known within the NCB from ca. 1800 Ma until Permian. The shape and lithospheric architecture of this seemingly stable continental block were significantly reworked by Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Continental collision between the NCB and South China Block (SCB) started from their eastern ends as early as Permian, leading to the initial continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of 240-235 Ma UHP metamorphic rocks (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000; Ayers et al., 2002) to the crustal level by ca. 220 Ma (Hacker et al., 2000). This was followed by the development of flake tectonics in the region east of the Tanlu Fault between Late Triassic and mid-Jurassic (Li, 1994, 1998), where the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the SCB continued to subduct beneath the NCB, whereas the upper crust of the SCB, along with the UHP rocks at the upper crustal level along the former plate margin, were obducted over the lower crust of the NCB for up to 500 km. We thus have a composite crust in the Sulu-Yellow Sea-central Korea region. Extensive thin- to thick-skinned thrusting also developed in both the Jiao-Liao region east of the Tanlu Fault and the Xu-Huai and Luxi regions west of the Tanlu Fault during this process, all within the upper crust of the NCB. This complex crustal architecture may still influence distribution of epicentres in the region. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thin-skinned thrusts were well developed along northern NCB (e.g., Davis et al., 1998) possibly due to the closure of the Mongolo-Okhotsk sea to the north. For reasons still being debated, eastern NCB underwent dramatic lithospheric thinning (locally total erosion of lithospheric mantle?) during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary (e.g., O'Reilly et

  16. Human leukocyte antigen-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles are cervical cancer protective factors among Uighur and Han people in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jian Ming; Sun, Qi; Li, Ling; Liu, Chun Xia; Chen, Yun Zhao; Zou, Hong; Pang, Li Juan; Zhao, Jin; Yang, Lan; Cao, Yu Wen; Cui, Xiao Bin; Qi, Yan; Liang, Wei Hua; Zhang, Wen Jie; Li, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical cancer. However, only some high risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV)-infected women progress to cervical cancer, host immunogenetic factors human leukocyte antigen (HLA) may account for viral antigens presenting individually or together in the progression to cervical cancer. This study examined the association between the development of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602, HR-HPV infection among Chinese Uighur and Han populations. Blood samples, cervical swabs and biopsies were obtained from 287 patients with ICC (192 Uighurs and 95 Hans) and 312 healthy controls (218 Uighurs and 94 Hans). HPV DNA was detected by PCR and HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles were performed using PCR-SSP method. HPV16 infection rates was significantly higher among Uighur and Han with ICC as compared to healthy controls (OR = 58.317; 95% CI: 39.663-85.744; OR = 33.778; 95% CI: 12.581-90.691; P < 0.05 for all). HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 0.305; 95% CI: 0.115-0.813; P < 0.05) and HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype frequencies (OR = 0.274; 95% CI: 0.086-0.874; P < 0.05) were significantly reduced in Han ICC. The HLA-DQB1*0602 frequency significantly decreased among Uighur women with ICC (OR = 0.482; 95% CI: 0.325-0.716; P < 0.05). Similar tendencies were observed for DQB1*0602 with HPV16-positive ICC (OR = 0.550; 95% CI: 0.362-0.837; P < 0.05). This study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and DQB1*0602 alleles may influence the immune response to HPV16 infection and decrease the risk of ICC among Uighurs and Hans in Xinjiang, China. PMID:25337265

  17. [Dynamic changes in vegetation NDVI from 1982 to 2012 and its responses to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Du, Jia-qiang; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Zhao, Chenxi; Fang, Guang-ling; Yin, Jun-qi; Xiang, Bao; Yuan, Xin-jie; Fang, Shi-feng

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. Therefore, it has significance to monitor the growth of vegetation. Based on AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in NDVI and their linkage with climate change and human activity from 1982 to 2012 in the typical arid region, Xinjiang of northwestern China, at pixel and regional scales. At regional scale, although a statistically significant positive trend of growing season NDVI with a rate of 4.09 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ was found during 1982-2012, there were two distinct periods with opposite trends in growing season NDVI before and after 1998, respectively. NDVI in growing season first significantly increased with a rate of 10 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1982 to 1998, and then decreased with a rate of -3 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1998 to 2012. The change in trend of NDVI from increase to decrease mainly occurred in summer, followed by autumn, and the reversal wasn't observed in spring. At pixel scale, the NDVI in farmland significantly increased; the NDVI changes in the growing season and all seasons showed polarization: Areas with significant change mostly increased in size as the NDVI record grown in length. The rate of increase in size of areas with significantly decreasing NDVI was larger than that with significantly increasing NDVI, which led to the NDVI increase obviously slowing down or stopping at regional scale. The vegetation growth in the study area was regulated by both climate change and human activity. Temperature was the most important driving factor in spring and autumn, whereas precipitation in summer. Extensive use of fertilizers and increased farmland irrigated area promoted the vegetation growth. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation might reduce spring NDVI in the

  18. Formation mechanism of the lanthanide tetrad effect for a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-zhi; Liu, Si-hai; Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Lei, Ru-xiong

    2011-10-01

    The Baishitouquan (BST) pluton is a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite intrusion located in the Middle Tianshan orogen of Xinjiang, northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five lithological zones gradational from the bottom upwards: leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). Contents of REE and other trace elements were analysed on major and accessory minerals, including quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, white micas, topaz, fluorite, garnet, zircon and monazite, separated from above five zones of the BST pluton. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of minerals from zone-a to zone-e display clear convex tetrad effect, and the TE 1,3 (quantification factor of tetrad effect) values of these minerals increases from zone-a to zone-e, except that a quartz sample from zone-b and zircon from zone-c exhibits W-type tetrad effect. Therefore, we conclude that REE tetrad features of the minerals, such as quartz, plagioclase, zircon, garnet and monazite, are inherited directly from the melt and have not significantly affected by both fractional crystallization and surface weathering. With progressing of magmatic differentiation, total REE contents decrease, Eu anomaly becomes more negative, whereas Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho ratios decrease gradually from zone-a to zone-e with increasing TE 1,3 values. Therefore, we suggest that F-rich magmatic fluid-melt interaction above its solidus may leave the residual silicate melt with the features of very low contents of all REE, subchondritic Y/Ho, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, and with an M-type tetrad pattern, including minerals crystallizing from it. Such a pattern is manifested by both whole-rock and separate minerals. Hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction played only a minor role to the convex tetrad effect of the minerals and their host rocks.

  19. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  20. [Dynamic changes in vegetation NDVI from 1982 to 2012 and its responses to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Du, Jia-qiang; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Zhao, Chenxi; Fang, Guang-ling; Yin, Jun-qi; Xiang, Bao; Yuan, Xin-jie; Fang, Shi-feng

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. Therefore, it has significance to monitor the growth of vegetation. Based on AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in NDVI and their linkage with climate change and human activity from 1982 to 2012 in the typical arid region, Xinjiang of northwestern China, at pixel and regional scales. At regional scale, although a statistically significant positive trend of growing season NDVI with a rate of 4.09 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ was found during 1982-2012, there were two distinct periods with opposite trends in growing season NDVI before and after 1998, respectively. NDVI in growing season first significantly increased with a rate of 10 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1982 to 1998, and then decreased with a rate of -3 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1998 to 2012. The change in trend of NDVI from increase to decrease mainly occurred in summer, followed by autumn, and the reversal wasn't observed in spring. At pixel scale, the NDVI in farmland significantly increased; the NDVI changes in the growing season and all seasons showed polarization: Areas with significant change mostly increased in size as the NDVI record grown in length. The rate of increase in size of areas with significantly decreasing NDVI was larger than that with significantly increasing NDVI, which led to the NDVI increase obviously slowing down or stopping at regional scale. The vegetation growth in the study area was regulated by both climate change and human activity. Temperature was the most important driving factor in spring and autumn, whereas precipitation in summer. Extensive use of fertilizers and increased farmland irrigated area promoted the vegetation growth. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation might reduce spring NDVI in the

  1. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang. PMID:26950205

  2. Impact of karst water on coal mining in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongyu; Zhou, Wanfang

    2006-01-01

    Coalfields in North China encompass more than ten Provinces. They contain six to seven coal seams in the Permo-Carboniferous strata. The lower three seams account for 37% of the total reserves and are threatened with intrusion of karst water from the underlying Ordovician limestone. Hundreds of water inrush incidences have occurred, in which a large amount of water suddenly flows into tunnels or working faces under high potentiometric pressure. Over 50 mines have been flooded over the last 30 years. Large-scale dewatering or depressurizing of the karst aquifer was considered essential to avoid water inrushes and keep the mines safely operational. This practice, however, has caused sinkholes, dry springs, water supply shortage, and groundwater contamination in the surrounding areas. One alternative water control measure is to make full use of the rock layer between the coal seam and the karst aquifer as a protective barrier to prevent or constrain water flow from the underlying aquifer into the mines. Grouting is effective when the hydrogeological conditions are favorable to this technique. Proper design of the grouting program and experience of the contractor are also important for a successful application.

  3. [Evapotranspiration of winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiaxuan; Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Chang-Rong; Zhao, Quansheng; Mei, Xurong

    2006-12-01

    By using eddy covariance and remote sensing techniques, the relationships between winter wheat soil moisture content and farmland evapotranspiration or canopy temperature were analyzed at field scale under various environmental conditions in the North China Plain. The results showed that when the soil moisture content was below 65% of field capacity, the evaporative fraction under full canopy was low and stable during the middle part of clear days. Under clear sky condition, there was a good non-linear correlation between latent heat flux and crop canopy temperature with diurnal and seasonal patterns. The temperature difference between crop canopy and air as well as the relative evapotranspiration had a close link to the relative moisture content of 0 - 100 cm soil layer. Based on the in situ measurements of daily evapotranspiration amount (ET(d)), daily net radiation flux (Rn(d), mm), average canopy temperature (T(e), degrees C) from 13 : 30 to 14: 00, and daily maximum air temperature (T(a max), degrees C) during the field experiment, the parameters of simplified estimation model for daily evapotranspiration were established.

  4. Variation characteristics of ultraviolet radiation over the north china plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bo; Wang, Yuesi

    2014-01-01

    In situ measured data of broadband solar radiation ( R s) and ultraviolet ( U v) radiation were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variation properties of U v radiation and the ratio of U v radiation to R s over the North China Plain (NCP). Based on the analysis, an empirical model for estimating U v radiation under all weather conditions in this region was developed. The results showed that the annual U v radiation over the NCP ranges from 0.38-0.52 MJ m-2 d-1. The highest value during the study period was recorded at the Changwu site, which is located near the margin of the Loess Plateau, while the lowest value appeared at the station in Beijing. The seasonal variation pattern of the ratio of U v radiation to R s is similar to that of U v radiation; namely, the highest value appears in August and then decreases gradually until the lowest value appears in November. A small increasing trend in the U v radiation levels and the ratio of U v radiation to R s was observed over the NCP. The evaluation results showed that the empirical estimation model can be widely used to estimate U v radiation under all atmospheric conditions. The relative error between the modeled and measured daily values were within ±15%.

  5. Landsat and SPOT data for oil exploration in North-Western China

    SciTech Connect

    Nishidai, Takashi |

    1996-07-01

    Satellite remote sensing technology has been employed by Japex to provide information related to oil exploration programs for many years. Since the beginning of the 1980`s, regional geological interpretation through to advanced studies using satellite imagery with high spectral and spatial resolutions (such as Landsat TM and SPOT HRV), have been carried out, for both exploration programs and for scientific research. Advanced techniques (including analysis of airborne hyper-multispectral imaging sensor data) as well as conventional photogeological techniques were used throughout these programs. The first program using remote sensing technology in China focused on the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and was carried out using Landsat MSS data. Landsat MSS imagery allows us to gain useful preliminary geological information about an area of interest, prior to field studies. About 90 Landsat scenes cover the entire Xinjiang Uygru Autonomous Region, this allowed us to give comprehensive overviews of 3 hydrocarbon-bearing basins (Tarim, Junggar, and Turpan-Hami) in NW China. The overviews were based on the interpretations and assessments of the satellite imagery and on a synthesis of the most up-to-date accessible geological and geophysical data as well as some field works. Pairs of stereoscopic SPOT HRV images were used to generate digital elevation data with a 40 in grid cover for part of the Tarim Basin. Topographic contour maps, created from this digital elevation data, at scales of 1:250,000 and 1:100,000 with contour intervals of 100 m and 50 m, allowed us to make precise geological interpretation, and to carry out swift and efficient geological field work. Satellite imagery was also utilized to make medium scale to large scale image maps, not only to interpret geological features but also to support field workers and seismic survey field operations.

  6. Oasis land-use change and its effects on the eco-environment in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Yimit, Hamid; Eziz, Anwar; Ablimit, Ajigul

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data and the published coefficients about the world's and China's ecosystem were used to analyze the effects of land-use changes on the ecosystem service in the Yanqi Basin. Both economic developments and arid, fragile ecosystems have strongly affected the land use. A sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. Results indicated that (1) the total value of ecosystem services in the Yanqi Basin were 9,374.66, 10,450.52, 9,964.20, and 9,8707.77 million Yuan in 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. The net increase in ecosystem service values were about 496.11 million Yuan within 1990-2011; (2) The aggregated ecosystem service values of water body, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands were about 99.25 % of the total value; (3) Waste treatment and soil formation were the top two ecological functions with high service values and contributing about 61.70 % of the total service values; and (4) Ecosystem service values estimated in this study were inelastic with respect to the value coefficients; therefore, the estimation was robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. A reasonable land-use plan should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses for maintaining stability and sustainable development of the Yanqi Basin. PMID:24046238

  7. Oasis land-use change and its effects on the eco-environment in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Yimit, Hamid; Eziz, Anwar; Ablimit, Ajigul

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data and the published coefficients about the world's and China's ecosystem were used to analyze the effects of land-use changes on the ecosystem service in the Yanqi Basin. Both economic developments and arid, fragile ecosystems have strongly affected the land use. A sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. Results indicated that (1) the total value of ecosystem services in the Yanqi Basin were 9,374.66, 10,450.52, 9,964.20, and 9,8707.77 million Yuan in 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. The net increase in ecosystem service values were about 496.11 million Yuan within 1990-2011; (2) The aggregated ecosystem service values of water body, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands were about 99.25 % of the total value; (3) Waste treatment and soil formation were the top two ecological functions with high service values and contributing about 61.70 % of the total service values; and (4) Ecosystem service values estimated in this study were inelastic with respect to the value coefficients; therefore, the estimation was robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. A reasonable land-use plan should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses for maintaining stability and sustainable development of the Yanqi Basin.

  8. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  9. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  10. Mesozoic non-marine petroleum source rocks determined by palynomorphs in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, D.-X.; Wang, Y.-D.; Robbins, E.I.; Wei, J.; Tian, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in Northwest China hosts petroleum reservoirs of Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The sedimentary thickness in the basin reaches about 15 km and with an area of 560000 km2, the basin is expected to contain giant oil and gas fields. It is therefore important to determine the ages and depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. For prospective evaluation and exploration of petroleum, palynological investigations were carried out on 38 crude oil samples collected from 22 petroleum reservoirs in the Tarim Basin and on additionally 56 potential source rock samples from the same basin. In total, 173 species of spores and pollen referred to 80 genera, and 27 species of algae and fungi referred to 16 genera were identified from the non-marine Mesozoic sources. By correlating the palynormorph assemblages in the crude oil samples with those in the potential source rocks, the Triassic and Jurassic petroleum source rocks were identified. Furthermore, the palynofloras in the petroleum provide evidence for interpretation of the depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. The affinity of the miospores indicates that the petroleum source rocks were formed in swamps in brackish to lacustrine depositional environments under warm and humid climatic conditions. The palynomorphs in the crude oils provide further information about passage and route of petroleum migration, which is significant for interpreting petroleum migration mechanisms. Additionally, the thermal alternation index (TAI) based on miospores indicates that the Triassic and Jurassic deposits in the Tarim Basin are mature petroleum source rocks. ?? Cambridge University Press 2008.

  11. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  12. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  13. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  14. Updated precipitation reconstruction (AD 1482-2012) for Huashan, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, Ruibo; Wang, Huiqin; Qin, Li; Yuan, Yujiang

    2016-02-01

    We developed a tree-ring width chronology from pine trees ( Pinus tabulaeformis and Pinus armandii) stand near the peaks of Huashan, Shaanxi, north-central China. Growth-climate response analyses showed that the radial growth of pine trees is mainly influenced by April-June precipitation. A model to reconstruct precipitation based on tree widths was constructed, accounting for 55 % of the instrumental variance during the period 1953-2012. Spatial correlation analyses between the reconstruction and observed gridded precipitation data shows that the seasonal precipitation reconstruction captures regional climatic variations over north China. Compared with the historical archives and other tree-ring records in north China, many large-scale drought events, linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), were found. Many of these events have had profound impacts on the people of north China over the past several centuries. Composite maps of sea surface temperatures and 500 hPa geopotential heights for selected extremely dry and wet years in Huashan show characteristics similar to those related to the ENSO patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 531-year precipitation reconstruction for Huashan provides a long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in north China, and is useful to guide expectations of future variability, and helps us to address climate change.

  15. Mesoproterozoic biogenic thrombolites from the North China platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dongjie; Shi, Xiaoying; Jiang, Ganqing

    2013-03-01

    Thrombolites are abundant in the subtidal dolostones of the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation (ca 1.50-1.45 Ga) in the North China platform. Three major components are identified within the thrombolites: irregular mesoclots, micritic matrix and spar-filled voids. The mesoclot generally comprises a relatively organic-rich micritic core and a microsparitic outer layer that consists of fibrous aragonite (pseudocrystals) with less organic matter. In the core of mesoclots, abundant fossilized organic remnants, such as putative coccoidal and filamentous bacteria and mucus- to film-like extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), are closely associated with organominerals including nanoglobules and submicron-scale polyhedrons. In exceptionally well-preserved mesoclots, their outer layers commonly contain micropores displaying as bacterial molds and filamentous bacteria fossils. The matrix of mesoclots consists mainly of micropeloids (20-30 μm in diameter) and minor terrigenous detritus. Some mesoclots have denticulate edges and their matrix shows growth laminations that envelope the outlines of mesoclots. These features indicate that the mesoclots are primary and they were mineralized earlier than the surrounding matrix. The mineralization of mesoclots may have proceeded in two stages: (1) organomineralization of the cores through replacement of organic matter by minute organominerals resulting from anaerobic degradation of bacteria and EPS and (2) inorganic precipitation of the outer layers fostered by an increase in carbonate alkalinity in micro-environment due to organic matter decomposition. The thrombolites from the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation may have formed through complex interactions between microbes and environments and represent the earliest known Precambrian biogenic thrombolites.

  16. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  17. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  18. Detailed crustal structure of the North China and its implication for seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenliang; Wang, Xin; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Jingfa; Wang, Donglei

    2014-02-01

    Since the Mesozoic-Cenozoic era the North China Craton has experienced an important tectonic transition and it has given rise to complicated crustal structure and strong earthquake activity. Based on the large-scale surface gravity data, we studied the detailed crustal structure and seismogenic mechanism of the North China. The results indicate that the North China presents typical characteristics of adjoining depression and uplift, alternating basins and hills, inhomogeneous density and also great differences in crustal structure and Moho topography. The upper and middle crustal structures are dominated by the NNE-striking tectonic units, with many faults cut down to the middle crust. The lower crust is characterized by the folding-structure, with high and low-density placed alternately from west to east, presenting lateral heterogeneous feature. Adjusted by the gravity isostasy, Moho topography of the North China fluctuates greatly. Compared with the North China Basin, crustal thickness in the Western Taihang, northern Yanshan and Luzhong areas are much thicker while those densities are lower than the North China Basin. The dominating tectonic direction of the Moho topography strikes NE to NNE and undulates alternately from west to east. The epicenters are mostly concentrated in the upper and middle crust, especially the transitional areas between the high and low-gravity anomalies. The Tancheng earthquake in 1668, Sanhe earthquake in 1673, Tangshan earthquake in 1976, and all other seismic tectonic zones of the North China are all distributed in area where magma moves strongly beneath the crust, which is considered to be related to the movement of the high density, unstable and heat flows along the deep passage from the uppermost and asthenosphere due to the subduction of the Pacific slab towards the Eurasian plate.

  19. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  20. Projecting the Summer Climate of Mainland China in the Middle 21st Century: Will the Droughts in North China Persist?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Fu, J.

    2008-12-01

    A significant interdecadal shift of East Asian climate has occurred since the late-1970s, with less rainfall in North China and more rainfall in the south. The drying trend in North China has adversely influenced the economy of the country. How this trend will evolve in the first half of the 21st century has aroused broad interest not only in the climate research community but also among the public and decision-makers. However, no consensus has been reached in previous studies. In the present study, this issue is addressed through sensitivity experiments by forcing an AGCM, the GFDL AM2, with projected SST trend. One previous study suggests that the model simulates the East Asian summer monsoon climate well, and it even can reproduce the observed interdecadal shift around the late- 1970s when it is prescribed with historical SSTs. A total of two SST trends from the IPCC SRES A1B, one from the NCAR CCSM3 and the other one from the GFDL CM2, are used. Results consistently suggest a substantial warming and drying trend over much of China, with a surface air temperature increase of 1.0-2.0 K and a 10-20 % decrease in rainfall. Exceptions are the areas from northwestern China to western North China as well as the southern Tibetan Plateau, which are projected to be wetter with a rainfall anomaly percentage increase of 10-50 %. The projected drying trend in eastern North China is opposite to that in the IPCC AR4. It has not been documented to date but appears to be reasonable. Physically, it is attributed to anomalous northeasterly winds at the rear of a low-level cyclone over the South China Sea, the Philippines and the subtropical western North Pacific. These conditions, which govern the climate of eastern China, are forced by the northward shift of convection over warm waters due to additional warming. Thus, the projected drying trend in North China is worthy of particular attention.

  1. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  2. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  3. Spatial variation of aerosol optical properties in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuehua

    2013-04-01

    The column-integrated optical properties of aerosol in Beijing and Xianghe situated at North China Plain were investigated based on Sun/sky radiometer measurements made at Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites. Only version 2 and level 2 quality-assured data were presented and analyzed in this paper. Time intervals differ for the two sites, with Beijing having 9 years of data (Mar.-May, 2001; Apr., 2002-Dec., 2011),while Xianghe having 6 years of data (Mar.-Apr., 2001;Sep., 2004-Dec.,2011). Monthly mean 500 nm AOT values reach a maximum in June (0.95) and exceed 0.55 from March through September, and the minimum values occur during the late fall and winter months of November through February at Beijing. The monthly mean AOT values at Xianghe are very close to those measured at Beijing. The absolute differences of AOT between the two sites are less than 0.1 except in June and July. The reason of large difference in June and July is the frequently cloud contamination in summer result in the monthly means over the two sites computed from a large number of measurements of different date. The monthly averaged AOT with the same date in June and July are re-computed and the absolute difference of AOT between Beijing and Xianghe reduced to 0.01 and 0.03 in June and July respectively. The monthly mean Angstrom Exponent (AE) in Beijing and Xianghe sites are very close, with the absolute difference less than 0.075. The monthly mean AE in the two sites varied between ~1.0 and ~1.3 except in spring (March-May), therefore clearly dominated by fine mode aerosol for most of the year. All monthly averaged SSA at Beijing showed much lower value as compared to Xianghe though the seasonal variations are similar for the two sites, which indicates that aerosol absorption is greater in Beijing. All monthly averaged imaginary part of refractive index at Beijing has much higher value than Xianghe. The absolute differences of SSA between the two sites range from 0.016 to 0.037 except that

  4. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  5. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanling; Yang, Yanli; Zhang, Li; Wang, Zhongliang

    Using SPOT-VEGETATION Normal Difference Vegetation Index (SPOT/NDVI) data from 1998 to 2011 and climate data obtained from 223 weather stations in or near North China, vegetation variation characteristics within North China were analyzed. Vegetation variation characteristics under the influence of climate variations and human activities were distinguished through a residual analysis. Based on the results of that analysis, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation variation were calculated. The results showed that NDVI observed by remote sensing (SPOT/NDVI) increased from 1998 to 2011. The relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation increase were 30.82% and 69.18%, respectively, indicating that human activities played a major role. And observed NDVI showed an increasing trend for different land cover types overall. While NDVI increase in shrub was mainly caused by climate variations, NDVI increases in forest, grassland, farmland, deserts and urban were all primarily caused by human activities. For areas with increasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 14.85% and 85.15% respectively, again indicating that human activities played an important role in vegetation increase. For areas of decreasing vegetation, as identified by remote sensing observations in North China, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities in vegetation change were calculated at 87.72% and 12.28% respectively, indicating that climate variations had large negative effects on vegetation condition. In addition, the relative roles of climate variations and human activities on vegetation variation have obvious spatial differences in North China. Human activities played a positive role in vegetation growth in North China. However, we cannot ignore the function of human destruction on

  6. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  7. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  8. A new species of Dyspessa Hübner, (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Western China, with catalogue of Chinese species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Pekarsky, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dyspessa is the largest genus of carpenter moths including 60 valid species, widely distributed in Western Palearctic, especially in Sahara desert, Minor Asia, Iran and Central Asia (Yakovlev 2011; 2015). Most of the species have a small distribution range, limited by mountain ranges or deserts (Yakovlev & Dubatolov 2013). The only known trophic preferences of Dyspessa are their specialization to different species of the plant genus Allium (Alliaceae) (Yakovlev 2015). There are only three species known from China, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Dyspessa saissanica Yakovlev, 2014 (erroneously listed for Hami (Xinjiang) as Dyspessa salicicola (Eversmann, 1848) (Yakovlev 2005), Dyspessa tristis A. Bang-Haas, 1912 (known by a single male from Chinese part of Mongolian Altai mountains collected by Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo (probably in June 2003, Kurtu river of Kran river basin) and Dyspessa rueckbeili Yakovlev, 2007, described from Central Asia, Altyn Tagh [Altun Shan] (Altun Shan is a mountain range in northwestern China that separates the eastern Tarim Basin from the Tibetan Plateau (Yakovlev 2007). The western third is in Xinjiang while the eastern part forms the border between Qinghai to the south and Xinjiang and Gansu to the north). During a study of the new Dyspessa specimens from Western China, West South part of Xinjiang the new species, described below, was found. PMID:27394807

  9. A new species of Dyspessa Hübner, (Lepidoptera, Cossidae) from Western China, with catalogue of Chinese species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Roman V; Saldaitis, Aidas; Pekarsky, Oleg

    2016-04-29

    The genus Dyspessa is the largest genus of carpenter moths including 60 valid species, widely distributed in Western Palearctic, especially in Sahara desert, Minor Asia, Iran and Central Asia (Yakovlev 2011; 2015). Most of the species have a small distribution range, limited by mountain ranges or deserts (Yakovlev & Dubatolov 2013). The only known trophic preferences of Dyspessa are their specialization to different species of the plant genus Allium (Alliaceae) (Yakovlev 2015). There are only three species known from China, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Dyspessa saissanica Yakovlev, 2014 (erroneously listed for Hami (Xinjiang) as Dyspessa salicicola (Eversmann, 1848) (Yakovlev 2005), Dyspessa tristis A. Bang-Haas, 1912 (known by a single male from Chinese part of Mongolian Altai mountains collected by Grigory Grumm-Grzhimaylo (probably in June 2003, Kurtu river of Kran river basin) and Dyspessa rueckbeili Yakovlev, 2007, described from Central Asia, Altyn Tagh [Altun Shan] (Altun Shan is a mountain range in northwestern China that separates the eastern Tarim Basin from the Tibetan Plateau (Yakovlev 2007). The western third is in Xinjiang while the eastern part forms the border between Qinghai to the south and Xinjiang and Gansu to the north). During a study of the new Dyspessa specimens from Western China, West South part of Xinjiang the new species, described below, was found.

  10. Accretion and reworking beneath the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, J. P.; Griffin, W. L.; Ma, Q.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Xiong, Q.; Tang, H. Y.; Zhao, J. H.; Yu, C. M.; Su, Y. P.

    2012-09-01

    How has the Earth's continental lithosphere evolved? Most of our knowledge is derived from surface exposures, but xenoliths carried in volcanic rocks can be an important source of information. The North China Craton (NCC) is one of the oldest in the world and Phanerozoic volcanic rocks with abundant xenoliths are widespread, making it an ideal area to study the formation and evolution of continents. New analyses of U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes in zircon were obtained for lower crustal xenoliths from four localities including the Paleozoic Yingxian lamproites, and the basalts of Pingquan (Paleocene), Hebi and Nushan (Neogene). Published ages and compositions of lower crustal and upper mantle xenoliths from the NCC are synthesized to constrain the accretion and reworking processes that have affected the deep lithosphere beneath the craton. The peridotite bodies within the Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) belt, along the southern edge of the NCC, are compared with the xenolith peridotites to constrain early Mesozoic dynamics. The oldest components of the NCC may be ~ 4.0 Ga old. The craton experienced complex accretion and reworking processes in its deep lithosphere, accompanied by the formation (or aggregation) and differentiation of the ancient continental nucleus. The small size of the NCC, compared with many other cratons worldwide, made it more susceptible to the effects of marginal subduction and collision with surrounding blocks. The subcontinental lithosphere mantle (SCLM) was generally coupled with the lower crust through the Paleozoic, while decoupling occurred in late Mesozoic-Cenozoic time, except locally (such as the Neoarchen lower crust and SCLM in Hebi), suggesting strong interactions between the asthenosphere and the lithosphere (both upper mantle and lower crust) in Phanerozoic time. In the lower crust, the ancient components of the craton were re-worked in Paleoarchean (3.80-3.65 Ga) time. The craton also experienced two important accretionary

  11. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  12. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-16

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  13. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  14. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  15. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  16. Illicit drugs and their metabolites in 36 rivers that drain into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Gao; Zheng, Qiu-Da; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Du, Juan; Tian, Chong-Guo; Wang, Zhuang; Ge, Lin-Ke

    2016-08-01

    Illicit drugs and their metabolites have recently been recognized as an emerging group of contaminants due to their potential ecotoxicological impact in aquatic ecosystems. To date, information on the occurrence of these compounds in the aquatic environment of China remains limited. In this study, we collected surface water samples from 36 rivers in north China that discharge into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea and measured the concentrations of amphetamine-like compounds, ketamines, cocainics, and opioids. The occurrence and spatial patterns of these substances show significant differences between the rivers and regions. Two designer drugs, methamphetamine (METH) and ketamine (KET), were the most abundant compounds detected in the entire set of samples (detection frequency of 92 and 69 %). The concentrations of METH and KET ranged from <0.1 to 42.0 ng L(-1) (mean = 4.53 ng L(-1)) and <0.05 to 4.50 ng L(-1) (mean = 0.49 ng L(-1)), respectively. The high detection frequencies of METH and KET are consistent with the fact that they are the main illicit drugs consumed in China. The high concentrations of these illicit drugs and their metabolites were found in areas that have a high population density. The riverine input of total illicit drugs into the Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea was estimated to be in the range of 684 to 1160 kg per year. PMID:27167374

  17. Termination time of peak decratonization in North China: Geochemical evidence from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and petrological data indicate destruction of the cratonic lithosphere in North China in the Mesozoic, resulting in replacement of the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by the juvenile SCLM. However, it remains to be answered when the craton destruction would have been terminated in the Mesozoic. This question is resolved by studying the two types of mafic igneous rocks with contrasting geochemical compositions from North China. The first type of mafic igneous rock shows arc-like trace element distribution patterns and enriched radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The mafic magmatism is absent in a period from ~ 200 Ma to ~ 135 Ma, recording the thinning of cratonic lithosphere due to the westward flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific slab beneath the North China Craton. In contrast, the second type of mafic igneous rocks exhibits oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Early Cretaceous to Cenozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of ~ 121 Ma for the geochemical transformation between the two types of mafic igneous rocks. This age marks a dramatic demarcation in the composition of their mantle sources. As such, the nature of mantle lithosphere in North China was changed from the ancient SCLM to the juvenile SCLM at ~ 121 Ma. Thus, this age not only signifies the tectonic transition from the enriched mantle to the depleted mantle in the Early Cretaceous, but also dates the termination of peak decratonization in North China. Therefore, the craton destruction in the Early Cretaceous is temporally and spatially associated with the dramatic changes in the geochemical composition of mantle lithosphere.

  18. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Li, Chun-Hua; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear. Results Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts—hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash—were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants. Conclusions Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber) are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant. PMID:26735973

  19. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  20. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China.

    PubMed

    Sennikov, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  1. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  2. Melt-Peridotite Reaction Mechanism of North China Craton Destruction: Experimental Constrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Jin, Z.; Gao, S.; Zhang, J.; Zheng, S.

    2009-12-01

    Although the geoscientsts in the world have reached an agreement about the Mesozoic thinning of North China Craton, the dynamics of this process is still under debate, especially the thinning mechanism. There are two popular thinning mechanisms were proposed for the North China Craton, one is the delamination model and the other is thermo-mechanical erosion model. The delamination model has aroused great interests since Gao et al. use it to explain the formation of Xilonggou high Mg# andesite from Liaoxi region of Liaoning Province. These Lavas, which possessed an adakitic signature with high Mg#, were believed to origin by the interaction between silica rich and yttrium delepted melt, which are formed by partile melting of low crust eclogite, and asthenospheric peridotite. The discovery of zoned mantle olivine and pyroxene xenocrysts, especially zoned mantle peridotitic xenoliths in Mesozoic basaltic rocks from eastern North China, indicates that peridotite-melt reaction was widespread in Mesozoic lithospheric mantle beneath the southeastern North China craton. Such interaction could be an important mechanism for the compositional transformation and rapid enrichment of the lithospheric mantle. We conducted a series of experiments at a pressure of 2.0 GPa and temperatures of 1250-1400 °C using Bixiling eclogite and Damaping peridotite as starting materials to study the mechanism of melt-peridotite reaction. Our results show that olivine and orthopyroxene were dissolved in the reacting melts between eclogite and peridotite, resulting in clinopyroxene precipitation along the interface of melts and lherzolite. The experimental run products, possessing a lherzolite-pyroxenite-garnet pyroxenite sequence, are identical to the composite mantle xenoliths in the Neogene Hannuoba basalt of the North China craton. The later is considered as strong evidence of the maffic lower continental crust recycling into the mantle during the Mesozoic Era. The reacting melts have a high

  3. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  4. Application of a discrete-continuum model to karst aquifers in North China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiang; Zhou, Wanfang; Pan, Guoying; Ye, Siyuan

    2009-01-01

    A generalized discrete-continuum model is developed to simulate ground water flow in the karst aquifers of North China. The model is a hybrid numerical flow model, which takes into account both quick conduit flow and diffusive fissure flow. The conduit flow is represented by a discrete network model, and the fissure flow is modeled by a continuum approach. The developed model strongly emphasizes the function of the conduits in the flow fields. They control the general drainage pattern, as demonstrated in the simulation of a complex karst aquifer in North China. The model reproduces reasonably well the flow field in response to an unanticipated discharge of ground water from the karst aquifer into an underground mine based on the aquifer parameters that are manually calibrated from a multiple-well pumping test. Sensitivity of the model to the aquifer parameters was evaluated in the context of the case study.

  5. Palaeomagnetism of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks of the Huabei Shield: the North China Block in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Rui, Zhang Qi

    1997-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study is reported of reddened facies (Fengtai Formation) of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks which underlie Early Cambrian rocks with disconformity in the Huabei (North China/Sino-Korean) Block. The diamictite (preferred age 620-600 Ma) carries a dual polarity remanence residing in hematite of the red matrix. The mean direction derived from 62 samples is {D}/{I} = {205.9}/{- 32.4°} ( α95 = 3.9°) yielding a pole position at 233°E, 62°N. Tests on the matrix deformed beneath dropstones suggest that remanence was fixed before full compaction, although clasts near the base of the formation are largely overprinted. Overlying Early Cambrian sediments of the Houjiashan and Yutaishan formations have a similar remanence also of dual polarity ( {D}/{I} = {205.5}/{- 32.1°}, α95 = 3.9°, 32 samples). The magnetisation in the diamictite is therefore interpreted to have been acquired during loading by the ice sheet and/or the overlying Cambrian succession. Red shales from the Liulaobei Formation (˜890-840 Ma) near the base of the Neoproterozoic succession in the Huabei Block yield a contrasting remanence of {D}/{I} = {59.4}/{75.3°} ( α95 = 7.1°, 19 samples) equivalent to a pole position at 150°E, 43°N. Pole positions from this study accord with Lower-Middle Cambrian poles from the Australian and South China Blocks with North China sited adjacent to northeastern Australia in accordance with recent biogeographic and palaeogeographic models. Although the palaeolatitude derived from the Fengtai diamictite (17°) is Cambrian in age and probably later than the glaciation, the correlation with Australia implies that glaciation in North China took place in low palaeolatitudes (˜20°) and reinforces the view that late Neoproterozoic glaciation, at least at this perimeter of Gondwana, occurred at low latitudes. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian poles from North China, South China and Australia fail to conform to the popular Rodinia reconstruction with the latter blocks

  6. Interannual variations of dust events in the Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Caixia; Li, Xia

    2003-07-01

    Based on meteorological data of the recent 40 years, the long-term changes of sandstorms in China"s Xinjiang region were analyzed. The frequency and the scope of influence of sandstorms that occurred in Xinjiang have decreased during the 1990s. In fact, with the warming of the climate, a wet trend was also obvious. By comparing the relations between the long-term changes of climate and sandstorms, we found that there may be some synchronous connections between them. On the other hand, we noted that increased population and livestock pressures on marginal lands around the desert have accelerated desertification processes. While desertification has received tremendous attention by political leaders and publicity from the news media, there are still many things that we do not know about the degradation of productive lands and the expansion of deserts. Clearly, the relationship between desertification processes and the occurrence of sandstorms is tight.

  7. Lithosphere stress changes due to groundwater unloading in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Yajin; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin

    2015-04-01

    During the past 50 years, excessive groundwater pumping has led to the continuous decline of groundwater table in North China Plain, which becomes one of the global hotspots of groundwater depletion. Over most of the rural areas of the plain, the shallow aquifer has experienced a water-table decline of more than 15m, with greater declines up to 50m in most urban centres, such as Beijing, Tangshan, Shijiangzhuang and so forth in 1960-2000. The entire groundwater depletion area covers a total area of approximately 56,273 km2 , more than 40% of the North China Plain. The vast area of enormous groundwater exploitation in North China Plain will definitely unload the lithosphere and create stress perturbations, the problem is if the stresses change large enough to affect tectonic activities. In this essay, we set up a 3 dimensional numerical visco-elastic model to discuss the effect of groundwater over-pumping on the lithosphere deformation and stress state in North China Plain. Based on the records of total groundwater-table decline during 1960-2010 in North China Plain, we estimate the accumulated deformation and lithosphere stress due to unloading of human-induced groundwater depletion. The area in the model ranges from 34° To 42°N, and 112° To 119°E, including the major groundwater depression cones in North China Plain. According to the simulating result, the maximum surface vertical uplift caused by groundwater unloading is 8cm. Meanwhile cumulative horizontal crustal stress changes near the surface goes up to 100kPa, and up to 40kPa at 15km depth where most earthquakes occurred in this area. The tectonic compressive stress rate is about 0.25kPa per year. Therefore, the stress changes due to groundwater pumping is significant compared with the tectonic driven stress changes. As China developed rapidly since 1978, the groundwater table mainly declined after 1978. Taking the earthquake catalog in the vicinity of groundwater depression zone into consideration, we

  8. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  9. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted.

  10. Estimation of saltation emission in the Kubuqi Desert, North China.

    PubMed

    Du, Heqiang; Xue, Xian; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The Kubuqi Desert suffered more severe wind erosion hazard. Every year, a mass of aeolian sand was blown in the Ten Tributaries that are tributaries of the Yellow River. To estimate the quantity of aeolian sediment blown into the Ten Tributaries from the Kubuqi Desert, it is necessary to simulate the saltation processes of the Kubuqi Desert. A saltation submodel of the IWEMS (Integrated Wind-Erosion Modeling System) and its accompanying RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS (Geographic Information System) methods were used to model saltation emissions in the Kubuqi Desert. To calibrate the saltation submodel, frontal area of vegetation, soil moisture, wind velocity and saltation sediment were observed synchronously on several points in 2011 and 2012. In this study, a model namely BEACH (Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological) was introduced to simulate the daily soil moisture. Using the surface parameters (frontal area of vegetation and soil moisture) along with the observed wind velocities and saltation sediments for the observed points, the saltation model was calibrated and validated. To reduce the simulate error, a subdaily wind velocity program, WINDGEN was introduced in this model to simulate the hourly wind velocity of the Kubuqi Desert. By incorporating simulated hourly wind velocity, and model variables, the saltation emission of the Kubuqi Desert was modeled. The model results show that the total sediment flow rate was 1-30.99 tons/m over the last 10years (2001-2010). The saltation emission mainly occurs in the north central part of the Kubuqi Desert in winter and spring. Integrating the wind directions, the quantity of the aeolian sediment that deposits in the Ten Tributaries was estimated. Compared with the observed data by the local government and hydrometric stations, our estimation is reasonable.

  11. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: <427-409 Ma, 378-374 Ma and 327-310 Ma. Homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions in the porphyry copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  12. Prevalence of and risk factors for high-risk human papillomavirus infection: a population-based study from Hetian, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Niyazi, Mayinuer; Husaiyin, Sulaiya; Han, Lili; Mamat, Huduyum; Husaiyin, Kundus; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection contributes to most cases of cervical cancer, and HPV genotypes exhibit different distributions according to geographic region. This study evaluates the prevalence of HPV infection in Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang, and establishes risk factors associated with high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes in this region. In this cross-sectional, population-based study, 883 healthy women 15-54 years of age were enrolled. All participants completed a questionnaire regarding sociocultural and sexual activity characteristics. Visual inspections with acetic acid, colposcopies and biopsies were performed using the Preventive Oncology International microbiopsy protocol for pathological diagnosis. Cervical epithelial tissue specimens were collected and tested for HPV using linear array assays. According to the results of HR-HPV infection status, individuals infected with HR-HPV were classified into one group, and the remaining individuals were classified into the control group. The risk factors for HR-HPF infection were analyzed. The participants included 66 women (7.47%) with HR-HPV, 10 women (1.13%) with low-risk HPV, and 14 women (1.59%) with HPV of unknown risk. The five most prevalent types of HR-HPV were HPV-16 (0.31%), HPV-51 (0.08%), HPV-31 (0.07%), HPV-58 (0.07%), and HPV-39 (0.06%). Vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation were found in 190 participants (21.52%) and 256 participants (28.99%), respectively. The HR-HPV and control groups significantly differed with respect to age at first marriage, number of marriages, and the presence of vulvovaginal ulcers and vulvovaginal inflammation (p<0.05). Based on this study, an immunization strategy targeting HPV-16 should be prioritized in Hetian Prefecture. These findings contribute to the understanding of HPV infection. PMID:26773182

  13. [Effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang, Northwest China under plastic mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Bai, Dan; Zhai, Guo-Liang; Zong, Jie; Li, Ying; Cai, Jiu-Mao; Feng, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment with three irrigation amounts and five nitrogen application levels was conducted to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the growth characteristics, yield component factors, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang under mulched drip irrigation. With the increasing amount of irrigation, the plant height, leaf number on main stem, boll number, LAI, and dry matter accumulation in leaf and stem improved significantly, but the root growth was restrained. As compared with low and high irrigation amounts (4950 and 6750 mm x hm(-2), respectively), medium irrigation amount (5850 mm x hm(-2)) increased the available bolls per plant and the single boll mass averagely by 0.96 and 0.4 and by 0.22 and 0.11 g, respectively. When the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), as compared with other nitrogen application levels, the stem diameter increased significantly, and the growth of bud, boll, and root was accelerated. Moreover, the allocation ratio of dry matter from nutritional organs to reproductive organs under medium irrigation amount increased by 5.1% and 29.6% respectively, as compared with that under low and high irrigation amounts. Irrigation amount had significant effects on the cotton yield but little effects on the lint percentage, whereas nitrogen application level had definite effects on the cotton yield and lint percentage. However, low irrigation amount restrained the effects of nitrogen application on yield enhancement. In this experiment, when the irrigation amount was 5850 mm x hm(-2) and the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), the cotton grew healthily, the plant shape structure was optimized, the dry matter allocation to reproductive organs was promoted dramatically, the available bolls, single boll mass, and lint percentage increased, the cotton yield reached the highest (6992.33 kg x hm(-2)), and the water and nitrogen use efficiency amounted to 1.45 kg x m(-3) and 45

  14. S-wave velocity structure of the North China from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-peng; Zhu, Liang-bao; Wang, Qing-dong; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Ying-hang

    2014-07-01

    We constructed the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle (10-100 km) beneath the North China based on the teleseismic data recorded by 187 portable broadband stations deployed in this region. The traditional two-step inversion scheme was adopted. Firstly, we measured the interstation fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocity of 10-60 s and imaged the phase velocity distributions using the Tarantola inversion method. Secondly, we inverted the 1-D S-wave velocity structure with a grid spacing of 0.25° × 0.25° and constructed the 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the North China. The 3-D S-wave velocity model provides valuable information about the destruction mechanism and geodynamics of the North China Craton (NCC). The S-wave velocity structures in the northwestern and southwestern sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) are obviously different. The southeastern side is high velocity (high-V) while the northeastern side is low velocity (low-V) at the depth of 60-80 km. The upwelling asthenosphere above the stagnated Pacific plate may cause the destruction of the Eastern Block and form the NSGL. A prominent low-V anomaly exists around Datong from 50 to 100 km, which may due to the upwelling asthenosphere originating from the mantle transition zone beneath the Western Block. The upwelling asthenosphere beneath the Datong may also contribute to the destruction of the Eastern Block. The Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone (ZPFZ) may cut through the lithosphere and act as a channel of the upwelling asthenosphere. A noticeable low-V zone also exists in the lower crust and upper mantle lid (30-50 km) beneath the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (BTT) region, which may be caused by the upwelling asthenosphere through the ZPFZ.

  15. High resolution Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomography in northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilai; Wu, Jianping; Fang, Lihua

    2012-04-01

    This study presents the Rayleigh wave phase velocity tomographic results in northern North China. The data are from 190 broad-band and 10 very broad-band stations of the North China Seismic Array and 50 permanent stations nearby. All available teleseismic vertical component time-series are used to extract the phase velocity dispersion curves of the fundamental mode Rayleigh wave by interstation method. Tomographic maps are obtained at periods of 10, 15, 25 and 60 s with a grid spacing of 0.25°× 0.25°. The short-period phase velocity maps show good correlation with the geological and tectonic features. To be specific, lower velocities correspond to North China Basin and depression area whereas higher velocities are associated with Taihangshan and Yanshan uplifts. At 25 s, there are obvious low-velocity anomalies in Jizhong depression and Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan region, indicating that ascendant low velocity channel may be formed beneath these areas and induce the velocity difference in the upper crust. The phase velocity map at 60 s reflects the upper-mantle information in the study area. High-velocity anomalies are observed at Yanshan blocks north to Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, suggesting that the materials are stable beneath these areas or the asthenosphere is at deeper location. Low-velocity anomalies are mainly south to the seismic belt, implying the asthenosphere is shallower and the materials are transformed by the open stretching rift trending NNE, resulting in many NNE-directed fault belts. These structural differences at depth may be controlled by the fault activity and strong tectonic movements.

  16. Study on Precipitation Anomalies of North of China in April and Its relationship to Sea Surface Temperature Evolvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Li, Z.; Guan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Using monthly precipitation data in North of China for 1960-2007, American NCEP/NCAR monthly reanalysis data and NOAA SST (sea surface temperature) data, and SST indices data in Climate System Monitoring Bulletin collected by National Climate Center, this paper studied the general circulation, large-scale weather system anomalous characteristics and SSTA evolvement with more rainfall of North of China in April. The results showed that precipitation differences between months in spring in North of China were quite obvious, and the correlation coefficients between precipitation of North of China in April and that in March and in May were not significant respectively. The linear trend of precipitation in April was out of phase with that in spring. It was meaningful to study precipitation in April solely. The space pattern of first leading mode of EOF analysis for precipitation of North of China in April indicated that rainfall changed synchronously. In years of more rainfall in April showed negative phase of EU pattern in 500hPa geopotential height field of high latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, and North of China located at where cold and warm air masses met, which availed reinforcement of south wind and ascending motion. In middle and high latitudes was latitudinal circulation, and North of China was controlled by warm ridge and latitudinal large-scale front zone; In years of less rainfall, meridional circulation prevailed and large-scale front zone located northward and presented meridional pattern, and North of China was affected by cold air mass. At the same time, water vapor was transported strongly from Pacific, South China Sea and southwest of China, and reached Northeast of China. In years of less rainfall, the water vapor transportation was quite weak. The rainfall was related closely to sea surface temperature anomalies, especially to the Indian Ocean, the middle and east of Pacific, middle and south of Pacific and northwest of Pacific where there were

  17. Crustal and uppermost mantle conductivity distribution beneath the northern portion of Trans North China Orogen and its implication in the scale of destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Huang, Q.; Zhao, G.

    2015-12-01

    Formed by the assembly of the Eastern and Western Blocks of North China Craton(NCC) during the Paleoproterozoic, The Trans North China Orogen(TNCO) consists of the Archean to Paleoproterozoic basement overlain by Mesoproterozoic to Cenozoic cover. While the Eastern NCC has experienced significant thinning and modification in mantle since the early Mesozoic, the TNCO exhibits both thick and dramatically thinned lithosphere. In order to investigate the inhomogeneous lithospheric thinning of northern TNCO, the electrical conductivity structure from the crust to uppermost mantle was derived by the 3D magnetotelluric(MT) inversion technique from data of 75 Broadband magneotelluric (BBMT)stations. Our inversion result shows that the relatively stable Yanshan Uplift is characterized by a simply 1-D layer structure about 10000 Ωm in the upper and middle crust and 1000 Ωm in the mantle, which could be illustrated as the intact cold Archean lithosphere with very high resistivity, whereas prominent high-conductivity anomalies of 10 Ωm extensively exist beneath the Datong-Yanggao Basin, the Weixian-Yangyuan Basin and Datong volcanic zone. While petromagnetic studies shows that bi-level magnetic lower crust are preserved beneath northern TNCO, which was the result of the continuous underplating of basaltic magmas from the late Paleozoic to the Cenozoic, We also assume that the conductive middle and lower crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Shanxi rift is related to the addition of juvenile materials form mantle to lower crust, with a mixing of the old crust with melts. Nowadays the heat flow of our study area is 50 mW/m2 on average, which is difficult to support the presence of partial melting, but the interconnected iron oxides and iron sulfides were preserved as a signature of the high Cenozoic heat flow as well as lithospheric thinning.

  18. Multi-timescale Drought Variations based on standardized precipitation index in China during past 52 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, su ping; jie Zhang, cun; Li, yao hui; Feng, jianying; Wang, jinsong

    2016-04-01

    Based on daily precipitation data from 566 weather stations during 1960 to 2011 , the multi-timescale variations of drought in China were analyzed by using Standardized Precipitation Index. The results showed that there existed a northeast to southwest drought belt in China in recent 52 years. The climate in Northeast China, North China, eastern Inner Mongolia, east of Northwest China and Southwest China was becoming dry. Meanwhile it became significant wetter in Northern Xinjiang, central Qinghai and north central Tibet. The drought trend in North China mainly happened in summer, and drought in Northeast and Southwest occurred in summer and autumn, in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the east part of Northwest it was mainly in spring and autumn. In Northeast China, the drought days in 1970s and 2000 - 2011 were more than other decades, and it were fewer in 1960s. In North China and the east of Northwest China, the driest decade was 1990s, and it was wetter from 1960s to 1980s. Southwest China experienced more droughts after 2000, and fewer in 1960s and 1970s. In the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River .drought days were more in 1960s and after 2000, and fewer in 1980s. In 1960s, the high occurrence frequency of drought was in the west and middle of Northwest China and the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River. In 1970s,the droughts frequently occurred in Northeast and the west of Northwest. In 1980s,drought events mainly took place in North China, Huang Huai plain, the west and middle part of inner Mongolia and east of Southwest respectively. In 1990s,the areas with high occurrence were transferred to the southeast of Northwest, North China, and Huang Huai, Jiang Huai, Jiang Han plain. After 2000, drought frequently occurred in Northeast, the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and east part of Inner Mongolia, Northwest and Southwest China.

  19. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Saide, Pablo E.; Lu, Zifeng; Yu, Man; Streets, David G.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-09-01

    The winter haze is a growing problem in North China, but the causes are not well understood. The chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) was applied in North China to examine how PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide (SO2), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), ammonia (NH3), and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), as well as meteorology (temperature, relative humidity (RH), and wind speeds) changes in winter. From 1960 to 2010, the dramatic changes in emissions lead to +260 % increases in sulfate, +320 % increases in nitrate, +300 % increases in ammonium, +160 % increases in BC, and +50 % increases in OC. The responses of PM2.5 to individual emission species indicate that the simultaneous increases in SO2, NH3, and NOx emissions dominated the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 shows more notable increases in response to changes in SO2 and NH3 as compared to increases in response to changes in NOx emissions. In addition, OC also accounts for a large fraction in PM2.5 changes. These results provide some implications for haze pollution control. The responses of PM2.5 concentrations to temperature increases are dominated by changes in wind fields and mixing heights. PM2.5 shows relatively smaller changes in response to temperature increases and RH decreases compared to changes in response to changes in wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. From 1960 to 2010, aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced due to higher aerosol loadings. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations may be another important cause since PM2.5 is shown to be substantially affected by wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. More studies are necessary to get a better understanding of the aerosol-circulation interactions.

  20. An evaluation of atmospheric Nr pollution and deposition in North China after the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Liu, P.; Tang, A. H.; Liu, J. Y.; Zong, X. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Kou, C. L.; Zhang, L. J.; Fowler, D.; Fangmeier, A.; Christie, P.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2013-08-01

    North China is known for its large population densities and rapid development of industry and agriculture. Air quality around Beijing improved substantially during the 2008 Summer Olympics. We measured atmospheric concentrations of various Nr compounds at three urban sites and three rural sites in North China from 2010 to 2012 and estimated N dry and wet deposition by inferential models and the rain gauge method to determine current air conditions with respect to reactive nitrogen (Nr) compounds and nitrogen (N) deposition in Beijing and the surrounding area. NH3, NO2, and HNO3 and particulate NH4+ and NO3-, and NH4+-N and NO3--N in precipitation averaged 8.2, 11.5, 1.6, 8.2 and 4.6 μg N m-3, and 2.9 and 1.9 mg N L-1, respectively, with large seasonal and spatial variability. Atmospheric Nr (especially oxidized N) concentrations were highest at urban sites. Dry deposition of Nr ranged from 35.2 to 60.0 kg N ha-1 yr-1, with wet deposition of Nr of 16.3 to 43.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and total deposition of 54.4-103.2 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The rates of Nr dry and wet deposition were 36.4 and 33.2% higher, respectively, at the urban sites than at the rural sites. These high levels reflect the occurrence of a wide range of Nr pollution in North China and suggest that further strict air pollution control measures are required.

  1. Methodology for agricultural and rural NPS pollution in a typical county of the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Xiaolan; Ongley, Edwin; Zhao, Lei

    2012-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution has been recently identified by the Chinese government as a major source of aquatic pollution. Methodologies commonly used to make basin-wide or area-wide assessments are problematic and regional distinctions have not been made relative to rainfall and runoff. Using a typical agricultural county in the Hai River basin of the North China Plan we developed methodology to estimate potential load and delivered load for crops (field crops + rice), animal production, rural living and from atmospheric N input. We use scenarios to allow for uncertainty in delivery to estimate the relative roles of different rural forms of pollution. Livestock raising is the major source of NPS pollution. Despite a 75% rural population, rural living contributes almost nothing to surface water pollution. While over-fertilization is typical, nutrient runoff from crops is low. Our results have implications for policies now under development for NPS control in China.

  2. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2013-06-01

    Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China.

  3. Crustal recycling through intraplate magmatism: Evidence from the Trans-North China Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiao-Fang; Santosh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) preserves the history of crustal growth and craton formation during the early Precambrian followed by extensive lithospheric thinning and craton destruction in the Mesozoic. Here we present evidence for magma mixing and mingling associated with the Mesozoic tectonic processes from the Central NCC, along the Trans-North China Orogen, a paleo suture along which the Eastern and Western Blocks were amalgamated at end of Paleoproterozoic. Our investigations focus on two granitoids - the Chiwawu and the Mapeng plutons. Typical signatures for the interaction of mafic and felsic magmas are observed in these plutons such as: (1) the presence of diorite enclaves; (2) flow structures; (3) schlierens; (4) varying degrees of hybridization; and (5) macro-, and micro-textures. Porphyritic feldspar crystals show numerous mineral inclusions as well as rapakivi and anti-rapakivi textures. We present bulk chemistry, zircon U-Pb geochronology and REE data, and Lu-Hf isotopes on the granitoids, diorite enclaves, and surrounding basement rocks to constrain the timing of intraplate magmatism and processes of interaction between felsic and mafic magmas. Our LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data show that the pophyritic granodiorite was emplaced at 129.7 ± 1.0 Ma. The diorite enclaves within this granodiorite show identical ages (128.2 ± 1.5 Ma). The basement TTG (tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite) gneisses formed at ca. 2.5 Ga coinciding with the major period of crustal accretion in the NCC. The 1.85 Ga age from zircons in the gabbro with positive Hf isotope signature may be related to mantle magmatism during post-collisional extension following the assembly of the Western and Eastern Blocks of the NCC along the Trans-North China Orogen. Our Hf isotope data indicate that the Neoarchean-Paleoproterozoic basement rocks were derived from complex sources of both juvenile magmas and reworked ancient crust, whereas the magma source for the Mesozoic units are dominantly

  4. Late Quaternary Deformation along the North Wuitaishan Fault of the Shanxi Graben System: Active Intracontinental Rifting in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corley, J.; Cochran, W. J.; Hinrichs, N.; Ding, R.; Zhang, S.; Gomez, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Shanxi rift system in north China is an intracontinental rift zone which has been active since the late Tertiary. and has produced many destructive earthquakes in recorded history. This area is of particular interest for earthquake research because of the high seismicity levels in an intraplate setting. The Shanxi rift system is composed of NNE-oriented en-echelon half-graben basins controlled by normal faults. This study focuses on the north Wutaishan fault, which bounds the Wutai Mountains and the Xingding basin, located in the northern part of the Shanxi rift system. Quaternary tectonism is investigated using remotely-sensed imagery for mapping of large tectonically-influenced landforms, field investigations for ground truth, and structural analyses. Initial neotectonic mapping utilized stereoscopic Corona satellite imagery to differentiate between fluvial and agricultural terraces; Cartosat-based DEMs were used to correct altitude measurements of terrace heights and to analyze streams and other landforms for morphometric analysis. Fluvial terraces are used to reconstruct paleo-stream profiles of the Yangyan River and nearby tributaries to determine mountain uplift rates inferred from fluvial incision, basin extension rates, and possible warping of the footwall basin block. Field work provided ground truth for fluvial terrace altitude, type of terrace, and thicknesses of alluvial and loess deposits. Another aspect of the study involves development of structural cross-section to relate fault slip to regional tectonic strain. Fault kinematic analysis of micro-fault features found in bedrock were used to assess the Quaternary stress field. Results of this study have implications in the understanding of earthquake recurrence intervals and basin evolution in the Shanxi rift system and more generally, can improve the understanding of spatial and temporal variations of seismic events in intraplate settings.

  5. Significant increase of surface ozone at a rural site, north of eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Jing; Quan, Weijun; Zhang, Ziyin; Lin, Weili; Xu, Xiaobin

    2016-03-01

    Ozone pollution in eastern China has become one of the top environmental issues. Quantifying the temporal trend of surface ozone helps to assess the impacts of the anthropogenic precursor reductions and the likely effects of emission control strategies implemented. In this paper, ozone data collected at the Shangdianzi (SDZ) regional atmospheric background station from 2003 to 2015 are presented and analyzed to obtain the variation in the trend of surface ozone in the most polluted region of China, north of eastern China or the North China Plain. A modified Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter method was performed on the maximum daily average 8 h (MDA8) concentrations of ozone to separate the contributions of different factors from the variation of surface ozone and remove the influence of meteorological fluctuations on surface ozone. Results reveal that the short-term, seasonal and long-term components of ozone account for 36.4, 57.6 and 2.2 % of the total variance, respectively. The long-term trend indicates that the MDA8 has undergone a significant increase in the period of 2003-2015, with an average rate of 1.13 ± 0.01 ppb year-1 (R2 = 0.92). It is found that meteorological factors did not significantly influence the long-term variation of ozone and the increase may be completely attributed to changes in emissions. Furthermore, there is no significant correlation between the long-term O3 and NO2 trends. This study suggests that emission changes in VOCs might have played a more important role in the observed increase of surface ozone at SDZ.

  6. Human leukocyte antigen-B27 alleles in Xinjiang Uygur patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Wang, Z; He, J; Jiao, M

    2015-05-25

    We investigated the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang. B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis were subtyped by using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The HLA-B27 subtype frequencies of Uygur patients were compared with those in Han patients in Xinjiang and the other areas of China. B*2705 was the predominant subtype in Uygur patients with a frequency of 58.95%, which was much higher than that in Han patients in Xinjiang (31.58%, P < 0.05) and the other areas of China (excluding the Shandong region, which was 63.89%). The frequency of B*2704 (27.37%) in Uygur patients was the lowest and significantly lower than that in Han patients (61.18%, P < 0.05) and in 8 other areas of China. B*2710 has not been previously reported in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients; B*2704 was the main (61.18%) subtype in Han patients in Xinjiang, followed by B*2705 (31.58%) and was similar to the characteristics of Han patients in the other areas of China. B*2724 in Han ankylosing spondylitis patients has not been previously reported. Additionally, the B*2702/B*2705 homozygote was identified in Uygur patients. B*2702/B*2704, B*2704/B*2705, and B*2705/B*2705 homozygotes were identified in 3 Han patients. The distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang significantly differed from that in Han patients. Understanding the distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in ethnic minority populations of Xinjiang is important for anthropological genetic studies and for analyzing the impact of genetic background on ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility.

  7. Primary Analysis of Shear-Wave Splitting Aroundbohai Sea Area in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, L.; Gao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Sun, J.

    2012-12-01

    Bohai Sea area locates at eastern China, including 3 provinces ( Hebei, Liaoning and Shandong ) and 2 metropolitan cities ( Beijing and Tianjin ). There are 5 tectonic units (Yanshan uplift, Taihang uplift, Liaodong uplift, Luxi uplift and Jizhong depression), where is within North China (in short, NC). Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, an important seismotectonic zone in eastern China and Tanlu fault, the largest fault in eastern China, intersect in this zone, so that the tectonics are complicated. Earthquake activity is very strong in this zone, which is famous of earthquakes with large magnitude and high frequency. This study used a system analysis method of shear-wave splitting, namely SAM method (GAO et al, 2004). It includes mainly three aspects, i.e., calculation of cross-correlation function, elimination of time delay and check of polarization analysis. Preliminarily, we obtained the 378 seismic data within shear-wave window recorded by 27 stations around Bohai Sea area. The polarizations of fast shear-waves show different local features so that we divide the studied zone into 3 different areas, west of Bohai Sea gulf (including Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei province), north of Bohai Sea gulf (Liaoning province) and south of Bohai Sea gulf (Shandong province). In the west of Bohai Sea gulf, we divided the area into 3 parts. In south of Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are a little scattered, lots of stations strike to nearly E-W, consistent with the direction of the in situ principal stress, consistent with the direction of regional tectonic stress in north part of NC, which strikes to nearly WNW or E-W, while some stations strike to NNE or NW, different from the direction of the regional principal stress field. It may be influenced by local tectonics or shallow crust structure. Within Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, the predominant polarizations of fast shear-waves are in direction of nearly E-W, consistent with

  8. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  9. Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26μgL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20μgL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28μgL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20μgL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17μgL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61μgL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19μgL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14μgL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11μgL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. PMID:25479805

  10. Plants and people from the Early Neolithic to Shang periods in North China

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W.; Liu, Li; Chen, Xingcan

    2007-01-01

    An assemblage of charred plant remains collected from 26 sites in the Yiluo valley of North China as part of an archaeological survey spans the period from the sixth millennium to 1300 calibrated calendrical years (cal) B.C. The plant remains document a long sequence of crops, weeds, and other plants in the country. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of sediment sampling as part of an archaeological survey. Ten accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates on crop remains inform an assessment of the sequence of agricultural development in the region. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica) was grown during the Early Neolithic period and was the principal crop for at least four millennia. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) was significantly less important throughout the sequence. Rice (Oryza sativa) was introduced by 3000 cal B.C. but apparently was not an important local crop. Wheat became a significant crop between 1600 and 1300 cal B.C. The weed flora diversified through time and were dominated by annual grasses, some of which were probably fodder for domesticated animals. The North China farming tradition that emphasized dry crops (millets, wheat, and legumes) with some rice appears to have been established at the latest by the Early Shang (Erligang; 1600–1300 B.C.) period. PMID:17213316

  11. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  12. The response of climatic jump in summer in north china to global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiayou

    2000-06-01

    To reveal climatic variation over North China, the climatic jumps in summer in Beijing are analyzed using the data of precipitation of summer (June, July, August) during the period of 1841-1993, in which those missed before 1950 were reconstructed by the stepwise regression method with minimum forecast error. The climatic jumps at different scales are analyzed using different diagnostic methods with different decade (10-100 years) windows. Some new methods and ideas are proposed. The variance difference, the linear tendency difference, and the difference of power spectral distribution between the samples before and after the period at the moving point in the center of the series are compared with other methods (for example, Mann—Kendall test, t— test, and accumulative anomaly etc.). Considering the differences among the statistics above, a synthetic jump index is also proposed in order to get the definite jump points in the moving series. The results show that the climatic jumps in the area occurred in the 1890s, the 1910s and the 1920s, and mostly in the 1920s, which suggests that the local climatic jumps in North China have a simultaneous response to the global warming in the hundred-year scales.

  13. Lithospheric Structure of the Northeastern North China Craton Imaged by S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2016-08-01

    Lithosphere thickness variation is important for understanding the significant tectonic reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Here, we determined the lithospheric structure in the northeastern NCC using S receiver functions from 305 teleseismic events recorded by 223 seismic stations. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are imaged clearly beneath the region. The Moho depth decreases from ~45 km beneath the western NCC to ~25 km beneath the eastern NCC. We found that the lithospheric thickness varies from 60 to 80 km beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) and eastern NCC with no significant change of the LAB depth. The lithosphere thickness beneath the northwestern Ordos plateau is 100-130 km. In addition, there is a mid-lithosphere discontinuity at a depth of 80 km beneath the plateau that is connected to the base of thinned lithosphere in TNCO and eastern NCC. We suggest that the mid-lithosphere discontinuity represents a mechanically weak zone in the original cratonic lithosphere of the NCC. The material in the lower lithosphere of the craton, when warmed and hydrated by water released from the subducting slab of Western Pacific, became weak due to decrease in viscosity and/or partial melting and was subsequently removed through small-scale mantle convections.

  14. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  15. Environmental controls of evapotranspiration in a mixed plantation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning

    2016-07-01

    The mixed plantation plays an important role in the water cycle in the hilly area of North China. To evaluate the effect of afforestation on the water balance in this region, the temporal variation of evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental controls were investigated based on the eddy flux measurement of water vapor in a 31-year-old mixed plantation from 2006 to 2010. During 5 years, annual ET ranged from 513 to 680 mm, with an average of 579 mm. Growing season ET accounted for 72-82 % of annual ET during the 5-year period and its interannual variation was determined by the number of rainy days. In the non-growing and growing seasons, monthly ET was primarily dependent on monthly mean soil water content and monthly mean net radiation, respectively. Annual mean Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α) was 0.64, and the decoupling factor (Ω) was 0.48. High values of α and Ω implied that ET was energy limited in the growing seasons of 2006-2010. The mean annual ratio of ET to precipitation (ET/P) was 1.10. The density of the mixed plantation was around 50 % higher than the optimal value determined by local water capacity, leading to a large ET/P ratio. The dense plantation needs to be thinned to prevent excessive water loss in the hilly area of North China.

  16. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  17. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  18. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated naphthalenes in the atmosphere across North China based on gridded field observations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Yifan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) belong to a group of dioxin-like pollutants; however little information is available on PCNs in North China. In this study, gridded field observations by passive air sampling at 90 sites were undertaken to determine the levels, spatial distributions, and sources of PCNs in the atmosphere of North China. A median concentration of 48 pg m(-3) (range: 10-2460 pg m(-3)) for ∑29PCNs indicated heavy PCN pollution. The compositional profile indicated that nearly 90% of PCNs observed were from thermal processes rather than from commercial mixtures. Regarding the source type, a quantitative apportionment suggested that local non-point emissions contributed two-thirds of the total PCNs observed in the study, whereas a point source of electronic-waste recycling site contributed a quarter of total PCNs. The estimated toxic equivalent quantity for dioxin-like PCNs ranged from 0.97 to 687 fg TEQ m(-3), with the electronic-waste recycling site with the highest risk.

  19. Probing The Structure North China To Better Understand Its Evolution, Natural Resources, And Seismic Hazards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. R.; Gao, R.; Qu, G.; Li, Q.; Liu, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, North China has been the target of a vast array of geoscience investigations that have advanced our understanding of the region. One major effort that has targeted the area is SinoProbe, which is China's ambitious national joint earth science research project that was established to develop a comprehensive understanding of the deep interior beneath the Chinese continent via a broad range of investigations that include deep drilling and geological and geophysical studies along continental-scale transects. As one of the eight major programs within SinoProbe, SinoProbe-02 (Seismic Observations) initiated a large-scale controlled-source seismic experiment in North China under the leadership of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (CAGS) of the Ministry of Land and Resources (MLR) in cooperation with the University of Oklahoma and University of Missouri-Columbia in the U. S. This experiment was conducted in December of 2009 and consisted of three coordinated seismic recording activities along a profile that extended for over 400km from near Beijing northwestward to the Mongolian border. Near Beijing, the profile began near the eastern edge of the Western Block of the North China Precambrian craton, crossed this feature to the Solonker suture zone, and ended in the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The CAOB is one of the world's most prominent sites of the formation juvenile Phanerozoic crust. In January of 2010, a different effort led by the Chinese Earthquake administration was undertaken in cooperation with the same US universities. This effort targeted the Tangshan area where a devastating earthquake killed at least 250,000 people in 1976. In this seismic experiment, an innovative 3-D survey was undertaken across a 40km x 40km region centered on the city of Tangshan by deploying Texan instruments along a web of profiles with shotpoints at their intersections. This experiment targeted the middle and upper crust. A deep seismic reflection profile was

  20. Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, T.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Phillips, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Gold exploration in China has expanded rapidly during the last two decades since a modern approach to economic development has become a national priority. China currently produces 180 tonnes (t) of gold annually, which is still significantly less than South Africa, USA, and Australia. However, China is now recognized as possessing significant gold resources in a wide range of mineral deposit types. Present estimates of gold resources in China exceed 4,500 t, which comprise 60% in gold-only deposits, more than 25% in base metal-rich skarn, porphyry, and vein deposits, and more than 10% in placer accumulations. The major gold provinces in China formed during the main episodes of Phanerozoic tectonism. Such tectonism involved interaction of China's three major Precambrian cratons, North China, Tarim, and Yangtze (or South China when combined with Cathysia block), with the Angara (or Siberian), Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan, and Indian cratons. Resulting collisions included deformation of accreted oceanic sequences between the cratonic blocks. The most important ore-forming orogenies were (1) the late Paleozoic Variscan (405-270 Ma), which led to amalgamation of the Angara, North China and Yangtze cratons, (2) the Indosinian (270-208 Ma), which led to the collision of North China and South China cratons, (3) the Yanshanian (208-90 Ma), which was largely influenced by the subduction of the Izanagi-Pacific plates beneath eastern China, and (4) the Himalayan (<90 Ma) indentation of the Indian continent into Eurasia. No important Precambrian gold systems are recognized in China, mainly because of reworking of exposed Precambrian rocks by these younger orogenies, but there are a few Caledonian (600-405 Ma) gold-bearing system in northern Xinjiang. Most of China's orogenic, epithermal, and Carlinlike gold deposits are in the reworkerd margins of major cratonic blocks and in metasedimentary rock-dominated fold belts adjacent to these margins. Accordingly, the major gold provinces are

  1. The Beiminghe skarn iron deposit, eastern China: Geochronology, isotope geochemistry and implications for the destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Feng; Santosh, M.; Li, Sheng-Rong; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Yin, Na; Dong, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Juan; Ma, Guang-Gang; Yu, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The Beiminghe (BMH) iron ore in the southern part of the Taihang Mountain (TM), Hebei province, is one of the largest skarn iron deposits in China. Here we report phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and zircon U-Pb age data, as well as sulfur, lead, and He-Ar isotope geochemistry of pyrite from the ores and skarnitized rocks in the deposit in an attempt to constrain the timing and mechanism of formation of the mineralization. The phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data show markedly consistent ages constraining the timing of ore formation as 136-137 Ma. The presence of several inherited zircons with late Archean or Paleoproterozoic ages indicates the participation of the basement rocks during the ore-forming process. The δ34S values of pyrite from the ores range from 12.2 to 16.5‰, with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.84-18.79, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.46-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.93-39.75, suggesting that continental crust is the major contributor. This is further confirmed by the He-Ar isotope data (3He/4He = 0.0648-0.1886 Ra, mean 0.1237Ra; 40Ar/36Ar = 311.7-22909.4; and 40Ar*/4He = 0.036-0.421). The Mesozoic magmatism and metallogeny in the BMH correlate well with the peak event of lithospheric thinning and destruction of the North China Craton during this process, the early Precambrian lower crustal rocks in the region were re-melted through underplating of mantle magmas, leading to the formation of the Beiminghe monzodioritic pluton. Minor mantle input occurred during the evolution of the monzodiorite magma, which scavenged the ore-forming materials from the lower crust. Interaction of the magmas and fluids with the surrounding rocks resulted in the formation of the Beiminghe skarn iron deposits. The magmatism and metallogeny in the Taihang Mountain are signatures of the extensive craton destruction and lithospheric thinning in the eastern part of the North China Craton during Mesozoic, probably associated with Pacific slab subduction.

  2. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  3. Radiocarbon-based impact assessment of open biomass burning on regional carbonaceous aerosols in North China.

    PubMed

    Zong, Zheng; Chen, Yingjun; Tian, Chongguo; Fang, Yin; Wang, Xiaoping; Huang, Guopei; Zhang, Fan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2015-06-15

    Samples of total suspended particulates (TSPs) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from 29th May to 1st July, 2013 at a regional background site in Bohai Rim, North China. Mass concentrations of particulate matter and carbonaceous species showed a total of 50% and 97% of the measured TSP and PM2.5 levels exceeded the first grade national standard of China, respectively. Daily concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were detected 7.3 and 2.5 μg m(-3) in TSP and 5.2 and 2.0 μg m(-3) in PM2.5, which accounted 5.8% and 2.0% of TSP while 5.6% and 2.2% for PM2.5, respectively. The concentrations of OC, EC, TSP and PM2.5 were observed higher in the day time than those in the night time. The observations were associated with the emission variations from anthropogenic activities. Two merged samples representing from south and north source areas were selected for radiocarbon analysis. The radiocarbon measurements showed 74% of water-insoluble OC (WINSOC) and 59% of EC in PM2.5 derived from biomass burning and biogenic sources when the air masses were from south region, and 63% and 48% for the air masses from north, respectively. Combined with backward trajectories and daily burned area, open burning of agricultural wastes was found to be predominating, which was confirmed by the potential source contribution function (PSCF).

  4. Is the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt (North China Craton) a rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuang; Chen, Bin; Wei, Chunjing

    2016-04-01

    As a typical example of the Paleoproterozoic crust in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt consists principally of the Liaohe Group (and its equivalents), Liaoji granites and mafic intrusions. Previous studies indicate that the evolution of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt has been mainly attributed to the opening and closing of an intracontinental rift along the eastern continental margin of the North China Craton. Here we synthesize the Paleoproterozoic magmatism, sedimentation, metamorphism and metallogeny against the rift model and propose a process of arc-continent collision between the northern Longgang and the southern Nangrim Blocks. This conclusion is consistent with the observations, including that (a) the 2.0- to 2.2-Ga magmatism shows a typical subalkaline series, rather than a bimodal distribution, since the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic-intermediate rocks belong to the calc-alkaline series; (b) the main source of the 1.9- to 2.0-Ga sedimentary rocks is the Paleoproterozoic arc materials, indicating a fore-arc or back-arc basin setting; (c) a couple of big borate deposits occur in the boron-rich volcanic rocks that were formed in convergent continental margins; (d) the North and South Liaohe Groups show different rock associations and metamorphic histories (P-T paths); and (e) the Nangrim and Longgang Blocks vary in lithological units, geochronology and metamorphic features. Thus, an arc-continent collision tectonic scenario for the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt is involved: (a) a southward subduction in the period 2.0-2.2 Ga; (b) sedimentation during the period 1.9-2.0 Ga; (c) arc-continent collision at ca. 1.9 Ga; and (d) post-collisional extension at 1.82-1.87 Ga, marking the end of the Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal event.

  5. The Development of Minority Education and the Practice of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Rong

    2009-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region is an area of great importance for the ethnic minorities of northwestern China, and the development of local minority education has been a constant concern in both government and academic spheres. By means of analyzing government documents, statistical data and research literature, this article attempts to…

  6. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  7. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  8. The ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Obrebski, M. J.; Wu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is unique for its unusual Phanerozoic tectonic activity. The NCC was internally tectonically stable until Jurassic when its southern margin collided with the Yangzte Craton. Subsequently, the eastern and central part of the NCC underwent distinctive evolutions during the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In contrast to the Erdos block located in the western part of NCC and that seems to have preserved the typical features of a stable craton, the eastern NCC has experienced significant lithospheric thinning as evidenced by widespread magmatism activity and normal faulting, among other manifestations. The eastern part of the NCC is also one of the most seismically active intracontinental regions in the world. Here we focus on the region that comprises the North China Basin and the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains, two major tectonic units located to the east and in the center of the NCC, respectively. We combine ambient noise data and ballistic surface wave data recorded by the dense temporary seismic array deployed in the North China to obtain phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 5s to 60s. 1587 and 3667 ray paths were obtained from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise correlations, respectively. The phase velocity distribution was reconstructed with grid size 0.25x0.25 degrees and 0.5x0.5 degrees from ambient noise tomography and earthquake surface wave tomography. For periods shorter than 15s, the phase velocity variations are well correlated with the principal geological units in the NCC, with low-speed anomalies corresponding to the major sedimentary basins and high-speed anomalies coinciding with the main mountain ranges. Within the period range from 20s to 30s, the phase velocity variations seem to be related to the local variations of the crustal thickness. For the periods above 30s, the strength of the phase velocity variations decreases with increasing periods, which may imply that the uppermost mantle is much more homogeneous

  9. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 (~3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  10. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases. PMID:21922179

  11. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases.

  12. Organic manure as an alternative to crop residues for no-tillage wheat-maize systems in North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NT can provide both environmental and economic benefits and has been recognized as a sustainable land use practice in many areas worldwide. NT has induced some concerns in the North China Plain (NCP), e.g. unstable crop yield and fodder shortage, with regards to the amount of crop residues retained ...

  13. Effects of tillage and residue management on soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in the North China Plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A suitable tillage-residue management system is needed in the North China Plain (NCP) that sustains soil fertility and agronomic productivity. The objective was to determine the effects of different tillage-residue managements for a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), summer maize (Zea Mays L.) dou...

  14. Episodic and multistaged gravitational instability of cratonic lithosphere and its implications for reactivation of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongming; Huang, Jinshui; Zhong, Shijie

    2015-03-01

    Archean cratons are the most stable tectonic units and their lithospheric mantle is chemically depleted and buoyant relative to the underlying mantle. The chemical depletion leads to high viscosity that maintains the long-term stability of cratons. However, the eastern part of the North China Craton (˜1200 km in horizontal length scale) had been extensively reactivated and modified over a time scale of ˜100 Myr in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. While the causes for the weakening of the North China Craton, a necessary condition for its reactivation, are still in debate, we investigate gravitational instability of compositionally buoyant lithosphere, by computing 2-D thermochemical convection models with different buoyancy number, lithospheric viscosity, and rheology. We find that the gravitational instability of cratonic lithosphere can happen over a larger range of buoyancy numbers with non-Newtonian rheology, but lithospheric instability with Newtonian rheology only happens with relatively small buoyancy numbers. For cratonic lithosphere with non-Newtonian rheology and relatively weak temperature-dependent viscosity, the instability starts in the cold, shallow part of the lithosphere and has small horizontal length scale (<300 km), leading to efficient thermal and chemical mixing with the underlying mantle. For cratonic lithosphere such as the eastern North China Craton, the instability process is episodic and consists of multiple instability events that may last for ˜100 Myr. The instability process revealed from our study explains the observations of episodic magmatism/volcanism events, geochemical mixing, and time scales associated with the reactivation of the North China Craton.

  15. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  16. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species' distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  17. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-07-25

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species' distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities.

  18. Three-North Shelter Forest Program contribution to long-term increasing trends of biogenic isoprene emissions in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Shen, Yanjie; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Jia, Chenhui; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the long-term trends of isoprene emissions in northern China and the impact of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (TNRSF) on these trends, a database of historical biogenic isoprene emissions from 1982 to 2010 was developed for this region using a biogenic emission model for gases and aerosols. The total amount of the biogenic isoprene emissions during the 3 decades was 4.4 Tg in northern China and 1.6 Tg in the TNRSF, with annual emissions ranging from 132 000 to 176 000 t yr-1 and from 45 000 to 70 000 t yr-1, respectively, in the two regions. Isoprene emission fluxes have increased substantially in many areas of the TNRSF over the last 3 decades due to the growing trees and vegetation coverage, especially in the central north China region where the highest emission incline reached to 58 % from 1982 to 2010. Biogenic isoprene emissions produced from anthropogenic forests tended to surpass those produced from natural forests, such as boreal forests in northeastern China. The estimated isoprene emissions suggest that the TNRSF has altered the long-term emission trend in north China from a decreasing trend during 1982 to 2010 (slope = -0.533, R2 = 0.05) to an increasing trend for the same period of time (slope = 0.347, R2 = 0.014), providing strong evidence for the change in the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) induced by the human activities on decadal or longer timescales.

  19. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  20. Predictive map of geoelectric sections of North China and its application for the radiofields calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Angarkhaeva, L. K.; Advokatov, V. R.; Dembelov, M. G.; Dorzhiev, V. S.; Ivoilov, Yu. A.

    2015-11-01

    Predictive map of geoelectric sections of the North China on a scale of 1 : 2 500 000, necessary for calculation of propagation of VLF-MF radiowaves, is constructed. Taking into account the layered structure of the underlying medium, this map is capable of increasing the accuracy of electromagnetic field calculations by 1.5-3 times as compared to the Morgan-Maxwell map. The methodology of the geoelectric mapping is described. The studies of electrical properties of layered media by combined radio and geophysical methods in a variety of natural and geological conditions, and the proposed method of geoelectric mapping have resulted in the construction of a new generation of maps showing the electrical properties of the underlying medium that account for the layered structure of the crust and have no analogues in the world.

  1. [Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation.

  2. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Pucai; Fei, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCgrd) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCsat) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsatranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat - TCCgrdand visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrdover the NCP.

  3. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Xia, X.; Wang, P.; Fei, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCsat) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCgrd) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsat ranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat-TCCgrd and visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrd over the NCP.

  4. Construction and Characterization of Highly Infectious Full-Length Molecular Clones of a HIV-1 CRF07_BC Isolate from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Hong, Kunxue; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Lei; Li, Dan; Ren, Li; Liang, Hua; Shao, Yiming

    2013-01-01

    Among the various subtypes of the M group of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), clade CRF07_BC is the most prevalent in China. To date, no strong replicable CRF07_BC infectious clone has been constructed. Here we report on the construction and characterization of highly replicable infectious molecular clones from the isolate XJDC6291 of this HIV-1 subtype. Four full-length clones pXJDC2-7, pXJDC3-7, pXJDC2-6 and pXJDC3-6 were successfully produced, but only pXJDC2-7 presented detectable infectivity and replication capability. To improve the replication capability of pXJDC2-7, a 4.8 kb region spanning from the pol Integrase to nef gene of the clone was replaced by PCR products of the corresponding fragments from the original isolate XJDC6291, which produced two clones pXJDC13 and pXJDC17 that exhibited strong replication capability. The viral stocks obtained by pXJDC-13 and pXJDC-17 transfection into 293T cells replicated efficiently in human PBMCs, human primary CD4+ T cells and displayed CCR5 tropism. Sequence alignment between pXJDC13, pXJDC17 and pXJDC2-7 suggested that polymorphisms in the V1V2 region may influence infectivity, and reverse genetic experiment showed that V1V2 polymorphisms may influence the infectivity of the clones but did not affect the replication capability at a significant level. pXJDC13 and pXJDC17 displayed strong replication capability and are the first full-length infectious clones of HIV-1 CRF07_BC clade in the world. The availability of CRF07_BC infectious clones provides a useful tool for a wide range of studies, including antiretroviral drug and vaccine research as related to this HIV subtype. PMID:24324545

  5. Three-dimensional circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall over central North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wei; Yu, Rucong; Li, Jian; Yuan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Using daily and hourly rain gauge records and Japanese 25 year reanalysis data over 30 years, this work reveals two major circulation structures leading to heavy summer rainfall events in central North China (CNC), and further analyzes the effects of the circulations on these rainfall events. One circulation structure has an extensive upper tropospheric warm anomaly (UTWA) covering North China (NC). By strengthening the upper anticyclonic anomaly and lower southerly flows around NC, the UTWA plays a positive role in forming upper level divergence and lower level moisture convergence. As a result, the warm anomalous circulation has a solid relationship with large-scale, long-duration rainfall events with a diurnal peak around midnight to early morning. The other circulation structure has an upper tropospheric cold anomaly (UTCA) located in the upper stream of NC. Contributed to by the UTCA, a cold trough appears in the upper stream of NC and an unstable configuration with upper (lower) cold (warm) anomalies forms around CNC. Consequently, CNC is covered by strong instability and high convective energy, and the cold anomalous circulation is closely connected with local, short-duration rainfall events concentrated from late afternoon to early nighttime. The close connections between circulation structures and typical rainfall events are confirmed by two independent converse analysis processes: from circulations to rainfall characteristics, and from typical rainfall events to circulations. The results presented in this work indicate that the upper tropospheric temperature has significant influences on heavy rainfall, and thus more attention should be paid to the upper tropospheric temperature in future analyses.

  6. Trace metal accumulation in soil and their phytoavailability as affected by greenhouse types in north China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Hickethier, Martina; Hu, Wenyou

    2015-05-01

    Long-term heavy organic fertilizer application has linked greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) with trace metal contamination in north China. Given that trace metals release from fertilizers and their availability may be affected by discrepant environmental conditions, especially temperature under different greenhouses, this study investigated Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation and contamination extent in soil as well as their phytoavailability under two major greenhouses in Tongshan, north China, namely solar greenhouse (SG) and round-arched plastic greenhouse (RAPG), to evaluate their presumed difference. The results showed significant Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation in GVP soil by comparing with those in open-field soil, but their accumulation extent and rates were generally greater in SG than those in RAPG. This may be related to more release of trace metals to soil due to the acceleration of decomposition and humification process of organic fertilizers under higher soil temperature in SG relative to that in RAPG. Overall, soil in both greenhouses was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by the study metals. Similarly, decreased soil pH and elevated soil available metals in SG caused higher trace metals in leaf vegetables in SG than those in RAPG, although there was no obvious risk via vegetable consumption under both greenhouses. Lower soil pH may be predominantly ascribed to more intensive farming practices in SG while elevated soil available metals may be attributed to more release of dissolved organic matter-metal complexes from soil under higher temperature in SG. The data provided in this study may assist in developing reasonable and sustainable fertilization strategies to abate trace metal contamination in both greenhouses.

  7. Provenance and paleoweathering reconstruction of the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation (1.4 Ga), northern North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyong; Zhong, Ningning; Wang, Yannian; Ma, Ling; Li, Min

    2015-10-01

    This is the first study presenting major and trace elemental data from the Mesoproterozoic Hongshuizhuang Formation shales in Yanshan basin, North China, in order to reconstruct its provenance and chemical weathering history. The shales are strongly depleted in Na2O and Sr and enriched in Y and transition metal elements relative to upper continental crust. Low Zr concentrations and various discriminant plots (e.g., Th/Sc-Zr/Sc and Al2O3-TiO2-Zr) indicate insignificant mineral sorting or recycling of these shales. The rocks show light rare earth element (REE) enrichment (La/YbCN = 3.99-6.92), flat heavy REE, and significantly negative Eu anomalies (Euan = 0.57-0.68) in chondrite-normalized REE patterns, similar to post-Archean Australian average shales. The fairly uniform REE patterns and trace element ratios indicate that the Hongshuizhuang Formation shales were derived from a felsic source area with granodiorite as the dominant contributor. Mixing calculations suggest a mixture of 30 % granite porphyry, 5 % basalt, and 65 % granodiorite as the possible source of the shales, also supporting that granodiorite was the predominant source. Intense chemical weathering of the source terrain is indicated by high values of the premetasomatized chemical index of alteration, plagioclase index of alteration, Rb/Sr, a strong positive correlation between TiO2 and Al2O3, depletion of CaO, Na2O, and Sr, and mineral compositions. Such strong chemical weathering suggests a warm and wet paleoclimate, perhaps due to high atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations, and a near-equatorial location of the North China Craton in the Columbia supercontinent at 1.4 Ga.

  8. Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Gao, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were analyzed using a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS for sediment core samples obtained in 2007-2008 from the North Jiangsu tidal flats in the Yellow Sea in China. Particular attention was focused on the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The profiles of (239+240)Pu activities in the sediment cores are similar to those of the (137)Cs activities. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the tidal flats showed typical global fallout values, indicating that this area did not receive the possible early direct close-in fallout or oceanic current transported Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). If any, the contribution of the PPG source Pu to the total Pu inventory is negligible. This is different from the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary in the East China Sea, where the PPG source Pu contributed ca. 45 % to the total inventory. In addition, the observation of the global fallout origin Pu in the North Jiangsu tidal flats indicated that the nuclear power plant in the region was not causing any alteration/contamination to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios. The (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities/inventories in the sediment cores showed correlation to the mean clay sediment compositions (fine particles) in the tidal flats. Therefore, mud deposits are served as sinks for the anthropogenic radionuclides in the tidal flats and the Yellow Sea. Integrated with the previously reported spatial distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea, the mechanism of Pu transport with the ocean currents and the scavenging characteristics in the Yellow Sea were discussed.

  9. Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Gao, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were analyzed using a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS for sediment core samples obtained in 2007-2008 from the North Jiangsu tidal flats in the Yellow Sea in China. Particular attention was focused on the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The profiles of (239+240)Pu activities in the sediment cores are similar to those of the (137)Cs activities. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the tidal flats showed typical global fallout values, indicating that this area did not receive the possible early direct close-in fallout or oceanic current transported Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). If any, the contribution of the PPG source Pu to the total Pu inventory is negligible. This is different from the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary in the East China Sea, where the PPG source Pu contributed ca. 45 % to the total inventory. In addition, the observation of the global fallout origin Pu in the North Jiangsu tidal flats indicated that the nuclear power plant in the region was not causing any alteration/contamination to the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios. The (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities/inventories in the sediment cores showed correlation to the mean clay sediment compositions (fine particles) in the tidal flats. Therefore, mud deposits are served as sinks for the anthropogenic radionuclides in the tidal flats and the Yellow Sea. Integrated with the previously reported spatial distributions of (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs activities in the surface sediments of the Yellow Sea, the mechanism of Pu transport with the ocean currents and the scavenging characteristics in the Yellow Sea were discussed. PMID:23264060

  10. Aerosol characterization over the North China Plain: Haze life cycle and biomass burning impacts in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yele; Jiang, Qi; Xu, Yisheng; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Yingjie; Liu, Xingang; Li, Weijun; Wang, Fei; Li, Jie; Wang, Pucai; Li, Zhanqing

    2016-03-01

    The North China Plain experiences frequent severe haze pollution during all seasons. Here we present the results from a summer campaign that was conducted at Xianghe, a suburban site located between the megacities of Beijing and Tianjin. Aerosol particle composition was measured in situ by an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor along with a suite of collocated measurements during 1-30 June 2013. Our results showed that aerosol composition at the suburban site was overall similar to that observed in Beijing, which was mainly composed of organics (39%), nitrate (20%), and sulfate (18%). Positive matrix factorization of organic aerosol (OA) identified four OA factors with different sources and processes. While secondary organic aerosol dominated OA, on average accounting for 70%, biomass burning OA (BBOA) was also observed to have a considerable contribution (11%) for the entire study period. The contribution of BBOA was increased to 21% during the BB period in late June, indicating a large impact of agricultural burning on air pollution in summer. Biomass burning also exerted a significant impact on aerosol optical properties. It was estimated that ~60% enhancement of absorption at the ultraviolet spectral region was caused by the organic compounds from biomass burning. The formation mechanisms and sources of severe haze pollution episodes were investigated in a case study. The results highlighted two different mechanisms, i.e., regional transport and local sources, driving the haze life cycles differently in summer in the North China Plain. While secondary aerosol species dominated aerosol composition in the episode from regional transport, organics and black carbon comprised the major fraction in the locally formed haze episode.

  11. Lithospheric Structure, Crustal Kinematics, and Earthquakes in North China: An Integrated Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Sandvol, E.; Chen, Y.; Wang, L.; Zhou, S.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.

    2007-12-01

    The North China block (NCB) is geologically part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton. But unusual for a craton, it was thermally rejuvenated since late Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Today, the NCB is characterized by strong internal deformation and seismicity, including the 1976 Tangshan earthquake that killed ~250,000 people. We have started a multidisciplinary study to image the lithospheric and upper mantle structure using seismological methods, to delineate crustal kinematics and deformation via studies of neotectonics and space geodesy, and to investigate the driving forces, the stress states and evolution, and seismicity using geodynamic modeling. Both seismic imaging and GPS results indicate that the Ordos plateau, which is the western part of the NCB and a relic of the Sino-Korean craton, has been encroached around its southern margins by mantle flow and thus is experiencing active cratonic destruction. Some of the mantle flow may be driven by the Indo-Asian collision, although the cause of the broad mantle upwelling responsible for the Mesozoic thinning of the NCB lithosphere remains uncertain. At present, crustal deformation in the NCB is largely driven by gravitational spreading of the expanding Tibetan Plateau. Internal deformation within the NCB is further facilitated by the particular tectonic boundary conditions around the NCB, and the large lateral contrasts of lithospheric strength and rheology. Based on the crustal kinematics and lithospheric structure, we have developed a preliminary geodynamic model for stress states and strain energy in the crust of the NCB. The predicted long-term strain energy distribution is comparable with the spatial pattern of seismic energy release in the past 2000 years. We are exploring the cause of the spatiotemporal occurrence of large earthquakes in the NCB, especially the apparent migration of seismicity from the Weihe-Shanxi grabens around the Ordos to

  12. Late Holocene Earthquake Behavior on Either Side of a Crustal-Scale Complexity Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Chen, J.; Cowgill, E.; Li, T.; Yang, X.; Aburto, F.; Qin, J.; Muretta, M.

    2013-12-01

    The earthquake behavior of intra-continental strike-slip faults is poorly understood, particularly where actively deforming areas lie adjacent to stable regions. Strain concentration on these structures is capable of producing severe earthquakes, but what is the longest rupture (i.e. biggest earthquake) possible on a continental strike-slip fault? At over 1300 km in length, the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF) in northwestern China is one of the largest intra-continental strike-slip faults in the world. Despite its potential for advancing understanding of major intra-continental strike-slip fault behavior, the earthquake history of the ATF remains poorly known. We combine detailed structural geologic and geomorphic mapping along the main fault trace with paleoseismic excavations at 4 sites along the western third of the ATF (86-88.5°E) in an effort to elucidate the earthquake history on opposite sides of the Sulamu Tagh (37.8°N, 87.3°E) double-bend restraining step that forms a ~6000-m-elevation, ~40-km-long geometric complexity along the otherwise linear, ~200-km-long Cherchen He section of the ATF. We excavated and documented structural relationships of displaced stratigraphic horizons in four small (<50-m long, <15-m wide) shutter ridge-ponded basins along the fault. Three sites are west [37.69°N, 86.55°E; 37.71°N, 86.61°E; 37.72°N, 86.68°E] and one is to the east [37.98°N, 87.82°E] of Sulamu Tagh. We also sampled stratigraphic units for radiocarbon (14C) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age control of past earthquakes along the ATF. Distinct, alternating layers of alluvial fan and loess deposits preserve significant deformation and provide evidence for three to four surface-rupturing earthquakes in the top 2 m of sediment. Well-preserved fault micro-geomorphology and eight preliminary 14C dates suggest a young (1600 ×250 CalAD) most recent event (MRE) and a penultimate event (PE) at 1020 +210/-160 CalAD at one of the sites west of the Sulamu Tagh

  13. Wind waves simulation in the north area of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenzhi; Chen, Junchang; Li, Manqiu; Li, Yuxiang; Li, Zhiwei

    1992-06-01

    A third generation wave model was developed to simulate wind waves in the South China Sea near Hong Kong. The model solves the energy conservation equation of the two dimensional wave spectrum by directly computing the nonlinear energy interaction among waves of different frequencies, thus avoiding the imposition of restrictions on the shape of the predicted spectra. The use of an upwind difference scheme in the advective terms produces an artificial diffusion which partly compensates the dispersive effect due to the phase velocity differences among various wave components. The use of a semi-implicit scheme for the source terms together with a special treatment of the high frequency tail of the spectrum allows a large time integration step. Verification of the model was done for wave hindcasting studies under conditions of two typhoons and two cold fronts in the north part of the South China Sea near Hong Kong. The model results agree well with the field measurements except that the presence of a distant swell could not be accounted for, and indicate that an accurate modelling of the wind field is essential.

  14. Heavy metals pollution and pb isotopic signatures in surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yin, Shuhua; Yu, Xiao; Wang, Qiwen; Sun, Ke

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the characteristics and potential sources of heavy metals pollution, surface sediments collected from Bohai Bay, North China, were analyzed for the selected metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn). The Geoaccumulation Index was used to assess the level of heavy metal pollution. Pb isotopic compositions in sediments were also measured to effectively identify the potential Pb sources. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 0.15, 79.73, 28.70, 36.56, 25.63, and 72.83 mg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of the studied metals were slightly higher than the background values. However, the heavy metals concentrations in surface sediments in Bohai Bay were below the other important bays or estuaries in China. The assessment by Geoaccumulation Index indicated that Cr, Zn, and Cd were classified as "the unpolluted" level, while Ni, Cu, and Pb were ranked as "unpolluted to moderately polluted" level. The order of pollution level of heavy metals was: Pb > Ni > Cu > Cr > Zn > Cd. The Pb isotopic ratios in surface sediments varied from 1.159 to 1.185 for (206)Pb/(207)Pb and from 2.456 to 2.482 for (208)Pb/(207)Pb. Compared with Pb isotopic radios in other sources, Pb contaminations in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay may be controlled by the mix process of coal combustion, aerosol particles deposition, and natural sources.

  15. The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, C.; Liu, S.; Mo, X.; Rosbjerg, D.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2015-06-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater reserves is a major environmental problem around the world. In many river basins, groundwater and surface water are used conjunctively and joint optimization strategies are required. A hydroeconomic modelling approach is used to find cost-optimal sustainable surface water and groundwater allocation strategies for a river basin, given an arbitrary initial groundwater level in the aquifer. A simplified management problem with conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater under inflow and recharge uncertainty is presented. Because of head-dependent groundwater pumping costs the optimization problem is non-linear and non-convex, and a genetic algorithm is used to solve the 1-step-ahead sub-problems with the objective of minimizing the sum of immediate and expected future costs. A real-world application in the Ziya River Basin in northern China is used to demonstrate the model capabilities. Persistent overdraft from the groundwater aquifers on the North China Plain has caused declining groundwater tables, salinization and infiltration of wastewater. The model maps the opportunity cost of water in different scenarios, and the cost of ending groundwater overdraft in the basin is estimated to be 5.47 billion CNY yr-1. The model can be used to guide decision makers to ensure long-term sustainability of groundwater and surface water resources management in the basin in an economically optimal way.

  16. Reactivation and mantle dynamics of North China Craton: insight from P-wave anisotropy tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, You; Zhao, Dapeng

    2013-12-01

    We determined the first 3-D P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath the North China Craton (NCC) using a large number of high-quality arrival-time data from local earthquakes and teleseismic events, which reveals depth-dependent azimuthal anisotropy in the crust and upper mantle down to 600 km depth. In the NCC western block, the fast velocity direction (FVD) varies from east-west in the southern part to northeast-southwest in the northern part, which may reflect either the interaction between the Yangtze block and NCC or fossil lithospheric fabrics in the craton. Under the NCC eastern block, a uniform northwest-southeast FVD is revealed in the lower part of the upper mantle (300-410 km depths) and the mantle transition zone (410-660 km depths), which may reflect horizontal and upwelling flows in the big mantle wedge (BMW) above the stagnant Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone. The NCC central block exhibits a northeast-southwest FVD, consistent with the surface tectonic orientation there, suggesting that the cold and thick (>300 km) cratonic root of the NCC western block may obstruct the northwest-southeast trending mantle flow induced by the Pacific Plate subduction, resulting in a northeast-southwest trending mantle flow under the central block. Our present results indicate that the corner flow in the BMW associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific Plate is the main cause of NCC reactivation and mantle dynamics under East China.

  17. Petrogenesis and evolution of Quaternary basaltic rocks from the Wulanhada area, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Qi-Cheng; Chen, Sheng-Sheng; Zhao, Yong-Wei; Zou, Hai-Bo; Li, Ni; Sui, Jian-Li

    2014-10-01

    The origin of alkali basalts in eastern China has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we focus on the Wulanhada basalts located in the western block of North China Craton to provide new insights into recent deep mantle dynamics. The Wulanhada volcanic group has 30 volcanic cones with variable volumes, consisting of scoria cone (cinder cone + spatter cone) and lava. The Wulanhada volcanoes exhibit Strombolian eruption activities during late Pleistocene epoch and Holocene. The Wulanhada basalts are strongly alkaline rocks (tephrite). According to the characteristics of trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions, the Wulanhada magmas were mainly derived from garnet-bearing peridotite within the asthenosphere and underwent fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene without significant crustal contamination. Their elevated values of Na, Al, Sr/Sm, Sm/Hf, Zr/Hf, and Nb/Ta, positive Ba, K, Pb, and Sr anomalies and negative Zr, Hf anomalies, combined with a negative correlation between 176Hf/177Hf and 143Nd/144Nd and relatively low 87Sr/86Sr, suggest that the magma source may be a mixture of garnet peridotites and carbonated melts. The presence of carbonated melts is likely associated with the sediments or fluids carried by the subducted or stagnant Pacific Plate.

  18. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Reinvestigation of the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China using SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyurt, Elvan; Grímsson, Friðgeir; Zetter, Reinhard; Leng, Qin; Bouchal, Johannes Martin

    2016-04-01

    Here we report the first results of an ongoing study on the Miocene palynoflora from the Daotaiqiao Formation of north-eastern China. Using the single grain technique, we examined individual pollen and spores using both light and scanning electron microscopy. A previous study by Grímsson et al. (2012) on Onagraceae pollen grains from this locality, using the same technique identified five different species. Such a variety of Onagraceae from a single palynoflora is unknown elsewhere. The ongoing study suggests a remarkably rich pollen and spore flora with at least 15 different types of spores, one Ginkgo and one Ephedra type pollen, 11 conifer pollen types and approximately 145 angiosperm pollen types. Spores are very rare in the samples (≤1%). Conifer pollen grains are regularly observed but are not a dominant component (ca. 16 %). The samples yield a high quantity and diversity of angiosperm pollen (ca. 80%). The conifers include representatives of Cupressaceae (2 spp.), Pinaceae (Larix, Picea, Pinus, Tsuga) and Sciadopityaceae. The angiosperm pollen cover at least 40 families. Prominent elements are pollen of the Betulaceae (Alnus, Betula, Carpinus, Corylus), Cercidiphyllaceae (Cercidiphyllum), Ericaceae (8 spp.), Eucommiaceae (Eucommia), Fagaceae (Fagus, Quercus spp., Castaneoideae), Juglandaceae (Carya, Cyclocarya, Juglans, Pterocarya), Rosaceae (11 spp.), Sapindaceae (Acer, Aesculus) and Ulmaceae (Hemiptelia, Ulmus, Zelkova). The high angiosperm pollen diversity indicates a varying landscape with a relatively high variety of niches including riparian, dry and mesic forests. Most of the potential modern analogues of the fossil taxa are currently thriving under humid temperate (Cfa- and Cwa)-climates, pointing to paleoclimate conditions not unlike those found today in the lowlands and adjacent mountain regions of the (south-) eastern United States, the humid-meridional region of western Eurasia, and central and southern China, and Honshu (Japan). References

  20. Tectonic affiliation of the North China Block with supercontinents since 1.8 Ga (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2010-12-01

    North China Block (NCB) is a small but very stable Precambrian craton in eastern Asia. Its tectonic affiliation with the supercontinents in geological history is of great interest but remains unclear. The previous reconstruction models based on the Precambrian tectonostratigraphic and paleomagnetic analysis should be radically revised because the new geochronological data obtained in the last several years have greatly changed the Proterozoic age framework of the strata in the NCB. In this research, five Precambrian paleomagnetic key poles, including three poles with direct U-Pb zircon ages from the Xionger GP (1.78Ga), Taihang dike (1.77Ga) and Tieling Fm (1.44Ga) respectively and two less well-dated poles from Yangzhuang Fm (1.45-1.56Ga) and Yunmengshan Fm (1.60-1.77Ga), were selected to discuss the relationship between the NCB and the supercontinent Columbia. These poles, in combination with reliable poles from other continents, suggest that the NCB was connected to Laurentia between 1.78 Ga and ca. 1.40 Ga. However, there is no well dated pole to determine the paleogeographic position of the NCB in Rodinia from 1.3 Ga to ca. 0.80 Ga. The available paleomagnetic data and sedimentary records suggest that the NCB was likely isolated block in low latitude during the late Neoproterozoic. Latest Precambrian and Paleozoic Paleomagnetic results do not support any connection between the NCB and Gondwana, although some biogeographic studies demonstrated the similarity between the NCB and Australia in the Early Cambrian. During the Paleozoic, the NCB significantly enlarged by the addition of accretionary blocks along its northern and southern sides. The Permian paleomagnetic poles from the north side of the Solonker suture are in agreement with those from interior of the NCB indicating that the NCB collided with the Mongolia composite terrane by Permian. On the other side, assembly of the NCB and south China block (SCB) took place from late Permian through Triassic. The

  1. Petrogenesis and Tectonic Evolution of Granitic Rocks in The Northern Margin of North China Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X.; Zhao, Q.; Zheng, C.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.

    2010-12-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic granites in Daqingshan district of the northern margin of north China plate is classified into six types as follows.Aguigou intrusion is consists of gabbro, diorite, quartz diorite, and granodiorite.Its feature is rich in mafic compositions.The formation age is 284.5±2.9Ma or 283.7±3.7Ma for the quartz diorite, and 281.1±3.4Ma for granodiorite. The genesis of the intrusion belongs to I-type granite. Laoyinhada intrusion comprises fine biotite monzonitic granite and porphyritic biotite monzonitic granite. The age is 272±4Ma for the fine biotite monzonitic granite. The genesis of the body is I-type granite.Halaheshao intrusion is a group of medium-coarse biotite-bearing monzonitic granites and large porphyritic-bearing monzonitic granite. The age is 260±0.5Ma for the biotite-bearing monzonitic granite.The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granites.Taolegai intrusion consists of medium-fine granite, medium-coarse granite, porphyritic-bearing granite, and fine granite. The age is 224±3Ma for medium-coarse granite.Its genesis is light color granite co-occurred with muscovite peraluminous granites. The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granites.Gechoushan intrusion is medium-fine monzonitic granite, a kind of typical muscovite granites. Its formation era is late Triassic. The tectonic environment belongs to post-orogenic granite.Shadegai intrusion is mainly composed of biotite granites. The age is 211.2±0.7Ma for medium-coarse biotite granite. The tectonic setting belongs to post-orogenic granites. The different types granites in the area basically reveal all the magmatic events from late Palaeozoic orogeny, to post-orogeny, and to intracontinental orogeny in the north edge of the north China plate. Early Permian Aguigou intrusion is a magmatic arc granite, formed in the continental edge in the early period of the middle Asia ocean plate subduction. Mid-Permian Laoyinhada intrusion is a magmatic arc granite

  2. Blue water transfer versus virtual water transfer in China, with a focus on the South-North Water Transfer Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong; Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Junguo

    2015-04-01

    Alongside its astonishing economic growth during the past decades, there has been increasing water stress in many areas in China. Water diversion has been one of the measures in dealing with the problem. The South-North Water Transfer Project is the largest project as such in the world, which aims to transfer water from the Yangtze River to primarily the North China Plain to alleviate the water stress in the region. Water diversion projects play an important role in supporting the continuous economic growth and safeguarding food production in the country. However, they also bring about many negative impacts concerning the environmental and ecosystem sustainability, as well as socio-economic development, both in the source and destination regions of diversions. One question arising is whether a virtual water transfer, primarily in the form of agricultural products, would be one of the tools economically and environmentally advantageous over transferring massive amounts of water to water deficit regions. This study presents an overview of China's water and land endowments and uses across regions, and the spatial distribution of food production. Based on this, the extent to which the virtual water strategy may be useful in dealing with the water stress in northern China as well as its limitations will be discussed. The focus will be on the South-North Water Transfer Project.

  3. An observed connection between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and weather regime transitions in North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhang, Qingyun

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the association between wintertime temperature anomalies over Northwest China and the weather regime transitions in North Atlantic on synoptic scale is analyzed by using observational surface air temperature (SAT) data and atmospheric reanalysis data. Daily SAT anomaly and duration time are used in order to define SAT anomaly cases. Differences with regard to the circulation anomalies over the Ural Mountains and the upstream North Atlantic area are evident. It is found that the colder than normal SAT is caused by the enhanced Ural high and associated southward flow over Northwest China. Time-lagged composites reveal possible connections between the SAT anomalies and the different development phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The Ural highs tend to be strengthened during the negative phase of NAO (NAO-) to Atlantic ridge transition, which are closely related to the downstream-propagating Rossby wave activity. The opposite circulation patterns are observed in the warm SAT cases. A cyclonic circulation anomaly is distinctly enhanced over the Urals during the positive phase of NAO (NAO+) to Scandinavian blocking transition, which would cause warmer SAT over Northwest China. Further analyses suggest that the intensified zonal wind over North Atlantic would favor the NAO- to Atlantic ridge transition, while the weakened zonal wind may be responsible for the transition between NAO+ and Scandinavian blocking.

  4. A New System of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China Sea of Today

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.

    2014-12-01

    The South China Sea (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific system. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of

  5. The Successful Prevention of Silicosis among China Biscuit Workers in the North Staffordshire Potteries*

    PubMed Central

    Meiklejohn, A.

    1963-01-01

    The pottery industry in North Staffordshire was established towards the close of the seventeenth century. At first the wares which were made from local clays were rather crude but manufacturers unremittingly sought to improve the quality of their productions by the addition of other ingredients to the clays. In 1720 calcined powdered flint was introduced into the clay body. Six years later Benson described the serious effects of the dust on the lungs of millmen engaged in dry flint crushing. Later the disease became very prevalent not only among millmen but among workmen, males and females, in a wide range of pottery occupations and processes. Popularly the disease was known as potters' asthma or potters' rot, which was later identified scientifically as silicosis. Among the workmen most seriously affected were men engaged in china biscuit bedding and placing and women in the china biscuit warehouse. The risk arose from bedding the ware in flint for the first or so-called biscuit firing. In the course of firing some flint adhered to the surface of pieces and this had to be scoured or brushed off to ensure a clean surface for glazing. The manufacturers experimented to discover a suitable substitute for bedding flint. In due course it was proved that calcined alumina fulfilled all the practical requirements. This success immediately raised the question as to whether or not alumina was free from any risk to the health of workmen. The problem was investigated by a survey of furnacemen who had been seriously exposed for many years to the inhalation of alumina in the manufacture of aluminium. The research team concluded that alumina was safe. Thereafter manufacturers progressively substituted alumina for flint. At first this action was voluntary but it was made statutory in 1947. Vigilant supervision of alumina workers in potteries and aluminium works was maintained between 1936 and 1962; the original findings as to the safety of alumina were confirmed. During this

  6. Structure and dynamics in the north Jizhong Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Q.; Qi, J.; Zhang, J.

    2015-12-01

    -Lujiang fault zone, is induced by the movement of plates. This study makes further steps to the research of basin evolution in Jizhong depression, especially the relationship between extensional system and strike-slip system, and provides references to the basin research of Bohai Bay, even the destruction of North China Craton.

  7. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-02-23

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed.

  8. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) transmitting visceral leishmaniasis and their geographical distribution in China: a review.

    PubMed

    Guan, Li-Ren; Zhou, Zheng-Bin; Jin, Chang-Fa; Fu, Qing; Chai, Jun-Jie

    2016-01-01

    After the existence of phlebotomine sand flies was first reported in China in 1910, the distribution of different species and their role in the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been extensively studied. Up until 2008, four species have been verified as vectors of VL, namely, Phlebotomus chinensis (Ph. sichuanensis), Ph. longiductus (Ph. chinensis longiductus), Ph. wui (Ph. major wui), and Ph. alexandri. The sand fly species vary greatly depending on the natural environments in the different geographic areas where they are endemic. Ph. chinensis is euryecious and adaptable to different ecologies, and is thus distributed widely in the plain, mountainous, and Loess Plateau regions north of the Yangtze River. Ph. longiductus is mainly distributed in ancient oasis areas south of Mt. Tianshan in the Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region. Ph. wui is the predominant species in deserts with Populus diversifolia and Tamarix vegetation in Xinjiang and the western part of the Inner Mongolia autonomous region. Finally, Ph. alexandri is steroecious and found only in stony desert areas, such as at the foot of the mountains in Xinjiang and the western Hexi Corridor, in Gansu province. This review summarized the relationship between the geographic distribution pattern of the four sand fly species and their geographical landscape in order to foster research on disease distribution and sand fly control planning. Furthermore, some problems that remained to be solved about vectors of VL in China were discussed. PMID:26906187

  9. Loess deposition and Paleolithic human activity in late Pleistocene in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, D.

    2013-12-01

    Loess is one of the best geological records in the world for reconstruction of paleoenvironment. Loess deposited widely in North China in Quaternary, composing the famous Chinese Loess Plateau where loess sections could be as thick as 200 m. In these thick loess profiles, various archaeological remains including human fossils are found across the Chinese Loess Plateau, which indicates the aeolian loess deposition provides a good preservation environment for archaeological remains or the environment when loess is deposited in North China is favorable for human subsistence. Therefore, well developed loess studies using conventional methods such as grain size, magnetism, carbonate contents, TOC and biological or chemical methods like pollen, phytolith, stable isotopes, could provide important information for archaeologists about site formation process, human subsistence environment and human adaptation behaviors. This study focuses on late Pleistocene environment change and human adaptation in Chinese Western Loess Plateau. Over fifty Paleolithic sites were found buried in loess sections in two small rive catchments about 400 km2 in Chinese Western Loess Plateau in this study. Based on the well loess study in this region, the ages of most of the sites could be easily assumed in the field, which were usually confirmed by later radiocarbon or OSL dating results. Paleoenvironment of human subsistence is reconstructed using pollen, grain size, magnetism studies on the loess profiles producing archaeological remains. The chronological framework built with absolute dating results and loess-paleosol sequence comparison shows that humans first appear in the study area during warm and humid MIS5, may have abandoned the area in cold MIS4, reappeared in cool but humid MIS3 and continued thereafter, even extremely cold and dry LGM. A comprehensive study of 3727 pieces of stone artifacts shows that small-flake-tool industry is dominant through most of the late Pleistocene and

  10. A stable isotope study of water movements with typical vegetation cover in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Bin; Liang, Xing; Liu, Shaohua; Jin, Menggui; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotope 2H and 18O are often used as natural tracers in subsurface water pathways in semi-arid areas. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation, soil water and groundwater were observed to assess the temporal variations in soil water flow at three sites covered by grass (Carex humili and Carex lanceolata) (site A), poplar (Ponulus hopeiensis) (site B) and winter wheat (Triticum asetivum) and summer maize (Zea mays) (site C) in the shallow groundwater area in the North China Plain (NCP) from April 2012 to October 2013. Precipitation isotopes resulted in a meteoric water line of δ2H =7.6δ18O -3.7 and showed a typical seasonal variation for δ2H (-98.9 to -13.3) and δ18O (-12.0 to -1.7). The seasonality in the shallow groundwater was further subdued due to the evaporation and mixing and diffusional exchange with stored water held in the soil pores within the unsaturated zone. Shallow groundwater was mainly recharged by precipitation in the rainy season. Soil water isotope profiles were sampled at depths of 10 cm down to 150 cm every 10 cm for the three sites. The vertical profiles of soil water δ18O showed large variations in the superficial 10 cm layer under the precipitation input and evapotranspiration effects. The soil water δ18O decreased and soil moisture increased with depth ( 70 cm) due to continuously evapotranspiration for the three sites though that at site B showed more positive δ18O values and smaller soil moisture than those at site A and C. The signal of individual rainstorm event in the summer with low δ18O values could be traced down to a depth of 40 cm that mixed with antecedent mobile soil water and to 120 cm due to a fast and direct preferential infiltration of the input rainwater that bypassed the upper soil layer at sites B and C. Keywords: stable isotopes; soil water pathways; groundwater recharge; North China Plain

  11. [Fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in selected agricultural soils of North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Yi, Chun-Yao; Wang, Bing-Guo; Jin, Meng-Gui

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to study fluorine speciation and its distribution characteristics in the cultivated soils of wheat-corn fields at the typical areas, the North China Plain. The fluorine contents in cultivated soils and profile soils were measured by consecutive extraction. The results showed that the soil total fluorine (T-F) content at typical areas in the North China Plain ranged from 338.31 mg x kg(-1) to 781.67 mg x kg(-1), with a mean of 430.46 mg x kg(-1). The soil fluorine speciation with the highest content was Residual-Fluorine (Res-F), with a mean of 402.73 mg x kg(-1). The average content of Water soluble Fluorine (Ws-F) was 14.39 mg x kg(-1). The result indicated that the cultivated soil in the study area was at a relatively high fluoride pollution level, which may be harmful to human health and the ecological environment. The contents of Organic Fluorine (Or-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/ Mn-F) were also quite high, with a mean of 8.90 mg x kg(-1) and 4.10 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The exchangeable fluorine (Ex-F) only had a very small amount of 0.33 mg x kg(-1). Soil Ws-F was positively correlated with soil pH and CEC, while it was negatively correlated with the percentage of soil clay. The content of soil Fe/Mn-F was positively correlated with soil pH, CEC and the sand grain content percentage, while it was negatively correlated with the clay grain content percentage. The soil pH value had the most significant influence on the water soluble fluorine (Ws-F) and Fe/Mn Oxide-Fluorine (Fe/Mn-F), and the soil CEC had the most significant influence on the soil total fluorine (T-F) and residual-Fluorine (Res-F) by stepwise regression analysis. In the soil profiles, the T-F content appeared as peaks and valleys representing the change of the soil lithology in the vadose zone. The Ws-F in the soil profiles mainly changed in the depth of 0-100 cm near the surface soil and was little influenced by the soil lithology. But it was strongly

  12. Monitoring and Modeling Water and Energy Fluxes in North China Plain: From Field to Regional Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.

    2012-12-01

    North China Plain is one of the mostly water deficit region in the world. Even though the total water withdrawal from surface and groundwater exceeded its renewable ability for long years, due to its importance to balance the food budget in China, large amount of groundwater is still extracted every year for intensive irrigation. With winter wheat and summer maize double-cropping system, the grain yield of NCP can reach a very high level of around 15 t/ha annually, which is largely depended on timely irrigation. As a result, the ceaseless over exploitation of groundwater caused serious environmental and ecological problems, e.g. nearly all the rivers run drying-up at plain areas, groundwater declined, land subsidence, and wetland shrank. The decrease in precipitation over past half century reinforced the water shortage in NCP. The sustainability of both the water resources and agriculture became the most important issue in this region. A key issue to the sustainable use of water resources is to improve the water use efficiency and reduce agricultural water consumptions. This study will introduce the efforts we put to clarify the water and heat balances in irrigated agricultural lands and its implications to crop yield, hydrology, and water resources evolution in NCP. We established a multi-scale observation system in NCP to study the surface water and heat processes and agricultural aspect of hydrological cycle in past years. Multi-disciplinary methods are adopted into this research such as micro-meteorologic, isotopic, soil hydrologic methods at the field scale, and remote sensing and modeling for study the water fluxes over regional scale. Detailed research activities and interesting as well as some initial results will be introduced at the workshop.

  13. Groundwater hydrochemical characteristics and processes along flow paths in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Lina; Guo, Huaming; Zhan, Yanhong

    2013-07-01

    The North China Plain is one of the biggest plains in China, where municipal, agricultural and industrial water supplies are highly dependent on groundwater resources. It is crucial to investigate water chemistry and hydrogeochemical processes related to hydrogeologic settings for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources. Two hydrochemical profiles proximately along the groundwater flow paths were selected for hydrogeochemical study. Major components and 2H and 18O isotopes were analyzed in groundwater samples from the profiles. The study area was divided into three zones, including strong runoff-alluvial/pluvial fans in the piedmont area (Zone I), slow runoff-alluvial/lacustrine plain in the central area (Zone II), and discharge-alluvial/marine plain in the coastal area (Zone III). Major components of groundwater samples showed obvious zonation patterns from Zone I to Zone III. Total dissolved solid (TDS) concentrations gradually increased, and the hydrochemical type changed from HCO3-SO4-Ca-Mg and HCO3-Cl-Ca-Mg types to HCO3-SO4-Na-Ca, SO4-Cl-Na-Ca and SO4-Cl-Na types from Zone I to Zone III. Abrupt increases in concentrations of Na+, Cl- and SO42- in deep groundwater were observed around the depression cones, which indicated that overexploitation resulted in water quality deterioration. Calcite and dolomite precipitation occurred in Zone I of deep groundwater systems and shallow groundwater systems. Cation exchange was believed to take place along the entire flow paths. Gypsum tended to dissolve in groundwater systems. The depletion in D and 18O isotopes in deep groundwater was related to the recharge from precipitation in paleo-climate conditions in glacial or interglacial periods, indicating that renewal groundwater was very limited. Efficient strategies must be taken to preserve the valued water resources for sustainable development.

  14. Perceived resource support for chronic illnesses among diabetics in north-western China.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Huiqin; Shao, Ya; Fan, Ling; Zhong, Tangshen; Ren, Lu; Wang, Yan

    2016-06-01

    A high level of social support can improve long-term diabetes self-management. Support from a single source has been evaluated. This study aims to analyze support from multiple and multilevel sources for diabetic patients by using the Chronic Illness Resources Survey (CIRS). Factors influencing the utilization of the CIRS were also evaluated. A total of 297 patients with diabetes were investigated using the CIRS and Perceived Diabetes Self-management Scale in Shihezi City, China. Descriptive statistics were used to explain demographic variables and scores of the scales. Factors affecting the utilization of chronic illness resources were determined through univariate analysis and then examined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of the 297 diabetic patients surveyed, 67% failed to reach the standard (more than 3 points) of utilizing chronic illness resources. Moreover, utilization of chronic illness resources was positively moderately correlated with self-management of diabetes (r = 0.75, P < 0.05). According to the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age (OR, 3.42; 95%CI, 1.19-9.84) and monthly income (OR, 5.27; 95%CI, 1.86-14.90) were significantly positively associated with the CIRS score. Individuals with high school (OR, 2.61; 95%CI, 1.13-6.05) and college (OR, 3.02; 95%CI, 1.13-8.04) degrees obtained higher scores in the survey than those with elementary school education. Results indicated that utilization of resources and support for chronic illness self-management, particularly personal adjustment and organization, were not ideal among diabetics in the communities of north-western China. Improved utilization of chronic illness resources was conducive for proper diabetes self-management. Furthermore, the level of utilization of chronic illness resources increased with age, literacy level, and monthly income. PMID:27075460

  15. The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo; Rosbjerg, Dan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Overexploitation of groundwater reserves is a major environmental problem around the world. In many river basins, groundwater and surface water are used conjunctively and joint optimization strategies are required. A hydroeconomic modeling approach is used to find cost-optimal sustainable surface water and groundwater allocation strategies for a river basin, given an arbitrary initial groundwater level in the aquifer. A simplified management problem with conjunctive use of scarce surface water and groundwater under inflow and recharge uncertainty is presented. Because of head-dependent groundwater pumping costs the optimization problem is nonlinear and non-convex, and a genetic algorithm is used to solve the one-step-ahead subproblems with the objective of minimizing the sum of immediate and expected future costs. A real-world application in the water-scarce Ziya River basin in northern China is used to demonstrate the model capabilities. Persistent overdraft from the groundwater aquifers on the North China Plain has caused declining groundwater levels. The model maps the marginal cost of water in different scenarios, and the minimum cost of ending groundwater overdraft in the basin is estimated to be CNY 5.58 billion yr-1. The study shows that it is cost-effective to slowly recover the groundwater aquifer to a level close to the surface, while gradually lowering the groundwater value to the equilibrium at CNY 2.15 m-3. The model can be used to guide decision-makers to economic efficient long-term sustainable management of groundwater and surface water resources.

  16. Mesozoic tectonically driven climatic partitioning of the south Junggar and north Tarim basins, northwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Graham, S.A.; Brassell, S.C. )

    1991-03-01

    Detailed basin analysis of Mesozoic strata exposed in the south Junggar and north Tarim foreland basin Mesozoic depocenters, northwest China, has documented periodic structural reactivation of the intervening Tian Shan during that era. Coarse alluvial pulses, contained in an otherwise relatively fine-grained section of fluvial lacustrine sediments, were shed off both the north and south flanks of the Tian Shan during the Late Triassic, Latest Jurassic, and late Cretaceous. The lofty modern Tian Shan and associated rain shadow cast over the Tarim basin to the south reflect deformation associated with the early Cenozoic Himalayan collision; so too were the two basins climatically partitioned during the Mesozoic in response to relief produced by orogenesis. During prolonged episodes of relative tectonic quiescence, it appears that Tian Shan relief was too low to confine moisture to the windward side of the range. Most notable is the Middle Jurassic section that is dominated in both basins by a relatively fine-grained series of organic-rich, meandering fluvial, and lacustrine sediments. Pyrolytic analyses of organic-rich mudstones associated with these sediments document high H.I. kerogens, suggesting algal-dominated organic matter typical of anoxic lacustrine settings. However, detailed GC-MS biomarker analysis of the alipaphatic fraction also suggests substantial input from higher land plants in addition to algal sources. Not only are n-alkane distributions typically dominated by high molecular weight compounds with an odd-over-even preference typical of higher land plants, but the abundance of specific diterpenoid biomarker compounds strongly suggests the development of widespread coniferous forests on either side of the range during the Middle Jurassic.

  17. Impact of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, W; Dai, J R; Liang, Y S; Huang, Y X; Coles, G C

    2009-01-01

    The South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP) is currently the key, national, water-conservation project in China, designed to optimise the use of water resources and relieve the water shortages in the north of the country. As one of the main water intakes for the project, that of the Eastern Route Scheme (ERS), is a breeding site for Oncomelania hupensis (the intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum), there is concern that the snail may be carried far to the north, in the water passing through the project. To see if they could survive and breed to the north of their current range in China, O. hupensis were collected in marshland near Nanjing City and transferred to cages, on the banks of fish ponds, in the cities of Zhenjiang (in Jiangsu province, at 32 degrees 10'N), Xuzhou (in the same province but at a latitude of 34 degrees 23'N) and Jining (in Shandong province, at 35 degrees 23'N). Except over the first 6 months in Xuzhou, the snails moved north of their natural distribution did not survive and reproduce as well as those in Zhenjiang, and all those transferred to Jining died out within 1 year. Although the snail populations in Xuzhou survived for 7-8 years and retained their infectivity to S. japonicum, histological and histochemical studies revealed abnormalities in the reproductive organs of these snails. It is concluded that, unless global warming significantly increases the minimum winter temperatures in northern China, the SNWDP is unlikely to result in the northward spread of schistosomiasis japonica.

  18. OH reactivity and experimental OH budget in Wangdu (North China Plane) in summer 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Hendrik; Tan, Zhaofeng; Lu, Keding; Bohn, Birger; Broch, Sebastian; Gomm, Sebastian; Häseler, Rolf; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Holland, Frank; Huang, Xf; Li, Xin; Liu, Ying; Rohrer, Franz; Shao, Min; Wang, Baolin; Wang, Ming; Wu, Yusheng; Zhang, Yuanhang; Wahner, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    OH reactivity was measured via pump and probe technique and direct detection of OH radicals by laser-induced fluorescence during a four week-long campaign in Wangdu in summer 2014. Wangdu is a small city located approximately 170 km south-west from Beijing in the North China Plane. A large set of instruments measured together to characterize regional photochemistry. Gas-phase measurements included species to experimentally determine the production and destruction rates of OH radicals and inorganic and organic species to compare direct measured OH reactivity with the sum of reactivity from single species. OH reactivity median values ranged between 10 and 20 s^-1 during daytime with slightly higher values during the first part of the campaign. Overall, contributions of measured single compounds to the total OH reactivity can explain nearly 80% of the measured OH reactivity. During the second part of the campaign, the entire measured OH reactivity is explained by measured concentrations of OH reactants. Similarly, the sum of OH production rates calculated from measurements is balanced by the OH destruction rate during this time. In contrast, the OH destruction rate is approximately 20-30% larger than the sum of OH production rates during noontime and in the afternoon during the first part of the campaign.

  19. Economic Performance and Sustainability of a Novel Intercropping System on the North China Plain

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chengdong; Liu, Quanqing; Heerink, Nico; Stomph, TjeerdJan; Li, Baoshen; Liu, Ruili; Zhang, Hongyan; Wang, Chong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhang, Chaochun; van der Werf, Wopke; Zhang, Fusuo

    2015-01-01

    Double cropping of wheat and maize is common on the North China Plain, but it provides limited income to rural households due to the small farm sizes in the region. Local farmers in Quzhou County have therefore innovated their production system by integration of watermelon as a companion cash crop into the system. We examine the economic performance and sustainability of this novel intercropping system using crop yield data from 2010 to 2012 and farm household survey data collected in 2012. Our results show that the gross margin of the intercropping system exceeded that of the double cropping system by more than 50% in 2012. Labor use in the intercropping system was more than three times that in double cropping. The lower returns per labor hour in intercropping, however, exceeded the average off-farm wage in the region by a significant margin. Nutrient surpluses and irrigation water use are significant larger under the intercropping system. We conclude that the novel wheat-maize/watermelon intercropping system contributes to rural poverty alleviation and household-level food security, by raising farm incomes and generating more employment, but needs further improvement to enhance its sustainability. PMID:26275297

  20. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-01-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000–19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter–gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  1. Modeling study of the 2010 regional haze event in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Carmichael, G. R.; Wang, Y.; Saide, P. E.; Yu, M.; Xin, J.; Liu, Z.; Wang, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The online coupled Weather Research and Forecasting-Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model was applied to simulate a haze event that happened in January 2010 in the North China Plain (NCP), and was validated against various types of measurements. The evaluations indicate that WRF-Chem provides reliable simulations for the 2010 haze event in the NCP. This haze event was mainly caused by high emissions of air pollutants in the NCP and stable weather conditions in winter. Secondary inorganic aerosols also played an important role and cloud chemistry had important contributions. Air pollutants outside Beijing contributed about 64.5 % to the PM2.5 levels in Beijing during this haze event, and most of them are from south Hebei, Tianjin city, Shandong and Henan provinces. In addition, aerosol feedback has important impacts on surface temperature, relative humidity (RH) and wind speeds, and these meteorological variables affect aerosol distribution and formation in turn. In Shijiazhuang, Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) decreased about 278.2 m and PM2.5 increased more than 20 µg m-3 due to aerosol feedback. It was also shown that black carbon (BC) absorption has significant impacts on meteorology and air quality changes, indicating more attention should be paid to BC from both air pollution control and climate change perspectives.

  2. Carbon Storages in Plantation Ecosystems in Sand Source Areas of North Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0–100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management. PMID:24349223

  3. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C.K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and ice sheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm/yr with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm/yr. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm/yr and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm.

  4. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C K; Galloway, Devin L; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992-2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California's San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr(-1) with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr(-1). Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr(-1) and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm. PMID:27324935

  5. Groundwater depth prediction in a shallow aquifer in north China by a quantile regression model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fawen; Wei, Wan; Zhao, Yong; Qiao, Jiale

    2016-09-01

    There is a close relationship between groundwater level in a shallow aquifer and the surface ecological environment; hence, it is important to accurately simulate and predict the groundwater level in eco-environmental construction projects. The multiple linear regression (MLR) model is one of the most useful methods to predict groundwater level (depth); however, the predicted values by this model only reflect the mean distribution of the observations and cannot effectively fit the extreme distribution data (outliers). The study reported here builds a prediction model of groundwater-depth dynamics in a shallow aquifer using the quantile regression (QR) method on the basis of the observed data of groundwater depth and related factors. The proposed approach was applied to five sites in Tianjin city, north China, and the groundwater depth was calculated in different quantiles, from which the optimal quantile was screened out according to the box plot method and compared to the values predicted by the MLR model. The results showed that the related factors in the five sites did not follow the standard normal distribution and that there were outliers in the precipitation and last-month (initial state) groundwater-depth factors because the basic assumptions of the MLR model could not be achieved, thereby causing errors. Nevertheless, these conditions had no effect on the QR model, as it could more effectively describe the distribution of original data and had a higher precision in fitting the outliers.

  6. Field dissipation of four personal care products in biosolids-amended soils in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Ying, Guang-Guo; Ma, Yi-Bing; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Lai, Hua-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the dissipation behaviors of 4 typical personal care products (PCPs)-triclocarban (TCC), triclosan (TCS), tonalide (AHTN), and galaxolide (HHCB)- in soils amended with biosolids under field conditions in North China. The results showed that the 4 target compounds were detected in all biosolids-amended soils at levels of a few nanograms per gram to thousands of nanograms per gram (dry wt). The residual concentrations of the 4 PCPs were found in the following order: TCC > TCS > AHTN > HHCB. Significant dissipation of the 4 PCPs was observed in the biosolids-amended soils, with half-lives ranging from 26 d to 133 d. Furthermore, repeated biosolids applications and a higher biosolids application rate could lead to higher accumulation of the 4 PCPs in the agricultural soils. Based on the detected concentrations in the field trial and limited ecotoxicity data, high risks to soil organisms are expected for TCC, whereas low to medium risks are expected in most cases for AHTN, HHCB, and TCS.

  7. A new approach for estimating groundwater table fluctuation response to rainfall events in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Xie, X.; Ma, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A rise or decline in water table in response to water budget is a function of rainfall volume and groundwater depletion intensity. Most research have focus on estimating water table fluctuations among various shallow aquifer resulting from recharge and discharge change, however, the methods commonly applied are limited in that the subsurface system is more complex. In this paper, a reliable approach based on statistics theory is presented for quantifying the correlation relationship among water table, rainfall events and groundwater depletion process. The detail monitoring data are used to multivariate regression analysis and established the relationship model between water table and groundwater depletion in the proposed method. We further employed the model to obtain water table fluctuation trend with manual controlled depletion in different rainfall conditions. We also identify how this model applied to North China Plain and examine the water table error. The results show that controlling the depletion process based on different rainfall frequency can promote groundwater table recover and the model can provide a reliable method to groundwater management.

  8. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1) (p<0.05) when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2) of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation. PMID:26699869

  9. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiao-Yan; Yao, Yi-Feng; Yang, Wu-De

    2012-01-01

    Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples) included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples), Laminaceae (10), Brassicaceae (12), Rosaceae (12), Moraceae (13), Rhamnaceae (15), Asteraceae (17), and Fabaceae (19). In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples), Robinia pseudoacacia (3), Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2), Sophora japonica (1), Ailanthus altissima (1), Asteraceae type (1), and Fabaceae type (1). The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample) suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains), 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000), and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000). The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants) indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption. PMID:23185358

  10. How Did the North China Craton Move from Nuna to Rodinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Several models that include the paleogeographic positions of the North China Craton (NCC) in Precambrian supercontinents Nuna and Rodinia were tested in this study using Proterozoic global paleomagnetic database. During ca. 1.8 - 1.4 Ga, the NCC can be placed far from Laurentia and Baltica. In Nuna, the present southern margin of the NCC faced an open ocean, whilst its present northern margin was likely connected to Indian and Australian cratons. In Rodinia, however, during ca. 1.1 - 0.85 Ga, the paleomagnetic data indicate a proximate connection between the NCC and the arctic side of Laurentia. These two models, if both are right, suggest that the NCC may have moved a long distance since the departure from Nuna to the joining of Rodinia. Moreover, paleomagnetic data and our reconstructions require many cratons to drift away from their connections in Nuna after ca. 1.35 Ga. These reconstructions strongly challenges the currently influential speculation of limited breakup of Nuna, which is mainly based on the observation of low abundance of passive margins that were formed during the boring billion years (ca. 1.75 - 0.75 Ga).

  11. The Lithic Assemblages of Xiaochangliang, Nihewan Basin: Implications for Early Pleistocene Hominin Behaviour in North China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Petraglia, Michael D; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Xiaochangliang (XCL), located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. 1.36 Ma, making it one of the earliest sites in Northeast Asia. Although XCL represents the first excavation of an Early Pleistocene site in the Nihewan Basin, identified and excavated in the 1970's, the lithic assemblages have never been published in full detail. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. 800 ka. PMID:27205881

  12. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C K; Galloway, Devin L; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-06-21

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992-2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California's San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr(-1) with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr(-1). Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr(-1) and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm.

  13. Holocene intracontinental deformation of the northern North China Plain: Evidence of tectonic ground fissures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Liqing; Li, Sanzhong; Cao, Xianzhi; Somerville, I. D.; Suo, Yanhui; Liu, Xin; Dai, Liming; Zhao, Shujuan; Guo, Lingli; Wang, Pengcheng; Cao, Huahua

    2016-04-01

    Following the collecting and analyzing of field data on the geometry and kinematics characteristics of ground fissures in the northern North China Plain (NNCP), this paper shows that en échelon ground fissures or tectonic ground fissures with a length of several meters to tens of kilometers extending along active faults are possibly controlled by underlying active faults. There are two groups of tectonic ground fissures developed in the NNCP. One group consists of ENE-trending "right-stepping" ground fissures, some of which have a component of sinistral motion. The other group is NNE-trending "left-stepping" ground fissures with dextral motion. A large amount of data from trenches, boreholes and seismic exploration reflect that they are active-faulting-related. The NNW-trending regional extensional stress field and the reactivation of pre-existing faults are the major factors controlling ground fissures. Data from the Quaternary sedimentary records, deep incised valleys, the distribution of earthquakes and ground fissures, and our field work show that the Holocene intracontinental deformation of the NNCP is characterized by intense faulting and northwestward tilting, which may be related to a NNW-SSE-oriented tensional stress field in the shallow crust and asthenospheric upwelling in the mantle.

  14. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1) (p<0.05) when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2) of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation.

  15. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of north China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, Tong; Huang Zuan

    1988-02-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocene Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pools in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point. Hydrocarbon exploration began in 1971, but only a few small oil fields were found in the 1970s. Recently, by applying digital seismic techniques, the subsurface geological structure has been accurately mapped and new production technology has enabled the high-our-point oil to be produced. Thus, important achievements in hydrocarbon exploration were made during the 1980s.

  16. Genetic characterization of the complete genome of an Aleutian mink disease virus isolated in north China.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ji; Wang, Jigui; Yu, Yongle; Zhang, Xiaomei; Mao, Yaping; Hou, Qiang; Liu, Weiquan

    2016-08-01

    The genome of a highly pathogenic strain of Aleutian disease mink virus (AMDV-BJ) isolated from a domestic farm in North China has been determined and compared with other strains. Alignment analysis of the major structural protein VP2 revealed that AMDV-BJ is unique among 17 other AMDV strains. Compared with the nonpathogenic strain ADV-G, the 3' end Y-shaped hairpin was highly conserved, while a 4-base deletion in the 5' U-shaped terminal palindrome resulted in a different unpaired "bubble" group near the NS1-binding region of the 5' end hairpin which may affect replication efficiency in vivo. We also performed a protein analysis of the NS1, NS2, and new-confirmed NS3 of AMDV-BJ with some related AMDV DNA sequence published, providing information on evolution of AMDV genes. This study shows a useful method to obtain the full-length genome of AMDV and some other parvoviruses. PMID:27007772

  17. [Effects of intermittent irrigation on ecological and physiological water requirement of rice in north China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoying; Liang, Wenju; Wen, Dazhong

    2004-10-01

    The ecological and physiological water requirement of rice was studied in a paddy field of north China, and the field experiment was conducted at Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Under continuous flooding irrigation (CSF) and intermittent irrigation (IT) conditions, the evapotranspiration and soil evaporation of paddy fields were measured by non-weighing lysimeters and micro-lysimeters, respectively. The results showed that compared with continuous flooding irrigation, the transpiration under intermittent irrigation condition was not significantly reduced, but 16% and 24% of water amounts were reduced by decreasing the water losses through soil water evaporation and percolation, respectively. The water use efficiency of intermittent irrigation was increased 10%, without any adverse effects on biomass and grain yield of rice. Although the amount of water requirement under IT treatment was reduced significantly compared with CSF treatment, about 60% of total water requirement was still lost through deep percolation. Based on the results obtained, the corresponding countermeasures to reduce the amounts of soil water evaporation and percolation and to increase the water use efficiency were put forward in this paper. PMID:15624834

  18. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C. K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-06-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr‑1 with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr‑1. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr‑1 and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm.

  19. Groundwater-abstraction induced land subsidence and groundwater regulation in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Wang, L.; Cheng, G.; Zhang, Z.

    2015-11-01

    Land subsidence can be induced when various factors such as geological, and hydrogeological conditions and intensive groundwater abstraction combine. The development and utilization of groundwater in the North China Plain (NCP) bring great benefits, and at the same time have led to a series of environmental and geological problems accompanying groundwater-level declines and land subsidence. Subsidence occurs commonly in the NCP and analyses show that multi-layer aquifer systems with deep confined aquifers and thick compressible clay layers are the key geological and hydrogeological conditions responsible for its development in this region. Groundwater overdraft results in aquifer-system compaction, resulting in subsidence. A calibrated, transient groundwater-flow numerical model of the Beijing plain portion of the NCP was developed using MODFLOW. According to available water supply and demand in Beijing plain, several groundwater regulation scenarios were designed. These different regulation scenarios were simulated with the groundwater model, and assessed using a multi-criteria fuzzy pattern recognition model. This approach is proven to be very useful for scientific analysis of sustainable development and utilization of groundwater resources. The evaluation results show that sustainable development of groundwater resources may be achieved in Beijing plain when various measures such as control of groundwater abstraction and increase of artificial recharge combine favourably.

  20. Carbon storages in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Zhang, Wanjun; Cao, Jiansheng; Shen, Huitao; Zeng, Xinhua; Yu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Afforestation is a mitigation option to reduce the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels as well as the predicted high possibility of climate change. In this paper, vegetation survey data, statistical database, National Forest Resource Inventory database, and allometric equations were used to estimate carbon density (carbon mass per hectare) and carbon storage, and identify the size and spatial distribution of forest carbon sinks in plantation ecosystems in sand source areas of north Beijing, China. From 2001 to the end of 2010, the forest areas increased more than 2.3 million ha, and total carbon storage in forest ecosystems was 173.02 Tg C, of which 82.80 percent was contained in soil in the top 0-100 cm layer. Younger forests have a large potential for enhancing carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems than older ones. Regarding future afforestation efforts, it will be more effective to increase forest area and vegetation carbon density through selection of appropriate tree species and stand structure according to local climate and soil conditions, and application of proper forest management including land-shaping, artificial tending and fencing plantations. It would be also important to protect the organic carbon in surface soils during forest management.

  1. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Yang; Gong, Xiaoqiang; Fu, Ying; Jia, Liming

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC) on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model:y^ =-1.76+0.091x1+0.48x2-0.00083x1x2-0.00078x12-0.022x22, where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil) relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg-1 (p<0.05) when 29–90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1–15.0 kg m-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation. PMID:26699869

  2. The Lithic Assemblages of Xiaochangliang, Nihewan Basin: Implications for Early Pleistocene Hominin Behaviour in North China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shi-Xia; Hou, Ya-Mei; Yue, Jian-Ping; Petraglia, Michael D.; Deng, Cheng-Long; Zhu, Ri-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Xiaochangliang (XCL), located in the Nihewan Basin of North China, is a key archaeological locality for understanding the behavioural evolution of early humans. XCL dates to ca. 1.36 Ma, making it one of the earliest sites in Northeast Asia. Although XCL represents the first excavation of an Early Pleistocene site in the Nihewan Basin, identified and excavated in the 1970’s, the lithic assemblages have never been published in full detail. Here we describe the lithic assemblages from XCL, providing information on stone tool reduction techniques and the influence of raw materials on artefact manufacture. The XCL hominins used both bipolar and freehand reduction techniques to manufacture small flakes, some of which show retouch. Bipolar reduction methods at XCL were used more frequently than previously recognized. Comparison of XCL with other Early Pleistocene sites in the Nihewan Basin indicates the variable use of bipolar and freehand reduction methods, thereby indicating a flexible approach in the utilization of raw materials. The stone tools from XCL and the Nihewan sites are classifiable as Mode I lithic assemblages, readily distinguished from bifacial industries manufactured by hominins in Eastern Asia by ca. 800 ka. PMID:27205881

  3. Time-varying land subsidence detected by radar altimetry: California, Taiwan and north China

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Cheinway; Yang, Yuande; Kao, Ricky; Han, Jiancheng; Shum, C. K.; Galloway, Devin L.; Sneed, Michelle; Hung, Wei-Chia; Cheng, Yung-Sheng; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary applications of radar altimetry include sea-level rise, ocean circulation, marine gravity, and icesheet elevation change. Unlike InSAR and GNSS, which are widely used to map surface deformation, altimetry is neither reliant on highly temporally-correlated ground features nor as limited by the available spatial coverage, and can provide long-term temporal subsidence monitoring capability. Here we use multi-mission radar altimetry with an approximately 23 year data-span to quantify land subsidence in cropland areas. Subsidence rates from TOPEX/POSEIDON, JASON-1, ENVISAT, and JASON-2 during 1992–2015 show time-varying trends with respect to displacement over time in California’s San Joaquin Valley and central Taiwan, possibly related to changes in land use, climatic conditions (drought) and regulatory measures affecting groundwater use. Near Hanford, California, subsidence rates reach 18 cm yr−1 with a cumulative subsidence of 206 cm, which potentially could adversely affect operations of the planned California High-Speed Rail. The maximum subsidence rate in central Taiwan is 8 cm yr−1. Radar altimetry also reveals time-varying subsidence in the North China Plain consistent with the declines of groundwater storage and existing water infrastructure detected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, with rates reaching 20 cm yr−1 and cumulative subsidence as much as 155 cm. PMID:27324935

  4. Hospitalized pediatric burns in North China: a 10-year epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liqiang; Zhang, Yanqi; Liu, Ling; Jiang, Jingcheng; Liu, Yong; Shi, Fusheng; Yi, Dong

    2013-08-01

    Retrospective surveys of all hospitalized pediatric burns under the age of 15 years were conducted in 18 hospitals from 5 provinces and municipal cities of North China between 2001 and 2010. A total of 17,770 patients were included in this study. The epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized pediatric burns and influencing factors of length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were analyzed. In this study, children accounted for 43.57% of all hospitalized burns, with a gradually increasing trend (P=0.003). Among children hospitalized burns, the percentage of children younger than three years was 69.9%, with an upward trend (P<0.001). The ratio of male to female was 1.53:1. Scald burns accounted for 89.79% and 71.54% had burns of <10% total body surface area, with increasing trends (P≤0.001). The medians of length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were eight days and 2469 RMB yuan respectively. The most important factors affecting length of hospital stay and hospitalization cost were burned surface area, surgery and treatment outcome. Children under three years of age, boys and children with a small area of mild scald burns should be made the focus of childhood burn prevention. Improving the medical insurance system for children is urgently needed.

  5. Inorganic nitrogen wet deposition: Evidence from the North-South Transect of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, X; Yu, G; He, N; Jia, B; Zhou, M; Wang, C; Zhang, J; Zhao, G; Wang, S; Liu, Y; Yan, J

    2015-09-01

    We examined the spatio-temporal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) deposition in eight typical forest ecosystems of Eastern China for three consecutive years. DIN deposition exhibited an increasing gradient from north to south, with N-NH4(+) as the predominant contributor. DIN deposition in precipitation changed after interaction with the forest canopy, and serious ecological perturbations are expected in this region. DIN deposition presented seasonal fluctuations, which might be ascribed to agricultural activity, fossil-fuel combustion and environmental factors (i.e., wind direction, soil temperature). Notably, N fertilizer use (FN), energy consumption (E), and precipitation (P) jointly explained 84.3% of the spatial variation in DIN deposition, of which FN (27.2%) was the most important, followed by E (24.8%), and finally P (9.3%). The findings demonstrate that DIN deposition is regulated by precipitation mainly via anthropogenic N emissions, and this analysis provides decision-makers a novel view for N pollution abatement. PMID:25898231

  6. Paleolithic human exploitation of plant foods during the last glacial maximum in North China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Bestel, Sheahan; Shi, Jinming; Song, Yanhua; Chen, Xingcan

    2013-04-01

    Three grinding stones from Shizitan Locality 14 (ca. 23,000-19,500 calendar years before present) in the middle Yellow River region were subjected to usewear and residue analyses to investigate human adaptation during the last glacial maximum (LGM) period, when resources were generally scarce and plant foods may have become increasingly important in the human diet. The results show that these tools were used to process various plants, including Triticeae and Paniceae grasses, Vigna beans, Dioscorea opposita yam, and Trichosanthes kirilowii snakegourd roots. Tubers were important food resources for Paleolithic hunter-gatherers, and Paniceae grasses were exploited about 12,000 y before their domestication. The long tradition of intensive exploitation of certain types of flora helped Paleolithic people understand the properties of these plants, including their medicinal uses, and eventually led to the plants' domestication. This study sheds light on the deep history of the broad spectrum subsistence strategy characteristic of late Pleistocene north China before the origins of agriculture in this region. PMID:23509257

  7. Relationship between tectonic evolution of North China craton and Pacific plate subduction slab evolution since ~47 Ma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific plate movement happened some obviously changes at ~47 Ma. If we only consider the Pacific plate subduction just since this time, we can find that the subduction slab can reach eastern North China after ~20My (at ~27 Ma), and the slab may be destructed completely when it reach this position (An et al., 2009, G-cubed, doi:10.1029/2009GC002562). In the 20-My-movement processes, the evolution of the cold slab can be divided into several stages with the slab is heated and destructed. In different evolution stages, the slab also can result in different effects on the overlying asthenosphere and lithosphere. The slab evolution showed some temporal consistence with the tectonic activities in the eastern North China, and also with the Japan Sea opening; Furthermore, the possible effects acted on the overlying lithosphere by the slab in different stages can interpret the tectonic events happened in eastern North China since the early Paleogene (An et al., 2011, Earth Science Frontiers, 18(3)(in Chinese with English abstract), http://www.earthsciencefrontiers.net.cn/CN/abstract/abstract4277.shtml). For example, regional lithosphere seems to be thickening, Tangshan-Xingtai faults became active but the activities of the Taihangshan Piedmont faults decreased.

  8. Skeletal fossils and microfacies analysis of the lowermost Cambrian in the southwestern margin of the North China Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hao; Zhang, Xingliang; Li, Luoyang; Zhang, Meiqi; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    The Xinji and Zhushadong formations are the oldest record of Cambrian deposits in the southwestern margin of the North China Platform. The two lithostratigraphic units are carbonate-dominated in lithology and are Cambrian Series 2 in age. The basal unit, the Xinji Formation yields diverse skeletal fossils, including sponge spicules, chancelloriid sclerites, hyoliths, micromolluscs, trilobites, echinoderm ossicles, cambroclaves, tianzhushanellids, protoconodonts and other small shelly fossils. The fossil assemblage, as the earliest fauna of the Cambrian in North China, provides an important window to investigate the Cambrian explosion in the region and contains fossil elements with biostratigraphical significance. Seven microfacies types of the Xinji and Zhushadong formations are recognized: (1) phosphorized and selectively dolomitized bioclastic grainstone, (2) dolomitized ooid grainstone, (3) dolomitized peloid wackstone, (4) lime mudstone preserved as dolomitic microsparite, (5) siliciclastic wackstone, (6) calcareous siltstone, and (7) breccia. The different microfacies are traced to three successive depositional environments, beginning with a bioclastic shoal, then a mixed-depositional back-shoal and finally an oolitic shoal. The system of the shoal and back-shoal is interpreted as representing the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate deposition during the initial transgression of the North China Platform as well as the early development of an epeiric environment.

  9. The Mesozoic Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit in Inner Mongolia, North China and Paleo-Pacific subduction-related magmatism in the northern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Huaying; Zhang, Lianchang; Pirajno, Franco; Shu, Qihai; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Mingtian; Xiang, Peng

    2016-09-01

    The Caosiyao giant porphyry Mo deposit is located in the Wulanchabu area of Inner Mongolia, within the northern North China Craton (NCC). It contains more than 2385 Mt of ore with an average grade of 0.075% Mo. In the Caosiyao mining district, Mo mineralization occurs mainly in a Mesozoic granite porphyry as disseminations and stockworks, with some Mo distributed in Archean metamorphic rocks and diabase as stockworks and veins. The host granite porphyry is composed of two different phases that can be distinguished based on mineral assemblages and textures: one phase contains large and abundant phenocrysts (coarse-grained), while the other phase is characterized by fewer and smaller phenocrysts (medium-grained). Zircon U-Pb-Hf analyses of the former phase yielded a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.8 ± 2.4 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.9 ± 2.4 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -12.2 to 18.3, while the latter phase gave a concordant 206Pb/238U age of 149.0 ± 2.2 Ma with a 206Pb/238U weighted mean age of 149.0 ± 2.1 Ma and εHf(t) values ranging from -13.1 to 17.7. Five samples of disseminated molybdenite have a 187Re-187Os isochron age of 149.5 ± 5.3 Ma with a weighted average age of 149.0 ± 1.8 Ma, whereas six veinlet-type molybdenite samples have a well-constrained 187Re-187Os isochron age of 146.9 ± 3.1 Ma and a weighted average age of 146.5 ± 0.8 Ma. Thus, it is suggested that the Mo mineralization of the Caosiyao deposit occurred during the Late Jurassic (ca. 147-149 Ma), almost coeval with the emplacement of the host granite porphyry (ca. 149-150 Ma). The host granite porphyry is characterized by high silica (SiO2 = 71.52-74.10 wt%), relatively high levels of oxidation (Fe2O3/FeO = 0.32-0.94 wt%) and high alkali element concentrations (Na2O + K2O = 8.21-8.76 wt%). The host granite porphyry also shows enrichments in U and K, and depletion in Ba, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti, suggesting strong fractional crystallization of plagioclase, biotite, and

  10. Two new species of the genus Podalonia Fernald from China and a key to the Chinese species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Two new species are described: Podalonia arcuaticlypeata Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Xinjiang, China and Podalonia bicellularis Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Qinghai, China. A key to the species of Podalonia from China is provided.

  11. Two new species of the genus Podalonia Fernald from China and a key to the Chinese species of the genus (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun-Hong; Li, Qiang; Ma, Li

    2016-01-01

    Two new species are described: Podalonia arcuaticlypeata Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Xinjiang, China and Podalonia bicellularis Wang & Ma, sp. nov. from Qinghai, China. A key to the species of Podalonia from China is provided. PMID:27615896

  12. A Holistic Assessment of the Sustainability of Groundwater Resources in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, G.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.; Li, W.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is one of the most important agricultural and economic regions of China and also one of the most densely populated in the world (~ 900 people/km2). In recent years, groundwater provides ~ 70% of the total water supply to support grain production, rapid economic development and population growth. Analysis of historical groundwater level contour maps and more than 230 monitoring well time series across the NCP shows a general long-term trend of depletion in groundwater storage in both shallow unconfined and deep confined aquifer zones. Groundwater depletion in the NCP has adversely affected the environment and ecosystems, including drying-up of rivers, land subsidence, seawater intrusion, and groundwater quality deterioration. The volume of groundwater depleted from the aquifer has been estimated from groundwater level fluctuation data by directly integrating the groundwater level change and specific yield across the NCP. The estimated amount of annual groundwater storage change based on this method is ~4 billion m3. A numerical groundwater flow model has been developed for the entire Quaternary aquifer of the NCP and is reasonably well calibrated for both the predevelopment period (1960s) and post-development conditions over the past 40 years. The output of the groundwater model provides estimates of groundwater depletion rates over the post-development period, and the model-calculated storage variation is consistent with the amount determined from groundwater level fluctuation data independent of the model. Moreover, the mean annual total recharge calibrated through the groundwater model is ~120 mm, which is in reasonable agreement with previously reported values based on the water balance method. The groundwater storage depletion derived either from the groundwater level fluctuation data or from the numerical simulation model is highly correlated with spatially averaged precipitation. The model simulations indicate that a decrease in

  13. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronology and Implications: the Mesozoic southern Ordos Basin, North Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, X.; Heller, P. L.; Chamberlain, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    Two deformation belts -- the Qinling orogenic belt (QOB) to the south and the Western Liupanshan thrust belt (WLTB) to the west, including the Qilian-Qaidam terrane (QQT) -- control the evolution of the southern Ordos Basin during early Mesozoic time. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology is used to identify provenance, reconstruct paleogeography, and document the relative timing of basin margin deformation. Two correlated strata same age samples of the Middle to Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. were collected from the southern and southwestern basin margin respectively. In total 258 zircon grains were analyzed using LA-ICP-MS. Three major age populations -- 240-490 Ma, 1.8-2.0 Ga, and 2.2-2.8 Ga -- characterize the detrital zircon grains of the Yanchang Fm. Regional geochronology studies show that the two oldest age groups match ages of basement rocks found in the underlying North China block. The younger age group can be subdivided into three distinctive groups: 240-300 Ma, 300-400, and 400-490 Ma. The youngest age group matches ages exposed to the west in the QQT, whereas the other two match grains from southern QOB source. In all samples detrital zircon from the WLTB source area overwhelms the QOB source, regardless of its proximity to either basin margin. This result suggests that either the source rock with the youngest zircon grains (e.g. 240- 490 Ma) from the QOB to the south have been eroded away and no longer existed, or simply the QOB, even during deformation, was never the dominant source of detrital zircon to the southern Ordos Basin. Probably some drainage systems far from the west combine with some local tributary systems from the south control the sedimentation in the south Ordos Basin during the middle to Late Triassic time. This is surprising in that most studies suggest that the QOB was a longer lived and more dominant tectonic feature in this part of China during early Mesozoic time. Furthermore, it also indicates that: 1) deformation in the QOB and WLTB

  14. Evaluation of VIIRS AOD over North China Plain: biases from aerosol models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.; Xia, X.; Wang, J.; Chen, H.; Zhang, J.; Oo, M. M.; Holz, R.

    2014-12-01

    With the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suit (VIIRS) instrument onboard Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership(S-NPP) in late 2011, the aerosol products of VIIRS are receiving much attention.To date, mostevaluations of VIIRS aerosol productswere carried out about aerosol optical depth (AOD). To further assess the VIIRS AOD in China which is a heavy polluted region in the world,we made a comparison between VIIRS AOD and CE-318 radiometerobservation at the following three sites overNorth China Plain (NCP): metropolis-Beijing (AERONET), suburbs-XiangHe (AERONET) and regional background site- Xinglong (CARSNET).The results showed the VIIRS AOD at 550 nm has a positive mean bias error (MBE) of 0.14-0.15 and root mean square error (RMBE) 0.20. Among three sites, Beijing is mainly a source of bias with MBE 0.17-0.18 and RMBE 0.23-0.24, and this bias is larger than some recent global statics recently published in the literature. Further analysis shows that this large bias in VIIRS AOD overNCP may be partly caused by the aerosol model selection in VIIRS aerosol inversion. According to the retrieval of sky radiance from CE-318 at three sites, aerosols in NCP have high mean real part of refractive indices (1.52-1.53), large volume mean radius (0.17-0.18) and low concentration (0.04-0.09) of fine aerosol, and small mean radius (2.86-2.92) and high concentration (0.06-0.16) of coarse mode aerosol. These observation-based aerosol single scattering properties and size of fine and coarse aerosols differ fromthe aerosol properties used in VIIRSoperational algorithm.The dominant aerosol models used in VIIRS algorithm for these three sites are less polluted urban aerosol in Beijing and low-absorption smoke in other two sites, all of which don't agree with the high imaginary part of refractive indices from CE-318 retrieval. Therefore, the aerosol models in VIIRS algorithm are likely to be refined in NCP region.

  15. Comparison of optimal irrigation scheduling and groundwater recharge at representative sites in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ying

    2014-05-01

    The North China Plain (NCP) is an important food production area in China, facing an increasing water shortage and overexploitation of groundwater. It is critical to optimize the irrigation scheduling and accurately estimate groundwater recharge for saving water and increasing crop water use efficiency. However, the water cycle and crop responses to irrigation are quite various in different areas, because of the spatial variation of climatic, soil, water table and other management practices in the NCP. In this study, three representative sites (LC site in the piedmont plain, TZ site in the northern alluvial and lacustrine plain, YC site in the southern alluvial and lacustrine plain) were selected to compare the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge under different hydrological years for winter wheat-summer maize double cropping system. At each site, a physically based agro-hydrological model (SWAP) was calibrated using field data of soil moisture. Then, scenarios under different irrigation time and amount were simulated. Results showed that the optimal irrigation scheduling and corresponding groundwater recharge were significant different between the three representative sites. The mean water table depth at the LC (33.0 m), YC (10.3 m), and TZ site (2.5 m) caused great different time lags of infiltrated water and groundwater contribution to evapotranspiration. Then, the most irrigation amount was required for the TZ site but the least requirement for the YC site at each hydrologic year. As most clay contents in the deep soils at the LC site increased tortuosity and limited water movement, which resulted in lower rates of recharge compared to more sandy soils at the other two sites. Averagely, using the optimal irrigation scheduling could save 2.04×109 m3 irrigation water and reduce about 84.3% groundwater over-exploitation in winter wheat growth period in the NCP. Therefore, comparison of the simulation results among the three

  16. Sustainable management of river oases along the Tarim River in North-Western China under conditions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumbaur, C.; Thevs, N.; Disse, M.; Ahlheim, M.; Brieden, A.; Cyffka, B.; Doluschitz, R.; Duethmann, D.; Feike, T.; Frör, O.; Gärtner, P.; Halik, Ü.; Hill, J.; Hinnenthal, M.; Keilholz, P.; Kleinschmit, B.; Krysanova, V.; Kuba, M.; Mader, S.; Menz, C.; Othmanli, H.; Pelz, S.; Schroeder, M.; Siew, T. F.; Stender, V.; Stahr, K.; Thomas, F. M.; Welp, M.; Wortmann, M.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X.; Jiang, T.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, X.; Luo, J.; Yimit, H.; Yu, R.

    2014-10-01

    The Tarim River Basin, located in Xinjiang, NW China, is the largest endorheic river basin of China and one of the largest in whole Central Asia. Due to the extremely arid climate with an annual precipitation of less than 100 mm, the water supply along the Aksu and Tarim River solely depends on river water. This applies for anthropogenic activities (e.g. agriculture) as well as for the natural ecosystems so that both compete for water. The on-going increase of water consumption by agriculture and other human activities in this region has been enhancing the competition for water between human needs and nature. Against this background, 11 German and 6 Chinese universities and research institutes formed the consortium SuMaRiO (www.sumario.de), which aims at gaining a holistic picture of the availability of water resources in the Tarim River Basin and the impacts on anthropogenic activities and natural ecosystems caused by the water distribution within the Tarim River Basin. The discharge of the Aksu River, which is the major tributary to the Tarim, has been increasing over the past 6 decades due to enhanced glacier melt. Alone from 1989 to 2011, the area under agriculture more than doubled. Thereby, cotton became the major crop and there was a shift from small-scale farming to large-scale intensive farming. The major natural ecosystems along the Aksu and Tarim River are riparian ecosystems: Riparian (Tugai) forests, shrub vegetation, reed beds, and other grassland. Within the SuMaRiO Cluster the focus was laid on the Tugai forests, with Populus euphratica as dominant tree, because the most productive and species-rich natural ecosystems can be found among those forests. On sites with groundwater distance of less than 7.5 m the annual increments correlated with river runoffs of the previous year. But, the further downstream along the Tarim River, the more the natural river dynamics ceased, which impacts on the recruitment of

  17. Numerical simulation of the thinning of North China Craton by thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Y.; Shi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Several mechanisms have been proposed for North China Craton lithospheric thinning.This research based on a two-dimensional model,small-scale convection in the upper mantle-lithosphere system with depth and temperature dependent viscosity by using numerical technique to examine the mechanism of thinning by thermal convection. We use the finite difference method and MIC(marks in cell) technique to solve the equations of continuity, conservation of momentum and conservation of energy.The infinite-Prandtl-number approximation is made and the inertial term in the momentum equation is neglected. Fluid flow is assumed to be incompressible and the Boussinesq approximation is made.We do the benchmark work to test our code. For the temperature-dependent viscosity (case 2a of Blankenbach et al. [1989]),these quantities are within 1%. The error shows our code is suit for this problem.Using a 2-D upper-mantle model 700 KM deep and 700 KM wide and model resolution are 71*71 nodes.The boundary conditions are constrained in normal direction and free-slip along all boundaries,and thermal insulation condition in two sides and temperatures are assigned for top and bottom boundaries. We assume the initial temperature on the top is 273K, 1673K at the bottom, and 1573K at the bottom of the lithosphere (200KM depth) to describe the thick, cold and stable North China Craton.Then,we calculate thermal evolutions in the upper mantle if temperature at its bottom is raised due to convections or plumes in the lower mantle. Temperature at the bottom is assumed as 1773,1873,1973,and 2073K for different models to study their effects on lithospheric thinning process.The results as followed:1)we confirmed that lithosphere thinning can occur when the bottom temperature uprising intensify the mantle convection.2)we discuss two different viscosity η0=1.0e22 and η0=1.0e23. when η0=1.0e22, the lithospheric can thin from 200 to 100KM in 14.55Ma,to 103.75 KM in 14.95Ma, to 118.75KM in 15Ma, to 126.25KM

  18. Chemical Characteristics and Geochemical Evolution of Groundwater in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Yanhong; Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui

    2015-04-01

    For the lack in gross of water resources and serious contamination of surface water in the North China Plain (NCP), groundwater has been the main water resources in the past decades. Studies of geochemical evolution in groundwater of the NCP can not only provide scientific data for sustainable utilization of groundwater resources, but also help us to comprehend hydrogeochemical processes in aquifers better. According to topography and hydrogeological settings, the NCP is divided into three zones, being piedmont alluvial fan-recharge zone (Zone I), central alluvial plain-intermediate zone (Zone II) and coast plain-discharge zone (Zone III). Based on zonation of the groundwater in the plain, characteristics of major components in shallow and deep groundwater of different zones were studied. In general, concentrations of major components in shallow groundwater were higher than those in deep. For example, the maximum concentrations of calcium and magnesium ions in shallow groundwater were 121 mg/L and 98.0 mg/L, respectively, while the maximum concentrations of those in deep groundwater were 54.1 mg/L and 28.9 mg/L, respectively. The spatial distribution of sodium and potassium, chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions in shallow groundwater was much more patchy than that in deep. In shallow groundwater, concentrations of sodium and potassium, magnesium and chloride ions increased from Zone I to Zone III, while concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate ions decreased. Moreover, concentration of sulfate ion in shallow groundwater increased from Zone I to Zone II and slightly decreased from Zone II to Zone III. In deep groundwater, concentrations of sodium and potassium, chloride, sulfate and bicarbonate ions elevated from Zone I to Zone III, while concentration of calcium ion reduced all the way. Concentration of magnesium ion in deep groundwater decreased from Zone I to Zone II and slightly increased from Zone II to Zone III. Temporal evolution indicated that major

  19. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0–20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g−1 dw to 0.457 μg g−1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g−1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  20. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP.

  1. Indirect evidence for elevated SO2 layers in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, W.; Zhao, C.; Ran, L.; Lin, W.; Yan, P.; Xu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is the precursor of sulphate aerosols and has crucial impacts on atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics, air quality, ecological environment and global climate change. The vertical distribution of SO2 can directly influence atmospheric chemistry and cloud processes. Information on the SO2 vertical profile, however, scarcely exist. Indirect evidence for the frequent occurrence of elevated SO2 layers in the North China Plain (NCP) was found in the case study of three consecutive fog cases and in the detailed analysis of long-term SO2 surface concentration measurements at four different sites. During fog episodes, high concentrations of SO2 over the fog layer was believed responsible for the rapid increases of surface SO2 after the dissipation of the fog. Different from the more common SO2 diurnal patterns with high nighttime concentrations, a frequent SO2 noon-time peak phenomenon was found in the NCP with an occurrence frequency of 50 to 72% at four stations, amongst which 30-52% of the cases were attributed to down-mixing of elevated SO2 layers. The formation of the elevated SO2 layer was attributed to emissions of high stacks accompanied with shallow temperature inversion layers. Elevated SO2 layers will promote the oxidative transformation of SO2 in cloud water. The SO2 noontime peaks caused partly by the elevated SO2 layer will lead to a 13 to 35% increase in sulphur dry deposition, 9 to 23% increase in gas phase oxidation and 8 to 33% increase in aqueous phase conversions, which will increase the hygroscopicity and the light scattering of aerosols, thus having important impacts on atmospheric chemistry, cloud physics and climate.

  2. Genetic diversity, temporal dynamics, and host specificity in blood parasites of passerines in north China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xi; Dong, Lu; Zhang, Chenglin; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-12-01

    Avian blood parasites have been preliminarily studied in East Asia, but no data are available from long-term monitoring. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, genetic diversity, and temporal dynamics of Plasmodium, Haemoproteus, and Leucocytozoon in two passerine communities (one forest and one urban) in north China from 2008 to 2013, as well as the association between infected lineages and host specificities. Out of 633 birds from 40 species, 157 individuals (24.8 %) were infected; overall prevalence was 26.7 % and 16.8 % in two sites, respectively. The dominant avian blood parasite genus in the forest park changed yearly between Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, while the Leucocytozoon maintained a low infection level. Forty-four haplotypes were identified by sequencing a 432-bp fragment of the cytochrome b (cyt b) gene; more than 70 % were novel (six Plasmodium lineages, 16 Haemoproteus lineages, and nine Leucocytozoon lineages). Based on our data gathered over consecutive years, we found that the highly observed lineages of Haemoproteus showed higher host diversities than those of Plasmodium, and the most infected lineage EMEL01 (100 % identity with SGS1) take on the highest host diversity but low temporal diversity of the two genera, implying that this lineage infected a great diversity of species in certain years, but maintained a lower infection level or even disappeared in other years. The results suggest that genetic diversity of avian blood parasites in East Asia is high and provides scope for further research. In addition, compared with overall analysis, yearly prevalence monitoring is important in uncovering the temporal dynamic and host specificity variations over time.

  3. Deposition flux of aerosol particles and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xilong; Liu, Shuzhen; Zhao, Jingyu; Zuo, Qian; Liu, Wenxin; Li, Bengang; Tao, Shu

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined deposition fluxes of aerosol particles and 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with the particles in the North China Plain. The annual mean deposition fluxes of aerosol particles and 15 PAHs were 0.69 ± 0.46 g/(m(2) ×d) and 8.5 ± 6.2 μg/(m(2) ×d), respectively. Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, and benzo[k]fluoranthene were the dominant PAHs bound to deposited aerosol particles throughout the year. The total concentration of 15 PAHs in the deposited aerosol particles was the highest in winter but lowest in spring. The highest PAH concentration in the deposited aerosol particles in winter was because the heating processes highly increased the concentration in atmospheric aerosol particles. Low temperature and weak sunshine in winter reduced the degradation rate of deposited aerosol particle-bound PAHs, especially for those with low molecular weight. The lowest PAH concentration in deposited aerosol particles in spring resulted from the frequently occurring dust storms, which diluted PAH concentrations. The mean deposition flux of PAHs with aerosol particles in winter (16 μg/[m(2) ×d]) reached 3 times to 5 times that in other seasons (3.5-5.0 μg/[m(2) ×d]). The spatial variation of the deposition flux of PAHs with high molecular weight (e.g., benzo[a]pyrene) was consistent with their concentrations in the atmospheric aerosol particles, whereas such a phenomenon was not observed for those with low molecular weight (e.g., phenanthrene) because of their distinct hydrophobicity, Henry's law constant, and the spatially heterogeneous meteorological conditions.

  4. Study of Groundwater Resources Components in the North China Plain based on Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, J.

    2015-12-01

    Over-exploitation of groundwater and induced environmental problems in the North China Plain (NCP) has drawn more and more concerns. Here, we chose three typical hydrogeological units in the NCP, which are Hutuo River alluvial fan (HR), the Tianjin Plain in the central alluvial fan (TJ), and the Yellow river aquifer system (YR). Relying on groundwater numerical models through MODFLOW, the water balances were calculated and analyzed accordingly, especially for quantifying individual recharge and discharge contributing terms. Specifically, (1) In the HR, both natural steady-state flow and transient flow models under human activities were implemented. Results indicated groundwater level decreased by around 40m with extensive exploitation, where the total recharge rate, discharge rate, and over-exploitation rate were calculated. (2) In the TJ, groundwater and land subsidence coupled model was established, where the maximum subsidence rate and decrease of groundwater level was estimated. (3) In the YR, the exploitation rate of the groundwater and recharge rate of the aquifer by the Yellow River were calculated. We found that there are big differences among the components of groundwater recharge of the three typical hydrogeological units. Human activities have a clear effect on the recharge and discharge processes. Thus, rational development and protection policies should be issued. In the piedmont alluvial fan, the groundwater was severely over-exploited. Therefore, reduction of groundwater exploitation and groundwater artificial recharge are needed to get the recharge and discharge balanced. In the middle alluvial fan of the NCP, the confined aquifer has been over-exploited and has resulted in regional land subsidence. It suggests the withdrawal of confined aquifer should be strictly limited, especially at the place where alternative water resources are accessible. In the hydrogeological unit of the YR, the groundwater storage is potentially large for exploitation.

  5. Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism under isobaric heating: New evidence from the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiong-Yan; Santosh, M.; Tsunogae, Toshiaki

    2014-12-01

    The Khondalite Belt within Inner Mongolia Suture Zone (IMSZ) in the North China Craton (NCC) preserves evidence for extreme crustal metamorphism under ultra-high temperature (UHT) conditions at ca. 1.92 Ga, associated with the subduction-collision tectonics between the Yinshan and Ordos Blocks. Here we report a new locality in Hongsigou where cordierite- and spinel-bearing granulites record UHT metamorphism. The prograde, peak, and retrograde mineral assemblages in these pelitic granulites have been identified based on petrography and mineral chemistry as: Bt1 + Grt1 + Sil1 + Kfs1 + Pl1 + Ilm + Qtz1, Grt1 + Sil2 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Spl + Ilm + Qtz2 + Liq, and Crd + Grt2 + Sil3 + Kfs2 + Pl2 + Ilm + Qtz2 respectively. The peak metamorphic conditions of the pelitic granulite were estimated as 930-1050 °C and 6.5-7.5 kbar based on pseudosection analysis in the system NCKFMASHTO, suggesting extreme thermal metamorphism. We report LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb data from the granulite which show weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 1881 ± 6.6 Ma, marking the timing of UHT metamorphism. Lu-Hf analyses of the zircons show εHf(t) values within a restricted range of -4.2 to 0.3 and together with Hf model ages, a Paleoproterozoic arc magmatic source is inferred for the detrital zircons. The estimated P-T path for the UHT granulite suggests isobaric heating followed by cooling and decompression along a clockwise trajectory, different from the anti-clockwise P-T paths defined in earlier studies for the 1.92 Ga UHT rocks from the IMSZ. The younger age and the isobaric heating trajectory suggest that the Hongsigou UHT rocks are related to heat input from underplated mafic magmas following continental collision.

  6. [Nitrogen and water cycling of typical cropland in the North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Pei, Hong-wei; Shen, Yan-jun; Liu, Chang-ming

    2015-01-01

    Intensive fertilization and irrigation associated increasing grain production has led to serious groundwater depletion and soil/water pollution in the North China Plain (NCP). Intensive agriculture changes the initial mass and energy balance, and also results in huge risks to the water/soil resources and food security regionally. Based on the research reports on the nitrogen cycle and water cycle in typical cropland (winter wheat and summer corn) in the NCP during the past 20 years, and the meteorological data, field experiments and surveys, we calculated the nitrogen cycle and water-cycle for this typical cropland. Annual total nitrogen input were 632 kg N . hm-2, including 523 kg N . hm-2 from commercial fertilizer, 74 kg N . hm-2 from manure, 23 kg N . hm-2 from atmosphere, and 12 kg N . hm-2 from irrigation. All of annual outputs summed to 532 kg N . hm-2 including 289 kg N . hm-2 for crop, 77 kg N . hm-2 staying in soil profile, leaching 104 kg N . hm-2, 52 kg N . hm-2 for ammonia volatilization, 10 kg N . hm-2 loss in nitrification and denitrification. Uncertainties of the individual cases and the summary process lead to the unbalance of nitrogen. For the dominant parts of the field water cycle, annual precipitation was 557 mm, irrigation was 340 mm, while 762 mm was for evapotranspiration and 135 mm was for deep percolation. Considering uncertainties in the nitrogen and water cycles, coupled experiments based on multi-disciplines would be useful for understanding mechanisms for nitrogen and water transfer processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum (SPAC) , and the interaction between nitrogen and water, as well as determining the critical threshold values for sustainability of soil and water resources in the NCP. PMID:25985681

  7. Low-level prenatal mercury exposure in north China: an exploratory study of anthropometric effects.

    PubMed

    Ou, Langbo; Chen, Cen; Chen, Long; Wang, Huanhuan; Yang, Tianjun; Xie, Han; Tong, Yindong; Hu, Dan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-06-01

    In order to investigate anthropometric effects of mercury (Hg) exposure, we examined the status of human prenatal exposure to Hg species, including total mercury (THg), methylmercury (MeHg) and inorganic mercury (IHg), in North China, as well as their potential effects on fetal and infant growth. Hg concentrations in various bioindicators were measured from 50 Chinese women and newborns in 2011. The participants were followed for 12 months to collect anthropometric information. Linear and two-level regression analyses were performed to determine the associations between Hg levels and body growth. The geometric mean levels of THg in the placenta, cord blood, fetal hair, and maternal blood, hair, and urine were 25.88 μg/kg dry wt, 2.73 μg/L, 572.98 μg/kg, 2.29 μg/L, 576.54 μg/kg, and 0.58 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Nearly 100% of Hg presented as IHg in urine, and the percentage of IHg in other bioindicators was 14.86-48.73%. We observed significantly negative associations between Hg levels in some matrixes and anthropometry of neonates (weight and height) and infants (height) (p < 0.05). THg levels in maternal hair were also negatively associated with infant growth rate of weight during 12 months after delivery (p = 0.017). This study suggests that low-level prenatal Hg exposure could play a role in attenuating fetal and infant growth, and the effects of MeHg and IHg are different.

  8. Formation and Evolution Process of Typical Alluvial fan in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongmei, Z.; Hua, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Through Quaternary scientific drilling, well-logging, sampling and testing at Hutuo River Alluvial Fan in North China Plain, combined with existing lithology and lithofacies data of borehole, and comprehensive analysises with approaches of sedimentology, palaeontology, climatostratigraphy, we have identified the formation and evolution process of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan, our results indicate that: 1) There are three phases of large-scale alluvial fan during Quaternary period in the Hutuo River alluvial fan, which were buried in the depth of 40 ~ 70m, 70 ~ 130m, 130 ~ 160m respectively, with corresponding geological age are middle Pleistocene, early and mid-term of early Pleistocene, early-term of early Pleistocene. The leading edge of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan reached to counties of Ning jin, Hengshui, Wuqiang and, Raoyang. 2) The sedimentary facies of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan include alluvial facies and lake - swamp facies. Alluvial facies have been widely distributed from the piedmont area to Xinji county, including two sub-facies of river bed and alluvial flat facies. Lake-swamp facies mainly appeared at Shen county and it's east, and also scattered in the piedmont and the central of the fan. 3) On the basis of the lithology, lithofacies characteristics and stratigraphic cycles, and combined with biostratigraphic characteristics and luminescence age, we can definite the division of Quaternary geological boundary of Hutuo River Alluvial Fan as follows: Q4 / Q3 - -8.85m; Q3 / Q2 -32.68 m; Q2 / Q1 -73.84m; Q1 / N2 - 157.04m.

  9. Impacts of thickening unsaturated zone on groundwater recharge in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guoliang; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Han, Dongmei; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-06-01

    Unsustainable groundwater development shown by rapid groundwater depletion in the North China Plain (NCP) underscores the need to quantify spatiotemporal variability in groundwater recharge for improved management of the resource. The objective of this study was to assess spatiotemporal variability in recharge in response to thickening of the unsaturated zone in the NCP. Recharge was estimated by linking a soil water balance (SWB) model, on the basis of monthly meteorological data, irrigation applications, and soil moisture monitoring data (1993-2008), to the water table using a deep unsaturated zone flow model. The dynamic bottom boundary (water table) position was provided by the saturated zone flow component, which simulates regional pumping. The model results clearly indicate the effects of unsaturated zone thickening on both temporal distribution and magnitude of recharge: smoothing temporal variability in recharge, and increasing unsaturated storage and lag time between percolation and recharge. The thickening unsaturated zone can result in average recharge reduction of up to ∼70% in loam soils with water table declines ⩾30 m. Declining groundwater levels with irrigation sourced by groundwater converts percolation to unsaturated zone storage, averaging 14 mm equivalent water depth per year in mostly loam soil over the study period, accounting for ∼30% of the saturated groundwater storage depletion. This study demonstrates that, in thickening unsaturated zones, modeling approaches that directly equate deep drainage with recharge will overestimate the amount and underestimate the time lag between percolation and recharge, emphasizing the importance of more realistic simulation of the continuity of unsaturated and saturated storage to provide more reliable estimates of spatiotemporal variability in recharge.

  10. Vegetated dune morphodynamics during recent stabilization of the Mu Us dune field, north-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Mason, Joseph A.; Lu, Huayu

    2015-01-01

    The response of dune fields to changing environmental conditions can be better understood by investigating how changing vegetation cover affects dune morphodynamics. Significant increases in vegetation and widespread dune stabilization over the years 2000-2012 are evident in high-resolution satellite imagery of the Mu Us dune field in north-central China, possibly a lagged response to changing wind strength and temperature since the 1970s. These trends provide an opportunity to study how dune morphology changes with increasing vegetation stabilization. Vegetation expansion occurs mainly by expansion of pre-existing patches in interdunes. As vegetation spreads from interdunes onto surrounding dunes, it modifies their shapes in competition with wind-driven sand movement, primarily in three ways: 1) vegetation anchoring horns of barchans transforms them to parabolic dunes; 2) vegetation colonizes stoss faces of barchan and transverse dunes, resulting in lower dune height and an elongated stoss face, with shortening of barchan horns; and 3) on transverse dunes, the lee face is fixed by plants that survive sand burial. Along each of these pathways of stabilization, dune morphology tends to change from more barchanoid to more parabolic forms, but that transformation is not always completed before full stabilization. Artificial stabilization leads to an extreme case of "frozen" barchans or transverse dunes with original shapes preserved by rapid establishment of vegetation. Observations in the Mu Us dune field emphasize the point that vegetation growth and aeolian sand transport not only respond to external factors such as climate but also interact with each other. For example, some barchans lose sand mass during vegetation fixation, and actually migrate faster as they become smaller, and vegetation growth on a barchan's lower stoss face may alter sand transport over the dune in a way that favors more rapid stabilization. Conceptual models were generalized for the

  11. Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

  12. Integrated hydrological modeling of the North China Plain and implications for sustainable water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2013-10-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The simulated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS)-based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of simulated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g. by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  13. Integrated Hydrological Modeling of the North China Plain and Implications for Sustainable Water Management (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, H.; Zheng, C.; Cao, G.; Kristensen, M.; Refsgaard, J.; Rasmussen, M. O.; He, X.; Liu, J.; Shu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater overdraft has caused fast water level decline in the North China Plain (NCP) since the 1980s. Although many hydrological models have been developed for the NCP in the past few decades, most of them deal only with the groundwater component or only at local scales. In the present study, a coupled surface water-groundwater model using the MIKE SHE code has been developed for the entire alluvial plain of the NCP. All the major processes in the land phase of the hydrological cycle are considered in the integrated modeling approach. The most important parameters of the model are first identified by a sensitivity analysis process and then calibrated for the period 2000-2005. The calibrated model is validated for the period 2006-2008 against daily observations of groundwater heads. The simulation results compare well with the observations where acceptable values of root mean square error (RMSE) (most values lie below 4 m) and correlation coefficient (R) (0.36-0.97) are obtained. The calculated evapotranspiration (ET) is then compared with the remote sensing (RS) based ET data to further validate the model simulation. The comparison result with a R2 value of 0.93 between the monthly averaged values of calculated actual evapotranspiration (AET) and RS AET for the entire NCP shows a good performance of the model. The water balance results indicate that more than 70% of water leaving the flow system is attributed to the ET component, of which about 0.25% is taken from the saturated zone (SZ); about 29% comes from pumping, including irrigation pumping and non-irrigation pumping (net pumping). Sustainable water management analysis of the NCP is conducted using the simulation results obtained from the integrated model. An effective approach to improve water use efficiency in the NCP is by reducing the actual ET, e.g., by introducing water-saving technologies and changes in cropping.

  14. Assessment of the impact of emissions reductions on air quality over North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao; Zhang, Meigen

    2016-04-01

    The production rate of secondary pollutants was highly non-linear with the emission intensity of their precursors. In this study, the air quality modeling system RAMS-CMAQ with zero-out sensitivity test was applied to conduct source sensitivity approaches of PM2.5 for four source categories (industry, power plants, transport, and residential) over the North China Plain (NCP) in January and July of 2013. The results show that the residential and industry emission sector were the greatest contributors to domain-wide PM2.5 in January and July, respectively. The largest variation could exceed 200 μg m-3 attributed to the residential sector in January when a heavy pollution period appeared, and could reach 40-60 μg m-3 attributed to the industry sector in July in the heavy pollution area, respectively. The nonlinear relationship between the secondary pollutant formation and its precursors was reflected by this source sensitivity approaches, as the summation of the secondary pollutant variations attributed to the four sources was obviously different from the simulated baseline concentration and the mass burden of nitrate would increase upon removal of the power plants or transport emission sector in the heavy pollution regions in January. Further analysis indicated that the improvement of atmospheric oxidation capacity due to emission sector removal coupled with the sufficient precursor nitrogen oxide under severe pollution background should be the main reason of the negative variation of nitrate appeared in the sensitivity test. This feature indicates that the atmospheric oxidation capacity is an important impact factor in determining the production rate of nitrate formation, and could further influence the variation feature of PM2.5 mass burden during the pollution episode. Thus, it is suggested that the comprehensive pollution control strategies should be implemented based on the specific pollution condition. Additionally, the nonlinearity of secondary pollutants

  15. Contamination of Phthalate Esters (PAEs) in Typical Wastewater-Irrigated Agricultural Soils in Hebei, North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Qiong; Gao, Rutai; Hou, Haobo; Tan, Wenbing; He, Xiaosong; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Minda; Ma, Lina; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    The Wangyang River (WYR) basin is a typical wastewater irrigation area in Hebei Province, North China. This study investigated the concentration and distribution of six priority phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils in this area. Thirty-nine soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected along the WYR to assess the PAE residues in soils. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants in the topsoil obtained from the irrigation area. The concentrations of Σ6PAEs range from 0.191 μg g-1 dw to 0.457 μg g-1 dw with an average value of 0.294 μg g-1 dw. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) are the dominant PAE species in the agricultural soils. Among the DEHP concentrations, the highest DEHP concentration was found at the sites close to the villages; this result suggested that dense anthropogenic activities and random garbage disposal in the rural area are possible sources of PAEs. The PAE concentrations were weakly and positively correlated with soil organic carbon and soil enzyme activities; thus, these factors can affect the distribution of PAEs. This study further showed that only dimethyl phthalate (DMP) concentrations exceeded the recommended allowable concentrations; no remediation measures are necessary to control the PAEs in the WYR area. However, the PAEs in the topsoil may pose a potential risk to the ecosystem and human health in this area. Therefore, the exacerbating PAE pollution should be addressed. PMID:26360905

  16. The relationship between urban combined traffic noise and annoyance: an investigation in Dalian, north of China.

    PubMed

    Di, Guoqing; Liu, Xiaoyi; Lin, Qili; Zheng, Yue; He, Lingjiao

    2012-08-15

    Several residential areas in Dalian, north of China, were selected to investigate the influence of combined traffic noise pollution on urban residents. The software Cadna/A was used to estimate the day-night equivalent noise level (L(dn)) at 1m from the windows of each building, which were modified according to the actual data. Annoyance has been identified as the most important psychological impact of noise. A face-to-face survey on annoyance was carried out among 1536 local residents between the ages of 15 and 75 years. In this study, the relationship between the percentage of "highly annoyed" persons (%HA) and L(dn) was determined. The L(dn) was measured and identified as railway dominant noise, road traffic dominant noise or road-rail combined traffic noise. We find that when L(dn)>63.5 dB, the %HA due to the road-rail combined traffic noise was significantly higher than that due to the one dominant noise source with the same L(dn). Thus, it is suggested that the planning permission buildings whose L(dn) of road-rail combined traffic noise exceeds 63.5-dB be reviewed more strictly. The relationships between %HA induced by different traffic noise and the distance to transportation artery (s) were analyzed. The results showed that as the distance to transportation artery increased, the %HA due to different traffic noise gradually decreased. Furthermore, the %HA due to the road traffic dominant noise at close range (1 m≤s≤50 m) was lower than that at a more remote location (51 m≤s≤100 m), which might be ascribed to the greater tolerance of the noise by the residents.

  17. Variation in yield gap induced by nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer in North China Plain.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaoqin; Ouyang, Zhu; Li, Yunsheng; Wang, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under a wheat-maize rotation system from 1990 to 2006 in North China Plain (NCP) to determine the effects of N, P and K on yield and yield gap. There were five treatments: NPK, PK, NK, NP and a control. Average wheat and maize yields were the highest in the NPK treatment, followed by those in the NP plots among all treatments. For wheat and maize yield, a significant increasing trend over time was found in the NPK-treated plots and a decreasing trend in the NK-treated plots. In the absence of N or P, wheat and maize yields were significantly lower than those in the NPK treatment. For both crops, the increasing rate of the yield gap was the highest in the P omission plots, i.e., 189.1 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for wheat and 560.6 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) for maize. The cumulative omission of P fertilizer induced a deficit in the soil available N and extractable P concentrations for maize. The P fertilizer was more pivotal in long-term wheat and maize growth and soil fertility conservation in NCP, although the N fertilizer input was important for both crops growth. The crop response to K fertilizers was much lower than that to N or P fertilizers, but for maize, the cumulative omission of K fertilizer decreased the yield by 26% and increased the yield gap at a rate of 322.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1). The soil indigenous K supply was not sufficiently high to meet maize K requirement over a long period. The proper application of K fertilizers is necessary for maize production in the region. Thus, the appropriate application of N and P fertilizers for the growth of both crops, while regularly combining K fertilizers for maize growth, is absolutely necessary for sustainable crop production in the NCP.

  18. Eco-Compensation in Multi-District River Networks in North Jiangsu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  19. Eco-compensation in multi-district river networks in north Jiangsu, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rongrong; Pang, Yong; Li, Zhe; Zhang, Ninghong; Hu, Fenjuan

    2013-04-01

    Eco-compensation is a multi-disciplinary topic. There is no consensus on the issue of river eco-compensation across districts. Although policies regarding river eco-compensation have been issued in China since 2008, due to the high cost, eco-compensation has not been well implemented in the Taihu pilot region. Therefore, a simplified method based solely on water quality (both water quality and water volume included in the Taihu method) was proposed for North Jiangsu province (NJP). However, the formula was flawed and it led to payments being too low. Three problems need to be solved: (1) how to specify the eco-compensation areas; (2) how to test a reasonable eco-compensation model and (3) how to determine the compensation criterion. Solving these issues is already a priority. In this paper, three potential solutions surrounding eco-compensation are discussed: (1) three principles for selecting the representative eco-compensation areas are suggested; (2) the compensation calculation method based on contaminant flux above the ultra standard is revised and (3) a compensation criterion model based on the treatment costs of sewage is proposed. In the NJP case in 2009, the average eco-compensation criterion for chemical oxygen demand (COD) is 2,000 Chinese Yuan (CNY) per ton and ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) and total phosphorus (TP) are 8,000 CNY and 80,000 CNY per ton, respectively. Five districts needed to be compensated. The payments in the revised scheme were 4.15-586 million CNY, which were 16-48 times greater than that in the draft method. The new method can provide an important template for managers when drafting river eco-compensation schemes.

  20. Ecosystem water use efficiency in an irrigated cropland in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Juan; Li, Jun; Yu, Qiang; Qin, Zhong

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe eddy covariance technique and the cuvette method were used to investigate water use efficiency in an irrigated winter wheat ( Triticum asetivum L.)/summer maize ( Zea mays L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. The results show that ecosystem water use efficiency (WUE e) changed diurnally and seasonally. Daily maximal WUE e appeared in the morning. WUE e generally peaked in late April in wheat field and in late July/early August in maize field. From 2003 to 2006, seasonal mean WUE e was 6.7-7.4 mg CO 2 g -1 H 2O for wheat and 8.4-12.1 mg CO 2 g -1 H 2O for maize. WUE e was much lower than canopy water use efficiency (WUE c) under small leaf area index (LAI) but very close to WUE c under large LAI. With the increase in LAI, WUE e enlarged rapidly under low LAI but slowly when LAI was higher than one. WUE e was greater on the cloudy days than on the sunny days. Under the same solar radiation, WUE e was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. The ratio of internal to ambient CO 2 partial pressure ( Ci/ Ca) decreased significantly with the increase in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) when PAR was lower than the critical values (around 500 and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 for wheat and maize, respectively). Beyond critical PAR, Ci/ Ca was approximately constant at 0.69 for wheat and 0.42 for maize. Therefore, when LAI and solar radiation was large enough, WUE e has negative correlation with vapor pressure deficit in both of irrigated wheat and maize fields.

  1. Reassessing carbon sequestration in the North China Plain via addition of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wenxu; Duan, Yongmei; Wang, Yuying; Hu, Chunsheng

    2016-09-01

    Soil inorganic carbon (SIC) exerts a strong influence on the carbon (C) sequestered in response to nitrogen (N) additions in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, but limited information is available on in situ SIC storage and dissolution at the field level. This study determined the soil organic/inorganic carbon storage in the soil profile at 0-100cm depths and the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in soil leachate in 4N application treatments (0, 200, 400, and 600kgNha(-1)yr(-)(1)) for 15years in the North China Plain. The objectives were to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on total amount of carbon sequestration and the uptake of atmospheric CO2 in an agricultural system. Results showed that after 15years of N fertilizer application the SOC contents at depths of 0-100cm significantly increased, whereas the SIC contents significantly decreased at depths of 0-60cm. However, the actual measured loss of carbonate was far higher than the theoretical maximum values of dissolution via protons from nitrification. Furthermore, the amount of HCO3(-) and the HCO3(-)/(Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) ratio in soil leachate were higher in the N application treatments than no fertilizer input (CK) for the 0-80cm depth. The result suggested that the dissolution of carbonate was mainly enhanced by soil carbonic acid, a process which can absorb soil or atmosphere CO2 and less influenced by protons through the nitrification which would release CO2. To accurately evaluate soil C sequestration under N input scenarios in semi-arid regions, future studies should include both changes in SIC storage as well as the fractions of dissolution with different sources of acids in soil profiles. PMID:27135576

  2. Polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere of North China: levels, distribution, and sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Qiu, Xinghua; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-11-19

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are important persistent organic pollutants. Analysis of BFRs in atmospheric samples in a previous study led us to suspect the presence of unidentified organic bromides, other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in the atmosphere. In this study, we identified and quantified polybromobenzenes, a group of organic bromides, in air samples collected through passive sampling in gridded observations in North China. We investigated their concentrations and spatial distribution, and estimated the proportion due to different sources. We detected seven species of polybromobenzenes, including hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromotoluene (PBT), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), pentabromobenzene (PeBB), tetrabromobenzenes (TeBBs), and tribromotoluene (TrBT), in all or most of the field samples, indicating widespread occurrence of this class of pollutants. The median concentrations of each pollutant ranged from 20.0 to 144 pg/sample (or from 0.07 to 1.16 pg/m(3)), with relatively high concentrations found near e-waste recycling sites, BFR manufacturing sites, and areas of high population density. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis revealed that ∼70% of HBB, PBT, PBEB, and PeBB was from commercial products, while ∼80% of 1,2,3,5-TeBB, 1,2,4,5-TeBB, and 2,4,5-TrBT was linked with BFR manufacturing. This study provides essential information on widespread polybromobenzene pollutants in the atmosphere, particularly TeBBs and TrBT, for which this is the first report of their presence as atmospheric pollutants.

  3. Lidar observations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure over north China and comparisons with TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Chuan; Yang, Guotao; Wang, Jihong; Guan, Sai; Du, Lifang; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Yong

    2014-12-01

    According to the observational data for over 120 nights of the Rayleigh lidar located in Beijing, China (40.5°N, 116.2°E), the middle atmospheric thermal structure (35-85 km) over North China was obtained. Lidar observation results show good agreements with SABER temperature data sets, which justify that both the two instruments are reliable. Lidar results show significant difference with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model and lidar temperatures are usually colder than the model data during the observational time, which may be due to the associations of high level of solar activity, greenhouse gases and the frequent haze weather in North China. To characterize the seasonal variations of the atmospheric temperature structure over Beijing, the amplitude and phase profiles of the annual, semi-annual and 3-month sinusoidal oscillations were extracted by multi-parameter sinusoidal regression. A stratospheric temperature enhancement (STE) event and a long-term mesospheric temperature inversion layer (MIL) are observed in the early winter of 2012/2013. The observed STE event could be due to the enhancement of planetary wave (k=1) activity while the long-term MIL could be due to gravity wave-planetary wave interactions in the masopause region.

  4. Lidar observations of the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China and comparisons with TIMED/SABER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jihong; Yang, Guotao; Du, Lifang; Yue, Chuan; Wang, Zelong; Jiao, MS. Jing

    According to the observational data for over 120 nights of the Rayleigh/Na lidar located in Beijing, China (40.5N, 116.2E), the middle atmospheric thermal structure over North China was obtained. Lidar observation results show good agreements with SABER temperature data sets, which justify that both the two instruments are reliable. Lidar results show significant difference with the NRLMSISE-00 empirical model and negative deviations (lidar minus model) hold most of the observational time. which may be due to the associations of high level of solar activity, greenhouse gases and the haze weather in North China. To characterize the seasonal variations of the temperature structure over Beijing, the amplitude and phase profiles of the annual, semi-annual and 3-month sinusoidal oscillations were extracted by multi-parameter sinusoidal regression. A stratospheric warming event and a long-term mesospheric temperature inversion are observed in the early winter of 2012/2013. These temperature anomalies may be mainly due to anomalous propagations of planetary waves and gravity waves.

  5. Research into the functional components and antioxidant activities of North China rice wine (Ji Mo Lao Jiu)

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuai; Mao, Xiangzhao; Liu, Pei; Lin, Hong; Du, Zuyuan; Lv, Ning; Han, Jichen; Qiu, Cuifang

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decade, considerable experimental evidence has supported the view that grape wine and South China rice wine are rich in diverse nutrients and have powerful antioxidant activity. However, little research has been carried out for North China rice wine, of which Ji Mo Lao Jiu (JMLJ) is the outstanding representative. In this study, the functional components and antioxidant activity of JMLJ were investigated. Twenty-eight free amino acids were found in JMLJ, much more than that previously reported in other Chinese rice wines (16–21). Functional oligosaccharides (5290.222 mg/L), total phenols (722.431 ± 10.970 mg/L), and mineral elements (9) were rich in JMLJ. When compared with synthetic antioxidants, such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), JMLJ showed effective 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and reducing capacity. The results of this study lay the foundation for promoting the utilization of JMLJ and the development of North China rice wine in the food industry. PMID:24804035

  6. Biodiversity and Biogeography of Rhizobia Associated with Soybean Plants Grown in the North China Plain ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan Ming; Li, Ying; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, En Tao; Tian, Chang Fu; Li, Qin Qin; Zhang, Yun Zeng; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2011-01-01

    As the putative center of origin for soybean and the second largest region of soybean production in China, the North China Plain covers temperate and subtropical regions with diverse soil characteristics. However, the soybean rhizobia in this plain have not been sufficiently studied. To investigate the biodiversity and biogeography of soybean rhizobia in this plain, a total of 309 isolates of symbiotic bacteria from the soybean nodules collected from 16 sampling sites were studied by molecular characterization. These isolates were classified into 10 genospecies belonging to the genera Sinorhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, including four novel groups, with S. fredii (68.28%) as the dominant group. The phylogeny of symbiotic genes nodC and nifH defined four lineages among the isolates associated with Sinorhizobium fredii, Bradyrhizobium elkanii, B. japonicum, and B. yuanmingense, demonstrating the different origins of symbiotic genes and their coevolution with the chromosome. The possible lateral transfer of symbiotic genes was detected in several cases. The association between soil factors (available N, P, and K and pH) and the distribution of genospecies suggest clear biogeographic patterns: Sinorhizobium spp. were superdominant in sampling sites with alkaline-saline soils, while Bradyrhizobium spp. were more abundant in neutral soils. This study clarified the biodiversity and biogeography of soybean rhizobia in the North China Plain. PMID:21784912

  7. A precisely dated Proterozoic palaeomagnetic pole from the North China craton, and its relevance to palaeocontinental reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Henry C.; Li, Jianghai; Davis, Don; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Baoxing; Qian, Xianglin

    2000-10-01

    A palaeomagnetic pole position, derived from a precisely dated primary remanence, with minimal uncertainties due to secular variation and structural correction, has been obtained for China's largest dyke swarm, which trends for about 1000km in a NNW direction across the North China craton. Positive palaeomagnetic contact tests on two dykes signify that the remanent magnetization is primary and formed during initial cooling of the intrusions. The age of one of these dykes, based on U-Pb dating of primary zircon, is 1769.1+/-2.5Ma. The mean palaeomagnetic direction for 19 dykes, after structural correction, is D=36°, I=-5°, k=63, α95=4°, yielding a palaeomagnetic pole at Plat=36°N, Plong=247°E, dp=2°, dm=4° and a palaeolatitude of 2.6°S. Comparison of this pole position with others of similar age from the Canadian Shield allows a continental reconstruction that is compatible with a more or less unchanged configuration of Laurentia, Siberia and the North China craton since about 1800Ma

  8. Impacts of climate change on growth period and planting boundaries of winter wheat in China under RCP4.5 scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Jia, S. F.; Lv, A. F.; Yang, K. J.; Svensson, J.; Gao, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    This paper advances understanding of the impacts of climate change on crops in China by moving from ex-post analysis to forecasting, and by demonstrating how the effects of climate change will affect the growth period and the planting boundaries of winter wheat. Using a multiple regression model based on agricultural meteorological observations and the IPCC AR5 GCMs simulations, we find that the sowing date of winter wheat in the base period, 2040s and 2070s, shows a gradually delayed trend from north to south and the growth period of winter wheat in China will be shortened under climate change. The simulation results also show that (i) the north planting boundaries of winter wheat in China will likely move northward and expand westward in the future, while the south planting boundary will rise and spread in south Hainan and Taiwan; and (ii) the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region will have the largest increases in planting areas in 2040s and 2070s. Our simulation implies that Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia are more sensitive to climate change than other regions in China and priority should be given to design adaptation strategies for winter wheat planting for these provinces.