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Sample records for north xinjiang china

  1. Molecular phylogeography of the red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations in Xinjiang of China: comparison with other Asian, European, and North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mahmut, Halik; Masuda, Ryuichi; Onuma, Manabu; Takahashi, Manami; Nagata, Junko; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Ohtaishi, Noriyuki

    2002-04-01

    To illustrate phylogeography of red deer (Cervus elaphus) populations of Xinjiang, we determined their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, and then investigated geographic variations and phylogenetic relationships between Xinjiang populations and other populations from Asia, Europe, and North America. The C. elaphus mtDNA control region shared different copy numbers of tandem repeats of 38 to 43-bp motifs which clearly distinguished the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage of this species in Eurasia. The western lineage comprised the Tarim populations from southern Xinjiang and the European populations, all of which had four copies of the motifs. By contrast, the Eastern lineage consisted of populations from northern Xinjiang (Tianshan and Altai Mountains), other Asian areas (Alashan, Gansu, Tibet, Mongolia, and northeastern China), and North America, all of which shared six copies of the motifs. MtDNA phylogenetic trees showed that there are two major clusters of haplotypes which referred to the Western and Eastern lineages, and that subgroupings of haplotypes in each cluster were congruent with their geographic distributions. The present study revealed that a boundary separating the Western lineage from the Eastern lineage occurs between Tarim Basin and Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang. Meanwhile, North American populations were genetically closer to those of northern Xinjiang, northeastern China, and Mongolia, supporting that C. elaphus immigrated from northeastern Eurasia to North America through the glacier-induced land-bridge (Beringia) which had formed between the two continents after Late Pleistocene.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activities of ansu apricot oil growing wild in north Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hong-Lei; Zhan, Ping

    2011-07-01

    Ansu apricots growing wild in north Xinjiang are recognised as being one of the major wild-plant resources in China. In order to improve the level of comprehensive utilisation and the number of cultivated apricot varieties, the chemical composition of ansu apricot oil was analysed by capillary GC-MS and elucidated based on the standard mass spectral data; the antioxidant activities were also evaluated. Seven components of ansu apricots oil were identified, and the total unsaturated fatty acid (FA) (TUFA) and total essential FA (TEFA) contents of the ansu apricot oil were found to be 90.35 g/100 g and 48.93 g/100 g, respectively. The scavenging capacity of the ansu apricots oil in the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system performed better than in the DPPH radical system. The IC₅₀ values of the ansu apricot oil for the superoxide anion radical system and the hydroxyl radical system were 0.15 mg mL⁻¹ and 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, respectively: stronger than that of the control (ascorbic acid). In the DPPH system, the IC₅₀ value of the ansu apricot oil was 0.50 mg mL⁻¹, and the IC₅₀ value of ascorbic acid was 0.30 mg mL⁻¹, but within the selected dosage, the highest scavenging capacity of ansu apricot oil was higher than the control. The results obtained in this study clearly suggest that ansu apricot oil is a natural source of antioxidants and could serve as a functional food ingredient with potential application in food products and thus provide related health benefits.

  3. Mesozoic hydrocarbon source rock studies of north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan basins, Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region, northwestern China

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, M.S.; Xiao, Z.; Liang, Y.; Graham, S.A.; Carroll, A.R.; Chu, J.; McKnight, C.

    1989-03-01

    Ongoing outcrop and accompanying pyrolysis studies of Mesozoic strata of the north Tarim, south Junggar, and Turpan retroarc foreland basins, northwestern China, have demonstrated the existence of potential oil-prone and gas-prone petroleum source rocks. Lithologies include Jurassic coals from all three basins and Triassic coals from Tarim. Jurassic coals collected from the Mesozoic depocenters of the Junggar and Tarim basins are oil prone, yielding S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values that range from 0.80 to 0.99 and average 0.96, hydrogen index (HI) values that range from 117.9 to 213.4 and average 150.8, and oxygen index (OI) values that range from 1.1 to 31.6 and average 7.67. In contrast, Triassic coals of Tarim and Jurassic coals of Turpan contain more conventional type III gas-prone kerogens and yield S/sub 2//S/sub 2+3/ values ranging from 0.04 to 0.52 and averaging 0.22, HI values ranging from 3.2 to 130.2 with a mean of 33.6, and OI values ranging from 30.9 to 223.7 and averaging 115.9. Coals of all three basins are slightly immature to mature with respect to oil generation, as indicated by T/sub max/ values ranging from 425/degrees/ to 449/degrees/C (average = 343/degrees/C) and vitrinite reflectance values ranging from 0.51 to 0.64 (average = 0.57). Thus, given the widespread abundance and significant thicknesses of Mesozoic and especially Jurassic coals in all three basins, it is very likely that Mesozoic contributions to Xinjiang's oil and gas reserves are significant. This is particularly important in the north Tarim basin, where recent Chinese oil and gas discoveries have been made and the existence of significant pre-Mesozoic source beds remains unproven.

  4. Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired May 17, 2011 Located in China’s resource-rich but moisture-poor Xinjiang autonomous region, Lop Nur is an uninviting location for any kind of agriculture. It sits at the eastern end of the Taklimakan Desert, where marching sand dunes can reach heights of 200 meters (650 feet), and dust storms rage across the landscape. Yet for all it lacks in agricultural appeal, Lop Nur offers something valuable to farmers the world over: potash. This potassium salt provides a major nutrient required for plant growth, making it a key ingredient in fertilizer. The discovery of potash at Lop Nur in the mid-1990s turned the area into a large-scale mining operation. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) on NASA’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite captured this natural-color image of Lop Nur on May 17, 2011. The rectangular shapes in this image show the bright colors characteristic of solar evaporation ponds. Around the evaporation ponds are the earth tones typical of sandy desert. During the early and middle Pleistocene epoch, this area held a large brackish lake. Uplift of the northern part of the lake in the late Pleistocene created hollows that became receptacles for potash deposition. The main potash deposits found at Lop Nur today are brine potash, and this site is the second-largest source of potash in China. Lop Nur slowly dried up in the Holocene. The area now receives average annual precipitation of just 31.2 millimeters (1.2 inches), and experiences annual evaporation of 2,901 millimeters (114 inches), according to a study published in 2008. The study found, however, that this area has experienced seven major climate changes since the end of the Pleistocene, including climatic conditions far more favorable to farming and settlement than today. Examination of plant and mollusk remains at the lake, as well as studies of sediments, indicate that the Lop Nur region experienced a severe drought about 3,000 years ago, followed by wetter conditions. Between 1

  5. Regional distribution of longevity population and chemical characteristics of natural water in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Lin; Luo, Kun-Li; Lin, Xiao-Xu; Gao, Xing; Ni, Run-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Bin; Tian, Xing-Lei

    2014-03-01

    Xinjiang Province, China is recognized for the longevity of its inhabitants. To study the temporal and spatial variation of longevity region and chemical characteristics of natural water of longevity region in Xinjiang, three population censuses on county-level and 51 natural water samples from Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang were collected and analyzed. 103 natural water samples were collected from the public papers. Population statistics on county-level showed that the number of centenarians per 100,000 inhabitants (OC) in Southern Xinjiang was 7.4(year 1990), 4.9(year 2000) and 2.1 times (year 2010) more than that of Northern Xinjiang, respectively. And distribution of the longevity index (LI%), centenarity index (CI%) and number of centenarians per 10,000 over 65 year-old subjects (UC) on county-level decreased from south to north. Natural water in Northern Xinjiang was mainly fresh soft water, and it was mainly fresh hard water and brackish hard water in Southern Xinjiang. Water quality of natural water in Northern Xinjiang was superior compare to that of Southern Xinjiang, while number of centenarians 65 year-old & over per 10,000 subjects in Northern Xinjiang were less than that of Southern Xinjiang before 2010. The research indicates that keeping on drinking water with high total hardness (TH) and Mg/Ca ratio might be good for the health.

  6. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  7. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Song, Yougui; Yan, Libin; Chen, Tao; An, Zhisheng

    2015-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess–paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm) grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin. PMID:25970617

  8. Plant conservation priorities of Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. P.; Cui, W. H.; Wang, T.; Tian, S.; Xing, W. J.; Yin, L. K.; Abdusalih, N.; Jiang, Y. M.

    2017-02-01

    As an important region in the Silk Road, Xinjiang is getting a good chance of developing economy. However at the same time, its natural environment is facing a big challenge. To better protect the plant diversity, it is urgent to make a thorough conservation plan. With a full database of vascular and medicinal plant distributions and nature reserve plant lists and boundaries in Xinjiang of China, we analysed the plant diversity hotspots, protection gaps and proposed the plant conservation priorities of this region. Differed from the widely accepted viewpoints that lots of plants were not included in nature reserves, we found that most of the plants ( > 90%) were actually included in the current nature reserves. We believe that compared with establishing more nature reserves, improving the management of the existing ones is also important. Furthermore, the very few unprotected plants ( < 10%) were distributed mostly in the regions of Aletai, Tacheng, Zhaosu, Manasi, Qitai and Hetian which could be the future conservation priorities.

  9. Comparison of Hybrid Classifiers for Crop Classification Using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time Series: A Case Study for Major Crops in North Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Pengyu; Wang, Li; Niu, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    A range of single classifiers have been proposed to classify crop types using time series vegetation indices, and hybrid classifiers are used to improve discriminatory power. Traditional fusion rules use the product of multi-single classifiers, but that strategy cannot integrate the classification output of machine learning classifiers. In this research, the performance of two hybrid strategies, multiple voting (M-voting) and probabilistic fusion (P-fusion), for crop classification using NDVI time series were tested with different training sample sizes at both pixel and object levels, and two representative counties in north Xinjiang were selected as study area. The single classifiers employed in this research included Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM), and See 5 (C 5.0). The results indicated that classification performance improved (increased the mean overall accuracy by 5%~10%, and reduced standard deviation of overall accuracy by around 1%) substantially with the training sample number, and when the training sample size was small (50 or 100 training samples), hybrid classifiers substantially outperformed single classifiers with higher mean overall accuracy (1%~2%). However, when abundant training samples (4,000) were employed, single classifiers could achieve good classification accuracy, and all classifiers obtained similar performances. Additionally, although object-based classification did not improve accuracy, it resulted in greater visual appeal, especially in study areas with a heterogeneous cropping pattern. PMID:26360597

  10. Risk assessment of precipitation extremes in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Pei, Ying; Zhang, Yanwei; Ge, Quansheng

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted using daily precipitation records gathered at 37 meteorological stations in northern Xinjiang, China, from 1961 to 2010. We used the extreme value theory model, generalized extreme value (GEV) and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD), statistical distribution function to fit outputs of precipitation extremes with different return periods to estimate risks of precipitation extremes and diagnose aridity-humidity environmental variation and corresponding spatial patterns in northern Xinjiang. Spatiotemporal patterns of daily maximum precipitation showed that aridity-humidity conditions of northern Xinjiang could be well represented by the return periods of the precipitation data. Indices of daily maximum precipitation were effective in the prediction of floods in the study area. By analyzing future projections of daily maximum precipitation (2, 5, 10, 30, 50, and 100 years), we conclude that the flood risk will gradually increase in northern Xinjiang. GEV extreme value modeling yielded the best results, proving to be extremely valuable. Through example analysis for extreme precipitation models, the GEV statistical model was superior in terms of favorable analog extreme precipitation. The GPD model calculation results reflect annual precipitation. For most of the estimated sites' 2 and 5-year T for precipitation levels, GPD results were slightly greater than GEV results. The study found that extreme precipitation reaching a certain limit value level will cause a flood disaster. Therefore, predicting future extreme precipitation may aid warnings of flood disaster. A suitable policy concerning effective water resource management is thus urgently required.

  11. Comparative study on the antioxidant activities of extracts of Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops from Kunlun Mountains, Xinjiang, north-western China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xincheng; Gu, Chengzhi; Tian, Liping; Wang, Xinbing; Tang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Coreopsis tinctoria flowering tops (CTFs) from the Kunlun Mountains in Xinjing (north-western China) have been used for tea production for about a century. This study aims to assess the antioxidant activities and total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents of various solvent extracts of CTF. CTF was extracted using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, 75% aqueous ethanol (AEE) and water. The antioxidant activities of the CTF extracts were investigated through DPPH, ABTS, *OH, *O2(-), total antioxidant capacity and reducing power assays. The results showed that n-butanol extract showed the highest contents of total phenols and flavonoids, with DPPH, ABTS and *OH radical-scavenging activities with IC50 values of 134, 90.72 and 13.8 μg mL(-1), respectively. The AEE demonstrated the strongest DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities, with IC50 values of 103 and 75.16 μg mL(-1), respectively. Given its high antioxidant effect, CTF is a good source of natural antioxidants or functional food materials.

  12. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in livestock animals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-06-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), cattle (8.4%), camels (6.8%), and horses (4.3%). The infection rates were found to be different between the abattoirs in various regions even for the same animals. For sheep, the rates increased significantly as the animals grew older. It was 1.9% before 1 year of age and increased to 8.2% in the age of 1-2 years, and further increased to 12.3% when the animals were 3-4 years old, and reached 17.2% when they were 5-6 year old. Sheep older than 6 years had an infection rate of 19.5%. This study demonstrates that the 4 livestock animals in the pastoral areas in Xinjiang were infected by the parasites to various extend. This study is the first systematic investigation of the hydatid worms in various livestock animals in Xinjiang, China, which provides epidemiological information about the infection of hydatid worms in livestock, and is valuable in developing strategies for prevention and control of the hydatid disease.

  13. Petroleum geology of Giant oil and gas fields in Turpan Basin Xinjiang China

    SciTech Connect

    Boliang, Hu; Jiajing, Yang,

    1995-08-01

    Turpan Basin is the smallest and the last development basin in three big basins of Xinjiang autonomous region, P.R. China. Since April, 1989, the Shanshan oilfield was discovered, the Oinling, Wenjisang, Midang, Baka, Qiudong and North Putaogou fields were discovered. In 1994, the crude oil productivity of Turpan Basin was a Million tons, with an estimated output of 3 million tons per year by 1995; obviously a key oil productive base in the west basins of China, Tarim, Jungar, Chaidam, Hexi, Erduos and Sichuan Basins. The Turpan Basin is an intermontane basin in a eugeosyncline foldbelt of the north Tianshan Mountains. The oil and gas was produced from the payzone of the Xishanyao, Sanjianfang and Qiketai Formatiosn of the Middle Jurassic series. The geochemical characteristics of the crude oil and gas indicate they derive from the Middle to Lower Jurassic coal series, in which contains the best oil-prone source rocks in the basin.

  14. Understanding Educational Leadership in North-West China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Militello, Matthew; Berger, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop greater depth of understanding regarding educational leadership development in the five north-western provinces (Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia) of the People's Republic of China. The researchers used a mixed method approach of surveys and focus group interviews to gather data regarding the…

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lineage Distribution in Xinjiang and Gansu Provinces, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haixia; He, Li; Huang, Hairong; Shi, Chengmin; Ni, Xumin; Dai, Guangming; Ma, Liang; Li, Weimin

    2017-04-21

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) genotyping has dramatically improved the understanding of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB). In this study, 187 M. tuberculosis isolates from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) and Gansu province in China were genotyped using large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) and variable number tandem repeats (VNTR). Ten isolates, which represent major nodes of VNTR-based minimum spanning tree, were selected and subsequently subjected to multi-locus sequence analyses (MLSA) that include 82 genes. Based on a robust lineage assignment, we tested the association between lineages and clinical characteristics by logistic regression. There are three major lineages of M. tuberculosis prevalent in Xinjiang, viz. the East Asian Lineage 2 (42.1%; 56/133), the Euro-American Lineage 4 (33.1%; 44/133), and the Indian and East African Lineage 3 (24.8%; 33/133); two lineages prevalent in Gansu province, which are the Lineage 2 (87%; 47/54) and the Lineage 4 (13%; 7/54). The topological structures of the MLSA-based phylogeny support the LSP-based identification of M. tuberculosis lineages. The statistical results suggest an association between the Lineage 2 and the hemoptysis/bloody sputum symptom, fever in Uygur patients. The pathogenicity of the Lineage 2 remains to be further investigated.

  16. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2016-05-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index (I A), Erinç's aridity index (I m), and Sahin's aridity index (I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  17. Spatiotemporal variability of four precipitation-based drought indices in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Sahin, Sinan; Appels, Willemijn M.

    2017-08-01

    Global increases in duration and prevalence of droughts require detailed drought characterization at various spatial and temporal scales. In this study, drought severity in Xinjiang, China was investigated between 1961 and 2012. Using meteorological data from 55 weather stations, the UNEP (1993) index ( I A), Erinç's aridity index ( I m), and Sahin's aridity index ( I sh) were calculated at the monthly and annual timescales and compared to the Penman-Monteith based standard precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEIPM). Drought spatiotemporal variability was analyzed for north (NX), south (SX), and entire Xinjiang (EX). I m could not be calculated at 51 stations in winter as T max was below 0. At the monthly timescale, I A, I m, and I sh correlated poorly to SPEIPM because of seasonality and temporal variability, but annual I A, I m, and I sh correlated well with SPEIPM. Annual I A, I m, and I sh showed strong spatial variability. The 15 extreme droughts denoted by monthly SPEIPM occurred in NX but out of phase in SX. Annual precipitation, maximum temperature, and relative and specific humidity increased, while air pressure and potential evapotranspiration decreased over 1961-2012. The resulting increases in the four drought indices indicated that drought severity in Xinjiang decreased, because the local climate became warmer and wetter.

  18. Identification and control of a poliomyelitis outbreak in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hui-Ming; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Xin-Qi; Yu, Wen-Zhou; Wen, Ning; Yan, Dong-Mei; Wang, Hua-Qing; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Wang, Hai-Bo; Xu, Ai-Qiang; Zheng, Jing-Shan; Li, De-Xin; Cui, Hui; Wang, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Shuang-Li; Feng, Zi-Jian; Cui, Fu-Qiang; Ning, Jing; Hao, Li-Xin; Fan, Chun-Xiang; Ning, Gui-Jun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shi-Wen; Liu, Da-Wei; Wang, Dong-Yan; Fu, Jian-Ping; Gou, Ai-li; Zhang, Guo-Min; Huang, Guo-Hong; Chen, Yuan-Sheng; Mi, Sha-Sha; Liu, Yan-Min; Yin, Da-Peng; Zhu, Hui; Fan, Xin-Chun; Li, Xin-Lan; Ji, Yi-Xin; Li, Ke-Li; Tang, Hai-Shu; Xu, Wen-Bo; Wang, Yu; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2013-11-21

    The last case of infection with wild-type poliovirus indigenous to China was reported in 1994, and China was certified as a poliomyelitis-free region in 2000. In 2011, an outbreak of infection with imported wild-type poliovirus occurred in the province of Xinjiang. We conducted an investigation to guide the response to the outbreak, performed sequence analysis of the poliovirus type 1 capsid protein VP1 to determine the source, and carried out serologic and coverage surveys to assess the risk of viral propagation. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was intensified to enhance case ascertainment. Between July 3 and October 9, 2011, investigators identified 21 cases of infection with wild-type poliovirus and 23 clinically compatible cases in southern Xinjiang. Wild-type poliovirus type 1 was isolated from 14 of 673 contacts of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (2.1%) and from 13 of 491 healthy persons who were not in contact with affected persons (2.6%). Sequence analysis implicated an imported wild-type poliovirus that originated in Pakistan as the cause of the outbreak. A public health emergency was declared in Xinjiang after the outbreak was confirmed. Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis was enhanced, with daily reporting from all public and private hospitals. Five rounds of vaccination with live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) were conducted among children and adults, and 43 million doses of OPV were administered. Trivalent OPV was used in three rounds, and monovalent OPV type 1 was used in two rounds. The outbreak was stopped 1.5 months after laboratory confirmation of the index case. The 2011 outbreak in China showed that poliomyelitis-free countries remain at risk for outbreaks while the poliovirus circulates anywhere in the world. Global eradication of poliomyelitis will benefit all countries, even those that are currently free of poliomyelitis.

  19. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    of China. Historically, ethnic minorities that are adherents to religions other than Chinese Buddhism raised fears of social unrest in China. For...hand, the Chinese fear the Uyghur movement could internally radicalize other minorities, whether it was the ethnic Tibetans or the Muslim Hui...Jamestown Foundation Vol. 7, Issue 3 February 7, 2007. 57 “Democracy activists and some spiritual or religious adherents, including Tibetan Buddhists

  20. Molecular evidence of tick-borne pathogens in Hyalomma anatolicum ticks infesting cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwestern China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peifa; Liu, Zhijie; Niu, Qingli; Yang, Jifei; Abdallah, Mirza Omar; Chen, Ze; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-09-05

    Although tick-borne pathogens have been widely reported in ticks in China, there is little information available on the prevalence of information in Hyalomma ticks from cattle. This study aims to determine the occurrence of pathogens in Hyalomma anatolicum collected from cattle in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, by PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Borrelia burgdorferi s.s., Rickettsia massiliae and Anaplasma bovis were identified, whereas DNA of Ehrlichia species and an Anaplasma platys-like pathogen were also detected. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these pathogens in north-western China.

  1. Fauna of Cladocera and Copepoda from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (China).

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, Elena S; Sinev, Artem Y; Dimante-Deimantovica, Inta

    2017-05-03

    This study evaluates the species composition of Cladocera and Copepoda in the five lakes of the Bogda-Shan Mountain range and in the floodplain of the Tarim and Konchedarya rivers located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang). We collected seven species of Cladocera and six species of Copepoda. Seven species were identified as new for Xinjiang fauna, and two species (Cyclops cf. herberti Einsle, 1996, and Eucyclops roseus Ishida, 1997) were first records for China. Herein, we characterize the distribution ranges for the detected species and provide taxonomic remarks. The total species list for water bodies in Xinjiang compiled from original data and available literature includes 56 species of Cladocera and 33 species of Copepoda. We also discuss the biogeographical structure of Cladocera and Copepoda faunas in Xinjiang.

  2. Effects of changing climate on reference crop evapotranspiration over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Ning; Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-10-01

    To know the importance of different climate variables on reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o), a step-by-step sensitivity analysis of ET o to single, two, and multi-climate variables (C) was conducted. ET o in north, south, and entire Xinjiang Province, China, over 1961-2013 was estimated using the Penman-Monteith equation. Trends in the involved six Cs (i.e., minimum temperature—T min, average temperature—T ave, maximum temperature—T max, wind speed at 2 m—U 2, sunshine hour—n, and relative humidity—RH) were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Nineteen scenarios of changed Cs were preset to obtain recalculated ET o values considering the actual trend in each C and the Pearson's correlation relationship between ET o and Cs. The results showed that ET o was mostly sensitive to T max, U 2, and n. Sensitivity of ET o to the two overlapped changes of T min and T max caused larger increases in ET o than T max and T ave, T ave and T max, T max and (-n), T max and RH, T max and (-U 2), and T min and T ave, but the overlapped changes (-U 2) and (-n) caused larger decreases in ET o than the other two C scenarios. The simultaneously increased T max, T min, T ave, and RH plus decreased U 2 and n had caused the actual decreases in ET o in Xinjiang. In general, the effects of decreased U 2 and n on decreasing ET o compensated the effects of increased T max on decreasing ET o in Xinjiang.

  3. “Medieval Warm Period” on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yun; Kong, Zhao Chen; Yan, Shun; Yang, Zhen Jing; Ni, Jian

    2009-06-01

    “Medieval Warm Period” is used to describe a past climate epochs in Europe and neighboring regions from the ninth to the fourteenth centuries. In order to discuss the palaeoclimate changes during the MWP on the northern slope of central Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China, three Holocene sediment profiles in Daxigou region, Caotan Lake and Sichang Lake located in different elevations and vegetation zones were chosen for further discussion. A multi-proxy reconstruction of the climate change in these three profiles using pollen, phytolith records, and the data of loss of ignition (LOI), grain size, and susceptibility showed that the climate was humid during the period corresponded in time with the MWP (from the middle of the Tang Dynasty to the middle of Yuan Dynasty). Complemented by tree-ring record, other pollen records, data of plant seeds and historical documents; we conclude that during the MWP the climate was humid on the north slopes of Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang.

  4. Assessing Dryland Ecosystem Services in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siew, T. F.; Brauman, K. A.; Zuo, L.; Doll, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    Dryland ecosystems, including grassland, forest, and irrigated cropland, cover about 41% of earth's land area and are inhabited by over two billion people. In drylands, particularly arid and semiarid areas, the production of ecosystem services is primarily constrained by freshwater availability. Often, water allocated to production by one ecosystem or of one ecosystem service negatively impacts other ecosystems or ecosystem services (ESS). The challenge is to determine how much water should be allocated to which ecosystems (natural and manmade) such that multiple ESS are maximized, thus improving overall well-being. This strategic management decision must be supported by knowledge about spatial and temporal availability of water and its relationship to production (location and scale) of ESS that people receive. We assess the spatial and temporal relationships between water availability and ESS production in Xinjiang, Northwest China. We address four questions: (1) What services are produced by which ecosystems with water available? (2) Where are these services produced? (3) Who uses the services produced? (4) How the production of services changes with variability of water available? Using existing global, national, and regional spatial and statistical data, we assess food, fiber, livestock, and wood production as well as unique forest landscapes (as a proxy for aesthetic appreciation and habitats for unique animals and plants) and protection from dust storms. Irrigation is necessary for crop production in Xinjiang. The production of about 4.2 million tons of wheat and 500,000 tons of cotton requires more than 2 km3 of water each year. This is an important source of food and income for local residents, but the diverted water has negative and potentially costly impacts on downstream forests that potentially provide aesthetic services and protection from dust. Our analyses also show that cropland had increased by about 1.6 million ha from 1987 to 2010, while

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchusaffinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchusatomarius L., 1761, Bruchusloti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinuskergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.

  6. Contribution to the knowledge of seed-beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae) in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333

  7. Enterococcus Xinjiangensis sp. nov., Isolated from Yogurt of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaopu; Li, Mingyang; Guo, Dongqi

    2016-09-01

    A Gram-strain-positive bacterial strain 48(T) was isolated from traditional yogurt in Xinjiang Province, China. The bacterium was characterized by a polyphasic approach, including 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, polymerase α subunit (rpoA) gene sequence analysis, determination of DNA G+C content, DNA-DNA hybridization with the type strain of Enterococcus ratti and analysis of phenotypic features. Strain 48(T) accounted for 96.1, 95.8, 95.8, and 95.7 % with Enterococcus faecium CGMCC 1.2136(T), Enterococcus hirae ATCC 9790(T), Enterococcus durans CECT 411(T), and E. ratti ATCC 700914(T) in the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. The sequence of rpoA gene showed similarities of 99.0, 96.0, 96.0, and 96 % with that of E. faecium ATCC 19434(T), Enterococcus villorum LMG12287, E. hirae ATCC 9790(T), and E. durans ATCC 19432(T), respectively. Based upon of polyphasic characterization data obtained in the study, a novel species, Enterococcus xinjiangensis sp. nov., was proposed and the type strain was 48(T)(=CCTCC AB 2014041(T) = JCM 30200(T)).

  8. Spatiotemporal variations of reference crop evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lv, Xin; Wang, Jiang-li; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0.

  9. Spatiotemporal Variations of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration in Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xin; Lin, Hai-rong

    2014-01-01

    To set up a reasonable crop irrigation system in the context of global climate change in Northern Xinjiang, China, reference crop evapotranspiration (ET0) was analyzed by means of spatiotemporal variations. The ET0 values from 1962 to 2010 were calculated by Penman-Monteith formula, based on meteorological data of 22 meteorological observation stations in the study area. The spatiotemporal variations of ET0 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test, Morlet wavelet analysis, and ArcGIS spatial analysis. The results showed that regional average ET0 had a decreasing trend and there was an abrupt change around 1983. The trend of regional average ET0 had a primary period about 28 years, in which there were five alternating stages (high-low-high-low-high). From the standpoint of spatial scale, ET0 gradually increased from the northeast and southwest toward the middle; the southeast and west had slightly greater variation, with significant regional differences. From April to October, the ET0 distribution significantly influenced the distribution characteristic of annual ET0. Among them sunshine hours and wind speed were two of principal climate factors affecting ET0. PMID:25254259

  10. Socio-Demographic Predictors and Distribution of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (TB) in Xinjiang, China: A Spatial Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wubuli, Atikaimu; Xue, Feng; Jiang, Daobin; Yao, Xuemei; Upur, Halmurat; Wushouer, Qimanguli

    2015-01-01

    Xinjiang is one of the high TB burden provinces of China. A spatial analysis was conducted using geographical information system (GIS) technology to improve the understanding of geographic variation of the pulmonary TB occurrence in Xinjiang, its predictors, and to search for targeted interventions. Numbers of reported pulmonary TB cases were collected at county/district level from TB surveillance system database. Population data were extracted from Xinjiang Statistical Yearbook (2006~2014). Spatial autocorrelation (or dependency) was assessed using global Moran's I statistic. Anselin's local Moran's I and local Getis-Ord statistics were used to detect local spatial clusters. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, spatial lag model (SLM) and geographically-weighted regression (GWR) models were used to explore the socio-demographic predictors of pulmonary TB incidence from global and local perspectives. SPSS17.0, ArcGIS10.2.2, and GeoDA software were used for data analysis. Incidence of sputum smear positive (SS+) TB and new SS+TB showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2013. Pulmonary TB incidence showed a declining trend from 2005 to 2010 and a rising trend since 2011 mainly caused by the rising trend of sputum smear negative (SS-) TB incidence (p<0.0001). Spatial autocorrelation analysis showed the presence of positive spatial autocorrelation for pulmonary TB incidence, SS+TB incidence and SS-TB incidence from 2005 to 2013 (P <0.0001). The Anselin's Local Moran's I identified the "hotspots" which were consistently located in the southwest regions composed of 20 to 28 districts, and the "coldspots" which were consistently located in the north central regions consisting of 21 to 27 districts. Analysis with the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic expanded the scope of "hotspots" and "coldspots" with different intensity; 30 county/districts clustered as "hotspots", while 47 county/districts clustered as "coldspots". OLS regression model included the "proportion of minorities

  11. Elevated homocysteine and hypertension in Xinjiang Province, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; Lu, Zhen Hong; Li, Peng Gang; Wang, Ying Ying; Yan, Zhao Yang

    2010-01-01

    Few data are available comparing homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hypertension in different ethnic groups. This study sought to determine whether there are associations of blood pressure and Hcy levels in patients with hypertension from Xinjiang Province, China. We examined the serum total Hcy levels in a total of 451 Chinese of various ethnic groups (Han n=234 [51.9%], Uygur n=102 [22.6%], Kazak n=61 [13.5%], Hui n=54 [12.0%]) aged 18-78 years. Two groups of subjects were studied: 1) non-hypertensive, n=101; (2) hypertensive, n=350. We investigated the serum Hcy levels relationship with hypertension. Hcy levels of Kazak in no hypertension and hypertension patients were highest (11.9 +/- 9.8 vs 19.0 +/- 11.8 umol/L, respectively, unadjusted P=.004, adjusted P=.016). This pattern of higher Hcy values in hypertension patients was consistent across all ethnic groups even after adjustment (all P<0.05). The hypertension risks in the elevated Hcy (>13.9 umol/L) was 3.5 (95% CI, 2.2-5.4) times the normal Hcy (< or = 13.9 umol/L) (P<0.001). Even after adjustment for potential confounders, this difference remained 3.1 times higher (95% CI, 1.9-4.8) (P<.001). Bivariate correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship of Hcy with systolic or diastolic blood pressure across all ethnic groups. This study confirms the existence of a significant association between hypertension and Hcy in Chinese population groups.

  12. Black carbon in seasonal snow across northern Xinjiang in northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hao; Zhang, Rudong; Shi, Jinsen; Huang, Jianping; Warren, Stephen G.; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles in snow can significantly reduce the snow albedo and enhance the absorption of solar radiation, with important impacts on climate and the hydrological cycle. A field campaign was carried out to measure the BC content in seasonal snow in Qinghai and Xinjiang provinces of western China, in January and February 2012. 284 snow samples were collected at 38 sites, 6 in Qinghai and 32 in Xinjiang. The observational results at the sites in Xinjiang, where the absorbing impurities in snow are dominated by BC particles, are reported in this work. The BC mass fractions in seasonal snow across northern Xinjiang have a median value of ˜70 ng g-1, much lower than those in northeast China. The estimated concentration of BC at the cleanest site in Xinjiang is 20 ng g-1, which is similar to that found along the coast of the Arctic Ocean. It is found that the BC content of snow decreases with altitude. Taking into account this altitude dependence, our measured BC contents in snow are consistent with a recent measurement of BC in winter snow on Tianshan glacier. The data from this field campaign should be useful for testing transport models and climate models for the simulated BC in snow.

  13. Providing winter bases for transhumant herders in Altai, Xinjiang China: Some consequences and lessons learned

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Reynolds

    2006-01-01

    This case study from Altai in Xinjiang, N.W. China looks at a traditional transhumant system where for centuries Kazakh herders have moved with their livestock from low desert areas, where they winter, to high pastures for rich summer grazing. A project (from 1988 to 1997) introduced winter bases with permanent housing and irrigated forages and cash crops. A 1999/2000...

  14. Genetic characterization and molecular survey of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Qingli; Liu, Zhijie; Yang, Jifei; Gao, Shandian; Pan, Yuping; Guan, Guiquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2017-04-01

    Babesia sp. Xinjiang is a large ovine Babesia species that was recently isolated in China. Compared with other ovine Babesia species, it has different morphological features, pathogenicity and vector tick species. The known transmitting vector is Hyalomma anatolicum. In this study, the distribution and the presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang in small ruminants and ixodid ticks in China were assessed by specific nested-PCR assay based on the rap-1a gene. A total of 978 blood samples from sheep or goats from 15 provinces and 797 tick specimens from vegetation from 10 provinces were collected and analysed for the presence of the Babesia sp. Xinjiang. Full-length and partial rap-1a of Babesia sp. Xinjiang were amplified from field samples. The PCR results were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Overall, 38 (3.89%) blood samples and 51 (6.4%) tick samples were positive for Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection. The highest presence (26.92%) was found in blood samples from Yunnan province, while H. qinghaiensis ticks with the highest presence of infection (21.3%) were from Gansu province. This study identified for the first time Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection in H. longicornis tick species. The rap-1a sequences of Babesia sp. Xinjiang from field blood and tick samples indicated 100% identity. The presence of Babesia sp. Xinjiang infection may increase in China. Novel potential transmitting vectors might be more extensive than previously thought.

  15. Near-surface air temperature lapse rates in Xinjiang, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mingxia; Zhang, Mingjun; Wang, Shengjie; Zhu, Xiaofan; Che, Yanjun

    2017-01-01

    Lapse rates of near-surface (2 m) air temperature are important parameters in hydrologic and climate simulations, especially for the mountainous areas without enough in-situ observations. In Xinjiang, northwestern China, the elevations range from higher than 7000 m to lower than sea level, but the existing long-term meteorological measurements are limited and distributed unevenly. To calculate lapse rates in Xinjiang, the daily data of near-surface air temperature (T min, T ave, and T max) were measured by automatic weather stations from 2012 to 2014. All the in situ observation stations were gridded into a network of 1.5° (latitude) by 1.5° (longitude), and the spatial distribution and the daily, monthly, seasonal variations of lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max in Xinjiang are analyzed. The Urumqi River Basin has been considered as a case to study the influence of elevation, aspect, and the wet and dry air conditions to the T min, T ave, and T max lapse rates. Results show that (1) the lapse rates for T min, T ave, and T max vary spatially during the observation period. The spatial diversity of T min lapse rates is larger than that of T ave, and that of T max is the smallest. For each season, T max lapse rates have more negative values than T ave lapse rates which are steeper than T min lapse rates. The weakest spatial diversity usually appears in July throughout a year. (2) The comparison for the three subregions (North, Middle, and South region) exhibits that lapse rates have similar day-to-day and month-to-month characteristics which present shallower values in winter months and steeper values in summer months. The T ave lapse rates in North region are shallower than those in Middle and South region, and the steepest T ave lapse rates of the three regions all appear in April. T min lapse rates are shallower than T max lapse rates. The maximum medians of T min and T max lapse rates for each grid in the three regions all appear in January, whereas the

  16. Geological Features of Iron Formations and Associate Rock in Bulunkuole Group, West Kunlun, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chaoyang; Wang, He; Ren, Guangli; Wu, Wenying

    2017-05-01

    West Kunlun is located at northwest part of the Tibetan plateau, and it’s divided into North Kunlun terrane, South Kunlun terrane and Tianshuihai terrane. Bulunkuole Group is located in Tianshuihai terrane, and Taaxi, Yelike, Laobing, Zankan, Mokaer and Jiertiekegou iron deposit was found in this terrane. Those iron deposits are set to the important iron ore mineralization belt of Xinjiang and even China. By investigation the geological features, ore distributions, and mineralization characters; and analyze the electron microprobe of magnetite and pyrite, stable isotope of pyrite, magnetite and anhydrite to discussion the tectonic setting and its genesis analysis iron ore deposit in Blunkuole Group, and establish the metallogenic model in this area. By contrastive analyzing of Taaxi, Yelike Zankan-Mokar iron ore deposits in Bulunkuole Group, it was found that all the iron ore deposit share the similar sedimentary environment. Those deposits have 3 ∼ 4 ore bodies, each get a meter to dozens of meters in width, extend to thousands of meters. The wall rocks are biotite quartz schist and plagioclase amphibole schist, and the two rocks interbed usually. It should be distinguish in the stratigraphic correlation of Bulunkuole Group for the influenced by the magma intrusion, such as granite and felsite porphyry.

  17. Land consolidation and GIS application in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junfang; Wang, Ranghui; Zhang, Huizhi

    2006-12-01

    The growing concern about land resource management and the associated decline in land quality have led to the attention of land consolidation in many countries. Land consolidation is a tool for improving the effectiveness of land cultivation and may improve land productivity and possibly also the total factor productivity if it induces and enhances technical progress and increases scale economies. Land consolidation can also improve labor productivity to supporting rural development. Consolidation deals with a large number of phenomena, such as fields, roads, and land use, all of which exhibit characteristic forms and patterns which can be analyzed as to their existing spatial organization, or as to their changing spatial organization through time. This Paper put forward some approaches and advices about carrying out the principles of the agro-land consolidation, guiding the ideology, developing the strategy and tidying up the farmland. Firstly, the main conception and methodology of land consolidation are described. Then, the strengths and weaknesses of land consolidation in their process are discussed. Finally, as an example, through analyzing of the present condition and potential of land use and landscape in Beitun Oasis, China, a discussion and conclusions on land consolidation aided by GIS are presented. This will certainly play an exemplary role in the similar areas of north-west arid zone of China.

  18. A Dynamic Model of Human and Livestock Tuberculosis Spread and Control in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan; Li, Aiqiao; Feng, Xiaomei; Zhang, Xueliang

    2016-01-01

    We establish a dynamical model for tuberculosis of humans and cows. For the model, we firstly give the basic reproduction number R0. Furthermore, we discuss the dynamical behaviors of the model. By epidemiological investigation of tuberculosis among humans and livestock from 2007 to 2014 in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China, we estimate the parameters of the model and study the transmission trend of the disease in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China. The reproduction number in Urumqi for the model is estimated to be 0.1811 (95% confidence interval: 0.123–0.281). Finally, we perform some sensitivity analysis of several model parameters and give some useful comments on controlling the transmission of tuberculosis. PMID:27525034

  19. Characteristics of meteorological drought pattern and risk analysis for maize production in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Ranghui; Ning, Husen; Luo, Qinghong

    2017-08-01

    Xinjiang is an important maize cultivation area in Northwest China. Investigating the relationship between meteorological drought and climate-driven maize yield can help to mitigate the negative impacts of drought on agricultural production in Xinjiang. In this study, multi-source data, including meteorological, agricultural, and socio-economic data, are collected to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of drought and assess drought disaster risk. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index is calculated to classify different drought grades in the study area. The main results are as follows: (1) the relationship between drought and climate-driven maize yield is determined using a stepwise regression analysis, which indicates that drought conditions occurring from May to July are crucial for the yield in Xinjiang; (2) the modified Mann-Kendall test detects that the frequency-intensity-coverage of drought from May to July shows a decreasing tendency as a whole in the study area; (3) the correlation analysis shows that the multivariate ENSO index may be the dominant force in regional drought evolution; and (4) a drought disaster risk assessment system is constructed based on principles of natural disaster management. The drought disaster risk is higher in southwestern and northwestern Xinjiang, areas that should deserve more attention.

  20. Independent evaluation of a canine Echinococcosis Control Programme in Hobukesar County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    van Kesteren, Freya; Qi, Xinwei; Tao, Jiang; Feng, Xiaohui; Mastin, Alexander; Craig, Philip S.; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Duan, Xinyu; Chu, Xiangdong; Zhu, Jinlong; Wen, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwest China is one of the world's most important foci for cystic echinococcosis. Domestic dogs are the main source for human infection, and previous studies in Xinjiang have found a canine Echinococcus spp. coproELISA prevalence of between 36% and 41%. In 2010 the Chinese National Echinococcosis Control Programme was implemented in Xinjiang, and includes regular dosing of domestic dogs with praziquantel. Six communities in Hobukesar County, northwest Xinjiang were assessed in relation to the impact of this control programme through dog necropsies, dog Echinococcus spp. coproantigen surveys based on Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) and dog owner questionnaires. We found that 42.1% of necropsied dogs were infected with Echinococcus granulosus, and coproELISA prevalences were between 15% and 70% in the communities. Although approximately half of all dog owners reported dosing their dogs within the 12 months prior to sampling, coproELISA prevalence remained high. Regular praziquantel dosing of owned dogs in remote and semi-nomadic communities such as those in Hobukesar County is logistically very difficult and additional measures should be considered to reduce canine echinococcosis. PMID:25661801

  1. The characteristics of phosphorus adsorption and desorption in gray desert soil of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Sun, J. S.; Liu, H.; Ma, Y. B.

    2017-07-01

    The characteristics of phosphorus (P) adsorption and desorption in Xinjiang gray desert soil (0 - 200 mm) of China in the long-term fertilization condition is affected by the level of soil P content which studied through an isothermal adsorption and desorption experiments of P. The results stated that within the experimental concentration range, with the increase of the amount of outer-source phosphorus, P adsorption, desorption and desorption rate increased and adsorption rate decreased gradually in different Olsen-P levels of gray desert soil in Xinjiang, China. Olsen-P content is significantly correlated with the P adsorption saturation (DPS) of gray desert soil. The maximum adsorption capacity (Xm ) of the treatments followed an extremely significant decreasing order of CK>NPK≈NPKM>PK≈NPKS. The maximum buffer capacity (MBC) and adsorption constant (K) of the NPK treatment was much higher than NPKM, NPKS, PK and CK treatments. And, MBC value of CK treatment was extremely higher than NPKS and PK, however, the differences between NPKM and CK, NPKS and PK were not significant. The comparison between NPKM, NPKS, PK and CK treatments showed no significant difference in K value, but these four showed significantly lower than NPK treatments. The value of soil easy desorption P (RDP) of NPKS and NPKM was significantly higher than NPK and PK, and the chemical fertilizer with organic fertilizer was a best way to release the phosphorus for Xinjiang agricultural production, China.

  2. High prevalence and low cure rate of tuberculosis among patients with HIV in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Rena; Zhang, Yuexin; Pan, Kejun; Mijiti, Peierdun; Wubili, Maimaitiali; Musa, Maimaitijiang; Andersson, Rune

    2017-01-05

    Tuberculosis and HIV co-epidemics are problems in many parts of the world. Xinjiang is a high tuberculosis and HIV prevalence area in China. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and cure rate of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang. In a retrospective study between 2006 and 2011, clinical and laboratory data on 333 patients with HIV and tuberculosis were compared to 2668 patients with HIV only. There were 31 HIV positive patients with no data on tuberculosis. The prevalence of tuberculosis co-infection among the HIV positive patients was 11% (95% CI 10-12%), significantly higher than the national figure in China of 2%. In most cases HIV was diagnosed late, with advanced immunodeficiency. The use of isoniazid preventive therapy was only 57.9% in patients without tuberculosis who fulfilled the criteria for receiving this prevention. The cure rate one year after diagnosis was 69.2%, which was lower than the officially reported 91.4% in all tuberculosis cases in Xinjiang in 2011. The hazard of not surviving over the five years was significantly higher in patients with HIV + tuberculosis compared to HIV only after adjusting for sex and Intravenous drug use with HR = 1.84 (95% CI 1.43-2.35; p < 0.0001). The prevalence of tuberculosis among HIV positive patients in Xinjiang was higher than in China taken as a whole, and HIV was diagnosed late, with underuse of isoniazid preventive therapy. The low cure rate and reduced survival can be due to late diagnosis of HIV and no testing for antibiotic resistance, together with insufficient control of adherence to the treatment regimens for tuberculosis and HIV.

  3. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  4. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  5. Enhanced surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis following importation of wild poliovirus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak occurred in China in 2011 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) following the importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) originating from neighboring Pakistan. Methods To strengthen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Xinjiang, “zero case daily reporting” and retrospective searching of AFP cases were initiated after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. To pinpoint all the polio cases in time, AFP surveillance system was expanded to include persons of all ages in the entire population in Xinjiang. Results Totally, 578 AFP cases were reported in 2011 in Xinjiang, including 21 WPV cases, 23 clinical compatible polio cases and 534 non-polio AFP cases. Of the 44 polio cases, 27 (61.4%) cases were reported among adults aged 15–53 years. Strengthening AFP surveillance resulted in an increase in the number of non-polio AFP cases in 2011 (148 children < 15 years) compared with 76 cases < 15 years in 2010. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was sensitive enough to detect polio cases, with the AFP incidence of 3.28/100,000 among children < 15 years of age. Conclusions Incorporating adult cases into the AFP surveillance system is of potential value to understand the overall characteristics of the epidemic and to guide emergency responses, especially in countries facing WPV outbreak following long-term polio free status. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was satisfactory despite limitations in biological sample collection. PMID:24576083

  6. Ethnic stratification amid China's economic transition: evidence from the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Song, Xi

    2014-03-01

    This paper analyzes a sample from the 2005 mini-census of Xinjiang to examine ethnic stratification in China's labor markets, with a special focus on how ethnic earnings inequality varies by employment sector. We show that Han and Uyghur Chinese dominated different economic sectors. Excluding those in agriculture, Uyghurs were more likely to work in government or institutions than either Han locals or migrants, and also more likely to become self-employed. The Han-Uyghur earnings gap was negligible within government/public institutions, but increased with the marketization of the employment sector. It was the largest among the self-employed, followed by employees in private enterprises and then employees in public enterprises. Han migrants in economic sectors enjoyed particular earnings advantages and hukou registration status had no impact on earnings attainment except in government/public institutions. These findings have important implications for understanding social and economic sources of increasing ethnic conflicts in Xinjiang in recent years.

  7. Cloud removing method for daily snow mapping over Central Asia and Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaoqi; Qiu, Yubao; Guo, Huadong; Chen, Lijuan

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia and Xinjiang, China are conjunct areas, located in the hinterland of the Eurasian continent, where the snowfall is an important water resource supplement form. The induced seasonal snow cover is vita factors to the regional energy and water balance, remote sensing plays a key role in the snow mapping filed, while the daily remote sensing products are normally contaminated by the occurrence of cloud, that obviously obstacles the utility of snow cover parameters. In this paper, based on the daily snow product from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS A1), a cloud removing method was developed by considering the regional snow distribution characteristics with latitude and altitude dependence respectively. In the end, the daily cloud free products was compared with the same period of eight days MODIS standard product, revealing that the cloud free snow products are reasonable, while could provide higher temporal resolution, and more details over Center Asia and Xinjiang Province.

  8. Spatiotemporal dynamics of climate and agricultural landscape patterns in Xinjiang, China (2000-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Du, Q. Y.; Zou, J. Q.

    2017-07-01

    This study integrated remote sensing, geographic information system, landscape ecology, and spatial analysis, and is based on meteorological data and four remote sensing images (2000-2015). The aim of this study was to analyse climate trends and spatiotemporal changes in agricultural landscape patterns, and calculate agricultural ecosystem service value (AESV) in Xinjiang, China. In addition, correlation analysis further enabled the quantification of agricultural landscape pattern changes in response to climate change. Results showed that temperature and precipitation registered a fluctuating ascending trend in most areas of Xinjiang. Landscape diversity and fragmentation increased during the same period. AESV showed a trend of gradual increase, the waste disposal and the water retention are the most important ecological functions. Besides, agricultural landscape pattern significantly correlated to climate and the effect of precipitation on agricultural landscape patterns has been greater than the effect of temperature during 2000-2015.

  9. Climatic and Hydrological Variations during the Past 8000 Years in Northern Xinjiang of China and the Associated Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews the published literature regarding the climatic and hydrological variations of the past 8000 years in northern Xinjiang of China in hope that some of the controversies surrounding the Holocene climate history can be reconciled. Based on the well-tested premise that the overall relationship between the A/C ratios and the bioclimates in arid and semi-arid areas of China still holds, we compared the A/C ratio-based SMI (Standardized Moisture Index) of five selected lacustrine sequences. Our comparison shows that the regional average SMI had a general rising trend, and the rising trend was reasonably corroborated by other pollen proxies. The rising trend can be explained by invoking its climatic linkage with the North Atlantic Ocean, and a possible linkage with ENSO is an additional or an alternative mechanism for explaining the rising trend. The nearly parallel rising trends of seven δ18O-indicated SSI curves (Standardized Salinity index) mean that the lake-water salinity has been rising since ~8.0 cal. ka BP. The rising trend can be explained by invoking the Holocene variations in the areal extent of ice covers in the Tianshan Mountains and the Altay Mountains. That is, the persistent shrinking of the ice extent in the mountains generated less and less melting water supplies to the lakes and thus resulted in saltier and saltier waters in the lakes. The contradiction between the increasing trend of the basin-wide moisture and the increasing trend of the lake-water salinity can be reconciled as follows: the increasing trend of the precipitation accompanied by the lowering tend of the temperature might have increasingly enhanced the effective soil moisture in northern Xinjiang, but the increase in the basin-wide moisture was not enough to compensate for the decrease in the lake inflowing water resulted from the shrinkage of ice-covered areas in the mountains.

  10. Sequence analysis of peste des petits ruminants virus from ibexes in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xia, J; Zheng, X G; Adili, G Z; Wei, Y R; Ma, W G; Xue, X M; Mi, X Y; Yi, Z; Chen, S J; Du, W; Muhan, M; Duhaxi, C; Han, T; Gudai, B; Huang, J

    2016-06-03

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an infectious disease caused by peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). While PPR mainly affects domestic goats and sheep, it also affects wild ungulates such as ibex, blue sheep, and gazelle, although there are few reports regarding PPRV infection in wild animals. Between January 2015 and February 2015, it was found for the first time that wild ibexes died from PPRV infection in Bazhou, Xinjiang, China, where a total of 38 ibexes (including young and adult ibexes) were found to have died abnormally from PPR-related issues. First, we tested for the presence of the F gene of PPRV by RT-PCR. Then, we compared the sequence of the isolated F gene from the ibex strain, termed PPRV Xinjiang/Ibex/2015, with those previously identified from small domestic ruminants from local areas near where the reported isolate was collected as well as those from other regions. The current sequence was phylogenetically classified as a lineage IV virus, and shared a high level of sequence identity (99.7%) with a previously described Xinjiang PPRV isolate.

  11. Tectonic evolution of the West Junggar Region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Coleman, R. G.; Tilton, G.; Xiao, X.

    1989-08-01

    The West Junggar region of northwestern China consists of a Hercynian-age fold belt occupying a late Paleozoic zone of convergence between three major Eurasian plates: Siberian, Tarim, and Kazakhstan. The northern part of the West Junggar area includes part of the Irtysh-Zaysan fold belt that extends to the northwest into the USSR, where it marks a broad boundary between the Siberian and Kazakhstan plates. The central part of the West Junggar area includes the southeastern extension of the Chingiz-Tarbgatay early Paleozoic island arc sequence. The southern part of the West Junggar area is truncated by the deep fundamental Junggar-Alakol fault that has brought the Yili microplate into juxtaposiition with the West Junggar region in the vicinity of Ebin Nur Lake. To the east the Junggar area is covered by sediments of the Junggar Basin. Paleogeographic reconstructions and geologic evidence indicates that these plates began converging in the Middle Carboniferous, and by Late Carboniferous alkali granites began invading the imbricated leading edges of the coalescing plates. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the plates continued to move along strike-slip faults, bringing the Tarim plate and Yili microplate into their present positions sometime in the early Mesozoic. Six separate ophiolite occurrences in the West Junggar region are strongly tectonized and dismembered. The Tangbale ophiolite is considered to be Late Cambrian (508 ± 20 Ma.) and represents the earliest known oceanic crust in Western China. Petrologic and chemical data indicate that the Tangbale ophiolite represents a possible back arc or forearc tectonic setting situated close to a developing island arc. The Darbut ophiolite has been tectonized to a melange and is overlain by Late Devonian flysch. Ages of the radiolaria in the cherts associated with the pillow lavas indicate that it formed in the Middle Devonian. Other occurrences of ophiolite melange in the northern part of the West Junggar region may be as

  12. Infant feeding practices in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fenglian; Binns, Colin; Wu, Jing; Yihan, Re; Zhao, Yun; Lee, Andy

    2007-02-01

    To document infant feeding methods in the first six months of life in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China, 2003-2004. Some problems with breast-feeding in the area are explained. A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices was undertaken. A total of 1219 mothers who delivered babies during 2003 and 2004 were interviewed in five hospitals or institutes, and after discharge were contacted in person or by telephone at approximately monthly intervals to obtain details of infant feeding practices. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore factors associated with breast-feeding initiation. 'Any breast-feeding' rates at discharge and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 6 months were 92.2, 91.3, 89.9, 88.8, 87.7, 86.0 and 73.0%, respectively. 'Exclusive breast-feeding' rates at discharge and at 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 4.5 and 6 months were 66.2, 47.6, 30.1, 25.8, 22.1, 13.0 and 6.2%, respectively. The main problem of breast-feeding in Xinjiang was the early introduction of formula or water. The average duration of 'exclusive breast-feeding' was 1.8 months (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-2.0), of 'full breast-feeding' 2.8 months (95% CI 2.7-2.9) and of 'any breast-feeding' 5.3 months (95% CI 5.2-5.4). Infant feeding methods in Xinjiang were documented in this study and the main problems with infant feeding in Xinjiang are discussed. Further studies are needed to identify factors associated with 'exclusive breast-feeding' and duration.

  13. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2016-05-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index (I m), Sahin's index (I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature (T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation (P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height (U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  14. Impacts of the superimposed climate trends on droughts over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Sun, Changfeng

    2017-08-01

    This study reveals the impacts of climatic variable trends on drought severity in Xinjiang, China. Four drought indices, including the self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (sc-PDSI), Erinç's index ( I m), Sahin's index ( I sh), and UNEP aridity index (AI), were used to compare drought severity. The ensemble empirical mode decomposition and the modified Mann-Kendall trend test were applied to analyze the nonlinear components and trends of the climatic variable and drought indices. Four and six climatic scenarios were generated in sc-PDSI, I m, I sh, and AI with different combinations of the observed and detrended climatic variables, respectively. In Xinjiang, generally increasing trends in minimal, average, and maximal air temperature ( T min, T ave, T max) and precipitation ( P) were found, whereas a decreasing trend in wind speed at 2 m height ( U 2) was observed. There were significantly increasing trends in all of the four studied drought indices. Drought relief was more obvious in northern Xinjiang than in southern Xinjiang. The strong influences of increased P on drought relief and the weak influences of increased T min, T ave, and T max on drought aggravation were shown by comparing four drought indices under different climate scenarios. Decreased U 2 had a weak influence on drought, as shown by the AI in different climate scenarios. The weak influences of T and U 2 were considered to be masked by the strong influences of P on droughts. Droughts were expected to be more severe if P did not increase, but were likely milder without an increase in air temperature and with a decrease in U 2.

  15. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Cryptosporidium andersoni in dairy cattle and He cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meng; Wang, Rongjun; Jing, Bo; Jian, Fuchun; Ning, Changshen; Zhang, Longxian

    2016-10-01

    Cryptosporidium andersoni is the predominant species in post-weaned and adult cattle in China. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and understand the transmission of cattle cryptosporidiosis in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, a total of 1827 fecal samples (436 from He cattle and 1391 from dairy cattle) were examined for the presence of C. andersoni-like oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The overall prevalence of C. andersoni-like was 3.8% (70/1827) and all the C. andersoni-like isolates were identified as C. andersoni at the SSU rRNA locus. Among the C. andersoni isolates, a total of 60 isolates were successfully characterized into eight multilocus sequence typing (MLST) subtypes using MLST analysis at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16), and three new subtypes were identified. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed a predominance and a wide distribution among the eight MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. The MLST subtypes A2,A4,A2,A1 and A4,A5,A2,A1 showed a unique distribution in the investigated areas. A linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of an epidemic population genetic structure of C. andersoni isolated from dairy and He cattle in Xinjiang. These findings provide new insights into the genetic structure of C. andersoni isolates and are also helpful to explore the infection source of C. andersoni in cattle in Xinjiang, China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Agronomic threshold of soil available phosphorus in grey desert soils in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Liu, H.; Hao, X. Y.; Wang, X. H.; Sun, J. S.; Li, J. M.; Ma, Y. B.

    2016-08-01

    Based on 23 years of data, yields of maize, wheat and cotton were modelled under different fertilizer management practices and at different levels of available phosphorus (Olsen-P) in soil. Three types of threshold models were used, namely linear-linear (LL), linear- plateau (LP), and Mitscherlich type exponential (Exp). The agronomic thresholds of available phosphorus were 25.4 mgkg-1 for cotton, 14.8 mgkg-1 for wheat, 13.1 mgkg-1 for maize and 25.4 mgkg-1 for the grey desert soil regions of Xinjiang in China as a whole.

  17. Isolation and Identification of Myxobacteria from Saline-Alkaline Soils in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xianjiao; Yao, Qing; Cai, Zhuoping; Xie, Xiaolin; Zhu, Honghui

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-eight terrestrial and salt-tolerant myxobacteria were isolated from the saline-alkaline soils collected from Xinjiang, China. Based on the morphologies and the 16S rRNA gene sequences, these isolates were assigned into 6 genera, Myxococcus, Cystobacter, Corallococcus, Sorangium, Nannocystis and Polyangium. All the strains grew better with 1% NaCl than without NaCl. Some Myxococcus strains were able to grow at 2% NaCl concentration, suggesting that these strains may be particular type of terrestrial myxobacteria. PMID:23936436

  18. A new Early Oligocene peradectine marsupial (Mammalia)from the Burqin region of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Xijun; Meng, Jin; Wu, Wenyu; Ye, Jie

    2007-03-01

    Tertiary marsupial records are very scarce in Asia. A new peradectine marsupial, Junggaroperadectes burqinensis gen. et sp. nov., is reported from the Early Oligocene Keziletuogayi Formation in the Burqin region, Xinjiang, China. This new species is based on a single right upper M2. The tooth possesses a straight centrocrista, a characteristic of peradectines. Its main cusps lean buccally, with the paracone being smaller and lower than the metacone. The conules and stylar cusps are weakly developed. These characters distinguish J. burqinensis from Euro-American Tertiary peradectines, but they also imply a close phylogenetic relationship to Siamoperadectes and Sinoperadectes, two Asian Early Miocene peradectines.

  19. Nine new species of the spider genus Pireneitega Kishida, 1955 (Agelenidae, Coelotinae) from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqing; Zhao, Zhe; Zheng, Guo; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nine new Pireneitega species collected from Xinjiang, China are described as new to science: Pireneitega burqinensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega fuyunensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega gongliuensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega huochengensis sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega lini sp. n. (♀), Pireneitega liui sp. n. (♂♀), Pireneitega wensuensis sp. n. (♂), Pireneitega wui sp. n. (♂) and Pireneitega yaoi sp. n. (♀). DNA barcodes were obtained for all these species for future use. PMID:27551187

  20. Arsenic (As) contamination: A major risk factor in Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region of China.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Xinjiang province is one of the unhealthiest region in China due to natural as well as man-made activities. Here soil and water having high concentration of multi-metals especially arsenic content in the soil and water is a major threat to the peoples which suffers regularly from arsenic contamination therefore multiple diseases and illness is the common phenomenon. Therefore this area urgently needed a comprehensive assessment by governmental and nongovernmental organization to cope up with this problem and find a miracle solution which can remediate soil and water quality. There peoples suffers much for the above mentioned reason. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Cornucopia or Achilles Heel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    Alataw and Tarbagatay ranges to the west, and the Altay mountains to the north. As with the Tarim, these rugged mountain ranges provide natural...which are each enclosed by imposing mountain ranges (see Figure 2. 1). Elevations run from over 25,000 feet in the Kunlun Range to 23 A N-k~’ 505 feet...Xinjiang is composed of two large basin areas. The southern or Tarim Basin is bound by the Kunlun mountains to the south, the Karakorums and Pamirs to

  2. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus strains currently circulating in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ming-Jun; Di, Dong-Dong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Hao; Tian, Li-Li; Jing, Zhi-Gang; Li, Jin-Ping; Jiang, Hai; Fan, Wei-Xing

    2016-10-01

    Brucellosis is a well-known zoonotic disease that can cause severe economic and healthcare losses. Xinjiang, one of the biggest livestock husbandry sectors in China, has gone through increasing incidence of brucellosis in cattle and small ruminants recently. In this paper, 50 B. melitensis strains and 9 B. abortus strains collected from across Xinjiang area (from 2010 to 2015) were genotyped using multiple locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Based on 8 loci (MLVA-8), 50 B. melitensis strains were classified into three genotypes. Genotypes 42 (n=38, 76%) and 63 (n=11, 22%) were part of the East Mediterranean group, and one genotype with pattern of 1-5-3-13-2-4-3-2 represents a single-locus variant from genotype 63. MLVA-16 resolved 50 B. melitensis strains into 28 genotypes, of which 15 are unique to Xinjiang and 10 are in common with those in adjacent country Kazakhstan and neighboring provinces of China. Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) analysis implies that B. melitensis strains collected from across Kazakhstan, Xinjiang and China areas may share a common origin. Nine B. abortus strains were sorted into three genotypes by MLVA-8, genotypes 36 (n=7, 77.8%), 86 (n=1, 11.1%) and a new genotype with pattern of 4-5-3-13-2-2-3-1. Each B. abortus strain showed distinct MLVA-16 genotypes, suggesting that B. abortus species may possess more genetic diversity than B. melitensis. Using MLST, most B. melitensis strains (n=49) were identified as sequence type ST8, and most B. abortus strains (n=8) were recognized as ST2. Two new sequence types, ST37 and ST38, represented by single strain from B. melitensis and B. abortus species respectively, were also detected in this study. These results could facilitate the pathogen surveillance in the forthcoming eradication programs and serve as a guide in source tracking in case of new outbreaks occur.

  3. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Located in the inland arid area of central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang is recently getting more concerns on soil water erosion issues, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Historical soil erosion data were analyzed to determine t...

  4. Draft genome sequence of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, an isolate from the great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Surong; Yang, Xianwei; Yuan, Yanting; Dai, Xiang; Yan, Yanfeng; Cao, Hanli; Luo, Tao; Guo, Rong; Wang, Xinhui; Song, Yajun; Yang, Ruifu; Zhang, Yujiang; Cui, Yujun

    2012-10-01

    We deciphered the genome of Yersinia pestis strain 2501, isolated from the Junggar Basin, a newly discovered great gerbil plague focus in Xinjiang, China. The total length of assembly was 4,597,322 bp, and 4,265 coding sequences were predicted within the genome. It is the first Y. pestis genome from this plague focus.

  5. Serological survey of avian influenza virus infection in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yu-Rong; Yang, Xue-Yun; Li, Yuan-Guo; Wei, Jie; Ma, Wen-Ge; Ren, Zhi-Guang; Guo, Hui-Ling; Wang, Tie-Cheng; Mi, Xiao-Yun; Adili, Gulizhati; Miao, Shu-Kui; Shaha, Ayiqiaolifan; Gao, Yu-Wei; Huang, Jiong; Xia, Xian-Zhu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against avian influenza virus (AIV) in Gazella subgutturosa, Canis lupus, Capreolus pygargus, Sus scrofa, Cervus elaphus, Capra ibex, Ovis ammon, Bos grunniens and Pseudois nayaur in Xinjiang, China. Two hundred forty-six sera collected from 2009 to 2013 were assayed for antibodies against H5, H7 and H9 AIVs using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests and a pan-influenza competitive ELISA. Across all tested wildlife species, 4.47 % harbored anti-AIV antibodies that were detected by the HI assay. The seroprevalence for each AIV subtype across all species evaluated was 0 % for H5 AIV, 0.81 % for H7 AIV, and 3.66 % for H9 AIV. H7-reactive antibodies were found in Canis lupus (9.09 %) and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). H9-reactive antibodies were found in Gazella subgutturosa (4.55 %), Canis lupus (27.27 %), Pseudois nayaur (23.08 %), and Ovis ammon (4.55 %). The pan-influenza competitive ELISA results closely corresponded to the cumulative prevalence of AIV exposure as measured by subtype-specific HI assays, suggesting that H7 and H9 AIV subtypes predominate in the wildlife species evaluated. These data provide evidence of prior infection with H7 and H9 AIVs in non-avian wildlife in Xinjiang, China.

  6. Serological and molecular survey of sheep infected with Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chen; Jun, Qiao; Qingling, Meng; Zhengxiang, Hu; Yu, Ma; Xuepeng, Cai; Zibing, Cheng; Jinsheng, Zhang; Zaichao, Zhang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2015-12-01

    Mycoplasma pneumonia is one of the most important infectious diseases that threaten sheep production. In order to investigate the epidemic status of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in sheep, indirect hemagglutination assay was used to analyze 1679 serum samples collected from four different breeds of sheep (Kazak sheep, Hu sheep, Merino sheep, and Duolang sheep) in six regions in Xinjiang between 2012 and 2014. One thousand one hundred sixty-nine sheep nasal swabs and 180 lungs were PCR analyzed. The results showed that the average positive rates of the serum samples were 17.75 %. The positive rates were between 9.76 and 30.61 % in the four breeds. Among them, the Hu sheep had a significantly higher rate than other breeds (P < 0.05). The average positive rates of nasal swabs and lungs were 10.18 and 28.89 %, respectively. Based on the phylogenetic trees of 16S RNA gene, the isolates were closest to those strains isolated from inland areas of China, indicating that these epidemic isolates came from the trans-province introductions. Our survey suggests that quarantine is necessary for sheep imported from inland, and effective immunization should be implemented in sheep susceptible to M. ovipneumoniae in Xinjiang, China.

  7. On plant bugs of conifers in Xinjiang (Western China)  (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Vinokurov, Nikolai N; Luo, Zhaohui

    2014-03-06

    In the northern and central part of Xinjiang (Western China) are distributed 14 species of coniferous plant bugs of these, 10 species are recorded for the first time for China. In the Mongolian Altai are 9 species: 6 widely distributed in the Palearctic, Deraeocoris annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1842), Dichrooscytus intermedius Reuter, 1885, Pinalitus rubricatus (Fallén, 1807), Atractotomus morio J. Sahlberg, 1883, Plagiognathus vitellinus (Scholtz, 1847), Phoenicocoris obscurellus (Fallén, 1829), and 3 Siberian Psallus (Pityopsallus) laricinus Vinokurov, 1998, P. (P.) laticeps Reuter, 1878, P. (P.) sachaensis Vinokurov, 1998. In Chinese Tian Shan and Jungar Alatau occur 5 mountain-Central Asian species: Dichrooscytus consorbinus Horváth, 1904, D. josifovi Kerzhner, 1997, D. kerzhneri Josifov, 1974 and D. pseudosabinae Reuter, 1896, and Compsidolon schrenkianum Konstantinov, Vinokurov, 2011. A key for 5 species of the subgenus Pithyopsallus Wagn. is given.

  8. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  9. Design and implementation of the monitoring system for underground coal fires in Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li-bo, Dang; Jia-chun, Wu; Yue-xing, Liu; Yuan, Chang; Bin, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal fire (UCF) is serious in Xinjiang region of China. In order to deal with this problem efficiently, a UCF monitoring System, which is based on the use of wireless communication technology and remote sensing images, was designed and implemented by Xinjiang Coal Fire Fighting Bureau. This system consists of three parts, i.e., the data collecting unit, the data processing unit and the data output unit. For the data collecting unit, temperature sensors and gas sensors were put together on the sites with depth of 1.5 meter from the surface of coal fire zone. Information on these sites' temperature and gas was transferred immediately to the data processing unit. The processing unit was developed by coding based on GIS software. Generally, the processed datum were saved in the computer by table format, which can be displayed on the screen as the curve. Remote sensing image for each coal fire was saved in this system as the background for each monitoring site. From the monitoring data, the changes of the coal fires were displayed directly. And it provides a solid basis for analyzing the status of coal combustion of coal fire, the gas emission and possible dominant direction of coal fire propagation, which is helpful for making-decision of coal fire extinction.

  10. Physicochemical evaluation and essential oil composition analysis of Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Hai-Yan, Gong; Tun-Hai, Xu; Tian, Shuge

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is reported that the plant Hyssopus cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang has great value. This article deals with the detailed pharmacognostic evaluation of the crude drug H. cuspidatus Boriss. Materials and Methods: The essential oil of H. cuspidatus Boriss from Xinjiang, China, was extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS). Results: The yield of essential oil based on the dry weight of the plant was 0.6%(w/w). Fifty compounds accounting for 99.42% of the total oil were identified. The major components were oxygenated terpenes (66.33%), monoterpenes (26.14%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (1.25%), and octane (1.85%). Conclusion: Oxygenated terpenes were the main group of the compounds. The physicochemical parameters presented in this article may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of H. cuspidatus Boriss and can possibly aid pharmacognostic and taxonomic species identification. PMID:21120028

  11. Mapping Water Use Efficiency for the Xinjiang Province in Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veroustraete, F.; Verstraeten, W.; Li, Q.; Dong, Q.; van Roey, T.

    2007-12-01

    The Tarim river basin, one of the basins integrated in the UNESCO - HELP Programme, is located in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in Northwestern China. It is one of the world's largest closed hydrological drainage systems, and has ideal soils for agriculture, if enough water is available. Farmers in the province produce one- sixth of China's total cotton production. Since the 1950's however, excessive land reclamation, over-grazing and increased utilization of water resources in the upper reaches of the basin intensified environmental degradation. This impacted on cattle stock reduction (by water shortage), withered poplars and vegetation, along the lower reaches of the basin. Riparian forest degraded with a reduction in its area of 200 000 ha in total. Higher water use combined with a gradual mean yearly temperature increase due to climate change caused serious hydrological problems in the basin. Since the 1970's a strong drying out of the lower region is elicited. This phenomenon degraded the basin's downstream ecosystems, with an expansion of desertification as a consequence. Quite conspicuously, the Tarim river has shortened by 320 km, onward the period mentioned above. In the lower region of the basin, the situation is very serious. It can in fact be described as an ecological disaster, with dying trees and vegetation, the drying out of rivers and as consequence a regression of the river fish population as well as increased salt deposits. In the ARCHIMOD bilateral project between Belgium and China, important objectives are the description of the phenomena cited above using hydraulic modelling for some sub-basins of the Tarim as well as the application of remote sensing to estimate evapotranspiration (ETR), soil moisture content (SMC) and water use efficiency (WUE) at the scale of the Xinjiang province. Te estimate WUE at this scale the carbon exchange model C-Fix was applied. Our paper focusses on the application of remote sensing to map WUE for the Xinjiang

  12. MNS, Duffy, and Kell blood groups among the Uygur population of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Y; Du, X L; Shan, J J; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y Q; Wang, Q H

    2017-03-15

    Human blood groups are a significant resource for patients, leading to a fierce international competition in the screening of rare blood groups. Some rare blood group screening programs have been implemented in western countries and Japan, but not particularly in China. Recently, the genetic background of ABO and Rh blood groups for different ethnic groups or regions in China has been focused on increasingly. However, rare blood groups such as MN, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, and Diego are largely unexplored. No systematic reports exist concerning the polymorphisms and allele frequencies of rare blood groups in China's ethnic minorities such as Uygur and Kazak populations of Xinjiang, unlike those on the Han population. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the allele frequencies of rare blood groups, namely, MNS, Duffy, Kell, Dombrock, Diego, Kidd, Scianna, Colton, and Lutheran in the Uygur population of Xinjiang Single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction was performed for genotyping and statistical analysis of 9 rare blood groups in 158 Uygur individuals. Allele frequencies were compared with distribution among other ethnic groups. Observed and expected values of genotype frequencies were compared using the chi-square test. Genotype frequencies obeyed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.5) and allele frequencies were stable. Of all subjects detected, 4 cases carried the rare phenotype S(-)s(-) of MNS blood group (frequency of 0.0253), and 1 case carried the phenotype Jk(a-b-) (frequency of 0.0063). Frequencies of the four groups, MNS, Duffy, Dombrock, and Diego, in the Uygur population differed from those in other ethnic groups. Gene distribution of the Kell, Kidd, and Colton was similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations, though there were some discrepancies. Gene distribution of Scianna and Lutheran groups showed monomorphism similar to that in Tibetan and Han populations. These findings could contribute to the investigation of the origin, evolution, and

  13. A camerate-rich late carboniferous (Moscovian) crinoid fauna from volcanic conglomerate, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, N.G.; Waters, J.A.; Maples, C.G.; Marcus, S.A.; Liao, Z.-T.

    1996-01-01

    A low-diversity camerate-rich crinoid fauna from the Qijiagou Formation, Taoshigo Valley near Turpan, Xinjiang-Uygar Autonomous Region, China was collected during field work in May, 1993. The crinoid fauna is dominated by species of Platycrinites. Other camerate crinoids include a species in the Paragaricocrinidae, Actinocrinites, a hexacrinitid, and an acrocrinoid. The only other non-North American occurrence of this latter family is Springeracrocrinus from the Moscovian of Russia. In addition to the camerates, there are several advanced cladid inadunates more typical of Upper Carboniferous crinoid faunas, including an erisocrinoid (possibly Sinocrinus), Graphiocrinus, ?Cromyocrinus, and an agassizocrinoid (Petschoracrinus) represented by partly fused infrabasal cones. A single radial plate with angustary facet may represent a cyathocrinoid, There also is a catillocrinoid, assigned here to Paracatillocrinus. The fauna, which resembles Moscovian crinoids described from Russia, is preserved in graded volcanic conglomeratic debris flows that overlie a carbonate mound and contain clasts up to 3 m in dimension. The crinoids are fragmentary, with many calyces seemingly torn into two or three pieces and dumped in with the pyroclastic debris. Camerates are represented by large thecal scraps consisting of numerous plates, or by large individual plates or circlets. Other fossils include rare solitary rugose corals, tabular bryozoans, Neospirifer, and other fragmentary brachiopods. We suspect that the crinoids may have been swept off of a nearby carbonate mound and deposited as debris-flow bedload.

  14. Archaeobotanical Study of Ancient Food and Cereal Remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3rd to 9th centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life. PMID:23028807

  15. Archaeobotanical study of ancient food and cereal remains at the Astana Cemeteries, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Yongbing; Wang, Bo; Hu, Yaowu; Wang, Changsui; Jiang, Hongen

    2012-01-01

    Starch grain, phytolith and cereal bran fragments were analyzed in order to identify the food remains including cakes, dumplings, as well as porridge unearthed at the Astana Cemeteries in Turpan of Xinjiang, China. The results suggest that the cakes were made from Triticum aestivum while the dumplings were made from Triticum aestivum, along with Setaria italica. The ingredients of the porridge remains emanated from Panicum miliaceum. Moreover, direct macrobotantical evidence of the utilization of six cereal crops, such as Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare var. coeleste, Panicum miliaceum, Setaria italica, Cannabis sativa, and Oryza sativa in the Turpan region during the Jin and Tang dynasties (about 3(rd) to 9(th) centuries) is also presented. All of these cereal crops not only provided food for the survival of the indigenous people, but also spiced up their daily life.

  16. Understanding the Complexity of Temperature Dynamics in Xinjiang, China, from Multitemporal Scale and Spatial Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Liu, Zuhan; Wei, Chunmeng; Tang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observed data from 51 meteorological stations during the period from 1958 to 2012 in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the complexity of temperature dynamics from the temporal and spatial perspectives by using a comprehensive approach including the correlation dimension (CD), classical statistics, and geostatistics. The main conclusions are as follows (1) The integer CD values indicate that the temperature dynamics are a complex and chaotic system, which is sensitive to the initial conditions. (2) The complexity of temperature dynamics decreases along with the increase of temporal scale. To describe the temperature dynamics, at least 3 independent variables are needed at daily scale, whereas at least 2 independent variables are needed at monthly, seasonal, and annual scales. (3) The spatial patterns of CD values at different temporal scales indicate that the complex temperature dynamics are derived from the complex landform. PMID:23843732

  17. Biogeography of Nocardiopsis strains from hypersaline environments of Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces, western China

    PubMed Central

    He, Song-Tao; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Hongchen; Yang, Ling-Ling; Wu, Jin-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Hozzein, Wael N.; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is a widespread group within the phylum Actinobacteria and has been isolated from various salty environments worldwide. However, little is known about whether biogeography affects Nocardiopsis distribution in various hypersaline environments. Such information is essential for understanding the ecology of Nocardiopsis. Here we analyzed 16S rRNA, gyrB, rpoB and sodA genes of 78 Nocardiopsis strains isolated from hypersaline environments in Yunnan and Xinjiang Provinces of western China. The obtained Nocardiopsis strains were classified into five operational taxonomic units, each comprising location-specific phylo- and genotypes. Statistical analyses showed that spatial distance and environmental factors substantially influenced Nocardiopsis distribution in hypersaline environments: the former had stronger influence at large spatial scales, whereas the latter was more influential at small spatial scales. PMID:26289784

  18. Buried in Sands: Environmental Analysis at the Archaeological Site of Xiaohe Cemetery, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin-Feng; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Hueber, Francis M.; Li, Wen-Ying; Hu, Xin-Jun; Li, Yue-Zhuo; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2013-01-01

    Palynomorphs extracted from the mud coffins and plant remains preserved at the archaeological site of Xiaohe Cemetery (Cal. 3980 to 3540 years BP) in Lop Nur Desert of Xinjiang, China were investigated for the reconstruction of the ancient environments at the site. The results demonstrate that the Xiaohe People lived at a well-developed oasis, which was surrounded by extensive desert. The vegetation in the oasis consisted of Populus, Phragmites, Typha and probably of Gramineae, while the desert surrounding the oasis had some common drought-resistant plants dominated by Ephedra, Tamarix, Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae. This present work provides the first data of the environmental background at this site for further archaeological investigation. PMID:23894382

  19. Field Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Target Region in Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. J.; Wei, Y. M.; Chen, Y.; Ma, X. L.; Zhou, H. Y.

    2017-02-01

    A fine mineral identification model using the field Hyperspectral remote sensing was proposed to solve the problem of low mineral identification accuracy. Results show that the accuracy was improved by spectral noises removal, endmember optimization and mineral absorptions enhancement. A regional endmember library was established to improve the reliability by systematically considering of the mineral assemblage relationships. A fine mineral identification system (FMIS) was developed to help geologists to quickly identify minerals and it was applied in the Xiemisitai Mountain, Xinjiang province, China in 2014 to newly find copper mineralized points. The improved model and the FMIS system are therefore not only of great significance to improve efficiency and save cost in remote sensing mineral exploration, but also of great economic value of the local economy development in the future.

  20. Response of ESV to Climate Change and Human Activities in the Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusuli, Yusufujiang; Sidik, Halida; Gupur, Adila; Hong, Jiang; Kadir, Rayila

    2016-04-01

    Ecosystem goods and services refer to the dependence of economic wealth and human well-being on natural systems. It is a common knowledge that the changing of structure and function of the ecosystem due to climate change and human activities. It is a priority issue to study on various spatiotemporal scales, the sensitivity of ecosystems to climate change and anthropogenic pressure in inland areas. In an effort to better understand the influence of climate change and human activities on ecosystem services, we evaluated the change in ESV of the Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang, China from 1973 to 2014 employing methods of MK, MK Sneyers, ESV and dynamic degree of LUCC. The Landsat images, digital elevation model (DEM) and metrological data were applied to assessing the ESV and its change. According to the degree of effects of the climate change and human activities, the research area was divided into two parts: the mountain area and the plain oasis area at a contour of 1400 m above sea level. According to type and affect, the land cover was classified as water, wetland, desert, fields, glacier, warm shrub grassland, cold meadow steppe and highland vegetation. We analyzed the relationship between the variation of ESV and precipitation, and evaporation and then quantitatively differentiated the influence of climate change and human activities on ESV. Results show that: (1) distinct change points of precipitation and evaporation in mountain and plain oasis of the Yanqi basin were detected by the MK-Sneyers test. The precipitation increased and the evaporation declined in mountain and plain oasis in the same way. Enlargement of agricultural areas to accommodate an increased population and socio-economic development was detected by conversion matrix of LUCC in oasis area. As a result, the variation of ESV was caused by climate change and human activities jointly; (2) the declining trend of ESV in the mountain area was mainly caused by shrinking of the glacier area; (3) ESV was

  1. Variants of human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) in Uigur women in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    He, Hongchang; Li, Hongtao; Fan, Peiwen; Zhu, Junling; Pan, Zhenzhen; Pan, Huan; Wu, Dan; Ren, Xianxian; Guo, Xiaoqing; Li, Dongmei; Pan, Zemin; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) has been considered as the leading cause of cervical cancer. In this study we assessed HPV16 sequence variation and genetic diversity of HPV16 variants in cervical cancer in Uigur women in Xinjiang, China. We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames of E6 and E7, and part of the open reading frames of L1 of HPV16 in Uigur women. Biopsies of histologically confirmed HPV16 infections with cervical cancer were obtained from 43 Uigur women in Xinjiang, China. E6, E7 and L1 genes of HPV16 of all samples were amplified and sequenced; the sequences were used in phylogenetic analysis of HPV16 variants. Our analysis revealed nine nucleotide changes in E6 (five changes), E7 (one change) and L1 (three changes) gene. The most frequently observed variations were T350G (79.1 %). One variation T295G (D64E) at E6 were detected in 6 cases (KT959536, KT959542, KT959546, KT959550, KT959553, KT959558). Deletion (464Asp) along with insertion (448Ser) were observed in L1 (100 %). Most variants were European lineage (97.7 %); only one belongs to Asia variants with common T178G (D25E) in E6 and A647G (N29S) in E7. The most prevalent HPV16 variants in the Uigur women we studied were of the European lineage. Our results indicate that HPV16 European lineage may serve as a harmful factor associated with the development and progression of cervical cancer.

  2. HBV/D1: a major HBV subgenotype circulating in Uyghur patients with chronic HBV infection in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jingjing; Li, Jie; Sun, Kuixia; Sun, Mishu; Chen, Jie; Ma, Junfeng; Yan, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2012-08-01

    Each hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotype and subgenotype is associated with a particular geographic distribution, ethnicity, and anthropological history. The present study investigated the genomic characteristics of HBV from Uyghur patients with chronic HBV infection in Xinjiang, China. Among the 53 Uyghur patients enrolled, HBV/D was found to be the dominant strain, with 64.2 % (34/53), 60.4 % (32/53) with HBV/D1 and 3.8 % (2/53) with HBV/D3. In addition to these findings, 3.8 % HBV/B (2/53), 5.7 % HBV/C (3/53), 11.3 % C+D (6/53), 7.5 % B+D (4/53), 3.8 % B+C (2/53) and 3.8 % B+C+D (2/53) were also detected. The full-length genome of seven HBV/D1 isolates and 144 reference sequences retrieved from GenBank were compared and analyzed by biological information methods. These results demonstrate that the D1 isolates from Xinjiang and Central Asia show a close genetic proximity (0.013±0.0007). Furthermore, four unique amino acid substitutions (sp82(Asn), sp89(His), rt129(Leu), rt151(Leu)) representing background polymorphisms rather than drug resistance mutations or immune escape variants were found in the Uyghur patients of Xinjiang, but these were seldom found in HBV/D1 strains from other regions (0 %-14.3 %). This study indicates that in Xinjiang, unlike HBV-infected Han patients, HBV/D1 is the predominant strain among HBV-infected Uyghur people. Although genetic distance analysis suggests that the HBV/D1 isolates from Xinjiang are closely related to those from Central Asia, unique amino acid substitutions suggest independent evolution of HBV in the Uyghur patients of Xinjiang.

  3. Fertilizer impact on biogenic nitric oxide emissions from agricultural soils of the Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fechner, A. D.; Behrendt, T.; Bruse, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.

    2012-04-01

    It is known that soil microbial processes play a crucial role in the production and consumption of atmospheric trace gases worldwide. Soils are mostly a major source of biogenic nitric oxide (NO). The main influencing factors controlling soil NO emissions are soil moisture, soil temperature, as well as nutrient availability. Adding fertilizer to agricultural soils changes the pool of nutrients and impacts the net NO emission from these soils. Irrigated and fertilized oases around the great Central Asian Taklamakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). While nowadays 90% of the agricultural output is produced on just 4.3% of Xinjiang's total area, recent and future enlargement of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. We present a systematic laboratory study of the influence of urea (CH4N2O) and diammonium hydrogen phosphate ((NH4)2HPO4, DAP) fertilizer on NO emissions from Xinjiang soil samples. Urea is the most widely and excessively applied fertilizer in Xinjiang. Typically, about 600 kg ha-1 yr-1(in terms of mass of nitrogen) were applied to a cotton field in four separate events. In the laboratory, the fertilizer was applied accordingly, ranging from one quarter of the field amount within one of the four events (i.e. 37.5 kg ha-1 yr-1) to quadruple of that (150 kg ha-1 yr-1). Two different measurement series have been performed on six sub- samples (each out of a total of three soil samples taken in Xinjiang): the first series was conducted solely with urea fertilizer, the second one with a mixture of urea and DAP (2:1). All sub-samples were prepared in a standardized way: a fixed mass of soil (~0.06 kg, dried in field) was sieved (2 mm) and stored at 4° C. Then it was wetted up to a soil moisture tension of 1.8 pF. Subsequently, fertilizer was

  4. Paleozoic-early Mesozoic gold deposits of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rui, Z.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Qiu, Y.; Zhou, T.; Chen, R.; Pirajno, F.; Yun, G.

    2002-01-01

    The late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic tectonic evolution of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, northwestern China provided a favorable geological setting for the formation of lode gold deposits along the sutures between a number of the major Eastern Asia cratonic blocks. These sutures are now represented by the Altay Shan, Tian Shan, and Kunlun Shan ranges, with the former two separated by the Junggar basin and the latter two by the immense Tarim basin. In northernmost Xinjiang, final growth of the Altaid orogen, southward from the Angara craton, is now recorded in the remote mid- to late Paleozoic Altay Shan. Accreted Early to Middle Devonian oceanic rock sequences contain typically small, precious-metal bearing Fe-Cu-Zn VMS deposits (e.g. Ashele). Orogenic gold deposits are widespread along the major Irtysh (e.g. Duyolanasayi, Saidi, Taerde, Kabenbulake, Akexike, Shaerbulake) and Tuergen-Hongshanzui (e.g. Hongshanzui) fault systems, as well as in structurally displaced terrane slivers of the western Junggar (e.g. Hatu) and eastern Junggar areas. Geological and geochronological constraints indicate a generally Late Carboniferous to Early Permian episode of gold deposition, which was coeval with the final stages of Altaid magmatism and large-scale, right-lateral translation along older terrane-bounding faults. The Tian Shan, an exceptionally gold-rich mountain range to the west in the Central Asian republics, is only beginning to be recognized for its gold potential in Xinjiang. In this easternmost part to the range, northerly- and southerly-directed subduction/accretion of early to mid-Paleozoic and mid- to late Paleozoic oceanic terranes, respectively, to the Precambrian Yili block (central Tian Shan) was associated with 400 to 250 Ma arc magmatism and Carboniferous through Early Permian gold-forming hydrothermal events. The more significant resulting deposits in the terranes of the southern Tian Shan include the Sawayaerdun orogenic deposit along the Kyrgyzstan border and

  5. Genetic structure and differention of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xumai; Xu, Li; Zhang, Linjing; Yue, Ming; Zhao, Guifang; Gu, Fengxue; Pan, Xiaoling

    2003-07-01

    RAPD technique was applied to study intraspecific genetic polymorphism and differentiation of Suaeda acuminata populations in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. By analysis of RAPD data, higher genetic variability was found in the populations of S. acuminata, with a percentage of polymorphic loci of 98.9%. Both estimations by Shannon diversity index and by Nei's gene diversity index from RAPD data, it was found identically that about 72% of molecular variation existed within the subpopulations, while about 28% of which existed among subpopulations. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the populations of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analytical result between the soil factures and the genetic diversity indicted that there was a significant positive relation between genetic diversity and concentrations of Mg++, conductivity (CO) and absorbed water(W) in soil, while there was no significant relation between genetic distance among subpopulations and geographical distance. Analysis of genetic identity, genetic distance and cluster analysis between the five subpopulations showed that genetic differentiation has taken place in the population of Suaeda acuminata in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang. No correlation existed between genetic distance among subpopulations and their locations in oasis-desert transitional zone. Adaptation to its habitats and restricted gene flow among subpopulations may be a cause of genetic differentiation of Suaeda acuminata population in oasis-desert transitional zone in Fukang, Xinjiang.

  6. Clinical Epidemiology of Mineral Bone Disorder Markers in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ying-Ping; Yang, Wen-Jun; Li, Su-Hua; Han, Yuan-yuan

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the clinical epidemiology of mineral bone disorder markers in prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients in Xinjiang, the largest province in China. Data were obtained from 59 hospitals. A total of 3725 patients tracked from January 1 to December 31, 2014, were enrolled. Serum calcium (Ca) levels, phosphorus (P) levels, and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels were analyzed. Serum Ca levels were lower compared to the International Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS4) and the Chinese DOPPS. The hypercalcemia rate was similar to DOPPS4 and lower than in the Chinese DOPPS. Serum P levels were higher than in DOPPS4 and lower than those in the Chinese DOPPS. Hyperphosphatemia rates were higher than DOPPS4 and lower than Chinese DOPPS. Serum iPTH levels were higher than in DOPPS4 and the Chinese DOPPS. We demonstrated higher serum P and iPTH levels in Xinjiang HD patients than in the DOPPS4 and Chinese DOPPS. In contrast, serum Ca levels were lower than the other two studies. High hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia rates may suggest that HD services in Xinjiang are inadequate. A multidiscipline chronic kidney disease (CKD) care program needs to be established to improve chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) target achievement in Xinjiang. PMID:28299319

  7. Burden and Correlates of Geriatric Depression in the Uyghur Elderly Population, Observation from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Results Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18–13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35–1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42–2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92–3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09–4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. Conclusion High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang

  8. Burden and correlates of geriatric depression in the Uyghur elderly population, observation from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Li, Ping; Lu, Chen; Tang, Weiming; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xihua; Ma, Ying; Ben, Yanli; Cao, Xiaolin; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Ling, Min; Gou, Anshuan; Wang, Yanmei; Xiao, Jiangqin; Hou, Ming; Wang, Xiuli; Lin, Bo; Chen, Ruoling; Wang, Faxing; Hu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    With the gradual aging of the population, geriatric depression has become a major public health issue in China owing to its overall upward trend and associated negative socio-economic impact. Dearth of information regarding the burden and correlates of geriatric depression among Uyghur minority population in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, called for a comprehensive survey involving representative sample for designing efficient targeted intervention to control this disabling disease. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 consenting Uyghur elderly in 2011 in six randomly selected communities/villages in Xinjiang. Information about socio-demographics, behavior, negative life-events, satisfaction regarding income/quality of life and other chronic diseases were collected while assessment of geriatric depression was done using Geriatric Mental State Schedule (GMS). Among these participants, majority were currently married, had attended elementary school or less, had an average annual family income of less than 3000 Yuan/person, had strong religious beliefs while 10.61% (2.77% in urban and 23.60% in rural area) had geriatric depression (5.91% among male and 14.58% among females). 61.83% were suffering from other chronic diseases, 96.16% could take care of themselves and 39.28% had experienced negative events during last two years. Religious belief (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI 1.18-13.03), satisfaction regarding quality of life (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.37-0.84) and income (AOR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.35-1.60), suffering from more chronic diseases (AOR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.42-2.04), experiencing three or more negative events (AOR = 1.72, 95% CI 0.92-3.22) and lack of ability to take self-care (AOR = 2.20, 95% CI 1.09-4.48) were all associated with having geriatric depression with or without adjustment for gender, education and occupation. High prevalence of geriatric depression among Uyghur elderly in Xinjiang seemed to call for urgent interventions, specifically

  9. Prevalence of Diabetes and Associated Factors in the Uyghur and Han Population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Haiying; Pa, Lize; Wang, Ke; Mu, Hebuli; Dong, Fen; Ya, Shengjiang; Xu, Guodong; Tao, Ning; Pan, Li; Wang, Bin; Shan, Guangliang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of diabetes and identify risk factors in the Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang, China. Methods: A cross-sectional study in urban and rural areas in Xinjiang, including 2863 members of the Uyghur population and 3060 of the Han population aged 20 to 80 years, was conducted from June 2013 to August 2013. Data on fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and personal history of diabetes were used to estimate the prevalence of diabetes. Data on demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, and lipid profiles were collected to identify risks factors using the multivariate logistic regression model. Results: In urban areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 8.21%, and the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was higher in the Uyghur population (10.47%) than in the Han population (7.36%). In rural areas, the age- and gender-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.08%, and it did not differ significantly between the Uyghur population (5.71%) and the Han population (6.59%). The results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older age, obesity, high triglycerides (TG), and hypertension were all associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur and Han population. Urban residence and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were associated with an increased risk of diabetes in the Uyghur population. Being an ex-drinker was associated with an increased risk of diabetes and heavy physical activity was associated with a decreased risk of diabetes in the Han population. Conclusions: Our study indicates that diabetes is more prevalent in the Uyghur population compared with the Han population in urban areas. Strategies aimed at the prevention of diabetes require ethnic targeting. PMID:26473908

  10. [Pathological Diagnoses and Whole-genome Sequence Analyses of the Jaagsiekte Sheep Retrovirus in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Sufang; Liang, Tian; Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Dianqing; Si Junqiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Xia; Sheng, Jinliang

    2015-05-01

    To carry out pathologic diagnoses and whole-genome sequence analyses of the Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) in Xinjiang, China, we first observed sheep suspected to have the JSRV. Then, the extracted virus suspension was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total RNAs from lungs of JSRV-infected sheep were extracted and reverse-transcribed using a cDNA synthesis kit. Six pairs of primers were designed according to the exogenous reference virus strain (AF105220). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was carried out from JSRV-infected tissue, and the whole genome of the JSRV sequenced. Our results showed: flow of nasal fluid ("wheelbarrow test"); different sizes of adenoma lesions in the lungs; papillary hyperplasia of alveolar epithelial cells; alveolar cavity filled with macrophages; dissolute nuclei in central lesions. TEM revealed JSRV particles with a diameter of 88 nm to 125. 4 nm. The full-length of the viral genome sequence was 7456 bp. BLAST analyses showed nucleotide homology of 96% and 95% compared with that of the representative strain from the USA (AF105220) and UK (AF357971). Nucleotide homology was 89.8% and 89.9% compared with the endogenous Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus, Inner Mongolia strain (DQ838493) and USA strain (EF680300). The specific pathogenic amino-acid sequence "YXXM" was found in the TM district, similar to the exogenous JSRV: this gene has been reported to be oncogenic. This is the first report of the complete genomic sequence of the exogenous JSRV from Xinjiang, and could lay the foundation for study of the biological characteristics and pathogenic mechanisms of the pulmonary adenomatosis virus in sheep.

  11. Chemical properties in fruits of mulberry species from the Xinjiang province of China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Nie, Wen-Jing

    2015-05-01

    Mulberries are a widely cultivated foodstuff both in China and worldwide. However, there are stark differences in the nutritional values of mulberry species. To better appreciate these differences, we here describe the chemical characteristics of white (Morus alba L.), Russian (M. alba var. tatarica L.), and black (Morus nigra L.) mulberry fruits cultivated in the Xinjiang province of China. The chemical composition analysis was performed by official methods procedures. The amino acids were analysed by the phenyl isothiocyanate method. The 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetric method, the aluminium chloride colorimetric method, and the pH differential method were also used in measuring the content of reduced ascorbic acid, total flavonoids, and total monomeric anthocyanins, respectively. The black mulberry fruits had the highest content of reduced ascorbic acid (48.4 mg/100 g fw), titratable acidity (47.1 mg/g fw), and Fe (11.9 mg/100 g fw) of these 3 species. The Russian mulberry fruits had the highest EAA/TAA (essential amino acid/total amino acid) ratio at 44% followed by the white mulberry (42%) and the black mulberry (29%). The black mulberry fruits had found to be richest in terms of total flavonoids and total monomeric anthocyanins. These results are helpful for selecting mulberry species with abundant nutrients and phytochemicals for commercial cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PIXE and ICP-AES analysis of early glass unearthed from Xinjiang (China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Cheng, H. S.; Ma, B.; Li, Q. H.; Zhang, P.; Gan, F. X.; Yang, F. J.

    2005-10-01

    Early glasses (about 1066 BC-220 AD) unearthed from Xinjiang of China were chemically characterized by using PIXE and ICP-AES. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 system, K2O-SiO2 system, Na2O-CaO-SiO2 system and Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had basically similar recipe and technology. The PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass and the K2O-SiO2 glass were thought to come from the central area and the south of ancient China, respectively. The part of the Na2O-CaO-SiO2 glass (including the Na2O-CaO-PbO-SiO2 glass) might be imported from Mesopotamia, while the other part might be locally produced.

  13. The Ordered Network Structure and Prediction Summary for M≥7 Earthquakes in Xinjiang Region of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Ke-Pei; Zhao, Kai

    2014-12-01

    M ≥7 earthquakes have showed an obvious commensurability and orderliness in Xinjiang of China and its adjacent region since 1800. The main orderly values are 30 a × k (k = 1,2,3), 11 ~ 12 a, 41 ~ 43 a, 18 ~ 19 a, and 5 ~ 6 a. In the guidance of the information forecasting theory of Wen-Bo Weng, based on previous research results, combining ordered network structure analysis with complex network technology, we focus on the prediction summary of M ≥ 7 earthquakes by using the ordered network structure, and add new information to further optimize network, hence construct the 2D- and 3D-ordered network structure of M ≥ 7 earthquakes. In this paper, the network structure revealed fully the regularity of seismic activity of M ≥ 7 earthquakes in the study region during the past 210 years. Based on this, the Karakorum M7.1 earthquake in 1996, the M7.9 earthquake on the frontier of Russia, Mongol, and China in 2003, and two Yutian M7.3 earthquakes in 2008 and 2014 were predicted successfully. At the same time, a new prediction opinion is presented that the future two M ≥ 7 earthquakes will probably occur around 2019 - 2020 and 2025 - 2026 in this region. The results show that large earthquake occurred in defined region can be predicted. The method of ordered network structure analysis produces satisfactory results for the mid-and-long term prediction of M ≥ 7 earthquakes.

  14. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiuliang; Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui; Kurban, Alishir; De Maeyer, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang.

  15. The dominant role of climate change in determining changes in evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jie; Li, Longhui

    2017-01-01

    The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China has experienced significant land cover and climate change since the beginning of the 21st century. However, a reasonable simulation of evapotranspiration (ET) and its response to environmental factors are still unclear. For this study, to simulate ET and its response to climate and land cover change in Xinjiang, China from 2001 to 2012, we used the Common Land Model (CoLM) by adding irrigation effects for cropland and modifying root distributions and the root water uptake process for shrubland. Our results indicate that mean annual ET from 2001 to 2012 was 131.22 (±21.78) mm/year and demonstrated no significant trend (p = 0.12). The model simulation also indicates that climate change was capable of explaining 99% of inter-annual ET variability; land cover change only explained 1%. Land cover change caused by the expansion of croplands increased annual ET by 1.11 mm while climate change, mainly resulting from both decreased temperature and precipitation, reduced ET by 21.90 mm. Our results imply that climate change plays a dominant role in determining changes in ET, and also highlight the need for appropriate land-use strategies for managing water sources in dryland ecosystems within Xinjiang. PMID:28841645

  16. Genotypic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates in the Multiethnic Area of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Li, Junlian; Liu, Jiao; Lian, Lulu; Lu, Bing; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Jingrui; Qi, Yingcheng

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. We studied the genetic diversity of clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis in the multiethnic area of Xinjiang autonomous region in China. A total of 311 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates were collected in 2006 and 2011 and genotyped by two genotyping methods. All isolates were grouped into 68 distinct spoligotypes using the spoligotyping method. The Beijing family was dominant, followed by T1 and CAS. MIRU-VNTR results showed that a total of 195 different VNTR types were identified. Ten of the 15 loci were highly or moderately discriminant according to their HGDI scores, and 13 loci had good discriminatory power in non-Beijing family strains, whereas only two loci had good discriminatory power in Beijing family strains. Chi-square tests demonstrated that there were no correlations between four characteristics (sex, age, type of case, and treatment history) and the Beijing family. In summary, Beijing family strains were predominant in Xinjiang, and the VNTR-15China locus-set was suitable for genotyping all Xinjiang strains, but not for the Beijing family strains. Thus, these data suggested that different genotype distributions may exist in different regions; MLVA locus-sets should be adjusted accordingly, with newly added loci to increase resolution if necessary. PMID:28337447

  17. Solar Radiation at Surface for Typical Cities in the Arid and Semi-Arid Area in Xinjiang, China Based on Satellite Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihua, Fang; Haichen, Liu; Jiamin, Huang; Yunqi, Zhang; Jun, Hu; Yonghang, Chen; Yanming, Kang; Xue, Wang; Chengjie, Huang

    2017-05-01

    Xinjiang, a region of China with arid and semi-arid areas, has abundant solar incidence with 166.5×104 km2 and diverse underlying surface. The meager number of surface radiation observatories cannot meet the need for efficient exploration of solar energy. In this study we classified Xinjiang into three regions: southern Xinjiang, northern Xinjiang and Tu-Ha region and applied satellite data to provide the surface solar radiation’s temporal distribution for 10 typical cities. The study is focused on seasonal, annual and variations of all sky downward shortwave radiation flux at surface based on 24-year satellite dataset GEWEX-SRB from the WCRP/GEWEX (World Climate Research Program/Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) from 1984 to 2007. The results are as follows. In general, the monthly average solar radiation flux for the cities in the Tu-Ha region was the largest followed by the south Xinjiang and northern Xinjiang. The solar radiation in the most northern cities were less than 150.0 W/m2 in winter, the minimum is 138.7 W/m2, while the other cities were greater than 150.0 W/m2. The maximum of monthly solar flux for the Tu-Ha region, southern and northern Xinjiang was 400.0 W/m2.

  18. Cold disasters: the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinjian; He, Qing; Yuan, Yujiang; Tang, Fenglan

    2003-07-01

    After analyzing the heat conditions in the years of serious reduction of cotton yield in the main cotton-growing areas of Xinjiang, it is found that the cold disasters, especially the delaying cold disasters, are the most serious meteorological disasters to the cotton production in Xinjiang.

  19. Earthquake-ponded sediments as a high-resolution archive of Anthropocene climate change on the Fuyun Fault (Xinjiang, China).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Stephen; Gouramanis, Chris; Etchebes, Marie; Klinger, Yann; Gao, Mingxing; Switzer, Adam; Tapponnier, Paul

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution, late-Holocene climate patterns in arid central Asia, in particular the behaviour of the Asian Monsoon and occurrences of precipitation events, are not yet fully understood. In particular, few high-resolution palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimate studies are available from the Junggar-Altay region in the Xinjiang Province, northwestern China. This area is tectonically active and the last large earthquake (Mw 7.9) occurred along the Fuyun strike-slip fault in 1931, resulting in ˜6m of right-lateral movement. South of the epicentre at Karaxingar, this earthquake resulted in the construction of large scarp-bounded ponds (46o43'N, 89o55'E) now filled with sediment. Sediment samples were collected every centimetre at a two-meter deep trench where the main pond was the deepest. The majority of the AMS 14C ages of charcoal and plant fibre samples are modern (56±34 to 171±34 yr BP) with the exception of a few much older carbon (842±26 to 2017±26 yr BP) at the base of the trench. The post-1931 age of the pond is validated by the 137Cs and 210Pb age-depth chronology. Each sediment sample was analysed for organic, carbonate and clastic contents and particle-size. This high-resolution analysis revealed eleven upward-fining sequences, with three prominent grain size peaks at depths of 1.7m, 0.95m and 0.6m below ground surface, suggesting three major modern precipitation events. The 11 grain-size peaks since 1931 in the pond coincide with 11 periods of increased precipitation measured in high-elevation tree-ring records ˜50 km north of the pond. Thus, low-altitude post-seismic sedimentary depocentres provide excellent high-resolution palaeoclimate archives that can fill a significant data gap where other proxy records are not available.

  20. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-01-01

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960–2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2–3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements. PMID:27007388

  1. Analysis of the Nonlinear Trends and Non-Stationary Oscillations of Regional Precipitation in Xinjiang, Northwestern China, Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhongsheng; Guo, Jinyun; Liu, Feng; Chen, Chuanfa; Liu, Kangli

    2016-03-21

    Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang. It is necessary to understand the intrinsic multi-scale variations of precipitation in different parts of Xinjiang in the context of climate change. In this study, based on precipitation data from 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during 1960-2012, we investigated the intrinsic multi-scale characteristics of precipitation variability using an adaptive method named ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Obvious non-linear upward trends in precipitation were found in the north, south, east and the entire Xinjiang. Changes in precipitation in Xinjiang exhibited significant inter-annual scale (quasi-2 and quasi-6 years) and inter-decadal scale (quasi-12 and quasi-23 years). Moreover, the 2-3-year quasi-periodic fluctuation was dominant in regional precipitation and the inter-annual variation had a considerable effect on the regional-scale precipitation variation in Xinjiang. We also found that there were distinctive spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation in Xinjiang. The results of this study indicated that compared to traditional decomposition methods, the EEMD method, without using any a priori determined basis functions, could effectively extract the reliable multi-scale fluctuations and reveal the intrinsic oscillation properties of climate elements.

  2. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-02-23

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5-80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4-97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China.

  3. Phylogenetic Characterizations of Highly Mutated EV-B106 Recombinants Showing Extensive Genetic Exchanges with Other EV-B in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yang; Zhang, Yong; Fan, Qin; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Shuangli; Tang, Haishu; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Dongyan; Xu, Wenbo

    2017-01-01

    Human enterovirus B106 (EV-B106) is a new member of the enterovirus B species. To date, only three nucleotide sequences of EV-B106 have been published, and only one full-length genome sequence (the Yunnan strain 148/YN/CHN/12) is available in the GenBank database. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic characterisation of four EV-B106 strains isolated in Xinjiang, China. Pairwise comparisons of the nucleotide sequences and the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains had only 80.5–80.8% nucleotide identity and 95.4–97.3% amino acid identity with the Yunnan EV-B106 strain, indicating high mutagenicity. Similarity plots and bootscanning analyses revealed that frequent intertypic recombination occurred in all four Xinjiang EV-B106 strains in the non-structural region. These four strains may share a donor sequence with the EV-B85 strain, which circulated in Xinjiang in 2011, indicating extensive genetic exchanges between these strains. All Xinjiang EV-B106 strains were temperature-sensitive. An antibody seroprevalence study against EV-B106 in two Xinjiang prefectures also showed low titres of neutralizing antibodies, suggesting limited exposure and transmission in the population. This study contributes the whole genome sequences of EV-B106 to the GenBank database and provides valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology of EV-B106 in China. PMID:28230168

  4. Mineral magnetic record of environment in Late Pleistocene and Halocene sediments, Lake Manas, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinowska, A.; Tucholka, P.; Gasse, F.; Fontes, J. C.

    1995-04-01

    A study of magnetic parameters was carried out on a Late Pleistocene and Holocene sedimentary sequence (5 m) from Lake Manas (northern Xinjiang, China), that has already been analyzed for bulk sediment mineralogy, stables isotopes from carbonates and biogenic material. Magnetic minerals confirm major changes in paleoenvironmental and paleohydrological conditions that were deduced from other methods. They also provide complementary information on changes in the lake system during the early and middle Holocene. The most important mineral magnetic change results from the authigenic formation of ferrimagnetic greigite, Fe3S4 during the lacustrine episodes dated from approximately 8.7 kyr B.P. to approximately 5.5 kyr B.P. (380-335 cm) and from approximately 4.5 kyr B.P. to approximately 3.5 kyr B.P. (320-285 cm) respectively. Our data also indicate an abrupt break in sedimentary conditions which coincides with a short-term return towards dry climatic conditions around 3.5 kyr B.P., which was only suggested from other proxy data.

  5. [Study on RHCE genotyping of Rh blood group in Uygur nationality of Xinjiang in China].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xu-Hua; Lan, Jiong-Cai; Gong, Xiao-Yan; Cui, Li; Zhou, Hua-You

    2010-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the characteristics of RHCE genotyping of Xinjiang Uygur nationality population in China. Primers for detecting RHCE genes were designed according to the references, 89 Uygur nationality RhD-negative samples, 233 Han nationality RhD-negative samples and 109 Han nationality RhD-positive samples were detected by sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) for RHCE genotyping. All above-mentioned samples were unrelated. The results indicated that RHE/e genotyping results were consistent with the serological test results in the samples of Uygur and Han nationality, regardless of the RhD-negative samples or the RhD-positive samples. The RHC/c genotyping results from 89 RhD-negative samples of Uygur nationality were consistent with serological test results. However, total error of RHC/c genotyping from 233 RhD-negative and 109 RhD-positive samples of Han nationality was 5.05%. In conclusion, this method of RHCE genotyping is suitable for the analysis of the RHE/e genotyping of Uygur nationality, no erroneous RHC/c genotyping of Uygur nationality was found in this study, but this method needs to be further studied.

  6. Socioenvironmental threats to pastoral livelihoods: risk perceptions in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chuan; Sullivan, Patrick J; Barrett, Christopher B; Kassam, Karim-Aly S

    2014-04-01

    Subjective risk perceptions give rise to unique policy implications as they reflect both the expectation of risk exposure and the ability to mitigate or cope with the adverse impacts. Based on data collected from semistructured interviews and iterative ranking exercises with 159 households in the Altay and Tianshan Mountains of Xinjiang, China, this study investigates and explains the risks with respect to a seriously understudied population and location. Using both geostatistical and econometric methods, we show that although fear of environmental crisis is prevalent among our respondents, recently implemented pastoral conservation, sedentarization, and development projects are more likely to be ranked as the top concerns among affected households. In order to reduce these concerns, future pastoral policy must be built on the livestock economy, and intervention priority should be given to the geographic areas identified as risk hot spots. In cases where pastoralists have to give up their pastures, the transition to other comparable livelihood strategies must be enabled by creating new opportunities and training pastoralists to acquire the needed skills. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Implicit Trust between the Uyghur and the Han in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueting; Fang, Huizhen; Yang, Shengmin; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Trust is a vital lubricant that increases the sense of security in social interactions. In this study, we investigated the intergroup trust between the Uyghur and the Han, the two largest ethnic groups in Xinjiang, China, with a Go/No-Go Association Task. Specifically, we instructed Uyghur and Han participants to respond to ethnic faces (Uyghur vs. Han) and trust/distrust words and measured the strength of the automatic associations between the faces and words for both in-group and out-group pairs. As expected, both ethnic groups showed implicit in-group trust and out-group distrust, but the Han group demonstrated stronger in-group trust and out-group distrust toward the Uyghur than the Uyghur group toward the Han. However, the magnitude of distrust of the Han toward the Uyghur was small to medium as compared with that reported by other intergroup relationship research. In addition, participant geographic location was associated with out-group distrust. These findings offer implications for developing effective strategies to encourage trust between conflicting groups. PMID:23977155

  8. [Responses of ecosystem services value to land use change in national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Gao, Ji-Xi; Wang, Jin-Sheng; Leng, Ling; Qiu, Jie; Yang, Shan-Shan

    2014-05-01

    With GIS and RS technology, characteristics of land use change and ecosystem services value of different years in six national nature reserves in Xinjiang, China were analyzed with remote sensing image of the year 2000-2010. Results showed that the area of water body and grassland decreased while the area of forest, farmland, wetland, unused land and construction land increased in 2000-2010. Variation rate of land use change in 2000-2005 was faster, as 2.4-6.3 times as that in 2005-2010. The total ecosystem services value mostly consisted of that of water body, grassland and forest, accounting for 93% approximately. During the study, the values of all kinds of the ecosystem services increased except for grassland and water body, the total ecosystem services value increased firstly and then decreased, and overall emerged as a reducing trend with the rate of 1.2%. In the process of the development of the west regions, it is necessary to pay more attention to the protection of natural resources and ecosystem restoration, so as to achieve sustainable development of resources, environment and social economy in the western regions.

  9. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920-18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129-2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic.

  10. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-05

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18-60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012-3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097-2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466-0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205-0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532-0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers.

  11. Geology of the Chinese nuclear test site near Lop Nor, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Chinese underground nuclear test site in the Kuruktag and Kyzyltag mountains of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China, is the location of sixteen underground tests that occurred between 1969 and 1992. The largest test to date, conducted on 21 May 1992, had a reported yield of about one megaton. Geophysical properties of the rocks and a large-scale geologic map of part of the test area were published by the Chinese in 1986 and 1987 and are the first site-specific data available for this test site. In areas of low relief, underground nuclear testing has occurred below the water table, in shafts drilled vertically into dense, low porosity Paleozoic granitic and metasedimentary rocks. Additional testing in areas of more rugged terrain has occurred in horizontal tunnels, probably above the water table. At least one of these tunnels was driven into granite. The upper 50 m of the rock in the area of the vertical tests is weathered and fractured; these conditions have been shown to influence the magnitude of the disturbance of the land surface after a nuclear explosion. These descriptions suggest hard rock coupling at depth and a closer resemblance to the former Soviet test site in eastern Kazakhstan than to the U.S. test site in Nevada. ?? 1994.

  12. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  13. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  14. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-01

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980–1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities. PMID:26820435

  15. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  16. Mantle-derived helium in foreland basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Sheng; Zheng, Guodong; Zheng, Jianjing; Zhou, Shixin; Shi, Pilong

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-rich natural gases from the Tarim, Junggar, Turpan-Hami and Santanghu basins in Xinjiang, Northwest China have measured 3He/4He ratios from 0.01 to 0.6 times higher than the atmospheric value, indicating 0-7% helium derived from the mantle. The mantle-derived helium is high in foreland basins associated with the Tianshan, Kunlun and Zhayier-Halalate orogenic mountains, but low towards the center of basins. This spatial distribution suggests that the mantle-derived helium originates either from fluids or small scale melts in the upper asthenospheric or lithospheric mantle which have found pathways into the root zones of the major faults defining these mountains, but do not significantly move into the basins themselves. During upward transport to near the surface, the mantle-derived helium is significantly diluted by radiogenic helium produced in the crust. Despite the lack of recent magmatic activity or extensional tectonics within the basins, this pattern shows strong evidence that the major faults play an important role in mantle-derived components degassing from the mantle to the surface.

  17. Modelling Seasonal Brucellosis Epidemics in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture of Xinjiang, China, 2010–2014

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Pengwei; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Xueliang; Xu, Jiabo

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the severe public health problems; the cumulative number of new human brucellosis cases reached 211515 from 2010 to 2014 in China. Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture is situated in the southeast of Xinjiang, where brucellosis infection occurs every year. Based on the reported data of newly acute human brucellosis cases for each season in Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture, we proposed a susceptible, exposed, infected, and vaccinated (SEIV) model with periodic transmission rates to investigate the seasonal brucellosis transmission dynamics among sheep/cattle and from sheep/cattle to humans. Compared with the criteria of MAPE and RMSPE, the model simulations agree to the data on newly acute human brucellosis. We predict that the number of newly acute human brucellosis is increasing and will peak 15325 [95% CI: 11920–18242] around the summer of 2023. We also estimate the basic reproduction number R0 = 2.5524 [95% CI: 2.5129–2.6225] and perform some sensitivity analysis of the newly acute human brucellosis cases and the basic reproduction number R0 in terms of model parameters. Our study demonstrates that reducing the birth number of sheep/cattle, raising the slaughter rate of infected sheep/cattle, increasing the vaccination rate of susceptible sheep/cattle, and decreasing the loss rate of vaccination are effective strategies to control brucellosis epidemic. PMID:27872852

  18. Characterization of cosmetic sticks at Xiaohe Cemetery in early Bronze Age Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mai, Huijuan; Yang, Yimin; Abuduresule, Idelisi; Li, Wenying; Hu, Xingjun; Wang, Changsui

    2016-01-28

    Cosmetics have been studied for a long time in the society and culture research, and its consumption is regarded as a cultural symbol of human society. This paper focuses on the analysis of the red cosmetic sticks, found in Xiaohe Cemetery (1980-1450BC), Xinjiang, China. The structure of the red cosmetic sticks was disclosed by SR-μCT scanning (Synchrotron Radiation Micro-computed Tomography), while the chemical components were characterized by FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), Raman Spectroscopy and Proteomics. The results suggested that the cosmetic sticks were made from the cattle heart and covered with a layer of hematite powders as the pigment. Given the numerous red painted relics in Xiaohe Cemetery, this kind of cosmetic sticks might be used as a primitive form of crayon for makeup and painting. The usage of cattle hearts as cosmetic sticks is firstly reported up to our knowledge, which not only reveals the varied utilizations of cattle in Xiaohe Cemetery but also shows the distinctive religious function. Furthermore, these red cosmetic sticks were usually buried with women, implying that the woman may be the painter and play a special role in religious activities.

  19. Spatiotemporal properties of growing season indices during 1961-2010 and possible association with agroclimatological regionalization of dominant crops in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong; Liu, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Variations of frost days and growing season length (GSL) have been drawing increasing attention due to their impact on agriculture. The Xinjiang region in China is climatically an arid region and plays an important role in agriculture development. In this study, the GSL and frost events are analyzed in both space and time, based on the daily minimum, mean and maximum air surface temperature data covering a period of 1961-2010. Results indicate that: (1) a significant lengthening of GSL is detected during 1961-2010 in Xinjiang, China. The increasing rate of GSL over Xinjiang is about 2.5 days per decade. Besides, the starting time of growing season is 0.7 days earlier per decade and the ending time is 1.6 days later per decade. Generally, GSL in southern Xinjiang has larger increasing magnitude when compared to other regions of Xinjiang; (2) longer GSL and larger changing magnitude of growing season start (GSS), growing season end (GSE) and GSL in southern Xinjiang implies higher sensitivity of the growing season response to climate warming. Besides, GSL is in close relation with latitude, and higher latitude usually corresponds to later start and earlier end of growing season, and hence shorter GSL. In general, a northward increase of 1° latitude triggers an 8-day delay of the starting time of growing season, 6-day advance of the ending time of growing season, and thus the GSL is 14 days shorter; (3) GSL under different rates can reflect light and heat resources over Xinjiang. The GSL related to 80 % guarantee rate is 5-14 days shorter than the long-term annual mean GSL; (4) Lengthening of GSL has the potential to increase agricultural production. However, negative influences by climate warming, such as enhanced evapotranspiration, increasing weeds, insects, and pathogen-mediated plant diseases, should also be considered in planning, management and development of agriculture in Xinjiang.

  20. Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life among People Living with HIV in Xinjiang, West China.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Rena; Yuexin, Zhang; Kejun, Pan; Wubili, Maimaitaili; Lalanne, Christophe; Duracinsky, Martin; Andersson, Rune

    2017-01-01

    In total, 679 HIV-positive patients from 4 clinics in Urumqi city were given structured questionnaires by the doctors or nurses treating them. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) was assessed using the Chinese Patient-Reported Outcome Quality of Life-HIV questionnaire versions in Mandarin and Uyghur. This tool has been used in other parts of China and several countries. Compared to France, Australia, United States, Brazil, Thailand, Cambodia, Senegal, and Central-Southern China (CS China), the HRQL was significantly lower among HIV-positive patients in Xinjiang, with regard to the dimension of treatment impact and general health score. The health concern was similar to Brazil and Cambodia but lower than other countries and CS China. Our findings showed high stigmatization: 86% of the patients were afraid to tell others they were HIV positive and 69% often felt or always felt depressed. Only 1% of the patients were on antidepressant treatment.

  1. Prevalence of Hypertension among Adults in Remote Rural Areas of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yulin; Zhang, Jingyu; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Liu, Jiaming; Ma, Jiaolong; Guo, Heng; Yan, Yizhong; He, Jia; Wang, Kui; Li, Shugang; Ma, Rulin; Murat, Bek; Guo, Shuxia

    2016-05-24

    The present study aimed to estimate prevalence of hypertension among adults in rural remote areas of Xinjiang, China and evaluate the associated factors of hypertension. The survey was based on questionnaire interviews and clinical measurements of 11,340 individuals (≥18 years old), and was conducted during 2009-2010 via a stratified cluster random sampling method in the remote rural areas of Xinjiang, about 4407 km away from the capital Beijing. Hypertension was defined according to WHO/ISH criteria. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of the population were (126.3 ± 21.4) and (80.9 ± 13.4) mmHg. Compared with Han nationality subjects, SBP and DBP of Kazakh nationality subjects were significantly high (p < 0.05), while the SBP and DBP of Uyghur subjects were significantly low (Kazakh: (128.7 ± 23.9) and (83.0 ± 14.6) mmHg, Uyghur: (123.6 ± 19.3) and (77.4 ± 12.7) mmHg, Han: (126.5 ± 20.5) and (82.6 ± 11.9) mmHg, p < 0.05). Prevalence of hypertension of the population was 32.1%, and was greater among Kazakhs and lower among Uyghur than Han (Kazakh: 36.9%, Uyghur: 26.1%, Han: 33.7%, p < 0.05). The age-standardized prevalence of hypertension was 30.2%, and was greater among Kazakhs while lower among Uyghurs than Han subjects (Kazakh: 37.0%, Uyghur: 26.0%, Han: 33.8%, p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed Gender (OR = 1.324), age (OR = 2.098, 3.681, 6.794, 9.473, 14.646), nationality (OR = 1.541), occupation (OR = 1.659, 1.576), education (OR = 1.260), BMI (OR = 1.842), WC (OR = 1.585), WHR (OR = 1.188), WHR (OR = 1.188), diabetes (OR = 1.879), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.361), hypercholesterolemia (OR = 1.131) and high blood low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (OR = 1.956) were all positively correlated with hypertension, while low blood high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.765) was negatively correlated with hypertension. Prevalence of hypertension among adults in remote

  2. The moisture sources and transport for the northern Xinjiang of China during 1979 to 2013 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Lijuan

    2016-04-01

    From the perspective of the recycling precipitation, this work examines the moisture sources of the northern Xinjiang during the summer season through the regionally unbounded dynamic recycling model (DRM) with Lagrangian back-trajectory track method by using the ERA-interim reanalysis during 1979~2013. The 10-day moisture trajectories identify the majority humidity contributions to the precipitation of northern Xinjiang are from the upwind westerly water transport and the sources can be traced to the North Atlantic and Arctic region. Furthermore, the moist air evaporated from Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Aral Sea provides a large of amount moisture through west to east moist transport belt to the northern Xinjiang. Although the westerly moisture transport is the main source for the precipitation of the study region, the strongest moisture transport belt starting from eastern margin of Tibet plateau and then swinging northward and along the southern Tianshan Moutian arriving the domain. Moreover, the moisture contribution from Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea and more easterly water streams cannot be ignored during the heavy rainfall events in the study region.

  3. Analysis on spatio-temporal trends and drivers in vegetation growth during recent decades in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jiaqiang; Shu, Jianmin; Yin, Junqi; Yuan, Xinjie; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Xiong, Shanshan; He, Ping; Liu, Weiling

    2015-06-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. In this study, a non-stationary 1982-2012 AVHRR NDVI3g time series, the newest dataset, were used to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of seasonal vegetation changes in Xinjiang province of China at regional, biome and pixel scales over progressively longer periods from 18 to 31 years, starting in 1982, and their linkages to climatic factors and human activities were analyzed. At regional scale, the increases were statistically significant for autumn NDVI during fourteen periods, for growing season and summer NDVI during the most periods, and for spring only during the first four periods. The rates of NDVI increase in growing season and all seasons significantly decreased over fourteen periods. At pixel scale, areas with significant browning rapidly increased over fourteen periods for growing season and all seasons, and these areas were mainly concentrated in northern desert of Xinjiang. Vegetation growth in Xinjiang was regulated by both moisture and thermal conditions: the response of NDVI in spring and autumn was more sensitive to thermal factors, such as temperature and potential evapotranspiration, and correlations between NDVI and precipitation and between NDVI and humidity index were stronger in summer and growing season. Extensive use of fertilizers and expanded farmland irrigated area increased vegetation growth for cropland. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation may reduce spring NDVI in the part of farmlands. Trend analysis during the multiple nested time series may contribute to a better and deep understanding of NDVI dynamic and foreseeing changes in the future. Accordingly, NDVI in Xinjiang will continuously increase at regional scale and the areas showing significant browning will also furthermore grow.

  4. Prevalence and predictors of anaemia in patients with HIV infection at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mijiti, Peierdun; Yuexin, Zhang; Min, Liu; Wubuli, Maimaitili; Kejun, Pan; Upur, Halmurat

    2015-03-01

    We retrospectively analysed routinely collected baseline data of 2252 patients with HIV infection registered in the National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program in Xinjiang province, China, from 2006 to 2011 to estimate the prevalence and predictors of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. Anaemia was diagnosed using the criteria set forth by the World Health Organisation, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine its predictors. The prevalences of mild, moderate, and severe anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy were 19.2%, 17.1%, and 2.6%, respectively. Overall, 38.9% of the patients were anaemic at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that Uyghur ethnicity, female gender, lower CD4 count, lower body mass index value, self-reported tuberculosis infection, and oral candidiasis were associated with a higher prevalence of anaemia, whereas higher serum alanine aminotransferase level was associated with a lower prevalence of anaemia. The results suggest that the overall prevalence of anaemia at the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy in patients with HIV infection is high in Xinjiang, China, but severe anaemia is uncommon. Patients in China should be routinely checked for anaemia prior to combined antiretroviral therapy initiation, and healthcare providers should carefully select the appropriate first-line combined antiretroviral therapy regimens for anaemic patients.

  5. Soil Carbonate Dynamics on Arid Cropland in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Xu, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; Yang, X.; Huang, S.; Liu, H.

    2013-12-01

    Pedogenic carbonate (PIC) is an important element for carbon sequestration. However, field data necessary to quantify carbon sequestration as carbonate have been lacking. Here, we report recent studies of carbonate accumulation in soils of the arid and semi-arid regions of north China. First study was carried out in southern Xinjiang, the Yanqi Basin, where more than 100 soil samples were collected from desert land, shrub land and cropland, and soil organic carbon (SOC) and inorganic carbon (SIC) and their stable 13C compositions were determined. This study showed that both SOC and SIC stocks were significantly higher on the cropland than on the desert land and shrub land. Our analyses suggested that cropping might have led to large PIC accumulation (24-116 g C m-2 year-1) in the Yanqi Basin. Second study was to evaluate carbon sequestration on cropland using archived soil samples from three long-term experiment (LTE) sites in north China: Urumqi, Yangling and Zhengzhou. SOC and SIC, and their stable 13C compositions were determined in two sets of soil samples (130 samples in total) collected in the early and late 2000's under various fertilization treatments. Our study showed an overall increase of SIC content in soil profiles over time, particularly under fertilizations. Accumulation rate of SIC stock over the 0-100 cm ranged from ~100 to 200 g C m-2 year-1, with the greatest rate found under the highest fertilization rate. Our analyses indicated that fertilization might have led to an average accumulation rate of > 60 g C m-2 year-1 for PIC on these arid croplands. Our studies showed that more carbon sequestrated in the form of carbonate than as SOC on arid and semi-arid lands, and suggests that increasing SOC stock through straw incorporation and manure application in the arid and semi-arid regions would also enhance carbonate accumulation in soil profiles over long-term.

  6. A Mental Health Survey of Different Ethnic and Occupational Groups in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Ailing; Liu, Bo; Jiang, Yu; Zhao, Junling; Zhang, Guanghui; Liu, Jiwen

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health has become a serious social and public health-care burden. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster random sampling to gather mental health information from 11,891 adults (18–60 years) employed in various occupations categorized according to the Chinese Standard Occupational Classification. Mental health was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and participants exceeding the cut-off score were defined as having poor mental health. The overall prevalence of poor mental health was 23.8%. The prevalence of poor mental health was significantly higher in the Han ethnic group than Kazak ethnic group and in health-care workers, teachers, and civil servants compared to manual workers. Females (odds ratios (OR) = 1.139, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.012–3.198) and knowledge workers (1.697, 1.097–2.962) were risk factors for poor mental health, while Kazak ethnicity (0.465, 0.466–0.937), other minority status (non-Han) (0.806, 0.205–0.987), and working ≥15 years in the same occupation (0.832, 0.532–0.932) were protective (p < 0.05). We concluded that the general level of mental health in Xinjiang, China, is higher in the Kazak ethnic group than the Han ethnic group. The prevalence of poor mental health is higher among knowledge workers than in manual workers due to high incidences of poor mental health in civil servants, health-care workers, and teachers. PMID:28067780

  7. Fluvial sedimentology of a Mesozoic petrified forest assemblage, Shishu Formation, Junggar foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, C.L.; Gan, O.; Carroll, A.R.; Dilcher, D.; Zhao, M.; Liang, Y.H.; Graham, S.A.

    1988-02-01

    The Upper Jurassic(.) Shishu Formation of the eastern Junggar basin, Xinjiang, northwest China, is a fluvial sand unit containing an important assemblage of well-preserved, silicified tree trunks and rooted stumps. Numerous logs, up to 83 ft (25.5 m) long, occur at several levels within a 33.6-ft (10.3 m) stratigraphic section of fluvial sand, gravel, and mud and several paleosol horizons. The uppermost logbearing layer includes a number of rooted tree stumps in growth position, with diameters of up to 8 ft (2.5 m). The maximum root length observed is 40 ft (12.3 m). The trees have been identified by Chinese paleontologists as Cupressinoxylon. The petrified forest assemblage is preserved on the northeast margin of the Mesozoic Junggar foreland basin, a large continental basin subsiding under thrust loading from the south. Logs found within channel gravel units are oriented with their log axes parallel to the channel axis. Sedimentary structures, including epsilon and trough cross-stratification and imbricated channel gravels, indicate paleocurrent flow generally to the south, toward the basin center. The size of the logs suggests the presence of a major fluvial system. The epsilon cross-sets suggest a channel depth of 26 ft (8 m). The oriented silicified logs and their enclosing clastic sediments provide important information on the depositional systems active on the northeastern margin of the Junggar basin in the Late Jurassic(.) time. Hopefully, further detailed study of the fossil trees, including the spacing of the rooted stumps, will provide new information on the paleoecology of Mesozoic forests and the climatic conditions prevailing in the region at the time of deposition.

  8. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W.; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G.

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  9. Association of connexin gene polymorphism with essential hypertension in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jie; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Wen-Yan; Wang, Ying-Zi; Ma, Ke-Tao; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhao, Lei; Li, Li; Si, Jun-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. The polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes is found associated with the development of hypertension. However, the association of the polymorphism of Cxs with EH has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association of the polymorphism of connexin (Cx) genes Cx37, Cx40, and Cx43 with EH in Kazak and Han Chinese in Xinjiang, China. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) were used to analyze the polymorphism of Cx genes in Kazak and Han EH patients as well as their normotensive controls. The results showed that there were no significant differences in the frequencies of different three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) and A and G alleles of Cx40 rs35594137 and rs11552588 between EH patients and normotensive controls. However, in Kazak EH patients, the frequencies of three genotypes (A/A, A/G, and G/G) of Cx37 rs1630310 were 24.8%, 47.2% and 28.0%, respectively, which were significantly different from those in Han EH patients. In Han EH patients, the frequencies of the three genotypes (C/C, C/G and G/G) of Cx43 rs1925223 were 6.4%, 35.6% and 58.0%, respectively. Frequencies of the other four genotypes had no statistical differences among Kazak and Han EH patients and their normotensive controls. These results suggest polymorphisms of Cx37 rs1630310 and Cx43 rs1925223 genes may be associated with the pathogenesis of EH. Carrying Cx37 rs1630310-A or Cx43 rs1925223-G genotypes may protect against the development of EH.

  10. An enormous Jurassic turtle bone bed from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wings, Oliver; Rabi, Márton; Schneider, Jörg W; Schwermann, Leonie; Sun, Ge; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Joyce, Walter G

    2012-11-01

    A spectacular new terrestrial Konzentratlagerstätte is introduced from the Turpan Basin of Xinjiang, China that probably belongs to the late Middle Jurassic Qigu Formation. It contains a mass accumulation of "xinjiangchelyid" turtles preliminarily identified as Annemys sp. In the zone with the highest turtle concentration, complete and articulated turtle skeletons are tightly packed at a density of up to 36 turtles per square meter. The fossiliferous layer is thickened here and shows an erosional base. This high concentration zone outcrops approximately 10 m in length and shows no decrease in turtle density after exposing 2 m of the layer into the hillside. Adjacent is a more expansive zone of at least 10 m by 30 m. In this region, the fossiliferous layer is evenly thick, and approximately five, fully disarticulated turtles are present per square meter. A conservatively estimated 1,800 turtles may, therefore, have been deposited at this site. It is likely that these aquatic turtles gathered in a retreating water hole in a riverine environment during a drought, much as some aquatic turtles will do today, but perished when the habitat dried up completely. A following catastrophic rainfall event caused a debris flow, possibly channelized in a dry river bed, which transported complete turtles, disarticulated turtles, and mudstone clasts and deposited them after a short distance. This taphonomic model is consistent with previous environmental reconstructions of the Turpan Basin during the late Middle Jurassic in predicting the episodic breakdown of regional monsoonal circulation resulting in a seasonally dry climate with severe episodic droughts.

  11. Genetic variations in the KCNJ5 gene in primary aldosteronism patients from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan-Fang; Li, Hong-Jian; Zhang, De-Lian; Zhang, Ju-Hong; Yao, Xiao-Guang; Wang, Hong-Mei; Abulikemu, Suofeiya; Zhou, Ke-Ming; Zhang, Xiang-Yang

    2013-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common endocrine form of secondary hypertension, and one of the most common subtypes of sporadic PA is aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Recently, two somatic mutations of the KCNJ5 gene were implicated in APA, and two germline mutations were associated with familial hyperaldosteronism III. This case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between genetic variations in the KCNJ5 gene and sporadic PA patients in Xinjiang, China. Five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the KCNJ5 gene (rs6590357, rs4937391, rs3740835, rs2604204, and rs11221497) were detected in patients with sporadic PA (n = 235) and essential hypertension (EH; n=913) by the TaqMan polymerase chain reaction method. The EH group and the PA group showed significant differences in the distributions of genotypes and alleles of rs4937391 and rs2604204 in total and male subjects (P<0.05), as well as rs3740835 in male subjects (P<0.05). However, only the association between the rs2604204 genotype and male sporadic PA remained significant after Bonferroni's correction (P<0.01). Furthermore, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the CC genotype of rs2604204 was a risk factor for male patients with sporadic PA, after adjusting for age and body mass index (odds ratio=2.228, 95% CI: 1.300-3.819, P=0.004). The genetic variant rs2604204 of KCNJ5 is associated with sporadic PA in Chinese males, suggesting that KCNJ5 may be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic PA in these particular patients.

  12. Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov., a halophilic archaeon from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang, northwest of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Tang, Shu-Kun; Zhang, Yong-Guang; Lu, Xin-Hua; Li, Li; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Zhang, Li-Li; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-05-01

    Two extremely halophilic archaea, designated YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664, were isolated from Lop Nur region in Xinjiang Province, northwest of China. The cells of the two strains were observed to be cocci, non-motile and Gram-negative. The organisms were determined to be aerobic and required at least 6 % NaCl for growth (optimum 20-25 % and maximum 35 %). Growth was found to occur in the ranges of 16-50 °C (optimum 37 °C) and pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum 6.5-7.5). Cells did not lyse in distilled water. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the two strains belongs to the genus Halalkalicoccus and possessed 99.3 and 99.5 % similarities with their closest phylogenetic relative Halalkalicoccus tibetensis JCM 11890(T). Major polar lipids of the two strains were determined to be phosphatidylglycerol(PG),phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), phosphatidylglycerol sulfate (PGS) and three unidentified glycolipids. The DNA G+C contents were determined to be 60.0-60.4 mol%. The DNA hybridization between the two strains was 92.0 %. In addition, the hybridizations of both strains to H. tibetensis were 49 and 52 %, respectively, and to Halalkalicoccus jeotali were 38 and 33 %, respectively. On the basis of physiological, biochemical tests and phylogenetic differentiations, strains YIM 93701(T) and YIM 93664 were classified as the same species which represent a novel species in the genus Halalkalicoccus, for which the name Halalkalicoccus paucihalophilus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 93701(T) (=JCM 17505(T) = CCTCC 2012803(T)).

  13. Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from a salt mine in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Yan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2015-08-01

    A novel aerobic bacterium, KC1(T), was isolated from a salt mine in Kuche county, Xinjiang province, China. Cells were observed to be Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore-forming and motile with flagella. Strain KC1(T) was found to grow at 25-45 °C (optimum 37 °C), pH 6.5-9.0 (optimum 8.0) and NaCl 0-10 % (v/v) (optimum 4 %). The major fatty acids were identified as anteiso-C15:0 and anteiso-C17:0. Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) was found to be the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The cell-wall diamino acid was found to be meso-diaminopimelic acid. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of phosphatidylglycerol and a glycolipid. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KC1(T) showed low similarity (<96 %) to other validly named species. The phylogenetic trees showed that strain KC1(T) is closely related to Bacillus azotoformans DSM 1046(T) and Bacillus methanolicus DSM 16454(T). Both these type strains showed 95.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to strain KC1(T). The DNA G+C content of strain KC1(T) was determined to be 39.0 mol%. On the basis of its phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics, strain KC1(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus salitolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KC1(T) (=JCM 19760(T) = CGMCC 1.12810(T)).

  14. Variation characteristics of regional synchronous wind in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Linhong; Song, Lili; Li, Gang; Xin, Yu

    2015-04-01

    From several towers in Hami, Xinjiang of Northwest China, built by the national wind power resources professional observation network, we selected three towers with synchronous 10-min average wind speed data for one year (May 2011-April 2012) under strict quality control. The towers are located where large-scale wind power development is projected. We analyzed the frequency and variation of extreme wind speed at low wind condition (LWC), rated wind condition (RWC), and cut-out wind condition (CWC), which may significantly impact the electric power grid configuration in large-scale wind power development. The correlation between duration and frequency of LWC/RWC/CWC is obtained. Major findings are: 1) The frequency of CWC is the lowest among all conditions, its synchronous rate at all three towers tends to be zero, and the frequency of LWC is always greater than that of RWC. 2) Among the three towers, the synchronous rate of RWC steadily increases with height, and LWC differs little between different levels. The synchronous rate of LWC concentrates in winter, while that of RWC mainly occurs in spring and summer. Diurnal variation of LWC/RWC during the entire year is significantly different. 3) During the study year, the longest durations of synchronous LWC and RWC among the three towers are up to 640 and 700 min, respectively. The duration and frequency of LWC/RWC can be quantitatively well described by a logarithmic function. Consequently, the synchronous rates of LWC and RWC over any duration in the region can be easily calculated by using the fitting function equation from observed data. These results are of value to the planning of large-scale wind power transmission and grid dispatching in this area.

  15. A lacustrine record from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, China: Implications for paleoclimate change during Late Pleistocene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, L.; Zicheng, P.; Dong, Y.; Weiguo, L.; Zhaofeng, Z.; Jianfeng, H.; Chenlin, C.

    2009-01-01

    Climate variability during the Late Pleistocene is studied from the proxies in core CK-2 drilled from the Luobei Depression (91??03???E, 40??47???N), Lop Nur in the eastern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Geophysical and geochemical properties, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate content, loss on ignition and trace elements, have been determined to reconstruct the environmental evolution of the area during 32-9 ka BP. The chronology is established by uranium-thorium disequilibrium dating techniques. Our data suggest four paleoclimate stages, indicating glacial variations between cold-humid and warm-arid environments. A period of extreme humidity occurred during 31,900-19,200 yr BP is attributed the last glacial maximum (LGM). The period was followed by a warm-arid episode during 19,200-13,500 yr BP. Then a cold-humid interval during 13,500-12,700 yr BP may correspond to another cooling phases at high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The last stage from 12,700 to 9000 yr BP has a trend that the climate turned warm and arid. The Lop Nur region is characterized by particularly humid stadials and arid interstadials. The climate variability in Lop Nur was constrained by global climate change because it is correlated with Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events, which were observed at the northern high latitudes. The synchroneity of the palaeoclimatic events suggested that cold air activity at the northern high latitudes was the most important factor that influenced the climate evolution in the Lop Nur region. A probable mechanism that involves the migration of westerly winds is proposed to interpret this synchroneity. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Brucella isolates from patients in Xinjiang China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fengbo; Li, Zhiwei; La, Xiaolin; Ma, Xiumin; Zhang, Yaoxin; Ji, Ping; Jiang, Min; Hu, Jinwei; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Lu, Xiaobo; Ding, Jianbing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study is to characterize and identify the human Brucella strains in Xinjiang, China with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme. Methods: Brucella strains were isolated and cultured from 62 brucellosis patients. The bacteria strains were subjected to the oxidase, catalase, rapid urease, and nitrate reduction tests, and the species identification was performed using the VITEK-2 Compact system. These Brucella strains were further identified and characterized using the 16 VNTR loci in a MLVA-16 methodology. Results: Twelve Brucella strains had been identified out of 62 patients, which were all recognized as Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) according to the results from the VITEK-2 Compact system. Based on panel 1 (MLVA-8), these 12 Brucella isolates were clustered into three known genotypes and two new genotypes, in which 7 strains were clustered into genotype 45 (1-5-3-12-2-2-3-2), 1 strain was classified as genotype 42 (1-5-3-13-2-2-3-2), 1 stain was with genotype 62 (1-3-3-13-2-2-3-2), and the other 3 trains revealed two new genotypes, i.e., (1-5-3-12-2-3-3-2) and (1-5-3-11-2-3-3-2). Using panel 2A+2B (MLVA-16), we found that no genotypes of these strains were identical to the known genotypes, generally with differences in 2-4 loci. However, three strains shared the same genotype. Conclusion: Brucella strains in 62 brucellosis patients from Xinjiang are all identified as B. melitensis. Based on MLVA-8, two new genotypes have been discovered. These findings might contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis and epidemiology of brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. PMID:26629067

  17. Optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Wei; Cao, Ling; Zhang, Ya; Cui, Kaiqiang; Wu, Shengli

    2015-04-01

    The adaptation and survive of introduced plants to local well brine groundwater irrigation is an important issue, while people introduce some plants to improve the local environment in the construction of urban greening oases in arid areas, north China. We measured some of the photosynthetic characteristics of introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by different local well brine groundwater in the wild controlled experiments, in May 2014 in Kelamayi city in north China, which to seek the most appropriate irrigation concentration of underground saline water, and to clarify the physiological ecological adaptation to the local habitat. The parameters, measured by Li-6400XT, a portable photosynthesis system, include the following ones, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration rate (Tr), the internal CO2 concentration (Ci) and efficiency of water application (WUE) of one-year old introduced Bamboo willow irrigated by set salinity groundwater gradient, as 0 g/L, 5 g/L and 10 g/L. the results showed that (1) In each salt water concentration, the diurnal variation curve of net photosynthetic rate showed as "bimodal curve" style, and obvious "midday depression". (2) The parameter Pn of Bamboo willow irrigated by salt water of 5g/L was highest compared with the other two, and the value Pn irrigated by salt water concentration of 10g/L down. The net photosynthetic rate would increase in the salt concentration of 10g/L. In conclusion, the salt groundwater concentration of 10g/L was the optimal concentration of local well brine groundwater irrigation for Bamboo willow introduced to the arid areas in northern Xinjiang province, China.

  18. Virulence and molecular diversity of the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici population in Xinjiang in relation to other regions of western China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, wheat stripe rust caused severe yield losses in western China, especially the Xinjiang Autonomous Region. The population of the stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), in the vast region had not been well studied. To determine the population structure and comp...

  19. The clinical features of 590 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang, China with the emphasis on the treatment of complications

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Bin; Zhang, Fengbo; Lu, Ying; Zhang, Wenbao; Li, Jun; Ding, Jianbing

    2017-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of 590 patients with brucellosis in Xinjiang, China. Methodology and principal findings The clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, complications and prognosis of 590 patients infected with brucellosis were retrospectively analyzed. These patients had a mean age of 44.24 ± 15.83 years with 60.5% having a history of close contacting with cattle and sheep. Of them, 53.6% (316 /590) were in acute phase and 21.5% were in chronic phase. Agglutination test showed 98.5% positive with 34% blood culture positive of Brucella. The major symptoms were fatigue (91%), hyperhidrosis(88.1%), fever(86.9%), and joint pain(81%) with 29.8% having enlarged liver, 26.1% having enlarged spleen and 23.2% having osteoarticular complications. Combination of doxycycline plus rifampicin for 12 weeks was an effective regimen for patients without complications. The 3-drug regimen (doxycycline+rifampicin+levofloxacin) for 12 weeks was recommended for these with complications. There were 6 patients died (1.02%) with overall relapse rate of 5.98%. Conclusions Brucellosis is mostly associated with contacting with domestic animal production in Xinjiang, China. Clinical symptoms include fever, fatigue, hyperhidrosis, and joint pain with common complication of osteoarticular involvement. Three-drug-regimen of doxycycline+rifampicin+levofloxacin for 12 weeks was effective for these patients with complications. PMID:28459811

  20. Phanerozoic magmatic tempos of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cope, Tim

    2017-06-01

    Detrital zircons from northeast China record cyclic magmatism along the northern and eastern margins of the North China block during late Paleozoic time and Mesozoic time, respectively. The late Paleozoic zircons record three magmatic flare-ups with a period of ∼60 m.y. that occurred within a magmatic arc constructed along the Paleoasian (northern) margin of North China, and are accompanied by negative εHf (t) excursions representing shortening and increased crustal melting over the duration of each flare-up. The intervening magmatic lulls are accompanied by rapid positive εHf (t) excursions signifying influxes of juvenile magma into the arc, probably during extension and foundering of underlying melt residua. The lack of similar isotopic patterns in zircons derived from contemporaneous intrusions into older continental settings inboard of the arc indicate that this process was restricted to the arc itself. Mesozoic magmatism in North China occurred along the Paleo-Pacific margin following closure of the Paleoasian Ocean, and exhibits a ∼50 m.y. periodicity that is out-of-phase with that of the Paleozoic arc. Although the tectonic setting of North China during Mesozoic time is complex and still controversial, it is possible that this younger periodicity is governed by similar processes as those that dominated the Paleozoic arc. This is a testable hypothesis that warrants further attention. Crustal shortening was widespread in North China during Mesozoic time, and documented lithosphere removal events in eastern North China occurred during the Mesozoic magmatic lulls. Lithospheric thickening/foundering cyclicity, well-documented in Cordilleran arc systems, may be a common process in continental arcs through space and time.

  1. Magnetic properties derived from a loess section at the northern piedmont of Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China, and their paleoenvironmental significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guanhua; Xia, Dunsheng; Jia, Jia; Zhao, Shuang; Gao, Fuyuan; Wang, Youjun; Lu, Hao; Chen, Fahu

    2015-11-01

    Loess deposits in the arid Central Asia contain valuable information on the evolution of local aridification and dust sources in the Northern Hemisphere. Xinjiang is located in the eastern part of Central Asia and previous researches have revealed the complex enhancement of magnetic susceptibility in loess-paleosol sequences. However, systematic magnetic archives of loess deposit in this arid Asian interior are still far from adequate. In this study, magnetic parameters combined with nonmagnetic properties (granulometry and chromaticity) were analysed on a loess section in Shawan (SW), northwestern China. The section shares a similar magnetic composition with those in the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) as well as other sites in Xinjiang. Ferrimagnetic components (magnetite and maghemite) dominate the magnetic signal while the contribution of antiferromagnetic phases (like hematite and goethite) and paramagnetic portions are relatively low. There is no specific correlation between magnetic concentration and pedogenic intensity in the SW section. In general, magnetic enhancement was largely influenced by the paleowind intensity. However, a positive correlation between magnetic susceptibility and pedogenesis is observed in the upper part (0-3.5 m depths), which is characterized by a moderate wind intensity. Moreover, pedogenesis might be responsible for the enhancement of fine magnetic particles in paleosols. Magnetic properties are controlled by coarse magnetic particles in the pseudo-single domain state, but a coarse stable single domain phase was found in certain paleosol samples. The input of detrital fractions from a nearby dust source probably controlled the magnetic properties while a superparamagnetic fraction, which has been deemed as a product of pedogenesis in the CLP, is limited in the SW section. Caution is needed to employ magnetic susceptibility directly for paleoclimatic assessment because of its uncertainty in the Xinjiang loess. However, the

  2. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    coal mine with the backfill. A smaller fires can also be handled by taking out burning coal by bulldozing techniques described above are applicable to small fires, but they do not work well in extinction of large coal fires. References [1] http://www.coalfire.caf.dlr.de [2] Schalke, H.J.W.G.; Rosema, A.; Van Genderen, J.L. (1993): Environmental monitoring of coal fires in North China. Project Identification Mission Report. Report Remote Sensing Programme Board, Derft, the Netherlands. [3] Zhang, X.; Kroonenberg, S. B.; De Boer, C. B. (2004): Dating of coal fires in Xinjiang, north-west China. Terra Nova. Band 16, No 2, S. 68-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3121.2004.00532.x [4] Deng Jun, Hou Shuang, Li Huirong, e.t.c (2006): Oxidation Mechanism at Initial Stage of a Simulated Coal Molecule with -CH2O-[J]. Journal of Changchun University of Science and Technology, 29(2), P. 84-87. [5] Deng, Jun (2008): Presentation. Chinese Researches and Practical Experiences on Controlling Underground Coal Fires. The 2nd Australia-China Symposium on Science, Technology and Education. 15-18 October 2008, Courtyard Marriott, Surfers Paradise Beach, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. [6] Itasca (2003): FLAC, Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua. Itasca Consultants Group, Inc., Minneapolis.

  3. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  4. Protracted Counterinsurgency Chinese COIN Strategy in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    with the Taliban or the Arabs. We have nothing to do 1Boston Globe Editorial, “Pawns in Guantanamo’s Game ,” The Boston Globe, 11 March 2007, http...Only one pass, The Gansu corridor, leading toward eastern China, represents the only non -man made route between Xinjiang and eastern China. Xinjiang...the vast majority of non -Han nationalities residing in Xinjiang before 1950 were Turkic Muslims and considered themselves to be distinct from the Han

  5. Prevalence of valvular heart diseases and associated risk factors in Han, Uygur and Kazak population in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Maimaiti, Ailifeire; Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang

    2017-01-01

    Background Valvular heart diseases (VHD) is very common in clinical practice and has became the subject of growing attention in the field of cardiovascular medicine. Our aim was to assess the prevalence and correlates of VHD in the general population in Xinjiang, China. Methods Using a 4-stage stratified cluster random sampling method, a total of 14618 participants were recruited in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The participants’ personal information, medical history were assessed by questionnaire. VHD was diagnosed by transthoracic echocardiography. We carried out the statistical analysis utilizing SPSS Statistics version 19.0. Results In the total study group, VHD was observed in 1397 (9.65%) individuals. The prevalence rates of VHD in Han, Uygur and Kazak group are 13.51%, 2.71% and 12.29% respectively. The prevalence rates of VHD increased strikingly with age (all P < 0.001). The results of multinomial regression analysis indicated that VHD were related to age in Han group, to age smoking and hypertension in Uygur group, to age and hypertension in Kazak group. Conclusion Our research provides a unique prevalence rate of VHD in Xinjiang natural population. The result suggests that VHD are notably common in this population (9.65%) and increase with age. There exists significant difference of prevalence rate between ethnics. The main risk factors of VHD are age, hypertension and smoking. Valvular heart diseases should be regarded as a serious and growing public-health problem. PMID:28355290

  6. Climatic change of inland river basin in an arid area: a case study in northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Yu, Shulong; Wang, Minzhong

    2012-01-01

    We examined climate variability at two timescales for northern Xinjiang, China: one is of the past 500 years using dendrochronology data and the other is of the past 50 years using meteorological station data. The regression models built from the 50-year period were used to reconstruct the climate of the 500-year period. The results indicate that climate underwent many alternating warm-cold and wet-dry periods in the past 500 years. For the 50-year period, we applied the Mann-Kendall jump test to data from 48 meteorological stations to identify possible transition points of temperature and precipitation. For this period, we also analyzed the impacts of latitude, altitude, slope aspect, and human activities on climate variability, aiming to recognize major factors that influence regional climate variability. The results show a warming and wetting trend in the recent 50 years in northern Xinjiang. We determined that natural pattern variability is dominant in the long-term climate variability in the region, but human impacts are non-negligible in the past 50 years. Regional climate variability may be associated with or driven by latitude, altitude, ecosystems, topography, and human activities. The study provides an empirical evidence of the unique regional characteristics of inland river basin in an arid area over the global climate change background.

  7. Initial appraisal of solar thermal electric energy in Tibet and Xinjiang Provinces, People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Li Junfeng; Zhu Li; Liu Zhan; Zhang Yuan; Washom, B.; Kolb, G.

    1998-07-01

    At the request of US sponsors Spencer Management Associates (SMA) and Sun{diamond}Lab, China`s Center for Renewable Energy Development and former Ministry of Electric Power conducted an initial appraisal of the issues involved with developing China`s first solar thermal electric power plant in the sunbelt regions of Tibet or Xinjiang provinces. The appraisal concerns development of a large-scale, grid-connected solar trough or tower project capable of producing 30 or more megawatts of electricity. Several of the findings suggest that Tibet could be a niche market for solar thermal power because a solar plant may be the low-cost option relative to other methods of generating electricity. China has studied the concept of a solar thermal power plant for quite some time. In 1992, it completed a pre-feasibility study for a SEGS-type parabolic trough plant with the aid of Israel`s United Development Limited. Because the findings were positive, both parties agreed to conduct a full-scale feasibility study. However, due to funding constraints, the study was postponed. Most recently, Sun{diamond}Lab and SMA asked China to broaden the analysis to include tower as well as trough concepts. The findings of this most recent investigation completed i November of 1997, are the subject of this paper. The main conclusions of all studies conducted to date suggest that a region in the proximity of Lhasa, Tibet, offers the best near-term opportunity within China. The opportunities for solar thermal power plants in other regions of China were also investigated.

  8. Selection of indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) for winemaking and their aroma-producing characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Qin, Yi; Song, Yuyang; Ye, Dongqin; Yuan, Wei; Pei, Yingfang; Xue, Bo; Liu, Yanlin

    2015-11-01

    In order to select potential indigenous Saccharomyces strains, diversity of indigenous Saccharomyces strains in Shanshan County (Xinjiang, China) was preliminarily analyzed. Twenty-one genotypes were found through interdelta fingerprinting analysis. According to this result, representatives of each genotype were chosen to test the enological criteria. After tests of fermentation characteristics and growth ability, eight strains were finally selected as starters to further fermentation of Merlot must for aroma analysis and sensory evaluation at the same testing conditions, with one commercial strain F15 as control. Each strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produced individual volatiles in different concentrations and combinations which significantly influenced resulting wine flavour. Except of LFP522, all indigenous isolates produced more concentration of esters than F15. Higher concentrations of linalool, β-damascenone and citral, associated with S. cerevisiae LFE1809, considerably distinguished this strain from the others. Sensory evaluation present the Merlot wine fermented by LFE1225 isolated from Merlot, had the highest sensory score.

  9. Association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations: A multiethnic study in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Shan, Chun-Fang; Ma, Yi-Tong

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic differences in non-invasive measurements of carotid atherosclerosis are being increasingly reported, but the association between carotid atherosclerosis and different subtypes of hypertension in adult populations is not fully understood in different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association of carotid atherosclerosis with different subtypes of hypertension in different ethnicities in Xinjiang, a northwestern province in China. Methods A total of 14,618 participants (5,757 Hans, 4,767 Uygurs, and 4,094 Kazakhs) from 26 villages of seven cities in Xinjiang were randomly selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. A standard questionnaire, a physical examination and biochemical tests were employed. Results The mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) for the 14,618 participants was 0.86±0.003 mm. The CIMT gradually increased with age. Men (0.92±0.005 mm) had a higher CIMT than women (0.81±0.004 mm). The Uygur participants (0.82±0.006 mm) had a lower CIMT than the Han (0.88±0.005 mm) and Kazakh participants (0.88±0.005 mm). The overall prevalences of carotid intimal thickening and carotid plaques were 12.4% and 9.7%, respectively. The prevalence of CIMT varied for the different subtypes of hypertension. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed different risk factors for abnormal CIMT in different ethnicities. The associations between abnormal CIMT and the different subtypes of hypertension within different ethnic backgrounds were also different. The risk factors for abnormal CIMT included systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH) in Han participants (OR: 1.323, 95% CI: 1.100–1.590), SDH (OR: 1.426, 95% CI: 1.160–1.753) and isolated-systolic hypertension (ISH) (OR: 1.844, 95% CI: 1.470–2.313) in Uygur participants, and isolated-diastolic hypertension (IDH) (OR: 1.536, 95% CI: 1.170–2.016) in Kazakh participants. Conclusion There was an ethnic difference in the prevalence of abnormal

  10. [The measurement and retrieval of the spectral reflectance of different snow grain size on Northern Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jie; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Pu; Huang, Chun-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The retrieval of snow grain size is one of the important research directions for cryosphere snow remote sensing. In the present study, we designed the measurement plan of different snow grain size by different snow layer. A SVC HR-1024 ground-based spectral radiometer was used for measuring the spectral property of different snow grain size in northern Xinjiang, China. At the same time, the snow grain size and shape were measured by a hand-loupe with scale. Then the DSPP method was used to calculate the equivalent snow grain size. Finally, the asymptotic radiative transfer (ART) theory was applied to retrieve the snow grain size from measured snow spectral reflectance of different snow layer by optimizing the inversion band and the snow grain size factor "b". The retrieved snow grain size was validated by the measured snow grain size from DSPP method. The results showed that the DSPP method is an effective means of measuring the equivalent snow grain size. However, there is a large deviation of the snow grain size sample in the same snow layer. It is necessary to improve the measurement method of the single snow grain size sample; The study showed that the near-infrared bands are the most effective selection for retrieval of snow grain size. The retrieval algorithm from ART is feasible. When the snow is dry, the authors optimize the inversion band and the snow grain size factor b in the Northern Xinjiang, China. The optimal band wavelength is 1.20 microm and b is 3.62.

  11. [Investigation of ophthalmic resources in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in China].

    PubMed

    Maierdang, Ailimu; Maimaiti, Yasen; Liu, Li-ming; Fulati, Abudureyimu; Sha, Ying; Sun, Yong; Ding, Lin; Gulibahaer, Kadeer; Yang, Bo; Cao, Ming-qin

    2012-09-01

    To explore ophthalmic resources and existing problems in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, and to provide reasonable developing configuration for the future. It was a population-based cross-section study. By using questionnaire to collect data from all eye units (national and private) which were registered in Xinjiang area. Investigation included: (1) ophthalmic medical unit of name, structure type, departments constitute; (2) the ophthalmic medical work; (3) the number of ophthalmology health technicians and distribution; (4) ophthalmic devices usage; (5) carry out the problems and difficulties encountered in ophthalmic work. Descriptive statistic method was used to analyze the structure of ophthalmic material, the availability of resource, the medical institution of different regions and types. One hundred and thirty questionnaire were filled out and 110 questionnaire were recovery. There were 107 eye units, 1709 beds for ophthalmic, 1672 employees, including 525 doctors, the ratio of doctors and nurses was 1.0:1.3. And the ophthalmic resources mainly distributed in northern Tianshan, very few in the eastern area in Xinjiang; ophthalmic units were denser in general hospitals which were above the county level. There were 43 580 ophthalmic surgeries in all, the main eye operation carried out was cataract surgery, including 20 303 (counted 46.59%) cataract operation. The ophthalmic units distribution is unbalanced, which is short of ophthalmologists. It provides base for government to arrange ophthalmic resources reasonably, to enhance the research motivation and to cultivate more professors, and to increase the number of ophthalmic specialists in the general hospitals, and eventually to maximize the benefit of ophthalmic service in Xinjiang.

  12. The Fracturing of China? Ethnic Separatism and Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    During the repressive years of the 1990s, this civil society went underground but leaders still influenced the minority population. As the...states to exert influence in the Central Asian region through unilateral means or international organizations will be negated by the SCO. China’s...Political Violence in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region 6. AUTHOR(S) Bradley D. Hitchcock 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S

  13. The role of scenario analysis in water resources management in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Kinzelbach, W. K.; Li, W.; Dong, X.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid increase of world population and food demand, the demand for water resources is also increasing. At the same time shifts in rain patterns due to global climate change make the water resources situation more uncertain. A global water crisis can therefore not be excluded. The socio-economic and environmental problems induced by such a water crisis are especially prominent in arid and semiarid regions. The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang province is a typical case study in China's arid and semi-arid areas, where rainfall is scarce and evaporation is extremely high. Thus its water resources have been under great pressure to satisfy the increasing water demand of agriculture and urban and industrial expansion in the last decades. The development has been accompanied by a number of environmental problems. Yanqi Basin is an important cultivated area which is irrigated by water diverted from rivers. Because of the long-term flood irrigation and an inefficient drainage system, the groundwater level under the cultivated area rose, accelerating the phreatic evaporation and leading to increased soil salinization. Simultaneously, the water quantity and quality of Boston Lake have been impaired in past years because of the decreased river discharge and the increased salt flux contained in the drainage discharge. Thus the ecosystems depending on the inflow to and outflow from the lake suffered. The riverine forests in the downstream area were degraded due to declining groundwater levels, and aquatic life as well as downstream water users had to cope with deteriorating water quality. The big challenge for decision makers in the basin is how to balance the justified requirements of agriculture, industrial development and the ecosystem. In order to provide a scientific basis to the decision making process, a scenario analysis was adopted. Here several scenarios are proposed: the basic scenario, scenario 1, describes the status of the year 2008. A second scenario maximizes the

  14. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong

    2016-11-01

    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  15. Granites in the Sawuer region of the west Junggar, Xinjiang Province, China: Geochronological and geochemical characteristics and their geodynamic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Taofa; Yuan, Feng; Fan, Yu; Zhang, Dayu; Cooke, David; Zhao, Guochun

    2008-12-01

    The Sawuer region is located in the west Junggar, Jimunai County of Altay district and Hefeng County of Tacheng district, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, in northwest China. In the study area granitic intrusions are widespread and can be subdivided into I-type granites (Tasite pluton, Sentasi pluton, Wokensala pluton and Kaerjia pluton) and A-type (A 2) granites (Kuoyitasi pluton and Qiaqihai pluton). The I-type granites consist of granite, adamelite, granodiorite, and the A-type granites are mainly represented by alkali granite. SHRIMP U-Pb dating results indicate that the granites in Sawuer region were formed between 337 Ma and 290.7 Ma (late Carboniferous and early Permian), with the I-type granites being formed between 337 Ma and 302.6 Ma, and the A-type between 297.9 and 290.7 Ma. From the older to the youngest granites, their composition changes from calc-alkalic to high-K calc-alkalic, to alkali series, and from I-type to A-type, based on the characteristics of whole rock trace element and rare earth elements geochemistry. This compositional range is the result of a change in the geodynamic regime from compressional to tensional during the late Paleozoic. Strontium, Nd, Pb, O isotope systematics suggest that both the I-type and A-type granites in Sawuer were sourced from the mantle (DM), but with some crustal contamination for the Kuoyitasi pluton. The I-type granites were formed by equilibrium partial melting, while the A-type granites were formed mainly by fractional crystallization. Based on the Rb-Y + Nb and Nb-Y-Ce discrimination criteria by Eby [Eby G.N., 1992. Chemical subdivision of the A-type granitoids: Petrogenetic and tectonic implications. Geology 20, 641-644] and Pearce [Pearce J.A., 1996. Sources and settings of granitic rocks. Episodes 19, 120-125] and comparisons with granites in other regions of northern Xinjiang, the I-type granites were emplaced during a transition from compressional to extensional settings in a post-collision regime, whereas

  16. Snow Water Equivalent estimation from AMSR-E data based on priori snow properties in Xinjiang province of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, L.; Che, T.

    2011-12-01

    A novel snow water equivalent (SWE) retrieval algorithm from AMSR-E data is established based on priori snow conditions (such as snow grain size and density, as well as the stratigraphy of snow) in Xinjiang Province of China. Within the retrieval algorithm, a microwave radiative transfer model (i.e. MEMLS) is used to simulate the brightness temperature (TB) datasets at 18 and 36 GHz under all kinds of snow conditions including snow grain size, density, depth, and stratigraphy (namely, the snow layering). Therefore, a series of relationships between snow depth and the difference of TB at these two frequencies can be obtained based on different snow grain size, density and stratigraphic conditions. These snow conditions were measured along a fixed route of this study area for a complete snow season. Furthermore, a layering scheme was established based on the snow depth (estimated by existing SD algorithm in priori), while the depth of each layer and its grain size and density were parameterized according to the age of snow cover. Finally, the SWE can be calculated by snow depth and its density. SWE retrieved by this new algorithm at seven meteorological stations in Xinjiang Province from 2003 to 2008 are compared to two existing SWE products from NSIDC (National snow and ice data center) and WESTDC (Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China). Three groups of root-mean-squared error (RMSE) and mean error (ME) are calculated between observed SWE and the three estimated SWE(s), respectively (Table 1). The three groups of RMSE have the same tendency of increasing with the increase of mean SWE, while the RMSE(s) from the new algorithm and from the WESTDC are much less and ME(s) are much closer to zero than from the NSIDC at all seven stations (see Table 1). The RMSE(s) from the new algorithm are less than from the WESTDC at seven stations, and ME(s) are closer to zero at five stations. At the other two stations, the ME(s) are -2.02mm and -3.05mm

  17. Signal of Acceleration and Physical Mechanism of Water Cycle in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guo-Lin; Wu, Yong-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Global warming accelerates water cycle with features of regional difference. However, little is known about the physical mechanism behind the phenomenon. To reveal the links between water cycle and climatic environment, we analyzed the changes of water cycle elements and their relationships with climatic and environmental factors. We found that when global warming was significant during the period of 1986-2003, the precipitation in Tarim mountains as well as Xinjiang increased rapidly except for Tarim plains, which indicated that there existed a signal of acceleration for water cycle in Xinjiang. The speed of water cycle is mainly affected by altitude, latitude, longitude, slope direction, and the most fundamental element is temperature. Moreover, according to Clausius-Kela Bai Lung relation, we found that the climate change induced the increase of temperature and accelerated the local water cycle only for the wet places. Our results provide a possible physical mechanisms of water cycle and thus well link the climate change to water circulation. PMID:27907078

  18. Multi-proxy evidence for Late Pleistocene-Holocene climatic and environmental changes in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, C.; Yang, D.; Peng, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Weiguo, L.; He, J.; Zhou, C.

    2008-01-01

    A 10.35-m-long sediment core from the Luobei depression in Lop-Nur, Xinjiang, Northwest China, provides detailed information about environmental changes during the Late Pleistocene. The samples taken every 5 cm of the core were analyzed for 10 environmental proxies, including magnetic susceptibility, granularity, chroma, carbonate and loss on ignition (LOI), and pH value. The chronology data are provided by the uranium/thorium disequilibrium dates. The sediments of the section were deposited during the last 32000 years. The results of analysis of 10 proxies were examined using multivariate statistical analysis, and the principal components were calculated. According to the results, the Late Pleistocene sequence contains four climatic and environmental stages appearing in the cycles of cold-wet and warm-dry changes. During 10-9 ka BP, it was the earliest warm episode in the Holocene. Environmental changes in this district were restricted by global change, as suggested by the analysis of glacial-interglacial cycles. But it was different from the mutative trend of a monsoon region in East China because of its own characteristics, which was the situation of cold-wet and warm-dry climate-environment change. The candidate reason may be the uplift of the Tibet Plateau and the westerly wind circulation. ?? Science Press, Institute of Geochemistry, CAS and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2008.

  19. 3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT CHINA WASH FLUME SHOWING WASH - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  20. Population genetic structure in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars revealed by fluorescent-AFLP markers in southern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhaohe; Chen, Xuesen; He, Tianming; Feng, Jianrong; Feng, Tao; Zhang, Chunyu

    2007-11-01

    Population-wide genetic structure was studied using fluorescent-AFLP markers on 85 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivars collected from Kuche, Kashi, Hetian in the Tarim Basin, southern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The purpose of this study was to determine the genetic structure and genotypic diversity among the different eco-geographical populations. Based on the results from this study, 8 pairs of fluorescent-AFLP primers showed clear electrophoregram and high polymorphism amongst the 64 pairs of EcoR|/Mse|(Mse|--a FAM fluorescent marked primer) primers screened. There was a significant polymorphic difference for the same primer pair in different populations and for the same population with different primer pairs. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) at species level was higher than Kuche, Hetian, Kashi population levels, respectively. The Nei's gene diversity index (H) and Shannon's information index (I) at species level were higher than those of Kuche, Hetian, and Kashi at population level, respectively. H and I of Kuche population were the highest amongst the three populations. Apricot population genetic diversity was found mainly within the population. Genetic differentiation coefficient between populations (G(ST)) was 0.0882. Gene flow Nm between the populations was 5.1689. Population genetic identity was between 0.9772-0.9811 and genetic distance was between 0.0191-0.0232. These results further indicated that the similarity between populations was higher and the genetic distance between populations was smaller. The UPGMA cluster analysis indicates that the geographical populations at Kuche, Kashi, Hetian were relatively independent Mendelian populations. Concurrently, there was also partial gene exchange between the populations. All the evidences indicated that the genetic diversity in Kuche population was the highest, suggesting that it could be a transition population from wild apricot to cultivated apricot. There were abundant genetic

  1. Spatial analysis of visceral leishmaniasis in the oases of the plains of Kashi Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ying; Wu, Wei-Ping; Fu, Qing; Guan, Ya-Yi; Han, Shuai; Niu, Yan-Lin; Tong, Su-Xiang; Osman, Israyil; Zhang, Song; Kaisar, Kaisar

    2016-03-15

    Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang is one of the most seriously affected areas with anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis in China. A better understanding of space distribution features in this area was needed to guide strategies to eliminate visceral leishmaniasis from highly endemic areas. We performed a spatial analysis using the data collected in Bosh Klum Township in Xinjiang China. Based on the report of endemic diseases between 1990 and 2005, three villages with a high number of visceral leishmaniasis cases in Bosh Klum Township were selected. We conducted a household survey to collect the baseline data of kala-azar patients using standard case definitions. The geographical information was recorded with GIS equipment. A binomial distribution fitting test, runs test, and Scan statistical analysis were used to assess the space distribution of the study area. The result of the binomial distribution fitting test showed that the distribution of visceral leishmaniasis cases in local families was inconsistent (χ(2) = 53.23, P < 0.01). The results of runs test showed that the distribution of leishmaniasis infected families along the channel was not random in the group of more than five infected families. The proportion of this kind of group in all infected families was 63.84 % (113 of 177). In the Scan statistical analysis, spatial aggregation was analyzed by poisson model, which found 3 spatial distribution areas 1) Zone A was located in a center point of 76.153447°E, 39.528477°N within its 1.11 mile radius, where the cumulative life-incidence of leishmaniasis was 1.95 times as high as that in surrounding areas (P < 0.05); 2) Zone B was located in a center point of 76.111968°E, 39.531895°N within its 0.54 mile radius, where the cumulative life-incidence of leishmaniasis was 1.82 times as high as that in surrounding areas (P < 0.01); and 3) Zone C was located in a center point of 76.195427°E, 39.563835°N within its 0.68 mile radius, where the

  2. Association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms with risk of primary hyperuricemia in Uygur men, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yu-Ping; Zhang, Bei; Miao, Lei; Wang, Xian-Min; Yu, Jia-Hui; Luo, Li; Ying, Lu; Xin, Gao; Haliakpaer, Gulinizha; Xia, He; Yao, Hua

    2015-04-12

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) participates in lipoprotein metabolism and immune regulation. This study assessed association between ApoE polymorphisms with hyperuricemia and uric acid metabolism in Uygur men, Xinjiang, China. A total of 474 hyperuricemia patients and 518 healthy male controls were recruited from the Health Screening Center, Uygur region of Xinjiang, China and subjected to ApoE genotyping using a multiplex amplification refractory mutation system PCR. Apolipoprotein E3/3 genotype was the predominant type with a frequency of 67.7%, while E2/2 was lower than E4/4 in Uygur males. The frequencies of ApoE2, E3, and E4 alleles were 8.5%, 80.1% and 11.4%, respectively. Distribution of ApoE genotypes was significantly different in hyperuricemia patients from the healthy controls (p<0.001). Particularly, the frequency of ApoE E3/3 was 71.7%, E2/3 9.3%, E3/4 9.3%, E4/4 3.2%, E2/4 2.3%, and E2/2 0.2% in patients vs. 68.1%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 12%, 0.6%, and 4.6% in controls, respectively. Moreover, frequency of ApoE E2 allele was greater in the healthy controls than in patients (p<0.001) and the highest level of uric acid occurred in those with ApoE2/4 and E3/4 genotypes, whereas the lowest uric acid level occurred in those with ApoE E2/2 genotype. In addition, the subjects with the ApoE2 allele had a lower uric acid and LDL-C level than those with the ApoE3 allele and ApoE4 allele (p<0.05). The risk of developing hyperuricemia in subjects without the ApoE2 allele was 1.7 fold higher than those subjects with the ApoE2 allele. This study revealed frequencies and distributions of ApoE alleles and genotypes in Uygur males, which are different from Han Chinese. ApoE E4 was associated with a slightly higher risk of primary hyperuricemia, whereas ApoE E2 was associated with reduced risk of primary hyperuricemia and LDL-C level.

  3. Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Yue'e; Zhu, Jun; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-04-01

    Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang.

  4. Essential oil composition analysis of three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae from Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Yue’e; Zhu, Jun; Xiao, Qiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Three cultivars seeds of Resina ferulae were analyzed for essential oil composition, Ferula sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, Ferula fukangensis K. M. Shen, and Ferula ovina, investigated differences among different genera of medicinal R. ferulae. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were extracted by the method of hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using normalization method to calculate relative amount. Results: Twenty-six compounds were identified in F. sinkiangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 99.001% of total essential oil; 21 compounds were identified in F. fukangensis K. M. Shen, comprised 100% of total essential oil; 25 compounds were identified in F. ovina, comprised 99.459% of total essential oil. n-Propyl sec-butyl disulfide is the main component in three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae, accounting for 55.875%, 49.797%, 53.781%, respectively. Conclusion: Little diversity among three cultivars seeds of R. ferulae from Xinjiang. PMID:21716620

  5. Microscopic identification and in vitro activity of Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey) from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haiyan; Li, Shaoyu; He, Lijuan; Kasimu, Rena

    2017-02-07

    Agastache rugosa is well-known as a common traditional Chinese medicine, which have relieving summer-heat, analgesic and antipyretic effects, have long been used as folkloristic remedy in the treatment of several infectious diseases, anti-inflammatory, and for its antibacterial properties. Considering the lack of available data on the morphology, anatomy and in vitro activity of A. rugosa, the goal of the present study was to carry out the microscopic identification of its aerial parts and in vitro activity research as a contribution to the quality control and reasonable utilization involving A. rugosa. The present study was (a) to describe the microscopic identification with usual light and scanning electron microtechniques of A. rugosa, collected from Xinjiang Region; (b) based on previous research on the essential oil constituents among different parts of A. rugosa from Xinjiang by GC-MS method, to evaluate its antibacterial effect and cell viabilitity assay. The microscopic identification of botanical material showed some typical structure. The essential oils from the dried flower (EOF) and leaves (EOL) of A. rugosa were 0.29% and 0.57% (w/w), respectively. The in vitro antibacterial activities showed strong inhibition against S.aureus, E. coli of EOF; strong inhibition against E. coli of EOL. Based GC-MS analysis, the MTT assay showed a dose and time-dependent increase in damage for gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901. The results of this work, based on an extensive analytical characterization of the EOF and EOL chemical composition, compared with other origins, showed A. rugosa possessed antibacterial and cytotoxicity properties activities, which need much additional work to open up new biomedical application of these components.

  6. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants.

  7. Patterns and Environmental Determinants of Medicinal Plant : Vascular Plant Ratios in Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bengang; Xiao, Peigen; Qi, Yaodong; Zhang, Zhao; Liu, Haitao; Li, Xiaojin; Wang, Guoping; Terwei, André

    2016-01-01

    With both a full collection of native vascular plant distributions and a full checklist of source plants of the Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), the Uygur Medicine (UM), and the Kazak Medicine (KM) for the Xinjiang region, we defined medicinal plant: vascular plant ratios (simplified as medicinal plant ratios hereafter) as the value of medicinal plant richness divided by vascular plant richness. We aimed to find whether the ratios are constant or change in different environments, which environmental variables determine medicinal plant ratios, and whether the ratios are more influenced by human or by natural environments. Finally, suggestions for medicinal plant conservation were addressed. We found that (1) medicinal plant ratios were not constant, and they were high in the Tarim Basin which was largely covered by desert, while they were relatively low in mountainous areas, especially in the Tianshan Mountains where the general species richness was high; (2) medicinal plant ratios were not significantly influenced by human activities, indicated by human population density distributions, but they were highly correlated with plant species richness and climate, i.e. ratios decreased with plant species richness and MAP, and were related quadratically with MAT; (3) CMM ratio and UM ratio were more influenced by plant richness than by climate, while KM ratio was more influenced by climate. We concluded that the percentages of plants used as medicines were not influenced by distances from human settlements, but were determined by species richness or climate. We suggest that (1), in general, the medicinal plant ratio could be a complementary indicator for medicinal plant conservation planning and (2), for the region of Xinjiang, not only high diversity areas, but also some extreme environments should be considered as compensation for a better protection of medicinal plants. PMID:27391239

  8. Synchronous glacier surge events observed in the West Kunlun Shan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudley, Tom; Willis, Ian

    2017-04-01

    High Mountain Asia is a major centre of glacier surge activity, but the precise surge mechanisms in the region are poorly understood. Satellite-based studies in the region describe unusual surge characteristics that appear to be explained poorly by either of the two classic surge mechanisms (hydrological and thermal surging) firmly established in the literature. Here, we present a record of surging in a ˜40 x 60 km zone of the West Kunlun Shan (WKS), Xinjiang, a poorly researched range ˜250 km northeast of the Karakoram. We use a combination of historic satellite imagery and cross-correlation feature tracking to expand the record of surging in the region and assess surge dynamics. We use the 1972—2016 Landsat satellite record to observe a total of 9 surge active phases in the past four decades. Of these, 2 occur prior to 2000, but the remaining 7 display a highly unusual near-synchronous surge onset in the 2006—2008 period. This synchronous surge behaviour has not previously been reported for discrete unconnected glaciers. Additionally, the surge characteristics showed similar surge characteristics to those observed in the Karakoram, notably low peak velocities (2—3 m day-1) reminiscent of thermal surges and short active phase periods (˜2-5 years) reminiscent of hydrological surges. We suggest that such observations are indicative of surging via a 'hydro-thermodynamic' mechanism, recently proposed for the Basin-C outlet of Austfonna, Svalbard. In this mechanism, high surface melt rates can raise the temperature of cold-based ice over relatively short timescales compared to thermal surges by rapidly transmitting energy to the base, facilitating enhanced flow by ice deformation. This hypothesis is supported by meteorological data, which show that the 2006-2008 period was marked by a series of all-time highs in seasonal temperatures in southern Xinjiang, suggesting that high surface melt is a valid mechanism by which these surges could have initiated.

  9. Exploring the correlations between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in the wastewater treatment plants of hospitals in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Lu, Jianjiang; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Genlin; Tong, Yanbing; Ma, Na

    2016-08-01

    Various antibiotics have been extensively used to treating infectious diseases in hospitals. In this study, the abundance and diversity of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were observed in the wastewater samples from five hospitals in Xinjiang, China. The total concentrations of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, and quinolones in hospital influents ranged from 363.4 to 753.3 ng/L, 285.5 to 634.9 ng/L, and 1355.8 to 1922.4 ng/L, respectively. However, the removal efficiency of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, and quinolones in wastewater treatment processes ranged from 72.4 to 79.3 %, 36.0 to 52.2 %, and 45.1 to 55.4 %, respectively. The contamination levels of the selected ARGs varied in all wastewater samples. The highest relative concentrations of sul1, sul2, tetQ, and qnrS were significantly higher than those of other ARGs in this study. Significant positive correlations between the relative abundance of partial ARGs and concentrations of certain antibiotics were observed in hospital wastewaters. Results show that integrons played an important role in disseminating and distributing ARGs in microorganism systems. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between tetQ, sulphonamide resistance genes (except sulA) and intI1. This study aimed to determine the contamination levels of antibiotics and ARGs and analyze the relationships among ARGs, and antibiotics and integron genes in hospital wastewaters.

  10. Recent trends of temperature change under hot and cold desert climates: Comparing the Sahara (Libya) and Central Asia (Xinjiang, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, B.; Et-Tantawi, A. M. M.; Schäfer, D.; Meixner, F. X.; Domroes, M.

    2012-04-01

    According to trend computations at three stations each in Sahara desert (Libya), characterized by a "hot" desert type ("BWh", according to the Koeppen climate classification), and in Central Asia (Xinjiang, China) identified as a "cold" desert type ("BWk", after Koeppen), increasing annual temperatures were detected over the period 1955-2005 corresponding with global temperature warming. From 1955-1978, negative (decreasing) temperature trends were, however, observed at all three hot desert stations and at two of the three cold desert stations. From 1979-2005, strikingly positive temperature trends were seen at all six stations. In seasonal respects, winter (December to February) and summer (June to August) show different temperature trends over the period 1955-2005: the hot desert experienced an increasing temperature trend at a greater extent in summer than in winter; vice-versa, in the cold desert positive trends were computed for winter and negative for summer. It can also be observed that mostly hot desert warming occurred in summer, opposite to cold desert warming in winter.

  11. Influence of climatic factors on tree-ring maximum latewood density of Picea schrenkiana in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu; Wang, Lili; Yin, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The influence of temperature and precipitation on maximum latewood density (MXD) was mainly discussed in this paper, based on the samples of Picea schrenkiana from the Manas River Basin, Xinjiang, China. The correlation analysis between MXD and instrumental records from the Shihezi Meteorological Station showed that the MXD was positively related to the mean maximum temperature throughout the growing season at high elevations. Comparatively, the ring-width at low altitudes was limited by the precipitation in May-June. The composite chronology by MXD sequences was highly correlated with the mean maximum temperature in July-August ( r = 0.54, p<0.001), which was then reconstructed by the composite chronology. The comparative analysis on the reconstructed temperatures, observed values, and drought indices ( Is) revealed that precipitation would affect MXD when the absolute value of Is was greater than 1.5σ (i.e., | Is|>2.5) in the period of 1953-2008 A.D. or close to 1.5σ for 2-3 consecutive years. The response characteristics are linked with the semiarid climate in the study area. In a single year or consecutive years of extreme dryness, the lack of precipitation would limit the thickening of latewood cell walls and thus impact the MXD. All in all, if a MXD chronology is aimed to reconstruct temperature history, the moisture conditions at the sampling site should be considered prudently.

  12. Oviposition site selection by Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Hui; Hu, De-Fu; Li, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Oviposition site selection is an important aspect of the behavioural ecology of insects. A comparison of the habitats used by a species enhances our understanding of their adaptation to altered environments. We collected data on the oviposition behaviours of Gasterophilus pecorum (Diptera: Gasterophilidae) in its habitat in Kalamaili Nature Reserve (KNR), Xinjiang, China between March and October 2014. We found 91 quadrats were used by G. pecorum for oviposition. Examining 13 ecological factors using the t-test, chi-square test, and principal component analysis showed that G. pecorum’s oviposition habitat was preferentially on slopes with inclinations of 10–30° that were semi-sunny, semi-cloudy slopes, in positions high or low on the slopes, with preferences for total plants lower than 10% and Stipa capillata coverage lower than 10% on the low slopes, but Ceratoides latens coverage on the high and intermediate slopes, when the numbers of plant species and families were lower than five. G. pecorum often selected sites at a distance < 2000 m from a water source and average altitude 900–1000 m. The oviposition site selection by G. pecorum may be correlated with the behaviour of Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii), and water and food resources may strongly influence oviposition site selection, as Przewalski’s horses rest and forage in these areas. PMID:26621549

  13. Generation and Characterization of HIV-1 Transmitted and Founder Virus Consensus Sequence from Intravenous Drug Users in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Ma, Liying; Feng, Yi; Hu, Jing; Ni, Na; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

    2017-03-02

    HIV-1 transmission in intravenous drug users (IDUs) has been characterized by high genetic multiplicity and suggests a greater challenge for HIV-1 infection blocking. We investigated a total of 749 sequences of full-length gp160 gene obtained by single genome sequencing (SGS) from 22 HIV-1 early infected IDUs in Xinjiang province, northwest China, and generated a transmitted and founder virus (T/F virus) consensus sequence (IDU.CON). The T/F virus was classified as subtype CRF07_BC and predicted to be CCR5-tropic virus. The variable region (V1, V2, and V4 loop) of IDU.CON showed length variation compared with the heterosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (HSX.CON) and homosexual T/F virus consensus sequence (MSM.CON). A total of 26 N-linked glycosylation sites were discovered in the IDU.CON sequence, which is less than that of MSM.CON and HSX.CON. Characterization of T/F virus from IDUs highlights the genetic make-up and complexity of virus near the moment of transmission or in early infection preceding systemic dissemination and is important toward the development of an effective HIV-1 preventive methods, including vaccines.

  14. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2017-07-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  15. Comparison of horizontal dust fluxes simulated with two dust emission schemes based on field experiments in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xinghua; Yang, Fan; Liu, Xinchun; Huo, Wen; He, Qing; Mamtimin, Ali; Zhang, Qingyu

    2016-10-01

    Horizontal dust fluxes were simulated with two different dust emission schemes developed by Marticorena and Shao (hereinafter referred to as the M scheme, S scheme, and S scheme corrections), based on field experiments over a bare desert surface and a vegetated desert surface from May 19 to June 18, 2010 in Xinjiang, China. The M scheme produced a much higher dust emission than the S schemes over different surface conditions, with the emission being about 4 times larger than that produced by the S schemes over the bare desert, and 3 to 200 times larger over the vegetated surface. Compared to observations, the missing report rate of wind erosion events was about 30 % for the S schemes and about 10 % for the M scheme over the bare desert surface, while all schemes had a false alarm rate of wind erosion events over the vegetated desert surface. The total dust emission from the bare desert surface during the study period was 674.4, 551.5, 595.2, and 2995.8 kg/m for observation, the S scheme, S scheme correction 2, and M scheme, respectively. Total dust emission from the vegetated desert surface was 1.6, 0, 55.5, 0.9, and 227.7 kg/m for observation, the S scheme, S scheme correction 1, S scheme correction 2, and M scheme, respectively.

  16. Analysis of land cover change and its driving forces in a desert oasis landscape of southern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amuti, T.; Luo, G.

    2014-07-01

    The combined effects of drought, warming and the changes in land cover have caused severe land degradation for several decades in the extremely arid desert oases of Southern Xinjiang, Northwest China. This study examined land cover changes during 1990-2008 to characterize and quantify the transformations in the typical oasis of Hotan. Land cover classifications of these images were performed based on the supervised classification scheme integrated with conventional vegetation and soil indexes. Change-detection techniques in remote sensing (RS) and a geographic information system (GIS) were applied to quantify temporal and spatial dynamics of land cover changes. The overall accuracies, Kappa coefficients, and average annual increase rate or decrease rate of land cover classes were calculated to assess classification results and changing rate of land cover. The analysis revealed that major trends of the land cover changes were the notable growth of the oasis and the reduction of the desert-oasis ecotone, which led to accelerated soil salinization and plant deterioration within the oasis. These changes were mainly attributed to the intensified human activities. The results indicated that the newly created agricultural land along the margins of the Hotan oasis could result in more potential areas of land degradation. If no effective measures are taken against the deterioration of the oasis environment, soil erosion caused by land cover change may proceed. The trend of desert moving further inward and the shrinking of the ecotone may lead to potential risks to the eco-environment of the Hotan oasis over the next decades.

  17. Functional Response and Prey Preference of Neoseiulus bicaudus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) to Three Important Pests in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Nan; Jiang, Jue-Ying-Qi; Zhang, Yi-Jing; Qiu, Ye; Zhang, Jian-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Knowledge about the prey preference of polyphagous predators is important for determining their ability to suppress pest insects. Tetranychus truncatus (Tetranychidae), Tetranychus turkestani (Tetranychidae), and Thrips tabaci (Thripidae) often coexist in crops. Neoseiulus bicaudus (Wainstein) is a native predatory mite that was recently observed in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of northwest China. The objective of this study was to assess the potential of N. bicaudus as a bio-control agent against the three pest species mentioned above. The results showed that N. bicaudus protonymphs, deutonymphs, and adults can be effective biological control agents for the three pest species. Neoseiulus bicaudus at all three developmental stages exhibited a Holling's Type II (convex) functional response to the prey. Neoseiulus bicaudus exhibited no preference between T. truncatus adults and T. turkestani adults, irrespective of the prey ratio. In comparison, N. bicaudus clearly preferred first-instar T. tabaci larvae to T. turkestani adults. The results of this study suggest that N. bicaudus could help control T. truncatus, T. turkestani, and T. tabaci. Among these pests, N. bicaudus may be most effective for first-instar T. tabaci. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Environmental reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and its bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes' adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event.

  19. Environmental Reconstruction of Tuyoq in the Fifth Century and Its Bearing on Buddhism in Turpan, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Na; Li, Xiao; Yao, Yi-Feng; Ferguson, David Kay; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The Thousand Buddha Grottoes of Tuyoq, Turpan, Xinjiang, China were once a famous Buddhist temple along the ancient Silk Road which was first constructed in the Fifth Century (A.D.). Although archaeological researches about the Grottoes have been undertaken for over a century, the ancient environment has remained enigmatic. Based on seven clay samples from the Grottoes’ adobes, pollen and leaf epidermis were analyzed to decipher the vegetation and climate of Fifth Century Turpan, and the environmental landscape was reconstructed in three dimensions. The results suggest that temperate steppe vegetation dominated the Tuyoq region under a warmer and wetter environment with more moderate seasonality than today, as the ancient mean annual temperature was 15.3°C, the mean annual precipitation was approximately 1000 mm and the temperature difference between coldest and warmest months was 24°C using Co-existence Approach. Taken in the context of wheat and grape cultivation as shown by pollen of Vitis and leaf epidermis of Triticum, we infer that the Tuyoq region was an oasis with booming Buddhism in the Fifth Century, which was probably encouraged by a 1°C warmer temperature with an abundant water supply compared to the coeval world that experienced the 1.4 k BP cooling event. PMID:24475109

  20. Monitoring recent trends in the area of aeolian desertified land using Landsat images in China's Xinjiang region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yan, C. Z.; Song, X.; Xie, J. L.

    2012-03-01

    China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region is located in a region with an arid climate, and suffers from severe aeolian desertification. Aeolian desertified land (ADL) is widely distributed in the region and strongly constrains sustainable socioeconomic development. In this study, we used Landsat MSS, TM, and ETM images from 1975, 1990, 2000, and 2010 to classify the intensity of aeolian desertification in four categories (slight, moderate, severe, and extremely severe). Using these data, we developed an ADL database and use it to discuss the evolution of ADL during the study period, along with the desertification and restoration processes and the causes of the desertification. We found 47,833 km2 of ADL in 2010, most of which (more than 57%) was rated as extremely severe or severe. The area of ADL increased by 2228 km2 between 1975 and 1990 (by 4.67%). In contrast, some areas of ADL have been restored, so that the area of ADL has decreased since 1990: by 930 km2 from 1990 to 2000 (1.86%) and by 1223 km2 from 2000 to 2010 (2.49%). Based on the analysis of effects of climate changes and human activities in the region, aeolian desertification was principally driven by human activities in this area; climatic variations had less effect on the area of severe desertification. And the driving force need for more detailed quantitative analysis with more frequent remotely sensed data.

  1. Reconstruction and analysis of the past five centuries of streamflow on northern slopes on Tianshan Mountains in Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuhui; Chen, Yaning; Wang, Minzhong; Sun, Huilan

    2016-03-01

    We examined the changes in streamflow on the northern slopes of the Tianshan Mountains in northern Xinjiang, China, over two time scales: the past 500 years, based on dendrochronology data; and the past 50 years, based on streamflow data from hydrological stations. The method of artificial neural networks built from the data of the 50-year period was used to reconstruct the streamflow of the 500-year period. The results indicate that streamflow has undergone seven high-flow periods and four low-flow periods during the past 500 years. To identify possible transition points in the streamflow, we applied the Mann-Kendall and running T tests to the 50- and 500-year periods, respectively. During the past 500 years, streamflow has changed significantly from low to high flow about three to four times, and from high to low flow about three to five times. Over the recent 50 years, there have been three phases of variation in river runoff, and the most distinct transition of streamflow occurred in 1996.

  2. Estimating willingness to pay for environment conservation: a contingent valuation study of Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Fang; Yang, Zhaoping; Wang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2011-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to estimate publics' willingness to pay (WTP) for environment conservation and analyze factors influencing WTP. A questionnaire survey based on the contingent valuation method (CVM) was carried out at Kanas Nature Reserve, Xinjiang, China. Seventy-three percent of the 412 respondents were willing to pay at different levels, and the mean WTP value was RMB 54.60 ($8.03). The results of this survey struck an optimistic note that publics were willing to contribute to improve environmental quality. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare the characteristics of those who were and were not willing to pay. Chi-square tests were administered to identify the relationships between various explanatory factors and WTP. Conclusions and implications of the empirical study can be provided to policy makers and site managers. In a wider sense, the findings of this study should make a good contribution to the literature related to WTP for environment conservation of natural attractions.

  3. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  4. [Landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-Hua

    2009-06-01

    Based on the 1976, 1989, 2000 and 2005 remote sensing images and related meteorological data, the landscape pattern change and its ecological effect in Manas River Basin of Xinjiang in 1976-2005 were analyzed with GIS and FRAGSTATES. In the study period, the landscape pattern change in the Basin mainly manifested in the increase of farmland, grassland, and residential area while the decrease of forestland, wetland, desert, and snow and ice coverage. At landscape level, the patch number, landscape shape index, and contagion index increased, while Shannon's diversity index decreased; at class level, there was a greater difference in the heterogeneity index among different kinds of landscape, indicating a complexity of the landscape ecosystem. The landscape pattern change caused the negative ecological effect of wetland area shrinking, but some positive effects such as the decrease of evaporation and the increase of relative humidity. From 1976 to 2005, the wetland area decreased from 415.7 km2 to 297.4 km2, with a decrement of 28%, evaporation decreased by 0.91 mm x a(-1), and relative humidity increased by 0.037% x a(-1).

  5. Antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of essential oil of Agastache rugosa from Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Gong; Lijuan, He; Shaoyu, Li; Chen, Zhang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-07-01

    In the study, we evaluated chemical composition and antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antitumor activities of essential oils from dried leaf essential oil of leaf and flower of Agastache rugosa for the first time. Essential oil of leaf and flower was evaluated with GC and GC-MS methods, and the essential oil of flower revealed the presence of 21 components, whose major compounds were pulegone (34.1%), estragole (29.5%), and p-Menthan-3-one (19.2%). 26 components from essential oil of leaf were identified, the major compounds were p-Menthan-3-one (48.8%) and estragole (20.8%). At the same time, essential oil of leaf, there is a very effective antimicrobial activity with MIC ranging from 9.4 to 42 μg ml(-1) and potential antibiofilm, antitumor activities for essential oils of flower and leaf essential oil of leaf. The study highlighted the diversity in two different parts of A. rugosa grown in Xinjiang region and other places, which have different active constituents. Our results showed that this native plant may be a good candidate for further biological and pharmacological investigations.

  6. Stratigraphy and facies development of the marine Late Devonian near the Boulongour Reservoir, northwest Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suttner, Thomas J.; Kido, Erika; Chen, Xiuqin; Mawson, Ruth; Waters, Johnny A.; Frýda, Jiří; Mathieson, David; Molloy, Peter D.; Pickett, John; Webster, Gary D.; Frýdová, Barbora

    2014-02-01

    Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous stratigraphic units within the 'Zhulumute' Formation, Hongguleleng Formation (stratotype), 'Hebukehe' Formation and the Heishantou Formation near the Boulongour Reservoir in northwestern Xinjiang are fossil-rich. The Hongguleleng and 'Hebukehe' formations are biostratigraphically well constrained by microfossils from the latest Frasnian linguiformis to mid-Famennian trachytera conodont biozones. The Hongguleleng Formation (96.8 m) is characterized by bioclastic argillaceous limestones and marls (the dominant facies) intercalated with green spiculitic calcareous shales. It yields abundant and highly diverse faunas of bryozoans, brachiopods and crinoids with subordinate solitary rugose corals, ostracods, trilobites, conodonts and other fish teeth. The succeeding 'Hebukehe' Formation (95.7 m) consists of siltstones, mudstones, arenites and intervals of bioclastic limestone (e.g. 'Blastoid Hill') and cherts with radiolarians. A diverse ichnofauna, phacopid trilobites, echinoderms (crinoids and blastoids) together with brachiopods, ostracods, bryozoans and rare cephalopods have been collected from this interval. Analysis of geochemical data, microfacies and especially the distribution of marine organisms, which are not described in detail here, but used for facies analysis, indicate a deepening of the depositional environment at the Boulongour Reservoir section. Results presented here concern mainly the sedimentological and stratigraphical context of the investigated section. Additionally, one Late Devonian palaeo-oceanic and biotic event, the Upper Kellwasser Event is recognized near the section base.

  7. The oasis evolution under human activities of arid Xinjiang in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunxian

    2009-06-01

    The water resources utilization in the arid area of northeastern Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang attracts a lot of attention from research community and government. Although some problems such as the change of the water resource and suitable utility of water have been addressed before, however, less concern has been on the long-time human activity effects, so the ecological and environment processes of the Oasis areas need to be paid more attention. This research took Qitai oasis as the study area, located in northeastern Tianshan Mountain, to analyze the development and spatial evolution of the artificial oasis since 18th century using historical literature, remote sensing technology and field-surveyed data. Then the changes of natural oasis grass land and the artificial oasis were identified for studying the environmental evolution. The results show that the artificial oasis increased due to the improvement of irrigating technology. Qitai oasis has improved towards optimized pattern from the 18th century to 2006. Cultivated land increased slowly from 18 century to 1970s because irrigation technology had not enough change to provide more irrigation. As a result, when cultivated land enlarged fast influenced by policy from the end of 1950s to 1970s, environmental burden increased due to the lack of sufficient water. After 1970s, cultivated land increased heavily with an increasing productivity due to the introduction of new irrigating trenches and the use of groundwater pumping facilities. In the meanwhile, the eco-environment of Bahudi grass land which is typical natural oasis seemed much improved with an increase from 1997 to 2006. Salinized land turned heavily into grassland from 1973-2006 and thus the low grassland changed towards middle and high covered grassland gradually.

  8. Geochronology and Geochemistry of Igneous Rocks from the Laoshankou District, North Xinjiang: Implications for the Late Paleozoic Tectonic Evolution and Metallogenesis of East Junggar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Pei; Chen, Huayong; Hollings, Pete; Wu, Chao; Xiao, Bing; Bao, Zhiwei; Xu, Deru

    2016-12-01

    arc. The northern margin of East Junggar was related to the southward subduction of the Kuerti-Erqis Ocean (a branch of the Paleo-Asian Ocean) between the Altay and the Dulate arcs in this period, consistent with the presence of Nb-enriched basalts and boninites in the north of the Dulate arc and the island arc rather than back arc setting of the igneous rocks in the Laoshankou district. For metallogenesis in the northern margin of East Junggar, arc-related Fe-Cu-Au and porphyry Cu mineralization was dominated. There is large potential to find several Late Paleozoic arc-related Fe-Cu-Au mineralizations in North Xinjiang.

  9. Host-Seeking Behavior and Arbovirus Detection in Mosquitoes of Habahe County, Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Ying-Mei; Li, Chun-Xiao; Zhang, Gui-Lin; Zheng, Zhong; Dong, Yan-De; Xue, Rui-De; Xing, Dan; Zhao, Tong-Yan

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes in Habahe County of Xinjiang Uigur Autonomous Region in China are considered a serious nuisance problem to local residents, but little is known of their role in enzootic disease. Therefore, host-seeking behavior and virus detection in mosquitoes were investigated in this study. Adult host-seeking mosquitoes were sampled using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps operated at three locations in June through August 2008. Nine traps were used at each location at 3 different heights (1 m, 3 m, and 5 m). Seven mosquito species from 4 genera were collected by CDC light traps in different habitats. In total, 90,055 mosquitoes were captured, of which Aedes vexans was the most abundant species, comprising 88.02% of all mosquitoes collected. The second most abundant species was Anopheles messese, which comprised about 5.86%. Other species caught were Culex modestus (2.89%), Aedes caspius (1.11%), Coquillettidia richiardii (0.61%), Ae. dorsalis (1.36%), and An. hyrcanus (0.14%). About 93.5% of Ae. vexans individuals were caught in CO2-baited CDC light traps at 1 m above the ground. The highest numbers of Cx. modestus were caught at the highest trap level, 5 m above ground. Overall, significantly more mosquitoes of all species were collected at dusk than at dawn. Based on blood-meal analyses, Ae. vexans and An. messese fed on various vertebrate hosts, whereas Cx. modestus fed on ducks only. From a total of 335 mosquito pools tested, 10 pools of Ae. vexans were found positive for alphavirus. Comparison with the gene database revealed that the alphavirus deoxyribonucleic acid fragment obtained (GenBank accession no. HM160530) was 100% homologous at the nucleotide level to chikungunya virus isolate LK (PB) chik3408, chikungunya virus isolate SGEHICHD122508, and chikungunya virus strain FD080231. The results of this study suggest that ongoing, integrated mosquito and arbovirus surveillance is necessary in this river wetland.

  10. Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Lop Nur salt lake in Xinjiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Zhou, Yu; Ja, Man; Shi, Rong; Chun-Yu, Wei-Xun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)).

  11. Geological emission of methane from the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Junhong; Bao, Zhengyu; Xiang, Wu; Gou, Qinghong

    2008-01-01

    A static flux chamber method was applied to study natural emissions of methane into the atmosphere in the Yakela condensed oil/gas field in Talimu Basin, Xinjiang, China. Using an online method, which couples a gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/MS) together, the 13C/12C ratios of methane in the flux chambers were measured. The results demonstrated that methane gases were liable to migrate from deep oil/gas reservoir to the surface through microseepage and pervasion, and that a part of the migrated methane that remained unoxidized could emit into the atmosphere. Methane emission rates varied less in the oil/gas field because the whole region was homogeneous in geology and geography, with a standard deviation of less than 0.02 mg/(m2 x h). These were the differences in methane emission flux in the day and at night in the oil/gas field. The maximum methane emission flux reached 0.15 mg/(m2 x h) at 5:00-6:00 early in the morning, and then decreased gradually. The minimum was shown 0.10 mg/(m2 x h) at 17:00-18:00 in the afternoon, and then increased gradually. The daily methane released flux of the study area was 2.89 mg/(m2 x d), with a standard deviation of 0.43 mg/(m2 x d), using the average methane flux of every hour in a day for all chambers. delta13C of methane increased with the increase of methane concentration in the flux chambers, further indicating that the pyrogenetic origin of methane was come from deep oil/gas reservoirs.

  12. A persistent Holocene wetting trend in arid central Asia, with wettest conditions in the late Holocene, revealed by multi-proxy analyses of loess-paleosol sequences in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Jia, Jia; Chen, Jianhui; Li, Guoqiang; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Haichao; Xia, Dunsheng; Huang, Wei; An, Chengbang

    2016-08-01

    There are significant differences in the interpretation of the moisture (precipitation) history of arid central Asia (ACA) during the Holocene, as inferred on one hand from speleothem oxygen isotope records, and on the other from lake sediments. Here we present the results of measurements of climatically-sensitive magnetic properties and soil color from four well-dated loess-paleosol sequences from the northern slopes of the Tienshan Mountains and the Yili River valley, Xinjiang, China, in the core area of ACA. Our results demonstrate that the characteristic Holocene paleosol, indicating relatively moist conditions, generally formed after ∼6 ka (1 ka = 1000 cal yr BP) in the study region, and that the accumulation of unweathered loess prevailed during the early Holocene, indicating a dry climate at that time. The magnetic proxies further reveal a trend of generally increasing moisture since the Last Glacial Maximum, with the wettest climate occurring during the late Holocene. This trend of increasing moisture during the Holocene is representative of the Xinjiang region and possibly of the whole of the core area of ACA, and is in marked contrast both to the mid-Holocene moisture maximum observed in the East Asian summer monsoon region and to the general decrease in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon since the early Holocene. Our findings are supported by the results of a climate simulation which indicate a trend of increasing summer and winter precipitation during the Holocene in the core area of ACA, caused mainly by an increase in the strength of the westerlies effected by an increasing latitudinal insolation gradient and by a negative trend of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  13. Influences of removing linear and nonlinear trends from climatic variables on temporal variations of annual reference crop evapotranspiration in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Yao, Ning; Chau, Henry Wai

    2017-08-15

    Reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) is a key parameter in field irrigation scheduling, drought assessment and climate change research. ETo uses key prescribed (or fixed or reference) land surface parameters for crops. The linear and nonlinear trends in different climatic variables (CVs) affect ETo change. This research aims to reveal how ETo responds after the related CVs were linearly and nonlinearly detrended over 1961-2013 in Xinjiang, China. The ETo-related CVs included minimum (Tmin), average (Tave), and maximum air temperatures (Tmax), wind speed at 2m (U2), relative humidity (RH) and sunshine hour (n). ETo was calculated using the Penman-Monteith equation. A total of 29 ETo scenarios, including the original scenario, 14 scenarios in Group I (ETo was recalculated after removing linear trends from single or more CVs) and 14 scenarios in Group II (ETo was recalculated after removing nonlinear trends from the CVs), were generated. The influence of U2 was stronger than influences of the other CVs on ETo for both Groups I and II either in northern, southern or the entirety of Xinjiang. The weak influences of increased Tmin, Tave and Tmax on increasing ETo were masked by the strong effects of decreased U2 &n and increased RH on decreasing ETo. The effects of the trends in CVs, especially U2, on changing ETo were clearly shown. Without the general decreases of U2, ETo would have increased in the past 53years. Due to the non-monotone variations of the CVs and ETo, the results of nonlinearly detrending CVs on changing ETo in Group II should be more plausible than the results of linearly detrending CVs in Group I. The decreasing ETo led to a general relief in drought, which was indicated by the recalculated aridity index. Therefore, there would be a slightly lower risk of water utilization in Xinjiang, China.

  14. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  15. Archean crustal evolution of the northern North China Craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, Xianglin; Chen, Yaping; Liu, Jinzhong

    1988-01-01

    The Archean granultie facies rocks of the North China (Sino-Korean) Craton mostly occur inside the northern boundary forming a unique and spectacular granulite belt trending roughly E-W from eastern Hebei, North China in the east to Mt. Daqinchan, western Inner Mongolia in the west, ranging about 1,000 km long. Over the years in the middle portion of this Archean high-grade metamorphic belt a stratigraphic unconformity between the khondalite rock assemblage and the medium in composition granulite assemblage in Datong-Xinghe area is determined. The geological structural properties of the North China Craton are discussed.

  16. Dust storm as an environmental problem in north China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yufu; Cai, Qiangguo; Tang, Haiping

    2003-10-01

    Dust storms in north China, which are associated with land deterioration from increasing human pressures, have intensified over the past decades. Although synoptic meteorological conditions and sedimental environments dictate the occurrence of dust storms, their increase in frequency in north China due to human activities can be expected. Sand stabilization and control projects may be compromised by the pursuit of short-term economic returns and lack of systematic and integrated understanding of land degradation. Two actions are recommended as positive responses to escalating dust storms in north China. A policy of long-term ecologically sustainable development strategies is needed as well as a scientific research initiative combining biophysical and socioeconomic aspects.

  17. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P < 0·001) total soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  18. Circulation of multiple serotypes of highly divergent enterovirus C in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Qiang; Cui, Hui; Yan, Dongmei; Fan, Qin; Song, Yang; Zhu, Shuangli; Li, Xiaolei; Huang, Guohong; Ji, Tianjiao; Hu, Lan; Wang, Dongyan; Yang, Qian; Xu, Wenbo

    2016-01-01

    Poliomyelitis associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) is a serious public health issue in the post-eradication era, and the occurrence of recombinant cVDPVs emphasizes the need to elucidate enterovirus C (EV-C) epidemiology. Stool samples were collected from 826 healthy children in Southern Xinjiang in 2011 to investigate EV-C circulation and epidemiology. Thirty-six EV-Cs were isolated and assigned to eight EV-C serotypes by molecular serotyping, suggesting the circulation of diverse EV-Cs in Xinjiang. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Xinjiang EV-C strains had larger variation compared to the prototype and other modern strains. Additionally, the results showed unique characteristics of Xinjiang EV-Cs, such as the cytopathicity of CV-A1 strains to RD cells; the high divergence in CV-A11, CV-A13, CV-A17, and CV-A20 strains; the divergence of Xinjiang CV-A24 from AHC-related CV-A24 variant stains distributed worldwide; and the circulation of two novel EV-C serotypes (EV-C96 and EV-C99). Evaluations of this dense and diverse EV-C ecosystem will help elucidate the processes shaping enteroviral biodiversity. This study will improve our understanding of the evolution of enteroviruses and the recombination potential between polioviruses and other EV-Cs. PMID:27642136

  19. Potential of Carbon Sequestration as Soil Carbonate in Arid and Semi-arid Region of North China: Impacts of Land Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, J.; Li, X.; Guo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Soil carbonate (SIC) exceeds organic carbon (SOC) greatly in (semi-)arid lands, thus may be important for carbon sequestration. However, field data for studying SIC dynamics and quantifying SIC accumulation have been lacking. This paper consists of two parts. We first present our recent findings of SIC accumulation in the croplands of north China (Wang et al., 2014; 2015). We then report a meta-analysis of field based SIC data from 745 soil profiles in China. Our recent findings were based on two sets of data: >100 soil samples recently collected from the Yanqi Basin of central Xinjiang and ~200 archived soil samples from four long-term experiment (LTE) sites in the north China. Our study showed that intensive cropping in the arid and semi-arid region leaded to a greater increase in SIC than in SOC; organic amendments enhanced SIC accumulation in the cropland of north China. Our meta-analysis shows that despite a large variation of SIC stock (5-42 kg C m-2), SIC storage in agricultural soils is generally higher relative to non-agricultural soils. We provide assessment how land use change may affect SIC storage in north China.

  20. A basal alvarezsauroid theropod from the early Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Choiniere, Jonah N; Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Guo, Yu; Han, Fenglu

    2010-01-29

    The fossil record of Jurassic theropod dinosaurs closely related to birds remains poor. A new theropod from the earliest Late Jurassic of western China represents the earliest diverging member of the enigmatic theropod group Alvarezsauroidea and confirms that this group is a basal member of Maniraptora, the clade containing birds and their closest theropod relatives. It extends the fossil record of Alvarezsauroidea by 63 million years and provides evidence for maniraptorans earlier in the fossil record than Archaeopteryx. The new taxon confirms extreme morphological convergence between birds and derived alvarezsauroids and illuminates incipient stages of the highly modified alvarezsaurid forelimb.

  1. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and agricultural use in the Yanqi Basin of Xinjiang Province, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuixian

    2013-09-01

    The Yanqi Basin in Xinjiang Province is an important agricultural area with a high population density. The extensive agricultural activities in the Yanqi Basin started in the 1950s with flood irrigation techniques. Since then, the groundwater table was raised because of the absence of an efficient drainage system. This obstacle is a crucial factor that restricts sustainable socioeconomic development. Hydrochemical investigations were conducted in the Yanqi Basin, Northwestern China, to determine the chemical composition of groundwater. Sixty groundwater samples were collected from different wells to monitor the water chemistry of various ions. The results of the chemical analysis indicate that the groundwater in the area is generally neutral to slightly alkaline and predominantly contains Na(+) and Ca(2+) cations as well as HCO3(-) and SO4 (2+) anions. High positive correlations between HCO3 (-)-Mg(2+) + Ca(2+), SO 4 (2-)-Mg(2+), SO4 (2-)-Na(+) + K(+), and Cl(-)-Na(+) + K(+) were obtained. The total dissolved solids (TDS) mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as HCO3(-), SO4 (2-), Cl(-), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) + K(+). The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-HCO3(-), Mg(2+)-Ca(2+)-SO4 (2-)-Cl(-), Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-SO4 (2-), and Na(+)-K(+)-Mg(2+)-Cl(-)-HCO3(-) types. The hydrochemical processes are the main factors that determine the water quality of the groundwater system. These processes include silicate mineral weathering, dissolution, ion exchange, and, to a lesser extent, evaporation, which seem to be more pronounced downgradient of the flow system. The saturation index (SI), which is calculated according to the ionic ratio plot, indicates that the gypsum-halite dissolution reactions occur during a certain degree of rock weathering. SI also indicates that evaporation is the dominant factor that determines the major ionic composition in the study area. The assessment results of the water samples using various methods

  2. Variable mineralization processes during the formation of the Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit, Xinjiang, Northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yun; Xue, Chunji; Zhao, Xiaobo; Yang, Yongqiang; Ke, Junjun; Zu, Bo

    2016-08-01

    The Permian Hulu Ni-Cu sulfide deposit is located at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in Northern Xinjiang, Northwestern China. The host intrusion of the Hulu deposit is composed of a layered mafic-ultramafic sequence and a dike-like unit. The layered sequence is composed of harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, gabbro, gabbrodiorite and diorite. The dike-like body comprises lherzolite and gabbro. Sulfide orebodies occur mainly within the harzburgite, pyroxenite and lherzolite at the base of the layered sequence and within the lherzolite in the dike-like body. Sulfide mineralization from the Hulu deposit shows significant depletion of PGE relative to Cu and Ni. These elements show good positive correlations with S in the sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit but relatively weak correlations in the sulfide mineralization from the layered sequence. The sulfide mineralization from the layered unit shows excellent positive correlations between Ir and Os, Ru or Rh, and poor relationships between Ir and Pt or Pd. On the contrary, sulfide mineralization from the dike-like unit shows good correlations in the diagrams of Os, Ru, Rh, Pt and Pd against Ir. Both high Cu/Pd ratios (8855-481,398) and our modeling indicate that PGE depletion resulted from sulfide removal in a deep staging magma chamber. The evolved PGE-depleted magmas then ascended to the shallower magma chamber and became sulfide saturation due to crustal contamination. Both low Se/S ratios (33.5 × 10-6-487.5 × 10-6) and a negative correlation between Se/S and Cu/Pd ratios are consistent with the addition of crustal S. A large number of sulfide liquids segregated with minor crystallization of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) in the shallower magma chamber. When new magma pulses with unfractionated sulfide droplets entered the shallower magma chamber, the sulfide slurry containing crystallized MSS may be disrupted and mixed with the unfractionated sulfide droplets. The

  3. A modified genetic model for the Huangshandong magmatic sulfide deposit in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Xinjiang, western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Ya-Jing; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Li, Chusi; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2015-01-01

    The Huangshandong Ni-Cu deposit is the largest magmatic sulfide deposit discovered to date in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt in northern Xinjiang, western China. The host intrusion is a 274-Ma composite mafic-ultramafic intrusion consisting of four separate intrusive units: a large layered gabbroic sequence (phase I), a sheet-like ultramafic body (phase II), a dyke-like gabbronorite body (phase III), and an irregular ultramafic unit (phase IV). Important sulfide mineralization is present in the last three intrusive units, predominantly as disseminated and net-textured sulfides (pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and chalcopyrite). The Huangshandong mafic-ultramafic intrusive rocks are characterized by arc-like geochemical signatures such as low Ca content in olivine and negative Nb-Ta anomalies in whole rocks. This, together with a post-subduction setting for the East Tianshan in the Permian, suggests that the source mantle was modified previously by slab-derived fluids in the Carboniferous. The mantle-derived magma was ponded in a staging chamber in the lower part of the newly formed arc crust. The first batch of magma to arrive at Huangshandong was most fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo67, <300 ppm Ni). The second batch of magma was more primitive, crystallizing more primitive olivine (Fo81-84). The third batch of magma was also highly fractionated and depleted in Ni, crystallizing Fe-rich and Ni-depleted olivine (Fo72, ~600 ppm Ni). The final batch of magma became more primitive again, crystallizing the most primitive olivine (Fo81-86). The occurrence of rounded sulfide inclusions in olivine primocrysts in the Huangshandong ultramafic rocks indicates that immiscible sulfide liquid droplets were present during olivine crystallization. The Ni tenors of disseminated sulfide ores in the gabbronorite dyke vary mainly between 5 and 8 wt%, which are too high to have been produced by the parental magma of the dyke. The Ni, Cu, and

  4. Occurrence, Distribution, and Risk Assessment of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) in Muscle and Liver of Cattle in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gehui; Lu, Jianjiang; Xing, Zhenni; Li, Shanman; Liu, Zilong; Tong, Yanbin

    2017-08-28

    Despite risks associated with perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in many regions, little is known about their prevalence in Xinjiang. We determined the presence of 13 PFAAs in 293 beef muscle and liver samples collected in 22 cities covering northern, southern, and eastern Xinjiang using liquid chromatography, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Overall, the average values for PFAAs were relatively low compared with previous studies. Liver presented higher mean levels of total PFAAs at 1.632 ng/g, which was over 60-fold higher than in muscle (0.026 ng/g). Among the PFAAs analyzed, medium-chain compounds were dominant, accounting for more than 70% of the total. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was highly prevalent in the liver with the highest mean concentration (0.617 ng/g) and detection frequency (80%). When comparing the three regions of Xinjiang, we found differences in PFAA profiles, with the northern region showing the highest levels. Furthermore, the average daily intake and hazard ratios of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid varied by region, urban/rural environment, gender, ethnicity, and age. The highest risk value of 13 PFAAs was estimated to be 0.837 × 10(-3), which is far below 1, indicating that there is no health risk posed by eating beef muscle and liver in Xinjiang.

  5. Geomorphic assessment of the tectonic activity of Qiulitagh fold-belt, Kuqa foreland basin, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint Carlier, Dimitri; Graveleau, Fabien; Delcaillau, Bernard; Hurtrez, Jean-Emmanuel; Vendeville, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The Qiulitagh fold belt is an anticline structure located in the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (southern Tian Shan, China), whose active folding is well documented by structural and palaeomagnetic studies (Chen et al., 2007; Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2007; Li et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2011). The topography of Quilitagh fold belt can be divided into two SW-NE parallel ridges: 1) a 90 km long northern ridge, composed of the Northern Qiulitagh anticline and the Yakelike anticline, and 2) a 165km long southern ridge, composed of the Southern Qiulitagh anticline and the Mishikantage anticline. Due to the current absence of vegetation and relative homogeneity of outcropping lithologies (mainly Neogene detrital sandstone and silstone), these anticlines provide exceptional field cases for investigating the dynamic relationships between fold growth mechanisms, the subsurface structures, the geomorphic entities and the drainage network evolution. We used free topographic and satellite image datasets to carry out a morphometric study of the Quilitagh fold-belt and investigate the kinematics of active folding. Topographic datasets include Digital Elevation Models (DEM) from the NASA SRTM V.4.0 and ASTER programs, whereas satellite images are extracted from Landsat 7 shots and Google Earth. These datasets were incorporated in GIS software where three scales of observation were investigated: 1) a global fold scale, 2) a drainage basin scale and 3) a valley scale. At the drainage basin scale, we selected about 250 items and quantified several geomorphic indices of relative active tectonic growth. These are the basin mean slope, hypsometric integral, basin asymmetry and local relief. We also used published seismic profiles to link the 3D subsurface geometry of the salt-related Qiulitagh fold belt with the geomorphic signal. Results indicate that the morphometry of Quilitagh drainage basins (hypsometry, drainage basin asymmetry, local relief, valley incision, steepness index) change

  6. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  7. [Sequence and Structural Analyses of the Complete Genome of Bovine Papillomavirus 2 Genotype Aks-01 Strain from Skin Samples of Cows in Southern Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanqi; Hu, Jianjun; Yan, Shilei; Huang, Yaojie; Xu, Jianping; Huang, Zhongwu; Zheng, Maoliang; Meng, Ziyan; Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Na; Wang, Qingqing

    2015-07-01

    To study the complete genomic sequence, genomic characteristics, and genetic variation of the bovine papillomavirus 2 genotype (BPV-2) Aks-01 strain at the molecular level, genotyping of this strain from the skin samples of cows in southern Xinjiang (China) was first detected by the polymerase chain reaction with FAP59/FAP64 primers. Based on the complete genome of the BPV-2 reference strain, specific primers and sequencing primers were designed, and the complete genome of the Aks-01 strain amplified and sequenced. Sequence analyses showed that genotyping of the Aks-01 strain belonged to BPV-2. The Aks-01 strain had the structural characteristics of BPV-2. The 7944-bp full-length genomic sequence of the Aks-01 strain was compiled using DNAStar™. The sequence of the Aks-01 strain had 98% similarity to the reference strain from GenBank. The Aks-01 strain was most closely related to BPV-1 and BPV-13. BPV-2, BPV-1 and BPV-13 were grouped within the genus Deltapapillomavirus. The Aks-01 strain is the first BPV-2 strain reported in southern Xinjiang.

  8. Nationalism and Islamic Identity in Xinjiang

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Chinese. The leadership of the Tang dynasty (618-906) held sway over the region for a short time through alliances with local elites. This pre-modern...their ancestors did with the Manchu Qing dynasty when Xinjiang first became part of “China.” Their dress, customs, language, history, and religion...Qing Dynasty 250 years ago. This chapter explains how the Uyghurs came to Xinjiang and how they became established. It explains who the Uyghurs

  9. First detection of Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae in the flea Vermipsylla alakurt from north-western China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shan-Shan; Li, Hong-Yu; Yin, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Chuang-Fu; Wang, Yuan-Zhi

    2016-06-07

    Vermipsylla is a genus of the family Vermipsyllidae within the order Siphonaptera of fleas. Vermipsylla alakurt is mainly distributed in alpine pastoral areas of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China and Nepal, and infests sheep, yaks and horses, causing irritation, poor condition, anaemia and even death. However, to date, no rickettsial agents have been reported in V. alakurt. A total of 133 fleas were collected directly from the tails of three sheep flocks (n = 335) in Minfeng County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, north-western China. Of these, 55 fleas were identified by morphological examination and molecular analysis of four loci (the ribosomal 18S and 28S rDNA genes and the mitochondrial genes cytochrome  c oxidase subunit II and elongation factor 1-alpha). Eight Rickettsia-specific gene fragments originated from seven genes: the 17-kilodalton antigen gene (17-kDa), citrate synthase gene (gltA), 16S rRNA gene (rrs), outer membrane protein A gene (ompA), surface cell antigen 1 gene (sca1), PS120 protein gene (gene D), and outer membrane protein B gene (ompB, two fragments), were used to identify the species of Rickettsia in 53 fleas. The amplified products were sequenced and included in a phylogenetic analysis to verify the taxonomic identification of the rickettsial agents. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, the flea was identified as Vermipsylla alakurt. Nine samples were positive (16.98 %, 9/53) for Rickettsia spp. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the rickettsial agents found in V. alakurt cluster with Candidatus Rickettsia barbariae. Our study suggests that: (i) V. alakurt may serve as a carrier for Candidatus R. barbariae; and (ii) Candidatus R. barbariae, previously reported in Israel, is the eighth newly discovered validated Rickettsia species in China. This finding extends our knowledge of the distribution of Candidatus R. barbariae and the profile of carriers, which not only comprise ticks but also fleas.

  10. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Water resource management in river oases along the Tarim River in North-West of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliucininkaite, Lina; Disse, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Tarim River is one of the longest inland rivers in the world. It flows its water in the northern part of the Taklamakan desert in Xinjiang, North-west of China, which is a very hostile region due its climatic conditions and particularly due to low precipitation and very high evaporation rates. During the past five decades intensive exploitation of water resources, mainly by agricultural activities, has changed the temporal and spatial distribution of them and caused serious environmental problems in the Tarim River Basin. The support measures for oasis management along the Tarim River under climatic and societal changes became the overarching goal of this research. The temperature has risen by nearly 1° C over the past 50 years in the Tarim River Basin so more water was available in the mountainous areas of Xinjiang, leading to an increasing trend of the headstream discharges of the Tarim Basin. Aksu, Hotan and Yarkant Rivers are three tributaries of the Tarim River, as well as its main water suppliers. However, under the condition of water increase with the volume of 25×108 m3 in headstreams in recent 10 years, the water to the mainstream has increased less than 108 m3 (in Alar hydrological station), which is less than 3% of the increased water volume of runoff. Moreover, the region is one of the biggest cotton and other cash crops producers in China. In addition, expansion of urban and, in particular, of irrigation areas have caused higher water consumption at different parts of the river, leading to severe ecological effects on rural areas, especially in the lower reaches. Moreover, it also highly affects groundwater level and quality. The aim of this research is to support decision makers, planners and engineers to find right measures in the area for the further development of the region, as well as adaptation to changing climate. Different scenarios for water resource management, as well as water distribution and allocation in a more efficient and water

  12. Holocene environmental fluctuations of Lake Bosten (Xinjiang, China) inferred from ostracods and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischke, S.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Bosten is an oligohaline lake in an intermontane basin of the Tianshan Mountains in northwestern China. The open-basin lake receives water from a large catchment area (56,000 km2) with the Kaidu River as its main tributary. A core of 9.25 m length was drilled at 6.25 m water depth in the southwestern part of the lake near the Kaidu river inflow. Sediments of the core contain authigenic carbonate materials, including calcitic shells of ostracods, charophyte-oogonia and stem incrustations. Five AMS-dating results provided the base to establish the chronology of the core which extends back to about 8.4 cal. ka BP. The majority of the ostracod taxa from the core may be classified into two different groups comprising littoral taxa (Cyclocypris ovum, Cypridopsis vidua, Darwinula stevensoni, Fabaeformiscandona hyalina, Herpetocypris chevreuxi, Heterocypris salina) and taxa reflecting profundal conditions (Candona neglecta, Cytherissa lacustris and Fabaeformiscandona caudata). Among these taxa, C. neglecta and D. stevensoni were the most abundant ostracod species providing more than 50 % of the fossil shells in most core samples. Where C. neglecta peaks D. stevensoni often shows minima abundances and vice versa. Stable isotope data derived from ostracod calcite display large variations throughout the core. d18O and d13C values vary over a range of 10 ‰ and 6.7 ‰ respectively. These large ranges may reflect that Lake Bosten responded like a semi-closed lake at least. Low lake levels inferred from species assemblages correspond to lowest d18O values thus indicating the influence of isotopically light river water at the core site and a low residence time and salinity. High d18O values correspond to higher abundances of Candona neglecta and low abundances of littoral taxa pointing towards deeper conditions, a higher distance of the core site from the river inflow, a higher residence time and corresponding salinity of the lake water. On the base of ostracod and stable

  13. Pollen and Phytoliths from Fired Ancient Potsherds as Potential Indicators for Deciphering Past Vegetation and Climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K.; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP. PMID:22761901

  14. Population genetic analysis of the GlobalFiler STR loci in 748 individuals from the Kazakh population of Xinjiang in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghua; Yang, Shuping; Guo, Wei; Ren, Bo; Pu, Liwen; Ma, Teng; Xia, Mingying; Jin, Li; Li, Liming; Li, Shilin

    2016-09-01

    The six-dye GlobalFiler™ Express PCR amplification kit incorporates 21 commonly used autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and three gender determination loci. In this study, we analyzed the GlobalFiler STR loci on 748 unrelated individuals from a Chinese Kazakh population of Xinjiang, China. No significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium were observed within and between 21 autosomal STR loci. SE33 showed the greatest power of discrimination in Kazakh population. The combined power of discrimination of Kazakh was 99.999999999999999999999996797 %. No significant differences of allele frequencies were observed between Kazakh and Uyghur at all 15 tested STR loci, as well as Mongolian. Significant differences were only observed between Kazakh and the other Chinese populations at TH01. Multiple STR loci showed significant differences between Kazakh and Arab, as well as South Portuguese. The multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) plot and neighbor-joining tree also showed Kazakh is genetically close to Uyghur.

  15. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  16. An optimized Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model based on particle swarm optimization and its application in prediction for the incidence of Hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liping; Zheng, Yanling; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Xueliang; Zheng, Yujian

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, by using a particle swarm optimization algorithm to solve the optimal parameter estimation problem, an improved Nash nonlinear grey Bernoulli model termed PSO-NNGBM(1,1) is proposed. To test the forecasting performance, the optimized model is applied for forecasting the incidence of hepatitis B in Xinjiang, China. Four models, traditional GM(1,1), grey Verhulst model (GVM), original nonlinear grey Bernoulli model (NGBM(1,1)) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method, are also established for comparison with the proposed model under the criteria of mean absolute percentage error and root mean square percent error. The prediction results show that the optimized NNGBM(1,1) model is more accurate and performs better than the traditional GM(1,1), GVM, NGBM(1,1) and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China and its zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Wu, Chang-zhi; Gou, Xiao-qin; Liao, Jing-juan; Yang, Hao

    2011-10-01

    The highly evolved Baishitouquan (BST) beryl-mineralised and topaz-bearing amazonite granite pluton is situated in the eastern Tianshan orogen of northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five well-exposed lithological zones, which, gradational from the lowest level, are leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). The rocks are composed mainly of quartz, albite, and K-feldspar with varying amounts of topaz and amazonite. Quartz and topaz phenocrysts are the earliest phases that crystallised from the melt. Amazonite which replaced albite and K-feldspar was formed at the late magmatic stage or during the magmatic-hydrothermal transition. Geochemically, this pluton is characterised by high F (>2 wt.%) and Rb (499.5-1087.04 ppm), low P 2O 5 (⩽0.06 wt.%), Na 2O > K 2O, A/NKC = 1.00-1.11, low ratios of K/Rb, Al/Ga, Y/Ho, Zr/Ha and Nb/Ta, Σ14 REE = 28.6-231.9 ppm with gull wing-shaped distribution patterns (La CN/Lu CN = 0.11-0.68, Eu/Eu * = 0.0005-0.0110) and tetrad effects, and δ 18O = 9.75-7.32‰. Melt and fluid-melt inclusions coexist with liquid and vapour inclusions. The rocks were originated from a highly evolved granitic magma. The BST pluton exhibits transition in the following aspects from zone-a to zone-e: (1) As quartz and topaz phenocrysts progressively increase in size and crystal euhedral shape, rock textures change from equigranular to porphyritic. (2) Amazonite begins to appear in zone-b and becomes most concentrated in zone-c, whereas topaz begins to appear in zone-d becoming highly concentrated in zone-e. (3) Li and (Al + Ti) increase in white mica. (4) Petrochemically, there are general trends of increasing F, Al 2O 3 and Na 2O, and decreasing SiO 2, (Fe 2O 3 + FeO + MgO + MnO) and K 2O. Plots of normative compositions on the Qz-Ab-Or diagram move gradually towards the Ab apex. (5) Overall, Cr, Ni, Co, V, W, Nb, Zr, U, Th and Y

  18. [Comparative analysis of the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang region of China].

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Fang, Ruping; Huang, Deliang; Wang, Guojian; Liu, Xin; Dai, Pu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang region and determine the relationship between ethnicity and mutations. DNA were extracted from peripheral blood of 125 deaf patients from Urumqi and Korla special educational schools in Xinjiang. Audiologic examinations showed that all patients had severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing hoss. The coding region of GJB2 gene, SLC26A4 and mitochondrial DNA target fragments were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mutations in GJB2 gene, SLC26A4IVS7-2 A>G, mtDNA 1494C>T and mtDNA1555 A>G were identified by sequencing analysis. Allelic Frequency of the GJB2 35delG and SLC26A4IVS7-2 A>G mutations in Han deaf students were 7.4% and 10.1%, respectively, whereas not found in Uigur deaf groups. The difference was statistically significant. We did not find significant differences in GJB2 235 delC, 299-300delAT, mtDNA A1555G and C1494T allelic frequency between Uigur and Han students. Prevalence of the recurrent mutations between Uigur and Han ethnic deaf group in Xinjiang has a great diversity.

  19. Area integrated emission of biogenic nitric oxide by Lagrangian dispersion modeling (LASAT): Milan oasis, Taklimakan desert (Xinjiang, PR China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, M.; Wu, Z.; Behrendt, T.; Fechner, A. D.; Meixner, F. X.; Andreae, M. O.; Mamtimin, B.

    2012-04-01

    Today's knowledge of soil biogenic NO emission rates from arid and hyper-arid land is based on a total of about 20 experimental studies. Nevertheless, biogenic NO emissions even from non-managed arid and hyper-arid soils are significant and may range between 1-10 ng m-2 s-1 (in terms of nitrogen, if conditions for soil NO production are favourable (optimum soil moisture, high soil temperatures). Irrigated and fertilized oases, ranging about 3000 km long around the great Central Asian Taklimakan desert form the backbone of the agricultural output (80% of the Chinese cotton production) of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (NW-China). Recent and future development of farmland and intensification of agriculture will definitely impact the regional soil NO emission and consequently the budget of nitrogen oxides and ozone. Up to today, only a few studies have preliminarily addressed soil biogenic NO emissions from the Taklimakan desert. In our contribution, we will focus on the quantification of the area integrated NO emission from the Milan oasis located on the most southern fringe of the Takalimkan desert (39.26° N, 88.91° E). At a first step, the 3D distribution of ambient NO concentration is calculated using a state-of-the-art commercially available dispersion model (LASAT 3.2, Lagrange Simulation of Aerosol-Transport). Performing the dispersion simulation, transport and turbulent diffusion are simulated for a group of representative "simulation particles" by means of a stochastic process (Lagrange simulation). Surface sources (individual cotton fields, Jujube orchards) are known: their geographical location as well as their areal extent, their stage of vegetation growth as well as irrigation and fertilization events and amounts, soil temperatures and soil water contents. This information is used to up-scale our results of field specific potential net NO emission, which has been parameterized in terms of soil temperature, soil water content, and soil nutrient

  20. The Hatu gold anomaly, Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, China - testing the hypothesis of aeolian transport of gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Theobald, P.K.; Shiquan, S.; Tianxiang, R.; Zhihui, H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration was initiated to evaluate the origin of the Hatu gold anomaly. The anomaly is located in the Hatu mining district in the northwest corner of Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region in northwest China. The climate is semiarid to arid and wind erosion predominates. A regional soil survey of the Hatu district, based on samples collected on a 200 by 500 m grid and composited prior to chemical analysis to a density of one sample per square km, delineated a series of south-southeast-trending Au anomalies. Anomalous Au values range from 5 ppb to more than 700 ppb. The Hatu anomaly, the most prominent of these anomalies, is more than 30 km long and about 5 km wide. The mining town of Hatu and the economic gold deposits of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2 are at the northern end of this anomaly. The axis of the Hatu anomaly cuts across mapped structure and stratigraphy in the district, but is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. This observation led to the hypothesis that the Hatu anomaly is the result of acolian dispersion of gold from the vicinity of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2. The alternative interpretation, that the anomalies reflected additional primary gold occurrences, was not consistent with existing information on the known occurrences and the geology. The investigation led to the identification of three types of gold in heavy-mineral concentrates derived from stream sediments that were collected along the axis of the Hatu anomaly: (1) free gold, (2) gold in pyrite, and (3) gold included in quartz. Gold in quartz was only observed within 2 km of Qiqu 1. The size of the gold particles and the number of gold particles in these samples did not decrease with distance from Qiqu 1 as would be expected from aeolian or fluvial dispersion from a point source. Instead, both the size and amount of gold increased significantly at a distance of 3.5 km from Qiqu 1 and this

  1. Petrology, geochemistry and geodynamics of basic granulite from the Altay area, North Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Long; Chen, Han-Lin; Yang, Shu-Feng; Dong, Chuan-Wan; Xiao, Wen-Jiao

    2004-08-01

    The basic granulite of the Altay orogenic belt occurs as tectonic lens in the Devonian medium- to lower-grade metamorphic beds through fault contact. The Altay granulite (AG) is an amphibole plagioclase two-pyroxene granulite and is mainly composed of two pyroxenes, plagioclase, amphibole and biotite. Its melano-minerals are rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), and its amphibole and biotite are rich in TiO2. The AG is rich in Mg/(Mg+Fe2+), Al2O3 and depletion of U, Th and Rb contents. The AG has moderate SigmaREE and LREE-enriched with weak positive Eu anomaly. The AG shows island-arc pattern with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies, reflecting that formation of the AG may be associated with subduction. Geochemical and mineral composition data reflect that the protolith of the AG is calc-alkaline basalt and formed by granulite facies metamorphism having peak P-T conditions of 750 degrees C-780 degrees C and 0.6-0.7 Gpa. The AG formation underwent two stages was suggested. In the early stage of oceanic crustal subduction, calc-alkaline basalt with island-arc environment underwent granulite facies metamorphism to form the AG in deep crust, and in the late stage, the AG was thrust into the upper crust.

  2. Stratigraphy, biostratigraphy and C-isotopes of the Permian-Triassic non-marine sequence at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.; Foster, C. B.; Afonin, S. A.; Nicoll, R. S.; Mundil, R.; Xiaofeng, Wang; Lucas, S. G.

    2009-11-01

    Measured lithostratigraphic sections of the classic Permian-Triassic non-marine transitional sequences covering the upper Quanzijie, Wutonggou, Guodikeng and lower Jiucaiyuan Formations at Dalongkou and Lucaogou, Xinjiang Province, China are presented. These measured sections form the framework and reference sections for a range of multi-disciplinary studies of the P-T transition in this large ancient lake basin, including palynostratigraphy, vertebrate biostratigraphy, chemostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy. The 121 m thick Wutonggou Formation at Dalongkou includes 12 sandstone units ranging in thickness from 0.5 to 10.5 m that represent cyclical coarse terrigenous input to the lake basin during the Late Permian. The rhythmically-bedded, mudstone-dominated Guodikeng Formation is 197 m and 209 m thick on the north and south limbs of the Dalongkou anticline, respectively, and 129 m thick at Lucaogou. Based on limited palynological data, the Permian-Triassic boundary was previously placed approximately 50 m below the top of this formation at Dalongkou. This boundary does not coincide with any mappable lithologic unit, such as the basal sandstones of the overlying Jiucaiyuan Formation, assigned to the Early Triassic. The presence of multiple organic δ13C-isotope excursions, mutant pollen, and multiple algal and conchostracan blooms in this formation, together with Late Permian palynomorphs, suggests that the Guodikeng Formation records multiple climatic perturbation signals representing environmental stress during the late Permian mass extinction interval. The overlap between the vertebrates Dicynodon and Lystrosaurus in the upper part of this formation, and the occurrence of late Permian spores and the latest Permian to earliest Triassic megaspore Otynisporites eotriassicus is consistent with a latest Permian age for at least part of the Guodikeng Formation. Palynostratigrahic placement of the Permian-Triassic boundary in the Junggar Basin remains problematic

  3. Waist-to-Height Ratio and Triglycerides/High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Were the Optimal Predictors of Metabolic Syndrome in Uighur Men and Women in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bang-Dang; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Yi-Tong; Pan, Shuo; He, Chun-Hui; Liu, Fen; Ma, Xiang; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Zheng, Ying-Ying

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the best single predictor of metabolic syndrome by comparing the predictive ability of various anthropometric and atherogenic parameters among a Uighur population in Xinjiang, northwest China. A total of 4767 Uighur participants were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS), which was carried out from October, 2007, to March, 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, serum concentration of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting glucose were documented. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its individual components were confirmed according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome was compared. The sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), distance in the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and cutoffs of each variable for the presence of metabolic syndrome were calculated. In all, 23.7% of men had the metabolic syndrome, whereas 40.1% of women had the metabolic syndrome in a Uighur population in Xinjiang; the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in women was significantly higher than that in men (P<0.001). In men, the waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.838); it was followed by TGs/HDL-C (AUC=0.826), body mass index (BMI) (AUC=0.812), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (AUC=0.781), and body adiposity index (BAI) (AUC=0.709). In women, the TGs/HDL-C had the highest AUC value (AUC=0.815); it was followed by WHtR (AUC=0.780), WHR (AUC=0.730), BMI (AUC=0.719), and BAI (AUC=0.699). Similarly, among all five anthropometric and atherogenic parameters, the WHtR had the shortest ROC distance of 0.32 (Sen=85.40%, Spe=71.6%), and the optimal cutoff for WHtR was 0.55 in men. In women, TGs/HDL-C had the shortest ROC distance of 0.35 (Sen=75.29%, Spe=75.18%), and the optimal cutoff

  4. Recycling lower continental crust in the North China craton.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Rudnick, Roberta L; Yuan, Hong-Ling; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Xu, Wen-Liang; Ling, Wen-Li; Ayers, John; Wang, Xuan-Che; Wang, Qing-Hai

    2004-12-16

    Foundering of mafic lower continental crust into underlying convecting mantle has been proposed as one means to explain the unusually evolved chemical composition of Earth's continental crust, yet direct evidence of this process has been scarce. Here we report that Late Jurassic high-magnesium andesites, dacites and adakites (siliceous lavas with high strontium and low heavy-rare-earth element and yttrium contents) from the North China craton have chemical and petrographic features consistent with their origin as partial melts of eclogite that subsequently interacted with mantle peridotite. Similar features observed in adakites and some Archaean sodium-rich granitoids of the tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite series have been interpreted to result from interaction of slab melts with the mantle wedge. Unlike their arc-related counterparts, however, the Chinese magmas carry inherited Archaean zircons and have neodymium and strontium isotopic compositions overlapping those of eclogite xenoliths derived from the lower crust of the North China craton. Such features cannot be produced by crustal assimilation of slab melts, given the high Mg#, nickel and chromium contents of the lavas. We infer that the Chinese lavas derive from ancient mafic lower crust that foundered into the convecting mantle and subsequently melted and interacted with peridotite. We suggest that lower crustal foundering occurred within the North China craton during the Late Jurassic, and thus provides constraints on the timing of lithosphere removal beneath the North China craton.

  5. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  6. Atmospheric PAHs in North China: Spatial distribution and sources.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanjun; Lin, Yan; Cai, Jing; Liu, Yue; Hong, Linan; Qin, Momei; Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Xinghua; Zheng, Mei

    2016-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), formed through incomplete combustion process, have adverse health effects. To investigate spatial distribution and sources of PAHs in North China, PAHs with passive sampling in 90 gridded sites during June to September in 2011 were analyzed. The average concentration of the sum of fifteen PAHs in North China is 220±14ng/m(3), with the highest in Shanxi, followed by Shandong and Hebei, and then the Beijing-Tianjin area. Major sources of PAHs are identified for each region of North China, coke process for Shanxi, biomass burning for Hebei and Shandong, and coal combustion for Beijing-Tianjin area, respectively. Emission inventory is combined with back trajectory analysis to study the influence of emissions from surrounding areas at receptor sites. Shanxi and Beijing-Tianjin areas are more influenced by sources nearby while regional sources have more impact on Hebei and Shandong areas. Results from this study suggest the areas where local emission should be the major target for control and areas where both local and regional sources should be considered for PAH abatement in North China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of natural and human factors in the shrinking of the Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, China, during the 1972-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Johnson, Verner Carl; Kung, Hsiang-te; Ding, Jian-li; Sun, Qian; Zhou, Mei; Kelimu, Ardak; Nurmuhammat, Ilyas; Chan, Ngai Weng

    2015-01-01

    The Ebinur Lake is a closed inland lake located within the arid region of the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the northwestern part of China, near the Kazakhstan border. The shrinkage of the lake area is believed to be caused by ecological environmental deterioration and has become an important restraining factor for the social development of the local population. Of all the lakes in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the Ebinur Lake is the most severely impacted water body. The lake has undergone change in size naturally for over thousands of years due to natural causes. However, the authors observed the dramatic changes in the freshwater resources of this region from the aerial images from 1972 to 2013. Thus, this paper traces and analyzes the change in the Ebinur Lake surface area in the past 41 years. A set of six satellite images acquired between 1972 and 2013 was employed to map the change in the surface area of the Ebinur Lake using the water index approach. The authors applied the traditional normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI) to quantify the change in the water body area of the Ebinur Lake during the study period. The results indicate that the lake area has experienced a dramatic decrease of 31.4% from 1972 to 2013. The paper also examines the natural processes and human activities that may have contributed to the decrease in the lake area. The results show that the decrease in total lake area appears to coincide with periods of rapid land reclamation in the study area. Moreover, the uncontrolled land reclamation activities, such as irrigation, can increase the sedimentation in the Ebinur Lake thereby reducing the lake size. Reduction of the lake area has a negative ecological impact on the environment and on human life and property. The lake area is the most important factor to ensure the environment of the watershed and the key index to measure the environment balance.

  8. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  9. Webinar Presentation: Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Black Carbon and Other Light-absorbing Particles in Snow in Central North America and North China, was given at the STAR Black Carbon 2016 Webinar Series: Accounting for Impact, Emissions, and Uncertainty held on Nov. 7, 2016.

  10. Analysis of water level variation of lakes and reservoirs in Xinjiang, China using ICESat laser altimetry data (2003-2009).

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhaoxia; Liu, Hongxing; Chen, Yaning; Shu, Song; Wu, Qiusheng; Wang, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes ICESat Release 33 GLA14 data to analyse water level variation of Xinjiang's lakes and reservoirs from 2003 to 2009. By using Landsat images, lakes and reservoirs with area larger than 1 km2 are numerically delineated with a software tool. Based on ICESat observations, we analyse the characteristics of water level variation in different geographic environments, as well as investigate the reasons for the variation. Results indicate that climatic warming contributes to rising water levels in lakes in mountainous areas, especially for lakes that are recharged by snow and glacial melting. For lakes in oases, the water levels are affected jointly by human activity and climate change, while the water levels of reservoirs are mainly affected by human activity. Comparing the annual average rates of water levels, those of lakes are higher than those of reservoirs in oasis areas. The main reasons for the decreasing water levels in desert regions are the reduction of recharged runoff and high evaporation. By analysing the variation of water levels and water volume in different geologic environments, it is found that water level and volume increased in mountainous regions, and decreased in oasis regions and desert regions. Finding also demonstrate that decreasing volume is greater than increasing volume, which results in decreasing total volume of Xinjiang lakes and reservoirs.

  11. Response of vegetation NDVI to climatic extremes in the arid region of Central Asia: a case study in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junqiang; Chen, Yaning; Zhao, Yong; Mao, Weiyi; Xu, Xinbing; Liu, Yang; Yang, Qing

    2017-02-01

    Observed data showed the climatic transition from warm-dry to warm-wet in Xinjiang during the past 30 years and will probably affect vegetation dynamics. Here, we analyze the interannual change of vegetation index based on the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) with temperature and precipitation extreme over the Xinjiang, using the 8-km NDVI third-generation (NDVI3g) from the Global Inventory Modelling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) from 1982 to 2010. Few previous studies analyzed the link between climate extremes and vegetation response. From the satellite-based results, annual NDVI significantly increased in the first two decades (1981-1998) and then decreased after 1998. We show that the NDVI decrease over the past decade may conjointly be triggered by the increases of temperature and precipitation extremes. The correlation analyses demonstrated that the trends of NDVI was close to the trend of extreme precipitation; that is, consecutive dry days (CDD) and torrential rainfall days (R24) positively correlated with NDVI during 1998-2010. For the temperature extreme, while the decreases of NDVI correlate positively with warmer mean minimum temperature (Tnav), it correlates negatively with the number of warmest night days (Rwn). The results suggest that the climatic extremes have possible negative effects on the ecosystem.

  12. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  13. A methodology of characterizing status and trend of land changes in oases: a case study of Sangong River watershed, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Luo, G P; Zhou, C H; Chen, X; Li, Y

    2008-09-01

    Land change is often studied with Markov models to develop a probability transition matrix. The existing methods dependent on such matrixes cannot effectively characterize some important aspects associated with land change such as status, direction, trend and regional variations. This study presents mathematical models to quantify these elements, defining unbalanced, quasi-balanced and balanced status, one- and two-way transitions and the rising or falling trends. Using these models and remote-sensing imageries, the landscape was studied for a case area, the oasis of Sangong River in Xinjiang, Northwest China where typical arid conditions prevail. Land expansion and contraction among various land types and for the entire oasis were analyzed for the periods of 1978-1987, 1978-1998 and 1987-1998. The changes were closely related to a strong economic growth after the land-reform campaign and adoption of the market economy in China in the 1980s to early 1990s, a process not strictly Markovian that requires stationarity and randomness. Information on land-change status and trend is important for a better understanding of the underlying driving processes but also for land-use planning and decision-making.

  14. OMI-measured SO2 in a large-scale national energy industrial base and its effect on the capital city of Xinjiang, Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinxiang; Mo, Jingyue; Li, Jixiang; Ling, Zaili; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Gao, Hong; Shen, Yanjie; Ma, Jianmin

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable efforts have been made to improve air quality in Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region in northwestern China and one of the ten cities with worst air quality in China, this city is still experiencing heavy air pollution during the wintertime. The satellite remote sensing of air quality using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measured data discerned an increasing trend of the planetary boundary layer (PBL) columns of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Midong national petrochemical and coal chemical industry base from 2005 to 2016, located in the northeast of Urumqi. The increasing trend of OMI columnar SO2 in this area is in contrast to the widespread decreases in SO2 emissions in eastern and southern China. This is mainly induced by rapid development in the energy industry in this region over the past decade under the national strategy for energy industry expansion and relocation to northwestern China. We observed a significant correlation of OMI columnar SO2 between this energy industrial base and Urumqi city in winter (R = 0.504, p < 0.005), suggesting that SO2 emitted from heavily contaminated energy industrial base exacerbated the air quality in Urumqi city. The Weather Research and Forecasting Chemistry (WRF-Chem) modeling confirms that the occurrence of heavy smog in this capital city during the wintertime was attributed primarily to strong emissions of air contaminants from the energy industrial base under favorable winds. A numerical case study with and without taking the Midong Industry Base into consideration revealed that this industry base contributed 38% to the SO2 level in Urumqi city, offsetting the considerable efforts made by the local government to improve air quality in this city.

  15. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  16. Sources and Processes Affecting Particulate Matter Pollution over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Shao, J.; Lu, X.; Zhao, Y.; Gong, S.; Henze, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Severe fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution over North China has received broad attention worldwide in recent years. Better understanding the sources and processes controlling pollution over this region is of great importance with urgent implications for air quality policy. We will present a four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and its adjoint model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution, and apply it to analyze the factors affecting PM2.5 concentrations over North China. Hourly surface observations of PM2.5 and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from the China National Environmental Monitoring Center (CNEMC) can be assimilated into the model to evaluate and constrain aerosol (primary and precursors) emissions. Application of the data assimilation system to the APEC period (the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation summit; 5-11 November 2014) shows that 46% of the PM2.5 pollution reduction during APEC ("The APEC Blue") can be attributed to meteorology conditions and the rest 54% to emission reductions due to strict emission controls. Ammonia emissions are shown to significantly contribute to PM2.5 over North China in the fall. By converting sulfuric acid and nitric acid to longer-lived ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate aerosols, ammonia plays an important role in promoting their regional transport influences. We will also discuss the pathways and mechanisms of external long-range transport influences to the PM2.5 pollution over North China.

  17. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution.

  18. New evidence for early presence of hominids in North China.

    PubMed

    Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J; Wei, Qi; Qiang, Xiaoke; Xiao, Guoqiao

    2013-01-01

    The Nihewan Basin in North China has a rich source of Early Pleistocene Paleolithic sites. Here, we report a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic dating of the Shangshazui Paleolithic site that was found in the northeastern Nihewan Basin in 1972. The artifact layer is suggested to be located in the Matuyama reversed polarity chron just above the upper boundary of the Olduvai polarity subchron, yielding an estimated age of ca 1.7-1.6 Ma. This provides new evidence for hominid occupation in North China in the earliest Pleistocene. The earliest hominids are argued to have lived in a habitat of open grasslands mixed with patches of forests close to the bank of the Nihewan paleolake as indicated from faunal compositions. Hominid migrations to East Asia during the Early Pleistocene are suggested to be a consequence of increasing cooling and aridity in Africa and Eurasia.

  19. Late Precambrian aulacogens of the North China craton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qian, X.

    1985-01-01

    According to tectonic styles, the Precambrian evolution history of the North China craton may be subdivided into four stages: (1) Archean consolidation in 3.5 to 2.5 Ga, (2) Early Proterozoic rifting in 2.5 to 1.8 Ga, (3) Late Precambrian aulacogen in 1.8 to 0.8 Ga and (4) Platform regime after 0.8 Ga. In the Late Precambrian aulacogen stage of the North China craton there were two main aulacogens, Yanliao and Zhongtiao (Y and Z), developed in Middle Proterozoic time with an age 1.8 to 1.0 Ga. Their NE trend caused them to meet together in the central part of the craton and build up one great Y-Z aulacogen throughout the craton.

  20. Taming the Red Dragon: Peace Operations in North China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited TAMING THE RED DRAGON: PEACE OPERATIONS IN NORTH CHINA A Monograph by Major Robert L...AY 2014-001 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std Z39-18 REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public ...STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT After the Allies defeated the Japanese in

  1. Potential transport pathways of dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake, Xinjiang, in arid northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yongxiao; Abuduwaili, Jilili; Ma, Long; Wu, Na; Liu, Dongwei

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the HYSPLIT model, driven with reanalysis meteorological data from 1978 to 2013, was used to understand the potential transport characteristics of dust and salt dust emanating from the playa of Ebinur Lake in arid northwest China. Daily air parcel trajectories were computed forward for 8 days from an origin centered over Ebinur Lake at 100 m above ground level. Air parcel trajectory density plots were mapped for seven levels: 0-100 m agl., 100-500 m agl., 500-1000 m agl., 1000-1500 m agl., 1500-2000 m agl., 2000-3000 m agl., and 3000-5000 m agl. These show that potential dust transport pathways have clear seasonal differentiation. The potential transport distance of dust and salt dust is greatest in spring and summer. In autumn and winter, the potential transport of the high-density air trajectory is below 1000 m traveling a shorter distance. Potential dust transport pathways showed notifying directivity in different seasons and heights. Southeast in spring and summer, and north to northeast in autumn and winter are the two main potential transport channels of dust and salt dust. Accordingly, dust and salt dust from the playa of Ebinur Lake may influence the atmospheric processes and biogeochemical cycles of a vast region. The main area of influence of dust and salt dust is close to the source area, and will significantly accelerate the melting of snow and ice in the Tianshan Mountains. This highlights the urgent need to combine remote sensing, isotope and other methods to further research the transport characteristics of dust and salt dust from the playa of the Ebinur Lake.

  2. Aerosol forcing of extreme summer drought over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lixia; Wu, Peili; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of extreme summer drought has been increasing in North China during the past sixty years, which has caused serious water shortages. It remains unclear whether anthropogenic forcing has contributed to the increasing extreme droughts. Using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) re-analysis data and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model simulations with various combinations of historical forcings, the authors investigated the driving mechanism behind the observed changes. Metrological drought is usually measured by precipitation anomalies, which show lower fidelity in current climate models compared to large-scale circulation patterns. Based on NCEP/NCAR re-analysis, a linear relationship is firstly established between the weakest regional average 850 hPa southerly winds and extreme summer drought. This meridional winds index (MWI) is then used as a proxy for attribution of extreme North China drought using CMIP5 outputs. Examination of the CMIP5 simulations reveals that the probability of the extreme summer droughts with the first percentile of MWI for 1850-2004 under anthropogenic forcing has increased by 100%, on average, relative to a pre-industrial control run. The more frequent occurrence of extremely weak MWIs or drought over North China is ascribed from weakened climate and East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) circulation due to the direct cooling effect from increased aerosol.

  3. Rural youth and youth culture in north China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Y

    1999-03-01

    This article describes how economic reforms have transformed the local world of village life in North China, specifically the emergence of a rural "youth culture" that reflects urban values and styles. This culture has both challenged and enriched rural China's tradition and its more recent communal structure, a change that reshapes the relations amongst family members of different age cohorts as well as between peasants and cadres, it is argued that this transformation in the Chinese countryside holds opportunities to improve living conditions and unmake the constraints of tradition and the modern nation-state on life chances and everyday experience. The sheer number of rural youth in China suggests that the future impact of this transformation on social realities could be enormous.

  4. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-01-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny. PMID:26911195

  5. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-09-23

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element-induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10(-6)) and lower than priority risk levels (10(-4)) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10(-4), higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10(-4)).

  6. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R.; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-01

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region’s metallogeny.

  7. Mineral resources prospecting by synthetic application of TM/ETM+, Quickbird and Hyperion data in the Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Jiang, Dong; Zhuang, Dafang; Mansaray, Lamin R; Hu, Zhijun; Ji, Zhengbao

    2016-02-25

    The Hatu area, West Junggar, Xinjiang, China, is situated at a potential gold-copper mineralization zone in association with quartz veins and small granitic intrusions. In order to identify the alteration zones and mineralization occurrences in this area, the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+), Quickbird, Hyperion data and laboratory measured spectra were combined in identifying structures, alteration zones, quartz veins and small intrusions. The hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) color model transformation was applied to transform principal component analysis (PCA) combinations from R (Red), G (Green) and B (Blue) to HSI space to enhance faults. To wipe out the interference of the noise, a method, integrating Crosta technique and anomaly-overlaying selection, was proposed and implemented. Both Jet Propulsion Laboratory Spectral Library spectra and laboratory-measured spectra, combining with matched filtering method, were used to process Hyperion data. In addition, high-resolution Quickbird data were used for unraveling the quartz veins and small intrusions along the alteration zones. The Baobei fault and a SW-NE-oriented alteration zone were identified for the first time. This study eventually led to the discovery of four weak gold-copper mineralized locations through ground inspection and brought new geological knowledge of the region's metallogeny.

  8. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  9. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Peltzer, Gilles

    1993-01-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  10. The responses of net primary production (NPP) to different climate scenarios with Biome-BGC model in oasis areas along the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei; Gao, Zhiqiang; Slusser, James R.; Pan, Xiaoling; Ma, Yingjun

    2003-07-01

    The scientific community has been interested in the responses of vegetation to global change at regional and global scales. Many models have been developed to study the responses in terms of primary productivity. The ecosystem model, Biome-BGC, simulates the storage and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen within the vegetation, litter, and soil components of a terrestrial ecosystem and can be used to quantify effect on net primary production (NPP) under different climate scenarios. This study was conducted in oasis areas along the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, China with an arid climate. Ten sites were selected to test Biome-BGC model for its feasibility in the study areas. The model was proven not suitable to the desert ecosystem. After ecological and meteorological parameters were modified for each of the vegetation covers we applied the model to four sites that present agricultural, shrub, grasslands and mixed forest ecosystems. By using modified Biome-BGC model, we simulated the response of NPP with different land surface covers to four designed climate scenarios.

  11. Trace Elements Contamination and Human Health Risk Assessment in Drinking Water from the Agricultural and Pastoral Areas of Bay County, Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Turdi, Muyessar; Yang, Linsheng

    2016-01-01

    Tap water samples were collected from 180 families in four agricultural (KYR: Keyir, KRW: Kariwak, YTR: Yatur, DW: Dawanqi) and two pastoral areas (B: Bulong and Y: Yangchang) in Bay County, Xinjiang, China, and levels of seven trace elements (Cd, Cr, As Ni, Pb, Zn, Se) were analyzed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to assess potential health risks. Remarkable spatial variations of contamination were observed. Overall, the health risk was more severe for carcinogenic versus non-carcinogenic pollutants due to heavy metal. The risk index was greater for children overall (Cr > As > Cd and Zn > Se for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic elements, respectively). The total risk index was greater in agricultural areas (DW > KYR > YTR > KRW > B > Y). Total risk indices were greater where well water was the source versus fountain water; for the latter, the total health risk index was greater versus glacier water. Main health risk factors were Cr and As in DW, KYR, YTR, KRW, and B, and Zn, Cr, and As in the Y region. Overall, total trace element–induced health risk (including for DW adults) was higher than acceptable (10−6) and lower than priority risk levels (10−4) (KYR, YTR, KRW, Y, and B). For DW children, total health risk reached 1.08 × 10−4, higher than acceptable and priority risk levels (10−4). PMID:27669274

  12. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension among Kazakhs with high Salt Intake in Xinjiang, China: A Community-based Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaoda; Wang, Zixing; Wang, Yuyan; Wang, Lei; Han, Wei; Tang, Yong; Xue, Fang; Hou, Lei; Liang, Shaohua; Zhang, Biao; Wang, Weizhi; Asaiti, Kuliqian; Pang, Haiyu; Zhang, Mingtao; Jiang, Jingmei

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading cause of death worldwide; data on hypertension among ethnic minorities in China are sparse. This study aimed to estimate hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in a Kazakh population, and to assess the association between salt intake and the above measures. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Kazakh adults (≥30 years old) in the town of Hongdun, Altay, Xinjiang. Survey procedures included a questionnaire, physical measurement, and laboratory tests. Of 1805 eligible individuals, 1668 (92.4%) were included in the analysis. After adjustment for gender, age, and occupation, prevalence of hypertension was 45.5%. The proportions with awareness, treatment, control, or medication-control were 61.0%, 28.8%, 2.9% and 10.1%, respectively. Higher prevalence was seen among nomads and farmers (50.7% and 44.6%, respectively). However, the proportions with treatment or control were lower than seen among urban citizens. Hypertension prevalence was higher in those with higher salt intake (p = 0.0008). In contrast, the proportions with awareness (p = 0.0389), treatment (p = 0.0010), control (p = 0.0503), and medication-control (p = 0.2012) reduced as salt intake increased. In conclusion, hypertension prevalence is high in this population, but the proportions with awareness, treatment, or control are sub-optimal. Public health interventions that improve hypertension prevention and control, particularly among nomads, is needed. PMID:28358015

  13. Active tectonics in southern Xinjiang, China: Analysis of terrace riser and normal fault scarp degradation along the Hotan-Qira fault system

    SciTech Connect

    Avouac, J.P.; Peltzer, G. |

    1993-12-01

    The northern piedmont of the western Kunlun mountains (Xinjiang, China) is marked at its easternmost extremity, south of the Hotan-Qira oases, by a set of normal faults trending N50E for nearly 70 km. Conspicuous on Landsat and SPOT images, these faults follow the southeastern border of a deep flexural basin and may be related to the subsidence of the Tarim platform loaded by the western Kunlun northward overthrust. The Hotan-Qira normal fault system vertically offsets the piedmont slope by 70 m. Highest fault scarps reach 20 m and often display evidence for recent reactivations about 2 m high. Successive stream entrenchments in uplifted footwallls have formed inset terraces. We have leveled topographic profiles across fault scarps and transverse abandoned terrace risers. The state of degradation of each terrace edge has been characterized by a degradation coefficient tau, derived by comparison with analytical erosion models. Edges of highest abandoned terraces yield a degradation coefficient of 33 +/- 4 sq.m. Profiles of cumulative fault scarps have been analyzed in a similar way using synthetic profiles generated with a simple incremental fault scarp model.

  14. Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic constraints on the Paleozoic reconstructions of south China, north China and Tarim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shangyou, Nie

    1991-10-01

    Paleomagnetic and paleoclimatic data provide the most useful latitudinal constraints for plate reconstructions. Distributions through the Paleozoic of five types of climatically sensitive sediments (coals, evaporites, reefs, dolomites and limestones) for south China, north China and Tarim are shown on 15 maps that include 1578 reliable data points. These paleoclimatic data agree reasonably well with available paleomagnetic directions, although significant divergence between the two exists for the Early Paleozoic. These data indicate the following: (1) South China was in low latitudes during the entire Paleozoic, with a subtropical position in the Cambrian. (2) North China also remained near the equator in the Early and Late Paleozoic, except for the Ordovian and the Late Permian when extensive evaporites suggest slightly higher latitudinal positions, while its Middle Paleozoic position is uncertain due to the missing stratigraphie record. (3) In south China, local tectonics appears to have played a dominant role in determining paleogeography and therefore marine sedimentation, especially after the Late Ordovician-Early Silurian, because the areal coverage of marine sediments through time is distinctly different from what would be expected from published global sea-level curves. (4) Paleoclimatic and paleomagnetic data are compatible with biogeographic data which suggest that south China was part of eastern Gondwana in the Early Paleozoic, but was widely separated from Gondwana in the Late Paleozoic, and the split between the two probably happened in the Devonian, giving rise to a major break-up unconformity in central south China.

  15. Research of Houjiayao Unit in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Y.

    2012-12-01

    "Houjiayao Group" is the standard stratigraphic unit of late Pleistocene in northern China, which was created by Jia Lanpo and Wei Qi during their research on Houjiayao site. Based on the mammal, ancient human fossils and Paleolithic features, "Houjiayao Group" was thought as late Pleistocene sediments. "Houjiayao Group" was defined as late Pleistocene stratigraphic units. However, the problems of the age of "Houjiayao Group", stratigraphic division and other issues, have not yet been well resolved. These issues include: the differences of age-dating results, the unclear comparison between stratigraphic units and regional contrast, the uncertain relationship between "Houjiayao Group" and "Nihewan Layer ", and so on. Houjiayao site which located in the southeast of Houjiayao village in Dongjingji town Yangyuan County, Hebei province of China, is a very important paleolithic site. But some researches show that Houjiayao site is located at the 3th terrace of Liyigou valley and there are many opinions about the age of Houjiayao site, which varies from 20-500 thousand years. Combined with former research results and many research methods, our study was mainly focused on the key problems existing in the study of "Houjiayao Group". Through the use of sequence stratigraphy, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy and other theoretical methods, stratigraphic section was studied in the late Pleistocene stratigraphy and sedimentary environment. Through environmental indicators and the age-dating tests, the evolution of ancient geography and environment were identified elementarily. After analyzing informations of this area, geomorphologic investigation and stratum comparation in and around Houjiayao site were done. Houjiayao site is located on the west bank of Liyigou river, which has a tributary named Black Stone River. Two or three layers of volcanic materials were found in this area, those sediments are from a buried paleovolcano in upstream of Black Stone River. The volcanic

  16. 16S rRNA-based PCR-DGGE analysis of actinomycete communities in fields with continuous cotton cropping in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Long, XuanQi; Huo, XiangDong; Chen, YiFeng; Lou, Kai

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variations in the microbial community structure of soil actinomycetes in fields with continuous cropping of cotton in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China. Soil samples were collected from four depths in fields with 7-year continuous cotton cropping. The community structure of soil actinomycetes was examined using the 16S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction-density gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) techniques. The microbial diversity indices of the soil samples from different depths generally decreased along with the period of continuous cotton cropping. When the period of continuous cropping of cotton reached 5 years, the diversity indices rose again and gradually stabilized at a level slightly lower than that of soils with original ecology (i.e., 0-year cotton cropping). Cluster analysis showed that at the 1-20-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure of the soil subjected to 1-year cotton cropping was similar to that of soil subjected to 0-year cotton cropping, whereas that of soils after 3-year continuous cotton cropping showed high similarity. At the 21-40-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure showed various changes but generally recovered to its original pattern after repeated fluctuations. Principal component analysis showed that at the 1-30-cm depth, the actinomycete community structure varied similarly regardless of the period of continuous cotton cropping. In contrast, there were no clear actinomycete community structure variation trends at the 31-40-cm soil depth. Homology comparison of sequences recovered from the DGGE bands showed that the obtained sequences shared similarities >88 %. Alignment with the known homologous sequences indicated a lack of microorganisms related to soil-borne cotton diseases. Continuous cotton cropping exerted significant influences on the community structure of soil actinomycetes in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, which were largely determined by the soil depth and

  17. [Status of seroepidemiology of hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z B; Xue, Z X; Han, Z G; Yang, Q Y; Zheng, X R; Zulipikaer, Tuerhong; Wang, M

    2016-12-10

    Objective: To explore the status of seroepidemiology on hepatitis A, B and C in primary and middle school students in Shufu county, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang) and to evaluate the effect of related immunization. Methods: Students in four towns and villages were selected by cluster random sampling method. HAV-IgG, HBsAg, HBsAb and HCV-IgG were detected in Feb to May, 2015. Results: The overall HAV-IgG positive rate was 99.75%, among 4 830 primary and middle school students. The positive rates were seen 99.92% in boys and 99.57% in girls, with difference statistically significant (χ(2)=5.798, P=0.016). The overall HBsAg positive rate appeared as 3.02%, with 3.55% for boys and 2.47% for girls, with difference statistically significant (χ(2)=4.782, P=0.029). The difference between age specific HBsAg positive rates also showed statistically significant (χ(2)=71.990,P=0.000). HBsAg positive rate in the students in rural area (3.28%) was higher than that in the students in urban area (1.61%, χ(2)=6.019, P=0.014). HBsAb positive rate was 38.84%, and the differences between the age specific HBsAb positive rates appeared statistically significant (χ(2)=837.699, P=0.000). HBsAg positive rate in students from the urban area (42.36%) was higher than those from the rural area (38.20%, χ(2)=4.598, P=0.032). 2 815 students, accounting for 58.28% of the total students, showed negative on both HBsAg and HBsAb. The overall HCV-IgG positive rate was 0.19%, and all appeared in students from the rural areas, with ethnicity solely as Uygur. Conclusions: The effect of hepatitis A vaccine was satisfactory in primary and middle school students in Shufu county but quiet a number of the students missed the vaccination. The infection rate of hepatitis C was low. Publicity and health education on hepatitis immunization and control should be revved up. Programs regarding primary and supplementary immunization on hepatitis, should be carried out timely for children

  18. Association between Anthropometric Measures and Indicators for Hypertension Control among Kazakh-Chinese Hypertension Patients in Xinjiang, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinghua; Mahapatra, Tanmay; Huang, Feifei; Tang, Weiming; Guo, Yufang; Tang, Songyuan; Lei, Yang; Feng, Lei; Wang, Anni; Zhang, Liuyi; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-01-01

    Background Among Kazakh-Chinese population in Xinjiang province of China, prevalence of obesity and hypertension were 40.1% and 50.3% respectively, the highest across all ethnic groups residing in this pastureland. Despite this, there remained a dearth of information regarding the association between the anthropometric measures [body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) etc.] and indicators for hypertension control [achieved levels of systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP), pulse pressure index (PPI), ankle-brachial index (ABI) etc.] among them. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in Xinjiang to determine the distribution and inter-relationships of the anthropometric measures and indicators for achieved BP control as well as their predictors among hypertension patients of Kazakh-Chinese ethnicity. Out of 550 randomly selected patients, 516 completed the interview, anthropometry and BP assessments. Results In the sample population, average SBP, DBP and PP were 156.26±24.40mmHg, 87.55±14.73mmHg and 68.71±19.39mmHg respectively. Bivariate analysis identified age, gender, education, duration of hypertension, WC and BMI being factors influencing the achieved levels of BP. Adjusted multiple linear regression models elicited positive associations of age (βa = 0.152, p = 0.001) and duration of hypertension (βa = 0.132, p = 0.003) with achieved level of SBP as well as BMI (βa = 0.135, p = 0.002) with DBP. Age (βa = 0.207, p<0.001) and WHtR (βa = 0.304, p = 0.005) were positively and WC (βa = -0.406, p<0.001) was negatively associated with PPI. Increasing age (βa = -0.125, p = 0.005), female gender (βa = -0.122, p = 0.005) and 5years’ duration of hypertension (βa = -0.091, p<0.039) were negatively associated with ABI. After adjustment for socio-demographic variables, hypertensive patients with (reference = without) abdominal obesity had 93% (p = 0.013) higher odds of missing the

  19. Kashgar, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-12-12

    In far western China is Xinjiang Prefecture, with its capital of Kashgar (bottom right on image). The area has a rich history of over 2,000 years; Kashgar has served as a trading post and important city on the Silk Road. The folded sedimentary rocks outline valleys that contain oases, cultivated for thousands of years. The image was acquired 23 July 2014, covers an area of 37.3 by 46.3 kilometers, and is located at 39.8 degrees north, 75.8 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21189

  20. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  1. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  2. The diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in saline biological desert crusts in Xinjiang, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun; Yun, Juanli

    2013-07-01

    Although microorganisms, particularly oxygenic phototrophs, are known as the major players in the biogeochemical cycles of elements in desert soil ecosystems and have received extensive attention, still little is known about the effects of salinity on the composition and abundances of microbial community in desert soils. In this study, the diversity and abundance of bacteria and oxygenic phototrophs in biological desert crusts from Xinjiang province, which were under different salinity conditions, were investigated by using clone library and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis showed that cyanobacteria, mainly Microcoleus vagnitus of the order Oscillatoriales, were predominant in the low saline crusts, while other phototrophs, such as diatom, were the main microorganism group responsible for the oxygenic photosynthesis in the high saline crusts. Furthermore, the higher salt content in crusts may stimulate the growth of other bacteria, including Deinococcus-Thermus, Bacteroidetes, and some subdivisions of Proteobacteria (β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria). The cpcBA-IGS gene analysis revealed the existence of novel M. vagnitus strains in this area. The qPCR results showed that the abundance of oxygenic phototrophs was significantly higher under lower saline condition than that in the higher saline crusts, suggesting that the higher salinity in desert crusts could suppress the numbers of total bacteria and phototrophic bacteria but did highly improve the diversity of salt-tolerant bacteria.

  3. Annual Temperature Reconstruction by Signal Decomposition and Synthesis from Multi-Proxies in Xinjiang, China, from 1850 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jingyun; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the annual temperature anomaly series in Xinjiang during 1850–2001 based on three kinds of proxies, including 17 tree-ring width chronologies, one tree-ring δ13C series and two δ18O series of ice cores, and instrumental observation data. The low- and high-frequency signal decomposition for the raw temperature proxy data was obtained by a fast Fourier transform filter with a window size of 20 years, which was used to build a good relationship that explained the high variance between the temperature and the proxy data used for the reconstruction. The results showed that for 1850–2001, the temperature during most periods prior to the 1920s was lower than the mean temperature in the 20th century. Remarkable warming occurred in the 20th century at a rate of 0.85°C/100a, which was higher than that during the past 150 years. Two cold periods occurred before the 1870s and around the 1910s, and a relatively warm interval occurred around the 1940s. In addition, the temperature series showed a warming hiatus of approximately 20 years around the 1970s, and a rapid increase since the 1980s. PMID:26632814

  4. Analysis of water level variation of lakes and reservoirs in Xinjiang, China using ICESat laser altimetry data (2003–2009)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongxing; Chen, Yaning; Shu, Song; Wu, Qiusheng; Wang, Shujie

    2017-01-01

    This study utilizes ICESat Release 33 GLA14 data to analyse water level variation of Xinjiang’s lakes and reservoirs from 2003 to 2009. By using Landsat images, lakes and reservoirs with area larger than 1 km2 are numerically delineated with a software tool. Based on ICESat observations, we analyse the characteristics of water level variation in different geographic environments, as well as investigate the reasons for the variation. Results indicate that climatic warming contributes to rising water levels in lakes in mountainous areas, especially for lakes that are recharged by snow and glacial melting. For lakes in oases, the water levels are affected jointly by human activity and climate change, while the water levels of reservoirs are mainly affected by human activity. Comparing the annual average rates of water levels, those of lakes are higher than those of reservoirs in oasis areas. The main reasons for the decreasing water levels in desert regions are the reduction of recharged runoff and high evaporation. By analysing the variation of water levels and water volume in different geologic environments, it is found that water level and volume increased in mountainous regions, and decreased in oasis regions and desert regions. Finding also demonstrate that decreasing volume is greater than increasing volume, which results in decreasing total volume of Xinjiang lakes and reservoirs. PMID:28873094

  5. Annual Temperature Reconstruction by Signal Decomposition and Synthesis from Multi-Proxies in Xinjiang, China, from 1850 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jingyun; Liu, Yang; Hao, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    We reconstructed the annual temperature anomaly series in Xinjiang during 1850-2001 based on three kinds of proxies, including 17 tree-ring width chronologies, one tree-ring δ13C series and two δ18O series of ice cores, and instrumental observation data. The low- and high-frequency signal decomposition for the raw temperature proxy data was obtained by a fast Fourier transform filter with a window size of 20 years, which was used to build a good relationship that explained the high variance between the temperature and the proxy data used for the reconstruction. The results showed that for 1850-2001, the temperature during most periods prior to the 1920s was lower than the mean temperature in the 20th century. Remarkable warming occurred in the 20th century at a rate of 0.85°C/100a, which was higher than that during the past 150 years. Two cold periods occurred before the 1870s and around the 1910s, and a relatively warm interval occurred around the 1940s. In addition, the temperature series showed a warming hiatus of approximately 20 years around the 1970s, and a rapid increase since the 1980s.

  6. [Monitoring of soil salinization in Northern Tarim Basin, Xinjiang of China in dry and wet seasons based on remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Ding, Jian-Li; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Hong-Nan

    2013-11-01

    Soil salinization is one of the most important eco-environment problems in arid area, which can not only induce land degradation, inhibit vegetation growth, but also impede regional agricultural production. To accurately and quickly obtain the information of regional saline soils by using remote sensing data is critical to monitor soil salinization and prevent its further development. Taking the Weigan-Kuqa River Delta Oasis in the northern Tarim River Basin of Xinjiang as test object, and based on the remote sensing data from Landsat-TM images of April 15, 2011 and September 22, 2011, in combining with the measured data from field survey, this paper extracted the characteristic variables modified normalized difference water index (MNDWI), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and the third principal component from K-L transformation (K-L-3). The decision tree method was adopted to establish the extraction models of soil salinization in the two key seasons (dry and wet seasons) of the study area, and the classification maps of soil salinization in the two seasons were drawn. The results showed that the decision tree method had a higher discrimination precision, being 87.2% in dry season and 85.3% in wet season, which was able to be used for effectively monitoring the dynamics of soil salinization and its spatial distribution, and to provide scientific basis for the comprehensive management of saline soils in arid area and the rational utilization of oasis land resources.

  7. Deinococcus soli sp. nov., a gamma- and uv-radiation-resistant bacterium from north-west China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Qin, Bao-Fu; Wang, Yang; Fang, Cheng-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    An ionizing- and UV-radiation-resistant bacterial strain, designated ZLM-202T, was isolated from an arid soil sample collected from Xinjiang Province, north-west China. The soil sample was irradiated before serial dilution plating was performed using twofold-diluted marine agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain ZLM-202T was a member of the genus Deinococcus, exhibiting sequence similarities of 86.3-92.2% to the type strains of recognized Deinococcus species. Strain-ZLM-202 was strictly aerobic and showed optimum growth at 30-37 degrees C and pH 7.0. The major respiratory menaquinone was MK-8. The major fatty acids were 16:1 omega7c, 16:0, 15:1 omega6c, 15:0 iso and 16:1 omega5c. L-ornithine was detected in its peptidoglycan. The polar lipid profile consisted mainly of various unknown phosphoglycolipids, aminophospholipids, glycolipids and phospholipids. The DNA G + C content was 65.5 mol. %. The strain was shown to be extremely resistant to gamma radiation (> 10 kGy) and UV light (> 600 J m(-2)). On the basis of the phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic data, strain ZLM-202T represents a novel species of the genus Deinococcus, for which the name Deinococcus soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ZLM-202T (= CCTCC AB 208223T = KCTC 13419T).

  8. [Effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial community structure and function of continuous cropping cotton rhizosphere soil in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Gu, Mei-ying; Tang, Guang-mu; Liu, Hong-liang; Li, Zhi-qiang; Liu, Xiao-wei; Xu, Wan-li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, field trials were conducted to examine the effects of cotton stalk biochar on microbial population, function and structural diversity of microorganisms in rhizosphere soil of continuous cotton cropping field in Xinjiang by plate count, Biolog and DGGE methods. The experiment was a factorial design with four treatments: 1) normal fertilization with cotton stalk removed (NPK); 2) normal fertilization with cotton stalk powdered and returned to field (NPKS); 3) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 22.50 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₁); and 4) normal fertilization plus cotton stalk biochar at 45.00 t · hm⁻² (NPKB₂). The results showed that cotton stalk biochar application obviously increased the numbers of bacteria and actinomycetes in the rhizospheric soil. Compared with NPK treatment, the number of fungi was significantly increased in the NPKB₁treatment, but not in the NPKB₂ treatment. However, the number of fungi was generally lower in the biochar amended (NPKB₁, NPKB₂) than in the cotton stalk applied plots (NPKS). Application of cotton stalk biochar increased values of AWCD, and significantly improved microbial richness index, suggesting that the microbial ability of utilizing carbohydrates, amino acids and carboxylic acids, especially phenolic acids was enhanced. The number of DGGE bands of NPKB₂ treatment was the greatest, with some species of Gemmatimonadetes, Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria being enriched. UPGMC Cluster analysis pointed out that bacterial communities in the rhizospheric soil of NPKB₂ treatment were different from those in the NPK, NPKS and NPKB₁treatments, which belonged to the same cluster. These results indicated that application of cotton stalk biochar could significantly increase microbial diversity and change soil bacterial community structure in the cotton rhizosphere soil, thus improving the health of soil ecosystem.

  9. [Canopy light distribution and its correlation with photosynthetic production in super-high yielding cotton fields of Xinjiang, Northwest China].

    PubMed

    Feng, Guo-Yi; Yao, Yan-Di; Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Ya-Li; Du, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Wang-Feng; Xia, Dong-Li; Dong, Heng-Yi

    2012-05-01

    Taking the super-high yielding cotton fields (lint yield > or = 4000 kg x hm(-2)) in Xinjiang as the objects, this paper studied the canopy light distribution, photosynthetic rate, and dry matter accumulation at different growth stages, as well as the relationships between the characteristics of canopy light environment and the photosynthetic production. From full flowering stage to late full bolling stage, the light absorption proportion in the upper, middle and lower canopy layers in the super-high yielding cotton fields was 2:2:1, and the canopy transmission coefficients for radiation penetration and diffuse penetration were 0.20-0.55 and 0.22-0.56, respectively, being at reasonable level. The leaves in the middle and lower canopy layers could well accept light, and the leaf photosynthetic rate had little difference among different canopy layers. Compared with high yielding (3500 kg x hm(-2)) and generally high yielding (3000 kg x hm(-2)) cotton fields, super-high yielding cotton field had higher leaf area index and the highest canopy photosynthesis rate at early full boiling stage, and slowly decreased leaf area index, higher canopy photosynthesis rate, increased contribution of non-foliar organs to photosynthetic production, and larger dry matter accumulation from early boll-opening stage to full boll-opening stage. In cotton cultivation, to adjust the canopy structure for the equidistribution of light and canopy photosynthesis capacity in vertical direction could be the important strategy for the efficient utilization of absorbed light energy and the realization of super-high yielding.

  10. Characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Jiang, Fu-qiang; Xue, Chun-xiao; Xin, Guo-wei; Li, Kai-chong; Yang, Yin-hai

    2015-02-01

    Based on detailed long-term data of wind regimes collected from typical ventilation sites along the railways in the Gobi area of Xinjiang, this study systematically analyzes the characteristics of the disastrous wind-sand environment along the railways by combining gradient sand sampling data collected by a wind-drift sand monitoring system and site survey data. Wind direction and speed rose diagrams revealed the prevailing wind direction in each wind area along the railways, and this is the wind direction from which the maximum frequency of sandstorms occurred. Drift potential characteristic parameters (RDP, RDD) and the direction variability (RDP/DP) showed that each wind area along the Gobi railway featured a long wind period, with strong power in a single wind direction. The special geological environment of the Gobi determines the wind-drift sand that features gravel of large grain size and unsaturation, which are different from the wind-drift sand in deserts. With increasing wind velocity, the density of the wind-drift sand increased steadily; however, at a certain critical value, the density surged. This study on the wind-sand environment of the Gobi has significance for railway safety. The critical value of wind velocity corresponded to an abrupt increase in the wind-drift sand density and should be taken into account during the planning process of railway safety passage, since this will lead to a decrease in frontal visual distance, and an associated decrease in safety. Additionally, the specific features of wind-drift sand activities, such as the abruptness and higher than usual sand height, should be considered during the process of designing sand-damage-control engineering measures.

  11. Spaceborne radar for geoscientific applications in North China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Hua-Dong; Wu, Guo-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Song

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-A and -B (SIR-A and SIR-B) carried on the Space Shuttle Columbia in Nov. 1981 and the Challenger in Oct. 1984 acquired images of test sites of North China. The Russian ALMAZ SAR also acquired imagery of part of this test site in Sep. 1992. In Nov. 1990, the airborne SAR developed by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS/SAR) covered this area for the purpose of Chinese spaceborne radar development. By studying and analyzing these SAR data, positive results in geoscientific applications were achieved.

  12. Paleozoic exhumation history of the North Qinling terrane,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Genser, Johann; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Xiaoming; Yang, Zhao; Zhang, Guowei; Heberer, Bianca

    2010-05-01

    The Qinling mountain range lies between the North and South China blocks, and is bounded on the north by the Lushan fault and on the south by the Mianlue-Bashan-Xiangguang fault (Dong et al., 2008). The Qinling-Dabie orogen can be subdivided, from north to south, into the Southern North China block with the North Qinling terrane, the Shangdan suture, the South Qinling microcontinent block, the Mianlue suture and the South China block (Zhang et al., 1995; Meng et al., 1999; Li SZ et al., 2007). A number of models for the Qinling tectonic evolution have been proposed. Controversies, however, still exist, in particular on the timing of the joining and the processes of convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan suture zone. Most authors believe that the collision between the North and the South China blocks occurred after the closure of the Shangdan ocean. However, an increasing body of data is not consistent with simple collision models. This paper reports new U-Pb age zircon and 40Ar/39Ar hornblende and biotite ages from magmatic and metamorphic rocks from the Northern Qinling Terrane. Based on this new dataset, we discuss the exhumation and cooling history of the Northern Qinling Terrane in order to advance the understanding of the tectonic processes that operated during convergence between the North and South China blocks along the Shangdan zone. The amphibolite-grade North Qinling metamorphic unit forms the centre of the Qinling orogenic belt. Results of LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon, 40Ar/39Ar amphibole and biotite dating reveal the Palaeozoic tectonic history. U-Pb zircon dating of migmatitic orthogneiss and granite dykes constrains the age of two possible stages of migmatization at 517 ±14 Ma and 445.4 ± 4.6 Ma. Subsequently, intrusion by granites occurred at 417.2 ± 1.6 Ma. 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of amphibole, ranging from 397.1 ± 8.6 Ma to 432.3± 3.4 Ma constrain the cooling of the Qinling complex below ca. 540°C and biotite 40Ar/39

  13. Late Paleozoic vertical crustal growth of Western Junggar, Xinjiang in China: evidence from petrology and Nd isotope in charnockites and alkaline granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xian, W. S.; Sun, M.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, G. C.; Malpas, J.

    2003-04-01

    This abstract reports our new petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical and Nd isotope studies on the charnockites and alkaline granites in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, China. During the 1997 field excursion, we for the first time discovered charnockites in the Miaergou alkaline granite batholith, one of the six largest intrusive A-type bodies in the western Junggar of Xinjiang, Northwest China. The batholith is located in the southwestern part of the East-Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is characterized by the presence of voluminous Paleozoic to Mesozoic granitoids with positive ɛNd(t) values. In spatial distribution, the batholith occurs as a ring-like igneous complex, which intrudes the early-Carboniferous volcanic sedimentary rocks of low-grade metamorphism. It is mainly composed of charnockite, quartz diorite, alkaline granite, potash feldspar granite, syenite and rare tourmaline-bearing intermediate-mafic dykes. Charnockites occur only within the diorite. A large amount of gabbroic, dioritic and leucogranitic enclaves are found in a zone between the alkaline granite and diorite. Petrographic and mineralogical studies indicate that the charnockites were derived from partial melting of the lower crust and crystallized under P-T conditions of 5.44˜5.63 ± 1.0 kbar and 700˜800^oC. Zircons from a charnockite sample and an alkaline granite sample yielded concordant U-Pb TIMS ages of 305.3 ± 1. 1 Ma and 274.1 ± 2.9 Ma, respectively, interpreted as the age of the emplacement of the charnockites and alkaline granites. Two-pyroxene granulites, biotite-spinel-cordierite gneisses and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses occur as enclaves within the charnockites. The two-pyroxene granulite enclaves are considered to be restites of partial melting of the previous lower crust at ˜845^oC, whereas the xenoliths of biotite-spinel-cordierite and sillimanlite-biotite gneisses were metamorphosed at low-pressure amphibolite- to granulite-facies, which were related to the

  14. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles. Results Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes. Conclusions The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls. PMID:24053145

  15. A non-plume model for the Permian protracted (266-286 Ma) basaltic magmatism in the Beishan-Tianshan region, Xinjiang, Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Sheng-Chao; Li, Chusi; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Tang, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    The convenient mantle plume model for the Permian protracted mafic-ultramafic intrusions and mafic dykes (266-286 Ma) in the Beishan-Tianshan region, northern Xinjiang, western China can be rejected, because their temporal-spatial distribution does not show a hotspot track predicted by such model. New zircon U-Pb ages reveal that two small mafic dyke clusters (Podong, 280.5 ± 2 Ma; Luodong, 266.2 ± 3.2 Ma) that are separated by only ~ 20 km in the Pobei area, the southernmost part of the Beishan-Tianshan region, have a large age difference of ~ 18 Ma. The older mafic dykes are characterized by nearly flat mantle-normalized rare-earth-element patterns, pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies and positive εNd(t) values from 5.5 to 7.5, similar to the majority of the Permian mafic-ultramafic intrusions in the region. The younger mafic dykes are characterized by significant light rare-earth-element enrichments as well as pronounced negative Nb-Ta anomalies, plus lower εNd(t) (- 1.2 to 2.6) values and higher initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios than the older mafic dykes. The observed compositional variations can be explained by source mantle heterogeneity plus different degrees of crustal contamination. Overall, the Permian mafic-ultramafic rocks in the Beishan-Tianshan region are geochemically consistent with the products of basaltic magmatism induced by lithospheric delamination and asthenosphere upwelling in a convergent tectonic zone.

  16. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2017-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  17. A new xinjiangchelyid turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Xinjiang, China and the evolution of the basipterygoid process in Mesozoic turtles.

    PubMed

    Rabi, Márton; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Wings, Oliver; Ge, Sun; Joyce, Walter G

    2013-09-22

    Most turtles from the Middle and Late Jurassic of Asia are referred to the newly defined clade Xinjiangchelyidae, a group of mostly shell-based, generalized, small to mid-sized aquatic froms that are widely considered to represent the stem lineage of Cryptodira. Xinjiangchelyids provide us with great insights into the plesiomorphic anatomy of crown-cryptodires, the most diverse group of living turtles, and they are particularly relevant for understanding the origin and early divergence of the primary clades of extant turtles. Exceptionally complete new xinjiangchelyid material from the ?Qigu Formation of the Turpan Basin (Xinjiang Autonomous Province, China) provides new insights into the anatomy of this group and is assigned to Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. A phylogenetic analysis places Xinjiangchelys wusu n. sp. in a monophyletic polytomy with other xinjiangchelyids, including Xinjiangchelys junggarensis, X. radiplicatoides, X. levensis and X. latiens. However, the analysis supports the unorthodox, though tentative placement of xinjiangchelyids and sinemydids outside of crown-group Testudines. A particularly interesting new observation is that the skull of this xinjiangchelyid retains such primitive features as a reduced interpterygoid vacuity and basipterygoid processes. The homology of basipterygoid processes is confidently demonstrated based on a comprehensive review of the basicranial anatomy of Mesozoic turtles and a new nomenclatural system is introduced for the carotid canal system of turtles. The loss of the basipterygoid process and the bony enclosure of the carotid circulation system occurred a number of times independently during turtle evolution suggesting that the reinforcement of the basicranial region was essential for developing a rigid skull, thus paralleling the evolution of other amniote groups with massive skulls.

  18. Applying InSAR technique to accurately relocate the epicentre for the 1999 Ms = 5.6 Kuqa earthquake in Xinjiang province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Xianjie; Fu, Rongshan; Dai, Zhiyang; Jing, Ping; Ni, Sidao; Huang, Jinshui

    2009-01-01

    The 1999 Ms = 5.6 Kuqa earthquake occurred in a seismically active belt between the Tianshan Mountain and the Traim basin. Because of the sparse seismic network and complex crustal structure, it is very difficult to accurately locate the epicentre for this event using seismic waves. The epicentres located by different research groups vary over a spatial range of 20-40km. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a geodetic technique with fine spatial resolution, good precision and wide coverage. An interferometric map of the epicentral region constrains the epicentre of this event. The arid climate and sparsely vegetation in the Kuqa region provide excellent conditions for InSAR studies. In this paper, we firstly construct a interferogram to map the coseismic deformation field due to the 1999 Kuqa earthquake using a coseismic interferometric pair of radar images acquired by the ESA ERS-2 satellite. Then, we develop a new geocoding method and apply it to the interferogram. Next, we infer the geometry of the seismogenic fault according to its focal mechanism and tectonic setting. To model the interferogram, we assume a dislocation buried in a uniform elastic half-space. Finally, we infer the epicentre of this earthquake to be located at (82.80°E, 41.92°N), which is close to the results of the National Earthquake Information Center of USGS and China Earthquake Administration. The epicentre location inferred from InSAR falls in the six-level isoseismal contour described by Xinjiang earthquake administration using the field investigations.

  19. Sediment record of environmental change at Lake Lop Nur (Xinjiang, NW China) from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingzhong; Jia, Hongjuan

    2016-09-01

    Lake Lop Nur is located in the eastern part of the Tarim Basin in Xinjiang, northwestern China. A 220-cm-long sediment core was collected from the center of the ear-shaped depression forming the basin and dated with AMS14C. Grain size, total organic matter (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and TOC/TN (C/N) analyses were used to reconstruct climatic conditions from 13.0 to 5.6 cal ka BP. The results showed five main climatic stages. Zone I (13.0-11.3 cal ka BP) was a wet-dry environment, whereas Zone II (11.3-8.9 cal ka BP) consisted of a primarily wet environment. Zone III (8.9-7.7 cal ka BP) was subdivided into Zone IIIa (8.9-8.2 cal ka BP) that indicated lake constriction and dry climate, and Zone IIIb (8.2-7.7 cal ka BP) in which the proxies indicated wet conditions. In Zone IV (7.7-6.6 cal ka BP), the climate presented a bit wet conditions. In Zone V (6.6-5.6 cal ka BP), abundant glauberite is present in the sediment and silt dominates the lithology; these results indicate the lake shrank and the overall climate was dry. Abrupt environmental events were also identified, including six dry events at 11.0, 10.5, 9.3, 8.6, 8.2, and 7.6 cal ka BP and one flood event from 7.8 to 7.7 cal ka BP in the Early-Middle Holocene.

  20. Petrogenesis of the Seleteguole granitoids from Jinhe county in Xinjiang (West China): Implications for the tectonic transformation of Northwest Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Leng, Cheng-Biao; Zhang, Xing-Chun; Su, Wen-Chao; Tang, Hong-Feng; Yan, Jia-Hui; Cao, Jing-Liang

    2016-07-01

    The Seleteguole Cu-Mo deposit in Jinghe County, Xinjiang is tectonically located on the northern margin of the Northwestern Tianshan. Three major intrusions including biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have been identified. The biotite granite, with a zircon U-Pb age of 307 ± 3 Ma, intruded carbonates and clastic rocks of the Middle Carboniferous Dongtujin Formation. The younger diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry, with an identical zircon U-Pb age of 302 ± 3 Ma, locally intruded the biotite granite; where the granite in contact with the two porphyries were characterized by phyllic alteration. The mineralogical and geochemical characteristics indicate that all granitoids in Seleteguole belong to calc-alkaline I-type. These granitoids are enriched in LILE relative to HFSE with negative anomalies of Nb, P and Ti, typical of arc-related rocks. All three granitoids have positive zircon εHf(t) values, low Mg# ratios (34-39), and low Cr (< 60 ppm) and Ni (< 15 ppm) contents, suggesting that their parental magmas could be derived from juvenile lower crust that has probably originated from cooling of mantle-derived magmas as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. Subducted sediments were involved in the source of the granitoids in Seleteguole. Compared to biotite granite, diorite porphyry and quartz diorite porphyry have higher Th/La ratios but lower zircon εHf(t) values, indicating that more subducted sediments contributed in the latter two. The regional geological and geochemical characteristics of the Late Carboniferous igneous rocks in the Northwestern Tianshan show that Late Carboniferous I-type granitoids, with juvenile Sr-Nd-(Hf) isotopic signatures, formed in a continent-marginal arc setting as a result of the subduction of Paleo-Junggar Ocean beneath the Yili Block. In combination with the compositions of the Early Permian granitoids in the region, we suggest that the tectonic setting of

  1. The impacts of the Indian summer rainfall on North China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Renguang; Jiao, Yang

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a connection between interannual variations of the Indian and North China summer rainfall. An atmospheric circulation wave pattern over the mid-latitude Asia plays an important role in the connection. The present study compares the influence of the above-normal and below-normal Indian summer rainfall on the North China summer rainfall variations. Composite analysis shows that the mid-latitude Asian atmospheric circulation and the North China rainfall anomalies during summer tend to be anti-symmetric in above-normal and below-normal Indian rainfall years. Analysis indicates that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relation tends to be stronger when larger Indian rainfall anomaly occurs during a higher mean rainfall period. The observed long-term change in the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship cannot be explained by the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The present study evaluates the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship in climate models. Analysis shows that the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship differs largely among different climate models and among different simulations of a specific model. The relationship also displays obvious temporal variations in both individual and ensemble mean model simulations. This suggests an important role of the atmospheric internal variability in the change of the Indian-North China summer rainfall relationship.

  2. 77 FR 13171 - China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited, Order of Suspension of Trading March 1, 2012. It... accurate information concerning the securities of China North East Petroleum Holdings Limited (``NEP''),...

  3. Present State and Prospects of Bilingual Education in Xinjiang: An Ethnographic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaytulla, Guljennet

    2008-01-01

    This article, based mainly on specific examples from the author's ethnographic fieldwork, outlines the state of bilingual education in Xinjiang and reviews its development. First, a broad outline is presented of the overall circumstances of bilingual education in China and Xinjiang. Next is an introduction to the present state of bilingual…

  4. Deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Y.; Zhao, C. S.; Ma, N.; Liu, H. J.; Bian, Y. X.; Tao, J. C.; Hu, Min

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we report that the deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols on the North China Plain are frequently observed using a humidified nephelometer system. The deliquescence relative humidity (RH) primarily ranges from 73% to 81%, with an average of 76.8%. The observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols exhibit distinct diurnal patterns and are highly correlated with ammonium sulfate. The diurnal variations of ammonium and nitrate may play significant roles on occurrences of observed deliquescent phenomena. The frequently observed deliquescent phenomena of ambient aerosols in this paper imply that current parameterization schemes that describe the RH dependence of particle light scattering may result in a significant bias when estimating aerosol effects on climate.

  5. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  6. [Dynamic changes in vegetation NDVI from 1982 to 2012 and its responses to climate change and human activities in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Du, Jia-qiang; Jiaerheng, Ahati; Zhao, Chenxi; Fang, Guang-ling; Yin, Jun-qi; Xiang, Bao; Yuan, Xin-jie; Fang, Shi-feng

    2015-12-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in regulating the terrestrial carbon balance and the climate system, and also overwhelmingly dominates the provisioning of ecosystem services. Therefore, it has significance to monitor the growth of vegetation. Based on AVHRR GIMMS NDVI and MODIS NDVI datasets, we analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns of change in NDVI and their linkage with climate change and human activity from 1982 to 2012 in the typical arid region, Xinjiang of northwestern China, at pixel and regional scales. At regional scale, although a statistically significant positive trend of growing season NDVI with a rate of 4.09 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ was found during 1982-2012, there were two distinct periods with opposite trends in growing season NDVI before and after 1998, respectively. NDVI in growing season first significantly increased with a rate of 10 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1982 to 1998, and then decreased with a rate of -3 x 10⁻⁴· a⁻¹ from 1998 to 2012. The change in trend of NDVI from increase to decrease mainly occurred in summer, followed by autumn, and the reversal wasn't observed in spring. At pixel scale, the NDVI in farmland significantly increased; the NDVI changes in the growing season and all seasons showed polarization: Areas with significant change mostly increased in size as the NDVI record grown in length. The rate of increase in size of areas with significantly decreasing NDVI was larger than that with significantly increasing NDVI, which led to the NDVI increase obviously slowing down or stopping at regional scale. The vegetation growth in the study area was regulated by both climate change and human activity. Temperature was the most important driving factor in spring and autumn, whereas precipitation in summer. Extensive use of fertilizers and increased farmland irrigated area promoted the vegetation growth. However, the rapid increase in the proportion of cotton cultivation and use of drip irrigation might reduce spring NDVI in the

  7. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lina; Wang, Pengyan; Ren, Yan; Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction-sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  8. Prevalence of High-Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) Genotypes and Multiple Infections in Cervical Abnormalities from Northern Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jingyun; Jiang, Jianjun; Jia, Xuesong; Chen, Chuangfu; Wang, Yuanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes often coexist within the cervical epithelia and are frequently detected together in various grades of the cervical neoplasia. To date, only a few reports exist on multiple HPV infections of HPV in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of High-Risk HPV (HR-HPV) genotypes and multiple infections. Cervical cytology samples were collected from 428 women who presented cervical abnormalities. Genotyping of HPV was performed by polymerase chain reaction–sequencing based typing (PCR-SBT) using consensus primers and specific primers. Of them, 166 samples were positive for HPV according to PCR results using the consensus primers. These samples contained cervical abnormalities enriched with inflammation (n = 107), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) I (n = 19), CINII-III (n = 9) and cervical cancer (n = 31). Of the 166 HPV positive samples as determined by PCR analysis, 151 were further typed by PCR-SBT using 19 pairs of genotype-specific primers. Using this method, 17 different HR-HPV genotypes were identified. The most frequently observed HPV genotypes were HPV16 (44.0%, 73/166), 53 (28.9%, 48/166), 52 (25.3%, 42/166), 58 (22.3%, 37/166) and 35 (17.5%, 29/166). The proportions of single and multiple infections in the HPV-positive specimens were 34.9% and 65.1%, respectively. Multiple HPV types were most prevalent in the inflammatory state (63.0%), followed by cervical cancer (24.1%), CINI (11.1%), and CINII-III (1.9%). The results of our data analyses suggested that i) multiple HPV infection is not necessarily correlated with the severity of cervical abnormalities; and ii) among the multiple HPV infections, double infections combined with HPV16 is the most common. In addition, L1 full-length sequences of the top five high-risk HPV genotypes were amplified and sequenced. According to the L1 sequence of the epidemic genotypes that were amplified, we found that these

  9. Response of the phytoplankton community to water quality in a local alpine glacial lake of Xinjiang Tianchi, China: potential drivers and management implications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaotian; Song, Shuai; Lu, Yonglong; Wang, Tieyu; Liu, Zhaoyang; Li, Qifeng; Zhang, Meng; Suriyanarayanan, Sarvajayakesavalu; Jenkins, Alan

    2017-08-31

    Eutrophication has become one of the most serious threats to aquatic ecosystems in the world. With the combined drivers of climate change and human activities, eutrophication has expanded from warm shallow lakes to cold-water lakes in relatively high latitude regions and has raised greater concerns over lake aquatic ecosystem health. A two-year field study was carried out to investigate water quality, phytoplankton characteristics and eutrophication status in a typical alpine glacial lake of Tianchi, a scenic area and an important drinking water source in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region of China, in 2014 and 2015. Clear seasonal and annual variations of nutrients and organic pollutants were found especially during rainy seasons. For the phytoplankton community, Bacillariophyta held the dominant position in terms of both species and biomass throughout the year, suggesting the dominant characteristics of diatoms in the phytoplankton structure in such a high-altitude cold-water lake. This was quite different from plain and warm lakes troubled with cyanobacterial blooming. Moreover, the dominant abundance of Cyclotella sp. in Tianchi might suggest regional warming caused by climate change, which might have profound effects on the local ecosystems and hydrological cycle. Based on water quality parameters, a comprehensive trophic level index TLI (Σ) was calculated to estimate the current status of eutrophication, and the results inferred emerging eutrophication in Tianchi. Results from Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and correlation analysis of phytoplankton genera and physico-chemical variables of water indicated that abiotic factors significantly influenced the phytoplankton community and its succession in Tianchi Lake. These abiotic factors could explain 77.82% of the total variance, and ammonium was identified as the most discriminant variable, which could explain 41% of the total variance followed by TP (29%). An estimation of annual nutrient loadings to

  10. Characterization and complete genome sequence analysis of a novel virulent Siphoviridae phage against Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Xing, Shaozhen; Sun, Qiang; Pei, Guangqian; Cheng, Shi; Liu, Yannan; An, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianglilan; Qu, Yonggang; Tong, Yigang

    2017-06-01

    Bovine mastitis is one of the most costly diseases in dairy cows worldwide. It can be caused by over 150 different microorganisms, where Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated and a major pathogen responsible for heavy economic losses in dairy industry. Although antibiotic therapy is most widely used, alternative treatments are necessary due to the increasing antibiotic resistance. Using phage for pathogen control is a promising tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance. Mainly using high-throughput sequencing, bioinformatics and our proposed phage termini identification method, we have isolated and characterized a novel virulent phage, designated as vB_SauS_IMEP5, from manure collected from dairy farms in Shihezi, Xinjiang, China, for use as a biocontrol agent against Staphylococcus aureus infections. Its latent period was about 30 min and its burst size was approximately 272PFU/cell. Phage vB_SauS_IMEP5 survives in a wide pH range between 3 and 12. A treatment at 70 °C for 20 min can inactive the phage. Morphological analysis of vB_SauS_IMEP5 revealed that phage vB_SauS_IMEP5 morphologically resembles phages in the family Siphoviridae. Among our tested multiplicity of infections (MOIs), the optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) of this phage was determined to be 0.001, suggesting that phage vB_SauS_IMEP5 has high bacteriolytic potential and good efficiency for reducing bacterial growth. The complete genome of IME-P5 is a 44,677-bp, linear, double-stranded DNA, with a G+C content of 34.26%, containing 69 putative ORFs. The termini of genome were determined with next-generation sequencing data using our previously proposed termini identification method, which suggests that this phage has non-redundant termini with 9nt 3' protruding cohesive ends. The genomic and proteomic characteristics of IMEP5 demonstrate that this phage does not belong to any of the previously recognized Siphoviridae Staphylococcus phage groups, suggesting the

  11. Non-planar Fault Model of the 2008 Yutian Normal Faulting Earthquake (M7.2), Xinjiang, China, and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, M.; Yasuda, T.

    2010-12-01

    On 20 March 2008, a normal-faulting earthquake (M7.2/USGS) struck Yutian county, Xinjiang, China. The epicenter is close to the southern-edge of the Tarim basin, where three prominent fault systems, the Altyn-Tagh Fault, Karakax Fault, and Longmu-Gozha Co Fault, meet together at the northwest of the Tibetan plateau. The associated crustal deformation signals, if detected and examined in detail, will provide us with important constraints on how the continental crust in Tibetan plateau has been deforming, which has been contentious over the decades. Also, it could suggest clues on why normal faulting earthquakes prevail over the central to northern areas of Tibet. Here, based on our detected co-seismic crustal deformation signals by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data, we report a non-planar kinematic fault source model that suggests the normal faulting rupture occurred in a dilatational step-over region of two oblique left-lateral strike slip faults. We used L-band ALOS/PALSAR data for the ascending track and C-band Envisat/ASAR data for the descending track. The observed data showed that the overall strike was from NE to SW, consistent with Shao and Ji (2008)'s preliminary source model. The largest slipped area in the InSAR data, however, indicates that the strike direction is almost NS, and that the rupture reached to the surface. The pixel-offset data also illustrate that the strike direction changed around the middle of the fault trace on the surface, suggesting that the fault slip occurred on a non-planar surface. In order to realistically represent the non-planar geometry, we employed an analytical formulation for the triangular dislocation element to invert the slip distribution (e.g., Mearten et al., 2005; Mead, 2007). In inverting the fault slip, both the non-negativity constraint on the slip direction and the smoothing constraint on the slip distribution were applied. Optimum fault source and its implications for regional tectonics and mechanism for the

  12. Formation mechanism of the lanthanide tetrad effect for a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite pluton in eastern Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-zhi; Liu, Si-hai; Gu, Lian-xing; Zhang, Zun-zhong; Lei, Ru-xiong

    2011-10-01

    The Baishitouquan (BST) pluton is a topaz- and amazonite-bearing leucogranite intrusion located in the Middle Tianshan orogen of Xinjiang, northwestern China. This pluton exhibits five lithological zones gradational from the bottom upwards: leucogranite (zone-a), amazonite-bearing granite (zone-b), amazonite granite (zone-c), topaz-bearing amazonite granite (zone-d) and topaz albite granite (zone-e). Contents of REE and other trace elements were analysed on major and accessory minerals, including quartz, plagioclase, K-feldspar, white micas, topaz, fluorite, garnet, zircon and monazite, separated from above five zones of the BST pluton. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns of minerals from zone-a to zone-e display clear convex tetrad effect, and the TE 1,3 (quantification factor of tetrad effect) values of these minerals increases from zone-a to zone-e, except that a quartz sample from zone-b and zircon from zone-c exhibits W-type tetrad effect. Therefore, we conclude that REE tetrad features of the minerals, such as quartz, plagioclase, zircon, garnet and monazite, are inherited directly from the melt and have not significantly affected by both fractional crystallization and surface weathering. With progressing of magmatic differentiation, total REE contents decrease, Eu anomaly becomes more negative, whereas Nb/Ta, Zr/Hf and Y/Ho ratios decrease gradually from zone-a to zone-e with increasing TE 1,3 values. Therefore, we suggest that F-rich magmatic fluid-melt interaction above its solidus may leave the residual silicate melt with the features of very low contents of all REE, subchondritic Y/Ho, Zr/Hf and Nb/Ta values, and with an M-type tetrad pattern, including minerals crystallizing from it. Such a pattern is manifested by both whole-rock and separate minerals. Hydrothermal fluid-rock interaction played only a minor role to the convex tetrad effect of the minerals and their host rocks.

  13. Comparison of Late Ordovician epicontinental seas and their relative bathymetry in North American and China

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.; Fox, W.T. ); Jia-Yu, Rong )

    1989-02-01

    Six widely separated areas with Upper Ordovician strata in Canada and the United States are compared with six localities in southern China. Cyclic sedimentation, including evaporites, carbonates, and phosphatic black shales, occurred in relatively shallow epicontinental seas of North America. As many as three Ashgill cycles of regionally different styles may have been coeval throughout North America in response to modest changes in sea level. Environments in South China primarily included carbonates and black shales with a far more uniform distribution. Absence of comparable sedimentary cycles confirms that the platform bathymetry of South China was consistently deeper than in North America. The almost complete exposure of North China (Sino-Korean Plate) by Late Ordovician time underscores the fact that independent cratons have different bathymetric histories. By mid-Silurian time, South China also was fully exposed. Such hypsographic variation is critical to the intercontinental correlation of features related to eustasy, water chemistry, and even the patterns of extinctions.

  14. Diagnosis of Peste des Petits Ruminants in Wild and Domestic Animals in Xinjiang, China, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Li, L; Wu, X; Liu, F; Zou, Y; Wang, Q; Liu, C; Bao, J; Wang, W; Ma, W; Lin, H; Huang, J; Zheng, X; Wang, Z

    2017-01-18

    Peste des petits ruminants viruses (PPRVs) re-emerged in China at the end of 2013 and then spread rapidly into 22 provinces through movement of live goats and sheep. In this study, 96 samples of domestic animals and 13 samples of wildlife were analysed for the presence of PPRV infection by ELISA or RT-PCR. Of 96 samples from sheep and goats, 91 were PPRV positive, whereas all of the 13 samples from three wild species, Capra ibex (Capra ibex sibirica), argali (Ovis ammon) and Goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa), were found to be positive. Five wildlife-origin isolates from the above samples were identified as the lineage IV by a multiple alignment of the partial sequences in N gene.

  15. Response to environmental flows in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang, China: an ecological interpretation of water-table dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hou, P; Beeton, R J S; Carter, R W; Dong, X G; Li, X

    2007-06-01

    Increased water-dependent development and utilization have led to significant environmental and hydrological degradation of the Tarim River in western China and its dependent ecosystems. Between the 1950s and 1970s, 350 km of the lower reaches were drained and between 1960 and 1980 the water-table fell from between -2 and -3 m to between -8 and -10 m. Subsequently, riparian ecosystems were seriously degraded. In 2000, the Chinese government launched a program to restore the lower reaches of the river. Four environmental flows of 1034 x 10(6) m(3) were released from 2000 to 2002. This paper interprets and discusses the ecological significance of changes following the releases and identifies the relationship between water-table dynamics and vegetation responses. Short-term objectives for river restoration are proposed with possible monitoring parameters suggested.

  16. [Raman microspectroscopic analysis of polychrome wooden artifact from the Astana tomb of the tang dynasty, Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Si, Yi; Jiang, Hong-En; Wang, Bo; He, Qiu-Ju; Hu, Yao-Wu; Yang, Yi-Min; Wang, Chang-Sui

    2013-10-01

    The Turpan District is characterized by a typical dry climate, so that many organic relics have been well preserved. A piece of wooden artifact with 9 colors was unearthed from Astana graveyard which is rich in cultural connotations. In the present paper, Raman microscopy was employed for in-situ, nondestructive analysis of pigments that remained on this artifact, and many mineral pigments (gypsum, red lead, carbon black, haematite, atacamite) and vegetable dyes (gamboges and indigo) were identified. It is noteworthy that this is the earliest example that gamboges were used as yellow dye in China at present. The results show that the Gaochang people had mastered skills proficiently, including the preparation, deployment and usage of pigment. The investigation of pigments could provide a basis for the restoration and conservation of relies, and more evidence for pigments trade business and cultural exchanges.

  17. IL-10 Genetic Polymorphisms Were Associated with Valvular Calcification in Han, Uygur and Kazak Populations in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yi-Tong; Wulasihan, Muhuyati; Huang, Ying; Adi, Dilare; Yang, Yi-Ning; Ma, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Xie, Xiang; Huang, Ding; Liu, Fen; Chen, Bang-Dang

    2015-01-01

    Objective Valvular calcification occurs via ongoing endothelial injury associated with inflammation. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and 75% of the variation in IL-10 production is genetically determined. However, the relationship between genetic polymorphisms of IL-10 and valvular calcification has not been studied. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between valvular calcification and IL-10 genetic polymorphisms in the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations in China. Patients and Methods All of the participants were selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Three independent case-control studies involving the Han population, the Uygur population and the Kazak population were used in the analysis. Results For the Han and Kazak populations, rs1800871 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the recessive model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.031, respectively). For the Han, Uygur and Kazak populations, rs1800872 was found to be associated with valvular calcification in the dominant model, and the difference remained statistically significant following multivariate adjustment (p<0.001, p=0.009, and p=0.023,respectively) Conclusion Both rs1800871 and rs1800872 of the IL-10 gene are associated with valvular calcification in the Han and Kazak populations in China. Rs1800872 is also associated with valvular calcification in the Uygur population. PMID:26039365

  18. Molecular Epidemiological Survey of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Thalassemia in Uygur and Kazak Ethnic Groups in Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Han, Luhao; Su, Hai; Wu, Hao; Jiang, Weiying; Chen, Suqin

    2016-06-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and thalassemia occur frequently in tropical and subtropical regions, while the prevalence of relationship between the two diseases in Xinjiang has not been reported. We aimed to determine the prevalence of these diseases and clarify the relationship between genotypes and phenotypes of the two diseases in the Uygur and Kazak ethnic groups in Xinjiang. We measured G6PD activity by G6PD:6PGD (glucose acid-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) ratio, identified the gene variants of G6PD and α- and β-globin genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DNA sequencing and gap-PCR and compared these variants in different ethnic groups in Xinjiang with those adjacent to it. Of the 149 subjects with molecular analysis of G6PD deficiency conducted, a higher prevalence of the combined mutations c.1311C > T/IVSXI + 93T > C and IVSXI + 93T > C, both with normal enzymatic activities, were observed in the Uygur and Kazak subjects. A case of rare mutation HBB: c.135delC [codon 44 (-C) in the heterozygous state], a heterozygous case of HBB: c.68A > G [Hb G-Taipei or β22(B4)Glu→Gly] and several common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found on the β-globin gene. In conclusion, G6PD deficiency with pathogenic mutations and three common α-thalassemia (α-thal) [- -(SEA), -α(3.7) (rightward), -α(4.2) (leftward)] deletions and point mutations of the α-globin gene were not detected in the present study. The average incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) in Uygurs was 1.45% (2/138) in Xinjiang. The polymorphisms of G6PD and β-globin genes might be useful genetic markers to trace the origin and migration of the Uygur and Kazak in Xinjiang.

  19. Shortening rates across the foothills of the Western Kunlun (Xinjiang, China) inferred from geomorphic measurements and cosmogenic 10Be dating.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coudroy, T.; van der Woerd, J.; Li, H.; Barrier, L.; Tapponnier, P.; Simoes, M.; Thuizat, R.; Pan, J.; Si, J.; Xu, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Western Kunlun, which bounds north-western Tibetan Plateau, is one of the largest mountain range of Asia, with altitudes peaking at 6500-7500 m asl, and crustal thicknesses of up to ~70 km. North of the plateau, in the foreland of the range, an active fold-and-thrust belt extends 200 km into the Tarim basin, but remains poorly documented regarding amounts of shortening or deformation rates. We discuss the distribution of deformation on the basis of a study of specific foreland folds and faults using high resolution satellite imagery, digital elevation models, seismic reflection data, on-site topographic measurements and cosmogenic isotope dating. South of Hotan city, the 250 km-long Tekelike Fault - the mountain-front thrust that dips beneath the 45 km-wide, 5400m-high Tekelike Range, a basement ramp-anticline - cuts and offsets terraces abandoned by the Karakash River. 10Be concentrations of surface and sub-surface samples from these terraces upper-most deposits yield an exposure age of about 100 kyr for the upper terrace that lies 140 m above the present river bed, implying an incision rate of 1.4 mm/yr. Assuming a dip of 45 +/-15° and neglecting changes in river dynamics over this time period, this age would imply a minimum, average shortening rate of 1.4 +/- 0.7 mm/yr across the thrust. Farther North, 100 to 200 km-long WNW-ESE trending anticlines deform the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sedimentary series lying in the foreland of the range. The 150 km-long, 35 km-wide Yecheng-Pishan anticline folds Plio-Quaternary molasses. Drainages crossing this growing anticline have abandoned flights of inset terraces on the sides of wind-gaps. The maximum elevation of the highest terrace above local drainage is about 350m. Near Pishan city, flat, well-preserved terrace surfaces are covered by thin loess, in turn capped by loose gravel pavement. On the uppermost two terraces of this valley, 70 and 120 meters-high, cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in surface and sub

  20. Oasis land-use change and its effects on the eco-environment in Yanqi Basin, Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Yimit, Hamid; Eziz, Anwar; Ablimit, Ajigul

    2014-01-01

    Satellite data and the published coefficients about the world's and China's ecosystem were used to analyze the effects of land-use changes on the ecosystem service in the Yanqi Basin. Both economic developments and arid, fragile ecosystems have strongly affected the land use. A sensitivity analysis determined the effect of manipulating the coefficients on the estimated values. Results indicated that (1) the total value of ecosystem services in the Yanqi Basin were 9,374.66, 10,450.52, 9,964.20, and 9,8707.77 million Yuan in 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2011, respectively. The net increase in ecosystem service values were about 496.11 million Yuan within 1990-2011; (2) The aggregated ecosystem service values of water body, wetlands, grasslands, and croplands were about 99.25 % of the total value; (3) Waste treatment and soil formation were the top two ecological functions with high service values and contributing about 61.70 % of the total service values; and (4) Ecosystem service values estimated in this study were inelastic with respect to the value coefficients; therefore, the estimation was robust in spite of uncertainties on the value coefficients. A reasonable land-use plan should be based on rigorous environmental impact analyses for maintaining stability and sustainable development of the Yanqi Basin.

  1. Mesozoic non-marine petroleum source rocks determined by palynomorphs in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, D.-X.; Wang, Y.-D.; Robbins, E.I.; Wei, J.; Tian, N.

    2008-01-01

    The Tarim Basin in Northwest China hosts petroleum reservoirs of Cambrian, Ordovician, Carboniferous, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary ages. The sedimentary thickness in the basin reaches about 15 km and with an area of 560000 km2, the basin is expected to contain giant oil and gas fields. It is therefore important to determine the ages and depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. For prospective evaluation and exploration of petroleum, palynological investigations were carried out on 38 crude oil samples collected from 22 petroleum reservoirs in the Tarim Basin and on additionally 56 potential source rock samples from the same basin. In total, 173 species of spores and pollen referred to 80 genera, and 27 species of algae and fungi referred to 16 genera were identified from the non-marine Mesozoic sources. By correlating the palynormorph assemblages in the crude oil samples with those in the potential source rocks, the Triassic and Jurassic petroleum source rocks were identified. Furthermore, the palynofloras in the petroleum provide evidence for interpretation of the depositional environments of the petroleum source rocks. The affinity of the miospores indicates that the petroleum source rocks were formed in swamps in brackish to lacustrine depositional environments under warm and humid climatic conditions. The palynomorphs in the crude oils provide further information about passage and route of petroleum migration, which is significant for interpreting petroleum migration mechanisms. Additionally, the thermal alternation index (TAI) based on miospores indicates that the Triassic and Jurassic deposits in the Tarim Basin are mature petroleum source rocks. ?? Cambridge University Press 2008.

  2. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jie; Gui, Dongwei

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth's hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River.

  3. Linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to regional climate factors in the Qira River basin, Xinjiang, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The inland river watersheds of arid Northwest China represent an example of how, in recent times, climatic warming has increased the complexity of Earth’s hydrological processes. In the present study, the linear and nonlinear characteristics of the runoff response to temperature and precipitation were investigated in the Qira River basin, located on the northern slope of the Kunlun Mountains. The results showed that average temperature on annual and seasonal scales has displayed a significantly increasing trend, but this has not been reflected in accumulated precipitation and runoff. Using path analysis, a positive link between precipitation and runoff was found both annually and in the summer season. Conversely, it was found that the impact of temperature on runoff has been negative since the 1960s, attributable to higher evaporation and infiltration in the Qira River basin. Over the past 50 years, abrupt changes in annual temperature, precipitation and runoff occurred in 1997, 1987 and 1995, respectively. Combined with analysis using the correlation dimension method, it was found that the temperature, precipitation and runoff, both annually and seasonally, possessed chaotic dynamic characteristics, implying that complex hydro-climatic processes must be introduced into other variables within models to describe the dynamics. In addition, as determined via rescaled range analysis, a consistent annual and seasonal decreasing trend in runoff under increasing temperature and precipitation conditions in the future should be taken into account. This work may provide a theoretical perspective that can be applied to the proper use and management of oasis water resources in the lower reaches of river basins like that of the Qira River. PMID:26244113

  4. High-Resolution satellite imagery mapping of the Ms 7.9, 11 august 1931 Fuyun earthquake, Northern Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etchebes, Marie; Klinger, Yann; Tapponnier, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The 11 August 1931 Fuyun earthquake (Ms 7.9), which ruptured about 160 km of the strike-slip Fuyun fault, western front of the Altai Mountains, is part of a series of 5 major events of similar magnitude that occurred in Mongolia in a lapse of 30 yrs. It counts among one of the major continental strike-slip earthquakes of the last hundred years. However, The rupture geometry and the slip distribution, key data to document fault segmentation and faulting recurrence, are poorly known for this event. A new set of high-resolution satellite images (QUICKBIRD, ASTER) provide insights into the surface rupturing process associated with this earthquake. Thanks to the arid climate conditions that prevail in the area, analysis of these images allowed us to constrain the length, the width, and the coseismic horizontal slip distribution of the Fuyun earthquake rupture zone. We have mapped the trace of the fault at the surface with accuracy using this high-resolution (<1m) data set. Detailed mapping reveals a linear right-lateral shear zone striking NNW that can be mapped for about 160 km from the Kayirti River in the north to the Ulungur River in the south. NNE-trending extensive structures as pull apart (Xinshankou pull apart), and NNW-trending compressive structures as thrust faults (Karaxingar thrust fault and Saribastaw feature) are present too and consistent with this strike. According to rupture azimuth changes, the 1931 surface rupture can be divided into four main geometric segments. These segments, with a length ranges from 27 to 55 km, present a mainly right-lateral motion with moderate normal component in the North and minor reverse component in the South. This mapping also suggests that these four first order segments can be further separated into more higher order segments, linked by geometric discontinuities like step-overs, bends, fault branches of different scales. Following Kame and al. [2003], the splay fault angle and spatial distribution of these branches

  5. Cenozoic Deformation of the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang, China): a Record of the Deformation Propagation through the Asian Orogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laborde, A.; Barrier, L.; Simoes, M.; Li, H.

    2016-12-01

    During the Cenozoic, the ongoing India-Eurasia collision resulted in the formation of the Himalayan-Tibetan plateau and reactivated the Tian Shan and Altai ranges located thousands of kilometers further north. Despite numerous studies carried out on the geology and tectonics of this large convergent orogenic system, several mechanisms remain controversial such as the stress propagation through the Asia Continent or the strain partitioning between crustal thickening and lateral extruding of its lithosphere. Located between the Tibetan Plateau and the Tian Shan Range, the Tarim Basin and its several kilometres thick Cenozoic sediments derived from the surrounding mountain belts are key recorders to reconstruct the evolution of the latters. Moreover, this basin is often considered as a relatively rigid block, which behaved as a secondary ``indenter'' transmitting collisional stresses to the Tian Shan. However, due to the size of the Tarim and its thick Cenozoic sedimentary series hiding most of its structures, the constraints on the spatial distribution and timing of the its Cenozoic deformation remain fragmentary. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to produce a synthetic view of this deformation at the scale of the whole basin. Based on numerous surface and subsurface data (satellite images, field surveys, seismic profiles, and well data), we established a tectonic map of the Cenozoic structures in the region and built balanced geological cross-sections across the basin. Our surface and subsurface observations confirm that, contrary to what had been proposed, the Tarim block has also undergone a major deformation during the Cenozoic. The quantification and history of this deformation provide useful insights into the modalities of the crustal shortening in the area and the problems of stress propagation and strain partitioning following the Indo-Asian collision.

  6. [Demography and spectrum analysis of Juglans cathayensis populations at different altitudes in the west Tianshan valley in Xinjiang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Jiao, Zi-wei; Shang, Tian-cui; Yang, Yun-fei

    2015-04-01

    Juglans cathayensis is an endangered plant species and listed as a class II protected species of the national government of China. In order to grasp the current state of J. cathayensis populations and predict the population dynamics in the future, a large-sample investigation was conducted in the sample plots along different altitude gradients in four valleys in J. cathayensis conservation area. According to the diameter at breast height (DBH) class of the trees, the age class structures of the populations were analyzed, and static life tables for J. cathayensis populations in different habitats along the altitude gradient was constructed by smoothing out technique, and comparative fluctuations cycles of the populations in different habitats were carried out by spectral analysis. The results showed that DBH decreased gradually with the increasing altitude. The population was composed of 19 age classes in the low-altitude habitat (1241 - 1380 m) with the maximum DBH of 91.7 cm, 18 age classes in the middle-altitude habitat (1381 - 1490 m) with the maximum DBH of 82.8 cm, and 13 age classes in the high-altitude habitat (1491 - 1670 m) with the maximum DBH of 58.9 cm. Life expectancies of J. cathayensis populations were fluctuant for the same age class at different altitudes and for different age classes at the same altitude. In the three altitude-different habitats, the survival curves of the populations trended toward Deevey- II type and the age structures of the populations were expanding. The curves of mortality showed three peaks, and the mortality rates of 9 age classes at 1241 - 1380 m and 1491 - 1670 m above sea levels were the highest, being 55.9% and 89.8%, respectively, and the mortality rate of 12 age classes at 1381 - 1490 m above sea level was the highest (79.4%). The population dynamics was significantly affected by the fundamental wave of biological characteristic throughout the life cycle of J. cathayensis population, and small cycles of multi

  7. Seasonal prediction of winter haze days in the north central North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the winter (December-February) haze pollution over the north central North China Plain (NCP) has become severe. By treating the year-to-year increment as the predictand, two new statistical schemes were established using the multiple linear regression (MLR) and the generalized additive model (GAM). By analyzing the associated increment of atmospheric circulation, seven leading predictors were selected to predict the upcoming winter haze days over the NCP (WHDNCP). After cross validation, the root mean square error and explained variance of the MLR (GAM) prediction model was 3.39 (3.38) and 53 % (54 %), respectively. For the final predicted WHDNCP, both of these models could capture the interannual and interdecadal trends and the extremums successfully. Independent prediction tests for 2014 and 2015 also confirmed the good predictive skill of the new schemes. The predicted bias of the MLR (GAM) prediction model in 2014 and 2015 was 0.09 (-0.07) and -3.33 (-1.01), respectively. Compared to the MLR model, the GAM model had a higher predictive skill in reproducing the rapid and continuous increase of WHDNCP after 2010.

  8. The making and remaking of the North China Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. X.

    2004-12-01

    The North China Block (NCB) consists of two major Archaean crustal nuclei that collided together by ca. 1800 Ma (e.g., Zhao, 2001), although some argue that they came together as early as ca. 2500 Ma (e.g., Zhai and Liu, 2003; Kusky and Li, 2004). No orogenic event is known within the NCB from ca. 1800 Ma until Permian. The shape and lithospheric architecture of this seemingly stable continental block were significantly reworked by Mesozoic-Cenozoic events. Continental collision between the NCB and South China Block (SCB) started from their eastern ends as early as Permian, leading to the initial continental subduction and subsequent exhumation of 240-235 Ma UHP metamorphic rocks (e.g., Hacker et al., 2000; Ayers et al., 2002) to the crustal level by ca. 220 Ma (Hacker et al., 2000). This was followed by the development of flake tectonics in the region east of the Tanlu Fault between Late Triassic and mid-Jurassic (Li, 1994, 1998), where the lower crust and lithospheric mantle of the SCB continued to subduct beneath the NCB, whereas the upper crust of the SCB, along with the UHP rocks at the upper crustal level along the former plate margin, were obducted over the lower crust of the NCB for up to 500 km. We thus have a composite crust in the Sulu-Yellow Sea-central Korea region. Extensive thin- to thick-skinned thrusting also developed in both the Jiao-Liao region east of the Tanlu Fault and the Xu-Huai and Luxi regions west of the Tanlu Fault during this process, all within the upper crust of the NCB. This complex crustal architecture may still influence distribution of epicentres in the region. Late Jurassic-Cretaceous thin-skinned thrusts were well developed along northern NCB (e.g., Davis et al., 1998) possibly due to the closure of the Mongolo-Okhotsk sea to the north. For reasons still being debated, eastern NCB underwent dramatic lithospheric thinning (locally total erosion of lithospheric mantle?) during the Cretaceous and early Tertiary (e.g., O'Reilly et

  9. [Evapotranspiration of winter wheat field in North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jiaxuan; Li, Yuzhong; Yan, Chang-Rong; Zhao, Quansheng; Mei, Xurong

    2006-12-01

    By using eddy covariance and remote sensing techniques, the relationships between winter wheat soil moisture content and farmland evapotranspiration or canopy temperature were analyzed at field scale under various environmental conditions in the North China Plain. The results showed that when the soil moisture content was below 65% of field capacity, the evaporative fraction under full canopy was low and stable during the middle part of clear days. Under clear sky condition, there was a good non-linear correlation between latent heat flux and crop canopy temperature with diurnal and seasonal patterns. The temperature difference between crop canopy and air as well as the relative evapotranspiration had a close link to the relative moisture content of 0 - 100 cm soil layer. Based on the in situ measurements of daily evapotranspiration amount (ET(d)), daily net radiation flux (Rn(d), mm), average canopy temperature (T(e), degrees C) from 13 : 30 to 14: 00, and daily maximum air temperature (T(a max), degrees C) during the field experiment, the parameters of simplified estimation model for daily evapotranspiration were established.

  10. Sequestration of nonylphenol in sediment from Bohai Bay, North China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fen; Hu, Jianying; Liu, Jinlin; Yang, Min; Wang, Fu; Wang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    The ubiquity of nonylphenol (NP) in aquatic environments has been well documented, and the long-term fate of NP in sediments is a concern from the viewpoint of risk assessment due to its endocrine-disrupting effects. This paper reports on the assessment of long-term fate of NP in marine sediments by determining extractable and nonextractable fractions of NP in surface sediments and a sediment core from Bohai Bay, North China. The extractable fraction was operationally defined as the fraction of NP that was extracted with a solvent mixture of methanol/methylene chloride, and the nonextractable fraction was the portion of NP that can be released from the sediments by alkaline hydrolyzing after the initial solvent extraction. The total concentrations (extractable and nonextractable) of NP were 3.4-34.3 ng/g dw in the surface sediments and 2.2-17.7 ng/g dw in the sediment core. Depending on the sedimentation time, the percentage of nonextractable NP relative to the total NP in the core ranged from 38 to 99%. Based on the relationship between the percentage of nonextractable NP in sediments and sedimentation time, the sequestration rate of NP in the sediment core from Bohai Bay was estimated to be 0.94% x a(-1). These results have important implications in understanding the geochemical fate of NP in sediments.

  11. Remote impact of North Atlantic sea surface temperature on rainfall in southwestern China during boreal spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Chen, Jiepeng; Wang, Xin; Luo, Xia; Yang, Daoyong; Zhou, Wen; Tan, Yanke; Yan, Hongming

    2017-03-01

    As an important oceanic signal, the North Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) affects not only the climate variability over East China and Northeast China but also can affect climate variability over southwestern China (SWC). Based on station rainfall data and reanalysis datasets, the present study investigates the relationship of North Atlantic SST with SWC rainfall during boreal spring for the period 1979-2016. The results show that there is a significant positive correlation between North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. The atmospheric circulation over southern Asia associated with North Atlantic SST is favorable for positive rainfall anomalies. Further analyses show that North Atlantic SST can induce a North Atlantic-western Russia-western Tibetan Plateau-SWC (NRTC) teleconnection wave train from upper level to low level. At low level, two anomalous anticyclones are found over the mid-high latitude of North Atlantic and the western Tibetan Plateau, and two anomalous cyclones are observed over the western Russia and Bay of Bengal (BOB), respectively. The NRTC teleconnection wave train plays a bridging role between the North Atlantic SST and SWC rainfall during boreal spring. Both the observational analysis and two numerical experiments suggest that the North Atlantic SST during boreal spring can induce an anomalous cyclone over BOB by the NRTC teleconnection pattern. The anomalous cyclone over BOB favors moisture transport to SWC, accompanying with significant anomalous ascending motion, and thus results in positive rainfall anomalies in SWC during boreal spring.

  12. Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian palynostratigraphy of the Baode section in the Ordos Basin, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhu, Huaicheng; Ouyang, Shu

    2015-11-01

    Well-preserved miospores are recorded and illustrated from the Penchi to the lower part of the Sunjiagou formations in the Baode section of the Ordos Basin, North China. Eight palynological biozones are proposed for the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian interval. Among them, five biozones are refined from pre-existing biozones. The biozones are comparable throughout the North China Craton. In contrast, long distance palynological correlation between North China and Euramerica only extends to the end of the Bolsovian (early Moscovian). By reference of associated marine fossils and magnetostratigraphic data, approximate stratigraphic correlation with the international stages is possible in Ordos Basin. Quantitative abundances of spores and pollen from the Late Pennsylvanian to Wuchiapingian reflect a wet-hot palaeoclimate in the Ordos Basin but with an increasing tendency of palaeoclimatic drying from the Early Kungurian. This drying tendency can be recognized throughout the North China Craton and seems to be related to the suturing process between North China Craton with the combined northeastern China blocks. Reduviasporonites which occurs often in relatively high frequencies in many Permian-Triassic boundary sections was recorded for the first time from the early Kungurian Shansiensis Biozone.

  13. East-China Geochemistry Database (ECGD):A New Networking Database for North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Ma, W.

    2010-12-01

    North China Craton is one of the best natural laboratories that research some Earth Dynamic questions[1]. Scientists made much progress in research on this area, and got vast geochemistry data, which are essential for answering many fundamental questions about the age, composition, structure, and evolution of the East China area. But the geochemical data have long been accessible only through the scientific literature and theses where they have been widely dispersed, making it difficult for the broad Geosciences community to find, access and efficiently use the full range of available data[2]. How to effectively store, manage, share and reuse the existing geochemical data in the North China Craton area? East-China Geochemistry Database(ECGD) is a networking geochemical scientific database system that has been designed based on WebGIS and relational database for the structured storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. It is integrated the functions of data retrieval, spatial visualization and online analysis. ECGD focus on three areas: 1.Storage and retrieval of geochemical data and geological map information. Research on the characters of geochemical data, including its composing and connecting of each other, we designed a relational database, which based on geochemical relational data model, to store a variety of geological sample information such as sampling locality, age, sample characteristics, reference, major elements, rare earth elements, trace elements and isotope system et al. And a web-based user-friendly interface is provided for constructing queries. 2.Data view. ECGD is committed to online data visualization by different ways, especially to view data in digital map with dynamic way. Because ECGD was integrated WebGIS technology, the query results can be mapped on digital map, which can be zoomed, translation and dot selection. Besides of view and output query results data by html, txt or xls formats, researchers also can

  14. The epidemiology of adolescent acne in North East China.

    PubMed

    Wei, B; Pang, Y; Zhu, H; Qu, L; Xiao, T; Wei, H-C; Chen, H-D; He, C-D

    2010-08-01

    Adolescent acne impacts self-esteem and quality of life in adolescents and its aetiology is not fully clarified. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological features of adolescent acne in North East China and determine the impact of genetic and environmental factors on the pathogenesis of acne. Data were collected from 5696 undergraduates (2920 patients and 2776 controls) using questionnaire. The survey data were analysed using spss version 13.0 and heritability of adolescent acne was calculated using Falconer's method. Total prevalence of adolescent acne was 51.30% (52.74% in males, 49.65% in females). The difference between genders was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Adolescents with a family history of acne had earlier age of onset (P < 0.001). The prevalence of acne in first- and second-degree relatives of acne patients was 22.5% and 7.19%, respectively, significantly higher than in controls (P < 0.001). Heritability of adolescent acne was 78.47 +/- 2.05% in first-degree relatives and 75.05 +/- 3.18% in second-degree relatives. Risk factors to the acne suffers include (in descending order of occurrence), acne family history, mental stress, menstrual disorder, frequent insomnia, high fat diet, being male, dysmenorrhoea, anxiety, sleeping < 8 h per day, depression, fried food, study pressure, spicy food, oily skin and mixed type skin. Protective factors include (presented in descending order of occurrence) dry skin, neutral skin, frequent fruit consumption and computer access time < 2 h daily. Adolescent acne includes a familial genetic predisposition. Additional environmental factors of psychological stress, skin oiliness and high caloric diets may also contribute to the onset of acne in Chinese adolescents.

  15. Mesoproterozoic biogenic thrombolites from the North China platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dongjie; Shi, Xiaoying; Jiang, Ganqing

    2013-03-01

    Thrombolites are abundant in the subtidal dolostones of the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation (ca 1.50-1.45 Ga) in the North China platform. Three major components are identified within the thrombolites: irregular mesoclots, micritic matrix and spar-filled voids. The mesoclot generally comprises a relatively organic-rich micritic core and a microsparitic outer layer that consists of fibrous aragonite (pseudocrystals) with less organic matter. In the core of mesoclots, abundant fossilized organic remnants, such as putative coccoidal and filamentous bacteria and mucus- to film-like extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), are closely associated with organominerals including nanoglobules and submicron-scale polyhedrons. In exceptionally well-preserved mesoclots, their outer layers commonly contain micropores displaying as bacterial molds and filamentous bacteria fossils. The matrix of mesoclots consists mainly of micropeloids (20-30 μm in diameter) and minor terrigenous detritus. Some mesoclots have denticulate edges and their matrix shows growth laminations that envelope the outlines of mesoclots. These features indicate that the mesoclots are primary and they were mineralized earlier than the surrounding matrix. The mineralization of mesoclots may have proceeded in two stages: (1) organomineralization of the cores through replacement of organic matter by minute organominerals resulting from anaerobic degradation of bacteria and EPS and (2) inorganic precipitation of the outer layers fostered by an increase in carbonate alkalinity in micro-environment due to organic matter decomposition. The thrombolites from the Mesoproterozoic Wumishan Formation may have formed through complex interactions between microbes and environments and represent the earliest known Precambrian biogenic thrombolites.

  16. Geography of Food Consumption Patterns between South and North China.

    PubMed

    Song, Fangfang; Cho, Mi Sook

    2017-05-05

    The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 < T2 < T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%: 1.01, 1.68) (OR: Odds Ratio), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%: 1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.

  17. Study on Hydrological Functions of Litter Layers in North China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiang; Niu, Jianzhi; Xie, Baoyuan

    2013-01-01

    Canopy interception, throughfall, stemflow, and runoff have received considerable attention during the study of water balance and hydrological processes in forested ecosystems. Past research has either neglected or underestimated the role of hydrological functions of litter layers, although some studies have considered the impact of various characteristics of rainfall and litter on litter interception. Based on both simulated rainfall and litter conditions in North China, the effect of litter mass, rainfall intensity and litter type on the maximum water storage capacity of litter (S) and litter interception storage capacity (C) were investigated under five simulated rainfall intensities and four litter masses for two litter types. The results indicated: 1) the S values increased linearly with litter mass, and the S values of broadleaf litter were on average 2.65 times larger than the S values of needle leaf litter; 2) rainfall intensity rather than litter mass determined the maximum interception storage capacity (Cmax); Cmax increased linearly with increasing rainfall intensity; by contrast, the minimum interception storage capacity (Cmin) showed a linear relationship with litter mass, but a poor correlation with rainfall intensity; 3) litter type impacted Cmax and Cmin; the values of Cmax and Cmin for broadleaf litter were larger than those of needle leaf litter, which indicated that broadleaf litter could intercepte and store more water than needle leaf litter; 4) a gap existed between Cmax and Cmin, indicating that litter played a significant role by allowing rainwater to infiltrate or to produce runoff rather than intercepting it and allowing it to evaporate after the rainfall event; 5) Cmin was always less than S at the same litter mass, which should be considered in future interception predictions. Vegetation and precipitation characteristics played important roles in hydrological characteristics. PMID:23936188

  18. Mesozoic tectonic setting of rift basins in eastern North China and implications for destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Guo-wei; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Wang, Meng

    2015-11-01

    Destruction of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic due to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate has attracted a lot of recent interest, with numerous studies focusing on regional tectonics and associated magmatism. Although the peak ages for this event have been established, the timing of its initiation remains poorly understood. In this paper, two rift basins in the northern Hebei Province of China, the Diaoe Basin (DB) and Houcheng Basin (HB), are studied in order to constrain the timing of destruction of the northern margin of the NCC. Both NNE-striking basins developed on Proterozoic basement. The DB is a graben controlled by normal faults on its two margins, and the HB is a half-graben bounded by normal faults on its eastern side. Basin fills include detrital sediments and volcanic rocks, which are (from bottom to top) the Houcheng Formation (Fh), the Zhangjiakou Formation (Fzh), the Shijiayao Formation (Fs), and the Huajiying Formation (Fhj). The Fh is composed mainly of detrital sediments interlayered with andesite in its lower section, and interlayered with felsic volcanics (rhyolite) in its upper section. There exists a transitional change from the Fh to the thick felsic volcanic strata of the Fzh. Geochemically, the andesite layers in the lower Fh were most likely derived from mixing of crust and mantle melts, whereas the felsic rocks were derived from melting of the lower crust. U-Pb dating of zircons by LA-ICP-MS yielded ages for the lower Fh andesites of ca. 165.7 Ma in the HB and ca. 157.4 Ma in the DB. The felsic rocks at the base of the Fzh yielded ages of ca. 155.1 Ma in the HB and ca. 149.2-143.4 Ma in the DB. The Fs and Fhj in the DB both yielded similar ages of ca. 136 Ma. The development of rift basins, together with the occurrence of massive felsic volcanic rocks, indicates a period of significant extension and thinning of the NCC. The ca. 165.7-155.1 Ma age for andesites not only represents the initial timing of crustal extension

  19. Changes of Grassland Types and Net Primary Production of North America, Europe, Australia, and China in Response to Global Climate Change from 1911 to 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of area of each broad potential vegetation category from 1911 to 2000 based on the CSCS method and their Net Primary Production (NPP) to analyze the influence of global climate change at global scale. we studied the characteristics of global Potential Natural Vegetation (PNV) distribution in the 20th century using the CSCS approach to explore the distribution of more detailed grassland vegetation types and their NPP using the Thornthwaite Memorial model. Results showed that: (1) the area of tundra and alpine steppe and desert decreased by 5.09% and 5.82% respectively, while the area of forest and grassland increased by 2.31% and 3.62% from 1911 to 2000 at global scale, respectively. However, there was a significant difference in the magnitude of area change in northern and southern hemispheres. (2) In Australia, the area of warm desert grassland decreased by 140.75 ×104km2 , while the area of savanna increased by 145.75 ×104km2, and the semi-desert grassland and steppe decreased by 4.25 ×104km2 and 2.75 ×104km2, and the area of forest increased by 1.75 ×104km2. (3) In Europe, the area of semi-desert increased by 48.93×104km2, nearly 46.2% of semi-desert increased in Spain, while the area of forest decreased by 201.35×104km2, and the biggest decreased was recorded in Ukraine (80.83%). (4) In North America, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 9.26% and 4.58%, while the cold desert decreased by 55.56%; in Canada, the area of steppe decreased by 38.46 %, while the area of forest increased by 7.49%; in Mexico, the area of warm desert and forest increased by 39.74 %, while the area of the steppe decreased by 18.75%. (5) In China, the area of temperate humid grassland increased by 28.6% in Xinjiang, and 66.67% in Tibet, the area of forest in Xinjiang and Qinghai increased 33.3 % and 15.4% respectively, while the area of tundra and alpine decreased by 7.02% in Xinjiang, while it increased 9.38% in

  20. Integrated Seismic Arrays for Imaging the North China Craton: the ¡°Destruction of the North China Craton¡± Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. J.; Chen, L.; Zheng, T.; Zhou, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has been known, mostly according to the petrological and geochemical studies particularly the xenolith's data, that the North China craton (NCC), which is part of the Archaean Sino-Korean craton, had been reactivated since Mesozoic, and experienced widespread extension and volcanism through much of the Cenozoic. Currently the NCC is characterized by a thin lithosphere (as thin as 80 km according to published studies) and strong internal deformation, where over half of the eastern China's earthquakes occurred while the two major plate boundaries about China are thousands kilometers away. Although it is seismically quite active this region encompasses the China's capital and several mega cities which together hosts a large population and are very important to China's growing economy. Supported by the Chinese earth science community, the Chinese NSF recently started a major research program, the ¡°Destruction of the North China craton¡± (DNCC). About 150 million RMB (~ 20 million US dollars) will be allocated for this 5-year multi-disciplinary research program which is open for competition for all the earth scientists in China. Here we report one major seismic observation project of ¡°Integrated Seismic Arrays of DNCC¡± just funded during the first phase funding of DNCC. This observation-driven project integrates two groups at the Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Peking University, and both institutions have their own broadband seismometers and have recently conducted pilot portable seismic array studies in North China. Up to seven linear broadband seismic arrays, each consists of 60-100 stations, are planned within the NCC. The principle objectives are to quantify the range and degree of the craton destruction in spatial domain with major focus on the east-west variation from the previously proposed intact craton in the west to the rejuvenated region in the east and the transition zone in the middle. With the expected

  1. Viral load of HPV 16/18 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in three ethnic groups living in Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Liu, Qing; Liang, Meng; Zheng, Shutao; Li, Xiu Ling; Lu, Xiaomei; Sheyhidin, Ilyar

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the viral load of human papillomavirus (HPV) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. Using Gp5+/Gp6+ consensus primers, the prevalence of HPV DNA was examined in 253 paraffin-embedded ESCC samples. The presence and viral load of HPV 16 and HPV 18 were detected in Kazakhs, Uygurs and Hans using type-specific primers by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Among the 253 ESCC samples, 52 cases were positive for HPV DNA, all the 52 positive cases displayed HPV 16 infection, and six of the 52 cases were co-infected by HPV 16 and 18. HPV 16-positive rate and viral load were higher in lesions, and was inversely correlated with differentiation grades. However, there was no statistic significance among different differentiation grades. Also, there were no significant difference between detection rates of HPV types, viral load and age, gender, ethnic group, and lymph node metastasis. HPV 16 and HPV 18 genotypes could simultaneously be detected in ESCC specimens in three main ethnic groups in Xinjiang. The viral load of HPV 16 is higher in the ESCC lesions, and is inversely correlated with the differentiation grades. These observations reinforce the suggestion that HPV infection may involved in ESCC carcinogenesis; however, high prevalence or viral load of HPV infection does not seem to be related with high incidence of ESCC in Kazakhs, which may be the one element among the multiple risk factors contributing to ESCC.

  2. HPV Infection and Prognostic Factors of Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Different Ethnic Groups from Geographically Closed Cohort in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Zhao, Huarong; Niyaz, Huerxidan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Songan; Reheman, Yiming; Bao, Yongxing; Chen, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of HPV infection status and ethnic differences on the prognosis of tongue squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang presents an interesting set of conditions that has yet to be studied. Methods. A comprehensive analysis of clinical data was undertaken for a cohort consisting of 63 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma recruited from three ethnic groups in Xinjiang. PCR was used for the detection of HPV16 and HPV18 infections. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used for analyzing survival outcome in addition to the assessment of other prognostic factors. Results. The overall infection rate for HPV was 28.6% (18/63); the 5-year survival rate among the HPV-positive patients was 47.8% and 30.3% for HPV-negative patients. The survival rate for HPV-positive patients who received radiotherapy and chemotherapy was better than for those who did not receive radiotherapy and chemotherapy. N staging and HPV infection were found to be two independent and significant prognostic factors. Conclusion. HPV-positive patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma are more sensitive to chemotherapy. Higher N staging indicates poor prognosis. PMID:27034835

  3. Understanding on Soil Inorganic Carbon Transformation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guitong; Yang, Lifang; Zhang, Chenglei; Zhang, Hongjie

    2015-04-01

    Soil total carbon balance in long-term fertilization field experiments in North China Plain. Four long-term fertilization experiments (20-30 years) were investigated on SOC in 40 cm, calcium carbonate and active carbonate (AC) in 180 or 100 cm soil profile, δ13C values of SOC and δ13C and δ18O values of carbonate in soil profile, particle distribution of SOC and SIC in main soil layers, and ratios of pedogenic carbonate (PC) in SIC and C3-SOC in SOC. The most important conclusion is that fertilization of more than 20 years can produce detectable impact on pool size, profile distribution, ratio of active component and PC of SIC, which make it clear that SIC pool must be considered in the proper evaluation of the response of soil carbon balance to human activities in arid and semi-arid region. Land use impact on soil total carbon pool in Inner Mongolia. With the data of the second survey of soils in Inner Mongolia and the 58 soil profile data from Wu-lan-cha-bu-meng and Xi-lin-hao-te, combining with the 13C and 18O techniques, SIC density and stock in Inner Mongolia is estimated. The main conclusion is that soils in inner Mongolia have the same level of SOC and SIC, with the density in 100cm pedons of 8.97 kg•m-2 and 8.61 kg•m-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the significantly positive relationship between SOC and SIC in A layer indicates co-sequestration of SOC and SIC exist. Evaluation of the methods for measuring CA enzyme activity in soil. In laboratory, method in literature to measure CA activity in soil sample was repeated, and found it was not valid indeed. The failure could not attribute to the disturbance of common ions like NO3-, SO42-, Ca2+, and Mg2+. The adsorption of CA to soil material was testified as the main reason for that failure. A series of extractants were tested but no one can extract the adsorbed CA and be used in measuring CA activity in soil sample. Carbonate transformation in field with straw returned and biochar added. In 2009, a field

  4. Research on water shortage risks and countermeasures in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yuxiang; Fang, Wenxuan; Wu, Ziqin

    2017-05-01

    In the paper, a grey forecasting model and a population growth model are established for forecasting water resources supply and demand situation in the region, and evaluating the scarcity of water resources thereof in order to solve the problem of water shortage in North China. A concrete plan for alleviating water resources pressure is proposed with AHP as basis, thereby discussing the feasibility of the plan. Firstly, water resources supply and demand in the future 15 years are predicted. There are four sources for the demand of water resources mainly: industry, agriculture, ecology and resident living. Main supply sources include surface water and underground water resources. A grey forecasting method is adopted for predicting in the paper aiming at water resources demands since industrial, agricultural and ecological water consumption data have excessive decision factors and the correlation is relatively fuzzy. Since residents' water consumption is determined by per capita water consumption and local population, a logistic growth model is adopted to forecast the population. The grey forecasting method is used for predicting per capita water consumption, and total water demand can be obtained finally. International calculation standards are adopted as reference aiming at water supply. The grey forecasting method is adopted for forecasting surface water quantity and underground water quantity, and water resources supply is obtained finally. Per capita water availability in the region is calculated by comparing the water resources supply and demand. Results show that per capita water availability in the region is only 283 cubic meters this year, people live in serious water shortage region, who will suffer from water shortage state for long time. Then, sensitivity analysis is applied for model test. The test result is excellent, and the prediction results are more accurate. In the paper, the following measures are proposed for improving water resources condition

  5. Changes in flowering phenology of woody plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Junhu

    2016-04-01

    Over the past several decades, abundant evidences proved that the first flowering date of plants in northern hemisphere became earlier in response to climate warming. However, the existing results about impact of climate change on flowering duration are controversial. In this study, we studied temporal trends in first flowering date (FFD), end of flowering date (EFD) and flowering duration (FD) of 94 woody plants from 1963 to 2014 at three stations (Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an) in North China. Meanwhile, we analyzed the relationship between length of flowering periods and temperature using two phenological models (including regression model and growing degree day model). At all stations, more than 90% of observed species showed earlier flowering over time from 1963 to 2014. The average trends in FFD were 1.33, 1.77 and 3.01 days decade-1 at Harbin, Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. During the same period, EFD also became earlier by a mean rate of 2.19, 1.39 and 2.00 days decade-1, respectively. Regarding FD, a significant shortening of FD was observed at Harbin (-0.86 days decade-1), but FD extended by 0.37 and 1.01 days decade-1 at Beijing and Xi'an, respectively. At interspecific level, the plant species with longer FD tend to have stronger trends of FD extension. Through regression analyses, we found more than 85% of time series revealed a significant negative relationship between FFD (or EFD) and preseason temperature. The regression model could simulate the interannual changes in FFD and EFD with the mean goodness of fit (R2) ranging from 0.38 to 0.67, but failed to simulate the FD accurately, as R2 ranging from 0.09 to 0.18. Regarding to FFD and EFD, the growing degree day model could improved R2 of simuation, but also could not simulate FD accurately. Therefore, we concluded that the FFD and EFD advanced notably in recent six decades as a result of climate warming, but the direction of FD changes depended on locations and the species involved. In addition, the

  6. Features and geotectonic evolution of the Alxa Terrane at North Qilian Mountains in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; Zhengmin, Min

    2015-04-01

    The Alxa Terrane in west China, covered with Badain Jaran and Tengger Deserts at the earth's surface, lies geographically on the north of the Qilian-Mountains Structural Belt and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau with intense tectonic activities. The Mongolian Plateau with Cenozoic activities and the Ordos Plateau are on the north and east of the terrane separately. Tectonically the terrane lies among the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the Qilian-Qinling Orogenic Belt in the Tarim Plate, and the North China Craton. In view of its special geotectonic location, the knowledge about the Alxa Terrane generation and evolution would be significant to the understanding of plates and terranes convergence and evolution in west China and to hydrocarbon exploration in those small and medium basins in the Hexi Corridor. The conclusions include (1) the Alxa Terrane is a component part in the west of the North China Plate instead of a part separated from the Tarim Plate. Neoarchean rocks occurring in the Beidashan area in west Alxa are mainly composed of granodiorite gneiss with typical TTG gneiss features. The age of the magmatic zircon nucleus is about 2522±30 Ma, which is basically consistent with that of TFG gneiss pervasively distributing in the North China Craton; (2) the Alxa Terrane was a relatively isolated small terrane in the Archaean and Proterozoic Eras. The lithologies of the crystalline basement are different from those in the Tarim and North China Plates. Tectothermal events took place 800-1000 Ma and 400-600 Ma ago separately in Alxa, which had few signatures in the North China Plate. The North China Plate and the Alxa Terrane converged in the south and diverged in the north due to the impact of the Caledonian Movement and then merged at the early stage of the Middle Ordovician. During the Middle Hercynian Movement, the Paleoasian Ocean in the north closed and new crust appeared in the Early Permian to form the trench-arc-basin system at the north margin. During the Late

  7. Impact of moisture source variation on decadal-scale changes of precipitation in North China from 1951 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhihong; Jiang, Shuai; Shi, Yi; Liu, Zhengyu; Li, Wei; Li, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory platform is employed in this study to simulate trajectories of air parcels in the rainy season in North China during last six decades (1951-2010), with the purpose of investigating moisture sources, their variation, and the eventual relationship with precipitation in North China. Climatological trajectories indicate that moisture in North China originates, respectively, from Eurasia (14.4%), eastern China (10.2%), the Bay of Bengal-South China Sea (33.8%), the Indian Ocean (10.7%), and the Pacific (30.9%). The spatiotemporal analysis of moisture trajectory based on extended empirical orthogonal function indicates that a decrease of precipitation in North China is caused mainly by a decrease of water vapor sources from the south, the Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, and the South China Sea, which overwhelms an increase of water vapor sources from the North, mainly Eurasia, eastern China, and northern western North Pacific Ocean. In particular, the significant decrease of precipitation in the late 1970s (by 11.6%) is mainly caused by a 10.6% decrease of moisture from all sources. The Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the Indian Ocean are dominant moisture source areas affecting the decadal-scale variation of precipitation in North China.

  8. A revisit to the Higo terrane, Kyushu, Japan: The eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suga, Kenshi; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Miyazaki, Kazuhiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi; Fukuyama, Mayuko

    2017-08-01

    The Higo and Manotani high-T metamorphic rocks belong to the Higo terrane, central Kyushu, Japan. This terrane has been suggested as the eastern extension of the North China-South China collision zone based mainly on the similar petrological and geochronological data to the north Dabie high-grade rocks. In this study, detrital zircon U-Pb dating for the Higo metamorphic rocks yielded a maximum depositional age of 197 Ma with a prominent component at 193-284 Ma (62-95%) and a subsidiary peak at 1847-1875 Ma (19-28%); whereas for the Manotani metamorphic rocks, the maximum depositional age is 263 Ma with a prominent component at 263-304 Ma (98%). These results suggest that the protoliths of the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks might be equivalent to those of the early-middle Jurassic Chizu and late Triassic Suo high-P metamorphic rocks, southwest Japan, respectively. The absence of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon (c. 700-825 Ma) is incompatible with a proposition that the proto-Japan might have been located close to the South China craton, where Permian-Jurassic sedimentary rocks contain a significant amount of middle Neoproterozoic detrital zircon. The zircon provenance of the Higo terrane, as well as of the Chizu and Suo belts, could therefore be the North China craton, suggesting that the Suo metamorphic rocks, including the Manotani metamorphic rocks, have formed at the subduction plate boundary in the east, which changed into the contemporaneous North China-South China collision plate boundary in the west, likely passing through the Korean Peninsula. The transformation of the Chizu and Suo metamorphic rocks to the Higo and Manotani metamorphic rocks can be accounted for by the oceanward advance of the volcanic arc during trench retreating. The Cretaceous high-T metamorphism and related igneous intrusions of the Higo terrane would be regarded as the initial phase of the Ryoke event.

  9. Application of MODFLOW and geographic information system to groundwater flow simulation in North China Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shiqin; Shao, Jingli; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Yongbo; Huo, Zhibin; Zhou, Xiaoyuan

    2008-10-01

    MODFLOW is a groundwater modeling program. It can be compiled and remedied according to the practical applications. Because of its structure and fixed data format, MODFLOW can be integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology for water resource management. The North China Plain (NCP), which is the politic, economic and cultural center of China, is facing with water resources shortage and water pollution. Groundwater is the main water resource for industrial, agricultural and domestic usage. It is necessary to evaluate the groundwater resources of the NCP as an entire aquifer system. With the development of computer and internet information technology it is also necessary to integrate the groundwater model with the GIS technology. Because the geological and hydrogeological data in the NCP was mainly in MAPGIS format, the powerful function of GIS of disposing of and analyzing spatial data and computer languages such as Visual C and Visual Basic were used to define the relationship between the original data and model data. After analyzing the geological and hydrogeological conditions of the NCP, the groundwater flow numerical simulation modeling was constructed with MODFLOW. On the basis of GIS, a dynamic evaluation system for groundwater resources under the internet circumstance was completed. During the process of constructing the groundwater model, a water budget was analyzed, which showed a negative budget in the NCP. The simulation period was from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2003. During this period, the total recharge of the groundwater system was 49,374 × 106 m3 and the total discharge was 56,530 × 106 m3 the budget deficit was -7,156 × 106 m3. In this integrated system, the original data including graphs and attribution data could be stored in the database. When the process of evaluating and predicting groundwater flow was started, these data were transformed into files that the core program of MODFLOW could read. The calculated water

  10. Aircraft Measurements Studies on the Cloud Characteristics in Tibet Plateau and North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, K.; Yang, G.; Delong, Z.; Hua, J.; Jianli, M.

    2016-12-01

    The macro and micro physics characteristics of clouds by a Kingair plane in Tibet Plateau and North China in 2014 and 2015 summer are presented and discussed. This is the first time to carry out aircraft measurement on cloud in Tibet Plateau. The results show that the clouds in Tibet Plateau have many differences with that in North China. In Tibet Plateau, the max cloud concentration is 11.4 450#/L, with 6.8 1558#/L in North China.The mainly cloud types in Tibet Plateau could be divided into 3 types which is small cumulus cloud, large stratus cloud and mixed cloud. The mainly cloud types in North China are stratus clouds and cumulus-stratus -cirrus cloud. It also shows that the probes with both high and low resolutions have large advantages in mixed Clouds measurement. Flight posture could affect the temperature detection result. The T of the climbing aircraft is high that that of the descending aircraft. The T by Goodrich probe is much better in low altitude that in high altitude. ADP temperature in climbing aircraft keeps well with than of the sounding result. The cloud droplet concentration in Tibet Plateau is large than that in north China. The liquid water in the former is higher than the latter one. There are much more small particles with wide PSD in north China than that in Tibet Plateau. The difference in cloud droplet that less than 10um The crystal shapes in Tibet plateau are plate crystals, stellate crystals and column crystals, with the time range -19.6 -3.2°, -13.8 -12.3°, -20.9 -3.5° respectively.

  11. Neoarchean ductile deformation of the Northeastern North China Craton: The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei, North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Boran; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Junlai; Jin, Wei; Li, Weimin; Liang, Chenyue

    2017-05-01

    Archean granitic gneiss domes and greenstone belts are well-preserved in eastern North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest Archean terrains in the world. The Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone in Qinglong, eastern Hebei Province is located between an Archean granitic gneiss dome and a greenstone belt within an uplift in eastern NCC. Supracrustal rocks from the Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups, and some Archean granitic gneisses were involved in the shearing along the eastern margin. In the southern part, the narrow NE-trending shear zone dips NW with dip angles of 40-60° and, in the northern part, the shear zone dips NWN with dip angles of 70-85°. Microstructural and EBSD fabric analyses suggest that the shear zone was developed at upper greenschist facies to lower amphibolite facies conditions with deformation temperatures of 400-550 °C. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating of mylonitized granitic rocks and undeformed quartz diorite cutting the shear zone suggest that the Shuangshanzi ductile shear zone was formed between 2550 Ma and 2452 Ma. Detailed kinematic studies of the shear zone show a clear sinistral shear sense with a slightly oblique-slip component in the northern part and a sinistral transtensional slip component in the southern part. It is therefore suggested that the shear zone was formed during the Anziling doming with respect to the down-slipping Neoarchean Shuangshanzi and Zhuzhangzi Groups. The difference in kinematics along the southern and the northern sections is interpreted to be caused by the doming with an uneven clockwise spiral rotation. The BIF-rich supracrustal rocks have higher density than their neighboring granitic gneisses, and therefore can easily sink to form synclines by sagduction processes. The sagduction is mainly triggered by gravitational inversion of high density supracrustal rocks with respect to relatively light granitic gneisses within the dome. As a result, the gneisses synchronously moved upward. A shear zone

  12. HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 alleles are positively associated with HPV16 infection-related Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Xinjiang China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianming; Li, Ling; Pang, Lijuan; Chen, Yunzhao; Yang, Lan; Liu, Chunxia; Zhao, Jin; Chang, Bing; Qi, Yan; Liang, Weihua; Li, Feng

    2012-11-01

    Multiple determinant factors are involved in the occurrence and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism were identified as important factors. This study examined the associations between the development of Kazakh ESCC and the determinant factors including HLA-DRB1*0901, 1501; DQB1*0301, 0602; high-risk HPV infection in the area of Xinjiang, China. 200 Kazakh patients with ESCC and 150 controls were recruited, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to detect HLA-DRB1*0901, 1501 and DQB1*0301,0602 using sequence-specific primers (SSPs). HPV16 was detected in esophageal specimens using PCR. HPV16 infection rate in Kazakh ESCC case group was 41 %, significantly higher than that of control group 14 % (OR = 3.62; 95 % CI, 2.15-6.09; P < 0.001). A positive association between ESCC and HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 2.46, P < 0.0125) or HLA-DQB1*0301 (OR = 3.34, P < 0.0125) alleles was observed. Similar tendencies were observed for HLA-DRB1*1501 (OR = 3.095, P < 0.0125) and HLA-DQB1*0301 (OR = 2.410, P < 0.0125) alleles with HPV16-positive ESCC. HLA-DRB1*1501, HLA-DQB1*0301 and DQB1*0602 were significantly associated with ESCC when the age was ≥55 years (P < 0.0125 for all), whereas only HLA-DQB1*0301 was significantly associated with ESCC when the age was <55 years (P < 0.0125). HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 were significantly associated with an increase in ESCC occurrence in females (P < 0.0125), whereas only HLA-DQB1*0301 was significantly associated with ESCC in males. Moreover, the occurrence of HLA-DQB1*0602 gene in poorly differentiated ESCC group (68.8 %) was slightly higher than that of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma group (31.2 %). The difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.0125). The study suggests that HLA-DRB1*1501 and HLA-DQB1*0301 may influence the immune response to specific tumor and HPV-encoded epitopes and affect the risk of Kazakh

  13. Quantifying regional vegetation cover variability in North China during the Holocene: implications for climate feedback.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback.

  14. Quantifying Regional Vegetation Cover Variability in North China during the Holocene: Implications for Climate Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guo; Yin, Yi; Liu, Hongyan; Hao, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Validating model simulations of vegetation-climate feedback needs information not only on changes in past vegetation types as reconstructed by palynologists, but also on other proxies such as vegetation cover. We present here a quantitative regional vegetation cover reconstruction for North China during the Holocene. The reconstruction was based on 15 high-quality lake sediment profiles selected from 55 published sites in North China, along with their modern remote sensing vegetation index. We used the surface soil pollen percentage to build three pollen-vegetation cover transfer models, and used lake surface sediment pollen data to validate their accuracy. Our results showed that vegetation cover in North China increased slightly before its maximum at 6.5 cal ka BP and has since declined significantly. The vegetation decline since 6.5 cal ka BP has likely induced a regional albedo change and aerosol increase. Further comparison with paleoclimate and paleovegetation dynamics in South China reproduced the regional cooling effect of vegetation cover decline in North China modelled in previous work. Our discussion demonstrates that, instead of reconstructing vegetation type from a single site, reconstructing quantitative regional vegetation cover could offer a broader understanding of regional vegetation-climate feedback. PMID:23977110

  15. 78 FR 55769 - North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION North China Horticulture, Inc., File No. 500-1; Order of Suspension of Trading September 6, 2013... information concerning the securities of North China Horticulture, Inc. because it has not filed any periodic...

  16. China’s Foreign Policy Toward North Korea: The Nuclear Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Comprehensive National Power CTBT Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty CVID Complete, Verifiable, and Irreversible Dismantlement EAS East Asia Summit ETIM...realized that it had to take some measures to stop North Korea’s nuclear testing .5 Hong-seo Park analyzes China’s policy change from a perspective of...community have failed to find a consensus, and North Korea conducted a nuclear test in 2006. China had shown different responses between the first and

  17. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  18. Appropriate LDL-C-to-HDL-C Ratio Cutoffs for Categorization of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Uygur Adults in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing-Jie; Lai, Hong-Mei; Chen, Bang-Dang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Zhai, Hui; He, Chun-Hui; Pan, Shuo; Luo, Jun-Yi; Gao, Jing; Liu, Fen; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning

    2016-02-19

    Elevated LDL-C/HDL-C ratio has been shown to be a marker of lipid metabolism as well as a good predictor of coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio is useful for detecting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in general healthy Uygur adults in Xinjiang. A total of 4047 Uygur subjects aged ≥35 years were selected from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study which was carried out from October 2007 to March 2010. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, lipid profile and fasting glucose were measured in all participants. The prevalence, sensitivity, specificity and distance on the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of each LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were calculated. The prevalence of high LDL-C and low HDL-C cholesterol was high and positively correlated with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio in the Uygur population. In both men and women, we detected a slight apparent trend of high prevalence of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia with higher LDL-C/HDL-C ratio. Our study also demonstrated that the discriminatory power of the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio for CVD risk factors was slightly stronger in men than in women. Analysis of the shortest distance in the ROC curves for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, or ≥two of these risk factors suggested a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cutoff of 2.5 for both men and women. The results of this study showed that a LDL-C/HDL-C ratio cut-off of 2.5 might be used as the predictive marker to detect CVD risk factors among Uygur adults in Xinjiang.

  19. Increasing the cotton yield and improving the ecology in cotton fields by utilizing the properties of natural resources in Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Changyan; Lu, Zhaozhi; Song, Yudong; Zhang, Henian

    2003-07-01

    The area of aeolian sand soil in Xinjiang is 3.7189×107 hm2 and occupies 25% of the total land area. Traditionally, it is considered that aeolian sand soil has low yield of crops due to its poor retention power of soil moisture and soil fertility. However, the stems of cotton growing on aeolian sand soil are small and their fictile shape is easy to be controlled. Thus, a culture mode of "increasing stems and bolls, double-layer and double-stem" of cotton is developed by scientific irrigation and fertilizer spread as well as artificial control of fictile shape based on the growth laws of cotton and the properties of aeolian sand soil, and a lint yield of over 3,750 kg/hm2 has been reaped in successive 3 years. Currently, the cotton culture in Xinjiang is rapidly developed, the proportion of cotton-culture areas occupies 40~60%, the cultivating areas of other crops are reduced, the ecosystems are simplified, and the natural enemies in cotton fields are reduced. Alfalfa belts of 8~10 m in width are planted in the zones affected by shelter forests, the occurrence of Therioaphis maculata (Buckton) in alfalfa belts is 10~15 days earlier than that of cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii Glover), and in the alfalfa belts the quantity of herioaphis maculata (Buckton), the natural enemies, is 13.65 times of that in cotton fields when the cotton aphids occur. To resect the alfalfa this moment makes the natural enemies in the alfalfa belts enter the cotton fields and eat cotton aphids, which has good effects for preventing and controlling cotton aphids.

  20. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  1. Comparison of dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Y; Zhang, Z Y; Jiang, X Q; Guo, L

    2010-05-01

    Different educational and professional developments within the dental field create different sets of missions, norms, and practices regarding dental diseases and their appropriate treatment. This review has addressed differences in dental education and professional development between mainland China and North America. Many factors influence the choice of model and it is very difficult to predict which model will become predominant. However, there is growing sentiment that the independent faculty model in North America is logical and superior to the model, which 'integrates' dental and medical education in mainland China. Many North America dental schools place a high priority on preclinical and clinical training in the curriculum in order to expose students to patient oral health needs and systemic dental problems much earlier than in mainland China. North America dental schools promote and embrace students self-learning skills by the use of PBL, CRL, and TRAD education methodologies and new e-based technologies and approaches whereby students learn rather than are taught. In mainland China, the traditional lecture-based format is still employed in the majority of dental schools; however, strategies to enhance students self-learning skills is increasingly utilised in most well-known Chinese dental schools. The Chinese dental education model, which treats dentistry as a sub-specialty of medicine, has brought about fundamental differences, with the dentist functioning essentially as a stomatologist. For example, China has built up a large oral and maxillofacial surgery society, and craniofacial surgery is performed to a much broader extent by Chinese dentists than by most North American counterparts. In North America, dentists engage in full-time work, attend continuing training/education programmes, belong to an association, gain legal status, and construct a code of ethics emphasising the quality of care delivered to the public. Currently, continuing dental

  2. Tectonics of north Himalaya in China since early Oligocene (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The India-Asia collision resulted in the building-up of the huge Himalayan orogen, and the north Himalayan orogen began to experience extensional tectonics since Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT), which formed such extensional structures as the south Tibet detachment system (STDS), the related north Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), and the north-south trending rifts (NSTR). The leucogranite intruding beneath the STDS caused by thickening-melting gives the youngest U-Pb age of about 35Ma, which is same to the oldest U-Pb age of the syn-kinematic leucogranite intruding along the STDS. This indicates a tectonic transformation from thickening to extension in north Himalaya when the STDS began to activate at EOT. The thickening before EOT caused the partial melting in middle-lower crust, which formed the weak root of the thickened crust or the so-called “channel flow”. This “channel flow” triggered the collapse of the orogen and the onset of the extensional tectonics of the STDS. There are similarities in main duration and geochemistry between the granitic magmatism along the STDS and that in the cores of the NHGDs, thus the formation of the NHGD has a direct relationship to the activity of the STDS. The STDS’s extension and the resultant thinning caused further partial melting of the crust, resulting in larger-scale emplacement of leucogranite in Miocene (27~13Ma). Diapirism of these plutons shaped the NHGD which exposed the greater Himalayan crystalline complex and the shear zones of the STDS in north Himalaya. In north Himalaya, the STDS was offset by the NSTRs, the STDS stopped deformation at about 13Ma when the NSTRs began to be active at the same time. This indicates another tectonic transformation in north Himalaya at about 13Ma, when the N-S extension of the STDS ceased and gave the way to E-W extension of the NSTRs, and the peak granitic magmatism in north Himalaya finished at this time. This change possibly represents the start of the eastward channel

  3. Morphological and molecular identification of Habronema spp. (Nematoda: Habronematidae) from donkeys in Xinjiang, China, and notes on the taxonomical status of Habronema majus (Creplin, 1849) and H. microstoma (Schneider, 1866).

    PubMed

    Jian, Rui; Wang, Shi-Wei; Zhang, Wei-Xin; Zhang, Lu-Ping

    2017-05-01

    Habronematid nematodes were collected from the stomachs of donkeys, Equus asinus L., in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. After examination by light and scanning electron microscopy, Habronema muscae (Carter, 1861) and H. majus (Creplin, 1849) were identified. The morphology of our specimens representing H. muscae (Carter, 1861) agreed well with previous redescriptions in the shape of the lateral lips, origin of the lateral alae, ratio of left and right spicules, and number and arrangement of caudal papillae. However, H. majus (Creplin, 1849) differs from H. microstoma (Schneider, 1866) in the arrangement of the caudal papillae in the male. Moreover, molecular analysis also showed interspecific differences of 26.2-28.2% in ITS2 and 8.6-8.9% in cox1 between H. majus and H. microstoma, a divergence much higher than the known intraspecific variation of Habronema spp. (6.6-8.7% in ITS2; 0.2-2.2% in cox1). The results indicate that both H. microstoma (Schneider, 1866) and H. majus (Creplin, 1849) are valid species.

  4. Environmental characteristics of regional groundwater in relation to fluoride poisoning in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Zhu, Wan Hua

    1991-07-01

    More and more data indicated that high- or low-fluoride-bearing drinking water led to endemic diseases in which fluoride poisoning was caused by high levels of fluoride (fluoride ion content >1.0 mg/I) in drinking water. Fluoride poisoning in North China is characterized by pathological changes of bones and teeth. Much attention has been devoted to the study of fluoride-bearing groundwater in North China because regionally groundwater has been the main source of water supply, and fluoride poisoning has developed to the extent that it affects human health seriously. Results from the studies in North China summarized in this article indicate that regional high-fluoride-bearing groundwater has a regular distribution corresponding with the development of endemic fluoride poisoning and has something to do with paleogeographic and paleoclimatic conditions, geology, and hydrogeology, especially with types of hydrogeochemistry, pH value of groundwater, degree of mineralization, and so forth. High-fluoride-bearing groundwater in relation to fluorosis occurs mainly in North China, and many effective measures have been taken to reduce the fluoride content in drinking water and to cure the disease after analyzing the distribution and environmental characteristics of high-fluoride-bearing groundwater.

  5. Patterns in Japanese Comparative Education Practices: A Contrast with North America and Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Shoko

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the convergence and divergence in the discourses and practices of comparative education in Japan, North America, and Greater China. Research demands, institutional settings, and social and historical background determine the nature of the research discussed and practiced in each place. Some particular patterns were identified…

  6. Curie Point Depths in North China Craton Based on Spectral Analysis of Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ya; Hao, Tianyao; Zeyen, Hermann; Nan, Fangzhou

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly analysis is an important method to study the structure of deep crust. With the assumption of random magnetization sources, the structure of a magnetic layer can be inverted via spectral analysis. Curie point depth (CPD), the depth at which rocks lose their ferromagnetic properties, is the bottom of a magnetic layer. In this study, we estimate from the magnetic anomaly data of EMAG2 dataset the CPD and the top of the magnetic layer in North China. With a moving window of 180 km × 180 km, we calculate the average top and centroid depth of the magnetic layer in each window and determine the regional CPD distribution across North China. The CPD of North China varies from 18 to 32 km. In addition, the CPD in the western part of the North China Craton is deeper than that in the eastern part. The shallowest CPD is located near the Bohai Sea. When compared to available heat flow data, the estimated CPD values are consistent with thermal conductivity of 1.8-3.2 Wm-1 K-1 and on heat production value of 0.4-1.3 µWm-3.

  7. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China. PMID:27181364

  8. An integrated soil-crop system model for water and nitrogen management in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Hao; Hu, Kelin; Batchelor, William D.; Qi, Zhiming; Li, Baoguo

    2016-05-01

    An integrated model WHCNS (soil Water Heat Carbon Nitrogen Simulator) was developed to assess water and nitrogen (N) management in North China. It included five main modules: soil water, soil temperature, soil carbon (C), soil N, and crop growth. The model integrated some features of several widely used crop and soil models, and some modifications were made in order to apply the WHCNS model under the complex conditions of intensive cropping systems in North China. The WHCNS model was evaluated using an open access dataset from the European International Conference on Modeling Soil Water and N Dynamics. WHCNS gave better estimations of soil water and N dynamics, dry matter accumulation and N uptake than 14 other models. The model was tested against data from four experimental sites in North China under various soil, crop, climate, and management practices. Simulated soil water content, soil nitrate concentrations, crop dry matter, leaf area index and grain yields all agreed well with measured values. This study indicates that the WHCNS model can be used to analyze and evaluate the effects of various field management practices on crop yield, fate of N, and water and N use efficiencies in North China.

  9. Identification of Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotypes from Different Host Plants in North China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Wang, Chun-Yi; Lv, Li-Min; Zhu, Xiang-Zhen; Li, Chun-Hua; Cui, Jin-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The cotton-melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a polyphagous species with a worldwide distribution and a variety of biotypes. North China is a traditional agricultural area with abundant winter and summer hosts of A. gossypii. While the life cycles of A. gossypii on different plants have been well studied, those of the biotypes of North China are still unclear. Results Host transfer experiments showed that A. gossypii from North China has two host-specialized biotypes: cotton and cucumber. Based on complete mitochondrial sequences, we identified a molecular marker with five single-nucleotide polymorphisms to distinguish the biotypes. Using this marker, a large-scale study of biotypes on primary winter and summer hosts was conducted. All A. gossypii collected from three primary hosts—hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash—were cotton biotypes, with more cotton-melon aphids found on hibiscus than the other two species. In May, alate cotton and cucumber biotypes coexisted on cotton and cucumber seedlings, but each preferred its natal host. Both biotypes existed on zucchini, although the cucumber biotype was more numerous. Aphids on muskmelon were all cucumber biotypes, whereas most aphids on kidney bean were cotton biotypes. Aphids on seedlings of potato and cowpea belong to other species. In August, aphids on cotton and cucumber were the respective biotypes, with zucchini still hosting both biotypes as before. Thus, the biotypes had different fitnesses on different host plants. Conclusions Two host-specialized biotypes (cotton and cucumber) are present in North China. Hibiscus, pomegranate, and Chinese prickly ash can serve as winter hosts for the cotton biotype but not the cucumber biotype in North China. The fitnesses of the two host-specialized biotypes differ on various summer hosts. When alate aphids migrate to summer hosts, they cannot accurately land on the corresponding plant. PMID:26735973

  10. Termination time of peak decratonization in North China: Geochemical evidence from mafic igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li-Qun; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Zhao, Zi-Fu

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical and petrological data indicate destruction of the cratonic lithosphere in North China in the Mesozoic, resulting in replacement of the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) by the juvenile SCLM. However, it remains to be answered when the craton destruction would have been terminated in the Mesozoic. This question is resolved by studying the two types of mafic igneous rocks with contrasting geochemical compositions from North China. The first type of mafic igneous rock shows arc-like trace element distribution patterns and enriched radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Triassic to Early Cretaceous. The mafic magmatism is absent in a period from 200 Ma to 135 Ma, recording the thinning of cratonic lithosphere due to the westward flat subduction of the Paleo-Pacific slab beneath the North China Craton. In contrast, the second type of mafic igneous rocks exhibits oceanic island basalts (OIB)-like trace element distribution patterns and relatively depleted radiogenic Sr-Nd isotope compositions, with emplacement ages spanning from the Early Cretaceous to Cenozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating yields an age of 121 Ma for the geochemical transformation between the two types of mafic igneous rocks. This age marks a dramatic demarcation in the composition of their mantle sources. As such, the nature of mantle lithosphere in North China was changed from the ancient SCLM to the juvenile SCLM at 121 Ma. Thus, this age not only signifies the tectonic transition from the enriched mantle to the depleted mantle in the Early Cretaceous, but also dates the termination of peak decratonization in North China. Therefore, the craton destruction in the Early Cretaceous is temporally and spatially associated with the dramatic changes in the geochemical composition of mantle lithosphere.

  11. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-07-11

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional resources of 1.1 billion barrels of oil and 2.2 trillion cubic feet of gas in the West Korea Bay–North Yellow Sea Basin, North Korea and China.

  12. Application of fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP to mineral prospectivity mapping of porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhou, Kefa; Du, Xishihui

    2017-04-01

    Mineral prospectivity mapping (MPM) is a multi-step process that ranks promising target areas for further exploration. Fuzzy logic and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (AHP) are knowledge-driven MPM approaches. In this study, both approaches were used for data processing, based on which MPM was performed for porphyry and hydrothermal vein copper deposits in the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc, Xinjiang. The results of the two methods were then compared. The two methods combined expert experience and the Studentized contrast (S(C)) values of the weights-of-evidence approach to calculate the weights of 15 layers, and these layers were then integrated by the gamma operator (γ). Through prediction-area (P-A) plot analysis, the optimal γ for fuzzy logic and fuzzy AHP was determined as 0.95 and 0.93, respectively. The thresholds corresponding to different levels of metallogenic probability were defined via concentration-area (C-A) fractal analysis. The prediction performances of the two methods were compared on this basis. The results showed that in MPM based on fuzzy logic, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.806 and 81.48% of the known deposits were predicted, whereas in MPM based on fuzzy AHP, the area under the ROC curve was 0.862 and 92.59% of the known deposits were predicted. Therefore, prediction based on fuzzy AHP is more accurate and can provide directions for future prospecting.

  13. Quantitative analysis of agricultural land use change in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Jieming; Dong, Wenjie; Wang, Shuyu; Fu, Yuqing

    This article reviews the potential impacts of climate change on land use change in China. Crop sown area is used as index to quantitatively analyze the temporal-spatial changes and the utilization of the agricultural land. A new concept is defined as potential multiple cropping index to reflect the potential sowing ability. The impacting mechanism, land use status and its surplus capacity are investigated as well. The main conclusions are as following; During 1949-2010, the agricultural land was the greatest in amount in the middle of China, followed by that in the country's eastern and western regions. The most rapid increase and decrease of agricultural land were observed in Xinjiang and North China respectively, Northwest China and South China is also changed rapid. The variation trend before 1980 differed significantly from that after 1980. Agricultural land was affected by both natural and social factors, such as regional climate and environmental changes, population growth, economic development, and implementation of policies. In this paper, the effects of temperature and urbanization on the coverage of agriculture land are evaluated, and the results show that the urbanization can greatly affects the amount of agriculture land in South China, Northeast China, Xinjiang and Southwest China. From 1980 to 2009, the extent of agricultural land use had increased as the surplus capacity had decreased. Still, large remaining potential space is available, but the future utilization of agricultural land should be carried out with scientific planning and management for the sustainable development.

  14. Relationship between Precambrian North Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton: Evidence from LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from Neoproterozoic tillites of North Korea and Southern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Zhai, M.; Peng, P.; Zhang, Y.; Wu, J.; Jia, X.; Zhang, H.; Lei, W.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-12-01

    Relationship between Precambrian Korean Peninsula and the North China Craton (NCC) is focus of attention. There are Neoproterozoic tillites in Phyongnam Basin, Nangrim massif, North Korea (NK) and Southern NCC. Nangrim massif was regarded as a part of the NCC according to similar Precambrian basements between Nangrim massif and Longgang massif in the Northeast NCC. But the comparation of Neoproterozoic rocks is lacked between NK and NCC. Detrital zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 2 pebbly phyllite samples of Pirangdong Series in Phyongnam Basin and 2 argillaceous cemented mix-conglomeate samples of Luoquan Series in Southern NCC was analyzed in this research. Detrital zircon ages of pebbly phyllites of Pirangdong Series distribute mainly at 1.85 Ga, 1.8 Ga, 1.6 Ga, 1.4 Ga and 1.2 Ga. A small number of them are at 3.2 Ga, 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.3 Ga, 2.1 Ga and 900 - 860 Ma. Detrital zircon ages of mix-conglomeates of Luoquan Series mainly focus on 2.5 Ga, 2.2 Ga, 2.0 Ga, 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga. Minor of them distribute at 1.12 Ga. The similar age distribution of Pirangdong and Luoquan Series of 2.6 - 2.5 Ga, 2.1 - 2.0 Ga, 1.85 - 1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga corresponds to Precambrian significant tectonic- magmatic- thermal events of the NCC, which indicates that the Precambrian basement rocks of the NCC are main provenances of both Pirangdong and Luoquan Series. This also confirm that the Phyongnam Basin is a part of Neoproterozoic sedimentary covers of the NCC. It is worth to mention that 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma magmatic rocks in the NCC are seldom reported which relate to the assemblage and breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent. whereas they crop out widely in the South China Craton (SCC) and was always regarded as a mark distingusing the two craton. 1.2 - 1.0 Ga and 900 - 850 Ma zircon ages preserved in sedimentary rocks not only in North Korea and Southern NCC but also in Northeast NCC and East NCC provide data to compare Neoproterozoic strata between NCC and SCC and important clues to

  15. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  16. Direct Radiative Effects Caused By Crop Burning Over the North China Plain During the Harvest Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Y.; Song, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The north China Plain, a major agriculture zone with dense population, suffers from severe aerosol pollution for the open burning of wheat straw residue during Junes, the harvest season. This study updated the inventory of crop burning in June 2013 based on detailed census data and MODIS thermal anomalies/fire products and then investigated the direct radiative effects by using the fully coupled model WRF-Chem model over the North China Plain. The simulation results were compared well with the PM2.5 chemical compositions and meteorological data. The results indicated that open burning of wheat straw from the south to the north was the dominator to EC concentration during harvest seasons, which could reach 85.2ug/m3 during night. Contribution of crop burning to EC concentration could be as high as 92.2% in the pollution episode. The EC was estimated to produce positive radiative effects with + 6.1 W/m2 at the top of atmosphere over the North China Plain. It is necessary for scientists and government to pay more attention to the pollution caused by the open burning of crop residue.

  17. Childhood immunizations in China: disparities in health care access in children born to North Korean refugees.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hyun Jung; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyerang; Finkelstein, Julia L

    2016-04-13

    Childhood immunization rates are at an all-time high globally, and national data for China suggests close to universal coverage. Refugees from North Korea and their children may have more limited health care access in China due to their legal status. However, there is no data on immunization rates or barriers to coverage in this population. This study was conducted to determine the rates and correlates of immunizations in children (≥1 year) born to North Korean refugees in Yanbien, China. Child immunization data was obtained from vaccination cards and caregiver self-report for 7 vaccines and 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate vaccination rates of refugee children were compared to Chinese and migrant children using a goodness-of-fit test. Logistic regression was used to determine correlates of immunization coverage for each vaccine and the 1:3:3:3:1 series. Age-appropriate immunization coverage rates were significantly lower in children born to North Korean refugees (12.1-97.8 %), compared to Chinese (99 %) and migrant (95 %) children. Increased father's age and having a sibling predicted significantly lower vaccination rates. Children born to North Korean refugees had significantly lower immunization rates, compared to Chinese or migrant children. Further research is needed to examine barriers of health care access in this high-risk population.

  18. South China connected to north India in Gondwana: sedimentary basin and detrital provenance analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, W.; Li, Z. X.; Li, W. X.; Li, X. H.; Yang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The paleoposition of South China during the Ediacaran-Silurian is important for understanding the assembly of Gondwana. We report here the tectonostratigraphic evolution of the Ediacaran-Silurian Nanhua foreland basin in South China, and discuss South China's connection with Gondwana and potential tectonic triggers for both the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China and the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India. The Nanhua basin was involved in a three-stage evolution, which are: Stage 1 (the Ediacaran-Cambrian) recording the start of tectonic subsidence with turbiditic marine clastic deposition, fed by exotic orogens outboard South China; Stage 2 (the Ordovician to earliest-Silurian) featured by migrating depocentres with dominant shallow marine to deltaic clastic deposition, fed by the local Wuyi-Yunkai orogen; and Stage 3 (the Silurian) showing the arrival of depocentre in the Yangtze Block during the waning stage of the Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny with deltaic deposition in the remanent foreland basin. Detrital zircon analyses of the Ediacaran-Silurian sandstones across the Nanhua basin reveal a prominent age population of 1100-900 Ma (with a peak age at ~980 Ma) and moderate populations of Archean-Paleozoic ages, grossly matching that of crystalline and sedimentary rocks in northern India. Zircon isotopes of the Stage 1 samples suggest three Precambrian episodes of juvenile crustal growth at 3.0 Ga, 2.5 Ga and 1.0 Ga, and a major crustal reworking at 580-500 Ma for the source areas, which are constraint to be northwestern India and its surrounding orogens. Together with other evidence, we propose that South China likely collided with northwestern India during the Gondwana assembly, generated the Bhimphedian orogeny in north India and formed two foreland basins on both the north India and South China sides. Far-field stress of the collision triggered the Ordovician-Silurian Wuyi-Yunkai orogeny in South China. The Stage 2-3 samples in the Nanhua basin of South China were shed

  19. Paleoclimatical signals from large aquifers: comparative study of North China Plain, North America and Great Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Major aquifers worldwide, under favorable conditions, can retain low temporal resolution information on climatic conditions at the time of recharge. Generally, this geochemical information can be used to better constrain reaction of the aquifer to climatic changes or even to assess long term groundwater sustainability. Understanding whether major aquifers at similar latitude world-wide share similar climatic responses and records is one of the objectives of the G@GPS (Groundwater@Global Palaeoclimatic Signals) network. Several flag basins were selected and many activities were carried out since 2011, when G@GPS was accepted as one IFG within TERPRO of INQUA. The presentation will cover the objectives, major actities and achievements in the past 5 years, with a focus on the case studies in North China Plain (NCP), Great Artesian Basin (GAB) in Australia, and North America. 81Kr and 85Kr by using ATTA (atom trap trace analysis) to derive paleoclimate signals from deep aquifer was introduced in the workshop and training course in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province on Dec. 8-13, 2014, and some results are to be presented, combined with those from 14C. Paleoclimatic signals in the last 30-40 ka were reconstructed using stable isotopes and dated groundwater in three areas indicate climatic changes and several recharge events. The signal in NCP was compared and verified by the high resolution data series from two caves in China. The signals from the large aquifers could provide a reasonable regional and global record of paleoclimatic change.

  20. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae), a new species from North China

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group Hieracium sect. Aestiva (Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea × Hieracium sect. Umbellata) and is most similar to Hieracium veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements. PMID:25197222

  1. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,P<0.05). In addition, depression (79.9%) and HIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (P<0.05). Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  2. [Effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang, Northwest China under plastic mulched drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhong; Bai, Dan; Zhai, Guo-Liang; Zong, Jie; Li, Ying; Cai, Jiu-Mao; Feng, Jun-Jie

    2013-09-01

    A field experiment with three irrigation amounts and five nitrogen application levels was conducted to investigate the effects of water and nitrogen regulation on the growth characteristics, yield component factors, and water and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton in south Xinjiang under mulched drip irrigation. With the increasing amount of irrigation, the plant height, leaf number on main stem, boll number, LAI, and dry matter accumulation in leaf and stem improved significantly, but the root growth was restrained. As compared with low and high irrigation amounts (4950 and 6750 mm x hm(-2), respectively), medium irrigation amount (5850 mm x hm(-2)) increased the available bolls per plant and the single boll mass averagely by 0.96 and 0.4 and by 0.22 and 0.11 g, respectively. When the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), as compared with other nitrogen application levels, the stem diameter increased significantly, and the growth of bud, boll, and root was accelerated. Moreover, the allocation ratio of dry matter from nutritional organs to reproductive organs under medium irrigation amount increased by 5.1% and 29.6% respectively, as compared with that under low and high irrigation amounts. Irrigation amount had significant effects on the cotton yield but little effects on the lint percentage, whereas nitrogen application level had definite effects on the cotton yield and lint percentage. However, low irrigation amount restrained the effects of nitrogen application on yield enhancement. In this experiment, when the irrigation amount was 5850 mm x hm(-2) and the nitrogen application level was 300 kg x hm(-2), the cotton grew healthily, the plant shape structure was optimized, the dry matter allocation to reproductive organs was promoted dramatically, the available bolls, single boll mass, and lint percentage increased, the cotton yield reached the highest (6992.33 kg x hm(-2)), and the water and nitrogen use efficiency amounted to 1.45 kg x m(-3) and 45

  3. [Effects of climate change on winter wheat growth and yield in North China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianping; Zhao, Yanxia; Wang, Chunyi; He, Yong

    2006-07-01

    With the combination of crop model and climate mode, this paper simulated and predicted the effects of climate change on the winter wheat production of North China in future 100 years. The results showed that from 2000 to 2004, the variation trend of simulated winter wheat production in North China was accordant with the measured one, and the difference of winter wheat's lifecycle and yield was not obvious. In the future 100 years, the lifecycle of winter wheat would be shortened by 8.4 days, and its yield would be decreased to different extent, with 10.1% as the average. If proper measures such as adjusting crop parameters and management measures were adopted, the decline of winter wheat yield could be mitigated effectively.

  4. Palaeomagnetism of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks of the Huabei Shield: the North China Block in Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piper, J. D. A.; Rui, Zhang Qi

    1997-12-01

    A palaeomagnetic study is reported of reddened facies (Fengtai Formation) of Neoproterozoic glacial rocks which underlie Early Cambrian rocks with disconformity in the Huabei (North China/Sino-Korean) Block. The diamictite (preferred age 620-600 Ma) carries a dual polarity remanence residing in hematite of the red matrix. The mean direction derived from 62 samples is {D}/{I} = {205.9}/{- 32.4°} ( α95 = 3.9°) yielding a pole position at 233°E, 62°N. Tests on the matrix deformed beneath dropstones suggest that remanence was fixed before full compaction, although clasts near the base of the formation are largely overprinted. Overlying Early Cambrian sediments of the Houjiashan and Yutaishan formations have a similar remanence also of dual polarity ( {D}/{I} = {205.5}/{- 32.1°}, α95 = 3.9°, 32 samples). The magnetisation in the diamictite is therefore interpreted to have been acquired during loading by the ice sheet and/or the overlying Cambrian succession. Red shales from the Liulaobei Formation (˜890-840 Ma) near the base of the Neoproterozoic succession in the Huabei Block yield a contrasting remanence of {D}/{I} = {59.4}/{75.3°} ( α95 = 7.1°, 19 samples) equivalent to a pole position at 150°E, 43°N. Pole positions from this study accord with Lower-Middle Cambrian poles from the Australian and South China Blocks with North China sited adjacent to northeastern Australia in accordance with recent biogeographic and palaeogeographic models. Although the palaeolatitude derived from the Fengtai diamictite (17°) is Cambrian in age and probably later than the glaciation, the correlation with Australia implies that glaciation in North China took place in low palaeolatitudes (˜20°) and reinforces the view that late Neoproterozoic glaciation, at least at this perimeter of Gondwana, occurred at low latitudes. Neoproterozoic-Cambrian poles from North China, South China and Australia fail to conform to the popular Rodinia reconstruction with the latter blocks

  5. Multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport during a rainstorm process in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengxin; Gao, Shouting; Liang, Li; Deng, Difei; Gong, Hainan

    2014-08-01

    A rainstorm process that occurred in North China from July 24-25, 2011 was accurately simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model, and the multi-scale characteristics of moisture transport were studied based on the simulated results. The results indicated that water vapor was carried to North China mainly by the southwest low-level jet and easterly flow, with the former playing a principal role. The enhancement and northward extension of the southwesterly wind were consistent with the increase of magnitude and northward propulsion of the moisture flux. The variation of the winds mirrored fluctuations in the amount of precipitation. In addition, the water vapor from low latitudes to North China was transported first near the boundary layer over 15°N-21°N and then primarily at 850 hPa over 21°N-30°N, 900 hPa over 30°N-39°N, and 800 hPa over the region north of 39°N. The net budget of water vapor in North China was always positive during the rainstorm process because the zonal deficit was much smaller than the meridional surplus. The contribution of the water vapor advection was larger than that of the water vapor convergence in the prior period of rainfall, and the subsequent moisture aggregation relied on the water vapor convergence. The rainband in North China presented frontal mesoscale characteristics, and the short-term aggregation of moisture was closely related to the genesis and development of the mesoscale convective system that was triggered mainly by the cold air intrusion near the boundary layer. The underlying cold air not only lifted the warm air to trigger the convection, but it also influenced the development of the low pressure system in the lower levels, which further intensified the convergence and benefited the rapid accumulation of moisture to the convective zone near the boundary layer. The moisture transport reached its maximum an hour before the rainstorm occurred.

  6. Giving Lip Service with an Attitude: North Korea’s China Debate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    border human trafficking , polygamy, underage sex slavery, illegal opium production in the mountains, drug smuggling from Manchuria to the North...often tear families apart, put human lives in danger and outside the law, and tend to result in a drama of personal disappointment, abuse, and loss...they do nothing to remedy the situation because it suits their parochial interests just fine. On a national level, underground human traffic to China

  7. China and the Splitting of Alliances: Historic Cases and Implications for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    rejected Soviet offers for joint basing. In 1958, Moscow proposed to build a long-range radio installation in China for communication to Soviet... developed over these cases?  Finally, does the current relationship with North Korea share similarities with any of these cases and give insight...mainstream consensus in the U.S. intelligence community incorrectly prescribed to this assessment for over 10 years.4 Eventually fissures in these

  8. [Variation analysis of background atmospheric pollutants in North China during the summer of 2008 to 2011].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-Yi; Xin, Jin-Yuan; Ji, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Bin

    2012-11-01

    In order to understand the change of background concentration of air pollutants with the development of economy in the region of North China, the concentrations of NO(x), O3 and PM2.5 were monitored during the summer of 2008 to 2011 at Xinglong station, which is the regional background station of North China. The results indicated that the average concentration of NO(x) in the summer of the four years was (9.1 +/- 5.1), (5.9 +/- 2.6), (12.2 +/- 4.6) and (14.1 +/- 5.0) microg x m(-3), respectively, the daily maximum hourly concentration of O3 was (163.3 +/- 42.7), (175.2 +/- 48.8), (199.6 +/- 52.6) and (207.2 +/- 62.1) microg x m(-3), respectively, and the average concentration of PM2.5 was (59.8 +/- 44.6), (44.4 +/- 28.0), (58.1 +/- 34.2) and (52.5 +/- 36.7) microg x m(-3), respectively; in which, the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants had increased most significantly in 2010, especially the concentration of NO(x). The average concentrations of NO(x), O3 and PM2.5 increased by 106%, 14% and 31%, respectively, compared to those in the summer of 2009. Because of the increase in the number of motor vehicle and the fast development of industry in the region of North China in 2010, the background concentrations of atmospheric pollutants were increasing obviously. The atmospheric oxidizer has also increased, the concentration of O(x) reached (155.3 +/- 40.2) microg x m(-3) and has increased by 20% compared to the average concentration of the period during the summer of 2009, the compound pollution of high concentration of ozone and fine particles becomes more and more serious in North China.

  9. A 1.78 Ga large igneous province in the North China craton: The Xiong'er Volcanic Province and the North China dyke swarm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Peng; Zhai, Mingguo; Ernst, Richard E.; Guo, Jinghui; Liu, Fu; Hu, Bo

    2008-03-01

    The 1.78 Ga Xiong'er Volcanic Province (XVP) and coeval North China giant mafic Dyke Swarm (NCDS) are the most important magmatic events occurring after the amalgamation of the North China craton (NCC). The XVP consists of 3-7 km of extrusive volcanics and some feeder dykes/sills located along the southern margin of the NCC and extending over an area > 0.06 M km 2. Compositions vary from basalt to rhyolite, but are predominantly intermediate in terms of silica content. There are also minor sedimentary intercalations and pyroclastic units. The sedimentary interlayers indicate an environment changing from continental-facies to oceanic-facies up-section. The XVP is characterized by fractional crystallization from an EM I type mantle source, and both continental arc (Andean-type) and rift environments have been proposed. The NCDS is widespread in the central NCC with an outcrop area > 0.1 M km 2, and are exposed at variable depths up to 20 km (deepest in the north). Dyke compositions vary from basalt to andesite and dacite, but are dominantly mafic, and comprise two series of magmatism. Previous studies revealed that the NCDS recorded assimilation and fractional crystallization of an EM I type magma source, with a minor DM contribution in the younger magmas. Both syn-collisional and intra-continental anorogenic environments have been proposed. Spatial and petrogenic correlations suggest a cogenetic relationship between the NCDS and XVP, and considered together, they define a Large Igneous Province (LIP) of > 0.1 M km 2 in area and > 0.1 M km 3 in volume, which is also notable for its continuous compositional range from mafic to felsic (with no gap at intermediate compositions). The petrology is explained by a common magma source that undergoes a silica-poor and iron-enriched fractionation trend at depth followed by a silica-rich and iron-poor fractionation trend in shallow-level magma conduits (dykes) and surface lavas. A mantle plume is favored as the cause of this

  10. A numerical experiment study for effects of the grassland desertification on summer drought in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weizhong; Ni, Yunqi

    1999-05-01

    In this paper, the summer climate of 1991 in North China is simulated by using the high-resolution regional climate model (RegCM2) and the effects of the grassland desertification on summer drought in the central and the northern parts of North China as well as Mongolia are studied. It shows that the regional climate model essentially catches the characteristics on distribution and seasonal variation of the precipitation that keep good agreement with the observation. The desertification makes precipitation in the central part of North China during its flood period decrease obviously in July. The border of the precipitation or the soil moisture reduction in the desertification region extends about one latitude southeastward and beyond the southeast edge of the desertification. Thus, vegetation in the border region approaches desertification further. However, there appears evident difference of variation of precipitation over the whole desertification region. The grassland desertification greatly changes the transfers of fluxes between land and atmosphere. The secondary circulation or secondary circulation cells in the desertification region are excited and as a result moisture transport is changed. The variation of flux transfers between land and atmosphere as well as the vertical motion of atmosphere is closely related to that of precipitation.

  11. The evaluation on interaction between structures and succession of vegetation/ecosystems and arid land environment in western China: a case study on Fukang, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiaoling; Gao, Wei; Gu, Fengxue; Li, Weiqing; Chang, Shunli; Zhang, Yuandong; Ye, Qian; Anabiek, Subai

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the relationship between desert ecosystem structures, succession and environment factors which include soil moisture, salt content and pH values in Fukang of Xinjiang. Some preliminary conclusions have been drawn as following: (1) In the study area the niche breadth of typical species in desert vegetation/ecosystem is closely related to environment factors, such as soil moisture, soil pH and salinity. The biggest niche breadth species are Haloxylon ammodendron (1.412) and Reaumuria soongorrica (1.399), which are dominant species in climax communities of the region, and they have very strong adaptability to the arid desert environment. The niche breadths of Nitraria rovorowskii, Kalidium foliatum and Suaeda acuminata range from 0.8 to 1.2. The smallest niche breadth species are Tamarix spp. and Anabasis spp., ranging from 0.4 to 0.8, and both of them show sensitivity to drought and salinity. (2) Low species diversity in desert vegetation/ecosystem of Fukang was found. In general, the grade of community diversity from high to low is defined as: Tamarix soongorica community, Kalidium foliatum community, Suaeda physophora community, Halocnemum strobilaceum community, Haloxylon ammodendron community, Salsola passerina community, Reaumuria soongorica community, Bassia spp. community and Suaeda acuminate community. The most important factors that influence the species diversity of communities are soil salinity and pH values. Because of saline-sodic environment desert vegetation has developed a saline-sodic endurance ecological type. The main effects of salinity on vegetation are observed in the change of dominant and constructive species in communities, and halophyte becomes the dominant species gradually. (3) The limit factor on secondary succession in regional ecosystem is soil salinization. The trend and phase of community succession are in accordance with soil salinization development. There are three soil types: non-salinity, saline soil, and

  12. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted.

  13. Investigation of Anthrax Cases in North-East China, 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Sun, Yang; Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Bo; Liu, Jun; Ji, Xue; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Nan; Gu, Guibo; Feng, Shuzhang; Qian, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    We determined the genotypes of seven Bacillus anthracis strains that were recovered from nine anthrax outbreaks in North-East China from 2010 to 2014, and two approved vaccine strains that are currently in use in China. The causes of these cases were partly due to local farmers being unaware of the presence of anthrax, and butchers with open wounds having direct contact with anthrax-contaminated meat products. The genotype of five of the seven recovered strains was A.Br.001/002 sub-lineage, which was concordant with previously published research. The remaining two cases belongs to the A.Br.Ames sub-lineage. Both of these strains displayed an identical SNR pattern, which was the first time that this genotype was identified in North-East China. Strengthening education in remote villages of rural China is an important activity aimed at fostering attempts to prevent and control anthrax. The genotype of the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine No.II was A.Br.008/009 and A.Br.001/002 for the vaccine strain Anthrax Spore Vaccine Non-capsulated. Further studies of their characteristics are clearly warranted. PMID:26308449

  14. Lung cancer among women in north-east China.

    PubMed

    Wu-Williams, A H; Dai, X D; Blot, W; Xu, Z Y; Sun, X W; Xiao, H P; Stone, B J; Yu, S F; Feng, Y P; Ershow, A G

    1990-12-01

    A case-control study of lung cancer involving interviews with 965 female patients and 959 controls in Shenyang and Harbin, two industrial cities which have among the highest rates of lung cancer in China, revealed that cigarette smoking is the main causal factor and accounted for about 35% of the tumours among women. Although the amount smoked was low (the cases averaged eight cigarettes per day), the percentage of smokers among women over age 50 in these cities was nearly double the national average. Air pollution from coal burning stoves was implicated, as risks of lung cancer increased in proportion to years of exposure to 'Kang' and other heating devices indigenous to the region. In addition, the number of meals cooked by deep frying and the frequency of smokiness during cooking were associated with risk of lung cancer. More cases than controls reported workplace exposures to coal dust and to smoke from burning fuel. Elevated risks were observed for smelter workers and decreased risks for textile workers. Prior chronic bronchitis/emphysema, pneumonia, and recent tuberculosis contributed significantly to lung cancer risk, as did a history of tuberculosis and lung cancer in family members. Higher intake of carotene-rich vegetables was not protective against lung cancer in this population. The findings were qualitatively similar across the major cell types of lung cancer, except that the associations with smoking and previous lung diseases were stronger for squamous/oat cell cancers than for adenocarcinoma of the lung.

  15. Estimation of saltation emission in the Kubuqi Desert, North China.

    PubMed

    Du, Heqiang; Xue, Xian; Wang, Tao

    2014-05-01

    The Kubuqi Desert suffered more severe wind erosion hazard. Every year, a mass of aeolian sand was blown in the Ten Tributaries that are tributaries of the Yellow River. To estimate the quantity of aeolian sediment blown into the Ten Tributaries from the Kubuqi Desert, it is necessary to simulate the saltation processes of the Kubuqi Desert. A saltation submodel of the IWEMS (Integrated Wind-Erosion Modeling System) and its accompanying RS (Remote Sensing) and GIS (Geographic Information System) methods were used to model saltation emissions in the Kubuqi Desert. To calibrate the saltation submodel, frontal area of vegetation, soil moisture, wind velocity and saltation sediment were observed synchronously on several points in 2011 and 2012. In this study, a model namely BEACH (Bridge Event And Continuous Hydrological) was introduced to simulate the daily soil moisture. Using the surface parameters (frontal area of vegetation and soil moisture) along with the observed wind velocities and saltation sediments for the observed points, the saltation model was calibrated and validated. To reduce the simulate error, a subdaily wind velocity program, WINDGEN was introduced in this model to simulate the hourly wind velocity of the Kubuqi Desert. By incorporating simulated hourly wind velocity, and model variables, the saltation emission of the Kubuqi Desert was modeled. The model results show that the total sediment flow rate was 1-30.99 tons/m over the last 10years (2001-2010). The saltation emission mainly occurs in the north central part of the Kubuqi Desert in winter and spring. Integrating the wind directions, the quantity of the aeolian sediment that deposits in the Ten Tributaries was estimated. Compared with the observed data by the local government and hydrometric stations, our estimation is reasonable.

  16. Understanding severe winter haze events in the North China Plain in 2014: roles of climate anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Zhicong; Wang, Huijun; Chen, Huopo

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric pollution has become a serious environmental and social problem in China. Over the past 30 years, the number of winter (December-February) haze days over the North China Plain (WHDNCP) was greatest in 2014. In addition to anthropogenic influence, climate anomalies also played a role. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the anomalous atmosphere circulations associated with haze pollution of this year in detail. Near the surface, the weaker East Asian winter monsoon pattern, causing southerly winds over the North China Plain, could aggravate the situation of haze. In the lower and middle troposphere, taking the anticyclone circulation over North China as an intermediate system, the positive phases of the eastern Atlantic/western Russia (EA/WR), the western Pacific (WP), and the Eurasia (EU) patterns led to a worse air pollution dispersion condition that contributed to a larger number of WHDNCP. In 2014, these three patterns could be recognized from the wind anomalies in the lower troposphere. The preceding autumn (September-November) Arctic sea ice (ASI) anomalies over the eastern Hemisphere and the warmer winter surface over Eurasia might have induced or intensified the positive EA/WR pattern in 2014. These two external forcings, together with the pre-autumn sea surface temperature anomalies in the Pacific, might have also stimulated or enhanced the positive EU-like patterns. The anomalous surface temperature in autumn 2014 was efficient in intensifying anomalous circulations such as the positive phase of the WP pattern. The opposite case of minimum WHDNCP in 2010 further supports the mechanism of how EA/WR and WP patterns and associated external factors altered the local climate conditions to impact the WHDNCP.

  17. Predictability of the mid-90s warming over North-Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monerie, Paul-Arthur; Robson, Jon; Dong, Buwen; Sutton, Rowan

    2017-04-01

    We assessed the ability of the DePreSys3 prediction system to predict the temperature fluctuation over north-eastern China. The hindcasts reproduce the interdecadal evolution of the surface air temperature, with the cooling of the 60s and the warming of the 90s. The abrupt warming of the mid 90s is obtained for the 1 year and 2-5 year lead-time, even after removing a linear trend. We found that the warming over northeastern China is associated with a positive anomaly in geopotential height at the upper-level. A Rossby wave propagates following the subtropical jet, from the Atlantic Ocean to eastern China. It modulates the temperature over Eurasia, leading to maximums of warming over Europe and China. The wave is therefore proposed to be originated from the Atlantic Ocean. We hypothesize the abrupt warming of the mid 90s and the northward shift of the intertropical convergence zone to be responsible for the wave train. We thus proposed the Atlantic Ocean to be a source of predictability for northeastern China, owing to the Ocean memory and Ocean initialisation of the decadal hindcasts. The hypothesis will be assessed in further works by computing sensitivity experiments.

  18. S-wave velocity structure of the North China from inversion of Rayleigh wave phase velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao-peng; Zhu, Liang-bao; Wang, Qing-dong; Zhang, Pan; Yang, Ying-hang

    2014-07-01

    We constructed the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle (10-100 km) beneath the North China based on the teleseismic data recorded by 187 portable broadband stations deployed in this region. The traditional two-step inversion scheme was adopted. Firstly, we measured the interstation fundamental Rayleigh wave phase velocity of 10-60 s and imaged the phase velocity distributions using the Tarantola inversion method. Secondly, we inverted the 1-D S-wave velocity structure with a grid spacing of 0.25° × 0.25° and constructed the 3-D S-wave velocity structure of the North China. The 3-D S-wave velocity model provides valuable information about the destruction mechanism and geodynamics of the North China Craton (NCC). The S-wave velocity structures in the northwestern and southwestern sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament (NSGL) are obviously different. The southeastern side is high velocity (high-V) while the northeastern side is low velocity (low-V) at the depth of 60-80 km. The upwelling asthenosphere above the stagnated Pacific plate may cause the destruction of the Eastern Block and form the NSGL. A prominent low-V anomaly exists around Datong from 50 to 100 km, which may due to the upwelling asthenosphere originating from the mantle transition zone beneath the Western Block. The upwelling asthenosphere beneath the Datong may also contribute to the destruction of the Eastern Block. The Zhangjiakou-Penglai fault zone (ZPFZ) may cut through the lithosphere and act as a channel of the upwelling asthenosphere. A noticeable low-V zone also exists in the lower crust and upper mantle lid (30-50 km) beneath the Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan (BTT) region, which may be caused by the upwelling asthenosphere through the ZPFZ.

  19. Geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of the ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qinqin, Xu; Jianqing, Ji

    2010-05-01

    As the remnant of ancient oceanic crust, ophiolite is extremely important to reconstruct the framework of ancient ocean and continent. There are several ophiolite belts in Northern Xinjiang, assuming planar distribution, and they are generally related to different faults since Paleozoic in the outcrops. This paper presents a systematic study of geochemistry and geochronology of the gabbro, diabase and basalt of ophiolite collected from different regions in Northern Xinjiang. The intermediate and basic rocks in ophiolite show similar patterns in primitive mantle-normalized REE and trace elements diagrams with MORB and different from IAT, indicating that the ophiolite may be formed in mid-ocean ridge. Their Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions also show that they have mid-ocean ridge environment affinity. Additionally, their Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic ratios are similar respectively, suggesting the same source area, and they also have positive epsilon Nd values(4.40 ~ 8.04), which indicates they likely originate from the depleted mantle. The previous and the author's researches show that the forming time of ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang is early Paleozoic, but 40Ar/39Ar ages of gabbro, diabase and basalt are in the range of 396 ~ 226Ma (mainly from 350 to 250Ma), and no ages of early Paleozoic are gained. Moreover, this time coincides with the timing of late Paleozoic post-collisional plutonism, indicating the ophiolite in Northern Xinjiang was reworked by the late thermal events. The ophiolite widely exposed in Northern Xinjiang have similar characteristics of occurrence, lithologic association and isotopes in spite of diverse special features, which indicates that a relatively uniform and integrated source region has existed in Northern Xinjiang since Paleozoic. It is likely to infer that this source region is related with the long lasting remnant oceanic basin and the related lithosphere since Paleozoic in North Xinjiang. Key Words: Ophiolite, 40Ar/39Ar age

  20. Study on Precipitation Anomalies of North of China in April and Its relationship to Sea Surface Temperature Evolvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y.; Li, Z.; Guan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Using monthly precipitation data in North of China for 1960-2007, American NCEP/NCAR monthly reanalysis data and NOAA SST (sea surface temperature) data, and SST indices data in Climate System Monitoring Bulletin collected by National Climate Center, this paper studied the general circulation, large-scale weather system anomalous characteristics and SSTA evolvement with more rainfall of North of China in April. The results showed that precipitation differences between months in spring in North of China were quite obvious, and the correlation coefficients between precipitation of North of China in April and that in March and in May were not significant respectively. The linear trend of precipitation in April was out of phase with that in spring. It was meaningful to study precipitation in April solely. The space pattern of first leading mode of EOF analysis for precipitation of North of China in April indicated that rainfall changed synchronously. In years of more rainfall in April showed negative phase of EU pattern in 500hPa geopotential height field of high latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, and North of China located at where cold and warm air masses met, which availed reinforcement of south wind and ascending motion. In middle and high latitudes was latitudinal circulation, and North of China was controlled by warm ridge and latitudinal large-scale front zone; In years of less rainfall, meridional circulation prevailed and large-scale front zone located northward and presented meridional pattern, and North of China was affected by cold air mass. At the same time, water vapor was transported strongly from Pacific, South China Sea and southwest of China, and reached Northeast of China. In years of less rainfall, the water vapor transportation was quite weak. The rainfall was related closely to sea surface temperature anomalies, especially to the Indian Ocean, the middle and east of Pacific, middle and south of Pacific and northwest of Pacific where there were

  1. Acupuncture in an outpatient clinic in China: a comparison with the use of acupuncture in North America.

    PubMed

    Xu, X

    2001-08-01

    The National Institutes of Health Consensus Panel on Acupuncture has listed as a priority the study comparing indications and patterns of use of acupuncture in different countries. I visited an outpatient acupuncture clinic in China and reviewed the clinical files. A MEDLINE search was done to compare the use of acupuncture in North America and China. The most common disorder treated in the clinic was musculoskeletal pain. Less common indications included stroke rehabilitation, Bell's palsy, cholelithiasis, tinnitus, insomnia, migraine, and visceral pain. In North America, acupuncture is primarily for pain relief. Other uses include stroke rehabilitation, various emetic problems, migraine, and various addictions. Acupuncture is most frequently used in China and North America for pain relief. Other common indications include peripheral nerve palsy, peripheral nerve neuralgia, stroke rehabilitation, psychoemotional disorders, migraine, visceral pain, emesis, asthma, and tinnitus. Acupuncture for cholelithiasis in China but not in the United States suggests a novel use of this modality.

  2. Human leukocyte antigen-B27 alleles in Xinjiang Uygur patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Zou, H-Y; Yu, W-Z; Wang, Z; He, J; Jiao, M

    2015-05-25

    We investigated the distribution of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang. B27-positive patients with ankylosing spondylitis were subtyped by using polymerase chain reaction-sequence-based typing. The HLA-B27 subtype frequencies of Uygur patients were compared with those in Han patients in Xinjiang and the other areas of China. B*2705 was the predominant subtype in Uygur patients with a frequency of 58.95%, which was much higher than that in Han patients in Xinjiang (31.58%, P < 0.05) and the other areas of China (excluding the Shandong region, which was 63.89%). The frequency of B*2704 (27.37%) in Uygur patients was the lowest and significantly lower than that in Han patients (61.18%, P < 0.05) and in 8 other areas of China. B*2710 has not been previously reported in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients; B*2704 was the main (61.18%) subtype in Han patients in Xinjiang, followed by B*2705 (31.58%) and was similar to the characteristics of Han patients in the other areas of China. B*2724 in Han ankylosing spondylitis patients has not been previously reported. Additionally, the B*2702/B*2705 homozygote was identified in Uygur patients. B*2702/B*2704, B*2704/B*2705, and B*2705/B*2705 homozygotes were identified in 3 Han patients. The distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in Uygur ankylosing spondylitis patients in Xinjiang significantly differed from that in Han patients. Understanding the distribution of HLAB27 subtypes in ethnic minority populations of Xinjiang is important for anthropological genetic studies and for analyzing the impact of genetic background on ankylosing spondylitis susceptibility.

  3. Gridded field observations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane in the atmosphere of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yifan; Ma, Jin; Qiu, Xinghua; Lin, Yan; Yang, Qiaoyun; Zhu, Tong

    2013-08-06

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are important pollutants, yet few data on ambient BFRs levels have been available for North China, one of the most developed regions of the country. In this study, we investigated levels and spatial distributions of BFRs based on gridded field observations coupled with passive air sampling in the aforementioned region. A model incorporating both point and nonpoint sources was developed to simulate the spatial distribution and to achieve source apportionment. Although high concentration was observed at an electronic-waste (e-waste) recycling site, the median level of the sum of tri-, tetra-, hepta-, hexa-, and hepta-PBDEs (∑10PBDEs) was 0.56 ng/sample, which was lower than those observed previously in mainland China. Source apportionment revealed that nonpoint emissions contributed nearly 78% of ∑10PBDEs observed in this study. In contrast, high levels of BDE-209 and DBDPE were observed, with median concentrations of 4.0 and 10.2 ng/sample, respectively. Point sources located in the region around Laizhou Bay, Shandong Province were the major sources, which contributed 31% of BDE-209 and 70% of DBDPE observed in this study, indicating that this manufacturing base was the most important source region for atmospheric deca-BFRs in North China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report source apportionment of atmospheric BFRs based on gridded field observations.

  4. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China: Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the Northwest can be seen as a veritable treasure house. It includes Shaanxi, Gansu and Qinghai provinces and the Xinjiang Uygur and Ningxia Hui...oil fields of Karamay and Kekaya in Xinjiang; Yumen in Gansu ; Lenghu in Qinghai; and Yanchang in Shaanxi, there are also possibilities of even...metal minerals have been found in Xinjiang. In Gansu , nickel deposits make up about 72 percent of the country’s total, the largest not only in China

  5. Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China.

    PubMed

    Wang, X C; Jin, P K

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the present condition of the water shortage in north China where annual rainfall is low and per capita water resource is below the line of regular water stress, or even the line of absolute water scarcity. Of the available water resources, the percentge of water withdrawal in all the north basins is high--the Yellow River and Huai River basins being greater than 80% and the Hai River basin mainly depending on interbasin water transfer. Over-withdrawal of water also results in serious water environmental problems including "flow cut-off" of the Yellow River main channel and water pollution of many rivers. The paper also analyses the potential of wastewater as a resource and the demand for treated wastewater re-use. In north China, due to low rainfall and high potential evaporation environmental re-use, gardening, afforestation, etc. is considered as the main usage of the treated wastewater. Considering the economic restrictions in the less developed area, a decentralised system can be taken as an important option in formulating water re-use strategies.

  6. Source Apportionment of Final Particulate Matterin North China Plain based on Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, J.; Wu, W.; Chang, X.; Wang, S.; Hao, J.

    2016-12-01

    Most Chinese cities in North China Plain are suffering from serious air pollution. To develop the regional air pollution control policies, we need to identify the major source contributions to such pollution and to design the control policy which is accurate, efficient and effective. This study used the air quality model with serval advanced technologies including ISAM and ERSM, to assess the source contributions from individual pollutants (incl. SO2, NOx, VOC, NH3, primary PM), sectors (incl. power plants, industry, transportation and domestic), and regions (Beijing, Hebei, Tianjing and surrounding provinces). The modeling period is two months in 2012 as January and July which represent winter and summer respectively. The non-linear relationship between air pollutant emissions and air quality will be addressed, and the integrated control of multi-pollutants and multi-regions in China will be suggested.

  7. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2013-06-01

    Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China.

  8. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Meng; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Saide, Pablo E.; Lu, Zifeng; Yu, Man; Streets, David G.; Wang, Zifa

    2016-09-01

    The winter haze is a growing problem in North China, but the causes are not well understood. The chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem) was applied in North China to examine how PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide (SO2), black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), ammonia (NH3), and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), as well as meteorology (temperature, relative humidity (RH), and wind speeds) changes in winter. From 1960 to 2010, the dramatic changes in emissions lead to +260 % increases in sulfate, +320 % increases in nitrate, +300 % increases in ammonium, +160 % increases in BC, and +50 % increases in OC. The responses of PM2.5 to individual emission species indicate that the simultaneous increases in SO2, NH3, and NOx emissions dominated the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 shows more notable increases in response to changes in SO2 and NH3 as compared to increases in response to changes in NOx emissions. In addition, OC also accounts for a large fraction in PM2.5 changes. These results provide some implications for haze pollution control. The responses of PM2.5 concentrations to temperature increases are dominated by changes in wind fields and mixing heights. PM2.5 shows relatively smaller changes in response to temperature increases and RH decreases compared to changes in response to changes in wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. From 1960 to 2010, aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced due to higher aerosol loadings. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations may be another important cause since PM2.5 is shown to be substantially affected by wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. More studies are necessary to get a better understanding of the aerosol-circulation interactions.

  9. Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhou, T.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Phillips, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    Gold exploration in China has expanded rapidly during the last two decades since a modern approach to economic development has become a national priority. China currently produces 180 tonnes (t) of gold annually, which is still significantly less than South Africa, USA, and Australia. However, China is now recognized as possessing significant gold resources in a wide range of mineral deposit types. Present estimates of gold resources in China exceed 4,500 t, which comprise 60% in gold-only deposits, more than 25% in base metal-rich skarn, porphyry, and vein deposits, and more than 10% in placer accumulations. The major gold provinces in China formed during the main episodes of Phanerozoic tectonism. Such tectonism involved interaction of China's three major Precambrian cratons, North China, Tarim, and Yangtze (or South China when combined with Cathysia block), with the Angara (or Siberian), Kazakhstan-Kyrgyzstan, and Indian cratons. Resulting collisions included deformation of accreted oceanic sequences between the cratonic blocks. The most important ore-forming orogenies were (1) the late Paleozoic Variscan (405-270 Ma), which led to amalgamation of the Angara, North China and Yangtze cratons, (2) the Indosinian (270-208 Ma), which led to the collision of North China and South China cratons, (3) the Yanshanian (208-90 Ma), which was largely influenced by the subduction of the Izanagi-Pacific plates beneath eastern China, and (4) the Himalayan (<90 Ma) indentation of the Indian continent into Eurasia. No important Precambrian gold systems are recognized in China, mainly because of reworking of exposed Precambrian rocks by these younger orogenies, but there are a few Caledonian (600-405 Ma) gold-bearing system in northern Xinjiang. Most of China's orogenic, epithermal, and Carlinlike gold deposits are in the reworkerd margins of major cratonic blocks and in metasedimentary rock-dominated fold belts adjacent to these margins. Accordingly, the major gold provinces are

  10. Comparison of immunogenicity between inactivated and live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines: a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among children in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue-En; Wushouer, Fuerhati; Gou, Aili; Kuerban, Mahemuti; Li, Xinlan; Sun, Yubo; Zhang, Jiamin; Liu, Yan; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Hui

    2013-07-01

    To compare immunogenicity among an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Healive(®)) with one-dose and two-dose regimens, and three kinds of live attenuated vaccines in children. A single-blind, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial was conducted among healthy children aged 1.5-6 y in Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region, China. Subjects were randomly assigned to 5 groups. Two groups were administered one-dose or two-dose inactivated vaccine and the remaining groups were immunized with one of three kinds of attenuated vaccines, respectively. Serum samples were collected at 6- and 12-mo follow-ups. Anti-HAV IgG was measured with a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. No significant differences were observed in seroconversion rates (seroprotection rates) among the five groups at 6 or 12 mo (p>0.05). The geometric mean concentration (GMC) of anti-HAV IgG was significantly higher in the two-dose Healive(®) group than in the one-dose Healive(®) group and the attenuated vaccine groups at 12 mo (932.4 vs. 112.7, 135.8, 203.3, 212.8 mIU/ml, respectively, p<0.05). In the one-dose Healive(®) group, the GMC was significantly lower than that in the attenuated vaccine B and C groups at 6 mo (152.6 vs. 212, 204 mIU/ml, p<0.05) and at 12 mo (112.7 vs. 203.3, 212.8, p<0.05), but was similar to the attenuated vaccine A group at 12 mo (112.7 vs. 135.8 mIU/ml, p>0.05). The GMCs were significantly higher in the 1-2 y of age group than in the 3-6 y of age group for all types of vaccines except the attenuated vaccine C (p<0.05) at 12 mo. A higher GMC of anti-HAV IgG was induced in the two-dose Healive(®) than in the one-dose and the attenuated vaccines at 12 mo. The attenuated vaccine B or C produced higher GMCs than the one-dose Healive(®) at 6-12 mo after vaccination.

  11. [Prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged 50 years or above in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: the China Nine-Province survey].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xian-zhi; Zhao, Jia-liang; Ellwein, Leon B; Wei, Bin; Chen, Jing; Ye, Ying; Tang, Xiao-dong; Yang, Mei; Wang, Yu; Gao, Xue-cheng

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and causes of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment among adults aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. It was a population-based cross-section study.Geographically defined cluster sampling was used in randomly selecting 5714 individuals aged ≥ 50 years in Changji City. The survey was preceded by a pilot study where operational methods were refined and quality assurance evaluation was carried out. All participants were enumerated through village registers followed door-to-door visits.Eligible individuals were invited to received visual acuity measurement and eye examination. Prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was calculated according to different age, gender or education. And the reasons of blindness were analyzed.Statistical analyses were performed using Stata/SE Statistical Software, release 9.0. Chi-square test was used to investigate the association of age, gender and education with presenting and best corrected visual acuity. Five thousands seven hundreds and fourteen individuals were enumerated and 5250 persons were examined, the response rate was 91.88%. Based on the criteria of World Health Organization visual impairment classification in 1973, the prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as best corrected visual acuity was 0.74% (39/5250) and 3.83% (201/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment defined as presenting visual acuity was 1.33% (70/5250) and 8.02% (421/5250) respectively. The prevalence of blindness and moderate and severe visual impairment was higher in aged (trend χ(2) = 617.06, P = 0.000) , illiterate (trend χ(2) = 222.35, P = 0.000) persons. Cataract and was the first leading cause of blindness and visual impairment, the retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, high myopic retinopathy, and diabetic retinopathy, were the

  12. A case study of the November 2012 mixed rain-snow storm over North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Donghai; Duan, Yihong; Liu, Ying; Liang, Zhaoming; Liu, Chongjian; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhang, Yuwei; Yin, Jinfang; Wang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    A mixed rain-snow storm associated with a strong burst of cold air and development of an extratropical cyclone occurred over North China from 3 to 5 November 2012. This early snowfall event was characterized by a dramatic drop in temperature, strong winds, high precipitation intensity, broad spatial extent, and coexistence of multi-phase precipitating hydrometeors. This study investigates the multi-scale interactions between the large-scale circulation background and the synoptic-scale weather systems associated with the storm. The results are as follows. (1) The Arctic Oscillation (AO) had been in its negative phase long before the event, leading to southward advection of cold air into North China in advance of the storm. (2) The large-scale atmospheric circulation experienced a decreased number of long waves upstream of North China prior to the storm, resulting in reduced wave velocity and an almost stagnant low pressure system (extratropical cyclone) over North China. (3) An Ω-shaped blocking high over East Asia and the western Pacific obstructed the eastward movement of an upstream trough, allowing the corresponding surface cyclone to stabilize and persist over Beijing and its neighboring areas. This blocking high was a major factor in making this event a historically most severe precipitation event in autumn in Beijing for the past 60 years. (4) Baroclinic instability at lower levels gave rise to rapid development of the cyclone under the classical "second type" development mechanism for extratropical cyclones. (5) Moisture originated from the Yellow Sea entered the slowly-moving cyclone in a steady stream, creating fairly favorable water vapor supply for the heavy rainfall-snowfall, especially during the later stage of the cyclone development. (6) Moisture transport and frontal lifting triggered low-level instability and updrafts. Intensification of the front enhanced the vertical wind shear, causing conditional symmetric instability (CSI) to expand upward

  13. The distribution characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in typical water system of North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Zong, L. H.; Meng, X. Z.; Zhang, S. L.; Cui, W. Y.; Liu, C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-08-01

    The temporal and spatial distribution of PAHs in surface-water from the typical rivers of North China was investigated. PAHs in typical rivers ranged from n.d. to 1.98 ng/L. LMW PAHs (2 and 3-ring) were abundant in surface water with high detection frequencies in Beisanhe River, while HMW PAHs (4 and 6-ring) were abundant in Luanhe River. Specific PAHs with its ratios were measured in order to deduce the possible sources of PAHs contaminant. The results indicate that the PAHs were from combustion processes in Beisanhe River, while PAHs were from petroleum products in Luanhe River.

  14. Effects of drought on winter wheat yield in north China during 2012-2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yanling; Zhao, Yanxia

    2012-08-01

    Winter wheat is one of China's most important staple food crops, and its production is strongly influenced by weather, especially droughts. As a result, the impact of drought on the production of winter wheat is associated with the food security of China. Simulations of future climate for scenarios A2 and A1B provided by GFDL-CM2, MPI_ECHAM5, MRI_CGCM2, NCAR_CCSM3, and UKMO_HADCM3 during 2001-2100 are used to project the influence of drought on winter wheat yields in North China. Winter wheat yields are simulated using the crop model WOFOST (WOrld FOod STudies). Future changes in temperature and precipitation are analyzed. Temperature is projected to increase by 3.9-5.5°C for scenario A2 and by 2.9-5.1°C for scenario A1B, with fairly large interannual variability. Mean precipitation during the growing season is projected to increase by 16.7 and 8.6 mm (10 yr)-1, with spring precipitation increasing by 9.3 and 4.8 mm (10 yr)-1 from 2012-2100 for scenarios A2 and A1B, respectively. For the next 10-30 years (2012-2040), neither the growing season precipitation nor the spring precipitation over North China is projected to increase by either scenario. Assuming constant winter wheat varieties and agricultural practices, the influence of drought induced by short rain on winter wheat yields in North China is simulated using the WOFOST crop model. The drought index is projected to decrease by 9.7% according to scenario A2 and by 10.3% according to scenario A1B during 2012-2100. This indicates that the drought influence on winter wheat yields may be relieved over that period by projected increases in rain and temperature as well as changes in the growth stage of winter wheat. However, drought may be more severe in the near future, as indicated by the results for the next 10-30 years.

  15. Survey of nitrite content in foods from north-east China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Y; Zhang, T; Zhuang, H; Wang, K; Zheng, Y; Zhang, H; Zhou, B; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    This study reports a survey of nitrite in a variety of foods consumed in north-east China and estimates the intake of nitrite for the north-east Chinese consumer. A total of 642 food categories including rice and rice products, flour and flour products, soybean and products, vegetables, fruit, preserved vegetables, cured meat products, dairy products, fish products, salt, and soy sauce were analysed for their content of nitrite. Nitrite content was quite different both between different food categories and within the same food category, ranging from not determined (n.d.) to 19.7 mg kg(-1). A great variation in the content of nitrite was found for all the food products. The average content of nitrite was highest in cured meat products (14.3 mg kg(-1)). Next to that, the nitrite content was high in the order of preserved vegetables (4.1 mg kg(-1)), soybean products (3.5 mg kg(-1)), and dairy products (1.9 mg kg(-1)). The lowest average values of nitrite were detected in soy sauce, rice and rice products, salt and fish products, the contents being 0.1, 0.3, 0.3, and 0.6 mg kg(-1). Calculations on the basis of these results and including dietary surveys show that the average intake of nitrite in north-east China from food was 0.03 mg kg(-1) body weight for an average Chinese person weighing 60 kg, and the data are lower than the established acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite. Cured meat products are normally the major contributor to average nitrite intake of the north-east Chinese population. The second contributor is vegetables.

  16. Microgranular enclaves in island-arc andesites: A possible link between known epithermal Au and potential porphyry Cu-Au deposits in the Tulasu ore cluster, western Tianshan, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaobo; Xue, Chunji; Symons, David T. A.; Zhang, Zhaochong; Wang, Honggang

    2014-05-01

    The successful exploration for porphyry copper deposit in western Tianshan, Xinjiang, faces great challenge. Tulasu basin is an important epithermal gold ore cluster in western Tianshan, which was formed in a southwest-Pacific-type island-arc setting during the late Paleozoic by the southward subduction of the North Tianshan ocean beneath the Yili plate. Porphyry Cu-Au deposits are possibly to be found at depth or adjacent to these epithermal gold deposits. Some sulfide-mineralized microgranular enclaves of monzonite porphyry and microdiorite were found in andesites of the Tawuerbieke gold district, Tulasu basin. The enclaves are randomly distributed, with generally round or subangular shape and commonly clearly defined within their host andesite, and have a chilled surrounding margin of andesite. The monzonite porphyry enclaves (MPE) exhibit porphyritic texture with the phenocrysts of plagioclase and K-feldspar. The microdiorite enclaves (MDE) are mainly composed of plagioclase and hornblende with an aplitic texture and massive structure. The host andesites show porphyritic texture, with the phenocrysts major of plagioclase, minor of hornblende and clinopyroxene. The groundmass consists of short-column plagioclase and minor clinopyroxene with a hyalopilitic texture. Zircon grains from a MPE sample yield a weighted 206Pb/238U age of 356.2 ± 4.3 Ma (n = 13, MSWD = 1.11), which is effectively coincident with the 360.5 ± 3.4 Ma (n = 20, MSWD = 0.61) of an andesite sample within analytical error, indicating that they were coeval. In addition, the MPE, MDE and the andesite samples share similar normalized incompatible element and rare earth element patterns that are characterized by a pronounced enrichment of large ion lithophile elements and a deficit of high field strength elements. Moreover, the samples show similar Nd isotope compositions to the contemporary andesites and basaltic andesites. Detailed petrology, geochronology and geochemistry studies suggest that

  17. Interactions of six SNPs in APOA1 gene and types of obesity on low HDL-C disease in Xinjiang pastoral area of China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinping; He, Jia; Guo, Heng; Mu, Lati; Hu, Yunhua; Ma, Jiaolong; Yan, Yizhong; Ma, Rulin; Li, Shugang; Ding, Yusong; Zhang, Mei; Niu, Qiang; Liu, Jiaming; Zhang, Jingyu; Guo, Shuxia

    2017-10-02

    This study aims to investigate association between six single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in APOA1 gene and types of obesity with the risk of low level HDL-C in the pastoral area of northwest China. A total of 1267 individuals including 424 patients with low HDL-C disease and 843 health subjects were analyzed based on matched for age, sex. SNPShot technique was used to detect the genotypes of rs670, rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665 and rs1799837 in APOA1 gene. The relationship between above six SNPs and types of obesity with low HDL-C disease was analyzed by binary logistic regression. Carriers with rs670 G allele were more likely to get low HDL-C disease (OR = 1.46, OR95%CI: 1.118-1.915; P = 0.005); The genotypic and allelic frequencies of rs5069, rs5072, rs7116797, rs2070665, rs1799837 revealed no significant differences between cases and controls (P < 0.05); with reference to normal weight, Waist circumference (WC), Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) individuals, respectively, general obesity measured by BMI had 2.686 times (OR95%CI: 1.695-4.256; P < 0.01), abdominal obesity measured by WC had 1.925 times (OR95%CI: 1.273-2.910; P = 0.002) and abdominal obesity measured by WHR had 1.640 times (OR95%CI: 1.114-2.416; P = 0.012) risk to get low HDL-C disease; APOA1 rs670 interacted with obesity (no matter general obesity or abdominal obesity) on low HDL-C disease. APOA1 gene may be associated with low HDL-C disease in the pastoral area of northwest China; obesity was the risk factor for low HDL-C disease; the low HDL-C disease is influenced by APOA1, obesity, and their interactions.

  18. Crust structure of the Northern Margin of North China Craton and adjacent region from Sinoprobe-02 North China seismic WAR/R experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, W.; Gao, R.; Keller, G. R.; Li, Q.; Cox, C. M.; Hou, H.; Guan, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogen Belt (CAOB) or Altaids, situated between the Siberian craton(SC) to the north and north China craton (NCC) with tarim to the south, is one of the world's largest accretionary orogens formed by subduction and accretion of juvenile material from the Neoproterozoic through the Paleozoic. The NCC is the oldest craton in China, which suffered Yanshan intercontinental orogenic process and lithosphere thinning in Mesozoic. In the past 20 years, remarkable studies about this region have been carried out and different tectonic models were proposed, however, some crucial geologic problems remain controversial. In order to obtain better knowledge of deep structure and properties of crust on the northern margin of north China craton, a 450 km long WAR/R section was completed jointly by Institute of Geology, CAGS and University of Oklahoma. Our 450 km long NW-SE WAR/R line extends from west end of the Yanshan orogen, across the Bainaimiao arc, Ondor sum subduction accretion complex to the Solonker suture zone. The recording of seismic waves from 8 explorations was conducted in 4 deployments of 300 reftek-125A records and single-channel 4.5Hz geophones with station spacing of 1km. The shooting procedure was employ 500 or 1500kg explosives in 4-5 or 15-23 boreholes at 40-45m depth. The sampling rate was 100 HZ, and recording time window was 1200s. The P wave field on the sections got high quality data for most part of the profile, but have low signal-to-noise for the south end, where closed to Beijing with a lot of ambient noise from traffic, industry and human activity. Arrivals from of refracted and reflected waves from sediments and basement (Pg), intracrust (Pcp, Plp) and Moho (Pmp) were typically observed, but Pn phase through the upper most mantle was only observed for 2 shots. Identification and correlation of seismic phases was done manually on computer screen Zplot software. Each trace has been bandpass filtered (1-20Hz) and normalized with AGC

  19. Monitoring of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in surface waters from Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Wang, Shaopo; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2015-03-01

    In spite of the quantities and species of chemicals dramatically increased with rapid economic growth in China in the last decade, the focus of environmental research was mainly on limited number of priority pollutants. Therefore, to elucidate environmental pollution by organic micro-pollutants, this work was conducted as the first systematic survey on the occurrence of 1300 substances in 20 surface water samples of Tianjin, North China, selected as a representative area of China. The results showed the presence of 227 chemicals. The most relevant compounds in terms of frequency of detection and median concentration were bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (100%; 0.26μgL(-1)), siduron (100%; 0.20μgL(-1)), lidocaine (100%; 96ngL(-1)), antipyrine (100%; 76ngL(-1)), caffeine (95%; 0.28μgL(-1)), cotinine (95%; 0.20μgL(-1)), phenanthrene (95%; 0.17μgL(-1)), metformin (90%; 0.61μgL(-1)), diethyl phthalate (90%; 0.19μgL(-1)), quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid (90%; 0.14μgL(-1)), 2-(methylthio)-benzothiazole (85%; 0.11μgL(-1)) and anthraquinone (85%; 54ngL(-1)). Cluster analysis discriminated three highly polluted sites from others based on data similarity. Principle component analysis identified four factors, corresponding to industrial wastewater, domestic discharge, tire production and atmospheric deposition, accounting for 78% of the total variance in the water monitoring data set. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in surface waters in China, which indicates that the aquatic environment in China has been polluted by a large number of chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geochemistry of fine-grained clastic rocks in the Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group: implications for provenance and the tectonic model of the Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deng-Feng; Chen, Hua-Yong; Zhang, Li; Fralick, Philip; Hollings, Pete; Mi, Mei; Lu, Wan-Jian; Han, Jin-Sheng; Wang, Cheng-Ming; Fang, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Kawabulake Group, which is unconformably overlain by the Lower Cambrian Huangshan Formation and conformably overlies the Mesoproterozoic Xingxingxia Group in the Eastern Tianshan area, NW China, is comprised mainly of siltstone, slate, sandstone and phyllite. New geochemical data for the clastic rocks from the Kawabulake Group were investigated to constrain the provenance and weathering history of the source rocks, in order to evaluate the tectonic evolution of the Eastern Tianshan area. Kawabulake Group rocks are compositionally similar to PAAS (average Post-Archean Australian Shale), indicating derivation from a felsic source that is characterized by depletion in some HFSEs such as Nb, Ta and Ti. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) for the sandstone, siltstone and slate samples (CIA = 60 on average) suggests intensely weathered sources. Light REE-enrichment patterns ((La/Yb)CN = 4-20) coupled with negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* between 0.44 and 0.89 with an average of 0.62) are similar to those of PAAS, consistent with cratonic sources. The major and trace element compositions imply a dominantly Precambrian felsic source region with a minor contribution from mafic materials. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and the ages of T DM2 ( 3.4, 2.5-1.8, 1.2 and 1.0 Ga) are consistent with the evolutionary history of Kuluketage in the northern Tarim, suggesting that the Tarim Craton was the main source area for the Kawabulake Group.

  1. Prospective Cohort Study to Elucidate the Correlation between Occupational Stress and Hypertension Risk in Oil Workers from Kelamayi City in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Ge, Hua; Ning, Li; Zhao, Junling; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the major risk factors for hypertension in oil workers, and investigate the effect of occupational stress on the incidence of hypertension after controlling for other risk factors. A prospective cohort approach was used following enrollment of 1354 oil workers. The occupational stress experienced by oil workers was higher than for the general population in China. By the end of the cohort study, 231 new cases of hypertension among the oil workers had been diagnosed. The cumulative incidence of hypertension was 17.06%. There were 44, 112, and 75 workers who developed hypertension in the low, intermediate, and high occupational stress groups, which represented a 12.0%, 15.6%, and 20.3% cumulative incidence, respectively (chi-square value = 9.812, p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that type of work, cigarette smoking, excess body weight, and obesity were risk factors for hypertension (p < 0.05). After risk factors such as type of work, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled, the hypertension risk (hazard ratio, HR) in the high occupational stress group was 1.549 (1.072–2.236) compared to the low exposure group, and 2.337 (1.191–4.585) in female subjects. Our study indicated that an increase in occupational stress was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after other factors were adjusted. PMID:28025517

  2. Prospective Cohort Study to Elucidate the Correlation between Occupational Stress and Hypertension Risk in Oil Workers from Kelamayi City in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Bo; Ge, Hua; Ning, Li; Zhao, Junling; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the major risk factors for hypertension in oil workers, and investigate the effect of occupational stress on the incidence of hypertension after controlling for other risk factors. A prospective cohort approach was used following enrollment of 1354 oil workers. The occupational stress experienced by oil workers was higher than for the general population in China. By the end of the cohort study, 231 new cases of hypertension among the oil workers had been diagnosed. The cumulative incidence of hypertension was 17.06%. There were 44, 112, and 75 workers who developed hypertension in the low, intermediate, and high occupational stress groups, which represented a 12.0%, 15.6%, and 20.3% cumulative incidence, respectively (chi-square value = 9.812, p < 0.01). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that type of work, cigarette smoking, excess body weight, and obesity were risk factors for hypertension (p < 0.05). After risk factors such as type of work, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled, the hypertension risk (hazard ratio, HR) in the high occupational stress group was 1.549 (1.072-2.236) compared to the low exposure group, and 2.337 (1.191-4.585) in female subjects. Our study indicated that an increase in occupational stress was associated with an increased risk of hypertension after other factors were adjusted.

  3. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  4. Environmental controls of evapotranspiration in a mixed plantation in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning

    2017-02-01

    The mixed plantation plays an important role in the water cycle in the hilly area of North China. To evaluate the effect of afforestation on the water balance in this region, the temporal variation of evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental controls were investigated based on the eddy flux measurement of water vapor in a 31-year-old mixed plantation from 2006 to 2010. During 5 years, annual ET ranged from 513 to 680 mm, with an average of 579 mm. Growing season ET accounted for 72-82 % of annual ET during the 5-year period and its interannual variation was determined by the number of rainy days. In the non-growing and growing seasons, monthly ET was primarily dependent on monthly mean soil water content and monthly mean net radiation, respectively. Annual mean Priestley-Taylor coefficient ( α) was 0.64, and the decoupling factor ( Ω) was 0.48. High values of α and Ω implied that ET was energy limited in the growing seasons of 2006-2010. The mean annual ratio of ET to precipitation (ET/P) was 1.10. The density of the mixed plantation was around 50 % higher than the optimal value determined by local water capacity, leading to a large ET/P ratio. The dense plantation needs to be thinned to prevent excessive water loss in the hilly area of North China.

  5. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M; Xiao, Yan

    2014-03-04

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ(7)Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ(7)Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from -27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ(7)Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1-2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ(7)Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ(7)Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ(7)Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust.

  6. Abnormal lithium isotope composition from the ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the North China Craton

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Fu; Deloule, Etienne; Su, Ben-Xun; Ying, Ji-Feng; Santosh, M.; Xiao, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Lithium elemental and isotopic compositions of olivines in peridotite xenoliths from Hebi in the North China Craton provide direct evidence for the highly variable δ7Li in Archean lithospheric mantle. The δ7Li in the cores of olivines from the Hebi high-Mg# peridotites (Fo > 91) show extreme variation from −27 to +21, in marked deviation from the δ7Li range of fresh MORB (+1.6 to +5.6) although the Li abundances of the olivines are within the range of normal mantle (1–2 ppm). The Li abundances and δ7Li characteristics of the Hebi olivines could not have been produced by recent diffusive-driven isotopic fractionation of Li and therefore the δ7Li in the cores of these olivines record the isotopic signature of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle. Our data demonstrate that abnormal δ7Li may be preserved in the ancient lithospheric mantle as observed in our study from the central North China Craton, which suggest that the subcontinental lithospheric mantle has experienced modification of fluid/melt derived from recycled oceanic crust. PMID:24589693

  7. Chemical osmosis test and numerical modeling of the clay samples in the North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sun, X.; Wu, J.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments with high clay content can act as semipermeable membranes, leading to osmotic flow and osmotic hydraulic pressure. The semipermeable membrane ability is usually quantified in terms of a reflection coefficient, σ, or chemico-osmotic efficiency, ω. In the previous studies, the osmotic transport was never taken into account in salt-rich region of the North China Plain. In a rigid wall permeameter, an undisturbed soil core sample drilled in this region and a remolded soil sample with the same clay content and porosity were subjected to a certain chemical potential gradient to estimate the reflection coefficient, σ, by measuring the osmotic flow and the induced pressure. Meanwhile, the constant-head tests for determining the hydraulic conductivity of soil samples were conducted before and after the osmotic test. It is indicated that the permeability of the remolded sample is smaller than the undisturbed sample in both periods. Also, the chemical osmosis was observed in both samples, and the measured value of σ for in-situ sampling (0.074) is much smaller than that value for remolded sampling (0.350). Moreover, a chemical osmosis continuum model presented by Garavito et al. (2006) was used to fit the evolution of the osmotically driven hydraulic pressure in the clay samples where more intrinsic parameters of the samples were calibrated. The results demonstrated in our tests can provide the reliable basis for the further study of clay sediments in the North China Plain.

  8. Spatial distribution of polychlorinated naphthalenes in the atmosphere across North China based on gridded field observations.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Zhao, Yifan; Qiu, Xinghua; Ma, Jin; Yang, Qiaoyun; Shao, Min; Zhu, Tong

    2013-09-01

    Polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) belong to a group of dioxin-like pollutants; however little information is available on PCNs in North China. In this study, gridded field observations by passive air sampling at 90 sites were undertaken to determine the levels, spatial distributions, and sources of PCNs in the atmosphere of North China. A median concentration of 48 pg m(-3) (range: 10-2460 pg m(-3)) for ∑29PCNs indicated heavy PCN pollution. The compositional profile indicated that nearly 90% of PCNs observed were from thermal processes rather than from commercial mixtures. Regarding the source type, a quantitative apportionment suggested that local non-point emissions contributed two-thirds of the total PCNs observed in the study, whereas a point source of electronic-waste recycling site contributed a quarter of total PCNs. The estimated toxic equivalent quantity for dioxin-like PCNs ranged from 0.97 to 687 fg TEQ m(-3), with the electronic-waste recycling site with the highest risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic diversity of two Neolithic populations provides evidence of farming expansions in North China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Li, Jiawei; Zhao, Yongbin; Wu, Xiyan; Li, Hongjie; Yao, Lu; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2017-02-01

    The West Liao River Valley and the Yellow River Valley are recognized Neolithic farming centers in North China. The population dynamics between these two centers have significantly contributed to the present-day genetic patterns and the agricultural advances of North China. To understand the Neolithic farming expansions between the West Liao River Valley and the Yellow River Valley, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Y chromosome of 48 individuals from two archeological sites, Jiangjialiang (>3000 BC) and Sanguan (~1500 BC). These two sites are situated between the two farming centers and experienced a subsistence shift from hunting to farming. We did not find a significant difference in the mtDNA, but their genetic variations in the Y chromosome were different. Individuals from the Jiangjialiang belonged to two Y haplogroups, N1 (not N1a or N1c) and N1c. The individuals from the Sanguan are Y haplogroup O3. Two stages of migration are supported. Populations from the West Liao River Valley spread south at about 3000 BC, and a second northward expansion from the Yellow River Valley occurred later (3000-1500 BC).

  10. Plants and people from the Early Neolithic to Shang periods in North China.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung-Ah; Crawford, Gary W; Liu, Li; Chen, Xingcan

    2007-01-16

    An assemblage of charred plant remains collected from 26 sites in the Yiluo valley of North China as part of an archaeological survey spans the period from the sixth millennium to 1300 calibrated calendrical years (cal) B.C. The plant remains document a long sequence of crops, weeds, and other plants in the country. The results also demonstrate the effectiveness of sediment sampling as part of an archaeological survey. Ten accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) radiocarbon dates on crop remains inform an assessment of the sequence of agricultural development in the region. Foxtail millet (Setaria italica subsp. italica) was grown during the Early Neolithic period and was the principal crop for at least four millennia. Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) was significantly less important throughout the sequence. Rice (Oryza sativa) was introduced by 3000 cal B.C. but apparently was not an important local crop. Wheat became a significant crop between 1600 and 1300 cal B.C. The weed flora diversified through time and were dominated by annual grasses, some of which were probably fodder for domesticated animals. The North China farming tradition that emphasized dry crops (millets, wheat, and legumes) with some rice appears to have been established at the latest by the Early Shang (Erligang; 1600-1300 B.C.) period.

  11. Sandy desertification change and its driving forces in western Jilin Province, North China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Bai, Zhang; Wei, Su; Yanfen, He; Zongming, Wang; Kaishan, Song; Dianwei, Liu; Zhiming, Liu

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the sandy desertification change between 1986 and 2000 in the western Jilin province, North China. Land use and land cover data were obtained from Landsat TM data by using a supervised classification approach. We summarized the total area of desertified land by each county, as well as the area for each of the four categories of desertified land. The changes of different types of land use and land cover between 1986 and 2000 were calculated and analyzed. Taking Tongyu and Qianan as examples, both human and natural driving forces of the sandy desertification were analyzed. Our analyses indicate that the material sources and windy, warm and dry climate are the immanent causes of potential land desertification, while the irrational human activities, such as deforestation, reclaiming and grazing in the grassland, are the external causes of potential land desertification. However, rational human activities, such as planting trees and restoring grassland can reverse the land desertification process. Furthermore, the countermeasures and suggestions for the sustainable development in ecotone between agriculture and animal husbandry in North China are put forward.

  12. Environmental controls of evapotranspiration in a mixed plantation in North China.

    PubMed

    Tong, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Jinsong; Meng, Ping; Li, Jun; Zheng, Ning

    2017-02-01

    The mixed plantation plays an important role in the water cycle in the hilly area of North China. To evaluate the effect of afforestation on the water balance in this region, the temporal variation of evapotranspiration (ET) and environmental controls were investigated based on the eddy flux measurement of water vapor in a 31-year-old mixed plantation from 2006 to 2010. During 5 years, annual ET ranged from 513 to 680 mm, with an average of 579 mm. Growing season ET accounted for 72-82 % of annual ET during the 5-year period and its interannual variation was determined by the number of rainy days. In the non-growing and growing seasons, monthly ET was primarily dependent on monthly mean soil water content and monthly mean net radiation, respectively. Annual mean Priestley-Taylor coefficient (α) was 0.64, and the decoupling factor (Ω) was 0.48. High values of α and Ω implied that ET was energy limited in the growing seasons of 2006-2010. The mean annual ratio of ET to precipitation (ET/P) was 1.10. The density of the mixed plantation was around 50 % higher than the optimal value determined by local water capacity, leading to a large ET/P ratio. The dense plantation needs to be thinned to prevent excessive water loss in the hilly area of North China.

  13. Mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of hepatitis B virus genotype C in North China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Hu, Dongmei; Li, Qing; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2012-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can evolve by mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) to permit its escape from neutralization by antibodies such as HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) and from host immune responses. This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of MHR mutations in North China and the clinical correlations of these mutations. The MHRs of 161 HBsAg-positive patients were amplified using nested PCR, and directly sequenced to identify MHR mutations. It was showed that among the 161 patients infected with HBV genotype C in North China, the overall frequency of MHR mutation was 46.6%. Furthermore, MHR mutations were associated with high white blood cell counts (P = 0.025), high bilirubin levels (P = 0.048), and cirrhosis (P = 0.010). The most frequent mutations in patients with both HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs-positive were located in subregion 1 and 3 of MHR, specifically, residue Q101 (29.9%) and I126 (70.6%), which was different from the mutation pattern found in Western Europe and the United States. Taken together, these data indicated important virological and clinical aspects of HBV evolution in terms of the surface gene of genotype C, which might be important for its response to the currently available HBV vaccine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mutations in the Major Hydrophilic Region (MHR) of Hepatitis B Virus Genotype C in North China

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ying; Wei, Feili; Hu, Dongmei; Li, Qing; Smith, Davey; Li, Ning; Chen, Dexi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can evolve by mutations in the major hydrophilic region (MHR) of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) to permit its escape from neutralization by antibodies such as HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) and from host immune responses. This study investigated the prevalence and pattern of MHR mutations in North China and the clinical correlations of these mutations. The MHRs of 161 HBsAg-positive patients were amplified using nested PCR, and directly sequenced to identify MHR mutations. It was showed that among the 161 patients infected with HBV genotype C in North China, the overall frequency of MHR mutation was 46.6%. Furthermore, MHR mutations were associated with high white blood cell counts (P = 0.025), high bilirubin levels (P = 0.048), and cirrhosis (P = 0.010). The most frequent mutations in patients with both HBsAg-positive and anti-HBs-positive were located in subregion 1 and 3 of MHR, specifically, residue Q101 (29.9%) and I126 (70.6%), which was different from the mutation pattern found in Western Europe and the United States. Taken together, these data indicated important virological and clinical aspects of HBV evolution in terms of the surface gene of genotype C, which might be important for its response to the currently available HBV vaccine. PMID:23080494

  15. Response of cotton phenology to climate change on the North China Plain from 1981 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanbiao; Chen, Jing; Xing, Fangfang; Han, Yingchun; Chen, Fu; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Yabing; Li, Cundong

    2017-07-26

    To identify countermeasures for the impacts of climate change on crop production, exploring the changes in crop phenology and their relationship to climate change is required. This study was based on cotton phenology and climate data collected from 13 agro-meteorological experimental stations and 13 meteorological stations on the North China Plain from 1981 to 2012. Spatiotemporal trends in the cotton phenology data, lengths of the different growing phases, mean temperatures, and rainfall were analyzed. These results indicated that warming accelerated cotton growth, advanced cotton phenology, and shortened the growing period of cotton. However, harvest dates were significantly delayed at 8 (61.5%) stations, the length of both the flowering-boll opening and boll opening-harvest periods increased at 10 (77.0%) stations, and a positive correlation was found between the mean temperature and the length of the whole growing period at 10 (77.0%) stations. Therefore, cotton practices and cultivars on the North China Plain should be adjusted accordingly. The response of cotton phenology to climate change, as shown here, can further guide the development of options for the adaptation of cotton production in the near future.

  16. Lithospheric Structure of the Northeastern North China Craton Imaged by S Receiver Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingchen; Ding, Zhifeng; Zhu, Lupei

    2016-08-01

    Lithosphere thickness variation is important for understanding the significant tectonic reactivation of the North China Craton (NCC) in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. Here, we determined the lithospheric structure in the northeastern NCC using S receiver functions from 305 teleseismic events recorded by 223 seismic stations. The Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) are imaged clearly beneath the region. The Moho depth decreases from ~45 km beneath the western NCC to ~25 km beneath the eastern NCC. We found that the lithospheric thickness varies from 60 to 80 km beneath the Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO) and eastern NCC with no significant change of the LAB depth. The lithosphere thickness beneath the northwestern Ordos plateau is 100-130 km. In addition, there is a mid-lithosphere discontinuity at a depth of 80 km beneath the plateau that is connected to the base of thinned lithosphere in TNCO and eastern NCC. We suggest that the mid-lithosphere discontinuity represents a mechanically weak zone in the original cratonic lithosphere of the NCC. The material in the lower lithosphere of the craton, when warmed and hydrated by water released from the subducting slab of Western Pacific, became weak due to decrease in viscosity and/or partial melting and was subsequently removed through small-scale mantle convections.

  17. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  18. The Beiminghe skarn iron deposit, eastern China: Geochronology, isotope geochemistry and implications for the destruction of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun-Feng; Santosh, M.; Li, Sheng-Rong; Zhang, Hua-Feng; Yin, Na; Dong, Guo-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Juan; Ma, Guang-Gang; Yu, Hong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The Beiminghe (BMH) iron ore in the southern part of the Taihang Mountain (TM), Hebei province, is one of the largest skarn iron deposits in China. Here we report phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and zircon U-Pb age data, as well as sulfur, lead, and He-Ar isotope geochemistry of pyrite from the ores and skarnitized rocks in the deposit in an attempt to constrain the timing and mechanism of formation of the mineralization. The phlogopite 40Ar-39Ar and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb data show markedly consistent ages constraining the timing of ore formation as 136-137 Ma. The presence of several inherited zircons with late Archean or Paleoproterozoic ages indicates the participation of the basement rocks during the ore-forming process. The δ34S values of pyrite from the ores range from 12.2 to 16.5‰, with 206Pb/204Pb = 17.84-18.79, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.46-15.62, and 208Pb/204Pb = 37.93-39.75, suggesting that continental crust is the major contributor. This is further confirmed by the He-Ar isotope data (3He/4He = 0.0648-0.1886 Ra, mean 0.1237Ra; 40Ar/36Ar = 311.7-22909.4; and 40Ar*/4He = 0.036-0.421). The Mesozoic magmatism and metallogeny in the BMH correlate well with the peak event of lithospheric thinning and destruction of the North China Craton during this process, the early Precambrian lower crustal rocks in the region were re-melted through underplating of mantle magmas, leading to the formation of the Beiminghe monzodioritic pluton. Minor mantle input occurred during the evolution of the monzodiorite magma, which scavenged the ore-forming materials from the lower crust. Interaction of the magmas and fluids with the surrounding rocks resulted in the formation of the Beiminghe skarn iron deposits. The magmatism and metallogeny in the Taihang Mountain are signatures of the extensive craton destruction and lithospheric thinning in the eastern part of the North China Craton during Mesozoic, probably associated with Pacific slab subduction.

  19. Spectral reflectance properties of major objects in desert oasis: a case study of the Weigan-Kuqa river delta oasis in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Sawut, Mamat; Tashpolat, Nigara; Kung, Hsiangte; Han, Guihong; Gui, Dongwei

    2012-08-01

    Aiming at the remote sensing application has been increasingly relying on ground object spectral characteristics. In order to further research the spectral reflectance characteristics in arid area, this study was performed in the typical delta oasis of Weigan and Kuqa rivers located north of Tarim Basin. Data were collected from geo-targets at multiple sites in various field conditions. The spectra data were collected for different soil types including saline-alkaline soil, silt sandy soil, cotton field, and others; vegetations of Alhagi sparsifolia, Phragmites australis, Tamarix, Halostachys caspica, etc., and water bodies. Next, the data were processed to remove high-frequency noise, and the spectral curves were smoothed with the moving average method. The derivative spectrum was generated after eliminating environmental background noise so that to distinguish the original overlap spectra. After continuum removal of the undesirable absorbance, the spectrum curves were able to highlight features for both optical absorbance and reflectance. The spectrum information of each ground object is essential for fully utilizing the multispectrum data generated by remote sensing, which will need a representative spectral library. In this study using ENVI 4.5 software, a preliminary spectral library of surface features was constructed using the data surveyed in the study area. This library can support remote sensing activities such as feature investigation, vegetation classification, and environmental monitoring in the delta oasis region. Future plan will focus on sharing and standardizing the criteria of professional spectral library and to expand and promote the utilization of the spectral databases.

  20. [Change and analysis of background concentration of air pollutants in north China during 2008 Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Xin, Jin-yuan; Sun, Yang; Wang, Yue-si; Wang, Pu-cai

    2010-05-01

    To understand the atmospheric background in North China and evaluate the effect of pollutant emission control as well as the influence of contaminant transportation in the regional pollution, during the 2008 Olympic Games, concentrations of four main air pollutants were observed from June to November at Xinglong station which is the regional background station of North China. We compared the concentrations and diurnal variations in different periods, analyzed the pollution transportation using the ground meteorological data and the backward trajectory model and compared the concentrations between different observation stations in Northern China. The results indicated that the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 in summer were 8.4, 10.5, 126.0 and 59.8 microg x m(-3) respectively and in autumn were 11.7, 17.2, 97.5 and 30.7 microg x m(-3) respectively. During the period of Olympic (2008-08-08-2008-08-24), the concentrations of NOx, SO2, O3 and PM2.5 were 6.6, 6.8, 100.5 and 33.3 microg x m(-3) and reduced 29.0%, 46.9%, 18.6% and 36.5% respectively compared to the average concentrations of the period before and after Olympic Games. The concentration of NOx has reduced 62.5% and the PM2.5 has reduced 29.0% compared to the same term of Olympic in 2007. The air quality has obvious improvement in North China during the Olympic Games. Before the emission control, the concentrations of pollutants were lower in the night and became higher gradually in the daytime and reached the peak values in 17:00-20:00 which can indicate the accumulation of regional pollution transportation in Xinlong. In the emission control period, the accumulation of pollutants in afternoon was obviously weakened and the transportation of pollutants was lower which can reveal the obvious effect of the emission control in Beijing and peripheral areas. The atmosphere in Xinglong was mainly influenced by the monsoon from south direction in summer and autumn and the pollution of Xinglong was

  1. Research On The Methodology of Seismic Density and Seismic Characteristics In North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian

    We aim at researching on seismic characteristics of small and moderate earthquakes recorded by instruments, its relationship with strong earthquakes in order to determine the strong earthquake risk sites demanded by long-medium term earthquake prediction and seismic hazard analysis. In North China, since 1970 abundant data of moderate and small earthquakes have been recorded. In the same spatial-temporal interval there were several strong earthquakes. These data are very good to research on seismic characteristics of small earthquakes and its relationship with strong earthquakes. Owing to phenomeno-logic and intrinsic limitation in seismic research, firstly we introduce a quantitative method to deal with seismic patterns in North China. With the quantitative seismic patterns we can compare variation of seismicity in different regions and time periods systematically. For certain magnitude bin and time period, characteristics of epicenter distribution might be denseness or sparseness. To reflect the characteristics reasonably it should embody number and convergence of earthquakes simultaneously. We have defined the seismic density at a grid node of epicenter distribution in each magnitude bin Vj,m,t. Calculation of density at a grid node is : in the region we delineate grids with distant? ; put the jth node of the grid as the center, rm is radius; and within the spatial-temporal and magnitude interval, number of earthquakes is n, the density at the jth node Vj,m,t should be: n Vj = 1 ,m,t Ln i=1 (Di ) e=Di =rm (1) In the formula Ln( ) is Napierian logarithm, Di expresses the distance from ith epicenter to jth node. The mean of formula (1) is that density at jth node is summation of reciprocals of the distances from epicenters to jth node for each earthquake in the region. The density is direct to number of earthquakes and inverse to the distance. Ln(D) reduces affection of the distance owing to accuracy of epicenter. For the region, with given temporal interval

  2. Screening of 1300 organic micro-pollutants in groundwater from Beijing and Tianjin, North China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingxiao; Kadokami, Kiwao; Duong, Hanh Thi; Chau, Hong Thi Cam

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater contamination in China has become a growing public concern because of the country's rapid economic development and dramatically increasing fresh water demand. However, there is little information available on groundwater quality, particularly with respect to trace organic micro-pollutants contamination. This study was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of 1300 pollutants at 27 groundwater sites in Beijing and Tianjin, North China. Seventy-eight chemicals (6% of the targeted compounds) were detected in at least one sampling point; observed chemicals included polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pesticides, plasticizers, antioxidants, pharmaceuticals and other emerging compounds. Chemicals with a frequency of detection over 70% were 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (median concentration 152 ng L(-1)), benzyl alcohol (582 ng L(-1)), 2-phenoxy-ethanol (129 ng L(-1)), acetophenone (74 ng L(-1)), pentamethylbenzene (51 ng L(-1)), nitrobenzene (40 ng L(-1)) and dimethyl phthalate (64 ng L(-1)). Pesticides with concentrations exceeding the EU maximum residual limits (MRL) of 0.1 μg L(-1) were 1,4-dichlorobenzene, oxadixyl, diflubenzuron, carbendazim, diuron, and the E and Z isomers of dimethomorph. Naphthalene and its 7 alkylated derivatives were widely observed at maximum concentration up to 30 μg L(-1), which, although high, is still below the Australian drinking water guidelines of 70 μg L(-1). The risk assessment indicated there is no human health risk through the oral consumption from most wells, although there were four wells in which total seven compounds were found at the concentrations with a potential adverse health effects. This work provides a wide reconnaissance on broad spectrum of organic micro-contaminants in groundwater in North China.

  3. Mantle Zone beneath the North China and Some Implication for the Origin of the Datong Volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Niu, F.; Wu, J.

    2015-12-01

    We analyzed a total of 97727 receiver-function data recorded by 590 stations in North China from 711 teleseismic events. We used a common-conversion-point stacking (CCP) method to generate a 3D reflectivity volume in the area between 108°-125°E and 36°-43°N, in the depth range of 200 to 800 km. We found significant topography on both the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities. It is well known that estimating the depths of the two discontinuities from Ps conversion times are very sensitive to the reference P- and S-wave velocity models. We used the EARA2014 model, which was derived from a waveform adjoint tomography study of East Asia (Chen et al., 2015) and had comparable resolutions for both P- and S-wave velocity, as the 3D reference model in computing the Ps moveouts for the CCP stacking. We found that the 660-km discontinuity is depressed up to 25 km along the east coast of China, indicating the presence of the subducted Pacific slab in the region. We found a strong and localized anomaly beneath the Quaternary Datong volcano located at the northeastern edge of the Ordos plateau in north China. The 410-km and the 660-km discontinuities are, respectively, depressed and uplifted by a few kilometers beneath the volcano, resulting in a transition zone approximately 15 km thinner than the global average. This observation suggests a deep origin of the Datong volcano, although it was usually attributed to edge driven convection by most of the literatures.

  4. Farmers Extension Program Effects on Yield Gap in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sum, N.; Zhao, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Improving crop yield of the lowest yielding smallholder farmers in developing countries is essential to both food security of the country and the farmers' livelihood. Although wheat and maize production in most developed countries have reached 80% or greater of yield potential determined by simulated models, yield gap remains high in the developing world. One of these cases is the yield gap of maize in the North China Plain (NCP), where the average farmer's yield is 41% of his or her potential yield. This large yield gap indicates opportunity to raise yields substantially by improving agronomy, especially in nutrition management, irrigation facility, and mechanization issues such as technical services. Farmers' agronomic knowledge is essential to yield performance. In order to propagate such knowledge to farmers, agricultural extension programs, especially in-the-field guidance with training programs at targeted demonstration fields, have become prevalent in China. Although traditional analyses of the effects of the extension program are done through surveys, they are limited to only one to two years and to a small area. However, the spatial analysis tool Google Earth Engine (GEE) and its extensive satellite imagery data allow for unprecedented spatial temporal analysis of yield variation. We used GEE to analyze maize yield in Quzhou county in the North China Plain from 2007 to 2013. We based our analysis on the distance from a demonstration farm plot, the source of the farmers' agronomic knowledge. Our hypothesis was that the farther the farmers' fields were from the demonstration plot, the less access they would have to the knowledge, and the less increase in yield over time. Testing this hypothesis using GEE helps us determine the effectiveness of the demonstration plot in disseminating optimal agronomic practices in addition to evaluating yield performance of the demonstration field itself. Furthermore, we can easily extend this methodology to analyze the whole

  5. New indicators for global crop monitoring in CropWatch -case study in North China Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingfang, Wu; Miao, Zhang; Hongwei, Zeng; Guoshui, Liu; Sheng, Chang; Gommes, René

    2014-03-01

    CropWatch is a monitoring system developed and operated by the Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth (Chinese Academy of Sciences) to provide global-scale crop information. Now in its 15th year of operation, CropWatch was modified several times to be a timely, comprehensive and independent global agricultural monitoring system using advanced remote sensing technology. Currently CropWatch is being upgraded with new indicators based on new sensors, especially those on board of China Environmental Satellite (HJ-1 CCD), the Medium Resolution Spectral Imager (MERSI) on Chinese meteorological satellite (FY-3A) and cloud classification products of FY-2. With new satellite data, CropWatch will generate new indicators such as fallow land ratio (FLR), crop condition for irrigated (CCI) and non-irrigated (CCNI) areas separately, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), radiation use efficiency for the photosynthetically active radiation (RUEPAR) and cropping index (CI) with crop rotation information (CRI). In this paper, the methods for monitoring the new indicators are applied to the North China Plain which is one of the major grain producing areas in China. This paper shows the preliminary results of the new indicators and methods; they still need to be thoroughly validated before being incorporated into the operational CropWatch system. In the future, the new and improved indicators will help us to better understand the global situation of food security.

  6. Speciation of dissolved silicates in natural waters containing alkaline and alkaline-earth ions. A case study--waters from arid lands (North West China).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho; Takahashi, Kazuya; Sahoo, Yu Vin

    2004-02-01

    The concentration of silica in water samples from the desert area of Xinjiang, N. W. China, has been measured by colorimetry with ammonium molybdate. The observed pattern of dependence of the concentration of silica on the concentration of sodium ion (Na(+)) in the water samples is consistent with the pattern obtained by experiments on in-vitro dissolution of silica gel in sodium chloride (NaCl) solution. This indicates that the dissolution of silica in the hydrologic system in this area depends on the concentration of Na(+). Calcium ion (Ca(2+)), which is known to play an important role on the dissolution of silica on the basis of in-vitro experiments, was observed to take little part in the dissolution of silica in actual natural water samples. This implies that the Ca(2+) is bound to the hydrogen carbonate anion or that the Ca(2+) content of natural water containing salts is very low, owing to precipitation. In these samples silicate-Na(+) was identified as the dissolution species of silica; it was also ascertained that Ca(2+) did not form complexes with silicate species. These observations resulted from direct identification of dissolved chemical species by use of FAB-MS (fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry). The research indicates that in water samples in this critically arid region the concentration of "dissolved" silica is basically determined by the concentration of Na(+), indicative of pure inorganic conditions in the desert area of Xinjiang, N.W. China.

  7. Is the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt (North China Craton) a rift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuang; Chen, Bin; Wei, Chunjing

    2017-01-01

    As a typical example of the Paleoproterozoic crust in the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt consists principally of the Liaohe Group (and its equivalents), Liaoji granites and mafic intrusions. Previous studies indicate that the evolution of the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt has been mainly attributed to the opening and closing of an intracontinental rift along the eastern continental margin of the North China Craton. Here we synthesize the Paleoproterozoic magmatism, sedimentation, metamorphism and metallogeny against the rift model and propose a process of arc-continent collision between the northern Longgang and the southern Nangrim Blocks. This conclusion is consistent with the observations, including that (a) the 2.0- to 2.2-Ga magmatism shows a typical subalkaline series, rather than a bimodal distribution, since the mafic rocks mostly have arc affinities and the acidic-intermediate rocks belong to the calc-alkaline series; (b) the main source of the 1.9- to 2.0-Ga sedimentary rocks is the Paleoproterozoic arc materials, indicating a fore-arc or back-arc basin setting; (c) a couple of big borate deposits occur in the boron-rich volcanic rocks that were formed in convergent continental margins; (d) the North and South Liaohe Groups show different rock associations and metamorphic histories (P-T paths); and (e) the Nangrim and Longgang Blocks vary in lithological units, geochronology and metamorphic features. Thus, an arc-continent collision tectonic scenario for the Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt is involved: (a) a southward subduction in the period 2.0-2.2 Ga; (b) sedimentation during the period 1.9-2.0 Ga; (c) arc-continent collision at ca. 1.9 Ga; and (d) post-collisional extension at 1.82-1.87 Ga, marking the end of the Paleoproterozoic tectonothermal event.

  8. Application of Holdridge life-zone model based on the terrain factor in Xinjiang Automous Region.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yong-ming; Ouyang, Zhi-yun; Wang, Xiao-ke

    2005-01-01

    This study improved the application of the Holdridge life-zone model to simulate the distribution of desert vegetation in China which gives statistics to support eco-recovery and ecosystem reconstruction in desert area. This study classified the desert vegetation into four types: (1) LAD: little arbor desert; (2) SD: shrub desert; (3) HLHSD: half-shrub, little half-shrub desert; (4) LHSCD: little half-shrub cushion desert. Based on the classification of Xinjiang desert vegetation, the classical Holdridge life-zone model was used to simulate Xinjiang desert vegetation's distribution and compare the Kappa coefficient result of the model with table of accuracy represented by Kappa values. The Kappa value of the model was only 0.19, it means the simulation result was poor. To improve the life-zone model application to Xinjiang desert vegetation type, a set of plot standards for terrain factors was developed by using the plot standard as the re-classification criterion to climate sub-regime. Then the desert vegetation in Xinjiang was simulated. The average Kappa value of the second simulation to the respective climate regime was 0.45. The Kappa value of final modeling result was 0.64, which is the better value. The modification of the model made it in more application region. In the end, the model's ecological relevance to the Xinjiang desert vegetation types was studied.

  9. Late Holocene Earthquake Behavior on Either Side of a Crustal-Scale Complexity Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salisbury, J.; Arrowsmith, R.; Chen, J.; Cowgill, E.; Li, T.; Yang, X.; Aburto, F.; Qin, J.; Muretta, M.

    2013-12-01

    The earthquake behavior of intra-continental strike-slip faults is poorly understood, particularly where actively deforming areas lie adjacent to stable regions. Strain concentration on these structures is capable of producing severe earthquakes, but what is the longest rupture (i.e. biggest earthquake) possible on a continental strike-slip fault? At over 1300 km in length, the Altyn Tagh fault (ATF) in northwestern China is one of the largest intra-continental strike-slip faults in the world. Despite its potential for advancing understanding of major intra-continental strike-slip fault behavior, the earthquake history of the ATF remains poorly known. We combine detailed structural geologic and geomorphic mapping along the main fault trace with paleoseismic excavations at 4 sites along the western third of the ATF (86-88.5°E) in an effort to elucidate the earthquake history on opposite sides of the Sulamu Tagh (37.8°N, 87.3°E) double-bend restraining step that forms a ~6000-m-elevation, ~40-km-long geometric complexity along the otherwise linear, ~200-km-long Cherchen He section of the ATF. We excavated and documented structural relationships of displaced stratigraphic horizons in four small (<50-m long, <15-m wide) shutter ridge-ponded basins along the fault. Three sites are west [37.69°N, 86.55°E; 37.71°N, 86.61°E; 37.72°N, 86.68°E] and one is to the east [37.98°N, 87.82°E] of Sulamu Tagh. We also sampled stratigraphic units for radiocarbon (14C) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) age control of past earthquakes along the ATF. Distinct, alternating layers of alluvial fan and loess deposits preserve significant deformation and provide evidence for three to four surface-rupturing earthquakes in the top 2 m of sediment. Well-preserved fault micro-geomorphology and eight preliminary 14C dates suggest a young (1600 ×250 CalAD) most recent event (MRE) and a penultimate event (PE) at 1020 +210/-160 CalAD at one of the sites west of the Sulamu Tagh

  10. Changes in groundwater induced by water diversion in the Lower Tarim River, Xinjiang Uygur, NW China: Evidence from environmental isotopes and water chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2010-06-01

    SummaryThe Lower Tarim River in NW China is under severe ecosystem degradation due to stopped stream flow and diminished groundwater recharge. Since year 2000, eight water diversions from the upper stream and from the neighboring Kaidu-Kongque River have been implemented to alleviate the ecosystem disaster. In order to assess the effectiveness of the water diversion project and to identify proper tracers of groundwater dynamics, we sampled the riparian groundwater system in 2007 and 2008 along the 350 km-long river channel through the 40 monitoring wells situated along nine transects perpendicular to the river and three soil profiles. Measurements on the samples have included environmental isotopes ( 18O, 2H, 3H) and water chemistry. The results show that remarkable changes have been induced by the water diversions. The observed response of riparian groundwater system includes general decrease in total dissolved solid (TDS) and rise of water table. Scope with greater than 1 m rise in water table is within ˜700 m from the riverbank in the upper segments and ˜300 m in the lower ones. Greater rise of water table occurs near the river bank. Tritium data show that the extent of modern recharge (since 1960s), including that from the diverted water, is limited to 600 m from the riverbank at the upper segments and 200 m at the lower ones. Stable isotopes show that groundwaters, regardless of modern or pre-modern, are enriched in heavy isotopes and are plotted in parallel to the meteoric water line in the δ-δ plot, attributed to evaporation during recharge. Groundwater is generally of Na-Mg-Cl-SO 4 type and is formed by dissolution of minerals, such as halite, sulfate, and carbonates, based on component correlation matrices analysis. The salinity of groundwater is mainly affected by that of the diverted water and of the local antecedent groundwater, salts in the unsaturated zone, evapotranspiration during recharge. As the zone of smaller groundwater depth (less than 5 m

  11. The ambient noise and earthquake surface wave tomography of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Obrebski, M. J.; Wu, Q.; Li, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC) is unique for its unusual Phanerozoic tectonic activity. The NCC was internally tectonically stable until Jurassic when its southern margin collided with the Yangzte Craton. Subsequently, the eastern and central part of the NCC underwent distinctive evolutions during the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic. In contrast to the Erdos block located in the western part of NCC and that seems to have preserved the typical features of a stable craton, the eastern NCC has experienced significant lithospheric thinning as evidenced by widespread magmatism activity and normal faulting, among other manifestations. The eastern part of the NCC is also one of the most seismically active intracontinental regions in the world. Here we focus on the region that comprises the North China Basin and the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains, two major tectonic units located to the east and in the center of the NCC, respectively. We combine ambient noise data and ballistic surface wave data recorded by the dense temporary seismic array deployed in the North China to obtain phase velocity maps at periods ranging from 5s to 60s. 1587 and 3667 ray paths were obtained from earthquake surface waves and ambient noise correlations, respectively. The phase velocity distribution was reconstructed with grid size 0.25x0.25 degrees and 0.5x0.5 degrees from ambient noise tomography and earthquake surface wave tomography. For periods shorter than 15s, the phase velocity variations are well correlated with the principal geological units in the NCC, with low-speed anomalies corresponding to the major sedimentary basins and high-speed anomalies coinciding with the main mountain ranges. Within the period range from 20s to 30s, the phase velocity variations seem to be related to the local variations of the crustal thickness. For the periods above 30s, the strength of the phase velocity variations decreases with increasing periods, which may imply that the uppermost mantle is much more homogeneous

  12. Identification of mantle upwelling in north China through the joint analysis of SKS and surface deformation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flesch, L. M.; Chang, L.; Wang, C. Y.; Ding, Z.

    2016-12-01

    We present 1621 (711 from permanent stations, and 910 from temporary stations) SKS/SKKS splitting observations to constrain the mantle anisotropy in the Eastern China. These results show a fast orientation pattern predominantly E-W in south China that rotates to NNE-SSW in northern China. Due to a thin lithosphere and low rates of surface deformation, the anisotropy is assumed to originate within the asthenosphere. Comparisons of fast anisotropic direction with the absolute plate motion in a no-net-rotation reference frame shows as systemic 10 degree clockwise rotation in south China, alignment in the region of 40 N 120 E, and a systemic 10 degree counter clockwise rotation in north China. Therefore, we invert data in north and south China separately, along with published GPS data for motion of the sub-asthenosphere. The resulting inversions map a 15-20 mm/yr southwestward-directed mantle flow towards the Burma slab that is consistent with the mantle response of slab retreat over the past 25ma in south China and a 5-15 mm/yr northeastward directed flow. These two mantle flow fields diverge in the region of the Changbaishan volcano identifying a region of mantle upwelling beneath north China. We interpret the SKS data to map out the location of a mantle plume beneath Changbaishan associated with a tear in the Pacific plate, movement of the Eurasian lithosphere in an absolute reference over the upwelling, and flow of the upwelled material to the northwest and southeast directed by Eurasian plate motion.

  13. Moho Depth Variations in the Northeastern North China Craton Revealed by Receiver Function Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, P.; Chen, L.; Yao, H.; Fang, L.

    2016-12-01

    The North China Craton (NCC), one of the oldest cratons in the world, has attracted wide attention in Earth Science for decades because of the unusual Mesozoic destruction of its cratonic lithosphere. Understanding the deep processes and mechanism of this craton destruction demands detailed knowledge about the deep structure of the region. In this study, we used two-year teleseismic receiver function data from the North China Seismic Array consisting of 200 broadband stations deployed in the northeastern NCC to image the Moho undulation of the region. A 2-D wave equation-based poststack depth migration method was employed to construct the structural images along 19 profiles, and a pseudo 3D crustal velocity model of the region based on previous ambient noise tomography and receiver function study was adopted in the migration. We considered both the Ps and PpPs phases, but in some cases we also conducted PpSs+PsPs migration using different back azimuth ranges of the data, and calculated the travel times of all the considered phases to constrain the Moho depths. By combining the structure images along the 19 profiles, we got a high-resolution Moho depth map beneath the northeastern NCC. Our results broadly consist with the results of previous active source studies [http://www.craton.cn/data], and show a good correlation of the Moho depths with geological and tectonic features. Generally, the Moho depths are distinctly different on the opposite sides of the North-South Gravity Lineament. The Moho in the west are deeper than 40 km and shows a rapid uplift from 40 km to 30 km beneath the Taihang Mountain Range in the middle. To the east in the Bohai Bay Basin, the Moho further shallows to 30-26 km depth and undulates by 3 km, coinciding well with the depressions and uplifts inside the basin. The Moho depth beneath the Yin-Yan Mountains in the north gradually decreases from 42 km in the west to 25 km in the east, varying much smoother than that to the south.

  14. Organic manure as an alternative to crop residues for no-tillage wheat-maize systems in North China Plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    NT can provide both environmental and economic benefits and has been recognized as a sustainable land use practice in many areas worldwide. NT has induced some concerns in the North China Plain (NCP), e.g. unstable crop yield and fodder shortage, with regards to the amount of crop residues retained ...

  15. Three-North Shelter Forest Program contribution to long-term increasing trends of biogenic isoprene emissions in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Leiming; Shen, Yanjie; Zhao, Yuan; Gao, Hong; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Jia, Chenhui; Ma, Jianmin

    2016-06-01

    To assess the long-term trends of isoprene emissions in northern China and the impact of the Three-North Shelter Forest Program (TNRSF) on these trends, a database of historical biogenic isoprene emissions from 1982 to 2010 was developed for this region using a biogenic emission model for gases and aerosols. The total amount of the biogenic isoprene emissions during the 3 decades was 4.4 Tg in northern China and 1.6 Tg in the TNRSF, with annual emissions ranging from 132 000 to 176 000 t yr-1 and from 45 000 to 70 000 t yr-1, respectively, in the two regions. Isoprene emission fluxes have increased substantially in many areas of the TNRSF over the last 3 decades due to the growing trees and vegetation coverage, especially in the central north China region where the highest emission incline reached to 58 % from 1982 to 2010. Biogenic isoprene emissions produced from anthropogenic forests tended to surpass those produced from natural forests, such as boreal forests in northeastern China. The estimated isoprene emissions suggest that the TNRSF has altered the long-term emission trend in north China from a decreasing trend during 1982 to 2010 (slope = -0.533, R2 = 0.05) to an increasing trend for the same period of time (slope = 0.347, R2 = 0.014), providing strong evidence for the change in the emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) induced by the human activities on decadal or longer timescales.

  16. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities. PMID:27452616

  17. Drying soil in North China drove the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth by facilitating long-distance migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao; Jiang, Yuying; Kang, Aiguo; Zhai, Baoping

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the mechanism underlying the range expansion of organisms have mainly focused on environmental conditions at the edges of species’ distributions, potentially ignoring other possible factors. Here, we demonstrated the outbreak range expansion of meadow moth from North China to Northeast China in the past three outbreak periods. We found that the negligible infestation in Northeast China in the 1950s could not be explained by local climatic conditions. However, the soil moisture in North China decreased distinctly from 1951 to 2011 and was significantly and positively correlated with the timing of the first adult peak on plateaus, meaning that the deterioration of habitat conditions could result in earlier peaks of adults in areas of high-elevation by stimulating the short-distance dispersal of adults from the plains to the plateaus. Adults peaking earlier have a stronger tendency to emigrate due to mismatched phenology. Hence, drying soil in North China caused the frequent long-distance migration of meadow moth after the 1970s and drove the outbreak range expansion. This study suggests that, for a migratory species, the deterioration of habitat conditions in overwintering areas might also influence the distribution of this species in breeding areas at high latitudes by facilitating migration activities.

  18. [Ecological function evaluation and related management strategies of river ecosystem in Taizi River basin, North China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Shu-Qin; Meng, Wei

    2013-10-01

    By the method of index evaluation at reach scale, this paper evaluated the ecological functions of aquatic biodiversity maintenance, habitat maintenance, water quality sustainment, and hydrological support of the river system in Taizi River basin of North China. The dominant ecological functions and the total ecological function were determined after sorting and summing. All the reaches in the basin were divided into four hierarchies of ecological functions. Overall, the total ecological function showed a spatially degrading trend from the mountainous region to the plain. Based on the evaluation results of the total function and dominant functions, six ecosystem management strategies were proposed. For the reaches with the functions of aquatic biodiversity- and habitat maintenance, the primary ecological management strategies included ecological conservation, ecological maintenance, and ecological restoration; for the reaches with the functions of water quality sustainment and hydrological support, the primary strategies of ecological management included limited development, development optimization, and exploitation.

  19. Mid-lithosphere discontinuities beneath the western and central North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Weijia; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-02-01

    By analyzing P reflectivity extracted from stacked autocorrelograms for teleseismic events on a dense seismic profile, we obtain a detailed image of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD) beneath western and central North China Craton (NCC). This seismic daylight imaging exploits a broad high-frequency band (0.5-4 Hz) to reveal the fine-scale component of multi-scale lithospheric heterogeneity. The depth of the MLD beneath the western and central parts of the NCC ranges 80-120 km, with a good match to the transition to negative S velocity gradient with depth from Rayleigh wave tomography. The MLD inferred from seismic daylight imaging also has good correspondence with the transition from conductive to convective regimes estimated from heat flow data indicating likely thermal control within the seismological lithosphere.

  20. Influence of solar activity on the precipitation in the North-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Qian

    2017-02-01

    The time series of sunspot number and the precipitation in the north-central China (108° ∼ 115° E, 33° ∼ 41° N) over the past 500 years (1470-2002) are investigated, through periodicity analysis, cross wavelet transform and ensemble empirical mode decomposition analysis. The results are as follows: the solar activity periods are determined in the precipitation time series of weak statistical significance, but are found in decomposed components of the series with statistically significance; the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO) is determined to significantly exist in the time series, and its action on precipitation is opposite to the solar activity; the sun is inferred to act on precipitation in two ways, with one lagging the other by half of the solar activity period.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyls in fly ashes collected from five coal-fired power plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xu; Ma, Huiqiao; Fan, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The 5 coal fly ash samples (CFA) were systematically collected from 5 coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in North China for analysis of 86 PCB congeners. The predominant PCB congeners were PCB-6, -4/10, -28, -18, -19 and -16/32, which belonged to lighter molecular weight (LMW) congeners. The Σ86PCBs for 5 CFPPs ranged from 10.93 to 32.06 ng/g with the mean value as 16.01 ng/g. The PCBs in CFA were dominated by LMW-PCBs with 2-, 3- and 4-Cl PCBs contributed 34.80%, 39.18% and 9.21% to the Σ86PCBs. The TEQ concentrations for 5 CFPPs was 42.54 pg/g higher than 4 pg/g designed by Canada for soil quality, indicated the using of CFA as soil amendment should be cautioned.

  2. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li; Xia, Xiangao; Wang, Pucai; Fei, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCgrd) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCsat) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsatranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat - TCCgrdand visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrdover the NCP.

  3. Do aerosols impact ground observation of total cloud cover over the North China Plain?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L.; Xia, X.; Wang, P.; Fei, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Ground observation of the total cloud cover (TCC) showed a significant downward trend during the past half century over the North China Plain (NCP). The objective of this paper is to examine whether aerosols have impacted the surface observations of TCC by human observers. TCC observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard the Aqua (TCCsat) were firstly compared with ground observations (TCCgrd) at 201 synoptic stations over the NCP. Results showed that both data sets were in good agreement. The correlation coefficient between TCCgrd and TCCsat ranged from 0.80 in winter to 0.90 in summer. The relationship between TCCsat-TCCgrd and visibility was then analyzed, which showed no significant correlation. Finally, long-term trends of TCCgrd and visibility were not correlated. These results indicated that aerosols likely did not impact the long-term trend of TCCgrd over the NCP.

  4. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  5. Trace Gas Measurements made from Aircraft over North America and China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson, R. R.; Marufu, L. T.; Hains, J.; Taubman, B.; Stehr, J.; Li, Z.; Li, C.; Doddridge, B. G.

    2005-12-01

    Trace gases O3, CO, SO2, and aerosol optical properties were measured from a small research aircraft for ten summers over the Mid Atlantic region of the United States. The resultant profiles from the surface to about 3000 m altitude have been analyzed to show the role of long-range transport, boundary layer dynamics, convection, and emissions on concentrations and trends. Large, coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley dominate O3 and SO2 concentrations under anti-cyclonic flow, but the contribution from these electricity generating units appears to have decreased over the past three years and pollutant concentrations have fallen, even when interannual variations in meteorology are removed. The same small aircraft package was flown over NE China last spring, and results are contrasted with those from North America.

  6. Analysis and intervention plan of water resource supply and demand in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, Yuhang

    2017-04-01

    Firstly, this paper use Regression Analysis Prediction Method to analysis surface water, underground water and sewage treatment, so that we can predict the water supply capacity of North China in the next 15 years. After that, we test the trusting degree of this model to ensure the facticity by identifying the statistical significance of each data. Secondly, we adopt analytic hierarchy process (AHP method) to gain the factors mostly affecting sewage treatment capacity is the Chemical Oxygen Demand and ammoniac nitrogen content in sewage. So we can take measures to increase the amount of water supply in the region. Finally, we adjust the charging standard of living water and together with logistic regression, which can improve the water-saving awareness of local residents so as to effectively reduce the water consumption in the future.

  7. Anthropogenic plutonium in the North Jiangsu tidal flats of the Yellow Sea in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jian; Pan, Shaoming; Gao, Jianhua

    2013-08-01

    The (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were analyzed using a double-focusing SF-ICP-MS for sediment core samples obtained in 2007-2008 from the North Jiangsu tidal flats in the Yellow Sea in China. Particular attention was focused on the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The profiles of (239+240)Pu activities in the sediment cores are similar to those of the (137)Cs activities. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the tidal flats showed typical global fallout values, indicating that this area did not receive the possible early direct close-in fallout or oceanic current transported Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). If any, the contribution of the PPG source Pu to the total Pu inventory is negligible. This is different from the sediments in the Yangtze River estuary in the East China Sea, where the PPG source Pu contributed ca. 45 % to the total inventory. In addition, the observation of the global fallout origin Pu in the North Jiangsu tidal flats indicated that the nuclear power plant in the region was not causing any alterat