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Sample records for north-central sri lanka

  1. Neonicotinoid concentrations in urine from chronic kidney disease patients in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kabata, Risako; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, Stmld; Harada, Kouji H; Chandrajith, Rohana; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Abeysekera, Tilak; Takasuga, Takumi; Koizumi, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides have been widely used around the world since the 1990s. Reports have been made since the 1990s of rice paddy farmers in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka suffering from chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology (CKDu). A preliminary evaluation of the exposure of local farmers in the NCR of Sri Lanka to neonicotinoids was performed. We analyzed neonicotinoid and neonicotinoid metabolite concentrations in spot urine samples. We selected 40 samples, 10 from farmers with CKDu and 10 from controls from each of two areas, Medawachchiya and Girandurukotte. Imidacloprid and desmethyl-acetamiprid were found at significantly higher concentrations in the control samples (with medians of 51 ng/l and 340 ng/l, respectively) than in the CKDu samples (medians of 15 ng/l and 150 ng/l, respectively) when the results were not adjusted for the creatinine contents. None of the six compounds that were measured in the urine samples were found at significantly higher concentrations in the CKDu samples than in the control samples. None of the neonicotinoid concentrations in the samples analyzed in this study exceeded the concentrations that have been found in samples from the general population of Japan. Farmers (both with and without CKDu) living in CKDu-endemic areas in the NCR of Sri Lanka are exposed to lower neonicotinoid concentrations than non-occupationally exposed residents of Japan.

  2. Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of Sri Lanka covers the following: geography; people; history and political conditions; governent; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Sri Lanka and the US. The population of Sri Lanka totaled 16.3 million in 1985 with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. In 1984, the infant mortality rate was 31/1000 with life expectancy 68.9 years. Sri Lanka is a pear-shaped island in the Indian Ocean. It is southeast of India, from which it is separated at the closest point by only 29 kilometers. About 50% of the population live in the southwest quarter of the island, where agricultural conditions are most favorable. About 74% of the population are Sinhalese, and 18% are Tamil, people of South Indian origin. Minorities include the Muslims, 7% of the population; the Burghers, descendants of Dutch, Portuguese, and British colonists; Eurasians and Malays; and the Veddahs, the aborigines of the island. On February 4, 1948, Ceylon became a fully independent member of the British Commonwealth. The Sri Lankan electoral system, in effect since 1948, resulted in wide swings in composition of Parliament. The constitution that came into effect on September 7, 1978, changed the name of the country to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka. It vested executive power in a president to be elected directly by the people, legislative power in the Parliament and in the people by referendum, and judicial power in Parliament through the courts. Sri Lanka's most difficult domestic problem, inherited by the United National Party (UNP) from its predecessor governments, is posed by the grievances and aspirations of the minority Tamil community. Plantation agriculture continues to be important in Sri Lanka, and Sri Lanka is predominantly an agricultural and trading nation. Efforts are being made to expand the agricultural base and to diversity into light industryk tourism, and other nontraditional industries, with emphasis on the export sector. In 1985, Sri

  3. Geographical distribution of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin in North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, J M; Dissanayake, D M; Adhikari, S B; Bandara, P

    2013-03-01

    In early nineties investigators noticed an alarmingly high incidence of an apparently new form of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKD-U) in some parts of Sri Lanka. The aim of the study was to investigate the geographical distribution of CKD-U using GIS and GPS mapping. Community based information was collected from 11,630 patients for GIS mapping using ARC 9.2 software. Based on GIS mapping, two locations were selected for GPS mapping to locate the households of 863 CKD-U patients with reference to reservoirs, irrigation canals and the topography of the areas. GIS mapping indicated five high prevalence areas of CKD-U. Communities who consumed water from natural springs showed a low prevalence of the disease. GPS mapping showed that most of the affected villages were located below the reservoirs and canals with stagnant irrigated water. Epidemiological data on geographical distribution infers that while older foci of CKD-U are persisting, there is an emergence of new foci with time. The location of the affected villages below the level of the reservoirs/canals may indicate the possibility of draining of irrigated water to the shallow wells of the households, which is the source of drinking water.

  4. Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Palk Strait separates India (upper left) from Sri Lanka (center). This true-color image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on May 20, 2002, shows the strait filled with bright sediment, while off the northeast tip of Sri Lanka, a dark stain in the waters could be a phytoplankton bloom. On Sri Lanka, much of the native forests have been cleared, but small pockets remain in preserves, such as that seen in the southeastern portion of the island, where dense green vegetation can be seen.

  5. Fluoride in drinking water and diet: the causative factor of chronic kidney diseases in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, Ranjith W

    2015-07-01

    A significant number of people in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka suffer from chronic kidney diseases (CKD), and the author revisits existing literature related to CKD to find its causative factor. There is a direct connection between high fluoride levels in drinking water and kidney disease, and there are unhealthy levels of fluoride in the groundwater in Sri Lanka's CKD-affected areas. Based on the following observations, the author believes with confidence that excess fluoride in drinking water and in the locally grown food in the affected areas are the culprits of CKD in Sri Lanka. Fluoride excretion rate is considerably lower in children than adults, leading to renal damage of children living in areas with high fluoride. Adults who had renal damage due to fluoride in childhood are vulnerable to CKD with continued consumption of water from the same source. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency are at an increased risk of chronic fluoride toxicity. High content of fluoride in groundwater paves the way to excess fluoride in local food crops, consequently adding more fluoride to the systems of the consumers. People who work outdoors for prolonged periods consume excess water and tea, and are subjected to additional doses of fluoride in their system. In the mid-1980s, the increase in water table levels of the affected areas due to new irrigation projects paved the way to adding more fluorides to their system through drinking water and locally grown foods.

  6. A study of snake bite among children presenting to a paediatric ward in the main Teaching Hospital of North Central Province of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Snake bite is a common problem in the North Central province of Sri Lanka. Common krait (Bungarus careuleus), Ceylon krait (Bungarus ceylonicus), Cobra (Naja naja), Russell’s viper (Daboia russelii), Saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus) and Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) are the six species of venomous land snakes in Sri Lanka. A significant number of adults and children are bitten by snakes every year. However, the majority of research studies done in Sri Lanka and other countries show adults bitten by snakes and studies describing children bitten by snakes are very sparse. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was performed in the Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka from May 2010 to 2011 May to describe the characteristics associated with cases of snake bite. Results There were 24 males and 20 females. The highest numbers of bites (48%) were in the range of ages 6-12 years. The majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm to 6 am (59%).The foot was the most common bitten site (48%). Out of all the venomous bites, the Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number (44%) and Russell’s viper (Daboia ruselii) accounted for the second highest number (27%). A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoors while sleeping (22%). Antivenom serum was given to (39%) of venomous bites. Deaths occurred in (11%) of the venomous bites. Conclusions Hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) accounted for the highest number of venomous bites. Majority of the bites occurred between 6 pm and 6 am. Foot was the most common bitten site. A significant number of venomous bites occurred indoor while sleeping. Antivenom serum was given to a significant number of venomous bites. Educating the public on making their houses snake proof and using a torch when going out during night time will help in the prevention of getting bitten by snakes. PMID:25073710

  7. Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Sri Lanka has an area of 25,332 square miles and the terrain consists of coastal plains, with hills and mountains in the south central area. Population stands at 16.8 million with a growth rate of 1.6% and ethnic groups include Sinhalese 74%, Tamils 18%, Muslims 7%, and other 1%. The religions are Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. Languages include Sinhala, Tamil and English, and the literacy rate is 87%. 68.9 years is the average life expectancy and the infant mortality rate is 31/1000. The government is a republic with a president, parliament and a court system. The gross national product is $7.2 billion with a 2.7% growth rate and an inflation rate of 14%. Natural resources include limestone, graphite, mineral sands, gems, and phosphate. Agricultural products include tea, rubber, coconuts, rice, and spices. Industry consists of textiles and garments, chemicals and petroleum products, food processing, wood and wood products, basic metal products, paper and paper products. The British ejected the Dutch in 1796 and set up the crown colony of Ceylon. In 1931 the colony was allowed limited self rule, and in 1948 it became independent. It is a less developed country with a annual average per capita income of $430. In 1977 the government undertook reforms and eliminated price and foreign exchange controls, reduced consumer subsidies and promoted private sector development. The results showed a more than 5% growth rate during the decade and tourism and foreign investment increased. Recently the growth has slowed partly because of a communal conflict, a trade imbalance and serious structural imbalances.

  8. Whole-exome sequencing reveals genetic variants associated with chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in North Central Region, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-09-01

    The familial clustering observed in chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka strongly suggests the involvement of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study is to use whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic variants associated with CKDu. Whole-exome sequencing of eight CKDu cases and eight controls was performed, followed by direct sequencing of candidate loci in 301 CKDu cases and 276 controls. Association study revealed rs34970857 (c.658G > A/p.V220M) located in the KCNA10 gene encoding a voltage-gated K channel as the most promising SNP with the highest odds ratio of 1.74. Four rare variants were identified in gene encoding Laminin beta2 (LAMB2) which is known to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome. Three out of four variants in LAMB2 were novel variants found exclusively in cases. Genetic investigations provide strong evidence on the presence of genetic susceptibility for CKDu. Possibility of presence of several rare variants associated with CKDu in this population is also suggested.

  9. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  10. An integrative study of the genetic, social and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Gunarathne, E D L; Yan, Junxia; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Muso, Eri; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Watanabe, Takao; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology characterized by tubulointerstitial damages (CKDu) in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka have supported the involvement of social, environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. We conducted a social-environmental-and-genetic epidemiology study on a male population in NCR to investigate the genetic and environmental contributors. We recruited 311 case-series patients and 504 control candidates. Of the 504 control candidates, 218 (43%) were eliminated because of the presence of hypertension, proteinuria, high HbA1c, high serum creatinine or high alpha-1 microglobulin in urine. None of 18 metals measured (μg//) in urine, including Cd, As and Pb, showed significantly higher concentrations in cases compared with controls. As speciation results showed that 75-80% of total urinary As was in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic to humans. None of the metal concentrations in drinking water samples exceeded guideline values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to determine the genetic contributors. The GWAS yielded a genome-wide significant association with CKDu for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs6066043; p=5.23 × 10(-9) in quantitative trait locus analysis; p=3.73 × 10(-9) in dichotomous analysis) in SLC13A3 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter member 3). The population attributable fraction and odds ratio for this SNP were 50% and 2.13. Genetic susceptibility was identified as the major risk factor for CKDu. However, 43% of the apparently healthy male population suffers from non-communicable diseases, suggesting their possible influence on CKDu progression.

  11. Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease, with special emphasis on chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology, in the north central region of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Kithsiri Bandara; Dissanayake, Dhammika Menike; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Ranasinghe, Asanga; Karunarathna, Ranawaka Hewage; Priyantha Kumara, Gardiye Waligamage Gamini

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30-40 years; 7% in those aged 41-50 years, 20% in those aged 51-60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%. Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages.

  12. Epidemiology of Chronic Kidney Disease, With Special Emphasis on Chronic Kidney Disease of Uncertain Etiology, in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jayasekara, Kithsiri Bandara; Dissanayake, Dhammika Menike; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Ranasinghe, Asanga; Karunarathna, Ranawaka Hewage; Priyantha Kumara, Gardiye Waligamage Gamini

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to identify the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out by analyzing health statistics, and three cohort studies were conducted (n = 15 630, 3996, and 2809) to analyze the demographic information, age-specific prevalence, etiology, and stage of presentation. We screened 7604 individuals for chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology. Results The results showed that the male:female ratio was 2.4:1, the mean age of patients was 54.7 ± 8 years, 92% of the patients were farmers, and 93% consumed water from shallow dug wells. Familial occurrence was common (36%). The prevalence of chronic kidney disease in different age groups was 3% in those aged 30–40 years; 7% in those aged 41–50 years, 20% in those aged 51–60 years, and 29% in those older than 60 years. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology was diagnosed in 70.2% of patients, while 15.7% and 9.6% were due to hypertension and diabetic mellitus, respectively. The majority of patients were stage 4 (40%) at first presentation, while 31.8% were stage 3 and 24.5% were stage 5. Stage 1 and 2 presentation accounted for only 3.4%. Conclusions Low prevalence of CKDU was noticed (1.5%) among those who consumed water from natural springs. Prevalence was highest among males, rice farming communities, and those presenting at later disease stages. PMID:25787679

  13. Sri Lanka. Spotlight.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M N

    1985-01-01

    Sri Lanka, an island country off the southeastern coast of India, populated by an estimated 16.1 million inhabitants, was one of the 1st developing countries to adopt a population policy aimed at reducing population growth and redistributing the population more equitably throughout the country. Population density is high. There are 636 persons/square mile, and 2/3 of the population lives in the southwestern and central regions of the country. Government redistribution policies seek to increase internal migration flows to the drier and less populated areas. The country's birth rate was 27 in 1982, the death rate was 6 in 1981, and the infant mortality rate was 34.4 in 1980. The rate of natural increase in 1982 was 2.1%, and the population growth rate declined from 2.5% prior to 1970 to 1.7% in 1980. The total fertility rate declined between 1963-74 from 5.0-3.4 and then increased to 3.7 in recent years. Given the age structure of the population, the population is expected to continue growing at a high rate in the coming years; however, the age at marriage is increasing and the proportion of young married women in the population is declining, and these trends will have an impact on population growth. These trends are due in part to increased educational and employment opportunities for women. The delay in marriage may also be linked to the dowry system. Given the high rate of poverty, it is difficult for parents to accummulate sufficient resources to provide dowries for their daughters. Sri lanka's economy is predominantly agricultural, with only 15% of the gross national product derived from manufacturing. Approximately 22% of thepopulation lives in urban areas. In 1981 exports totaled US$1.1 billion, and major export items were tea and rubber. In the same year, imports totaled US$1.8 billion and consisted primarily of food, petroleum, and fertilizers. The per capita gross national product was US$320 in 1982. Sri Lanka receives considerable foreign aid, and the

  14. Sri Lanka, Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The topography of the island nation of Sri Lanka is well shown in this color-coded shaded relief map generated with digital elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM).

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    For this special view heights below 10 meters (33 feet) above sea level have been colored red. These low coastal elevations extend 5 to 10 km (3.1 to 6.2 mi) inland on Sri Lanka and are especially vulnerable to flooding associated with storm surges, rising sea level, or, as in the aftermath of the earthquake of December 26, 2004, tsunami. These so-called tidal waves have occurred numerous times in history and can be especially destructive, but with the advent of the near-global SRTM elevation data planners can better predict which areas are in the most danger and help develop mitigation plans in the event of particular flood events.

    Sri Lanka is shaped like a giant teardrop falling from the southern tip of the vast Indian subcontinent. It is separated from India by the 50km (31mi) wide Palk Strait, although there is a series of stepping-stone coral islets known as Adam's Bridge that almost form a land bridge between the two countries. The island is just 350km (217mi) long and only 180km (112mi) wide at its broadest, and is about the same size as Ireland, West Virginia or Tasmania.

    The southern half of the island is dominated by beautiful and rugged hill country, and includes Mt Pidurutalagala, the islandaE(TM)s highest point at 2524 meters (8281 ft). The entire northern half comprises a large plain extending from the edge of

  15. Intimate partner violence in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayatilleke, A C; Poudel, K C; Yasuoka, J; Jayatilleke, A U; Jimba, M

    2010-06-01

    To describe the current situation of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Sri Lanka, and to propose possible interventions to prevent IPV, we performed a literature survey for articles and reports on IPV in Sri Lanka. Our results suggested that prevalence of IPV is high (40%) in Sri Lanka. Most of the IPV studies were conducted in health care institutions and missed IPV victims who had not attended a health care institution. A common belief in Sri Lanka, even among medical students and police officers is that IPV is a personal matter that outsiders should not intervene. The laws against IPV identify the physical and psychological IPV, but not the sexual IPV. To improve this situation of IPV in Sri Lanka, we recommend IPV education programs for medical students and police officers, community awareness programs on IPV, and amending the laws to identify sexual IPV. We also recommend well designed community based research on IPV.

  16. Sri Lanka drops leading condom.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Sri Lanka's Family Planning Association has stopped selling its Preethi Regular condom, the backbone of its social marketing program for nearly a decade. Last year nearly 7 times as many Preethi condoms were sold as all other brands combined. The decision was reported to be caused by budget constraints following the International Planned Parenthood Federation's (IPPF) new policy of limiting the number of Preethi Regular condoms supplied to Sri Lanka. IPPF's Asian Regional Officer reported that the Preethi condom is a costly product, and that as many as needed of a US Agency for International Development (USAID) supplied product will be sent to Sri Lanka. The Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) program has devised a new sales strategy, based partly on the introduction of a high-priced condom to fill the gap left by the discontinuation of the Preethi Regular. The new Preethi Gold condom is expected to help the project become more financially self-reliant while taing advantage of Preethi's marketplace popularity. Preethi Gold is manufactured by the Malaysia Rubber Company and costs the project US $4.85/gross. It is sold for US $.14 for 3, about 3 times the price of a Preethi Regular. The project is also pushing the Panther condom, donated to IPPF by USAID. 2 Panther condoms sell for about 3.6U, about the cost of Preethi Regulars. The project also sells Moonbeam, Rough Rider, and Stimula condoms, the latter 2 at full commercial prices. A smooth transfer of demand from Preethi to Panther had been desired, but by the end of 1983 some retailers were hesitating to make the product switch because some Preethi Regulars were still available. Total condom sales in 1983 were down by nearly 590,000 from the approximately 6,860,000 sold in 1982. Total condom sales for the 1st quarter of 1984 were slightly over 1,218,000 pieces, compared to about 1,547,000 for the same quarter in 1983, a decline of 21%. The Family Planning Association is gearing up to reverse the downward trend

  17. Leprosy control in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dewapura, D R

    1994-01-01

    Even though health workers have treated all registered cases of leprosy in Sri Lanka with multiple drug therapy since 1982, it continues to be transmitted. The government has launched a social marketing and social mobilization campaign to reduce the incidence of leprosy. It has expanded the network of leprosy services. A national advertising program included mass media ads, posters, stickers on buses, and radio and television serials to create awareness of the early signs of leprosy and to reduce fear to leprosy. Health workers distributed leaflets and booklets to the general public and to new patients. The Anti-Leprosy Campaign of Sri Lanka organized 1-week health education programs for administrative officer, village leaders, religious leaders, teachers, and voluntary workers. Skin camps were set up to detect leprosy cases and to treat minor skin disorders. Teachers received flip charts on leprosy to help them teach colleagues and children about leprosy. All primary level staff, medical officers in hospital staff, and estate medical and paramedical staff have undergone special training on diagnosing leprosy and on reducing their fear of it. Almost every district has at least 1 leprosy control specialist. 2 leprosy control specialists work in those districts where leprosy is endemic Each district has a trained medical laboratory technician, who stains and interprets leprosy smears. In 1992, school, contact, and mass surveys have found 31, 149, and 225 new cases, respectively. Active case findings methods found 16.5% of new cases. 50% of new cases are self- reported, compared to less than 10% in 1989, suggesting increased awareness of early signs of leprosy and a reduced fear of it. 25 more clinics opened in 1991 to meet the demand for leprosy services.

  18. Sri Lanka: population: government incentives.

    PubMed

    Sri Lankans who undergo voluntary sterilization are now given financial assistance in the form of cash bonuses and additional leave privileges. The scheme, prepared by the Ministry of Plan Implementation, covers all employees in both the private and public sectors and a new aspect which promises to make the plan more effective entitles unemployed married persons to the same financial benefits. Employees will now be entitled to 7 days leave with full pay for a tubectomy and 3 days with full pay for a vasectomy. This is in addition to the normal leave privileges that employees already enjoy. Each person who undergoes a vasectomy or tubectomy receives an outright cash aid of Rs 100. The operation is entirely voluntary and no individual is coerced. The incentives system has been practiced in Sri Lanka for some time and both the private and public sectors have introduced their own individual schemes to discourage large families. There is no uniformity in benefits; however, 35 public corporations have their own programs to attract family planning acceptors. They offer payments ranging from Rs 25 to Rs 500 on a case-to-case basis. In 1974, 1 of the program's most successful years, 42,000 operations were performed. In 1978, the figure had dropped to only 20,000. This was due to the lack of surgeons, anesthetists, and clinical facilities as well as the exodus of doctors to the West.

  19. A new begomovirus-betasatellite complex is associated with chilli leaf curl disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, D M J B; Jayasinghe, J E A R M; Shilpi, S; Wasala, S K; Mandal, Bikash

    2013-02-01

    Leaf curl disease of chilli (LCDC) is a major constraint in production of chilli in the Indian subcontinent. The objective of this study was to identify the begomovirus species occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka, where the LCDC was initially recorded in 1938. The virus samples were collected from the North Central Province, the major chilli growing region in Sri Lanka with a history of epidemic prevalence of LCDC. The virus could be readily transmitted by Bemisia tabaci to chilli, tomato and tobacco, where vein clearing followed by leaf curl developed. The genome analysis of two isolates obtained from two distantly located fields showing 100 % LCDC, revealed that the DNA-A genome (2754 nucleotides) shared 89.5 % sequence identity with each other and 68.80-84.40 % sequence identity with the other begomoviruses occurring in the Indian subcontinent. The closest identity (84.40 %) of the virus isolates was with Tomato leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ToLCLKV). The results support that a new begomovirus species is affecting chilli in Sri Lanka and the name Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka virus (ChiLCSLV) is proposed. Recombination analysis indicated that ChiLCSLV was a recombinant virus potentially originated from the begomoviruses prevailing in southern India and Sri Lanka. The genome of betasatellite associated with the two isolates consisted of 1366 and 1371 nucleotides and shared 95.2 % sequence identity with each other and 41.50-73.70 % sequence identity with the other betasatellite species. The results suggest that a new begomovirus betasatellite, Chilli leaf curl Sri Lanka betasatellite is associated with LCDC in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates a new species of begomovirus and betasatellite complex is occurring in chilli in Sri Lanka and further shows that diverse begomovirus species are affecting chilli production in the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Cost of malaria control in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Konradsen, F.; Steele, P.; Perera, D.; van der Hoek, W.; Amerasinghe, P. H.; Amerasinghe, F. P.

    1999-01-01

    The study provides estimates of the cost of various malaria control measures in an area of North-Central Province of Sri Lanka where the disease is endemic. We assumed that each measure was equally effective. In these terms, impregnating privately purchased bednets with insecticide was estimated to cost Rs 48 (US(40.87) per individual protected per year, less than half the cost of spraying houses with residual insecticides. Larviciding of vector breeding sites and especially the elimination of breeding habitats by flushing streams through seasonal release of water from upstream reservoirs was estimated to be cheaper than other preventive measures (Rs 27 (US$ 0.49) and Rs 13 (US$ 0.24) per individual protected, respectively). Inclusion of both operational and capital costs of treatment indicates that the most cost-effective intervention for the government was a centrally located hospital with a relatively large catchment area (Rs 71 (US$ 1.29) per malaria case treated). Mobile clinics (Rs 153 (US$ 2.78) per malaria case treated) and a village treatment centre (Rs 112 (US$ 2.04)) per malaria case treated) were more expensive options for the government, but were considerably cheaper for households than the traditional hospital facilities. This information can guide health planners and government decision-makers in choosing the most appropriate combination of curative and preventive measures to control malaria. However, the option that is cheapest for the government may not be so for the householders, and further studies are needed to estimate the effectiveness of the various preventive measures. PMID:10327708

  1. Annotated checklist of millipedes (Myriapoda: Diplopoda) of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Zoysa, H K S De; Nguyen, Anh D; Wickramasinghe, S

    2016-01-11

    This review lists the currently known species of millepedes in Sri Lanka and discusses their current taxonomic status and distribution based on previous studies from 1865 to date. A total of 104 millipede species belonging to 44 genera, 18 families and nine orders have been recorded in Sri Lanka. Of these, 82 are known only from Sri Lanka; additionally, nine genera and one family are known only from Sri Lanka. Most of the millipede species have been recorded from two localities, namely Pundaluoya and Kandy in the central highlands of Sri Lanka. Current knowledge on the taxonomy, evolutionary relationships, distribution and conservation of the millipedes of Sri Lanka is still limited and scattered. Thus we suggest more intensive surveys to acquire comprehensive data on the millipedes of Sri Lanka.

  2. English Language Teaching Profile: Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    This profile of the English language teaching situation in Sri Lanka examines the role of English in society and in the educational system. English is described as a necessary but not official language; within the educational system, a conflict is noted between official policy and the desires of the population. The English language curriculum is…

  3. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  4. The Language Planning Situation in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coperahewa, Sandagomi

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines the language planning situation in Sri Lanka with particular emphasis on the planning of Sinhala as an official language of the country. It explores the historical, social, ideological and political processes, changes in language policy decisions, as well as the complexities of the language policy and planning situation in…

  5. Lyssavirus in Indian Flying Foxes, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardena, Panduka S.; Marston, Denise A.; Ellis, Richard J.; Wise, Emma L.; Karawita, Anjana C.; Breed, Andrew C.; McElhinney, Lorraine M.; Johnson, Nicholas; Banyard, Ashley C.

    2016-01-01

    A novel lyssavirus was isolated from brains of Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka. Phylogenetic analysis of complete virus genome sequences, and geographic location and host species, provides strong evidence that this virus is a putative new lyssavirus species, designated as Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus. PMID:27434858

  6. Analysis of rubber supply in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, M.J.; Nerlove, M.; Peters, R.K. Jr.

    1987-11-01

    An analysis of the supply response for perennial crops is undertaken for rubber in Sir Lanka, focusing on the uprooting-replanting decision and disaggregating the typical reduced-form supply response equation into several structural relationships. This approach is compared and contrasted with Dowling's analysis of supply response for rubber in Thailand, which is based upon a sophisticated reduced-form supply function developed by Wickens and Greenfield for Brazilian coffee. Because the uprooting-replanting decision is central to understanding rubber supply response in Sri Lanka and for other perennial crops where replanting activities dominate new planting, the standard approaches do not adequately capture supply response.

  7. Using Climate Information for Disaster Risk Identification in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, L.

    2004-12-01

    We have engaged in a concerted attempt to undertake research and apply earth science information for development in Sri Lanka, with a focus on climate sciences. Here, we provide details of an ongoing attempt to harness science for disaster identification as a prelude to informed disaster management. Natural disasters not only result in death and destruction but also undermine decades of development gains as highlighted by recent examples from Sri Lanka. First, in May 2003, flooding and landslides in the South-West led to 260 deaths, damage to 120,000 homes and destruction of schools, infrastructure and agricultural land. Second, on December 26, 2000, a cyclone in the North-Central region left 8 dead, 55,000 displaced, with severe damage to fishing, agriculture, infrastructure and cultural sites. Third, an extended island-wide drought in 2001 and 2002 resulted in a 2% drop in GDP. In the aftermath of these disasters, improved disaster management has been deemed to be urgent by the Government of Sri Lanka. In the past the primary policy response to disasters was to provide emergency relief. It is increasingly recognized that appropriate disaster risk management, including risk assessment, preventive measures to reduce losses and improved preparedness, can help reduce death, destruction and socio-economic disruption. The overwhelming majority of hazards in Sri Lanka - droughts, floods, cyclones and landslides -have hydro-meteorological antecedents. Little systematic advantage has, however, been taken of hydro-meteorological information and advances in climate prediction for disaster management. Disaster risks are created by the interaction between hazard events and vulnerabilities of communities, infrastructure and economically important activities. A comprehensive disaster risk management system encompasses risk identification, risk reduction and risk transfer. We undertook an identification of risks for Sri Lanka at fine scale with the support of the Global Disaster

  8. Integrating Observations of the Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    around Sri Lanka 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka Uwe Send and Matthias Lankhorst Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive, Mail Code 0230...time at two sites near Sri Lanka . OBJECTIVES Deploy and operate two seafloor instruments called PIES (pressure-sensing inverted echo sounders) in

  9. Sri Lanka: sterilization bonus announced in Sri Lanka; new CBD experiments in Sri Lanka; orchids and family planning.

    PubMed

    1980-01-01

    The government of Sri Lanka will give a minimum bonus of SRs 100 ($US6.00) to anyone voluntarily being sterilized. Women will be given 7 days leave and men 3. Many public and private corporations pay sterilization bonuses; the new bonus was set to compete with generous maternity benefits. The average daily wage is about SRs 120. Currently the demand for sterilization is greater than the health services' ability to meet it. Depo-provera is becoming increasingly popular in Sri Lanka, especially among the Muslim communities. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka is to test new forms of social marketing of contraceptives to provide wider coverage through community-based distribution. One system will use the route of a commercial firm, Reckitt and Coleman Ltd., and another system will use a network of provincial organizers, commission agents, and local retailers. To create an awareness in young people of their responsibility toward society the Family Planning Association organized an orchid cultivation and family planning propaganda project. 40 young boys are being taught orchid culture and the benefits of family planning. Orchids can be grown in the back yard without any capital investment. There is a steady market for the orchids, and the training program lasts 6 months for each cohort of boys.

  10. Abortion in Sri Lanka: the double standard.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2013-03-01

    In Sri Lanka, women do not have access to legal abortion except under life-saving circumstances. Clandestine abortion services are, however, available and quite accessible. Although safe specialist services are available to women who can afford them, others access services under unsafe and exploitative conditions. At the time of this writing, a draft bill that will legalize abortion in instances of rape, incest, and fetal abnormalities awaits approval, amid opposition. In this article, I explore the current push for legal reform as a solution to unsafe abortion. Although a welcome effort, this amendment alone will be insufficient to address the public health consequences of unsafe abortion in Sri Lanka because most women seek abortions for other reasons. Much broader legal and policy reform will be required.

  11. Big dams rise in little Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-05-26

    A team of international consultants, dam builders, tunnelers and workers are putting together a $2-billion, four-dam hydropower and irrigation development ot the Mahaweli River in Sri Lanka, India. The 30-year project is to be completed in 7 years and will harness the Mahaweli and its tributaries, initially for irrigation 350,000 acres and developing over 400 Mw of electrical capacity.

  12. Forecasts of Agricultural Drought in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    As the most frequent natural disaster in Sri Lanka, drought greatly affects crop production and livelihoods. Over half of all agricultural crop damage in Sri Lanka is currently due to drought; the frequency and severity of drought in the country is only expected to increase with the changing climate. Previous work indicates that the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) are capable of capturing agricultural drought patterns (between 1881-2010) in the island nation. In this work, PDSI and SPI from 13 long-term meteorological stations will be projected into the future using a combination of artificial neural network and autoregressive integrated moving average models. The impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (such as the Niño 3.4 index, a measure of sea surface temperature) and lead times on projection accuracy will also be explored. Model projections will be compared to weather data since 2010 to determine if the 2014 drought could have been forecasted using these methods. Since agricultural systems are strongly influenced by both natural and human systems, it is important to frame these physical findings within a social context. This work is part of an interdisciplinary project that assesses the perceptions of and adaptations to drought by rice farmers in Sri Lanka; disciplines represented in the group include hydrology, social psychology, ethnography, policy, and behavioral economics. Insights from the diverse research perspectives within the group will be drawn upon to highlight the social implications of the physical results.

  13. Mission from Anti-Terrorism to Peace in Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-24

    government of Sri Lanka, and the lessons learned from the termination of the Angolan, Nicaragua or El Salvador civil wars should be studied on how...Menace Challenging Democracies”, Daly News, Sri Lanka, 16 November 2007, 9. 23 Rohan Gunaratna, Terrorism in the Asia- Pacific, Threat and Response

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts in nature. Nothing is known of the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from Sri Lanka. Serum samples from 86 cats from Colombo, Sri Lanka were tested f...

  15. Etiological agents causing leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: A review.

    PubMed

    Naotunna, Chamidri; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala

    2016-04-01

    To systematically review the etiological agent causing human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. Published articles on leptospirosis and Leptospira in Sri Lanka were all reviewed to determine serovar, strain and species level identification of Leptospira. After screening process, 74 full text articles/reports were reviewed and among of them, 12 published papers describing isolation of Leptospira from Sri Lankan patients/animals, 5 molecular epidemiology papers on newer typing methods citing Sri Lanka isolates, with a descriptions of the isolates and 6 published papers reporting PCR based species level identification were identified. Published literature showed that more than 40 strains classified under at least 20 serovars and 10 serogroups have been isolated from Sri Lanka. These isolates belong to four species, namely, Leptospira interrogans, Leptospira kirschneri, Leptospira borgpetersenii, and Leptospira santarosai. In addition, recent studies on direct patient samples without culture and isolation showed Leptospira from Leptospira weilli is also circulating in Sri Lanka. Multi locus sequence typing showed 13 genotypes of Leptospira from Sri Lankan isolates. This review shows the diversity of Leptospira in Sri Lanka, but culture isolation data has not been published in Sri Lanka during last 30 years. Copyright © 2016 Hainan Medical College. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The University System of Sri Lanka. Vision and Reality. ICES Sri Lanka Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Silva, K. M., Ed.; Peiris, G. H., Ed.

    This book reviews the history of university education in Sri Lanka, paying special attention to the University of Peradeniya, originally the University of Ceylon. The book focuses on how an institution of higher learning, modeled initially on the older universities of Britain, has been influenced by the challenges and constraints of continuing…

  17. Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace…

  18. Sri Lanka: In Peace or in Pieces? A Critical Approach to Peace Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardozo, Mieke T. A. Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the "two faces of education" through a critical analysis of peace education in Sri Lanka. It aims to contribute to the wider debate on the complex role of education in situations of conflict. The article starts with an overview of what peace education is, or should be. This leads to the conclusion that peace…

  19. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka and formation of the Sri Lanka Dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, S.; De Vos, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sri Lanka, a relatively large island (length 440 km; width 225 km), occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. This allows for the Island to interact with the seasonally reversing monsoon currents leading to the the island mass effect and enhanced primary production. We will present elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 4 years to examine the inter-annual, seasonal and shorter term (~10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system, between the equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast (see Figure). During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast resulting from southward flow converging along the south coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water(see Figure). Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and

  20. Recent disasters in Sri Lanka: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka has faced several disasters in the recent past, both manmade and natural. The mental health and psychosocial consequences have been felt at the individual, family, and collective levels. Individuals developed normal distress, posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or alcohol abuse. There were changes in family and social processes causing a tearing of the social fabric, lack of social cohesion, disconnection, mistrust, hopelessness, dependency, lack of motivation, powerlessness, and despondency. Because of the widespread nature of mental health needs, a community approach would reach the most number of people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fossilized diatoms in meteorites from recent falls in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Wallis, Jamie; Wickramarathne, Keerthi; Samaranayake, Anil; Williams, George; Jerman, Gregory; Wallis, D. H.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-09-01

    On December 29, 2012, a bright yellow and green fireball was observed to disintegrate over the Polonnaruwa District of North Central, Sri Lanka. Many low density, black stones were recovered soon after the observed fall from rice paddy fields near the villages of Aralaganwila and Dimbulagala. These stones were initially studied by optical microscopy methods at the Medical Research Institute in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Soon thereafter, samples were sent to the UK and to the United States. More extensive Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were then carried out at Cardiff University and the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center. The physico-chemical properties, elemental abundances, mineralogy and stable isotope data clearly indicate that these stones are non-terrestrial. Freshly fractured interior surfaces of the black stones have also been observed to contain the remains of fossilized diatom. Many of the diatom frustules are clearly embedded in the meteorite rock matrix and exhibit nitrogen levels below the EDX detection limits. Some of the fossil diatoms are araphid marine pennates and planktonic forms that are inconsistent with conditions associated with rice paddy fields. These observations indicate the fossilized diatoms are indigenous to the meteorites rather than post-arrival biological contaminants. The carbon content and mineralogy suggests that these stones may represent a previously ungrouped clan of carbonaceous meteorites. The extremely low density (~0.6) of the stones and their observed mineralogy was inconsistent with known terrestrial rocks (e.g., pumice, diatomite and fulgurites). The minerals detected suggest that the parent body of the Polonnaruwa stones may have been the nucleus of a comet. These observations are interpreted as supporting the Hoyle-Wickramasinghe Panspermia hypothesis and the hypothesis that diatoms and other microorganisms might be capable of living and growing in water ice and brines in comets.

  2. Estimation of global radiation for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, T.D.M.A. )

    1991-01-01

    There are several formulae that relate global radiation to other climatological parameters such as sunshine hours, relative humidity, maximum temperature, and average temperature. In this paper a generally accepted modified form of the formula first introduced by Angstrom is used. It relates global radiation to hours of sunshine that have been measured for several years in many of the meteorological stations in Sri Lanka. The annual average of the ratio of the hours of sunshine to the length of the day, i.e., annual average of (S/Z), is found to vary considerably and to lie in the range 0.42-0.66. Fre're et al., have found, using data from many parts of the world, a general graphical representation for the variation of a and b with annual average (S/Z) lying in the range 0.28 to 0.75. This variation of a and b can be expressed as quadratic functions are modified and used to determine a and b values for stations in Sri Lanka.

  3. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Arambewela, L S R; Arawwawala, L D A M; Kumaratunga, K G; Dissanayake, D S; Ratnasooriya, W D; Kumarasingha, S P

    2011-07-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka.

  4. Investigations on Piper betle grown in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Arambewela, L. S. R.; Arawwawala, L. D. A. M.; Kumaratunga, K. G; Dissanayake, D. S; Ratnasooriya, W. D.; Kumarasingha, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Piper betle is an economically important plant cultivated in Sri Lanka. Although more than 12 cultivars of betel are reported in Sri Lanka, very few scientific investigations have been carried out on them. Studies on the chemical constituents indicated that safrole is the major constituent, followed by chavibitol acetate, in the essential oil of common betel leaves of Sri Lanka. Investigations on the bioactivities of P. betle revealed the presence of antimicrobial, insecticidal, antioxidant, antinociceptive, antidiabetic and gastroprotective activities. In addition, P. betle was found to be safe in terms of hepatotoxicity, renotoxicity, hematotoxicity, gross morphology, weights of organs, stress or aversive behaviors in rats. The above findings indicate the vast potential of P. betle yet to be harnessed for the benefit of mankind and the betel industry of Sri Lanka. PMID:22279373

  5. Host susceptibility of the papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, R H; Herath, H M

    1981-01-01

    75 plant species from 11 families were tested in Sri Lanka for their susceptibility to transferring the papaya mosaic virus. After inoculation with this virus, six species, Cucurbita pepo, Cucumis sativus, Nicotiana tabacum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Gomphrena globosa and Lycopersicum esculentum, developed such symptoms, and after re-isolation from the host plant the virus again infected papaya plants. Thus these species are possible alternate hosts of papaya mosaic virus in Sri Lanka.

  6. Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) wind resource group identifies the wind characteristics and distribution of the wind resource in Sri Lanka and the Maldives. The detailed wind resource maps and other information contained in the atlas facilitate the identification of prospective areas for use of wind energy technologies, both for utility-scale power generation and off-grid wind energy applications.

  7. A profile of biomass stove use in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Elledge, Myles F; Phillips, Michael J; Thornburg, Vanessa E; Everett, Kibri H; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-04-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of human rabies viruses in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takashi; Ahmed, Kamruddin; Karunanayake, Dushantha; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Kobayashi, Yuji; Nishizono, Akira

    2013-08-01

    Rabies is a lethal zoonotic disease caused by the rabies virus, which is transmitted by rabid animals to humans. Rabies is prevalent in all continents, with over 60% of human deaths occurring in Asia. Sri Lanka is a rabies-endemic country. This study shows that rabies afflicted more older individuals than children in Sri Lanka between 2008 and 2010. This novel finding indicates that older people in Sri Lanka should be more aware of the risk of rabies. Phylogenetic analyses of the rabies N and G genes showed that the Sri Lankan rabies viruses are distinct and probably originated from a single clone. The G-L noncoding region is highly diverse, and is suitable for the analysis of virus evolution within a country. A phylogenetic analysis of this region showed high diversity in the currently circulating Sri Lankan rabies viruses, which can be divided into seven clades. Some clades are unique to a specific geographic region, whereas others occur at multiple locations. This indicates that the movement of dogs, the main rabies-transmitting animal in Sri Lanka, is restricted in some areas but less limited in others. These data may help to formulate a more efficient rabies control program in Sri Lanka.

  9. A Profile of Biomass Stove Use in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Elledge, Myles F.; Phillips, Michael J.; Thornburg, Vanessa E.; Everett, Kibri H.; Nandasena, Sumal

    2012-01-01

    A large body of evidence has confirmed that the indoor air pollution (IAP) from biomass fuel use is a major cause of premature deaths, and acute and chronic diseases. Over 78% of Sri Lankans use biomass fuel for cooking, the major source of IAP in developing countries. We conducted a review of the available literature and data sources to profile biomass fuel use in Sri Lanka. We also produced two maps (population density and biomass use; and cooking fuel sources by district) to illustrate the problem in a geographical context. The biomass use in Sri Lanka is limited to wood while coal, charcoal, and cow dung are not used. Government data sources indicate poor residents in rural areas are more likely to use biomass fuel. Respiratory diseases, which may have been caused by cooking emissions, are one of the leading causes of hospitalizations and death. The World Health Organization estimated that the number of deaths attributable to IAP in Sri Lanka in 2004 was 4300. Small scale studies have been conducted in-country in an attempt to associate biomass fuel use with cataracts, low birth weight, respiratory diseases and lung cancer. However, the IAP issue has not been broadly researched and is not prominent in Sri Lankan public health policies and programs to date. Our profile of Sri Lanka calls for further analytical studies and new innovative initiatives to inform public health policy, advocacy and program interventions to address the IAP problem of Sri Lanka. PMID:22690185

  10. Art Therapy with Child Tsunami Survivors in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcote, Rebekah L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details art therapy with children affected by the December 2004 tsunami in Sri Lanka. Over 30,000 Sri Lankans lost their lives when the tsunami decimated coastal areas. The child survivors witnessed horrific traumatic events and the loss of loved ones, but had not been given opportunity to express their grief and pain. A 4-week art…

  11. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, E. A. R. I. E.; Perera, P. A. J.; Sivakanesan, R.; Abeysekara, T.; Nugegoda, D. B.; Jayaweera, J. A. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05) likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka. PMID:26060363

  12. Dehydration and malaria augment the risk of developing chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Siriwardhana, E A R I E; Perera, P A J; Sivakanesan, R; Abeysekara, T; Nugegoda, D B; Jayaweera, J A A S

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology (CKDu) is a serious health issue in Sri Lanka. One-to-one age and sex-matched two sample comparative study was carried out in the Medawachchiya divisional secretariat area of the North Central Province (NCP) of Sri Lanka, by randomly selecting 100 CKDu patients and 100 age and sex-matched subjects from non-CKDu affected families from the same area. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for the collection of data pertaining to occupation, medical history and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using a conditional linear logistic model. Working for >6 h in the field per day, exposure to sun, drinking water only from well, consumption of <3 L of water per day, and having a history of malaria were found to be having significant (P < 0.05) likelihood toward the development of CKDu. Treatment of water prior to consumption had a significant protective effect against CKDu. Dehydration, history of malaria and drinking untreated well water from are likely contribute to the development of CKD of unknown etiology among the inhabitants of NCP, Sri Lanka.

  13. 77 FR 16670 - Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Part 126 RIN 1400-AD10 Amendment to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations: Sri Lanka AGENCY... Traffic in Arms Regulations to add another exception to the license denial policy toward Sri Lanka. This change allows for exports to Sri Lanka for assistance for aerial and maritime surveillance....

  14. Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the background of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and its current status, and brings to light various cultural dimensions that serve to call attention to the issue of sexual abuse of children in Sri Lanka. Elucidates the main issues and barriers in Sri Lanka that need to be surmounted in order to have integrated service delivery.…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the background of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and its current status, and brings to light various cultural dimensions that serve to call attention to the issue of sexual abuse of children in Sri Lanka. Elucidates the main issues and barriers in Sri Lanka that need to be surmounted in order to have integrated service delivery.…

  16. Child Abuse in Northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sathiadas, M G; Mayoorathy, S; Varuni, K; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri

    2017-02-01

    To identify areas of deficiencies and gaps in child protection services in Northern Sri Lanka. Also, to help in recommending strategies, programmes of interventions for addressing issues of child abuse and advice the legal system. A retrospective study was done to determine the socio-demographic details, type of abuse, clinical profile, relationship of the perpetrator and nature of abuse among children admitted to a tertiary care centre from 2009 through 2014, a period after cessation of a 60-y conflict. Data were obtained from hospital based records and records maintained at the district probation office. Seven hundred twenty cases were referred to the tertiary care centre with abuse. Majority of the children were from the Jaffna district, the northern city of the war affected area and mean age of the children affected was 14.5 ± 2.6 y. Females were affected more than the males and 352 children were seen following sexual abuse. The clinical examination showed penetrative injury in 15 %. The perpetrator was known in 70 % of the situations and the victim was coerced into a relationship for abuse. Attempted suicide was seen in significant numbers during the immediate post war period and school dropout and delinquent behaviour was seen in later years. The problem of child abuse is considerable in this region and there is an urgent need to strengthen the services offered to the victims. Urgent steps are needed to safeguard these children, especially in the war affected areas.

  17. 77 FR 59899 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013... Trade Mission to Chennai and Cochin, India and Colombo, Sri Lanka February 3-8, 2013, to add the..., August 14, 2012, regarding the U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai...

  18. Chronic kidney diseases of uncertain etiology (CKDue) in Sri Lanka: geographic distribution and environmental implications.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Itai, Kozuyoshi; Aturaliya, T N C; Dissanayake, C B; Abeysekera, Thilak; Harada, Kouji; Watanabe, Takao; Koizumi, Akio

    2011-06-01

    The increase in the number of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients from the north central region of Sri Lanka has become a environmental health issue of national concern. Unlike in other countries where long-standing diabetes and hypertension are the leading causes of renal diseases, the majority of CKD patients from this part of Sri Lanka do not show any identifiable cause. As the disease is restricted to a remarkably specific geographical terrain, particularly in the north central dry zone of the country, multidisciplinary in-depth research studies are required to identify possible etiologies and risk factors. During this study, population screening in the prevalent region and outside the region, analysis of geoenvironmental and biochemical samples were carried out. Population screening that was carried out using a multistage sampling technique indicated that the point prevalence of CKD with uncertain etiology is about 2-3% among those above 18 years of age. Drinking water collected from high-prevalent and non-endemic regions was analyzed for their trace and ultratrace element contents, including the nephrotoxic heavy metals Cd and U using ICP-MS. The results indicate that the affected regions contain moderate to high levels of fluoride. The Cd contents in drinking water, rice from affected regions and urine from symptomatic and non-symptomatic patients were much lower indicating that Cd is not a contributing factor for CKD with uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka. Although no single geochemical parameter could be clearly and directly related to the CKD etiology on the basis of the elements determined during this study, it is very likely that the unique hydrogeochemistry of the drinking water is closely associated with the incidence of the disease. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

  19. Ethnic differences in contraceptive use in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Murty, K R; De Vos, S

    1984-01-01

    In Sri Lanka in 1975, the majority Sinhalese had a much higher use of contraception than either the Sri Lanka Tamils or the Moors. This study uses a national sample of women of childbearing age gathered by the Sri Lanka World Fertility Survey in 1975 to assess four possible reasons for differential contraceptive use: (1) differences in socioeconomic position; (2) cultural differences; (3) minority status; and (4) differential access to family planning services. The first three explanations focus on differences in the demand for contraception while the fourth explanation focuses on differences in the availability of contraceptives. The socioeconomic, cultural, and minority status hypotheses fail to explain the higher contraceptive use among the Sinhalese. The evidence is consistent with the idea that ethnic differences in contraceptive use were largely caused by differential access to family planning services.

  20. The Asian Tsunami in Sri Lanka: A Personal Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Chris

    2005-01-01

    AGU Fellow Chris Chapman experienced the devastating Asian tsunami firsthand in Sri Lanka. The following is his account, written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster; the footnotes were added later. Chapman is a scientific advisor at Schlumberger Cambridge Research and a specialist in theoretical seismology. At 9:30 A.M. local time (0330 GMT) on Boxing Day, 26 December, my wife, Lillian, and I were eating breakfast at the beachside Triton Hotel1 in Ahungalla, Sri Lanka (about 30 km north of Galle). The previous week we had toured Sri Lanka, ending our trip traveling through Yala National Park and Galle. These were places we hardly knew of before, but now images of them are indelibly imprinted on the world. Of about 150 staying at the Yala Safari Game Lodge, only 11 survived. The center of Galle, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, a sixteenth- to seventeenth-century Portuguese/Dutchfort and port, is essentially gone.

  1. Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.; Vilhauer, R.

    2003-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), has been working in partnership with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) in an on-going process to quantify the Sri Lanka wind energy potential and foster wind energy development. Work to date includes completion of the NREL wind atlas for Sri Lanka. In addition, the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB) has conducted a wind resource assessment of several areas of the country and has successfully completed and is currently operating a 3-MW pilot wind project. A review of the work completed to date indicates that additional activities are necessary to provide Sri Lanka with the tools necessary to identify the best wind energy development opportunities. In addition, there is a need to identify key policy, regulatory, business and infrastructure issues that affect wind energy development and to recommend steps to encourage and support wind power development and investment.

  2. Environmental impact assessment in Sri Lanka: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, J.W.

    1995-12-01

    The paper reports on progress by the Government of Sri Lanka in the implementation of a formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) requirement. The authors have recently conducted several activities in Sri Lanka intended to improve the analytical quality of EIA documents and the utility of the EIA process in government decisionmaking, with particular attention to the use of programmatic or sectoral EIAs. The U.S. Agency for International Development established a 5-year project, the Natural Resources and Environmental Policy Project (NAREPP), to provide training and technical assistance in EIA and related disiplines for the Central Environmental Authority (CEA), several other Sri Lanka government agencies, and the private sector. This activity has involved efforts to expand the technical expertise within Sri Lanka for conducting EIA, which include developing EIA courses and materials in cooperation with several universities and conducting intensive training programs for both government and private-sector environmental professionals. This EIA will focus on the selection of government-approved industrial estates throughout the country, on which most new industrial development projects are to be located. Further training programs in the use of current analytical methodologies for EIA were also developed and conducted. The effectiveness of these activities can be assessed by evaluating changes in the content and quality of subsequent EIA documents and in the extent to which such documents affect environmental decisionmaking in Sri Lanka. The authors discuss the role of the programmatic EIA in the industrial development program of Sri Lanka, remaining constraints on the EIA process, and recommendations for further improvement.

  3. Self, other, and astrology: esoteric therapy in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perinbanayagam, R S

    1981-02-01

    HARRY STACK SULLIVAN'S argument that anxiety as a fundamental human experience is alleviated by the use of various procedures that he called "security operations" is used in this paper to examine the meaning of astrology in Sri Lanka. Astrology and the doctrine of karma provide the relevant framework in which various forms of misfortune are understood and handled. An examination of cases in Sri Lanka reveals that astrology and the doctrine of karma enable a person of that culture to create a number of structures which have a therapeutic effect.

  4. The first intermediate host of Paragonimus westermani in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, Moritoshi; Rajapakse, R P V Jayanthe; Yatawara, Lalani; Kano, Shigeyuki; Agatsuma, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    Freshwater snails (family Paludomidae, genus Paludomus) were collected from streams in Hedeniya and Peradeniya (the campus of Peradeniya University), Kandy district, Central Province, Sri Lanka, and found to harbor rediae and cercariae of a Paragonimus sp. These larvae were identified as Paragonimus westermani by using ITS2 DNA sequences. The infection rates of P. westermani in Paludomus sp. in Hedeniya and Peradeniya were 0.1% (one of 1014) and 0.2% (two of 1006), respectively. The snail has not been identified to species in the present study. This is the first report of the snail host of Paragonimus in Sri Lanka.

  5. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2014-10-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean, with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side, and experiences bi-annually reversing monsoon winds. Aggregations of blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) have been observed along the southern coast of Sri Lanka during the northeast (NE) monsoon, when satellite imagery indicates lower productivity in the surface waters. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and numerical simulations using the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). The model was run for 3 years to examine the seasonal and shorter-term (~10 days) variability. The results reproduced correctly the reversing current system, between the Equator and Sri Lanka, in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv (mean over 2010-2012) and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.6 Sv during the NE monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the southern coast. During the SW monsoon, the island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward, whilst along the eastern coast, the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the southern coast, resulting from southward flow converging along the southern coast and subsequent divergence associated with the offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the

  6. Neurorehabilitation in Sri Lanka: an emerging sub-specialty for neurology trainees.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, Tissa

    2012-02-01

    Sri Lanka has an ageing population with an impending epidemic of stroke at hand. Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka has seen many recent advances in stroke services in the recent past providing a benchmark example for the countries in the Asia Pacific region, modeling the best care for stroke patients across the region with limited facilities they have. Three postgraduate trainees in neurology and medicine from Sri Lanka will spend a year at Western Health/ University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia for a period of 12 months for training in neurorehabilitation for stroke. It is timely for neurology trainees and trainees in internal medicine in Sri Lanka to be interested in neurorehabilitation. We sincerely hope the Board of study of Neurology, Post Graduate Institute of Medicine, Colombo, Sri Lanka will take the necessary steps to establish neurorehabilitation as an emerging sub-specialty for neurology trainees in Sri Lanka now.

  7. Belize and Sri Lanka: Language Planning in Multilingual States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson-Smith, Elizabeth

    1990-01-01

    The means by which Sri Lanka and Belize--two former British colonies differing greatly in economic development and resources--implement a language planning policy are discussed. Attention is given to educational systems, materials development, teacher training, and student attitudes toward English--four major issues in language planning currently…

  8. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  9. Zirconolites from Sri Lanka, South Africa and Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, R.C.; Haaker, R.F.; Headley, T.J.; Hlava, P.F.

    1981-01-01

    Zirconolites, CaZrTi/sub 2/O/sub 7/, from Sri Lanka and Pala Bora, South Africa, and a calzirtite, CaZr/sub 3/TiO/sub 9/, from Jacupiranga, Brazil, were examined using the electron microprobe, x-ray diffraction (annealing study), transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The x-ray data indicate that all three zirconolites are metamict. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites are amorphous to the limits of resolution of the electron microscope (approx. 10 A). The Pala Bora zirconolite is largely amorphous but contains isolated domains (50 to 200 A) of crystalline material which may be the result of post-metamict recrystallization and alteration. The only other significant evidence for chemical alteration was the lower ThO/sub 2/ concentration (1 to 2 weight percent) and slightly lower analytic totals for the rims of the Sri Lanka zirconolites. Upon annealing at 1130/sup 0/C for 5 hours, all three zirconolites recrystallized as microcrystalline aggregates. Refined unit cell parameters and volumes are consistent with published data for synthetic zirconolites. Both Sri Lanka zirconolites contain microvoids, spherical in shape, and 200 Angstroms to 2 microns in size. This porosity may be the result of helium accumulation arising from the decay of U and Th. The calzirtite was highly crystalline, exhibited no porosity, and was unchanged by the annealing treatment.

  10. Road rage in Sri Lanka: prevalence and psychiatric distress.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, A; Perera, D; Eranga, V P; Peris, M U; Pathmeswaran, A

    2015-09-01

    Road traffic accidents are a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Aggressive and reckless driving is an important contributor to the high rate of road traffic accidents. We studied prevalence, nature, determinants and associated psychiatric morbidity of road rage among motorists in Sri Lanka. Methods Data were gathered from 238 randomly selected motorists in Sri Lanka using a modified questionnaire regarding road rage and the 6-item version of Kessler's psychological distress scale. While 98.7% participants reported being victims of road rage, 85.3% were involved in offending behaviour. However actual physical assault (0.8%) and damage to vehicles (2.5%) were rare. Male gender, young age, increased traffic density and driving a three-wheeler or bus were associated with daily road rage victimisation and perpetration. Psychiatric distress was associated with being a victim of road rage. High prevalence of road rage in Sri Lanka and significant psychiatric distress associated with it indicate the necessity of interventions at least for target groups.

  11. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  12. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  13. Learning Organization Dimensions of the Sri Lanka Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahanayake, Nishada Dhananjaya; Gamlath, Sharmila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study intends to investigate the extent to which the Sri Lanka Army can be described as a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach: The main tool of analysis used was the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) developed by Marsick and Watkins, with the exclusion of the sections on financial and…

  14. Feeding Hungry Minds: Grassroots Library Services in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corea, Ishvari

    1991-01-01

    Describes three specific programs developed in Sri Lanka to provide library services to urban and rural poor people. Providing reading material to children to help raise literacy levels is emphasized, resources required for these extension services are examined, and the responsibility for the administration of the projects is considered. (LRW)

  15. Practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Balachandra, A Thambirajah; Vadysinghe, Amal N; William, Anita L

    2011-02-01

    The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is based on the British model. Medical students during their third and fourth years receive approximately 50 hours of lectures and tutorials in forensic medicine and pathology and then undergo an examination. After completing an internship, these doctors are sent to various hospitals throughout Sri Lanka where they may be asked to perform medicolegal examinations on victims and suspects in rape cases, persons suspected of being under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, and, injured live patients. As well, they may be asked to perform medicolegal autopsies. Depending upon their experience, some medical officers may be designated as judicial medical officers and appointed full time to do medicolegal work. Up until 1980, judicial medical officers with at least 2 years of work experience were allowed to obtain their postgraduate qualifications in the United Kingdom. However, since 1981 and the establishment of its own Postgraduate Institute of Medicine in Colombo, Sri Lanka, medical officers are offered 2 postgraduate programs in forensic medicine and pathology, a diploma in legal medicine and a doctorate in medicine (forensic medicine). After completing the doctorate in forensic medicine, doctors are allowed to train abroad for a further year in an approved center. Upon return they can then be appointed as consultant judicial medical officers. The practice of forensic medicine and pathology in Sri Lanka is unique and vibrant. However, due to the country's prevailing civil war, the practice of forensic medicine and pathology is suboptimal.

  16. Misoprostol and the politics of abortion in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramya

    2012-12-01

    Misoprostol, a WHO essential medicine indicated for labour induction, management of miscarriage and post-partum haemorrhage, as well as for induced abortion and treatment of post-abortion complications, came up for registration in Sri Lanka in December 2010. The decision on registration was postponed, indefinitely. This has wide-ranging implications, as misoprostol is widely available and used, including by health professionals in Sri Lanka, without guidance or training in its use. This paper attempts to situate the failure to register misoprostol within the broader context of unsafe abortion, drawing on data from interviews with physicians and health policymakers in Sri Lanka. It demonstrates how personal opposition to abortion infiltrates policy decisions and prevents the issue of unsafe abortion being resolved. Any move to reform abortion law and policy in Sri Lanka will require a concerted effort, spearheaded by civil society. Women and communities affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion need to be involved in these efforts. Regardless of the law, women will access abortion services if they need them, and providers will provide them. Decriminalizing abortion and registering abortion medications will make provision of abortion services safer, less expensive and more equitable. Copyright © 2012 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bandara, N J G J

    2003-01-01

    The primary problems concerning water resources in Sri Lanka are the depletion and degradation of the resource caused by various anthropogenic activities. Surface inland waters in urban areas are polluted heavily with domestic sewage and industrial effluents, and in rural areas with agricultural runoff. With regard to ground water in certain areas of the dry zone, there is a high fluoride content and in hard, rocky, alluvial areas, there is a high concentration of iron. In urban over-crowded cities, there is biological contamination of ground water. Over-utilization, particularly through tube wells, is another major problem affecting ground water resources in Sri Lanka. Oil spills, dumping of waste from ships, coral and sand mining, and activities are the main causes of marine pollution in the country. Except for pipe-borne water supply, irrigation and hydropower schemes, in general water resources in Sri Lanka are managed very poorly. Regulations are available to control most water related problems but enforcement of these regulations is lacking. The ultimate result of degradation and depletion of water resources is the increasing health hazards. Water-borne and vector-borne diseases are prevalent, particularly amongst urban low-income communities with poor sanitary facilities and drainage. Despite government initiatives and legislation, very slow progress has been made towards combating water pollution. This paper examines the most significant water and wastewater related issues in Sri Lanka and their controlling mechanisms.

  18. An American Montessori Teacher's Experience in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Irene

    2006-01-01

    What can Montessorians learn from teaching in a war-torn country, and what can they hope to share with others in the process? These questions were much on the author's mind when she went to Sri Lanka in the summer of 2003. This article contains excerpts from e-mails the author sent home, chronicling her experience teaching two high school English…

  19. Microorganisms in the Coloured Rain of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaranayake, Anil; Wickramarathne, K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    2013-02-01

    A variety of pigmented microorganisms have been identified in the red, yellow, blue and black rain that fell over Sri Lanka in December 2012 and January 2013. There is tentative evidence for the presence of similar organisms, including diatoms, in meteorites falling over the same time period. These microorganisms are likely to have served as nuclei for the condensation of rain drops.

  20. Post-Graduate Peace Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarises the rationale, development, content, and delivery of a Post Graduate Diploma in Conflict Resolution and Peace Preparedness in Sri Lanka, a country that has experienced a violent and protracted social conflict over the last 25 years. It also describes the methodology which is being used to measure the peace impact of the…

  1. The Labour Market Experience of University Graduates in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasiri, Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Graduate unemployment has been a major socio-politico-economic problem in the small open economy of Sri Lanka for the past 35 years. The nature of the problem, causal factors and policy responses are examined in this paper with a special focus on the role of higher education within a highly competitive and knowledge-based economic environment. The…

  2. Mithuri users surveyed in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    The Family Planning Association (FPA) of Sri Lanka completed a survey of Mithuri (oral contraceptive) users to determine consumer characteristics. The survey addressed issues such as purchasing habits, user patterns, dealer consumer relationships, levels of consumer satisfaction and motivation, prevalence of side effects, degree and level of medical consultations, and attitudes toward mass media product advertising. A mail survey was used to conduct this quantitative research to reduce the cost of collecting the data. Mail surveys offer the advantage of being able to reach a large number of respondents at a very reasonable cost, but they also require an accurate list of respondents who are representative of the population to be examined. Of the 681 questionnaires delivered, 442 were completed and returned. The majority of those surveyed (86%) purchased Mithuri at pharmacies that are within 5 miles of their residence. 73.2% of the women asked their husbands to make the purchase, and 67.6% purchased 2 cycles at a time. Most respondents reported experiencing no side effects from Mithuri. The majority of the few who experienced side effects considered them to be very slight. 2.7% of the respondents reported becoming pregnant while using Mithuri, 11 of whom ascribed the pregnancy to their failure to take the pill regularly. Most respondents said that they never missed a day. Husbands or "Western" medical practitioners were most often cited as the motivators to use Mithuri. Of the 82% of the respondents who had read the Mithuri newspaper advertisements, 87% indicated they approved of mass media advertising about contraceptives, primarily because they felt that making such information available was an urgent matter. Although advertisements and package circulars urged 1st time users to consult a physician before using Mithuri, less than half the respondents reported consulting any medical person, nurses, and midwives included. They also reported that the dealer gave no

  3. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  4. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  5. The Asian Tsunami and Problem-Based Learning for Postgraduate Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayawardana, A. K. L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami struck Sri Lanka on December 26, 2004. Sri Lanka was the second worst affected country after Indonesia, and this natural disaster killed in excess of 35,000 people and displaced over 1 million. The article explores the Tsunami Disaster Management Program developed by one Sri Lankan university: the Postgraduate Institute of…

  6. Landmarks of History of Soil Science in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapa, R.

    2012-04-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical Island in the Southern tip of Indian subcontinent positioned at 50 55' to 90 50' N latitude and 790 42' to 810 53' E longitude surrounded by the Indian Ocean. It is an island 435 km in length and 224 km width consisting of a land are of 6.56 million ha with a population of 20 million. In area wise it is ranked as 118th in the world, where at present ranked as 47 in population wise and ranked 19th in population density. The country was under colonial rule under Portuguese, Dutch and British from 1505 to 1948. The majority of the people in the past and present earn their living from activities based on land, which indicates the important of the soil resource. The objective of this paper is to describe the landmarks of the history of Soil Science to highlight the achievements and failures, which is useful to enrich our present understanding of Sri Lankan soils. The landmarks of the history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka can be divided to three phases namely, the early period (prior to 1956), the middle period (1956 to 1972) and the present period (from 1972 onwards). During the early period, detailed analytical studies of coffee and tea soils were compiled, and these gave mainly information on up-country soils which led to fertilizer recommendations based on field trials. In addition, rice and forest soils were also studied in less detail. The first classification of Sri Lankan soils and a provisional soil map based on parent material was published by Joachim in 1945 which is a major landmark of history of Soil Science in Sri Lanka. In 1959 Ponnamperuma proposed a soil classification system for wetland rice soils. From 1963 to 1968 valuable information on the land resource was collected and documented by aerial resource surveys funded by Canada-Ceylon Colombo plan aid project. This covered 18 major river basins and about 1/4th of Sri Lanka, which resulted in producing excellent soil maps and information of the areas called the Kelani Aruvi Ara

  7. Surface circulation and upwelling patterns around Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, A.; Pattiaratchi, C. B.; Wijeratne, E. M. S.

    2013-09-01

    Sri Lanka occupies a unique location within the equatorial belt in the northern Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea on its western side and the Bay of Bengal on its eastern side. The region is characterised by bi-annually reversing monsoon winds resulting from seasonal differential heating and cooling of the continental land mass and the ocean. This study explored elements of the dynamics of the surface circulation and coastal upwelling in the waters around Sri Lanka using satellite imagery and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) configured to the study region and forced with ECMWF interim data. The model was run for 2 yr to examine the seasonal and shorter term (∼10 days) variability. The results confirmed the presence of the reversing current system in response to the changing wind field: the eastward flowing Southwest Monsoon Current (SMC) during the Southwest (SW) monsoon transporting 11.5 Sv and the westward flowing Northeast Monsoon Current (NMC) transporting 9.5 Sv during the Northeast (NE) monsoon, respectively. A recirculation feature located to the east of Sri Lanka during the SW monsoon, the Sri Lanka Dome, is shown to result from the interaction between the SMC and the Island of Sri Lanka. Along the eastern and western coasts, during both monsoon periods, flow is southward converging along the south coast. During the SW monsoon the Island deflects the eastward flowing SMC southward whilst along the east coast the southward flow results from the Sri Lanka Dome recirculation. The major upwelling region, during both monsoon periods, is located along the south coast and is shown to be due to flow convergence and divergence associated with offshore transport of water. Higher surface chlorophyll concentrations were observed during the SW monsoon. The location of the flow convergence and hence the upwelling centre was dependent on the relative strengths of wind driven flow along the east and west coasts: during the SW (NE) monsoon the flow along the

  8. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-22

    city of Colombo. On January 2, the government of President Mahinda Rajapaksa CRS-2 2 “Sri Lanka Ends Truce,” BBC News, January 2, 2008; [http...Govt Ouster,”Daily News (Colombo), August 31, 2007. 22 “Political Battles,” Frontline ( Chennai ), February 1, 2008. 23 See “Colonel’s Control,” Outlook...JVP Threatens to Bring Down Lanka Govt. Over LTTE Tsunami Deal,” Hindu ( Chennai ), April 20, 2005. 57 Press Trust of India, March 21, 2005. 58

  9. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    Crackdown,” Frontline ( Chennai ), January 4, 2008. 82 See, for example, Center for Policy Alternatives, “Policy Brief on Humanitarian Issues,” December...Monitoring South Asia, June 13, 2003. 109 “JVP Threatens to Bring Down Lanka Govt. Over LTTE Tsunami Deal,” Hindu ( Chennai ), April 20, 2005. 110 Press...Trust of India, March 21, 2005. 111 “Batticaloa LTTE Leader Killed,” Hindu ( Chennai ),February 7, 2005. Sri Lanka: Background and U.S. Relations

  10. Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (CD-ROM)

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, D.; Schwartz, M.; Scott, G.; Haymes, S.; Heimiller, D.; George, R.

    2003-08-01

    The Wind and Solar Resource Assessment of Sri Lanka and the Maldives CD contains an electronic version of Wind Energy Resource Atlas of Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TP-500-34518), Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and the Maldives (NREL/TO-710-34645), Sri Lanka Wind Farm Analysis and Site Selection Assistance (NREL/SR-500-34646), GIS Data Viewer (software and data files with a readme file), and Hourly Solar and Typical Meteorological Year Data with a readme file.

  11. Detection of rickettsioses and Q fever in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Munasinghe, Aruna; Yaddehige, Iranga; Liyanapathirana, Veranja; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Bregliano, Anne; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    Current serological evidence suggests the presence of scrub typhus and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis in Sri Lanka. Our objective was to identify rickettsial agents/Q fever as aetiological causes for patients who were presumed having rickettsioses by the presence of an eschar or a rash. Sera from patients with unknown origin fever from Matara were tested by immunofluorescence for SFG rickettsial antigens, typhus group rickettsiae, Orientia tsutsugamushi, and Coxiella burnetii antigens. Thirteen (7.3%) of the patients presented with a rash, 11 (6.1%) had an inoculation eschar, and 16 patients recalled a tick or flea bite. We found that 25 (14%) patients had scrub typhus, 6 (3%) SFG rickettsioses, 3 (1.6%) acute Q fever, 3 (1.6%) murine typhus, and 3 (1.6%) were infected by Rickettsia felis. In addition to already described scrub and murine typhus, we found that R. felis and C. burnetii infections should be considered in Sri Lanka.

  12. Medical Entomology Studies - XVI. A Review of the Species of Subgenus Verrallina, Genus Aedes, from Sri Lanka and a Revised Description of the Subgenus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    section. Brinck et al. (1971: IV) gave an excellent discussion of Sri Lanka and included: morphology and geology, climate, terrestrial habitats...S., l?, 5 mi NNE of Puttalam, 1 February 1962, Per Brinck , Hugo Andersson and Lennart Cederholm, 19; North Central, Yan Oya, 24 mi west of...Trincomalee, 10 February 1962, Per Brinck , Hugo Andersson and Lennart Cederholm, 2?; Province not specified, Patanthaw, 20 March 1923, R. Senior-White, l

  13. Methods and sequelae of torture: a study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali; Fernando, Ravindra

    2007-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to document the physical and psychological methods of torture and their sequelae on 90 victims of torture who attended the Family Rehabilitation Centres in Vavuniya, Trincomalee and Anuradhapura, using a standard assessment format. The study showed that the methods of torture practised in Sri Lanka are similar to that of other countries. The methods are physical and psychological. Being a victim of a traumatic event would be physically and psychologically stressful.

  14. Disability studies in Sri Lanka: priorities for action.

    PubMed

    Peiris-John, R J; Attanayake, S; Daskon, L; Wickremasinghe, A R; Ameratunga, S

    2014-01-01

    To review the published literature relating to disability in Sri Lanka, identify research gaps and inform priorities for action. A narrative literature review was undertaken and relevant articles extracted using electronic databases such as Medline and PubMed. The available literature was examined in relation to the nine key recommendations of the World Report on Disability. Over the past 30 years, published disability research in Sri Lanka has primarily focussed on mental health, visual impairment and healthcare delivery. Significant gaps were apparent in evidence relating to the status and services for people with intellectual disability, policies and their impact, provider attitudes, barriers to education and employment, health workforce training and access to healthcare. While published studies provide insights on several dimensions of disability, there are important research gaps pointing to unmet needs that require attention to support the health and wellbeing of people living with disability in Sri Lanka. To address these gaps, it is imperative that a critical mass of multi-disciplinary researchers including people living with disabilities collaborate on a strategic program of research using effective participatory approaches that engage all sectors and communities relevant to uphold the rights of people living with disability. Implications for Rehabilitation All nine key recommendations in the World Report on Disability are highly pertinent to the needs and status of people living with disabilities in Sri Lanka. Significant gaps in research on disability-related health issues exist and warrant more focussed attention by researchers, funders and policy makers. It is imperative that national stakeholders including the Ministries of Health and Social Welfare, organisations representing people living with disability and related advocacy groups, work collaboratively to identify and implement a research strategy that would better inform disability policies and

  15. Integrating Observations of the Boundary Current Flow around Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    of Bengal. For this, the flow around Sri Lanka is critical since it exchanges salt and freshwater between the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea...content and an integral of sound slowness (which depends on integrated heat and salt ) of the water column. Pairing such measurements at the end...including the role they play in transporting salt /fresh water and heat. These transports are an important component of the climate system in the Indian

  16. Description of Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Anura: Bufonidae) tadpoles from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Bopage, Malaka M; Wewelwala, Krishan; Krvavac, Milivoje; Jovanovic, Olga

    2015-06-04

    Duttaphrynus atukoralei (Bogert & Senanayake, 1966) is a relatively abundant toad known from Southern and Southeastern Sri Lanka. It occurs from sea level up to ~200 m above sea level (IUCN 2014). For almost half a century since its original description there was no information on its life cycle; the only information available is related to its description and distribution (Dutta & Manamendra-Arachchi 1996; Manamendra-Arachchi & Pethiyagoda 2006).

  17. Solar Resource Assessment for Sri Lanka and Maldives

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Marion, B.; Heimiller, D.; Gueymard, C.

    2003-08-01

    The countries of Sri Lanka and the Maldives lie within the equatorial belt, a region where substantial solar energy resources exist throughout much of the year in adequate quantities for many applications, including solar water heating, solar electricity, and desalination. The extent of solar resources in Sri Lanka has been estimated in the past based on a study of the daily total direct sunshine hours recorded at a number of weather and agricultural stations throughout the country. These data have been applied to the well-known Angstrom relationship in order to obtain an estimate of the distribution of monthly average daily total solar resources at these stations. This study is an effort in improve on these estimates in two ways: (1) to apply a gridded cloud cover database at a 40-km resolution to produce updated monthly average daily total estimates of all solar resources (global horizontal, DNI, and diffuse) for the country, and (2) to input hourly or three-hourly cloud cover observations made at nine weather stations in Sri Lanka and two in the Maldives into a solar model that produces estimates of hourly solar radiation values of the direct normal, global, and diffuse resource covering the length of the observational period. Details and results of these studies are summarized in this report.

  18. The nursing profession in Sri Lanka: time for policy changes.

    PubMed

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R

    2017-09-01

    We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  19. The family and demographic change in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, B

    1996-01-01

    Sri Lanka has almost completed the demographic transition with low mortality rates and fertility rates approaching replacement levels. Sri Lanka shares these characteristics with the South Indian states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in contrast to elsewhere in South Asia where mortality and especially fertility rates remain much higher. A key part of the explanation for these differences lies in the nature of the family. The Sri Lankan family is essentially the conjugal unit of husband, wife and dependent children whereas in northern South Asia agnatic relations between son and parents are central to family structure. Related to this family system the position of women in Sri Lankan society was relatively high in South Asian terms. Consequently women had a strong say in health and fertility behaviour. When required, for example, mothers take the initiative in seeking health care for themselves and their children. Importantly family structure has facilitated female education which is associated with both mortality and fertility decline. There are few concerns that the values imparted by secular education are contrary to the values of the family or to women's roles within it. The egalitarian family structure has also contributed to fertility decline by raising the costs of children and reducing the long-run benefits to be gained from them. Sri Lanka is particularly distinctive in the contribution of changes in female age at marriage to its fertility decline, marriage age having risen six years this century. This change has been accompanied in recent times by a shift from family-arranged to self-selected (love) marriage. The explanation lies in changes in the socio-economic system which have reduced the centrality of the family in wider social and economic relations, and placed a greater premium on an individual's own abilities and attributes.

  20. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-10-07

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15-25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. An investigation into the role of alcohol in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka: a protocol for a multimethod, qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, Jane Brandt; Rheinländer, Thilde; Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Siribaddana, Sisira; Konradsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide and self-harm rates in the world and although alcohol has been found to be a risk factor for self-harm in Sri Lanka, we know little about the connection between the two. This paper comprises a protocol for a qualitative study investigating alcohol's role in self-harm in rural Sri Lanka at three levels: the individual, community and policy level. The analysis will bring new understanding of the link between alcohol and self-harm in Sri Lanka, drawing on structural, cultural and social concepts. It will equip researchers, health systems and policy makers with vital information for developing strategies to address alcohol-related problems as they relate to self-harm. Methods and analysis To capture the complexity of the link between alcohol and self-harm in the Anuradhapura district in the North Central Province in Sri Lanka, qualitative methods will be utilised. Specifically, the data will consist of serial narrative life-story interviews with up to 20 individuals who have non-fatally self-harmed and where alcohol directly or indirectly was involved in the incidence as well as with their significant others; observations in communities and families; six focus group discussions with community members; and key-informant interviews with 15–25 stakeholders who have a stake in alcohol distribution, marketing, policies, prevention and treatment as they relate to self-harm. Ethics and dissemination The study has received ethical approval from the Ethical Review Committee of the Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University of Sri Lanka. A sensitive data collection technique will be used and ethical issues will be considered throughout the study. Results The results will be disseminated in scientific peer-reviewed articles in collaboration with Sri Lankan and other international research partners. PMID:25293385

  2. The impact of pesticide regulations on suicide in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunnell, D; Fernando, R; Hewagama, M; Priyangika, WDD; Konradsen, F; Eddleston, M

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Between 1950 and 1995 suicide rates in Sri Lanka increased eight fold to a peak of 47 per 100,000 in 1995. By 2005 rates had halved. Our aim was to evaluate whether Sri Lanka’s regulatory controls on the import and sale of pesticides that are particularly toxic to humans were responsible for these changes in suicide. Methods Ecological analysis using graphical and descriptive approaches to identify times trends in suicide and risk factors for suicide in Sri Lanka, 1975-2005. Results Restrictions on the import and sales of WHO Class I toxicity pesticides in 1995 and endosulfan in 1998, coincided with reductions in suicide in both men and women of all ages. 19,800 fewer suicides occurred in 1996-2005 compared to 1986 – 1995. Secular trends in unemployment, alcohol misuse, divorce, pesticide use and the years associated with Sri Lanka’s Civil war did not appear to be associated with these declines. Conclusion These data indicate that in countries where pesticides are commonly used in acts of self-poisoning, import controls on the most toxic pesticides may have a favourable impact on suicide. In Asia there are an estimated 300,000 deaths from pesticide self-poisoning annually. National and international policies restricting the sales of pesticides that are most toxic to humans may have a major impact on suicides in the region. PMID:17726039

  3. Delineation of Tsunami Risk Zones for Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2008-12-01

    The coastal belts of several Indian Ocean countries including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the great earthquake of moment magnitude 9.1-9.3 in the Andaman-Sunda subduction zone on December 26, 2004. In Sri Lanka, 13 of the 14 administrative districts lying along the coastal belt were affected: the death toll was over 35,000 with 20,000 injured and about 100,000 dwellings and other buildings either completely or partially damaged leaving half a million people homeless and causing massive disruption to livelihoods. However, it was clear in the immediate aftermath of the tsunami that the degree of damage along the coastal belt of Sri Lanka was not uniform: some areas suffered more damage, some less, and in certain other areas, often not far away, there was no damage at all. This suggests that the level of risk for coastal communities from future events of tsunami exhibits considerable variation even along a short stretch of the shoreline. The high cost and the scarcity of coastal lands in many areas demand an accurate assessment of the tsunami risk rather than arbitrary conservative zonation. Moreover, information relating to the spatial distribution of tsunami risk is essential in formulating post-tsunami coastal land use plans as well as in planning of evacuation of people during tsunami warnings. However, neither comprehensive probabilistic assessments of the tsunami hazard nor detailed information pertaining to the vulnerability of coastal communities are available at present for the coastal zone of Sri Lanka. Consequently, the methodology adopted in the present paper is to use field observations and numerical simulations of the December 2004 tsunami, which may be considered a worst-case scenario, in order to obtain the variation along the coastline of three parameters that quantify the tsunami impact. These three parameters are the tsunami height, the horizontal

  4. The socio-economic burden of snakebite in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Wickremasinghe, A Rajitha; Jayamanne, Shaluka F; Dawson, Andrew; Isbister, Geoff K; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka; Lalloo, David G

    2017-07-01

    Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka. Data from a representative nation-wide community based household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally, and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires. Health system costs were obtained from hospital cost accounting systems and estimates of antivenom usage. DALYs lost to snakebite were estimated using standard approaches using disability weights for poisoning. 79% of victims suffered economic loss following a snakebite with a median out of pocket expenditure of $11.82 (IQR 2-28.57) and a median estimated loss of income of $28.57 and $33.21 for those in employment or self-employment, respectively. Family members also lost income to help care for patients. Estimated health system costs for Sri Lanka were $ 10,260,652 annually. The annual estimated total number of DALYS was 11,101 to 15,076 per year for envenoming following snakebite. Snakebite places a considerable economic burden on the households of victims in Sri Lanka, despite a health system which is accessible and free at the point of care. The disability burden is also considerable, similar to that of meningitis or dengue, although the relatively low case fatality rate and limited physical sequelae following bites by Sri Lankan snakes means that this burden may be less than in countries on the African continent.

  5. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  6. Grass Roots Networking for Primary Education: Case Studies: Thailand, Sri Lanka, Philippines, Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    This monograph describes inter-institutional network structures in Thailand, Sri Lanka, Japan, and the Philippines which were implemented to improve educational delivery systems at the primary level. Chapter 1, an overview, discusses the similarities and differences in three examples of networks in Thailand, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines. In the…

  7. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  8. Impact of Changing University Admission Criteria on Engineering Education in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyambalapitiya, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    The number of subjects to be offered for Advanced Level examination for university admission in Sri Lanka will be reduced to three from the four subjects presently required. This article analyzes the impact of proposed innovations with respect to different possible decisions related to admissions to engineering education in Sri Lanka. (Author/AEF)

  9. Child (Sexual) Abuse: A Universal Problem, and Sri Lanka Is No Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to de Zoysa's article "Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future" (this issue). Discusses the many historic and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the sexual abuse of young children and discusses how Sri Lanka has made a major effort to combat such abuse.…

  10. Equity in Education: Opportunities and Challenges In A Changing Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Equity is a major concern for all development actors. Although Sri Lanka has successfully addressed equity issues in education sector there are unresolved factors and variables those perpetuate inequity. There are emerging new equity issues those that Sri Lanka needs to address. The changing population dynamics and the huge middle class population…

  11. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de…

  12. Impact of Changing University Admission Criteria on Engineering Education in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyambalapitiya, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    The number of subjects to be offered for Advanced Level examination for university admission in Sri Lanka will be reduced to three from the four subjects presently required. This article analyzes the impact of proposed innovations with respect to different possible decisions related to admissions to engineering education in Sri Lanka. (Author/AEF)

  13. Child (Sexual) Abuse: A Universal Problem, and Sri Lanka Is No Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to de Zoysa's article "Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future" (this issue). Discusses the many historic and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the sexual abuse of young children and discusses how Sri Lanka has made a major effort to combat such abuse.…

  14. The Changing Times: General Education and the Vocational Training System in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedere, Upali M.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is widening its scope for vocational education sub-sector. The emerging global trends and the aspirations of the emerging Sri Lanka after defeating terrorism demands the preparation of the graduating youth at different stages of the education system for employment. Vocational education faces many challenges. Though there are…

  15. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  16. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…

  17. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  18. Completed Suicide among Sinhalese in Sri Lanka: A Psychological Autopsy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaraweera, Sudath; Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sivayogan, S.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Sri Lanka has the one of highest rates of suicide. Important factors associated with suicide were determined via the psychological autopsy approach (which had not been carried out previously in Sri Lanka). Over a 3-month period, in a catchment area, 31 suicides among Sinhalese were identified and 27 were investigated. Males were more likely to…

  19. The Role of UK Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe: A Comparative Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, J.; Little, A. W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on research on the role of UK qualifications suppliers in providing qualifications and accreditation in Sri Lanka and Zimbabwe in the context of rather different engagements with liberalisation, structural adjustment and globalisation. Sri Lanka's economic liberalisation and growth since the late 1970s has had a "de…

  20. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  1. Language Policy, Ethnic Tensions and Linguistic Rights in Post War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herath, Sreemali

    2015-01-01

    As in many former colonies, language policy and planning in Sri Lanka has been largely shaped by and continues to be overshadowed by its history of colonial rule. Sri Lanka experienced colonization under three different western powers for over four centuries. This situation was further muddied by the three-decades long ethnic-based civil war which…

  2. Returns to Education in Sri Lanka: A Pseudo-Panel Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himaz, Rozana; Aturupane, Harsha

    2016-01-01

    This study employs a pseudo-panel approach to estimate the returns to education among income earners in Sri Lanka. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from nine repeated cross sections of Sri Lanka's Labor Force Survey data from 1997 to 2008, for workers born during 1953-1974. The results show that for males, one extra year of education increases…

  3. An annotated checklist and a family key to the pseudoscorpion fauna (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones) of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Batuwita, Sudesh; Benjamin, Suresh P

    2014-06-06

    Sri Lanka is part of the Western Ghats & Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot. Thus, the conservation of Sri Lanka's unique biodiversity is crucial. The current study is part of an ongoing survey of pseudoscorpion fauna of Sri Lanka. We carried out an island-wide survey of pseudoscorpions using a range of collection methods to sample a diverse set of habitats around the country. This produced 32 species, four of which might be new to science, belonging to 25 genera. The family Cheiridiidae was discovered on the island for the first time. One new combination, Indogarypus ceylonicus (Beier, 1973) comb. nov., is proposed. Out of the 47 species now recorded, 20 (43 %) are potentially endemic to Sri Lanka. We provide a checklist of all known species, document their distribution and give a key to the families.

  4. Phosphate fertilizer is a main source of arsenic in areas affected with chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Fonseka, Saranga; Fernando, Ashvin; Jayalath, Kumudika; Amarasinghe, Mala; Siribaddana, Sisira; Gunatilake, Sarath; Paranagama, Priyani

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has escalated into an epidemic in North Central Province (NCP) and adjacent farming areas in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. Studies have shown that this special type of CKD is a toxic nephropathy and arsenic may play a causative role along with a number of other heavy metals. We investigated the hypothesis that chemical fertilizers and pesticide could be a source of arsenic. 226 samples of Fertilizers and 273 samples of pesticides were collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for arsenic and other heavy metals in two university laboratories. Almost all the agrochemicals available to the farmers in the study area are contaminated with arsenic. The highest amount was in triple super phosphate (TSP) with a mean value of 31 mg/kg. Also TSP is a rich source of other nephrotoxic metals including Cr, Co, Ni, Pb and V. Annually more than 0.1 million tons of TSP is imported to Sri Lanka containing approximately 2100 kg of arsenic. The next highest concentration was seen in the rock phosphate obtained from an open pit mine in NCP (8.56 mg/kg). Organic fertilizer contained very low amounts of arsenic. Arsenic contamination in pesticides varied from 0.18 mg/kg to 2.53 mg/kg although arsenic containing pesticides are banned in Sri Lanka. Glyphosate the most widely used pesticide in Sri Lanka contains average of 1.9 mg/kg arsenic. Findings suggest that agrochemicals especially phosphate fertilizers are a major source of inorganic arsenic in CKDu endemic areas. Organic fertilizer available in Sri Lanka is comparatively very low in arsenic and hence the farmers in CKDu endemic areas in Sri Lanka should be encouraged to minimize the use of imported chemical fertilizer and use organic fertilizers instead.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations of thunderstorm activities over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnadara, Upul

    2016-05-01

    Spatial and temporal variation of frequencies of thunderstorms over Sri Lanka using thunder day data is presented. A thunder day is simply a calendar day in which thunder is heard at least once at a given location. Two sets of data were collected and analyzed: annual totals for 10 climatological stations for a period of 50 years and monthly totals for 20 climatological stations for a period of 20 years. The average annual thunder days over Sri Lanka was found to be 76. Among the climatological stations considered, a high number of annual thunder days was recorded in Ratnapura (150 days/year), followed by Colombo (108 days/year) and Bandarawela (106 days/year). It appears that there are no widespread long-term increasing or decreasing trends in thunderstorm frequencies. However, Colombo, the capital of Sri Lanka which has over two million people shows an increasing trend of 0.8 thunder days per year. Although there is a high variability between stations reporting the number of thunder days, the overall pattern within a year is clear. Thunderstorm frequencies are high during two periods: March-May and September-November, which coincide with the first inter-monsoon and second inter-monsoon periods. Compared to the dry zone, the wet zone, especially the southwestern region, has high thunderstorm activity. There is a clear spatial difference in thunderstorm activities during the southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. During both these seasons, enhanced thunderstorm activities are reported on the leeward side of the mountain range. A slight reduction in the thunderstorm activities was found in the high elevation areas of the hill country compared to the surrounding areas. A lightning ground flash density map derived using annual thunder days is also presented.

  6. Emergency medical service systems in Sri Lanka: problems of the past, challenges of the future.

    PubMed

    Wimalaratne, Kelum; Lee, Jeong Il; Lee, Kang Hyun; Lee, Hee Young; Lee, Jung Hun; Kang, In Hye

    2017-12-01

    The concept of emergency medical services (EMS) is new to Sri Lanka. This article describes the development, delivery, and future ideas for EMS in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka also faces frequent natural hazards that justify the establishment of an EMS service. Data and information regarding emergency medical care in Sri Lanka were collected and reviewed from resources including websites and research papers. Currently, there are no qualified emergency medical physicians in Sri Lanka. However, a specialist training program for emergency physicians was initiated in 2012. There is no formal system to train emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Sri Lankans usually use taxies or their private vehicles to get to the hospital in the case of an emergency. All of the hospitals have ambulances that they can use to transport patients between hospitals. Most hospitals have emergency treatment units. Those at larger hospitals tend to be better than those at smaller hospitals. Although there is a disaster management system, it is not focused on emergency medical needs. Many aspects of the EMS system in Sri Lanka need improvement. To start, the emergency telephone number should cover the entire country. Training programs for EMTs should be conducted regularly. In addition, ambulances should be allocated for prehospital care. In the process of these developmental changes, public awareness programs are essential to improve the function of the EMS system. Despite many current shortcomings, Sri Lanka is capable of developing a successful EMS system.

  7. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  8. [Cutaneous diphtheria after a minor injury in Sri Lanka].

    PubMed

    Berg, L; Mechlin, A; Schultz, E S

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous dipththeria is an infectious bacterial disease endemic in tropical regions, but rarely diagnosed in Germany. Following travel in Sri Lanka, a 60-year-old German presented to our dermatological clinic with a skin ulcer and extensive erythematous erosive edema of his left foot. Corynebacterium diphtheriae was isolated from a swab of the lesion. There were no clinical signs of toxic diphtheria. The patient was treated with penicillin G and erythromycin, followed by a slow healing of the lesion. The isolated strain could be identified as toxigenic C. diphtheriae mitis. Due to increased travel activity, dermatologists should have uncommon infections like cutaneous diphtheria in mind.

  9. Installation of solar PV systems in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, M.P.T.P.

    1995-10-01

    The tropical country of Sri Lanka has hydroelectric power plants sufficient to provide electricity to only 40% of its 25,000 villages. The electric power needs of the average Sri Lankan rural communities are basic: three or four lights to illuminate their house and a power supply for their televisions. Solar radiation is abundant throughout the year. To take advantage of this resource, the Sarvodaya Rural Technical Services launched a Solar PV pilot demonstration project in the rural areas not served by the electric grid. The systems were being installed on an individual residence basis and funded by loans. Social and cultural problems which have arisen during the course of the project have slowed its implementation. This study identifies the problems and makes recommendations to resolve the current problems and avoid new ones.

  10. Escalating chronic kidney diseases of multi-factorial origin in Sri Lanka: causes, solutions, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2014-11-01

    During the last two decades, Sri Lanka, located close to the equator, has experienced an escalating incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown aetiology (CKDue) in dry zonal areas. Similar incidences of unusual CKDs have been reported in the dry zonal, agricultural areas of several other equatorial countries. In Sri Lanka, the incidence of CKDue is highest in the North Central Province (NCP), where approximately 45 % of the country's paddy fields are located. However, in recent years, the disease has spread into areas adjacent to as well as distant from the NCP. The cause of CKD in Sri Lanka is unknown, and may likely due to interactions of different potential agents; thus, CKD is of multi-factorial origin (CKD-mfo). These factors include, the negative effects from overuse of agrochemicals. Nevertheless, the potential interactions and synergism between probable agents have not been studied. This systematic review discusses the proposed hypotheses and causes of CKD-mfo in Sri Lanka, and ways to decrease the incidence of this disease and to eradicate it, and provide some recommendations. During the past decade, a number of groups have investigated this disorder using different methodologies and reported various correlations, but failed to find a cause. Research has focussed on the contamination of water with heavy metals, agrochemicals, hard water, algae, ionicity, climate change, and so forth. Nevertheless, the levels of any of the pollutants or conditions reported in water in NPC are inconsistent not correlated with the prevalence of the disease, and are too low to be the sole cause of CKD-mfo. Meanwhile, several nephrotoxins prevalent in the region, including medications, leptospirosis, toxic herbs, illicit alcohol, locally grown tobacco, and petrochemicals, as well as the effects of changed habits occured over the past four decades have not been studied to date. Taken together, the geographical distribution and overall findings indicate that

  11. The history of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, Rasika S; McCutcheon, Helen

    2006-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of nursing in a country provides perspective on the origins of current successes and dilemmas and enables the development of strategies and plans for future trends in the profession. This article explores the evolution of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism in nursing. Internet database searches, personal communication, and published and unpublished literature and reports were reviewed to obtain historical information on nursing services and education in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan health system is reviewed, and the establishment of Western medicine in Sri Lanka and its effects on developing institutionalized nursing education is presented, with a focus on the evolution of nursing education. Major challenges for the nursing profession in Sri Lanka are discussed, and some recommendations are shared.

  12. A feasibility study for the establishment of a national wildlife health centre in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Valeix, S; Lokugalappatti, L G S; Abeynayake, P; Prasad, T; Chandrasiri, A D N; Daniel, S L A; Stephen, C; Leighton, F A

    2011-12-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical nation within a zoogeographic zone that is at high risk for infectious disease emergence. In 2010, a study was conducted on the feasibility of enhancing capacity in Sri Lanka to manage wildlife diseases through the establishment of a national wildlife health centre. The Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre was assessed as a potential model for adaptation in Sri Lanka. Interviews and group meetings were conducted with potential key participants from the Sri Lankan Departments of Wildlife Conservation and Animal Production and Health, and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of Peradeniya. In addition, site visits were made to potentially participating facilities and the literature on best practices in building scientific capacity was consulted. With strategic enhancements in education and training, additional personnel, improvements in transportation and diagnostic facilities, and central coordination, Sri Lanka appears very well positioned to establish a sustainable wildlife health centre and programme.

  13. Alpha thalassaemia and extended alpha globin genes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Sasikala; Fisher, Christopher; Ayyub, Helena; Premawardhena, Anuja; Allen, Angela; Perera, Ashok; Bandara, Dayananda; Olivieri, Nancy; Weatherall, David

    2013-02-01

    The α-globin genes were studied in nine families with unexplained hypochromic anaemia and in 167 patients with HbE β thalassaemia in Sri Lanka. As well as the common deletion forms of α(+) thalassaemia three families from an ethnic minority were found to carry a novel form of α(0) thalassaemia, one family carried a previously reported form of α(0) thalassaemia, --(THAI), and five families had different forms of non-deletional thalassaemia. The patients with HbE β thalassaemia who had co-inherited α thalassaemia all showed an extremely mild phenotype and reduced levels of HbF and there was a highly significant paucity of α(+) thalassaemia in these patients compared with the normal population. Extended α gene arrangements, including ααα, αααα and ααααα, occurred at a low frequency and were commoner in the more severe phenotypes of HbE β thalassaemia. As well as emphasising the ameliorating effect of α thalassaemia on HbE β thalassaemia the finding of a novel form of α(0) thalassaemia in an ethnic minority, together with an unexpected diversity of forms of non-deletion α thalassaemia in Sri Lanka, further emphasises the critical importance of micro-mapping populations for determining the frequency of clinically important forms of the disease. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Greenhouse gas emission reduction: A case study of Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper we describe a case study for Sri Lanka that explores a wide range of options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Options range from renewable technologies to carbon taxes and transportation sector initiatives. We find that setting electricity prices to reflect long-run marginal cost has a significant beneficial impact on the environment, and the expected benefits predicted on theoretical grounds are confirmed by the empirical results. Pricing reform also has a much broader impact than physical approaches to demand side management, although several options such as compact fluorescent lighting appear to have great potential. Options to reduce GHG emissions are limited as Sri Lanka lacks natural gas, and nuclear power is not practical until the system reaches a much larger size. Building the few remaining large hydro facilities would significantly reduce GHG emissions, but these would require costly resettlement programs. Given the inevitability for fossil-fuel base load generation, both clean coal technologies such as pressurized fluidized bed combustion, as well as steam-cycle residual oil fueled plants merit consideration as alternatives to the conventional pulverized coal-fired plants currently being considered. Transportation sector measures necessary to ameliorate local urban air pollution problems, such as vehicle inspection and maintenance programs, also bring about significant reductions of GHG emissions. 51 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Marine protected areas in Sri Lanka: a review.

    PubMed

    Perera, Nishan; de Vos, Asha

    2007-11-01

    Despite the popularity of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management tool, increasing evidence shows that many fail to achieve conservation objectives. Although several MPAs exist in Sri Lanka, most are not managed, and resource extraction and habitat degradation continue unabated. At present, the declaration and management of MPAs is carried out without adequate consideration of the ecology, socioeconomic realities, or long-term management sustainability. Managers have focused more toward the creation of new legislation and protected areas rather than ensuring the implementation of existing regulations and management of existing protected areas. Poor coordination and a lack of serious political will have also hindered successful resource management. As in other developing countries, MPA managers have to contend with coastal communities that are directly dependant on marine resources for their subsistence. This often makes it unfeasible to exclude resource users, and MPAs have failed to attract necessary government support because many politicians are partial toward the immediate needs of local communities for both economic and political reasons. A more integrated approach, and decisions based on the analysis of all relevant criteria combined with a concerted and genuine effort toward implementing strategies and achieving predetermined targets, is needed for effective management of MPAs and the sustainable use of marine resources in Sri Lanka.

  16. Utilization of Boxes for Pesticide Storage in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Pieris, Ravi; Weerasinghe, Manjula; Abeywickrama, Tharaka; Manuweera, Gamini; Eddleston, Michael; Dawson, Andrew; Konradsen, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is now considered one of the two most common methods of suicide worldwide. Encouraging safe storage of pesticides is one particular approach aimed at reducing pesticide self-poisoning. CropLife Sri Lanka (the local association of pesticide manufacturers), with the aid of the Department of Agriculture, distributed lockable in-house pesticide storage boxes free of charge to a farming community in a rural district of Sri Lanka. Padlocks were not provided with the boxes. These storage boxes were distributed to the farmers without prior education. The authors carried out a cross-sectional follow-up survey to assess the usage of boxes at 7 months after distribution. In an inspection of a sample of 239 box recipients' households, 142 households stored pesticides in the provided box at the time of survey. Among them, only 42 (42/142, 29.65%) households had locked the box; the remaining households (100/142, 70.4%) had not locked the box. A simple hand over of in-house pesticide storage boxes without awareness/education results in poor use of boxes. Additionally, providing in-house storage boxes may encourage farmers to store pesticides in and around houses and, if they are not locked, may lead to unplanned adverse effects.

  17. Musculoskeletal symptoms among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Sarah R; Vijitha de Silva, P; Lipscomb, Hester J; Ostbye, Truls

    2012-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and their association with sociodemographic risk factors among female garment factory workers in Sri Lanka. 1058 randomly selected female garment factory workers employed in the free trade zone of Kogalla, Sri Lanka were recruited to complete two interviewer-administered questionnaires assessing musculoskeletal symptoms and health behaviors. Musculoskeletal complaints among female garment workers in the FTZ of Kogalla are less common than expected. Sociocultural factors may have resulted in underreporting and similarly contribute to the low rates of healthcare utilization by these women. 164 (15.5%) of workers reported musculoskeletal symptoms occurring more than 3 times or lasting a week or more during the previous 12-month period. Back (57.3%) and knee (31.7%) were the most common sites of pain. Although most symptomatic women reported that their problems interfered with work and leisure activities, very few missed work as a result of their pain. Prevalence correlated positively with increased age and industry tenure of less than 12 months. Job type, body mass index, and education were not significant predictors of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  18. Plant Poisoning among Children in Rural Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jayamanne, Shaluka F.; Jayasinghe, Chamilka Y.

    2017-01-01

    Plant poisoning is a common presentation in paediatric practice and an important cause of preventable mortality and morbidity in Sri Lanka. The burden of plant poisoning is largely underexplored. The current multicenter study based in rural Sri Lanka assessed clinical profiles, poison related factors, clinical management, complications, outcomes, and risk factors associated with plant poisoning in the paediatric age group. Among 325 children, 57% were male with 64% being below five years of age. 99.4% had ingested the poison. Transfer rate was 66.4%. Most had unintentional poisoning. Commonest poison plant was Jatropha circus and poisoning event happened mostly in home garden. 29% of parents practiced harmful first-aid practices. 32% of children had delayed presentations to which the commonest reason was lack of parental concern regarding urgency of seeking medical care. Presence of poisonous plants in home garden was the strongest risk factor for plant poisoning. Mortality rate was 1.2% and all cases had Oleander poisoning. The study revealed the value of community awareness regarding risk factors and awareness among healthcare workers regarding the mostly benign nature of plant poisoning in children in view of limiting incidence of plant poisoning and reducing expenditure on patient management. PMID:28377789

  19. Regulation of herbal medicine use based on speculation? A case from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, Wathsala; Pilapitiya, Senaka; Hettiarchchi, Priyani; Wijerathne, Buddhika; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2017-04-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown aetiology is a significant public health problem in Sri Lanka. The final report by the WHO mission recommended regulation of herbal medicines containing aristolochic acid, which is an established nephrotoxin. The use of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has a history of more than 2500 years in Sri Lanka. Aristolochia species are rarely used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine in Sri Lanka. Before regulating the analysis of herbal preparations using Aristolochia, collecting data from CAM practitioners regarding the use of Aristolochia is necessary. Analysis of Ayurveda pharmacopeia shows the doses used are negligible and some preparations are used for external applications.

  20. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  1. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015

    PubMed Central

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C.; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. Objective To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. Design We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. Results There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Conclusions Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases. PMID:27178645

  2. Internet-based media coverage on dengue in Sri Lanka between 2007 and 2015.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Cohn, Emily; Lloyd, David C; Tozan, Yesim; Brownstein, John S

    2016-01-01

    Internet-based media coverage to explore the extent of awareness of a disease and perceived severity of an outbreak at a national level can be used for early outbreak detection. Dengue has emerged as a major public health problem in Sri Lanka since 2009. To compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lana with references to other diseases (malaria and influenza) in Sri Lanka and to compare Internet references to dengue in Sri Lanka with notified cases of dengue in Sri Lanka. We examined Internet-based news media articles on dengue queried from HealthMap for Sri Lanka, for the period January 2007 to November 2015. For comparative purposes, we compared hits on dengue with hits on influenza and malaria. There were 565 hits on dengue between 2007 and 2015, with a rapid rise in 2009 and followed by a rising trend ever since. These hits were highly correlated with the national epidemiological trend of dengue. The volume of digital media coverage of dengue was much higher than of influenza and malaria. Dengue in Sri Lanka is receiving increasing media attention. Our findings underpin previous claims that digital media reports reflect national epidemiological trends, both in annual trends and inter-annual seasonal variation, thus acting as proxy biosurveillance to provide early warning and situation awareness of emerging infectious diseases.

  3. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment.

  4. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

    Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

  5. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  6. Post-Tsunami Reconstruction in Sri Lanka: Houses or Housing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazai, B.; Franco, G.; Ingram, J. C.; Rumbaitis del Rio, C.

    2005-12-01

    Reconstruction can be an opportunity to address longer-term livelihood vulnerability within poor communities and households, and to empower the most vulnerable. The post-tsunami reconstruction efforts in Sri Lanka can be seen on two disconnected scales. On a local scale there seems to be a growing recognition by district-level government and NGOs on the importance of households in creating social, human and financial capital, as demonstrated by many programs targeted at rebuilding livelihoods and income-generating activities. On a national scale, however, programs have revealed an emphasis on houses as the physical capital rather than housing as the arena of social and economic life. The aim of national-scale programs is to deliver tangible and quantifiable products, in the form of houses built, often without regard of whether this complements or disrupts livelihoods. One example of such a directive is the implementation of a coastal buffer zone which will ban any new construction within a 100 to 200 meter band from the ocean and allowing only structures that sustained less than 40 percent damage to remain and rebuild. In general these kind of surviving structures along the coast are businesses such as hotels and restaurants. In an island nation such as Sri Lanka, where beach front property is by and large considered low-income housing, typically inhabited by fishermen who rely on the ocean for their livelihoods, the buffer zone constitutes a drastic oversight of local processes shaping these households. The product-oriented solution on the national scale has resulted in building permanent houses for fishery communities in resettlement sites kilometers away from the ocean. The focus of this presentation will be on reconciling the need for immediate shelter needs with a long-term perspective of livelihood rehabilitation using Sri Lanka as a case study. Houses themselves are often not an immediate priority for local people, whose first need is likely to resume income

  7. Moore's law, Dabbawalas, and pediatric cardiac care in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Duminda

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka is an island nation in Indian Ocean that provides free healthcare to all citizens through government healthcare system. It has commendable health indices in the region. Pediatric cardiac services have rapidly progressed over past few years helping to further bring down infant and under-five mortality rates. Lady Ridgeway Hospital for Children (LRH) is the only tertiary care referral center for children with heart disease in the country. Currently it performs approximately 1,000 cardiac catheterizations and 1,000 cardiac surgeries every year. Target is to double the surgical output to treat all children with heart diseases in a timely and appropriate manner. Being a middle-income country, this is not an easy task. Technology used in diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart diseases is rapidly advancing with its price tag. In such a setting, it is challenging to proceed to achieve this target in a resource-limited environment. PMID:26085764

  8. Cnemaspis rammalensis sp. nov., Sri Lanka's largest day-gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae: Cnemaspis) from Rammalakanda Man and Biosphere Reserve in southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Rajeev, M D Gehan; Wickramasinghe, Nethu; Fernando, Samantha Suranjan; Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis

    2014-01-22

    A new species of rock dwelling gecko belonging to the genus Cnemaspis is described from Sri Lanka based on a suite of morphological features. The species is the largest of its genus described from Sri Lanka so far (snout-vent length 52-54 mm) and is the second largest of the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka Biodiversity Hotspot. It may be diagnosed in details of both scalation (ventrals186-207; mid-subcaudals large; absence of precloacal pores; 15 femoral pores on each side; 22-23 and 23-25 subdigital lamellae on finger IV and on toe IV, respectively; smooth scales on tail dorsum) and colouration (five prominent trilobate shaped cream markings pointing towards head and extending from neck to vent).The species is found in a unique habitat in the Rammalakanda Forest, where it is threatened by deforestation.

  9. Supporting elephant conservation in Sri Lanka through MODIS imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Kithsiri; Tateishi, Ryutaro

    2012-10-01

    The latest national elephant survey of Sri Lanka (2011) revealed Sri Lanka has 5,879 elephants. The total forest cover for these elephants is about 19,500 sq km (2012 estimation) and estimated forest area is about 30% of the country when smaller green patches are also counted. However, studies have pointed out that a herd of elephants need about a 100 sq km of forest patch to survive. With a high human population density (332 people per sq km, 2010), the pressure for land to feed people and elephants is becoming critical. Resent reports have indicated about 250 elephants are killed annually by farmers and dozens of people are also killed by elephants. Under this context, researchers are investigating various methods to assess the elephant movements to address the issues of Human-Elephant-Conflict (HEC). Apart from various local remedies for the issue, the conservation of elephant population can be supported by satellite imagery based studies. MODIS sensor imagery can be considered as a successful candidate here. Its spatial resolution is low (250m x 250m) but automatically filters out small forest patches in the mapping process. The daily imagery helps to monitor temporal forest cover changes. This study investigated the background information of HEC and used MODIS 250m imagery to suggest applicability of satellite data for Elephant conservations efforts. The elephant movement information was gathered from local authorities and potentials to identify bio-corridors were discussed. Under future research steps, regular forest cover monitoring through MODIS data was emphasized as a valuable tool in elephant conservations efforts.

  10. A data platform to improve rabies prevention, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    De Silva, A Pubudu; Harischandra, Pa Lionel; Beane, Abi; Rathnayaka, Shriyananda; Pimburage, Ruwini; Wijesiriwardana, Wageesha; Gamage, Dilanthi; Jayasinghe, Desika; Sigera, Chathurani; Gunasekara, Amila; Cadre, Mizaya; Amunugama, Sarath; Athapattu, Priyantha L; Jayasinghe, K Saroj A; Dondorp, Arjen M; Haniffa, Rashan

    2017-09-01

    In Sri Lanka, rabies prevention initiatives are hindered by fragmented and delayed information-sharing that limits clinicians' ability to follow patients and impedes public health surveillance. In a project led by the health ministry, we adapted existing technologies to create an electronic platform for rabies surveillance. Information is entered by trained clinical staff, and both aggregate and individual patient data are visualized in real time. An automated short message system (SMS) alerts patients for vaccination follow-up appointments and informs public health inspectors about incidents of animal bites. The platform was rolled out in June 2016 in four districts of Sri Lanka, linking six rabies clinics, three laboratories and the public health inspectorate. Over a 9-month period, 12 121 animal bites were reported to clinics and entered in the registry. Via secure portals, clinicians and public health teams accessed live information on treatment and outcomes of patients started on post-exposure prophylaxis (9507) or receiving deferred treatment (2614). Laboratories rapidly communicated the results of rabies virus tests on dead mammals (328/907 positive). In two pilot districts SMS reminders were sent to 1376 (71.2%) of 1933 patients whose contact details were available. Daily SMS reports alerted 17 public health inspectors to bite incidents in their area for investigation. Existing technologies in low-resource countries can be harnessed to improve public health surveillance. Investment is needed in platform development and training and support for front-line staff. Greater public engagement is needed to improve completeness of surveillance and treatment.

  11. Assessing medication packaging and labelling appropriateness in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Athuraliya, N; Walkom, E J; Dharmaratne, S; Robertson, J

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of poor dispensing practices with inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines, and limited advice on their usage in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). We examined the labelling and packaging of medicines identified during a survey of 1322 households in six regions of Sri Lanka between 2010 and 2013 conducted using the World Health Organization (WHO) methodology for household surveys. We compared medicines obtained from public and private sources and asked interviewees if they understood how to take the medicines. Packaging was considered adequate when the primary package was an envelope or closable container holding only one medicine. Adequate labels were legible and included medicine name, dose and expiration date. Interviewers assessed whether respondents knew how to take the medicines. Of 1322 households, 1253 households (94.8%) had at least one medicine; 84% were classified as western medicines and 16% traditional medicines. Of 5756 western medicines identified, 82.1% were adequately packaged, 43.3% adequately labelled and 41.4% both adequately packaged and labelled. Participants stated that they understood the label and knew how to take 96% of the medicines. Private medicine sources had more adequately packaged medicines than public sources (87.7% vs 73.5%; OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.23, 2.99) and more adequately labelled medicines (52.2% vs 27.4%; OR 2.90, 95% CI 2.57, 3.26). Inadequate packaging and labelling of medicines remain a concern in Sri Lanka. Commitment to Good Pharmacy Practices, investments in staff education and training and adequate dispensing resources (containers and labels), particularly in the public sector, are needed to address sub-optimal dispensing practices. Ageing populations with more chronic diseases requiring polypharmacy and complex medicine regimens increase the need for appropriately packaged and labelled medicines.

  12. Models for short term malaria prediction in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Briët, Olivier JT; Vounatsou, Penelope; Gunawardena, Dissanayake M; Galappaththy, Gawrie NL; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria in Sri Lanka is unstable and fluctuates in intensity both spatially and temporally. Although the case counts are dwindling at present, given the past history of resurgence of outbreaks despite effective control measures, the control programmes have to stay prepared. The availability of long time series of monitored/diagnosed malaria cases allows for the study of forecasting models, with an aim to developing a forecasting system which could assist in the efficient allocation of resources for malaria control. Methods Exponentially weighted moving average models, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models with seasonal components, and seasonal multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models were compared on monthly time series of district malaria cases for their ability to predict the number of malaria cases one to four months ahead. The addition of covariates such as the number of malaria cases in neighbouring districts or rainfall were assessed for their ability to improve prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models. Results The best model for forecasting and the forecasting error varied strongly among the districts. The addition of rainfall as a covariate improved prediction of selected (seasonal) ARIMA models modestly in some districts but worsened prediction in other districts. Improvement by adding rainfall was more frequent at larger forecasting horizons. Conclusion Heterogeneity of patterns of malaria in Sri Lanka requires regionally specific prediction models. Prediction error was large at a minimum of 22% (for one of the districts) for one month ahead predictions. The modest improvement made in short term prediction by adding rainfall as a covariate to these prediction models may not be sufficient to merit investing in a forecasting system for which rainfall data are routinely processed. PMID:18460204

  13. Metal release from serpentine soils in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Vithanage, Meththika; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Oze, Christopher; Rajakaruna, Nishanta; Dissanayake, C B

    2014-06-01

    Ultramafic rocks and their related soils (i.e., serpentine soils) are non-anthropogenic sources of metal contamination. Elevated concentrations of metals released from these soils into the surrounding areas and groundwater have ecological-, agricultural-, and human health-related consequences. Here we report the geochemistry of four different serpentine soil localities in Sri Lanka by coupling interpretations garnered from physicochemical properties and chemical extractions. Both Ni and Mn demonstrate appreciable release in water from the Ussangoda soils compared to the other three localities, with Ni and Mn metal release increasing with increasing ionic strengths at all sites. Sequential extraction experiments, utilized to identify "elemental pools," indicate that Mn is mainly associated with oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, whereas Ni and Cr are bound in silicates and spinels. Nickel was the most bioavailable metal compared to Mn and Cr in all four soils, with the highest value observed in the Ussangoda soil at 168 ± 6.40 mg kg(-1) via the 0.01-M CaCl2 extraction. Although Mn is dominantly bound in oxides/(oxy)hydroxides, Mn is widely dispersed with concentrations reaching as high as 391 mg kg(-1) (Yudhaganawa) in the organic fraction and 49 mg kg(-1) (Ussangoda) in the exchangeable fraction. Despite Cr being primarily retained in the residual fraction, the second largest pool of Cr was in the organic matter fraction (693 mg kg(-1) in the Yudhaganawa soil). Overall, our results support that serpentine soils in Sri Lanka offer a highly labile source of metals to the critical zone.

  14. Phylogeography and molecular epidemiology of an epidemic strain of dengue virus type 1 in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ocwieja, Karen E; Fernando, Anira N; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Tennekoon, Rashika N; Tippalagama, Rashmi; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Premawansa, Gayani; Premawansa, Sunil; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2014-08-01

    In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts.

  15. Phylogeography and Molecular Epidemiology of an Epidemic Strain of Dengue Virus Type 1 in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ocwieja, Karen E.; Fernando, Anira N.; Sherrill-Mix, Scott; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Tennekoon, Rashika N.; Tippalagama, Rashmi; Krishnananthasivam, Shivankari; Premawansa, Gayani; Premawansa, Sunil; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a severe epidemic of dengue disease occurred in Sri Lanka, with higher mortality and morbidity than any previously recorded epidemic in the country. It corresponded to a shift to dengue virus 1 as the major disease-causing serotype in Sri Lanka. Dengue disease reached epidemic levels in the next 3 years. We report phylogenetic evidence that the 2009 epidemic DENV-1 strain continued to circulate within the population and caused severe disease in the epidemic of 2012. Bayesian phylogeographic analyses suggest that the 2009 Sri Lankan epidemic DENV-1 strain may have traveled directly or indirectly from Thailand through China to Sri Lanka, and after spreading within the Sri Lankan population, it traveled to Pakistan and Singapore. Our findings delineate the dissemination route of a virulent DENV-1 strain in Asia. Understanding such routes will be of particular importance to global control efforts. PMID:24799375

  16. Issues, challenges and vision for the future of the nursing profession in Sri Lanka: a review.

    PubMed

    Jayasekara, R S

    2009-03-01

    Reviewing the current situation and future development of nursing profession in Sri Lanka enables one to understand not only the nature of its successes and problems, but more importantly, in what way plans for the future will impact on the profession. To explore the issues and challenges concerning nursing regulation, administration, services and education in Sri Lanka and how they will impact on developing nursing professionalism. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE and CINAHL limited to articles in the English and Sinhala languages published between 1976 and November 2007. The reference lists of all identified reports and articles were searched for additional studies. Personal communication, unpublished reports and government records and websites were also used to obtain information on nursing service, regulation, administration and education in Sri Lanka. Hand searching of relevant Sri Lankan journals and government reports was undertaken to reveal any additional literature. The Sri Lankan nursing profession is being very tardy in asserting its professional status in the health sector. There has been minimal effort to improve the standards of nursing services and education, mainly because of inadequate and disjointed involvement of those who are responsible for improving the health services in Sri Lanka. However, nursing services and education in Sri Lanka are being scrutinized as nurses today show more concern about their professional roles, education and status.

  17. Eloquent bodies: conflict and ritual in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Derges, Jane

    2009-04-01

    It is increasingly apparent that hostilities continue in the aftermath of war and conflict, where presuppositions of peace and safety are rarely reflected on the ground. In Sri Lanka, the 2002 ceasefire agreement between the Sri Lankan government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) has recently collapsed. This collapse developed slowly over a period of several years, beginning with cautious optimism before descending into deep pessimism with increasingly high levels of violence brought about by the absence of any real progress. Efforts to rebuild and reintegrate both rural and urban communities in the north of the country have had to take place within an atmosphere of silence, suspicion and a marked escalation towards the renewed outbreak of war. This article, following sixteen months of fieldwork in the northern Jaffna peninsula, examines how Tamil youths - many of whom were imprisoned and tortured during the war - have transformed a well-known ritual that has seen a dramatic increase since occupation of the far north by government troops in 1996. The ritual, previously an act of devotion to a popular Tamil god, Murugan, has transformed into a demonstration of strength and youthful challenge. This article examines how toleration of ritual pain can be contrasted with the pain and suffering of war, and articulated not only for the self, but also for the entire community.

  18. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1–22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. Methods A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Results Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Discussion Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization. PMID:27399161

  19. Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Selvarajah, Mathu

    2016-07-01

    In the last two decades, chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) has emerged as a significant contributor to the burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in rural Sri Lanka. It is characterized by the absence of identified causes for CKD. The prevalence of CKDu is 15.1-22.9% in some Sri Lankan districts, and previous research has found an association with farming occupations. A systematic literature review in Pubmed, Embase, Scopus, and Lilacs databases identified 46 eligible peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract. Geographical mapping indicates a relationship between CKDu and agricultural irrigation water sources. Health mapping studies, human biological studies, and environment-based studies have explored possible causative agents. Most studies focused on likely causative agents related to agricultural practices, geographical distribution based on the prevalence and incidence of CKDu, and contaminants identified in drinking water. Nonetheless, the link between agrochemicals or heavy metals and CKDu remains to be established. No definitive cause for CKDu has been identified. Evidence to date suggests that the disease is related to one or more environmental agents, however pinpointing a definite cause for CKDu is challenging. It is plausible that CKDu is multifactorial. No specific guidelines or recommendations exist for treatment of CKDu, and standard management protocols for CKD apply. Changes in agricultural practices, provision of safe drinking water, and occupational safety precautions are recommended by the World Health Organization.

  20. Reverse osmosis plant maintenance and efficacy in chronic kidney disease endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Ranasinghe, Omesh; Ranasinghe, Sachini; Siriwardhana, Imalka; Gunatilake, Sarath; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding. We also measured total dissolved solids (TDS in ppm) to assess the efficacy of the RO process. Most RO plants were operated by community-based organizations. They provide clean and sustainable water source for many in the NCP for a nominal fee, which tends to be variable. The RO plant operators carry out RO plant maintenance. However, maintenance procedures and quality management practices tend to vary from an operator to another. RO process itself has the ability to lower the TDS of the water. On average, RO process reduces the TDS to 29 ppm. The RO process reduces the impurities in water available to many individuals within CINAC endemic regions. However, there variation in maintenance, quality management, and day-to-day care between operators can be a cause for concern. This variability can affect the quality of water produced by RO plant, its maintenance cost and lifespan. Thus, uniform regulation and training is needed to reduce cost of maintenance and increase the efficacy of RO plants.

  1. Endemic chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Sri Lanka: Correlation of pathology with clinical stages.

    PubMed

    Wijetunge, S; Ratnatunga, N V I; Abeysekera, T D J; Wazil, A W M; Selvarajah, M

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDU) is endemic among the rural farming communities in several localities in and around the North Central region of Sri Lanka. This is an interstitial type renal disease and typically has an insidious onset and slow progression. This study was conducted to identify the pathological features in the different clinical stages of CKDU. This is a retrospective study of 251 renal biopsies identified to have a primary interstitial disease from regions endemic for CKDU. Pathological features were assessed and graded in relation to the clinical stage. The mean age of those affected by endemic CKDU was 37.3 ± 12.5 years and the male to female ratio was 3.3:1. The predominant feature of stage I disease was mild and moderate interstitial fibrosis; most did not have interstitial inflammation. The typical stage II disease had moderate interstitial fibrosis with or without mild interstitial inflammation. Stage III disease had moderate and severe interstitial fibrosis, moderate interstitial inflammation, tubular atrophy and some glomerulosclerosis. Stage IV disease typically had severe interstitial fibrosis and inflammation, tubular atrophy and glomerulosclerosis. The mean age of patients with stage I disease (27 ± 10.8 years) was significantly lower than those of the other stages. About 79.2%, 55%, 49.1% and 50% in stage I, II, III and IV disease respectively were asymptomatic at the time of biopsy.

  2. Reproductive health concerns in six conflict-affected areas of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kottegoda, Sepali; Samuel, Kumudini; Emmanuel, Sarala

    2008-05-01

    This article draws on a study conducted by the Women and Media Collective between 2004 and 2005 to highlight some of the reproductive health concerns of women from Sinhalese, Tamil and Muslim ethnic groups, living in situations of conflict in Sri Lanka. The study focussed on women from six conflict-affected areas in the north and east of the country: Jaffna (Northern Province), Mannar and Puttalam (North-Western Province), Polonnaruwa (North-Central Province), Batticaloa and Ampara (Eastern Province). Higher levels of poverty, higher rates of school drop-out, low pay and precarious access to work, mainly in the informal sector, higher rates of early marriage, pregnancy and home births, higher levels of maternal mortality and lower levels of contraceptive use were found. Economic, social and physical insecurity were key to these phenomena. Physically and psychologically, women were at high risk of sexual and physical violence, mainly from their partners/spouses but also from family members, often related to dowry. The article brings out the voices of women whose lives have been overshadowed by conflict and displacement, and the nature of structural barriers that impede their right to health care services, to make informed decisions about their lives and to live free of familial violence.

  3. Coagulopathy and extensive local swelling following Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Namal Rathnayaka, R M M K; Kularatne, S A M; Ranathunga, P E A N

    2017-04-01

    Trimeresurus trigonocephalus (Sri Lankan Green pit viper) is a moderately venomous arboreal snake endemic to Sri Lanka. Even though, its bites are not uncommon, published reports of such cases are limited to three in literature. We report three cases of coagulopathy following Green pit viper bites and treatment with fresh frozen plasma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. REDD+ readiness implications for Sri Lanka in terms of reducing deforestation.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Eskil; Persson, U Martin; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P

    2012-06-15

    Any system to compensate countries for reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) requires a historical reference level against which future performance can be measured. Here we examine the possibilities Sri Lanka, a small forest country with limited data on forest carbon stocks, has to get ready for REDD+. We construct a historical reference level using available forest inventory data combined with updated 2008 and 2009 in situ carbon density data for Sri Lankan forests. Furthermore, we use a combination of qualitative and quantitative data to attribute the clearing of Sri Lankan forests in the latest years for which national forest inventory data are available, 1992-1996, to various proximate drivers and to estimate the opportunity cost of forest conservation. We estimate that baseline deforestation emissions in Sri Lanka amounted to 17MtCO(2)yr(-1) in the 1992-1996 period, but conclude that it is challenging for Sri Lanka to produce a robust and accurate reference level due to the lack of nationally based inventories. We find that the majority of forest clearing (87%) is due to small-scale, rainfed farming, with the two other major drivers being rice and tea cultivation. Further, Sri Lankan revenues from REDD+ participation could be substantial, but they are sensitive to REDD+ policy transaction cost, highly uncertain timber revenues, and particularly the carbon price paid for emission reductions. The latter needs to be higher than $5-10/tCO(2) if there are to be substantial incentives for Sri Lanka to participate in REDD+. There is, however, a large gap in the knowledge of deforestation drivers that needs to be filled if Sri Lanka is to formulate an effective policy response to forest degradation in REDD+. For successful REDD+ implementation in Sri Lanka to happen, technological assistance, readiness assistance, and continued political momentum are crucial.

  5. Three sympatric clusters of the malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies E (Diptera: Culicidae) detected in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Harischandra, Iresha Nilmini; Dassanayake, Ranil Samantha; De Silva, Bambaranda Gammacharige Don Nissanka Kolitha

    2016-01-04

    The disease re-emergence threat from the major malaria vector in Sri Lanka, Anopheles culicifacies, is currently increasing. To predict malaria vector dynamics, knowledge of population genetics and gene flow is required, but this information is unavailable for Sri Lanka. This study was carried out to determine the population structure of An. culicifacies E in Sri Lanka. Eight microsatellite markers were used to examine An. culicifacies E collected from six sites in Sri Lanka during 2010-2012. Standard population genetic tests and analyses, genetic differentiation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, linkage disequilibrium, Bayesian cluster analysis, AMOVA, SAMOVA and isolation-by-distance were conducted using five polymorphic loci. Five microsatellite loci were highly polymorphic with high allelic richness. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) was significantly rejected for four loci with positive F(IS) values in the pooled population (p < 0.0100). Three loci showed high deviations in all sites except Kataragama, which was in agreement with HWE for all loci except one locus (p < 0.0016). Observed heterozygosity was less than the expected values for all sites except Kataragama, where reported negative F(IS) values indicated a heterozygosity excess. Genetic differentiation was observed for all sampling site pairs and was not supported by the isolation by distance model. Bayesian clustering analysis identified the presence of three sympatric clusters (gene pools) in the studied population. Significant genetic differentiation was detected in cluster pairs with low gene flow and isolation by distance was not detected between clusters. Furthermore, the results suggested the presence of a barrier to gene flow that divided the populations into two parts with the central hill region of Sri Lanka as the dividing line. Three sympatric clusters were detected among An. culicifacies E specimens isolated in Sri Lanka. There was no effect of geographic distance on genetic

  6. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chathuranga, Gayashan; Balasuriya, Thushara; Perera, Rasika

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n = 53) had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n = 24) had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants' dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P = 0.525), drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P = 0.775), frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P = 0.499), antihelminthic treatment within past year (P = 0.792), and menorrhagia (P = 0.560)). Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population.

  7. Anaemia among Female Undergraduates Residing in the Hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Balasuriya, Thushara

    2014-01-01

    Anaemia is a major public health problem that has affected around 25% of the world's population. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed on 313 female undergraduates residing in hostels of University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka, during year 2011. Objective of this study was to determine prevalence and contributing factors to anaemia among the study population. Haemoglobin concentration was assayed using cyanomethaemoglobin method. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to retrieve information regarding dietary habits and personal factors of participants. Descriptive statistical methods, chi-square test, and independent sample t-test were used to analyze data. Of the 302 females, 17.5% (n = 53) had mild anaemia and 7.9% (n = 24) had moderate anaemia. Severely anaemic individuals were not observed. Participants' dietary habits and personal factors were not significantly associated with prevalence of anaemia (whether a participant is a vegetarian or not (P = 0.525), drinking tea within one hour of a meal (P = 0.775), frequency of consumption of red meat, fish, and eggs (P = 0.499), antihelminthic treatment within past year (P = 0.792), and menorrhagia (P = 0.560)). Anaemia in the study population is below the average for Sri Lankan data. Diet and selected medical conditions were not a causative factor for anaemia in this population. PMID:25328694

  8. Historical evolution and present status of family medicine in sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Ramanayake, R P J C

    2013-04-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status.

  9. Productivity Cost Due to Maternal Ill Health in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth; Agampodi, Thilini; Wickramasinghe, Nuwan; Fernando, Santhushya; Chathurani, Umanga; Adhikari, Wathsala; Dharshika, Ishani; Nugegoda, Dhanaseela; Dharmaratne, Samath; Newlands, David

    2012-01-01

    Background The global impact of maternal ill health on economic productivity is estimated to be over 15 billion USD per year. Global data on productivity cost associated with maternal ill health are limited to estimations based on secondary data. Purpose of our study was to determine the productivity cost due to maternal ill health during pregnancy in Sri Lanka. Methods and Findings We studied 466 pregnant women, aged 24 to 36 weeks, residing in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A two stage cluster sampling procedure was used in a cross sectional design and all pregnant women were interviewed at clinic centers, using the culturally adapted Immpact tool kit for productivity cost assessment. Of the 466 pregnant women studied, 421 (90.3%) reported at least one ill health condition during the pregnancy period, and 353 (83.8%) of them had conditions affecting their daily life. Total incapacitation requiring another person to carry out all their routine activities was reported by 122 (26.1%) of the women. In this study sample, during the last episode of ill health, total number of days lost due to absenteeism was 3,356 (32.9% of total loss) and the days lost due to presenteeism was 6,832.8 (67.1% of the total loss). Of the 353 women with ill health conditions affecting their daily life, 280 (60%) had coping strategies to recover loss of productivity. Of the coping strategies used to recover productivity loss during maternal ill health, 76.8% (n = 215) was an intra-household adaptation, and 22.8% (n = 64) was through social networks. Loss of productivity was 28.9 days per episode of maternal ill health. The mean productivity cost due to last episode of ill health in this sample was Rs.8,444.26 (95% CI-Rs.6888.74-Rs.9999.78). Conclusions Maternal ill health has a major impact on household productivity and economy. The major impact is due to, generally ignored minor ailments during pregnancy. PMID:22879943

  10. Adolescents perception of reproductive health care services in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Agampodi, Thilini C; UKD, Piyaseeli

    2008-01-01

    Background Adolescent health needs, behaviours and expectations are unique and routine health care services are not well geared to provide these services. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceived reproductive health problems, health seeking behaviors, knowledge about available services and barriers to reach services among a group of adolescents in Sri Lanka in order to improve reproductive health service delivery. Methods This qualitative study was conducted in a semi urban setting in Sri Lanka. A convenient sample of 32 adolescents between 17–19 years of age participated in four focus group discussions. Participants were selected from four midwife areas. A pre-tested focus group guide was used for data collection. Male and female facilitators conducted discussions separately with young males and females. All tape-recorded data was fully transcribed and thematic analysis was done. Results Psychological distresses due to various reasons and problems regarding menstrual cycle and masturbation were reported as the commonest health problems. Knowledge on existing services was very poor and boys were totally unaware of youth health services available through the public health system. On reproductive Health Matters, girls mainly sought help from friends whereas boys did not want to discuss their problems with anyone. Lack of availability of services was pointed out as the most important barrier in reaching the adolescent needs. Lack of access to reproductive health knowledge was an important reason for poor self-confidence among adolescents to discuss these matters. Lack of confidentiality, youth friendliness and accessibility of available services were other barriers discussed. Adolescents were happy to accept available services through public clinics and other health infrastructure for their services rather than other organizations. A demand was made for separate youth friendly services through medical practitioners. Conclusions and recommendations

  11. Rickettsial infection among military personnel deployed in Northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Premaratna, Ranjan; Ariyaratna, Nimalka; Attanayake, Champaka; Bandara, Wijesinghe; Chandrasena, Nilmini; de Silva, H Janaka

    2014-12-20

    Military personnel deployed in field actvities report on frequent tick bites. Therefore they may run the risk of exposure to rickettsial organisms. In order to assess the risk of exposure to rickettsial organisms, two groups of military personnel who were deployed in field activities of Nothern Sri Lanka were investigated. The first group was studied in order to assess the sero-prevalence of rickettsioses and consisted of soldiers who were admitted following injuries during field activities. The second group was studied to identify the incidence of acute rickettsioses during their acute febrile presentations. They were tested with IFA-IgG against spotted fever group rickettsioses (SFG), scrub typhus (ST) and murine typhus. In the first group, 48/57 (84%) military personnel had serological evidence of exposure to rickettsioses (in all, IFA-IgG titer ≥ 1:128): 33/50 (66%) to SFG rickettsioses, 1/50 (2%) to ST and 14/50 (28%) had mixed titers for both (in all, titers were higher for SFG). While all of them were in military uniform most of the time and frequently slept on scrub land, 35/57 (61.4%) had never used insect repellents and none were on doxycycline prophylaxis. 48/57 (84%) had experienced tick bites during field activity. In the second group, there were 49 who presented with acute febrile illness with a mean duration of 8.5 days (SD 3.2). 33/49 (67.3%) were serologically positive for acute rickettsioses (IgG ≥1:256); 26 (79%) due to ST and 7 (21%) due to SFG rickettsioses, Exposure to rickettsial disease was common among soldiers who were deployed in Northern Sri Lanka. Scrub typhus was the predominent species accounting for acute febrile illness. Further studies are needed to understand the reasons for very high sero-prevalence for SFG rickettsioses with no anticedent febrile illness. Use of preventive measures was not satisfactory. The high sero-prevelence of SFG rickettsioses is likely to interfere with serological diagnosis of acute SFG

  12. Ethics Review Committee approval and informed consent: an analysis of biomedical publications originating from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sumathipala, Athula; Siribaddana, Sisira; Hewege, Suwin; Lekamwattage, Manura; Athukorale, Manjula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Murray, Joanna; Prince, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Background International guidelines on research have focused on protecting research participants. Ethical Research Committee (ERC) approval and informed consent are the cornerstones. Externally sponsored research requires approval through ethical review in both the host and the sponsoring country. This study aimed to determine to what extent ERC approval and informed consent procedures are documented in locally and internationally published human subject research carried out in Sri Lanka. Methods We obtained ERC approval in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. Theses from 1985 to 2005 available at the Postgraduate Institute of Medicine (PGIM) library affiliated to the University of Colombo were scrutinised using checklists agreed in consultation with senior research collaborators. A Medline search was carried out with MeSH major and minor heading 'Sri Lanka' as the search term for international publications originating in Sri Lanka during 1999 to 2004. All research publications from CMJ during 1999 to 2005 were also scrutinized. Results Of 291 theses, 34% documented ERC approvals and 61% documented obtaining consent. From the international journal survey, 250 publications originated from Sri Lanka of which only 79 full text original research publications could be accessed electronically. Of these 38% documented ERC approval and 39% documented obtaining consent. In the Ceylon Medical Journal 36% documented ERC approval and 37% documented obtaining consent. Conclusion Only one third of the publications scrutinized recorded ERC approval and procurement of informed consent. However, there is a positive trend in documenting these ethical requirements in local postgraduate research and in the local medical journal. PMID:18267015

  13. Medical support to Sri Lanka in the wake of tsunamis: planning considerations and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Lane, David A

    2006-10-01

    When massive tsunamis affected the coast of Sri Lanka and other Indian Ocean littorals, elements of the Third Force Service Support Group and assigned Navy, Air Force, Army, and Coast Guard units from the U.S. Pacific Command were "task organized" to form Combined Support Group-Sri Lanka (CSG-SL), charged to conduct humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations. The specific mission was to provide immediate relief to the affected population of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, to minimize loss of life, and to mitigate human suffering. A 30-person health care team deployed to the northern province of Jaffna and provided medical assistance to that chronically underserved and acutely overstressed region. For a 12-day period, the team served as the principal medical staff of an under-resourced government hospital and conducted mobile primary care clinics at nearby welfare camps housing > 7,000 internally displaced persons made homeless by the tsunamis. By every measurable standard, CSG-SL accomplished its assigned HA/DR task in Sri Lanka, including the medical mission. In doing so, the medical team learned many important lessons, including five of particular value to planners of similar relief operations in the future. This article discusses the context in which CSG-SL planned and executed the medical aspects of its HA/DR operations in Sri Lanka, and it describes the most significant medical lessons learned.

  14. Medical geology in tropical countries with special reference to Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, C B; Chandrajith, Rohana

    2007-04-01

    Sri Lanka provides an ideal opportunity for the study of the effect of geology on human health. The vast majority of the people of Sri Lanka still live in rural areas within areas termed geochemical provinces. Very broadly, one could say that a geochemical province has characteristic chemical composition in soil, water stream sediments and rocks, enabling their delineation from others. The chemical composition is presumed to be have an impact on the health of the inhabitants of the particular geochemical province, particularly because of the fact that their food and water are obtained mostly from the terrain itself. This leads to the concept of "diseases of geochemical origin". Among these are dental fluorosis, iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs) and selenium-based diseases. The Dry Zone of Sri Lanka has several areas rich in groundwater fluoride, the ingestion of which leads to dental fluorosis. Iodine deficiency diseases are more common in the Wet Zone, though their aetiologies are more complicated. Interestingly, it has also been observed that significant proportions of the female population of Sri Lanka are selenium-deficient, which could well be related to the geological environment. Chronic renal failure (CRF) has been observed in some areas of the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka, where there is a relationship of CRF with the mineral content of drinking water. This subject matter falls under the auspices of Medical Geology, a scientific discipline still in its infancy, and much more concerted studies are needed to attract the attention of medical research.

  15. E-waste issues in Sri Lanka and the Basel Convention.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka

    2016-03-01

    E-waste is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. The management of e-waste is considered a serious challenge in both developed and developing countries and Sri Lanka is no exception. Due to significant growth in the economy and investments and other reasons the consumption of electronic and electrical equipment in Sri Lanka has increased over the years resulting in significant generation of e-waste. Several initiatives such as introduction of hazardous waste management rules, ratification of the Basel Convention in 1992 and the introduction of a National Corporate E-waste Management Program have been undertaken in Sri Lanka to manage e-waste. Strengthening policy and legislation, introducing methods for upstream reduction of e-waste, building capacity of relevant officers, awareness raising among school children and the general public and development of an e-waste information system are vital. Research on e-waste needs to be developed in Sri Lanka. The health sector could play a leading role in the provision of occupational health and safety for e-waste workers, advocacy, capacity building of relevant staff and raising awareness among the general public about e-waste. Improper e-waste management practices carried out by informal sector workers need to be addressed urgently in Sri Lanka.

  16. Examining Adaptations to Water Stress Among Farming Households in Sri Lanka's Dry Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, N. E.; Carrico, A.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka's primary rice-farming zone. Whether these changes will undermine the national-level food security that Sri Lanka has worked to develop since their independence depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Using household survey data collected in 13 rice farming communities throughout Sri Lanka, this research explores how water stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Our analyses reveal that farmers' abilities to access irrigation infrastructure is the most important factor shaping the rice yields of water stressed Sri Lanka farmers. Notably, however, our research also identified farmers' use of hybrid, 'short duration' seed varietals to be the only climate adaptation strategy being promoted by agricultural extension services to have a significant positive impact on farmers' yields. These findings provide encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change.

  17. Chemical variability and leaf damage among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marchall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...

  18. Problems of Illiteracy in a Literate Developing Society: Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawardena, Chandra

    1997-09-01

    With 87.0% of its population literate, Sri Lanka occupies a high ranking position among South and South-East Asian nations in educational development. The high percentage of literacy achieved through progressive measures in education spanning half a century, however, has led to a state of complacency and less priority being given to efforts at eradicating illiteracy. This paper will focus on a recent study conducted on the incidence of illiteracy in specific disadvantaged communities in the country which indicated that in the present era of technological advancement, lack of literacy will continue to affect the life-chances of people in these communities where the rate of literacy remains much lower than the national average. The study investigates into the factors associated with illiteracy, and the attitudes and perceptions of the communities themselves towards literacy programmes and regarding the modalities and strategies of providing literacy. The implications of the study and the final recommendations drawn up in consultation with the policy makers at national and provincial levels in governmental and non-governmental sectors are also discussed in the paper.

  19. A modern terrestrial phosphorite-an example from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayake, Kapila; Subasinghe, S. M. N. D.

    1989-02-01

    At Eppawala in Central Sri Lanka, a thick weathering profile is mined for use as phosphate fertilizer. Recent tropical subaerial weathering processes have produced a phosphate-enriched horizon in the weathering profile which has developed on a Precambrian apatite marble formation. The enriched horizon with P 2O 5 compositions ranging from 10 to 40% is formed essentially of laminar phoscretes occurring in a network of sinkholes. Detailed examination of the laminar phoscretes reveals that primary metamorphic apatite crystals occur in association with phosphatic allochems such as coated grains, ooids, pisoids and intraclasts in a finely layered groundmass. It has been observed that the primary apatite grains released from the parent apatite marble due to tropical weathering processes have been deposited in sinkholes where nutrient-rich percolating meteoric waters were precipitating secondary apatite. Subsequent diagenetic processes active in such sinkhole sedimentary environments have produced the phosphatic allochems characteristic of secondary phosphate mineralization. The allochems together with their mineralized groundmass and the associated primary apatite grains have given rise to the Eppawala phosphorite deposit.

  20. Sexuality and women's rights in armed conflict in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tambiah, Yasmin

    2004-05-01

    The discourse of human rights in armed conflict situations is well adapted to respond to violence and violation, invoking internationally agreed principles of civil and political rights. However, in areas where the subject or domain of rights discourse is contested or controversial, human rights advocates appear less prepared to promote and defend such rights. Sexuality is one such domain. This paper explores the complex sexual choices women in Sri Lanka have had to negotiate, particularly widows and sex workers, within a context of ethnic conflict, militarisation and war. It argues that sexuality cannot be defined exclusively in terms of violation, even in a context dominated by violence, and that the sexual ordering of society may be subverted in such conditions. Newly widowed women and sex workers have had to negotiate self-determination as well as take responsibility for earning income and heading households, in spite of contrary community pressures. For women, political and economic rights are closely linked with the ability to determine their sexual and reproductive choices. The challenge to women's and human rights advocates is how to articulate sexual autonomy as a necessary right on a par with others, and strategise to secure this right during armed conflict and postwar reconstruction.

  1. Estimating missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of reconstructing missing daily temperature extremes in the Jaffna climatological station, situated in the northern part of the dry zone of Sri Lanka, is presented. The adopted method utilizes standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperature values at four neighbouring stations, Mannar, Anuradhapura, Puttalam and Trincomalee to estimate the standard departures of daily maximum and minimum temperatures at the target station, Jaffna. The daily maximum and minimum temperatures from 1966 to 1980 (15 years) were used to test the validity of the method. The accuracy of the estimation is higher for daily maximum temperature compared to daily minimum temperature. About 95% of the estimated daily maximum temperatures are within ±1.5 °C of the observed values. For daily minimum temperature, the percentage is about 92. By calculating the standard deviation of the difference in estimated and observed values, we have shown that the error in estimating the daily maximum and minimum temperatures is ±0.7 and ±0.9 °C, respectively. To obtain the best accuracy when estimating the missing daily temperature extremes, it is important to include Mannar which is the nearest station to the target station, Jaffna. We conclude from the analysis that the method can be applied successfully to reconstruct the missing daily temperature extremes in Jaffna where no data is available due to frequent disruptions caused by civil unrests and hostilities in the region during the period, 1984 to 2000.

  2. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures.

  3. Human body donation programs in Sri Lanka: Buddhist perspectives.

    PubMed

    Subasinghe, Sandeepani Kanchana; Jones, D Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Considerable attention is being given to the availability of bodies for anatomical education. This raises the question of the manner in which they are obtained, that is, whether they are unclaimed or donated. With increasing emphasis upon the ethical desirability of using body bequests, the spotlight tends to be focused on those countries with factors that militate against donations. However, little attention has been paid to cultures where donations are readily available. One such country is Sri Lanka where the majority of the Buddhist population follows Theravada Buddhism. Within this context, the expectation is that donations will be given selflessly without expecting anything in return. This is because donation of one's body has blessings for a better outcome now and in the afterlife. The ceremonies to honor donors are outlined, including details of the "Pirith Ceremony." The relevance for other cultures of these features of body donation is discussed paying especial attention to the meaning of altruism and consent, and justification for the anonymization of cadavers. The degree to which anatomy is integrated into the surrounding culture also emerges as significant.

  4. Managing shallow aquifers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sood, Aditya; Manthrithilake, Herath; Siddiqui, Salman; Rajah, Ameer; Pathmarajah, S

    2015-07-01

    This study looks at the groundwater issues in the dry zone of Sri Lanka and shows how the use of remote sensing with high-resolution images can help in groundwater management. A new approach is developed for automatic extraction of the location of agro-wells using high-spatial-resolution satellite imageries. As an example, three pilot sites in three different aquifer systems in the country are considered, and their high-resolution images are analyzed over two temporal time periods. The analysis suggests that the well density in all three regions has increased over the last few years, indicating higher levels of groundwater extraction. Using the well inventory developed by this new approach, the water budgeting was prepared for the mainland of Jaffna Peninsula. The analysis shows a wide variation in well density in the Jaffna Peninsula, ranging from (as little as) less than 15 wells per square kilometer to (as high as) more than 200 wells per square kilometer. Calculations made for the maximum allowable water extraction in each administrative division of Jaffna show that less than 3 h of daily extraction per well is possible in some districts. This points to an increasing pressure on groundwater resources in the region and thus highlights the importance of understanding groundwater budgets for sustainable development of the aquifers.

  5. The use and abuse of female domestic workers from Sri Lanka in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Abu-habib, L

    1998-03-01

    Women who migrate from Sri Lanka to become domestic workers in Lebanon face gender, class, and race discrimination that often results in abuse, yet the predicament of these women is largely ignored by local and international humanitarian and human rights agencies. Public consciousness about the plight of Asian domestic workers in the Persian Gulf region was raised in 1990 when domestic workers were repatriated in the wake of the Gulf War. In Lebanon, nearly half of the work permits granted to foreigners in 1997 were to women from Sri Lanka. This migration began in the 1970s and is sanctioned by the Sri Lanka government because of the economic benefits accruing from wages sent home by these women. Lebanese families procure domestic positions through an employment agency that arranges transportation and entry for the Sri Lankan women. These women, especially minors, often have to bribe Sri Lankan government agents to falsify travel documents. Upon arrival in Lebanon, the women have no support systems or job security. Most employment contracts last 3 years and pay $100/month with no benefits or protection from local labor laws. Domestic workers are made vulnerable by employers who withhold salaries or travel documents. Upon return to Sri Lanka, former domestic workers face social disapproval and marital problems. To redress this situation, the governments of sending and receiving countries must take action to protect female migrant workers, and nongovernmental organizations must publicize the plight of these women and take action to address the abuses they face.

  6. Nutritional status among primary school children in rural Sri Lanka; a public health challenge for a country with high child health standards.

    PubMed

    Naotunna, N P G C R; Dayarathna, M; Maheshi, H; Amarasinghe, G S; Kithmini, V S; Rathnayaka, M; Premachandra, L; Premarathna, N; Rajasinghe, P C; Wijewardana, G; Agampodi, T C; Agampodi, S B

    2017-01-10

    Nutritional status of pre adolescent children is not widely studied in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this study was to determine the nutritional status among pre-adolescent school children in a rural province of Sri Lanka. A school based cross sectional study was carried out in North Central Province in 100 rural schools, selected using multi stage cluster sampling with probability proportionate to size. Children in grade one to five were enrolled with a maximum cluster size of fifty. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained data collectors and venesection was done at site by trained nurses. WHO AnthoPlus was used to calculate the BMI, height for age and weight for age Z scores. Survey design adjusted prevalence estimates with linearized standard errors were generated using svy function of STATA. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was calculated using methaeamoglobin method. Screening for iron deficiency and thalassemia trait was done using peripheral blood films. Height and weight measurements were done for 4469 of children and the Hb data was available for 4398 children. Based on the survey design adjusted estimates, prevalence of severe thinness, thinness, overweight and obesity in this population was 8.60% (SE 0.94), 2.91%(SE 0.74), 2.95%(0.26) and 2.43%(SE 0.92) respectively. Similarly, survey design adjusted prevalence of underweight and stunting were, 25.93% (95% CI 24.07-27.89%) and 43.92%(95% CI 40.55-47.56%). Adjusted mean estimates for hemoglobin was 12.20 (95% CI 12.16-12.24) g/dL. Prevalence of anemia was 17.3% (n = 749). Prevalence of mild and moderate anemia was 9.4 and 7.6% respectively. This study confirms that malnutrition is still a major problem in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.

  7. Isotopic mapping of age provinces in Precambrian high-grade terrains: Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Milisenda, C.C.; Liew, T.C.; Hofmann, A.W.; Kroener, A.

    1988-09-01

    Nd model ages of amphibolite- and granulite-grade rocks in Sri Lanka form a simple region pattern that broadly correlates with mappable geological units, and is in effect an isotopic map of the island's basement. The granulite-grade units of the Highland Group and Southwest Group have model ages of 2.2-3.0 Ga indicating derivation mainly from late Archean sources. They are bounded to the east and west by late Proterozoic gneisses of the Vijayan Complex with model ages of 1.1-2.0 Ga. The isotopic data identify three distinct crustal provinces and are not consistent with earlier suggestions that the Vijayan gneisses are retrograde equivalents of the Highland granulites. Sri Lanka is not a direct continuation of the Archean Dharwar Craton of southern India. Identification of Vijayan-type juvenile crustal terrains in other Gondwana fragments may play a key role in determining the precise attachment of southern India-Sri Lanka in eastern Gondwana.

  8. USE OF AND ATTITUDES TOWARD TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL AMONG ADULTS IN SOUTHERN SRI LANKA

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo, Sarah; Perera, Bilesha; Beaudry, Lauren; Grad, Jennifer; Maselko, Joanna; Østbye, Truls

    2014-01-01

    The adverse health effects of tobacco and alcohol are well known. Alcohol consumption is increasing in Sri Lanka, but few population studies have been conducted. The objective of this study was to document tobacco and alcohol consumption levels among adults in southern Sri Lanka and to identify the main reasons for using or refraining from alcohol and tobacco products. Tobacco and alcohol use within Sri Lanka is relatively common, particularly among adult males. Reasons given for smoking and drinking frequently relate to social and image-based motivators. Women may be especially susceptible to the influence of peer pressure in social situations. Public health efforts should consider the use of demographic-specific anti-tobacco and anti-alcohol messages, as the motivators driving behavior appear to differ across gender and age groups. PMID:24437324

  9. Use of x-ray fluorescence and diffraction techniques in studying ancient ceramics of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunaratne, B. S. B.

    2012-07-01

    Ceramics were produced for centuries in Sri Lanka for various purposes. Ancient ceramic articles such as pottery, bricks, tiles, sewer pipes, etc, were made from naturally occurring raw materials. Use of X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in characterizing of two ancient ceramic samples from two different archaeological sites in Sri Lanka is presented. The information obtained in this manner is used to figure out the ancient ceramic technology, particularly to learn about the raw materials used, the source of raw materials, processing parameters such as firing temperature or binders used in ceramic production. This information then can be used to explore the archaeometric background such as the nature and extent of cultural and technological interaction between different periods of history in Sri Lanka.

  10. Molecular characterization and identification of members of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Sarma, Devojit K; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Kemppainen, Petri; Kanthakumaran, Nadarajah; Gajapathy, Kanapathy; Peiris, Lalanthika B S; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Walton, Catherine

    2013-08-30

    Anopheles subpictus sensu lato is a major malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia. Based initially on polytene chromosome inversion polymorphism, and subsequently on morphological characterization, four sibling species A-D were reported from India. The present study uses molecular methods to further characterize and identify sibling species in Sri Lanka. Mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were morphologically identified to species and sequenced for the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I (COI) genes. These sequences, together with others from GenBank, were used to construct phylogenetic trees and parsimony haplotype networks and to test for genetic population structure. Both ITS2 and COI sequences revealed two divergent clades indicating that the Subpictus complex in Sri Lanka is composed of two genetically distinct species that correspond to species A and species B from India. Phylogenetic analysis showed that species A and species B do not form a monophyletic clade but instead share genetic similarity with Anopheles vagus and Anopheles sundaicus s.l., respectively. An allele specific identification method based on ITS2 variation was developed for the reliable identification of species A and B in Sri Lanka. Further multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the species status of all chromosomal forms in the Subpictus complex. This study emphasizes the difficulties in using morphological characters for species identification in An. subpictus s.l. in Sri Lanka and demonstrates the utility of an allele specific identification method that can be used to characterize the differential bio-ecological traits of species A and B in Sri Lanka.

  11. Molecular characterization and identification of members of the Anopheles subpictus complex in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anopheles subpictus sensu lato is a major malaria vector in South and Southeast Asia. Based initially on polytene chromosome inversion polymorphism, and subsequently on morphological characterization, four sibling species A-D were reported from India. The present study uses molecular methods to further characterize and identify sibling species in Sri Lanka. Methods Mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were morphologically identified to species and sequenced for the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer-2 (ITS2) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit-I (COI) genes. These sequences, together with others from GenBank, were used to construct phylogenetic trees and parsimony haplotype networks and to test for genetic population structure. Results Both ITS2 and COI sequences revealed two divergent clades indicating that the Subpictus complex in Sri Lanka is composed of two genetically distinct species that correspond to species A and species B from India. Phylogenetic analysis showed that species A and species B do not form a monophyletic clade but instead share genetic similarity with Anopheles vagus and Anopheles sundaicus s.l., respectively. An allele specific identification method based on ITS2 variation was developed for the reliable identification of species A and B in Sri Lanka. Conclusion Further multidisciplinary studies are needed to establish the species status of all chromosomal forms in the Subpictus complex. This study emphasizes the difficulties in using morphological characters for species identification in An. subpictus s.l. in Sri Lanka and demonstrates the utility of an allele specific identification method that can be used to characterize the differential bio-ecological traits of species A and B in Sri Lanka. PMID:24001126

  12. Nonresponsiveness to standard treatment in cutaneous leishmaniasis: A case series from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Refai, Fathima Wardha; Madarasingha, Nayani P; Fernandopulle, Rohini; Karunaweera, Nadira

    2016-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Sri Lanka with over 3000 cases during the last decade and numbers are increasing. Treatment options available in Sri Lanka for CL include intralesional/intramuscular sodium stibogluconate and cryotherapy. Eight cases of treatment failure with standard therapy are reported from the Dermatology Clinic, Teaching Hospital Anuradhapura. Therapeutic regimes aim for clinical healing, these patients responded poorly to anti-leishmanial therapy, indicating the need for close monitoring, explore alternative treatment options and to investigate for drug resistance in parasites. PMID:27722106

  13. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P

    2013-12-01

    We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.

  14. Clinical and genetic features of Huntington disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sumathipala, Dulika S; Jayasekara, Rohan W; Dissanayake, Vajira H W

    2013-12-05

    Huntington disease was one of the first neurological hereditary diseases for which genetic testing was made possible as early as 1993. The study describes the clinical and genetic characteristics of patients with Huntington disease in Sri Lanka. Data of 35 consecutive patients tested from 2007 to 2012 at the Human Genetics Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo was analyzed retrospectively. Clinical data and genetic diagnostic results were reviewed. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistics. Thirty patients had fully penetrant (FP) CAG repeat mutations and 5 had reduced penetrant (RP) CAG repeat mutations. In the FP group mean ages of onset and diagnosis were 37.5 and 40.4 years, while in the RP group it was 63.0 and 64.8 years respectively. The age of diagnosis ranged from 15 to 72 years, with 2 patients with Juvenile onset (<20 years) and 3 with late onset (>60 years) Huntington disease. The symptoms at diagnosis were predominantly motor (32/35 -91%). Three patients had psychiatric and behavioral disorders. The age difference between onset and genetic diagnosis showed significant delay in females compared to males (p < 0.05). Twenty two (62.8%) had a positive family history, with 13/22 (59.1%) showing a paternal inheritance of the disease. In both groups, those with a family history had a significantly lower age of presentation (p < 0.05). The mean CAG repeat length in patients with FP alleles was 44.6 ± 5 and RP alleles was 37.2 ± 1.1. Age of onset and CAG repeat length of the HTT gene showed significant inverse correlation (p < 0.0005, R2 = 0.727). The clinical and genetic features seen in patients with Huntington disease in the Sri Lankan study population were similar to that previously reported in literature.

  15. Biomass fuel use for cooking in Sri Lanka: analysis of data from national demographic health surveys.

    PubMed

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-12-01

    Biomass cooking fuel is the main source of indoor air pollution in the majority of households in the developing world. Sri Lanka is an island of about 20 million population with urban, rural, and estate population of 14.6%, 80.0%, and 5.4%, respectively. This study describes biomass fuel use for cooking in Sri Lanka. We analyzed data from two national Demographic Health Surveys (2000 and 2007) to identify the use and determinants of cooking fuels in Sri Lankan households. The results are based on a sample of 8,169 households in 2000 and 19,862 households in 2007. Wood was the principal cooking fuel used in 78.3% and 78.5% of households in 2000 and 2007, respectively. In 2007, 96.3% of estate sector households used firewood as compared to 84.2% in the rural and 34.6% in the urban sectors. Similar trends were noted in 2000 as well. The shift from firewood to cleaner fuels in Sri Lanka is negligible from 2000 to 2007. Improving the quality of life of the population does not necessarily predict a shift towards the use of cleaner cooking fuels in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molecular characterization of cyanobacterial diversity in Lake Gregory, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magana-Arachchi, Dhammika; Wanigatunge, Rasika; Liyanage, Madhushankha

    2011-07-01

    Eutrophication or the process of nutrient enrichment of stagnant waters due to excessive use of fertilizer is becoming a critical issue worldwide. Lake Gregory, an artificial lake situated in Nuwara Eliya, Sri Lanka was once a very attractive landscape feature and recreational area attracting a large number of visitors. Rapid urbanization in surrounding areas and the consequent intensification of agricultural and industrial activities led to eutrophication and siltation in the lake. Present study was conducted to detect cyanobacterial diversity and their ability to produce hepatotoxic microcystins using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Twenty five water samples (surface and bottom) were collected from the lake and total nitrogen and total carbon were estimated. Cyanobacterial cultures were grown in appropriate media and microscopic observations were used to determine the morphological diversity of cyanobacteria isolated from different sites. Genomic DNA was isolated and purified from cyanobacteria using Boom's method. DNA samples were analyzed by PCR with oligonucleotide primers for 16S rRNA gene and mcyA gene of the operon that encodes a microcystin synthetase. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed the presences of cyanobacteria belong to Synechococcus sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Calothrix sp., Leptolyngbya sp., Limnothrix sp., order Oscillatoriales and order Chroococcales. The sequences obtained from this study were deposited in the database under the accession numbers (GenBank: GU368104-GU368116). PCR amplification of mcyA primers indicated the potential for toxin formation of isolated M. aeruginosa from Lake Gregory. This preliminary study shows that the Lake Gregory is under the potential risk of cyanobacterial toxicity. Clearly more work is needed to extend this finding and clarify if other cyanobacterial isolates have genetic potential to produce microcystin since this lake is utilized for recreational activities.

  17. Musculoskeletal pain in four occupational populations in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Factors influencing work-related musculoskeletal disorders might differ in developing and developed countries. Aims To assess the prevalence and determinants of musculoskeletal pain in four occupational populations in Sri Lanka. Methods As part of the international Cultural and Psychosocial Influences on Disability study, samples of postal workers, sewing machinists, nurses and computer operators were interviewed about pain at each of six anatomical sites in the past month, and about possible physical and psychosocial risk factors. Associations with prevalent pain were assessed by binomial regression. Results Analysis was based on 852 participants (86% response rate). Overall, the lower back was the most common site of pain, with 1-month prevalence ranging from 12% in computer operators to 30% in nurses. Postal workers had the highest prevalence of shoulder pain (23%), but pain in the wrist/hand was relatively uncommon in all four occupational groups (prevalence rates ranged from 8% to 9%). Low mood and tendency to somatize were consistently associated with pain at all six sites. After adjustment for psychosocial risk factors, there was a higher rate of low back pain in nurses and postal workers than in computer operators, a higher rate of shoulder pain in postal workers than in the other occupational populations, and a relatively low rate of knee pain in computer operators. Conclusions Rates of regional pain, especially at the wrist/hand, were lower than have been reported in Western countries. As elsewhere, pain was strongly associated with low mood and somatizing tendency. Differences in patterns of pain by occupation may reflect differences in physical activities. PMID:22661663

  18. Differences in selected lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular disease between Sri Lankans in Oslo, Norway, and in Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tennakoon, Sampath U B; Kumar, Bernadette N; Meyer, Haakon E

    2015-03-01

    Sri Lankans in Oslo have previously been shown to have lower risk of cardiovascular disease compared with those in Kandy, Sri Lanka. Here we present lifestyle risk factors for cardiovascular diseases: frequency and type of fat consumed, frequency of fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol consumption, and leisure time physical activity between 1145 Sri Lankans living in Oslo and 678 Tamils and Sinhalese Sri Lankans living in Kandy as possible explanatory factors for the differences observed. Those in Oslo were consuming healthier fats and reported higher levels of physical activity but frequency of vegetable and fruit consumption was lower. Alcohol consumption among women was negligible. Type of fats consumed might be protective for Oslo group compared with predominantly saturated fat diet in Kandy. Higher leisure time physical activity may also be protective for the Oslo group. Higher frequency of consumption of vegetables and fruits may be beneficial in Kandy. © 2013 APJPH.

  19. Molecular characterization of the malaria vector Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gajapathy, Kanapathy; Jude, Pavilupillai J; Goodacre, Sara L; Peiris, Lalanthika B S; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N

    2014-07-29

    Anopheles barbirostris is a vector of malaria in Sri Lanka. The taxon exists as a species complex in the Southeast Asian region. Previous studies using molecular markers suggest that there are more than 4 distinct clades within the An. barbirostris complex in Southeast Asia. The present study characterizes Sri Lankan An. barbirostris using mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) and ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) gene sequences. DNA was extracted from morphologically identified An. barbirostris specimens from Sri Lanka, the COI and ITS2 regions amplified and their sequences analysed by comparison with other GenBank entries. Maximum likelihood trees suggested that Sri Lankan An. barbirostris constitute a different molecular type most closely related to clade I. Considering the uncorrected p distances between the clade I and Sri Lankan specimens it is fair to assume that the specimens collected from widely separated locations in Sri Lanka with morphology characteristic of An. barbirostris s.l. form a new molecular type with close resemblance to An. barbirostris s.s from Indonesia and Thailand.

  20. Incorporating environmental concerns into power sector decision-making: A case study of Sri Lanka. World Bank Environment Paper 6

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.; Munasinghe, M.; Team, S.L.S.

    1994-04-01

    Weighs Sri Lanka`s options for addressing environmental concerns during the planning stages of energy policymaking. Here is a holistic approach to analyzing the environmental impact of various power systems. Unlike standard impact studies that begin at the project level, this method calls for environmental assessments that start at the planning stage of a national framework for energy policymaking. The framework would take into account the energy needs of Sri Lanka`s total economy. It also would make it easier to incorporate environmental goals into power sector decisionmaking at the critical investment stage. Sri Lanka`s development options for the power sector are reviewed in detail. Topics include alternative ways to assess the economic value of a power plant`s impact on biodiversity, human health, and air and water pollution. The study also assesses which energy planning options work best and recommends ways in which the Ceylon Electricity Board can improve its environmental policies.

  1. Is Marriage Delay a Multiphasic Response to Pressures for Fertility Decline? The Case of Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated causes for rise in female age of marriage in Sri Lanka, studying 10,964 persons from 1,974 households. Found that rise in marriage age was not primarily a response to social pressure for fertility decline, but rather a result of urbanization, higher levels of education, unemployment, and consequent decline in parentally arranged early…

  2. Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific: Country Studies--Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Sri Lanka's primary education program is described in this study. Chapter One discusses the present system of education, providing a brief history of the development of the educational system, a discussion of legal provisions concerning education, an overview of the school structure, as well as discussions of educational administration, teacher…

  3. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  4. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  5. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  6. Mass Communication in Sri Lanka: An Annotated Bibliography. Asian Mass Communication Bibliography Series 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goonetileke, H. A. I., Comp.; And Others

    Published and unpublished materials dealing with the multidisciplinary field of mass communication in Sri Lanka are listed in this bibliography. The 362 entries are grouped into 20 sections: bibliography and reference material; communication theory and research methods; general communication; media development and characteristics; newspapers;…

  7. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  8. The Growth of Foreign Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka: "de facto" Decentralisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.; Evans, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Based mainly on a study of newspaper adverts for qualifications and tuition courses in Sri Lanka over a period from 1965 to 2000, this paper describes a decentralisation of control over the supply of qualifications. It is argued that this has occurred not through a deliberate policy mechanism to decentralise qualifications, but rather by default,…

  9. Exploring the Lives of Non-Native Speaking English Educators in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses in-depth interview data to explore aspects of the lives of non-native speaking English educators working in the state education system in Sri Lanka. In so doing the research focus is on the educators themselves and the paper will discuss such issues as: careers as English teachers--motives for entering teaching, career progression,…

  10. Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha

    2006-01-01

    Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

  11. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  12. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  13. Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

  14. The Growth of Foreign Qualification Suppliers in Sri Lanka: "de facto" Decentralisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.; Evans, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Based mainly on a study of newspaper adverts for qualifications and tuition courses in Sri Lanka over a period from 1965 to 2000, this paper describes a decentralisation of control over the supply of qualifications. It is argued that this has occurred not through a deliberate policy mechanism to decentralise qualifications, but rather by default,…

  15. Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37 isolated from an autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis patient in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Shalindra; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Wickremasinghe, Renu; Abeygunasekera, Priyanka; Chandrasekharan, Vishvanath; Athauda, Sunethra; Mendis, Suresh; Hulangamuwa, Sanjeeva; Matlashewski, Greg; Pratlong, Francine

    2012-01-01

    Although the strain causing cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka was first identified in 2003, the strain causing visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has not yet been identified. We report the first isoenzyme typing of a strain causing VL in Sri Lanka at an early stage of emergence of VL in the country. The parasite was isolated from a 57-year-old civil soldier who had been in the jungle in the Vavuniya district in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka for a period of nearly 6 months immediately before the onset of symptoms. Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) revealed that the strain is Leishmania donovani zymodeme MON-37, the zymodeme which was previously identified from the CL patients in the country. The MLEE analysis was confirmed by sequencing the gene encoding the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase isoenzyme. This is an instance of the same Leishmania zymodeme associated with both dermotropism and viscerotropism in the same geographic region. Further investigations into the genetic structure and identification of virulence factors in the parasite and immune factors in the host are required to understand the factors responsible for different tropism shown by the same zymodeme MON-37 L. donovani from Sri Lanka. PMID:23265615

  16. Education Policy Reform in Sri Lanka: The Double-Edged Sword of Political Will

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, the Government of Sri Lanka launched a comprehensive set of education reforms designed to promote equitable access to basic education and improvements in learning outcomes. The package of reforms arose as a political response to widespread youth unrest in the late 1980s and attracted considerable "political will", a vague but…

  17. Women and Management in Higher Education. CHESS Workshop (Colombo, Sri Lanka, January 5-11, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Grants Commission (Sri Lanka).

    The Commonwealth Higher Education Support Scheme (CHESS) 1997 Workshop was designed to promote the professional development of women in leadership positions in higher education. Participants were drawn from senior university academics and administrators from five countries: Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Specific objectives…

  18. Family and Child Development Project in the Village of Uyanwatta in Sri Lanka.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharmadasa, Indranie

    This study evaluates the effects of a family development project implemented in Uyanwatta, a poor rural village in Kandy district, Sri Lanka, on the academic achievement of at-risk elementary school students. Specifically, the study examined the level of mother's involvement in enriching the family environment and its impact on children's academic…

  19. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  20. Dengue Virus Type 2 in Travelers Returning to Japan from Sri Lanka, 2017.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Motoyuki; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Maeki, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Tajima, Shigeru; Kato, Fumihiro; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Saijo, Masayuki; Takaya, Saho; Katanami, Yuichi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2017-11-01

    In June 2017, dengue virus type 2 infection was diagnosed in 2 travelers returned to Japan from Sri Lanka, where the country's largest dengue fever outbreak is ongoing. Travelers, especially those previously affected by dengue fever, should take measures to avoid mosquito bites.

  1. The Implementation of Management Reforms: The Case of Sri Lanka. BRIDGES Research Report Series, No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, William K.; And Others

    Educational reforms implemented in Sri Lanka in the early 1980s are examined in this paper, which focuses on three broad areas: restructuring reforms; the principal's role; and school-community reform. The research project was carried out by Basic Research and Implementation in DevelopinG Education Systems (BRIDGES) of Harvard University…

  2. Lest the World Forget: Sri Lanka's Educational Needs after the 2004 Tsunami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashman, Timothy G.; Asing-Cashman, Joyce G.

    2006-01-01

    This qualitative study strives to provide a greater understanding of the past, current, and future state of education in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami. The researchers' key objectives are to provide additional insight to educators of the far-reaching impact of the tsunami via a website they created. Rather than concentrate on the same sort of…

  3. Grassroots Empowerment of Women: Portraits of Four Villages in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeris, Laurel; Gajanayake, Jaya; Ismail, Jesima; Ebert, Seela; Peris, Amara; Wanasundara, Leelangi; Diyadawagamage, Nalika

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a participatory research (PR) project encompassing a capacity-development programme and advocacy skill-building initiative for rural women. The project actively engaged four prominent women's non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Sri Lanka: Agromart Foundation, Centre for Women's Research (CENWOR), Sarvodaya Women's…

  4. Estimating the Impact of Private Tutoring on Academic Performance: Primary Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear. I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…

  5. Analysis of Dengue Serotype 4 in Sri Lanka during the 2012-2013 Dengue Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Anna; Tissera, Hasitha Aravinda; Bodinayake, Champica K; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Cui, Jie; Reller, Megan E; Palihawadana, Paba; Gunasena, Sunethra; Desilva, Aruna Dharshan; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Gubler, Duane J; Woods, Christopher W; Sessions, October M

    2017-07-01

    The four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4) have had a rapidly expanding geographic range and are now endemic in over 100 tropical and subtropical countries. Sri Lanka has experienced periodic dengue outbreaks since the 1960s, but since 1989 epidemics have become progressively larger and associated with more severe disease. The dominant virus in the 2012 epidemic was DENV-1, but DENV-4 infections were also commonly observed. DENV-4 transmission was first documented in Sri Lanka when it was isolated from a traveler in 1978, but has been comparatively uncommon since dengue surveillance began in the early 1980s. To better understand the molecular epidemiology of DENV-4 infections in Sri Lanka, we conducted whole-genome sequencing on dengue patient samples from two different geographic locations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that all sequenced DENV-4 strains belong to genotype 1 and are most closely related to DENV-4 viruses previously found in Sri Lanka and those recently found to be circulating in India and Pakistan.

  6. An Analysis of the Competency-Based Secondary Mathematics Curriculum in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2014-01-01

    In education, there is a growing interest in the concept of "competency" especially in vocational training and professional development. The concept is strongly associated with the ability to apply knowledge and skills in effective ways in unanticipated situations. In Sri Lanka, a new competency-based mathematics curriculum was…

  7. Education Participation in Sri Lanka--Why All Are Not in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha

    2006-01-01

    Despite Sri Lanka's 1990 commitment to provide 10-11 years of free education to all, only 93% of children in the 5-14-year-old age group were in school by the year 2000. Moreover, the education participation rates are not equitable across the country, varying by socio-economic groups. This paper examines the determinants of school…

  8. Bionomic Aspects of the Anopheles subpictus Species Complex in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jude, Pavillupillai J.; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) functions as a secondary malaria vector to Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sri Lanka. The taxon A. subpictus is reported to exist as a species complex comprising four sibling species (A–D) that can be differentiated through polytene chromosome banding patterns and stage-specific morphometric traits in India. Based on the morphological characteristics described for the Indian Subpictus Complex, the presence of all four sibling species has been described in Sri Lanka. As sibling species show distinct bio-ecological characteristics that are important for devising appropriate vector control measures, a study was carried out in six districts in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The results confirm the presence of all four sibling species, with species C predominating in inland areas and species B in coastal areas. Species C and D were indoor-resting and indoor-feeding, while species B was outdoor-resting with no significant preference for indoor- or outdoor-resting. Species B showed distinct morphological variation in the ornamentation of wings and palpi. Blood meal analysis revealed that species B, C, and D can feed on humans as well as cattle. The differential bio-ecological traits shown by the members of the Subpictus Complex are important for developing appropriate vector control measures in Sri Lanka. PMID:25205254

  9. Estimating the Impact of Private Tutoring on Academic Performance: Primary Students in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Worldwide private tutoring is documented extensively, but its impact is unclear. I estimate the impact of tutoring on performance to assess the degree to which tutoring is a vehicle of educational stratification in Sri Lanka. I find that on average, five months of tutoring has no impact on Year 5 students' exam scores. I produce suggestive…

  10. Exploring the Lives of Non-Native Speaking English Educators in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses in-depth interview data to explore aspects of the lives of non-native speaking English educators working in the state education system in Sri Lanka. In so doing the research focus is on the educators themselves and the paper will discuss such issues as: careers as English teachers--motives for entering teaching, career progression,…

  11. Speaking Conflict: Ideological Barriers to Bilingual Policy Implementation in Civil War Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Christina P.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a holistic view of ideological barriers to bilingual policy implementation in Sri Lanka, a conflict-ridden postcolonial nation-state. I examine Sinhalese youth and adults' Tamil as a second language (TSL) learning and speaking practices across three contexts: a multilingual school, a program for government servants, and an…

  12. Unsuspected rickettsioses among patients with acute febrile illness, Sri Lanka, 2007.

    PubMed

    Reller, Megan E; Bodinayake, Champica; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara-Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J; Flom, Judith E; Østbye, Truls; Woods, Christopher W; Dumler, J Stephen

    2012-05-01

    We studied rickettsioses in southern Sri Lanka. Of 883 febrile patients with paired serum samples, 156 (17.7%) had acute rickettsioses; rickettsioses were unsuspected at presentation. Additionally, 342 (38.7%) had exposure to spotted fever and/or typhus group rickettsioses and 121 (13.7%) scrub typhus. Increased awareness of rickettsioses and better tests are needed.

  13. Duty and Service: Life and Career of a Tamil Teacher of English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life and career of a Tamil teacher of English working in the government education system in northern Sri Lanka. Based on data gathered in an extended life history interview, the article explores the teacher's own experiences of schooling, his reasons for entering teaching as a profession, his professional training, and…

  14. Peace Education in Conflict Zones--Experience from Northern Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Simon; Lewer, Nick

    2008-01-01

    In September 2005, adult students from Kilinochchi, located in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)-controlled Wanni region of northern Sri Lanka, were awarded University of Bradford, UK, validated postgraduate certificates or diplomas in conflict resolution and peace preparedness. The diploma is, we think, a landmark in peace education…

  15. Toxocara pteropodis in Free-Ranging Indian Flying Foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Karawita, Anjana C; Himsworth, Chelsea G; Rajapakse, R P V Jayantha; Bollinger, Trent K; de S Gunawardena, Panduka

    2017-01-04

    Toxocara pteropodis, an intestinal nematode, occurs in several captive and free-ranging pteropid bat species. We report infection in free-ranging Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka and contribute to our understanding of parasites in free-ranging P. medius .

  16. Financing and Educational Policy in Sri Lanka (Ceylon). Financing Educational Systems: Country Case Studies-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, Jacques

    The retrospective case study presented is part of a research project undertaken to determine ways in which developing nations can best allocate resources to education in light of their social and economic levels. Past socioeconomic trends in Sri Lanka and its economy in the 1970's are considered first. The case study then moves into descriptions…

  17. Mathematics Performance and Principal Effectiveness: A Case Study of Some Coastal Primary Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena

    2012-01-01

    This mixed method research study is situated in the school effectiveness research paradigm to examine the correlation between the effectiveness of urban, primary school principals and their students' performance in mathematics. Nine, urban, primary schools from Negombo, a coastal fishing area in Sri Lanka, were selected; their student achievements…

  18. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  19. Understanding Sri Lanka: A Cultural Examination Handbook for Peace Corps Volunteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Kristina

    The handbook is designed to help Peace Corps volunteers in Sri Lanka examine and understand the culture of that country. It looks at five general areas of culture relevant to everyday living (personal appearance, social invitations, work attitudes and relationships, interpersonal interaction and communication, and harassment) and analyzes them…

  20. Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

    2011-12-01

    The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain <63μm fraction. Bioavailable, exchangeable and residual fractions were 0.01M CaCl2, 1M NaOAc, pH 8.2 and microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as <5mg/kg. Total arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High

  1. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (<10 cfu per 100 mL) whereas 97% brands exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) permitted level. Thirty percent of brands exceeded the limit for presumptive fecal coliforms (FC) (0 cfu per 100 mL in accordance with WHO permitted levels, SLSI and the Sri Lanka Health Ministry requirement). Eighty percent of brands showed higher heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) which exceeded the WHO guidelines for bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Twelve years of rabies surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999-2010.

    PubMed

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-10-01

    Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6-75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories.

  3. Malaria Control and Elimination in Sri Lanka: Documenting Progress and Success Factors in a Conflict Setting

    PubMed Central

    Abeyasinghe, Rabindra R.; Galappaththy, Gawrie N. L.; Smith Gueye, Cara; Kahn, James G.; Feachem, Richard G. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has a long history of malaria control, and over the past decade has had dramatic declines in cases amid a national conflict. A case study of Sri Lanka's malaria programme was conducted to characterize the programme and explain recent progress. Methods The case study employed qualitative and quantitative methods. Data were collected from published and grey literature, district-level and national records, and thirty-three key informant interviews. Expenditures in two districts for two years – 2004 and 2009 – were compiled. Findings Malaria incidence in Sri Lanka has declined by 99.9% since 1999. During this time, there were increases in the proportion of malaria infections due to Plasmodium vivax, and the proportion of infections occurring in adult males. Indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets have likely contributed to the low transmission. Entomological surveillance was maintained. A strong passive case detection system captures infections and active case detection was introduced. When comparing conflict and non-conflict districts, vector control and surveillance measures were maintained in conflict areas, often with higher coverage reported in conflict districts. One of two districts in the study reported a 48% decline in malaria programme expenditure per person at risk from 2004 to 2009. The other district had stable malaria spending. Conclusions/Significance Malaria is now at low levels in Sri Lanka – 124 indigenous cases were found in 2011. The majority of infections occur in adult males and are due to P. vivax. Evidence-driven policy and an ability to adapt to new circumstances contributed to this decline. Malaria interventions were maintained in the conflict districts despite an ongoing war. Sri Lanka has set a goal of eliminating malaria by the end of 2014. Early identification and treatment of infections, especially imported ones, together with effective surveillance and response, will

  4. Twelve Years of Rabies Surveillance in Sri Lanka, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Karunanayake, Dushantha; Matsumoto, Takashi; Wimalaratne, Omala; Nanayakkara, Susilakanthi; Perera, Devika; Nishizono, Akira; Ahmed, Kamruddin

    2014-01-01

    Background Rabies is endemic in Sri Lanka, but little is known about the temporal and spatial trends of rabies in this country. Knowing these trends may provide insight into past control efforts and serve as the basis for future control measures. In this study, we analyzed distribution of rabies in humans and animals over a period of 12 years in Sri Lanka. Methods Accumulated data from 1999 through 2010 compiled by the Department of Rabies Diagnosis and Research, Medical Research Institute (MRI), Colombo, were used in this study. Results The yearly mean percentage of rabies-positive sample was 62.4% (47.6–75.9%). Three-fourths of the rabies-positive samples were from the Colombo, Gampaha, and Kalutara districts in Western province, followed by Galle in Southern province. A high percentage of the rabies samples were from dogs (85.2%), followed by cats (7.9%), humans (3.8%), wild animals (2.0%), and livestock (1.1%). Among wild animals, mongooses were the main victims followed by civets. The number of suspect human rabies cases decreased gradually in Sri Lanka, although the number of human samples submitted for laboratory confirmation increased. Conclusions The number of rabid dogs has remained relatively unchanged, but the number of suspect human rabies is decreasing gradually in Sri Lanka. These findings indicate successful use of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) by animal bite victims and increased rabies awareness. PEP is free of charge and is supplied through government hospitals by the Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka. Our survey shows that most positive samples were received from Western and Southern provinces, possibly because of the ease of transporting samples to the laboratory. Submissions of wild animal and livestock samples should be increased by creating more awareness among the public. Better rabies surveillance will require introduction of molecular methods for detection and the establishment of more regional rabies diagnostic laboratories. PMID:25299511

  5. Assessing sloth bears as surrogates for carnivore conservation in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, Shyamala; Van Manen, Frank T.

    2012-01-01

    Bears are large, charismatic mammals whose presence often garners conservation attention. Because healthy bear populations typically require large, contiguous areas of habitat, land conservation actions often are assumed to benefit co-occurring species, including other mammalian carnivores. However, we are not aware of an empirical test of this assumption. We used remote camera data from 2 national parks in Sri Lanka to test the hypothesis that the frequency of detection of sloth bears (Melursus ursinus) is associated with greater richness of carnivore species. We focused on mammalian carnivores because they play a pivotal role in the stability of ecological communities and are among Sri Lanka's most endangered species. Seven of Sri Lanka's carnivores are listed as endangered, vulnerable, or near threatened, and little empirical information exists on their status and distribution. During 2002–03, we placed camera traps at 152 sites to document carnivore species presence. We used Poisson regression to develop predictive models for 3 categories of dependent variables: species richness of (1) all carnivores, (2) carnivores considered at risk, and (3) carnivores of least conservation concern. For each category, we analyzed 8 a priori models based on combinations of sloth bear detections, sample year, and study area and used Akaike's information criterion (AICc) to test our research hypothesis. We detected sloth bears at 55 camera sites and detected 13 of Sri Lanka's 14 Carnivora species. Species richness of all carnivores showed positive associations with the number of sloth bear detections, regardless of study area. Sloth bear detections were also positively associated with species richness of carnivores at risk across both study years and study areas, but not with species richness of common carnivores. Sloth bears may serve as a valuable surrogate species whose habitat protection would contribute to conservation of other carnivores in Sri Lanka.

  6. Urinary Incontinence of Women in a Nationwide Study in Sri Lanka: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Pathiraja, Ramya; Prathapan, Shamini; Goonawardena, Sampatha

    2017-05-23

    Urinary incontinence, be stress incontinence or urge incontinence or a mixed type incontinence affects women of all ages. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and risk factors of urinary incontinence in Sri Lanka. A community based cross-sectional study was performed in Sri Lanka. The age group of the women in Sri Lanka was categorized into 3 age groups: Less than or equal to 35 years, 36 to 50 years of age and more than or equal to 51 years of age. A sample size of 675 women was obtained from each age category obtaining a total sample of 2025 from Sri Lanka. An interviewer-administered questionnaire consisting of two parts; Socio demographic factors, Medical and Obstetric History, and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), was used for data collection. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed. The Prevalence of women with only stress incontinence was 10%, with urge incontinence was 15.6% and with stress and urge incontinence was 29.9%. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that the age groups of 36 - 50 years (OR = 2.03; 95% CI = 1.56 - 2.63) and 51 years and above (OR = 2.61; 95% CI= 1.95 - 3.48), Living in one of the districts in Sri Lanka (OR = 4.58; 95% CI = 3.35 - 6.27) and having given birth to multiple children (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.02 - 1.21), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.19 - 3.23), and respiratory diseases (OR = 2.17; 95% CI = 1.48 - 3.19 ) showed a significant risk in the regression analysis. The risk factor, mostly modifiable, if prevented early, could help to reduce the symptoms of urinary incontinence.

  7. Teaching speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka: issues in curriculum, culture and language.

    PubMed

    Wickenden, Mary; Hartley, Sally; Kariyakaranawa, Sunil; Kodikara, Somadasa

    2003-01-01

    This paper draws on the experiences of the authors in designing and teaching a new course to educate speech and language therapists in Sri Lanka. This was the first speech and language therapist course in the country and was the result of collaboration between two universities, one in the UK and one in Sri Lanka. Rather than replicating established programmes elsewhere it was more appropriate to design a new course, suited to providing a comprehensive model of service, encompassing both social and medical approaches to rehabilitation. Issues about developing teaching and learning approaches to match pre-existing knowledge and experience of both staff and students are addressed. The particular ways of designing the programme to take account of cultural and language aspects of the Sri Lankan context are discussed. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. A new species of Rhinophis Hemprich, 1820 (Serpentes: Uropeltidae) from the central hills of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, L J Mendis; Vidanapathirana, Dulan Ranga; Rajeev, M D Gehan; Gower, David J

    2017-05-08

    A new species of uropeltid snake, Rhinophis roshanpererai sp. nov., is described based on three specimens from Badulla District, Sri Lanka. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the number of dorsal scale rows and ventral scales, a colour pattern that lacks pale stripes, and by having a very small tail shield with four or three prominent spines. Based on lack of records from similar habitats and elevations elsewhere in Sri Lanka, the new species likely has a very small range in the central highlands. The description of the new species brings the total nominal species of Rhinophis to 20, with four of the 16 Sri Lankan species having been described since 2009.

  9. Suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka: a Delphi consensus study.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Saranga A; Colucci, Erminia; Mendis, Jayan; Kelly, Claire M; Jorm, Anthony F; Minas, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the highest suicide rates in the world. Gatekeeper programs aimed at specific target groups could be a promising suicide prevention strategy in the country. The aim of this study was to develop guidelines that help members of the public to provide first aid to persons in Sri Lanka who are at risk of suicide. The Delphi method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to include in the guidelines. These statements describe information members of the public should have and actions they can take to help a person who is experiencing suicidal thoughts. An expert panel, comprised of mental health and suicide experts in Sri Lanka, rated each statement. The panellists were encouraged to suggest any additional action that was not included in the original questionnaire and, in particular, to include items that were culturally appropriate or gender specific. Responses to open-ended questions were used to generate new items. These items were included in the subsequent Delphi rounds. Three Delphi rounds were carried out. Statements were accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed (rated as essential or important) by at least 80 % of the panel. Statements endorsed by 70-79 % of the panel were re-rated in the following round. Statements with less than 70 % endorsement, or re-rated items that did not receive 80 % or higher endorsement were rejected. The output from the Delphi process was a set of endorsed statements. In the first round questionnaire 473 statements were presented to the panel and 58 new items were generated from responses to the open-ended questions. Of the total 531 statements presented, 304 were endorsed. These statements were used to develop the suicide first aid guidelines for Sri Lanka. By engaging Sri Lankans who are experts in the field of mental health or suicide this research developed culturally appropriate guidelines for providing mental health first aid to a person at risk of suicide in Sri

  10. Leishmanization revisited: immunization with a naturally attenuated cutaneous Leishmania donovani isolate from Sri Lanka protects against visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    McCall, Laura-Isobel; Zhang, Wen-Wei; Ranasinghe, Shanlindra; Matlashewski, Greg

    2013-02-27

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania protozoa and associated with three main clinical presentations: cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the second most lethal parasitic disease after malaria and there is so far no human vaccine. Leishmania donovani is a causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis in South East Asia and Eastern Africa. However, in Sri Lanka, L. donovani causes mainly cutaneous leishmaniasis, while visceral leishmaniasis is rare. We investigate here the possibility that the cutaneous form of L. donovani can provide immunological protection against the visceral form of the disease, as a potential explanation for why visceral leishmaniasis is rare in Sri Lanka. Subcutaneous immunization with a cutaneous clinical isolate from Sri Lanka was significantly protective against visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Protection was associated with a mixed Th1/Th2 response. These results provide a possible rationale for the scarcity of visceral leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and could guide leishmaniasis vaccine development efforts.

  11. Engaging Military in Post-War Reconciliation: A Case Study of Implications for the Consolidation of Democracy in Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Sri Lanka demonstrates minimal military implications. The impact range remains between nil to low, indicating a conducive environment for...prerogatives highlighted by Alfred Stepan and will further seek to identify the impact of CMR on the consolidation of democracy in the dilemma of...democratic transition and consolidation in Sri Lanka, CMR during and after the civil war, and how CMR impacted democratic consolidation. The thesis finishes

  12. Escape route to dependency? Female migration from Sri Lanka to the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Brochmann, G

    1987-05-01

    This article looks at labor migration with the sex component turned upside down, where the woman leaves hearth and home in search of work in distant lands. The sending country is Sri Lanka, and the women migrate as maids to Arab households in the Gulf area. Labor migration must be understood in the context of the economic and social development that has made migration possible, or rather pushed it forward. Today, the export of labor is the 2nd biggest source of foreign earnings for Sri Lanka, and females constitute the largest single group of labor migrants. There is 1 clear aspect of female migration: it is almost without exception the poorest strata of society that send their women to the Gulf as housemaids. 3 factors tend to reduce the value of wages earned in the Middle East: 1) for a majority of the migrants there are high social costs involved, 2) there are high transaction costs just to obtain a Gulf job, and 3) performing paid housework tends to be regarded as a low-status occupation and is less attractive to households that have alternative means of income. Not only are the migrant women themselves exposed to a very different society, with different values and ways of living, but also the whole community at home gets a concept of "abroad." The Sri Lankan government expects the contingent of female migrants to grow, though against this is the fact that Sri Lanka now faces stronger competition in female labor exports from other Asian countries.

  13. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948–1990

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization’s internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance. PMID:27628860

  14. Policy Innovation and Policy Pathways: Tuberculosis Control in Sri Lanka, 1948-1990.

    PubMed

    Jones, Margaret

    2016-10-01

    This paper, based on World Health Organization and Sri Lankan sources, examines the attempts to control tuberculosis in Sri Lanka from independence in 1948. It focuses particularly on the attempt in 1966 to implement a World Health Organization model of community-orientated tuberculosis control that sought to establish a horizontally structured programme through the integration of control into the general health services. The objective was to create a cost- effective method of control that relied on a simple bacteriological test for case finding and for treatment at the nearest health facility that would take case detection and treatment to the rural periphery where specialist services were lacking. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, Sri Lanka had already established a specialist control programme composed of chest clinics, mass X-ray, inpatient and domiciliary treatment, and social assistance for sufferers. This programme had both reduced mortality and enhanced awareness of the disease. This paper exposes the obstacles presented in trying to impose the World Health Organization's internationally devised model onto the existing structure of tuberculosis control already operating in Sri Lanka. One significant hindrance to the WHO approach was lack of resources but, equally important, was the existing medical culture that militated against its acceptance.

  15. Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus® from January 2000 to December 2009. The process of article selection was as follows: Affiliation - 'Sri Lanka' or 'Ceylon', Publication year - 'January 2000 to December 2009' and Subject area - 'Life and Health Sciences'. The articles identified were classified according to disease, medical speciality, institutions, major international collaborators, authors and journals. Results Sri Lanka's cumulative medical publications output between years 2000-2009 was 1,740 articles published in 160 different journals. The average annual publication growth rate was 9.1%. Majority of the articles were published in 'International' (n = 950, 54.6%) journals. Most articles were descriptive studies (n = 611, 35.1%), letters (n-345, 19.8%) and case reports (n = 311, 17.9%). The articles were authored by 148 different Sri Lankan authors from 146 different institutions. The three most prolific local institutions were Universities of; Colombo (n = 547), Kelaniya (n = 246) and Peradeniya (n = 222). Eighty four countries were found to have published collaborative papers with Sri Lankan authors during the last decade. UK was the largest collaborating partner (n = 263, 15.1%). Malaria (n = 75), Diabetes Mellitus (n = 55), Dengue (n = 53), Accidental injuries (n = 42) and Lymphatic filariasis (n = 40) were the major diseases studied. The 1,740 publications were cited 9,708 times, with an average citation of 5.6 per paper. The most cited paper had 203 citations, while there were 597 publications with no citations. The Sri Lankan authors

  16. Overdose of oral contraceptive pills as a means of intentional self-poisoning amongst young women in Sri Lanka: considerations for family planning.

    PubMed

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Pearson, Melissa; Agampodi, Thilini; Storm, Frederikke; Agampodi, Suneth

    2017-04-01

    Oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) are one of the most popular family planning methods in Sri Lanka. As part of two hospital-based studies on self-harm, the use of OCPs was identified, from yet unpublished results, as a means of intentional self-poisoning. To inform future guidelines for better OCP promotion, this article aims to describe the extent, patient characteristics and outcomes of OCP self-poisoning in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka. A secondary analysis was carried out on two hospital-based self-harm case series, from January 2011 to June 2014. Fifty-four patients (52 women and two men) with an overdose of OCP as a means of intentional self-poisoning were admitted to one of the surveyed hospitals. The median age of the patients was 19 (interquartile range, 5) years. None of the patients were severely sick from their overdose and two-thirds of the patients were discharged within a day of admission. Intentional self-poisoning with OCPs represented less than 5% of all types of intentional medicine self-poisonings recorded at the hospitals. Information available for a subset of female patients indicates that many cases (13/23, 56.5%) were in their first year of marriage. More research is required to understand why young women in rural Sri Lanka overdose with OCPs as a means of intentional self-poisoning. Although the toxicity of OCPs is low and the public health significance of OCP poisoning remains minor, reproductive health service providers should be attentive to OCP overdose, monitor the development of this problem, and ensure appropriate information to OCP users. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race, the women's and labour movements on the development of nursing in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, Dilmi; Paul, Pauline

    2013-06-01

    The paper reveals that historically various socio-political factors, including gender, class, ethnicity, race, waves of colonization, decolonization, the civil and ethnic wars, the women's and labour movements, have influenced the development of nursing in Sri Lanka. However, literature presenting the development of nursing in Sri Lanka is sparse. All relevant journals and books published in the English and Sinhalese languages on nursing in Sri Lanka between the years 1878-2011 were examined. Because there are no nursing journals currently produced in Sri Lanka, CINAHL and Medline databases were accessed and relevant literature published in the English language on Sri Lanka was examined. Government, nurses' union and association reports, other unpublished reports and websites such as Google were also searched to access information related to the influence of gender, race, class, ethnicity, women's and labour movements in Sri Lanka. Poor pay, shortages of resources, failure in recruitment and retention and limited opportunity for career progression have acted as deterrents to persons entering and remaining in the nursing profession. Being non-British was a key issue in terms of race. Further, the shift from a colonized state to a welfare state resulted in a class shift from upper middle class to middle and lower class persons entering into nursing. Although there is a paucity of information available in the nursing literature, this analysis offers an intriguing insight into an angle that may be used to examine the influence of gender, ethnicity, class, race and the women's and labour movements in other contextual situations.

  18. First record of Anopheles stephensi in Sri Lanka: a potential challenge for prevention of malaria reintroduction.

    PubMed

    Gayan Dharmasiri, A G; Perera, A Yashan; Harishchandra, Jeevanie; Herath, Hemantha; Aravindan, Kandasamy; Jayasooriya, H T R; Ranawaka, Gaya R; Hewavitharane, Mihirini

    2017-08-10

    The major malaria vector in Sri Lanka is reported to be Anopheles culicifacies with Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles annularis, and Anopheles varuna considered as potential vectors. The occurrence of Anopheles stephensi, which is the key vector of urban malaria in India and the Middle East, had never been reported from Sri Lanka. A series of entomological investigations were carried out by the Anti Malaria Campaign, Ministry of Health, Sri Lanka during December 2016 to April 2017 in two localities of the Mannar District in the Northern Province of the country. Adult mosquito collections were done through indoor and outdoor resting collections, animal and human biting collections and emergence traps. Potential mosquito breeding sites were investigated through larval surveys. The larvae and adults of An. stephensi were initially identified using morphological keys, and subsequently confirmed by sequencing the barcode region of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene. This is the first report of the presence of An. stephensi in the island of Mannar in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. Anopheles stephensi (36.65%) was the most abundant anopheline species in the larval habitats in Mannar. It was found breeding together with An. culicifacies (20.7%), An. subpictus (13.5%) and An. varuna (28.13%). Anopheles stephensi was found to be abundantly breeding in built wells used for domestic purposes. Adult females of An. stephensi were observed in emergence trap collections (93.9%), human landing catches all night (79.2%), pyrethrum spray sheet collections (38.6%), outdoor collections (8.3%), donkey-baited trap collections (14.3), and cattle-baited net trap collections (0.7%). Sri Lanka was certified as malaria-free by the WHO in September 2016, however, this new finding may pose a serious challenge to the efforts of the Ministry of Health to prevent the re-introduction of malaria transmission in the country, considering the role that An. stephensi could play in urban and high

  19. Pre-natal diagnosis of thalassaemia in Sri Lanka: A ten year review.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Kalinga Khemal; Rodrigo, Undugodage Ganganath; Perera, Kuda Liyanage Nandika; Nanayakkara, Chinthani Deepthi

    2017-10-01

    Thalassaemia is the commonest monogenic disease in Sri Lanka, affecting over 3500 children and half-a-million thalassaemia carriers. This is a review of 82 amniocenteses performed from 2006 to 2016, in the largest prenatal diagnoses study for thalassaemia carried out in Sri Lanka. Amniocenteses were performed between 11 and 12 weeks of ultrasonically confirmed gestation, on mothers with previous thalassaemia major children pregnant for the second time and nulliparous thalassaemia trait women married to trait partners. The Consultant Radiologist, using local analgesia, under ultrasound cover, performed these as an outpatient procedure, at the Teaching Hospital Kandy & Suwasevana Hospital Kandy. The amniotic fluid was analysed by the team of Senior Geneticists, at the Genetech Molecular Diagnostics and School of Gene Technology, Colombo, via the polymerase-chain-reaction based ARMS (Amplification Refractory Mutation Systems) assay. The genetic results indicated the presence of 21% thalassaemia major foetuses, 53% thalassaemia traits and 26% foetuses without thalassaemia mutations. The predominance of the IVS1-5(G-C) mutation in the Sri Lankan population is exemplified, with a low prevalence of HbE thalassaemia. Impact statement Thalassaemia is the commonest monogenic disease in Sri Lanka affecting over 3500 children and half-a-million thalassaemia carriers. Although pre-natal diagnosis by amniocentesis was practised universally for many years, this could not be performed in Sri Lanka as genetic diagnostic facilities were not available until 2005. Therefore, parents with a thalassaemia major child limited their families to one child, by choice or by termination. The results of this study point to a 21% probability of thalassaemia major in the next child, giving the parents a guarded optimism to conceive another child without thalassaemia disease. With siblings being the highest HLA compatibility for Bone Marrow Transplant, that is now being established in Sri Lanka

  20. Near-Surface Circulation and Fate of Upper Layer Fresh Water from Rivers Runoff and Rain in the Bay of Bengal near Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Water from Rivers Runoff and Rain in the Bay of Bengal near Sri Lanka Luca Centurioni Scripps Institution of Oceanography 9500 Gilman Drive Mail...the routes through which the export of fresh water can potentially occur. More specifically: 1) is the Sri Lanka Dome, which shows up very clearly...in the summer geostrophic surface current maps (Figure 1) effective in maintaining a nearly closed recirculation cell east off Sri Lanka or do

  1. The use of Buddhist mindfulness meditation in psychotherapy: a case report from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2011-11-01

    Buddhist practices have been increasingly influencing psychotherapy. For over 20 centuries, Buddhism has been the religion of a majority of Sri Lankans. However, there is little documentation of the use of Buddhist practices in psychotherapy in Sri Lanka. This paper presents a case study in which Theravadan Buddhist mindfulness meditation and cognitive therapy practices were used in the treatment of a client with depressive disorder. The paper also summarizes the influence of Buddhist concepts and mindfulness meditation on psychotherapy and illustrate how Buddhist doctrine and practices can be considered a psychotherapeutic method.

  2. Risk factors associated with disease progression and mortality in chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology: a cohort study in Medawachchiya, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Senevirathna, Lalantha; Abeysekera, Tilak; Nanayakkara, Shanika; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Muso, Eri; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    The alarming rise in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) among the low socioeconomic farming community in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka has been recognized as an emerging public health issue in the country. This study sought to determine the possible factors associated with the progression and mortality of CKDu. The study utilized a single-center cohort registered in 2003 and followed up until 2009 in a regional clinic in the endemic region, and used a Cox proportional hazards model. We repeatedly found an association between disease progression and hypertension. Men were at higher risk of CKDu than women. A significant proportion of the patients in this cohort were underweight, which emphasized the need for future studies on the nutritional status of these patients. Compared with findings in western countries and other regions of Asia, we identified hypertension as a major risk factor for progression of CKDu in this cohort.

  3. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  4. "Education Is All about Opportunities, Isn't It?": A Biographical Perspective on Learning and Teaching English in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, David

    2010-01-01

    In this article, David Hayes explores the language learning and teaching experiences of a teacher of English in Sri Lanka. He shows how the acquisition of English enabled the teacher to access the social capital available to speakers of English, which holds a divisive place in postcolonial Sri Lankan society. In his reflections on his career, this…

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Leprosy in a High-Risk Community Setting in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dabrera, Thushani Marie Elizabeth; Tillekeratne, L Gayani; Fernando, M S Nilanthi; Kasturiaratchi, S T Kaushlya; Østbye, Truls

    2016-10-01

    Leprosy is caused by the Mycobacterium leprae bacillus. Pockets of high endemicity remain in a number of countries including Sri Lanka, in spite of the fact that elimination has been achieved at the national level. In 2012, in a village in the Puttlam district, dermatologists reported an increase in individuals with leprosy. This village had been established in the 1990s for people displaced from Northern Sri Lanka during a civil war. A comprehensive household survey was conducted by district health officials from June to July 2012, and all household members present during the survey period were examined for leprosy lesions. Patients with suspected leprosy were referred to a dermatology clinic for clinical or pathological confirmation. The prevalence of leprosy was high (511 per 10 000 population). Household contact with another patient with leprosy increased the risk of leprosy (odds ratio = 6.69; P < .001). Continued vigilance is needed to keep leprosy at bay in high-risk communities.

  6. Measuring revealed and emergent vulnerabilities of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Birkmann, Jörn; Fernando, Nishara

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the important findings of a study undertaken in two selected tsunami-affected coastal cities in Sri Lanka (Batticaloa and Galle) to measure the revealed and emergent vulnerability of coastal communities. International risk studies have failed to demonstrate the high vulnerability of coastal communities to tsunami in Sri Lanka. Therefore, indirect assessment tools to measure pre-event vulnerability have to be complemented by assessment tools that analyse revealed and emergent vulnerability in looking at the aftermath and impact patterns of a real scenario, as well as in examining the dynamics of disaster recovery in which different vulnerabilities can be identified. The paper first presents a conceptual framework for capturing vulnerability within a process-oriented approach linked to sustainable development. Next, it highlights selected indicators and methods to measure revealed and emergent vulnerability at the local level using the examples of Batticaloa and Galle. Finally, it discusses the usefulness and application of vulnerability indicators within the framework of reconstruction.

  7. Sri Lanka field survey after the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goff, James; Liu, Philip L-F.; Higman, Bretwood; Morton, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Fernando, Haindra; Lynett, Patrick; Fritz, Hermann; Synolakis, Costas; Fernando, Starin

    2006-01-01

    An International Tsunami Survey Team (ITST) consisting of scientists from the United States, New Zealand, and Sri Lanka evaluated the impacts of the 26 December 2004 transoceanic tsunami in Sri Lanka two weeks after the event. Tsunami runup height, inundation distance, morphological changes, and sedimentary characteristics of deposits were recorded and analyzed along the southwest and east coasts of the country. Preliminary results show how local topography and bathymetry controlled the limits of inundation and associated damage to the infrastructure. The largest wave height of 8.71 m was recorded at Nonagama, while the greatest inundation distance of 390 m and runup height of 12.50 m was at Yala. At some sites, human alterations to the landscape increased the damage caused by the tsunami; this was particularly evident in areas of coral poaching and of sand dune removal.

  8. Responding to security threats: livelihoods under protracted conflict in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kulatunga, Sasini T K; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2013-10-01

    Populations affected by violent conflicts often withstand threats to their security as well as threats to their livelihoods. Their response to the former threats nontrivially affects their response to the latter threats, and vice versa. This paper examines the interplay between protection and livelihood strategies using a sample of households selected from the Anuradhapura district of Sri Lanka. The fieldwork for this study was completed in 2008, producing evidence that the protection and livelihood strategies employed by households affected by the protracted conflict in Sri Lanka are interlaced. In addition, the research discovered that Muslim and Sinhalese households largely responded to the protracted conflict in ways that are unique to their ethnic group. Certain vulnerabilities that impinge on protection and certain opportunities that support livelihoods are shown to be ethnicised. Hence, the final livelihood outcome, which is defined narrowly here as the household's income, also appears to be ethnicised. © 2013 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.

  9. Integrated national energy planning and management: methodology and application to Sri Lanka. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Munasinghe, M.; Meier, P.

    1988-01-01

    Given the importance of energy in modern economies, the first part of the volume is devoted to examining some of the key conceptual and analytical tools available for energy-policy analysis and planning. Policy tools and institutional frameworks that will facilitate better energy management are also discussed. Energy-policy analysis is explained, while effective energy management techniques are discussed to achieve desirable national objectives, using a selected set of policies and policy instruments. In the second part of the volume, the actual application of the principles set out earlier is explained through a case study of Sri Lanka. The monograph integrates the many aspects of the short-term programs already begun with the options for the medium to long term, and ends with the outline of a long-term strategy for Sri Lanka.

  10. Putting houses in place: rebuilding communities in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Ruwanpura, Kanchana N

    2009-07-01

    This paper interrogates the social and political geographies of resettlement and reconstruction of temporary and permanent shelters, which are fundamental to rebuilding tsunami-affected communities. War and ethnic cleavages are an endemic feature of Sri Lanka's social polity, and uneven development processes in the country are clearly visible. This paper draws attention to these spaces of inequality by drawing on in-depth interviews and participant observation carried out in Eastern and Southern Sri Lanka. It argues that communities' concerns and anxieties regarding displacement and resettlement have tended to be articulated against prevailing fault lines of war and inequality. This is the backdrop against which communities negotiated the recovery process. My fieldwork shows that it is critical to understand that disaster and development relief are ingrained within context specificities. Relief efforts therefore need to recognise that the process of 'putting houses in place' should be embedded within local social relations.

  11. The delaying effect of stigma on mental health help-seeking in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Sunera M; Deane, Frank P; McLeod, Hamish J

    2017-03-01

    Mental health stigma has been associated with delays in seeking treatment. To describe perceived stigma experienced by patients and carers in Sri Lanka and to determine the effects of stigma on help-seeking delay. Survey of outpatients and family carers (n = 118 dyads) attending two psychiatric hospitals in Sri Lanka, using the Disclosure and Discrimination subscales of the Stigma Scale. Stigma was positively related to help-seeking delay for carers but not patients. Public stigma experienced by carers accounted for 23% of the variance in help-seeking delay. Reducing stigma may reduce help-seeking delays during the course of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Seva Vanitha Movement of Sri Lanka (Incorporation) Act (No. 10 of 1987), 10 March 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This Act incorporates the Seva Vanitha Movement of Sri Lanka, which was established by the Women's Bureau of Sri Lanka. Among the objectives of the Movement are the following: "a) to maintain a record of current public affairs with particular reference to the interests of women, children and youths so as to ensure their physical, mental, moral, religious and social development and to protect them from exploitation and discrimination; b) to promote cooperation and mutual confidence among all members irrespective of race, religion, language, occupation and political opinion to enable women to act as a single group interested in National Development; c) to ensure that the women actively participate in development activities outside their homes; and d) to conduct surveys and studies and collect data on problems relating to women and children in collaboration with the Women's Bureau, Children's Secretariat and Governmental and nongovernmental agencies." full text

  13. Examining adaptations to water stress among farming households in Sri Lanka's dry zone.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nicholas E; Carrico, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields. Paralleling studies conducted elsewhere, we identified institutional factors as particularly relevant in farmer adaptation decisions. Notably, our research identified farmers' use of hybrid seed varietals as the only local climate adaptation strategy to positively correlate with farmers' rice yields. These findings provide insight into additional factors pertinent to successful agricultural adaptation and offer encouraging evidence for policies that promote plant breeding and distribution in Sri Lanka as a means to buffer the food system to climate change-exacerbated drought.

  14. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka and the Bay of Bengal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Cetacean Community Ecology in the Waters of Sri Lanka...novaeangliae in the Arabian Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 149:13-21. Smith, B. D., B. Ahmed, R. M. Mowgli and S. Strindberg. 2008. Species occurrence...and distributional ecology of nearshore cetaceans in the Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh, with abundance estimates for Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella

  15. Developing tools to link environmental flows science and its practice in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriyagma, N.; Jinapala, K.

    2014-09-01

    The term "Environmental Flows (EF)" may be defined as "the quantity, timing and quality of water flows required to sustain freshwater and estuarine ecosystems and the human livelihoods and well-being that depend on these ecosystems". It may be regarded as "water for nature" or "environmental demand" similar to crop water requirements, industrial or domestic water demand. The practice of EF is still limited to a few developed countries such as Australia, South Africa and the UK. In many developing countries EF is rarely considered in water resources planning and is often deemed "unimportant". Sri Lanka, being a developing country, is no exception to this general rule. Although the country underwent an extensive irrigation/water resources development phase during the 1960s through to the 1980s, the concept of EF was hardly considered. However, as Sri Lanka's water resources are being exploited more and more for human usage, ecologists, water practitioners and policymakers alike have realized the importance of EF in sustaining not only freshwater and estuarine ecosystems, but also their services to humans. Hence estimation of EF has been made mandatory in environmental impact assessments (EIAs) of all large development projects involving river regulation/water abstraction. Considering EF is especially vital under the rapid urbanization and infrastructure development phase that dawned after the end of the war in the North and the East of the country in 2009. This paper details simple tools (including a software package which is under development) and methods that may be used for coarse scale estimation of EF at/near monitored locations on major rivers of Sri Lanka, along with example applications to two locations on River Mahaweli. It is hoped that these tools will help bridge the gap between EF science and its practice in Sri Lanka and other developing countries.

  16. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged <25 years were significantly more likely to ingest medicinal overdoses, compared to older persons (aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged <35 years). Interpersonal conflict as a trigger is common to all age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka.

  17. The influenza pandemic of 1918-1919 in Sri Lanka: its demographic cost, timing, and propagation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Siddharth; Sarathchandra, Dilshani

    2014-05-01

    As an island and a former British colony, Sri Lanka is a case of special interest for the study of 1918-1919 influenza pandemic because of its potential for isolation from as well as integration into the world epidemiologic system. To estimate population loss attributable to the influenza pandemic and weekly district-level excess mortality from the pandemic to analyze its spread across the island. To measure population loss, we estimated a population growth model using a panel of 100 district-level observations on population for five consecutive censuses from 1891 to 1931, allowing for a one-time drop in population in 1918-1919. To estimate weekly excess mortality from the pandemic, we estimated a seasonally adjusted weekly time series of district-specific mortality estimates from vital registration records, ranked them, and plotted the ranks on weekly maps to create a picture of the geographic pattern of propagation across Sri Lanka. Total loss of population from the influenza pandemic was 307 000 or approximately 6·7% of the population. The pandemic peaked in two discrete (northern and southern) regions in early October of 1918 and in a third (central) region in early March 1919. The population loss estimate is significantly higher than earlier estimates of mortality from the pandemic in Sri Lanka, suggesting underreporting of influenza-attributable deaths and a role for influenza-related fertility declines. The spatial pattern of peak mortality indicates the presence of two distinct entry points and three distinct epidemiologic regions, defined by population density and ethnicity, in colonial Sri Lanka. © 2014 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L V; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-03-01

    AbstractSri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit-cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka.

  19. An Investment Case to Prevent the Reintroduction of Malaria in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Shretta, Rima; Baral, Ranju; Avanceña, Anton L. V.; Fox, Katie; Dannoruwa, Asoka Premasiri; Jayanetti, Ravindra; Jeyakumaran, Arumainayagam; Hasantha, Rasike; Peris, Lalanthika; Premaratne, Risintha

    2017-01-01

    Sri Lanka has made remarkable gains in reducing the burden of malaria, recording no locally transmitted malaria cases since November 2012 and zero deaths since 2007. The country was recently certified as malaria free by World Health Organization in September 2016. Sri Lanka, however, continues to face a risk of resurgence due to persistent receptivity and vulnerability to malaria transmission. Maintaining the gains will require continued financing to the malaria program to maintain the activities aimed at preventing reintroduction. This article presents an investment case for malaria in Sri Lanka by estimating the costs and benefits of sustaining investments to prevent the reintroduction of the disease. An ingredient-based approach was used to estimate the cost of the existing program. The cost of potential resurgence was estimated using a hypothetical scenario in which resurgence assumed to occur, if all prevention of reintroduction activities were halted. These estimates were used to compute a benefit–cost ratio and a return on investment. The total economic cost of the malaria program in 2014 was estimated at U.S. dollars (USD) 0.57 per capita per year with a financial cost of USD0.37 per capita. The cost of potential malaria resurgence was, however, much higher estimated at 13 times the cost of maintaining existing activities or 21 times based on financial costs alone. This evidence suggests a substantial return on investment providing a compelling argument for advocacy for continued prioritization of funding for the prevention of reintroduction of malaria in Sri Lanka. PMID:28115673

  20. Occupational health issues in small-scale industries in Sri Lanka: An underreported burden.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Inoka K; Wijesinghe, Supun D; Senanayake, Sameera J; Herath, Hema D B; Jayalal, T B Ananda

    2016-10-17

    Work-related diseases and occupational accidents affect a significant number of workers globally. The majority of these diseases and accidents are reported from developing countries; and a large percentage of the workforce in developing countries is estimated to be employed in small-scale industries. Sri Lanka is no exception. These workers are exposed to occupational hazards and are at a great risk of developing work- related diseases and injuries. To identify occupational health issues faced by small-scale industry workers in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among workers in four selected small-scale industry categories in two districts of Sri Lanka. A small-scale industry was defined as a work setting with less than 20 workers. Cluster sampling using probability proportionate to size of workers was used. Eighty clusters with a cluster size of eight from each district were selected. Data was collected using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Our study surveyed 198 industries. Headache (2.2%, 95% CI 1.5-3.1) and eye problems (2.1%, 95% CI 1.4-2.9) were the commonest general health issues detected. Back pain (4.8%, 95% CI 3.8-6.1) was the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal pain reported. Knee pain was the second highest (4.4%, 95% CI 3.4-5.6). Most of the work-related musculoskeletal pain was either of short duration or long lasting. Work-related musculoskeletal pain was much more common than the general health issues reported. Health promotional programs at workplaces focusing ergonomics will benefit the workers at small-scale industries inSri Lanka.

  1. Assessment of Variable Planting Date as an Agricultural Adaptation to Climate Variability in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture accounts for approximately 70% of global freshwater withdrawals. Changes in precipitation patterns due to climate change as well as increasing demands for water necessitate an increased understanding of the water-­food intersection, notably at a local scale to inform farmer adaptations to improve water productivity, i.e., to get more food with less water. Local assessments of water-food security are particularly important for nations with self-sufficiency policies, which prioritize in-country production of certain resources. An ideal case study is the small island nation of Sri Lanka, which has a self-sufficiency policy for its staple food of rice. Because rice is a water-intensive crop, assessment of irrigation water requirements (IWRs) and the associated changes over time is especially important. Previous studies on IWRs of rice in Sri Lanka have failed to consider the Yala (dry) season, when water is scarcest.The goal of this study is to characterize the role that a human decision, setting the planting date, can play in buffering declines in rice yield against changes in precipitation patterns. Using four meteorological stations in the main rice-growing zones in Sri Lanka, we explore (1) general changes in IWRs over time during the Yala season and (2) the impact of the rice planting date. We use both historical data from meteorological stations as well as future projections from regional climate models. Our results indicate that gains can be achieved using a variable planting date relative to a fixed date, in accordance with a similar conclusion for the Maha (wet) season. This local scale assessment of Sri Lanka IWRs will contribute to the growing global literature on the impacts of water scarcity on agriculture and the role that one adaptation measure can play in mitigating deleterious impacts.

  2. Tide Gauge Observations of 2004-2007 Indian Ocean Tsunamis from Sri Lanka and Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattiaratchi, Charitha B.; Sarath Wijeratne, E. M.

    2009-02-01

    Tide gauge data collected from Sri Lanka (three stations) and Western Australia (eleven stations) during the Indian Ocean tsunamis, which occurred in December 2004, March 2005, July 2006, and September 2007, and incorporated five tsunamis, were examined to determine tsunami behaviour during these events. During the December 2004 tsunami, maximum wave heights of 3.87 m and 1.75 m were recorded at Colombo (Sri Lanka) and Bunbury (Western Australia), respectively. The results indicated that although the relative magnitudes of the tsunamis varied, the tsunami behaviour at each station was similar. This was due to the effect of the local and regional topography. At all tide gauges, the spectral energy corresponding to periods between 20 and 85 minutes increased during the tsunami. The sea-level data obtained from the west and south coasts of Sri Lanka (Colombo and Kirinda) indicated the importance of wave reflections from the Maldives Island chain, which produced the maximum wave two to three hours after the arrival of the first wave. In contrast, Trincomalee on the east coast did not show evidence of a reflected wave. Similarly, along the west coast of Australia, the highest waves occurred 15 hours after the arrival of the first wave. Here, based on travel times, we postulated that the waves were reflected from the Mascarene Ridge and/or the Island of Madagascar. Reflected waves were not present in the 2006 tsunami, where the primary waves propagated away from topographic features. One of the main influences of the tsunami was to set up oscillations at the local resonance frequency. Because Sri Lanka and Western Australia have relatively straight coastlines, these oscillations were related to the fundamental period of the shelf oscillation. For Colombo, this corresponded to 75-minute period, whereas in Geraldton and Busselton (Australia), the four-hour period was most prominent; at Jurien Bay and Fremantle, the resonance period was 2.7 hours.

  3. Diagnostic challenges and case management of the first imported case of Plasmodium knowlesi in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dewanee Ranaweera, A; Danansuriya, Manjula N; Pahalagedera, Kusumawathie; de A W Gunasekera, W M Kumudunayana T; Dharmawardena, Priyani; Mak, Keng Wai; Wong, Pei-Sze Jeslyn; Li, Mei-Zhi Irene; Tan, Cheong Huat; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige C; Herath, Hema D B; Fernando, Deepika

    2017-03-21

    Sri Lanka has achieved 'malaria-free' status and is now in the phase of prevention of re-introduction of malaria. Imported malaria remains a challenge to resurgence of the disease. The diagnostic challenges encountered and the rapid response initiated to manage a Plasmodium infection, which was later confirmed as Plasmodium knowlesi, the first reported case from Sri Lanka, is discussed. An army officer who returned from Malaysia in October 2016 was found to be positive for Plasmodium both by microscopy and rapid diagnostic test (RDT) by the Anti Malaria Campaign Sri Lanka (AMC) during his third visit to a health care provider. Microscopy findings were suspicious of P. knowlesi infection as the smears showed parasite stages similar to both Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium falciparum. Nested PCR at AMC confirmed Plasmodium genus, but not the species. In the absence of species confirmation, the patient was treated as a case of P. falciparum. The presence of P. knowlesi was later confirmed by a semi-nested PCR assay performed at the Environmental Health Institute, National Environmental Agency in Singapore. The parasite strain was also characterized by sequencing the circumsporozoite gene. Extensive case investigation including parasitological and entomological surveillance was carried out. Plasmodium knowlesi should be suspected in patients returning from countries in the South Asian region where the parasite is prevalent and when blood smear results are inconclusive.

  4. Resistance Towards the Language of Globalisation - The Case of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punchi, Lakshman

    2001-07-01

    This paper relates the contemporary educational reforms in Sri Lanka to the processes of globalisation. The international monetary organisations such as the IMF and the World Bank and the regional organisations like the Asian Development Bank (ADB) play a dominant role in influencing the debt-receiving countries when it comes to their educational practice. The intensity of the influence of these organisations can vary depending on the existing educational policy of the aid receiving countries. This paper, after a brief introduction on globalisation, examines its effects on the education policy in Sri Lanka with a special emphasis on the current language policy. Equity in education is usually advocated at primary level based on the universal primary education concept so highly upheld by the World Bank. However, the present high human development indicators are undoubtedly due to Sri Lanka's free education policy in native languages. The paper concludes stressing the importance to retain the national education policy as a means of empowerment and liberation of its masses and creating stronger ethnic harmony.

  5. Immune response to hepatitis B vaccine in a group of health care workers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chathuranga, L S; Noordeen, F; Abeykoon, A M S B

    2013-11-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are considered at high risk of acquiring the hepatitis B virus (HBV). Seroconversion rates after vaccination against HBV among HCWs have not previously been available in Sri Lanka. In the current study, the response to HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) vaccine was assessed in a selected group of HCWs by testing for antibodies against HBsAg (anti-HBs). This was a retrospective descriptive study to measure the anti-HBs levels, using an ELISA, in an immunized group of HCW referred to Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Among the 342 participants, 9.9% (n=34) were non-responders. Female participants had a significantly higher immune response (94.7%) than males (p<0.05). The results of the study found no significant decline in the immune response with time (p > 0.05). Post HBsAg vaccination immunity in HCW in Sri Lanka is similar to that of global rates with similar gender variation. Anti-HBs levels should be tested in all HCW following HBsAg vaccination so that necessary precautions can be taken.

  6. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mullaitivu, Sri Lanka: a missing endemic district in the leishmaniasis surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Semage, S N; Pathirana, K P N; Agampodi, S B

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the emergence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in a district of Sri Lanka, documented at the national level as having zero incidence. We analyzed data from the Sri Lanka Army (SLA) to describe reported cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis for all armed forces personnel located in all 24 districts of Sri Lanka. These data are not included in the National Surveillance System. From January 2011 through February 2013, 314 armed forces personnel were confirmed as having leishmaniasis. Of these, 223 (81.4%) were working within the district of Mullaitivu at the time of investigation and another 21 (6.5%) reported that the lesion first appeared when they were working in Mullaitivu. The reported cumulative annual incidence of leishmaniasis among the army population was 7.5 per 10000, while in the general area of Mullaitivu the incidence was 234 per 10000. Leishmaniasis is emerging in epidemic proportions in Mullaitivu and is still not detected through the public health surveillance system. Urgent attention directed at disease surveillance and control activities is needed to control this emerging public health threat.

  7. Human rabies focusing on dog ecology-A challenge to public health in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumarapeli, Vindya; Awerbuch-Friedlander, Tamara

    2009-10-01

    Sri Lanka is among the top ten countries in the world that report the highest rate of human rabies deaths (2.8 per 1,000,000 in 2007) and animal bites requiring anti-rabies post-exposure treatment (PET) (755 per 100,000 in 2003). Dogs are the main reservoir and transmitters of rabies in Sri Lanka. Present study evaluates the effectiveness of dog rabies control strategies on reducing incidence of human rabies deaths. Analysis is based on data from last three decades and showed strong correlations between the interventions and human rabies incidence. GIS maps provided a method for illustrating the district distribution of human rabies deaths and dog population density and for recognizing districts at risk. Interrupting the natural transmission cycle of rabies in dogs would be a logical approach in eliminating dog rabies in Sri Lanka. However, interventions implemented so far, such as dog vaccination, elimination of stray dogs (abandoned in 2005), and animal birth control have been inadequate to do so. Better understanding of the ecology of stray and owned dogs (e.g. population density, population structure, confinement status) in the context of the human environment and culture, are needed to strategize the control activities, requiring coordination among regional Public Health and Veterinary services.

  8. Development of the Sri Lanka Dome and Links to Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, K.; Shroyer, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Sri Lanka Dome (SLD) is an upwelling recirculation feature found in the Southwest Monsoon Current that may significantly influence both biological productivity and air-sea interactions in the Bay of Bengal. Here, the twenty-year time series of detrended AVISO satellite absolute dynamic topography is used to track and measure the intensity of the SLD, which shows both a strong seasonal cycle and considerable interannual variability. The dome typically forms in May to the east of Sri Lanka, intensifies through July and August, and migrates to the north and then west before dissipating in September off the coast of northeast Sri Lanka. SLD formation and dissipation, migration path, and magnitude display considerable interannual variability. We also quantify the SLD internal structure using the ARGO float record. The SLD is associated with an elevated pycnocline that is often capped with a fresh surface layer, limiting direct communication of upwelled cold water with the surface. The sea surface temperature response is complex as the subsurface temperature structure is not necessarily monotonic with with height. We also address forcing by remote and local winds and the relation between the SLD and surface heat fluxes through its influence on SST.

  9. Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. 15·5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers.

  10. Potential Challenges of Controlling Leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka at a Disease Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Gunawardana, Kithsiri; Rodrigo, Wasana

    2017-01-01

    The present works reviewed the existing information on leishmaniasis in Sri Lanka and in other countries, focusing on challenges of controlling leishmaniasis in the country, in an outbreak. Evidence from recent studies suggests that there is a possibility of a leishmaniasis outbreak in Sri Lanka in the near future. Difficulty of early diagnosis due to lack of awareness and unavailability or inadequacy of sensitive tests are two of the main challenges for effective case management. Furthermore, the absence of a proper drug for treatment and lack of knowledge about vector biology, distribution, taxonomy and bionomics, and reservoir hosts make the problem serious. The evident potential for visceralization in the cutaneous variant of L. donovani in Sri Lanka may also complicate the issue. Lack of knowledge among local communities also reduces the effectiveness of vector and reservoir host control programs. Immediate actions need to be taken in order to increase scientific knowledge about the disease and a higher effectiveness of the patient management and control programs must be achieved through increased awareness about the disease among general public and active participation of local community in control activities. PMID:28630867

  11. Climate Change Impacts on Rice Farming Systems in Northwestern Sri Lanka. Chapter 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubair, Lareef; Nissanka, Sarath P.; Weerakoon, W. M. W.; Herath, Dumindu I.; Karunaratne, Asha S; Prabodha, A. S. M.; Agalawatte, M. B.; Herath, Rasnayaka; Yahiya, S. Zeenas; Punyawardhene, B. V. R.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Sri Lanka has achieved tremendous progress since 1950 in crop production and food availability. Yields grew at an impressive rate until leveling off in the mid-eighties. Sri Lanka's population is anticipated to grow in the coming decades, creating an ever-greater demand for food security on the household, sub-district, regional, and national scales.The agricultural sector in Sri Lanka is vulnerable to climate shocks. An unusual succession of droughts and floods from 2008 to 2014 has led to both booms and busts in agricultural production, which were reflected in food prices. In both instances, the majority of farmers and consumers were adversely affected.At present the rice-farming systems are under stress due to inadequate returns for the farmers and difficulty in coping with shocks due to climate, pests, and diseases, and prices for produce. There are government price-support mechanisms, fertilizer-subsidy schemes, and crop insurance schemes, but the levels of the supports are modest and often do not effectively reach the farmers.

  12. Experience of a Korean Disaster Medical Assistance Team in Sri Lanka after the South Asia Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Young Ho; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Kyu Seok; Kwon, Woon Yong

    2006-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a huge tsunami struck the coasts of South Asian countries and it resulted in 29,729 deaths and 16,665 injuries in Sri Lanka. This study characterizes the epidemiology, clinical data and time course of the medical problems seen by a Korean disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) during its deployment in Sri Lanka, from 2 to 8 January 2005. The team consisting of 20 surgical and medical personnel began to provide care 7 days after tsunami in the southern part of Sri Lanka, the Matara and Hambantota districts. During this period, a total of 2,807 patients visited our field clinics with 3,186 chief complaints. Using the triage and refer system, we performed 3,231 clinical examinations and made 3,259 diagnoses. The majority of victims had medical problems (82.4%) rather than injuries (17.6%), and most conditions (92.1%) were mild enough to be discharged after simple management. There were also substantial needs of surgical managements even in the second week following the tsunami. Our study also suggests that effective triage system, self-sufficient preparedness, and close collaboration with local authorities may be the critical points for the foreign DMAT activity. PMID:16479081

  13. Estimates of Dengue Force of Infection in Children in Colombo, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Clarence C.; Tissera, Hasitha; de Silva, Aravinda M.; De Silva, Aruna Dharshan; Margolis, Harold S.; Amarasinge, Ananda

    2013-01-01

    Dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease worldwide and a major cause of childhood fever burden in Sri Lanka, which has experienced a number of large epidemics in the past decade. Despite this, data on the burden and transmission of dengue virus in the Indian Subcontinent are lacking. As part of a longitudinal fever surveillance study, we conducted a dengue seroprevalence survey among children aged <12 years in Colombo, Sri Lanka. We used a catalytic model to estimate the risk of primary infection among seronegative children. Over 50% of children had IgG antibodies to dengue virus and seroprevalence increased with age. The risk of primary infection was 14.1% per year (95% CI: 12.7%–15.6%), indicating that among initially seronegative children, approximately 1 in 7 experience their first infection within 12 months. There was weak evidence to suggest that the force of primary infection could be lower for children aged 6 years and above. We estimate that there are approximately 30 primary dengue infections among children <12 years in the community for every case notified to national surveillance, although this ratio is closer to 100∶1 among infants. Dengue represents a considerable infection burden among children in urban Sri Lanka, with levels of transmission comparable to those in the more established epidemics of Southeast Asia. PMID:23755315

  14. Occupational risk factors for low back pain among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Misa; Malhotra, Rahul; DeSilva, Vijitha; Sapukotana, Pasindu; DeSilva, Asela; Kirkorowicz, Jacob; Allen, John; Østbye, Truls

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 5% of all households in Sri Lanka operate a three-wheeler as their primary source of income. However, very little is known about the occupational health risks associated with driving these vehicles. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess occupational risk factors, including the number of hours worked associated with the 4-week prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among drivers of three-wheelers. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 200 full-time drivers of three-wheelers from the Galle District in Sri Lanka. Occupational, psychological, socio-demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables were collected. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to investigate the correlation between occupational risk factors of the prevalence of LBP. Results: 15.5% of respondents reported experiencing LBP in the previous 4 months. Univariate analysis revealed that the number of hours worked per week, feeling pressure to compete with other drivers, and perceived stress scale scores were significantly associated with the 4-week prevalence of LBP. Multivariate analysis found that the number of hours worked per week and engine type were significantly associated with LBP. Conclusions: LBP is common among drivers of three-wheelers in Sri Lanka. Long work hours and two-stroke engines were significantly associated with LBP. Results from this study point towards a role for educational, behavioral health, and policy interventions to help prevent and reduce LBP among these drivers. PMID:25133353

  15. War and disaster in Sri Lanka: Depression, family adjustment and health among women heading households.

    PubMed

    Banford Witting, Alyssa; Lambert, Jessica; Wickrama, Thulitha; Thanigaseelan, Sivaguru; Merten, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The civil war, lasting from 1983 to 2009, and the tsunami that struck Southeastern Asia in 2004 were major stressors that changed the demographic landscape of the northern province of Sri Lanka. The composition of families changed dramatically, with an increase in female-headed households, largely due to casualties. The conservation of resources (COR) model was applied in this study to examine relationships between risk and resiliency factors among women heading households, including women widowed by war or disaster. This study represents an investigation of the association between predictive risk and resiliency factors (i.e. war damage and loss, social support, economic status, religious participation and discrimination) and outcomes representing well-being (depressive symptoms, family adjustment and a rating of physical health). Data from 514 women heading households living in the Kilinochchi district of Sri Lanka were collected through face-to-face interviews in 2013, and associations among the data were estimated using path analysis. Results suggest that resiliency factors that are representative of greater resources generally predicted lower levels of distress and vice versa. Further study informing intervention development with women heading households in Sri Lanka is warranted to better understand which individual, family and community resources are most important to mobilize for sustainable recovery efforts to be successful in the decades following war and natural disaster. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Caregiving expectations and challenges among elders and their adult children in Southern Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Ranabahu, Shyama; Rajapakse, Harshini; Maselko, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    The elderly population in Sri Lanka is growing rapidly. Elders are traditionally cared for in the homes of their adult children, but the shifting socio-economic environment in Sri Lanka challenges this arrangement. This paper describes the dynamics of elder-caregiver relationships in Southern Sri Lanka. Data included 4 focus group discussions and 5 in-depth interviews with elderly, and 10 in-depth interviews with adult children of the elderly. Discussion guide topics included caregiving arrangements, and roles/responsibilities of elders and caregivers. Using a grounded theory approach, a comprehensive analytic memo was developed and discussed to explore emerging themes on the caregiver dynamic. Both elders and caregivers felt that elders should be taken care of in the home by their children. They pointed to a sense of duty and role modeling of parental caregiving that is passed down through generations. Even as elders desired support from their children, they feared losing their independence, and saw financial autonomy as important for maintaining relationship balance. Caregiving challenges included: households where both the adult child and his/her spouse worked outside the home; households where elders had a disproportionate amount of household work; economically stressed households; and lack of direct communication between elders and caregivers regarding conflicts. Results point to strong values around caring for elderly in the home, but identify challenges to this arrangement in the future. PMID:25152553

  17. Infrared spectroscopic analysis of staghorn calculi obtained after open renal surgery in a urology unit of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wijayarathna, K S; Weerasingha, G G; Weligamage, A S; Chandrajith, R; Abeygunasekera, A M

    2016-06-01

    The composition of renal stones varies widely among populations. The aim of our study was to determine the composition of staghorn renal stones using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in a cohort of Sri Lankan patients. Forty two staghorn calculi removed from kidneys of adult patients during open surgery were analysed. There were 32 men. Nineteen (45%) were calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) stones. Stones containing a mixture of calcium oxalate and calcium hydroxyl phosphate (apatite) were found in 16 (38%). Only 4 (10%) staghorn calculi were coposed of struvite. Three (7%) were uric acid stones. So most staghorn renal stones in Sri Lanka are calcium oxalate. Contrary to the traditional view based on studies done in the western world, only 10% of staghorn calculi removed from patients in Sri Lanka are struvite or infection stones. This could be the reason for kidneys with staghorn calculi in Sri Lanka to retain their function.

  18. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Alahakoon, Amali U; Jo, Cheorun; Jayasena, Dinesh D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review.

  19. Achieving high seroprevalence against polioviruses in Sri Lanka--results from a serological survey, 2014.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Deepa; Palihawadana, Paba; Mach, Ondrej; Weldon, William C; Oberste, Steven M; Sutter, Roland W

    2015-12-01

    The immunization program in Sri Lanka consistently reaches >90% coverage with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV), and no polio supplementary vaccination campaigns have been conducted since 2003. We evaluated serological protection against polioviruses in children. A cross-sectional community-based survey was performed in three districts of Sri Lanka (Colombo, Badulla, and Killinochi). Randomly selected children in four age groups (9-11 months, 3-4 years, 7-9 years, and 15 years) were tested for poliovirus neutralizing antibodies. All 400 enrolled children completed the study. The proportion of seropositive children for poliovirus Type 1 and Type 2 was >95% for all age groups; for poliovirus Type 3 it was 95%, 90%, 77%, and 75% in the respective age groups. The vaccination coverage in our sample based on vaccination cards or parental recall was >90% in all age groups. Most Sri Lankan children are serologically protected against polioviruses through routine immunization only. This seroprevalence survey provided baseline data prior to the anticipated addition of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) into the Sri Lankan immunization program and the switch from trivalent OPV (tOPV) to bivalent OPV (bOPV).

  20. An Overview of Meat Industry in Sri Lanka: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Alahakoon, Amali U.; Jo, Cheorun

    2016-01-01

    Livestock is considered as one of the most important segments in agriculture since animal husbandry was practiced for centuries as a backyard system by rural families. Livestock plays as a powerful tool in rural development where meat industry contributes a dominant part. Meat and meat products become a vital component in the diet, which had been one of the main protein sources traditionally as well. The development in the livestock and meat industry of Sri Lanka basically depends upon religious, cultural, and economic factors. There is a growing demand for processed meat products in Sri Lankan urban culture and several large scale processors entered the business during the past few decades. The consumption of meat and meat products shows an upward trend in Sri Lanka during the last decade and is anticipated to increase further in future. The growth potential of the local meat industry is considerably high owing to the improvement of the market and consumer perception. The present status, trends, and future prospects for the Sri Lankan meat industry with respect to production, consumption, processing, marketing, and improvement are discussed in this review. PMID:27194920

  1. A comparison of non-fatal self-poisoning among males and females, in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2014-08-08

    In the recent past Sri Lanka has had a high rate of attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion, among both males and females. Recent evidence suggests that these trends in self-poisoning may be changing, with increasing medicinal overdoses and changing gender ratios. In the past, attempted suicide in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive acts, but research regarding aspects such as suicidal intent is limited, and there has been no comparison between genders. The objective of this study was to describe gender differences in non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka with respect to substances ingested, triggers, stressors, suicidal intent and psychiatric morbidity. Persons admitted to Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning over a consecutive 14-month period were eligible for the study. Participants were interviewed within one week of admission, with regard to demographic details, poison type ingested, triggers, psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent. 949 participants were included in the study, of whom 44.2% were males, with a median age of 22 years. Males were significantly more likely to ingest agrochemicals, whereas females were more likely to overdose on pharmaceutical drugs. Interpersonal conflict was a common trigger associated with non-fatal self-poisoning for both males and females. Alcohol use disorders and high suicidal intent were significantly more likely in males. There was no difference in rates of depression between the genders. Multiple regression for both genders separately showed that the presence of depression and higher levels of hopelessness was the strongest predictor of suicidal intent, for both genders. Patterns of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka appear to be changing to resemble Western patterns, with females having a greater rate of self-poisoning and more medicinal overdoses than males. Alcohol use disorder is a gender specific risk factor associated with non-fatal self

  2. Non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: associated triggers and motivations.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2015-11-24

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is common in Sri Lanka. To date, most preventive strategies have focused on limitation of access to toxic pesticides, which has reduced the rates of fatal self-poisoning. However the ongoing phenomenon of non-fatal self-poisoning indicates the need for exploration of alternate preventive strategies. Self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive, with little premeditation, but the motivations associated with this act have not been studied in depth. This research describes the triggers and motivations associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. It is anticipated that the findings would help guide future preventive strategies. Two studies were carried out, at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, each using a different methodology - Study 1 consisted of qualitative semi-structured interviews, and Study 2 was a cross sectional survey. Both studies were conducted among those who had recently attempted self-poisoning, and explored associated triggers and motivations associated with the act of self-poisoning. There was no overlap between participants of the two studies. A total of 24 persons participated in the semi-structured interviews (Study 1), and 921 took part in the cross-sectional survey (Study 2). Interpersonal conflict was the most common trigger prior to the act of non-fatal self-poisoning. A mixture of motivations was associated with the act of self-poisoning, including intent to die, to escape, and difficulty tolerating distress associated with interpersonal conflict. Development of interpersonal skills and interpersonal problem solving skills, particularly in adolescents and young people, emerges as a key primary preventive strategy. Further, there is value in exploring and helping people to develop more adaptive strategies to cope with emotional distress associated with interpersonal conflict. While distress tolerance and interpersonal skill training strategies used in the West may be

  3. Application of Modis Data to Assess the Latest Forest Cover Changes of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, K.; Herath, S.; Apan, A.; Tateishi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Assessing forest cover of Sri Lanka is becoming important to lower the pressure on forest lands as well as man-elephant conflicts. Furthermore, the land access to north-east Sri Lanka after the end of 30 years long civil war has increased the need of regularly updated land cover information for proper planning. This study produced an assessment of the forest cover of Sri Lanka using two satellite data based maps within 23 years of time span. For the old forest cover map, the study used one of the first island-wide digital land cover classification produced by the main author in 1988. The old land cover classification was produced at 80 m spatial resolution, using Landsat MSS data. A previously published another study by the author has investigated the application feasibility of MODIS and Landsat MSS imagery for a selected sub-section of Sri Lanka to identify the forest cover changes. Through the light of these two studies, the assessment was conducted to investigate the application possibility of MODIS 250 m over a small island like Sri Lanka. The relation between the definition of forest in the study and spatial resolution of the used satellite data sets were considered since the 2012 map was based on MODIS data. The forest cover map of 1988 was interpolated into 250 m spatial resolution to integrate with the GIS data base. The results demonstrated the advantages as well as disadvantages of MODIS data in a study at this scale. The successful monitoring of forest is largely depending on the possibility to update the field conditions at regular basis. Freely available MODIS data provides a very valuable set of information of relatively large green patches on the ground at relatively real-time basis. Based on the changes of forest cover from 1988 to 2012, the study recommends the use of MODIS data as a resalable method to forest assessment and to identify hotspots to be re-investigated. It's noteworthy to mention the possibility of uncounted small isolated pockets of

  4. Insurgency in a Small Country, Ethnic Revolt in Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    it draws heavily on the ideas of Marxism-Leninism. The Tiger symbol is derived from the emblem of the expansionist Indian Tamil Chola dynasty. Its 43...find a bride , he was arrested and remanded by the CID in Colombo. To the surprise of many he was released by the Sri Lankan courts because there was no

  5. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  6. International Enterprise Education in Sri Lanka: A Blended Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasturiratne, Dulekha; Lean, Jonathan; Phippen, Andy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore how enterprise education was adapted from a UK higher education institution (HEI) setting into an international context through collaboration with two Sri Lankan universities. It demonstrates the value of enterprise education in different cultures, and presents learning from the challenges faced by…

  7. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  8. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  9. Validation of wet mount microscopy against Trichomonas culture among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Banneheke, H; Fernandopulle, R; Gunasekara, U; Barua, A; Fernando, N; Wickremasinghe, R

    2015-06-01

    Wet mount microscopy is the most commonly used diagnostic method for trichomoniasis in clinical diagnostic services all over the world including Sri Lanka due to its availability, simplicity and is relatively inexpensive. However, Trichomonas culture and PCR are the gold standard tests. Unfortunately, neither the culture nor PCR is available for the diagnosis of trichomoniasis in Sri Lanka. Thus, it is important to validate the wet mount microscopy as it is the only available diagnostic test and has not been validated to date in Sri Lanka. The objective was to evaluate the validity and reliability of wet mount microscopy against gold standard Trichomonas culture among clinic based population of reproductive age group women in Western province, Sri Lanka. Women attending hospital and institutional based clinics were enrolled. They were interviewed and high vaginal swabs were taken for laboratory diagnosis by culture and wet mount microscopy. There were 601 participants in the age group of 15-45 years. Wet mount microscopy showed 68% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive (PPV) and 98% negative predictive values (NPV) (P=0.001, kappa=0.803) respectively against the gold standard culture. The area under the ROC curve was 0.840. Sensitivity of wet mount microscopy is low. However it has high validity and reliability as a specific diagnostic test for trichomoniasis. If it is to be used among women of reproductive age group in Western province, Sri Lanka, a culture method could be adopted as a second test to confirm the negative wet mount for symptomatic patients.

  10. Acute meningoencephalitis associated with echovirus 9 infection in Sri Lanka, 2009.

    PubMed

    Danthanarayana, Nayomi; Williams, David T; Williams, Simon Hedley; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Speers, David J; Fernando, M S S

    2015-12-01

    The aetiology of acute meningoencephalitis in Sri Lankan children and adults is poorly understood. This study was carried out to determine pathogens responsible for meningoencephalitis in Sri Lanka. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was performed using cerebrospinal fluid samples (22 adult and 17 pediatric) collected from August to December 2009 from patients clinically diagnosed with acute meningoencephalitis at two tertiary care hospitals in Sri Lanka. Routine microbiology for bacterial pathogens together with in-house RT-PCR and PCR assays for the detection of dengue viruses, Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, chikungunya virus, enteroviruses, mumps virus, measles virus, herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2, and varicella zoster virus were performed. Bacterial pathogens were not isolated from any patient specimens. However, from nine of the paediatric patients aged 1 month to 10 years (mean age 5.2 years) echovirus 9 (E-9; family Picornaviridae, genus Enterovirus,species Enterovirus B ) was detected by RT-PCR. All nine patients presented with fever, six had headache, and seven had vomiting. Neck stiffness indicating meningitis was present in six of the patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 and VP4-VP2 genes showed these E-9 strains to be most closely related to E-9 strains detected in CSF from Korea and France in 2005 and 2006. The remaining patients were negative for all other viruses tested. E-9 was the most common cause of acute meningoencephalitis in the tested paediatric population from Sri Lanka in 2009, which likely reflects circulation of this E-9 strain between Europe and Asia over several years.

  11. An assessment of CSIRO Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model simulations over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevakaran, A.; McGregor, J. L.; Katzfey, J.; Hoffmann, P.; Suppiah, R.; Sonnadara, D. U. J.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we present an assessment of the Conformal Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) 50 km simulations forced by the sea surface temperature and sea ice concentration of six global climate models (GCMs) (ACCESS1-0, CCSM4, GFDL-CM3, NorESM, MPI-ESM and CNRM-CM5) from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) over South Asia, centred on Sri Lanka. The model simulations were compared with the data provided by the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resource (APHRODITE) project and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) over a broad region centred on Sri Lanka. This broad region includes South Asia and northern Indian Ocean. Statistical measures such as pattern correlations, mean biases and root mean square errors were calculated separately for the four seasons. Results based on statistical tests indicate that the current CCAM simulations capture the spatial patterns of 10 m wind speed, mean sea level pressure, temperature and rainfall over a broad region over South Asia fairly well. The annual cycles of temperature and rainfall were also compared against observations over the northern and southern regions of Sri Lanka by taking the field average of each model and the observed data. The characteristics of the observed annual variations of rainfall and temperature over the smaller domains are not very well captured by the CCAM simulations. There are differences in the magnitudes of the temperature and rainfall in the six member CCAM simulations. Comparatively, the two CCAM simulations CNRM-CM5 and GFDL-CM3 show slightly better agreement over the Sri Lankan region.

  12. Psychosocial wellbeing and physical health among Tamil schoolchildren in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alexander; Foster, Charlie; Richards, Justin; Surenthirakumaran, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Mental disorders contribute to the global disease burden and have an increased prevalence among children in emergency settings. Good physical health is crucial for mental well-being, although physical health is multifactorial and the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Using Sri Lanka as a case study, we assessed the baseline levels of, and the association between, mental health and physical health in Tamil school children. We conducted a cross sectional study of mental and physical health in 10 schools in Kilinochchi town in northern Sri Lanka. All Grade 8 children attending selected schools were eligible to participate in the study. Mental health was assessed using the Sri Lankan Index for Psychosocial Stress - Child Version. Physical health was assessed using Body Mass Index for age, height for age Z scores and the Multi-stage Fitness Test. Association between physical and mental health variables was assessed using scatterplots and correlation was assessed using Pearson's R. There were 461 participants included in the study. Girls significantly outperformed boys in the MH testing t (459) = 2.201, p < 0.05. Boys had significantly lower average Body Mass Index for age and height for age Z scores than girls (BMI: t (459) = -4.74, p <0.001; Height: t (459) = -3.54, p < 0.001). When compared to global averages, both sexes underperformed in the Multi-Stage Fitness Test, and had a higher prevalence of thinness and stunting. We identified no meaningful association between the selected variables. Our results do not support the supposition that the selected elements of physical health are related to mental health in post-conflict Sri Lanka. However, we identified a considerable physical health deficit in Tamil school children.

  13. Mercy for money: Torture's link to profit in Sri Lanka, a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Block, Wendell; Lee, Jessica; Vijayasingham, Kera

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the pattern of bribe taking in exchange for release from torture, during and after the decades-long war in Sri Lanka. We reviewed the charts of 98 refugee claimants from Sri Lanka referred to the Canadian Centre for Victims of Torture for medical assessments prior to their refugee hearings in Toronto between 1989 and 2013. We tallied the number of incidents in which claimants described paying cash or jewelry to end torture, and collected other associated data such as demographics, organizations of the perpetrators, locations, and, if available, amounts paid. We included torture perpetrated by both governmental and nongovernmental militant groups. Collected data was coded and evaluated. We found that 78 of the 95 subjects (82.1%) whose reported ordeals met the United Nations Convention Against Torture/International Criminal Court definitions of torture described paying to end torture at least once. 43 subjects paid to end torture more than once. Multiple groups (governmental and non-governmental) practiced torture and extorted money by doing so. A middleman was described in 32 percent of the incidents. Payment amounts as reported were high compared to average Sri Lankan annual incomes. The practice of torture and related monetary extortion was still reported after the end of the war, inclusive of 2013. Torture in Sri Lanka is unlikely to end while profit motives remain unchallenged. As well as health injuries, victims of torture and their families suffer significant economic injuries while their assailants are enriched. The frequent link between torture and impunity means multiple populations the world over are vulnerable to this abuse.

  14. First isolation of Legionella pneumophila in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wahala, W M; Wickramasinghe, R S

    2000-12-01

    To determine the presence of legionellae and species composition of the genus Legionella in Sri Lankan hotel cooling towers, and to determine the previous exposure of hotel workers to Legionella pneumophila. Collection of water samples from 16 cooling towers of air conditioning plants from 7 representative hotels, and blood samples from hotel workers. Department of Bacteriology, Medical Research Institute, Colombo 8. Water samples from 4 (57.4%) hotels selected were positive for legionellae. Five (38.4%) selected cooling towers yielded legionellae with viable counts ranging from 1 to 5 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. 93.7% of the isolates were Legionella pneumophila. Only one hotel worker had significant antibody levels denoting past infection to Legionella pneumophila. Legionella does occur in the Sri Lankan hotel environment and Legionella pneumophila appears to be the most common species.

  15. Role of Military in Post-Conflict Sri Lanka

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    ongoing challenge?,” Global change, peace & security, vol. 22, No. 3, September 22, 2010, 365. 89 No Author, “Asia: A Market base Solution; Sri Lanka’s...and villages of dairy farmers “established to promote the dairy industry.”99 Those who wish to engage in self- employment will be provided with the...promotion, micro- enterprises development, skill training, business promotion, marketing and fishery” to support the returning IDPs.149 INGOs have also

  16. Taxonomy and molecular phylogeny of the Platystictidae of Sri Lanka (Insecta: Odonata).

    PubMed

    Bedjanič, M; Conniff, K; Dow, R A; Stokvis, F R; Verovnik, R; Tol, J Van

    2016-11-01

    The 22 Sri Lankan representatives of the family Platystictidae, all endemic to the island and belonging to the distinct endemic subfamily Platystictinae, are revised, and a new reconstruction of the phylogeny based on molecular characters is provided. Five new species are described: Ceylonosticta venusta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Rambodde Falls, at the tunnel; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N7.0489, E80.6961; 12-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. inferioreducta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Norton Bridge, stream on the B43 road 1.5km WNW of Norton Bridge; Nuwara Eliya District, Central Province; N6.9171, E80.5075; 28-vii-2009; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), C. mirifica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Uwella, primary forest on the road Uwella-Ratnapura, 11.5km NW of Balangoda; Ratnapura District, Sabaragamuwa Province; N6.6968, E80.6059; 16-vii-2012; to be deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Colombo, Sri Lanka), Platysticta secreta sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Hasalaka; Kandy District, Central Province; N7.3535, E80.9509; 31-v-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA) and P. serendibica sp. nov. (holotype ♂: Kanneliya; Galle District, Southern Province; N6.2291, E80.3834; 8 & 9-vi-1975; deposited at National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA). Additionally, a determination key, figures showing morphological details and coloration in life, as well as distribution maps for all species are presented. Based on molecular analysis of 21 taxa, the phylogeny of Platystictinae is presented and discussed from the zoogeographical and paleogeographical point of view. Sri Lankan species, traditionally placed in the genera Platysticta Selys and Drepanosticta Laidlaw / Ceylonosticta Fraser, separated into distinct clades within the subfamily as presently defined, but the monophyletic nature

  17. The School and the Community--A Case Study of an Open-Plan School in Sri Lanka. Educational Building Report 16.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wijegunasekera, D. P.; And Others

    The architectural characteristics and the educational program of a new open plan Sri Lanka school are the subjects of this case study. The school is open both to the pupils as well as to the rest of the community, a departure from the traditional Sri Lanka school building. The study begins with a discussion of scope and objectives followed by a…

  18. The Pearl of Great Price: Achieving Equitable Access to Primary and Secondary Education and Enhancing Learning in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 29

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aturupane, Harsha

    2009-01-01

    The experience of public policy in Sri Lanka has had a profound impact on the thinking of the global development community in relation to the role of education in economic development. In particular, the example of Sri Lanka helped to persuade policy makers around the world that governments can successfully develop a general education system to…

  19. 77 FR 48499 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka Chennai and Cochin, India and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    .... Participating in a CS-organized trade mission delegation, rather than traveling to India and Sri Lanka on their..., knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. Compared to other South Asian countries, Sri Lanka is... developing economic hubs in ports, aviation, knowledge, hospitality, leisure/tourism and energy. The...

  20. Genetic characterization of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Tattiyapong, Muncharee; Fukushi, Shintaro; Hayashida, Kyoko; Kothalawala, Hemal; Silva, Seekkuge Susil Priyantha; Vimalakumar, Singarayar Caniciyas; Kanagaratnam, Ratnam; Meewewa, Asela Sanjeewa; Suthaharan, Kalpana; Puvirajan, Thamotharampillai; de Silva, Weligodage Kumarawansa; Igarashi, Ikuo; Yokoyama, Naoaki

    2014-02-24

    Water buffaloes are thought to be the reservoir hosts for several hemoprotozoan parasites that infect cattle. In the present study, we surveyed Sri Lankan bred water buffaloes for infections with Babesia bovis, Babesia bigemina, Theileria annulata, and Theileria orientalis using parasite-specific PCR assays. When 320 blood-derived DNA samples from water buffaloes reared in three different districts (Polonnaruwa, Mannar, and Mullaitivu) of Sri Lanka were PCR screened, B. bovis, B. bigemina, and T. orientalis were detected. While T. orientalis was the predominant parasite (82.5%), low PCR-positive rates were observed for B. bovis (1.9%) and B. bigemina (1.6%). Amplicons of the gene sequences of the Rhoptry Associated Protein-1 (RAP-1) of B. bovis, the Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA-1) of B. bigemina, and the Major Piroplasm Surface Protein (MPSP) of T. orientalis were compared with those characterized previously in Sri Lankan cattle. While the B. bigemina AMA-1 sequences from water buffaloes shared high identity values with those from cattle, B. bovis RAP-1 sequences from water buffaloes diverged genetically from those of cattle. For T. orientalis, none of the MPSP sequence types reported previously in Sri Lankan cattle (types 1, 3, 5, and 7) were detected in the water buffaloes, and the MPSP sequences analyzed in the present study belonged to types N1 or N2. In summary, in addition to reporting the first PCR-based survey of Babesia and Theileria parasites in water buffaloes in Sri Lanka, the present study found that the predominant variants of water buffalo-derived B. bovis RAP-1 and T. orientalis MPSP sequences were different from those previously described from cattle in this country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Diffusion of a Sustainable Farming Technique in Sri Lanka: An Agent-Based Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Gilligan, J. M.; Carrico, A. R.; Truelove, H. B.; Hornberger, G.

    2012-12-01

    We live in a changing world - anthropogenic climate change is disrupting historic climate patterns and social structures are shifting as large scale population growth and massive migrations place unprecedented strain on natural and social resources. Agriculture in many countries is affected by these changes in the social and natural environments. In Sri Lanka, rice farmers in the Mahaweli River watershed have seen increases in temperature and decreases in precipitation. In addition, a government led resettlement project has altered the demographics and social practices in villages throughout the watershed. These changes have the potential to impact rice yields in a country where self-sufficiency in rice production is a point of national pride. Studies of the climate can elucidate physical effects on rice production, while research on social behaviors can illuminate the influence of community dynamics on agricultural practices. Only an integrated approach, however, can capture the combined and interactive impacts of these global changes on Sri Lankan agricultural. As part of an interdisciplinary team, we present an agent-based modeling (ABM) approach to studying the effects of physical and social changes on farmers in Sri Lanka. In our research, the diffusion of a sustainable farming technique, the system of rice intensification (SRI), throughout a farming community is modeled to identify factors that either inhibit or promote the spread of a more sustainable approach to rice farming. Inputs into the ABM are both physical and social and include temperature, precipitation, the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), community trust, and social networks. Outputs from the ABM demonstrate the importance of meteorology and social structure on the diffusion of SRI throughout a farming community.

  2. The Malaysian Orthopaedic Association humanitarian mission to Indonesia and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sharaf, I; Saw, A; Hyzan, Y; Sivananthan, K S

    2005-07-01

    The tsunami which occurred off the west coast of North Sumatra on December 26, 2004 devastated the coastal areas of North Sumatra, South-West Thailand, South-East India and Sri Lanka killing more than a quarter of a million people. The destruction was enormous with many coastal villages destroyed. The other countries affected were Malaysia, Myanmar, Maldives, Bangladesh, Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania and the Seychelles. In January 2005, volunteers went in weekly rotation to Banda Aceh in collaboration with Global Peace Mission. These were Dr Hyzan Yusof, Dr Suryasmi Duski, Dr Sharaf Ibrahim, Dr Saw Aik, Dr Kamariah Nor and Dr Nor Azlin. In Banda Aceh, the surgical procedures that we could do were limited to external fixation of open fractures and debriding infected wounds at the Indonesian Red Crescent field hospital. In February, a team comprising Dato Dr K S Sivananthan, Dr T Kumar and Dr S Vasan spent a week in Sri Lanka. In Sri Lanka, Dato Sivananthan and his team were able to perform elective orthopaedic operations in Dr Poonambalam Memorial Hospital. We appealed for national and international aid and received support from local hospitals and the orthopaedic industry. International aid bound for Banda Aceh arrived in Kuala Lumpur from the Philippine Orthopaedic Association, the Chiba Children's Hospital in Japan and the Chinese Orthopaedic Association. The COA donated 1.5 tons of orthopaedic equipments. A special handing over ceremony from the COA to the Indonesian Orthopaedic Association was held in Putrajaya in March. Malaysia Airlines flew in the donated equipment to Kuala Lumpur while the onward flight to Aceh was provided by the Royal Malaysian Air Force. In April, Dr Saw Aik and Dr Yong Su Mei joined the Tsu-Chi International Medical Association for volunteer services on Batam Island, Indonesia. The MOA acknowledges the many individuals and organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, for their contributions in the humanitarian efforts.

  3. Quantitative and Public Perception of Landslide Risk in Badulla, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekera, R.; Bandara, R. M. S.; Mallawatantri, A.; Saito, K.

    2009-04-01

    Landslides are often triggered by intense precipitation and are exacerbated by increased urbanisation and human activity. There is a significant risk of large scale landslides in Sri Lanka and when they do occur, they have the potential to cause devastation to property, lives and livelihoods. There are several high landslide risk areas in seven districts (Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura, Kegalle, Kandy, Matale and Kalutara) in Sri Lanka. These are also some of the poorest areas in the country and consequently the recovery process after catastrophic landslides become more problematic. Therefore landslide risk management is an important concern in poverty reduction strategies. We focused on the district of Badulla, Sri Lanka to evaluate the a) quantitative scientific analysis of landslide risk and b) qualitative public perception of landslides in the area. Combining high resolution, hazard and susceptibility data we quantified the risk of landslides in the area. We also evaluated the public perception of landslides in the area using participatory GIS techniques. The evaluation of public perception of landslide risk has been complemented by use of Landscan data. The framework of the methodology for Landscan data is based on using the second order administrative population data from census, each 30 arc-second cell within the administrative units receives a probability coefficient based on slope, proximity to roads and land cover. Provision of this information from these complementary methods to the regional planners help to strengthen the disaster risk reduction options and improving sustainable land use practices through enhanced public participation in the decision making and governance processes.

  4. Information support for health information management in regional Sri Lanka: health managers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTs, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMs. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  5. Do Breast Cancer Risk Factors Affect the Survival of Breast Cancer Patients in Southern Sri Lanka?

    PubMed

    Peiris, H H; Mudduwa, L K B; Thalagala, N I; Jayatilaka, K A P W

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer continues to be a major cause of morbidity among women in Sri Lanka. Possible effects of etiological risk factors on breast cancer specific survival (BCSS) of the disease is not clear.This study was designed to explore the impact of breast cancer risk factors on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka. Method: This retro-prospective study included all breast cancer patients who had sought immunohistochemistry services at our unit from May 2006 to December 2012. A pre-tested, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on risk factors. BCSS was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier model. Univariate Cox-regression analysis was performed with 95% confidence intervals using the SPSS statistical package. Results: A total of 944 breast cancer patients were included. Five year BCSS was 78.8%. There was a statistically significant difference between the patients who had a family history of breast cancer and no family history of any cancer in terms of the presence/absence of lymph node metastasis (p=0.011) and pathological stage (p=0.042). The majority of the premenopausal patients had associated DCIS (p<0.001) and large tumours (p=0.015) with positive lymph nodes (p=0.016). There was no statistically significant association between hormone receptor subtypes and hormone related risk factors. Univariate analysis revealed that breast cancer risk factors had no significant effect on the BCSS. Conclusion: Even though family history of breast cancer and premenopausal status are associated with poor prognostic features, they, in line with the other breast cancer risk factors, appear to have no significant effect on the BCSS of patients in Southern Sri Lanka.

  6. Awareness and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among residents of Kandy, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Navaratna, Samidi; Kanda, Koji; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Tennakoon, Sampath; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Jayasekara, Niroshan; Nagano, Katsutoshi; Obayashi, Yoshihide; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-01-01

    Currently, interventions for HIV/AIDS control in Sri Lanka are only carried out among the most-at-risk populations. This study was conducted to identify the level of awareness and stigma-related attitudes among the general population of Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 869 residents of 18-64 years of age in Kandy, Sri Lanka. A self-administered questionnaire was utilised to obtain information about stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Chi-square test and multivariate analysis were applied to find possible associations between HIV-related variables and socio-demographic indicators. Response rate was 82.0%. Overall, 93.5% of the participants have heard of HIV/AIDS but the knowledge on HIV/AIDS was low with an average score of 51.7%, no statistically significant difference between genders (p = 0.352). Only 58.1% were aware that a condom was an effective tool for its prevention. There were many misconceptions related to epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. The participants showed more positive attitudes towards HIV/AIDS and people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) for all questionnaire items except for those listed under shame and blame. Positive attitudes towards PLHIV were observed to be greater among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score. There was no significant association between the attitudes towards PLHIV and socio-demographic characteristics such as ethnicity and religion. There is a greater need of making attempts towards educating the public regarding HIV/AIDS to eliminate misconceptions prevalent in the society. Stigma-related attitudes are mainly due to shame and blame associated with the disease. As the attitudes towards PLHIV were more positive among those with a better HIV/AIDS-related knowledge score, targeted HIV/AIDS-related health education interventions maybe recommended in this regard.

  7. Sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behaviors of 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Akalanka, Ediriweera Chintana; Fujiwara, Takeo; Desapriya, Ediriweera; Peiris, Dinithi C; Scime, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the nature and scope of aggressive driving in developing countries. The objective of this study is to specifically examine the sociodemographic factors associated with aggressive driving behavior among 3-wheeler taxi drivers in Sri Lanka. Convenience samples of 3-wheeler taxi drivers from Rathnapura, Ahaliyagoda, Sri Lanka were surveyed from June to August 2006. Analyses included bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Drivers with less than high school education were 3.5 times more likely to drive aggressively (odds ratio [OR] = 3.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 11.1). Single drivers were 9 times more likely to run red lights (OR = 8.74; 95% CI = 2.18, 35.0), and being single was a major risk factor for drunk driving (OR = 4.80; 95% CI = 1.23, 18.7). Furthermore, high school completers were 4 times more likely to bribe a policeman (OR = 4.27; 95% CI = 1.23, 14.9) when caught violating the road rules. Aggressive driving and risk-taking behavior are amenable to policy initiatives, and preventive programs targeted at key groups could be used to improve road safety in Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that aggressive driving behavior is associated with sociodemographic factors, including the level of education, marital status, and other socioeconomic factors. Hence, economic factors should be addressed to find solutions to traffic-related issues. It will be the government's and policy makers' responsibility to try and understand the economic factors behind risky road behavior and bribe-taking behavior prior to legislating or enforcing new laws.

  8. Development of an EORTC-8D utility algorithm for Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Whitty, Jennifer A; Johnson, Newell W; Jayasinghe, Ruwan; Scuffham, Paul A

    2015-04-01

    Currently there are no reported cancer-specific health state valuations in low- and middle-income countries using a validated preference-based measure. The EORTC-8D, a cancer-specific preference-based measure, has 81,920 health states and is useful for economic evaluations in cancer care. The aim of this study was to develop a utility algorithm to value EORTC-8D health states using preferences derived from a representative population sample in Sri Lanka. The time-tradeoff method was used to elicit preferences from a general population sample of 780 in Sri Lanka. A block design of 85 health states, with a time horizon of 10 years, was used for the direct valuation. Data were analyzed using generalized least squares with random effects. All respondents with at least one logical inconsistency were excluded from the analysis. After logical inconsistencies were excluded, 4520 observations were available from 717 respondents for the analysis. The preferred model specified main effects with an interaction term for any level 4 or worse descriptor within a health state. Worsening of physical functioning had a substantially greater utility decrement than any other dimension in this population. Limitations are that the data collection could not include the whole country and that females formed a large part of the sample. Preference weights for EORTC-8D health states for Sri Lanka have been derived: These will be very useful in economic evaluations of cancer-related interventions in a range of low- and middle-income countries. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Zircon ion microprobe dating of high-grade rocks in Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Kroener, A.; Williams, I.S.; Compston, W.; Baur, N.; Vitanage, P.W.; Perera, L.R.K.

    1987-11-01

    The high-grade gneisses of Sri Lanka display spectacular in-situ granulitization phenomena similar to those observed in southern India and of current interest for evolutionary models of the lower continental crust. The absolute ages of these rocks are poorly constrained and so, using the SHRIMP ion microprobe, the authors have analyzed small spots on zircons from upper amphibolite to granulite grade quartzitic and pelitic metasediments. Detrital grains from a metaquartzite of the Highland Group preserve premetamorphic U-Pb ages of between 3.17 and 2.4 Ga and indicate derivation of the sediment from an unidentified Archean source terrain. The Pb-loss patterns of these zircons and the other samples suggest severe disturbance at ca 1100 Ma ago, which the authors attribute to high-grade regional metamorphism. Two pelitic gneisses contain detrital zircons with ages up to 2.04 Ga and also record an approx. = 1100 Ma event that is also apparent from metamorphic rims around old cores and new zircon growth. A granite intrusive into the Highland Group granulites records an emplacement age of 1000-1100 Ma as well as metamorphic disturbance some 550 Ma ago but also contains older, crustally derived xenocrysts. Zircons from a metaquartzite xenolith within the granitoid Vijayan Complex are not older than approx. 1100 Ma; therefore the Vijayan is neither Archean in age nor acted as basement to the Highland Group, as previously proposed. The authors suggest that the Vijayan Complex formed significantly later than the Highland Group and that the two units were brought into contact through post-1.1 Ga thrusting. Although the granulitization phenomena in India and Sri Lanka are similar, the granulite event in Sri Lanka is not Archean in age but took place in the late Proterozoic.

  10. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, K K G D U L; Edirisuriya, C S; Senerath, U; Hensmen, D; Siriwardana, H V Y D; Karunaweera, N D

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1-90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease.

  11. Characterisation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Matara district, southern Sri Lanka: evidence for case clustering

    PubMed Central

    Kariyawasam, K. K. G. D. U. L.; Edirisuriya, C. S.; Senerath, U.; Hensmen, D.; Siriwardana, H. V. Y. D.; Karunaweera, N. D.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by Phlebotomus spp. sand flies. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is caused by Leishmania donovani. Transmission patterns are different in Southern and Northern Sri Lanka. Current study examined the prevalence, risk factors and distribution of CL in Matara District, Southern Sri Lanka. Total of 2260 individuals from four District Secretariat divisions (DSDs) were screened by house to house surveys using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The study population had an age range of 1–90 years (median  =  43  ±  17.31), low monthly income ( < 20 000 LKR, 52.8%) and a male to female ratio of 1 : 2. Thirty eight patients were diagnosed by light microscopy, culture and/or PCR with a disease prevalence of 1.68%. Spatial mapping provided evidence for significant case clustering, which tended to be more prominent with proximity to forest areas. The risk factors identified were un-plastered brick walls, absence or low usage of protective measures against insect bites, low income and excessive time (>4 hours/day) spent outdoors. However, exposure of limbs while outdoors, unawareness about the disease, type of occupation, common water source as the mode of water supply and presence of animal shelters within 200 m were not associated with the risk of acquiring the disease. Peri-domestic transmission is likely to contribute to the observed case clustering with all age groups at risk of acquiring the infection. Human behavioural habits coinciding with that of the vector, sand fly are likely to enable host-vector contact promoting its spread. Appropriate vector control measures, improvement of housing conditions, public education regarding preventive measures are required to contain the spread of disease. PMID:26345305

  12. Unmarried women's decisions on pregnancy termination: Qualitative interviews in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Pia; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2010-11-01

    In Sri Lanka pregnancy termination is very restricted by law and social norms. Premarital sex, and pregnancies are not generally accepted and unmarried pregnant women are vulnerable in their decision-making on pregnancy termination. The objective of this study was to describe the circumstances of becoming pregnant and factors considered in the decision-making for seeking pregnancy termination in a sample of unmarried women in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 unmarried women seeking pregnancy terminations at a reproductive health centre in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The interviews were later analysed using qualitative content analysis. Becoming pregnant in a love relationship was predominant in this sample. Awareness of contraceptives varied and initial reaction to the pregnancy involved strong contradictory emotions. Multiple interrelated factors were considered in the decision-making for termination. Family pressure was the most prominent factor followed by the partner's qualities and attitude towards the pregnancy, economic factors and own feelings, values and future fertility. The women described that their own emotional, religious and economic reasons for continuing the pregnancy were often outweighed by their responsibility to the family, male partner and unborn child. These unmarried women's sexual and reproductive rights were limited and for many the pregnancy termination was socially unsafe. They found themselves at the interface of two value systems. Modern values allow for relationships with men prior to marriage; whereas, traditional values did not. The limited possibilities to prevent pregnancies and little hope for support if continuing the pregnancy; made women seek pregnancy termination despite own doubts. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring beyond norms: social capital of pregnant women in Sri Lanka as a factor influencing health.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Thilini Chanchala; Agampodi, Suneth Buddhika; Glozier, Nicholas; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-01-01

    Social capital during pregnancy in low and middle-income countries is hardly discussed in scientific literature. In Sri Lanka, even though the maternal health indicators are exemplary, addressing social determinants in pregnancy to improve the quality of care remains at minimal levels. While social capital is found to be context dependent, a comprehensive approach on identification of its dimensions within the context will unravel its relationships to health. The present qualitative study protocol was developed to explore social capital related to health among pregnant women in Anuradhapura district Sri Lanka. The study will be conducted in two phases. In the phase one, we will select different communities from Anuradhapura district. Five to seven pregnant women will be selected from each community to complete a two week solicited diary on their social relationships. After completion of the diaries they will be interviewed for further clarification of social capital based on their diary documentation. In the second phase, we will conduct in-depth interviews with Public Health Midwives and senior community dwellers from each community to discuss social capital of pregnant women in the respective communities in order to triangulate the information obtained from the diaries. A framework analysis will be conducted for each community and formulate a final framework for social capital among pregnant women and there possible effects on health. This study will focus on filling a research gap of social determinants pertaining to maternal health in Sri Lanka. The findings will be helpful in generating hypotheses on unidentified social risk factors and their pathways to maternal health. The results of this in-depth exploration will be utilized to formulate a culturally sensitive study instrument to assess social capital during pregnancy.

  14. Mapping the Risk of Snakebite in Sri Lanka - A National Survey with Geospatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ediriweera, Dileepa Senajith; Kasturiratne, Anuradhani; Pathmeswaran, Arunasalam; Gunawardena, Nipul Kithsiri; Wijayawickrama, Buddhika Asiri; Jayamanne, Shaluka Francis; Isbister, Geoffrey Kennedy; Dawson, Andrew; Giorgi, Emanuele; Diggle, Peter John; Lalloo, David Griffith; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of robust epidemiological data on snakebite, and data available from hospitals and localized or time-limited surveys have major limitations. No study has investigated the incidence of snakebite across a whole country. We undertook a community-based national survey and model based geostatistics to determine incidence, envenoming, mortality and geographical pattern of snakebite in Sri Lanka. Methodology/Principal Findings The survey was designed to sample a population distributed equally among the nine provinces of the country. The number of data collection clusters was divided among districts in proportion to their population. Within districts clusters were randomly selected. Population based incidence of snakebite and significant envenoming were estimated. Model-based geostatistics was used to develop snakebite risk maps for Sri Lanka. 1118 of the total of 14022 GN divisions with a population of 165665 (0.8%of the country’s population) were surveyed. The crude overall community incidence of snakebite, envenoming and mortality were 398 (95% CI: 356–441), 151 (130–173) and 2.3 (0.2–4.4) per 100000 population, respectively. Risk maps showed wide variation in incidence within the country, and snakebite hotspots and cold spots were determined by considering the probability of exceeding the national incidence. Conclusions/Significance This study provides community based incidence rates of snakebite and envenoming for Sri Lanka. The within-country spatial variation of bites can inform healthcare decision making and highlights the limitations associated with estimates of incidence from hospital data or localized surveys. Our methods are replicable, and these models can be adapted to other geographic regions after re-estimating spatial covariance parameters for the particular region. PMID:27391023

  15. Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology in Sri Lanka: Are leptospirosis and Hantaviral infection likely causes?

    PubMed

    Gamage, Chandika Damesh; Sarathkumara, Yomani Dilukshi

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) has been a severe burden and a public health crisis in Sri Lanka over the past two decades. Many studies have established hypotheses to identify potential risk factors although causative agents, risk factors and etiology of this disease are still uncertain. Several studies have postulated that fungal and bacterial nephrotoxins are a possible etiological factor; however, the precise link between hypothesized risk factors and the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease has yet to be proven in prior studies. Leptospirosis and Hantavirus infections are important zoonotic diseases that are naturally maintained and transmitted via infected rodent populations and which present similar clinical and epidemiological features. Both infections are known to be a cause of acute kidney damage that can proceed into chronic renal failure. Several studies have reported presence of both infections in Sri Lanka. Therefore, we hypothesized that pathogenic Leptospira or Hantavirus are possible causative agents of acute kidney damage which eventually progresses to chronic kidney disease in Sri Lanka. The proposed hypothesis will be evaluated by means of an observational study design. Past infection will be assessed by a cross-sectional study to detect the presence of IgG antibodies with further confirmatory testing among chronic kidney disease patients and individuals from the community in selected endemic areas compared to low prevalence areas. Identification of possible risk factors for these infections will be followed by a case-control study and causality will be further determined with a cohort study. If the current hypothesis is true, affected communities will be subjected for medical interventions related to the disease for patient management while considering supportive therapies. Furthermore and possibly enhance their preventive and control measures to improve vector control to decrease the risk of infection. Copyright © 2016

  16. Environmental and Socio-Demographic Determinants of Dengue Fever in Colombo City, Sri Lanka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipre, Meghan; Luvall, Jeffrey; Haque, Akhlaque; McClure, Leslie; Zaitchik, Ben; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2014-01-01

    Dengue fever has increased exponentially in Sri Lanka, from 24.4 cases per 100,000 in 2003 to 165.3 per 100,000 population in 2013. Although early warning systems using predictor models have been previously developed in other settings, it is important to develop such models in each local setting. Further, the ability of these models to be applicable at smaller geographic units will enhance current vector control and disease surveillance measures. The aim of this paper was to identify environmental and socio-economic status (SES) risk factors that may predict dengue fever at the Gram Niladhari Divisions (GND) level (smallest administrative unit) in Colombo city, Sri Lanka. These factors included landcover classes, amount of vegetation, population density, water access and neighborhood SES as determined by roof type. A geographically weighted regression (GWR) was used to develop the prediction model. A total 55 GND units covering an area of 37 sq km were investigated. We found that GND units with decreased vegetation, higher built-up area, higher population density and poor access to tap-water supply were associated with high risk of dengue; the pertinent GND units were concentrated in the center of the city. This is the first study in Sri Lanka to include both environmental and socio-demographic factors in prediction models for dengue fever. The methodology may be useful in enhancing ongoing dengue fever control measures in the country, and to be extended to other countries in the region that have an increasing incidence of dengue fever.

  17. Information Support for Health Management in Regional Sri Lanka: Health Managers' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Kaduruwane Indika; Chan, Taizan; Yaralagadda, Prasad

    2012-10-01

    Good management, supported by accurate, timely and reliable health information, is vital for increasing the effectiveness of Health Information Systems (HIS). When it comes to managing the under-resourced health systems of developing countries, information-based decision making is particularly important. This paper reports findings of a self-report survey that investigated perceptions of local health managers (HMs) of their own regional HIS in Sri Lanka. Data were collected through a validated, pre-tested postal questionnaire, and distributed among a selected group of HMs to elicit their perceptions of the current HIS in relation to information generation, acquisition and use, required reforms to the information system and application of information and communication technology (ICT). Results based on descriptive statistics indicated that the regional HIS was poorly organised and in need of reform; that management support for the system was unsatisfactory in terms of relevance, accuracy, timeliness and accessibility; that political pressure and community and donor requests took precedence over vital health information when management decisions were made; and use of ICT was unsatisfactory. HIS strengths included user-friendly paper formats, a centralised planning system and an efficient disease notification system; weaknesses were lack of comprehensiveness, inaccuracy, and lack of a feedback system. Responses of participants indicated that HIS would be improved by adopting an internationally accepted framework and introducing ICT applications. Perceived barriers to such improvements were high initial cost of educating staff to improve computer literacy, introduction of ICTS, and HIS restructure. We concluded that the regional HIS of Central Province, Sri Lanka had failed to provide much-needed information support to HMS. These findings are consistent with similar research in other developing countries and reinforce the need for further research to verify causes of

  18. Trends and determinants of childhood stunting and underweight in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, R P; Hossain, S M M; Anuranga, C; Wickramasinghe, R; Jayatissa, R; Abeykoon, A T P L

    2013-03-01

    Child undernutrition is a major risk factor for child mortality and adult ill-health. Despite substantial progress in most health indicators, undernutrition remains high in Sri Lanka, with recent trends being unclear, owing to methodological differences in national surveys. This study uses data from the 1987, 1993, 2000 and 2006-07 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the 2009 Nutrition and Food Security Survey (NFSS) to investigate trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Sri Lanka. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight and wasting were re-estimated using the 2006 WHO growth standards to ensure consistency. Multivariate regression analysis was then undertaken to analyse the determinants of height-forage in children aged 9-23 months, and 24-59 months, and the relative impact of key factors was assessed using prediction models. Stunting and wasting substantially improved from 1987 to 2000, but rates stagnated from 2000 to 2006/07. Whilst economic inequalities in under nutrition were greater than in most other countries, the multivariate analysis found that maternal height, household wealth, length of breast-feeding and altitude are significant determinants of stunting, but differences in child feeding practices and other factors were not. Of these, maternal height and household wealth had the most influence. The results are consistent with the finding that food insecurity is the main driver of undernutrition, but more research is required to validate this. The strong relationship of child height with maternal height suggests that epigenetic factors, proxied by short maternal height, constrain the applicability of the WHO growth standards in Sri Lanka.

  19. Plural medicine in Sri Lanka: do Ayurvedic and Western medical practices differ?

    PubMed

    Waxler-Morrison, N E

    1988-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, as in India, two formally structured systems of medicine exist side by side. While Western-style biomedicine is believed to be useful, Ayurvedic medicine is well established and commonly used. Underlying one explanation for the persistence of such plural medical systems is a functional theory, suggesting that each system is used for different treatments, diseases, or for the ideological, linguistic or social characteristics of the physician. In part, Ayurvedic and Western medicine may persist because their practitioners provide distinctly different services. We tested part of this functional explanation by sending trained 'pseudo-patients' to 764 Ayurvedic and allopathic physicians across Sri Lanka. 'Patients' reported symptoms of common cold, diarrhea or back pain, and recorded after leaving the clinic many aspects of history-taking, diagnostic procedures and physician-patient interaction. Medicines prescribed were later analyzed by a laboratory. We found, basically, no significant differences between the medical practices of sampled Ayurvedic and Western-style physicians, with one exception. While both types spend 3-4 min asking four questions and doing two or three physical examination procedures, and while both prescribe, overwhelmingly, only Western medicines, the allopathic physicians give drugs, that, from the point of view of Western medicine, either 'help' or 'harm' and Ayurvedic physicians prescribe 'neutral' medicines. While we have not directly tested the entire functional explanation we suggest that a structural explanation of the persistence of two systems of medicine may be more valid. Ayurvedic and Western medicine continue in Sri Lanka because they, as institutions, are linked to the social, economic and political structure of the society. Thus, survival is based, not on what a physician does in his practice but upon the power of his medical profession to control medical territory.

  20. International trends in health science librarianship part 12: South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka).

    PubMed

    Joshi, Medha; Ali Anwar, Mumtaz; Ullah, Midrar; Kuruppu, Chandrani

    2014-12-01

    This is the 12th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship. This issue describes developments in health science librarianship in the first decade of the 21st century in South Asia. The three contributors report on challenges facing health science librarians in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. There is consensus as to the need for education, training and professional development. Starting in the next issue, the focus will turn to Africa, starting with countries in southern Africa. JM. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  1. Laboratory studies of Miocene limestone for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali

    2016-04-01

    Geologically ten percent of Sri Lanka is made up of Miocene limestone which covers northern and north-western coastal belt of the Island. It is used as a raw material for various industries but only cement and lime are being used for the construction industry. Except its chemical composition there is no available literature to study about other properties. Therefore the author carried out a series of laboratory tests to find out the mechanical properties of limestone in Sri Lanka. The objective of this paper is to make a note on the various properties of Miocene limestone and describe its suitability to use as an aggregate for the construction industry in Sri Lanka. Borehole samples (NX size) of limestone were obtained from various drilling sites in Northern Province of Sri Lanka and selected samples were prepared for different laboratory tests after visual observations. The tests were carried out according to ASTM Standards at the geotechnical and materials testing laboratories. The number of samples per each test was different. The range (and average result) for each property can be mentioned here as bulk density 2213-2643 (2452) kg/m3, water absorption 2.2-4.5 (1.91)%, porosity 1-15 (6.5)%, specific gravity 2.58-2.68(2.62), ultrasonic pulse velocity P wave 4480-6338 (5668) m/s and S wave 2688-3802 (3400) m/s, uniaxial compressive strength 11-92 (35)MPa, point load strength 1.2-7.1 (3.7)MPa, aggregate impact value, AIV 25-30 (28)%, LAAV 35-38 (36)%, and Brazilian tensile strength 2.1-4.4 (3.2)MPa. Poisson's ratio 0.12-0.68 (0.22) and modulus of elasticity 42-85 (62) GPa were obtained by using P and S ultrasonic wave velocity values. According to LAAV and AIV this limestone may be suitable as the base course material for road construction but may not be suitable for surface material of highways and rail road ballasts. Ultrasonic velocity waves indicate that limestone is highly compacted and solid. According to the compressive strength of solid limestone rock a few

  2. Religious beliefs, possession States, and spirits: three case studies from sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded.

  3. Religious Beliefs, Possession States, and Spirits: Three Case Studies from Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni; Yoosuf, Alam; Karunaratne, Sanjeewani; de Silva, Pushpa

    2012-01-01

    We describe three patients from different religious backgrounds in Sri Lanka whose possession states were strongly influenced by their religious beliefs. Patient A was a Buddhist who claimed to have special powers given by a local deity named Paththini. Patient B was a Catholic who experienced spirits around her whom she believed were sent by Satan. Patient C was a Muslim and believed she was possessed by spirits. The religious beliefs also influenced the help-seeking behaviour and the rituals or treatments to which they responded. PMID:22970398

  4. Characteristics of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rate of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has increased in recent years, with associated morbidity and economic cost to the country. This review examines the published literature for the characteristics and factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Electronic searches were conducted in Psychinfo, Proquest, Medline and Cochrane databases from inception to October 2011. Results 26 publications (representing 23 studies) were eligible to be included in the review. A majority of studies reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among males, with a peak age range of 10–30 years. Pesticide ingestion was the most commonly used method of non-fatal self-poisoning. However three studies conducted within the last ten years, in urban areas of the country, reported non-fatal self-poisoning by medicinal overdose to be more common, and also reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among females. Interpersonal conflict was the most commonly reported short-term stressor associated with self-poisoning. Alcohol misuse was reported among males who self-poisoned, and data regarding other psychiatric morbidity was limited. Conclusions The findings indicate that pesticide ingestion is the commonest method of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka, and it is more common among young males, similar to other Asian countries. However there appears to be an emerging pattern of increasing medicinal overdoses, paralleled by a gender shift towards increased female non-fatal self-poisoning in urban areas. Many non-fatal self-poisoning attempts appear to occur in the context of acute interpersonal stress, with short premeditation, and associated with alcohol misuse in males. Similar to other Asian countries, strategies to reduce non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka require integrated intervention programs with several key aspects, including culturally appropriate interventions to develop interpersonal skills in young people

  5. Genotypic characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from patients in two geographical locations in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Premaratna, Ranjan; Blanton, Lucas S; Samaraweera, Dilhar N; de Silva, G Nalika N; Chandrasena, Nilmini T G A; Walker, David H; de Silva, H J

    2017-01-13

    To date more than 20 antigenically distinct strains of Orientia tsutsugamushi (OT) reported within the tsutsugamushi triangle that cause an undifferentiated acute febrile illness in humans. Genotypic characterization of OT in different geographic regions or within the same country, is important in order to establish effective diagnostics, clinical management and to develop effective vaccines. Genetic and antigenic characterization of OT causing human disease in OT-endemic regions is not known for Sri Lanka. Adult patients and children who were admitted with an acute febrile illness and presumed to having acute scrub typhus based on presence of an eschar and other supporting clinical features were recruited. Eschar biopsies and buffy coat samples collected from patients who were confirmed having OT by IFA were further studied by real time PCR (Orientia 47 kD) and nested PCR (Orientia 56 kD) amplification. DNA sequences were obtained for 56 kD gene amplicons and phylogenetic comparisons were analyzed using currently available data in GenBank [Neucleotide substitution per 100 residues, 1000 Bootstrap Trials]. Twenty eschar biopsies (Location1,19, Location 2,1) and eight buffy coat samples (Location1,6, Location2,2) examined by real time PCR revealed Orientia amplicons in 16 samples. DNA sequences were obtained for the 56 kD gene amplicons in 12 eschars and 4 buffy coat samples. The genotypes of the Location1 samples revealed that, 7 exhibiting close homology with JP1 [distantly related to UT177 Thai (Karp related)], five had close homology with Kato strain, two had close homology with JGv and JG AF [Distantly related to Kawasaki M63383] and one had close homology with Gilliam strain. The Location 2 strain was closely related to Kuroki-Boryong L04956, the genotype which is distributed in far eastern Asia. Similar to other patients in the cohort this patient also had never travelled out of Sri Lanka. We observed all three main OT genotypes in Sri Lanka, and the majority

  6. Fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in Sri Lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Sulali; Abeywickrama, Krishanthi; Dayananda, Ranjith; Wijeratnam, Shanthi Wilson; Arambewela, Luxshmi

    2004-01-01

    The crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in Sri Lanka were Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium proliferatum and Colletotrichum musae. Fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. Disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. Cymbopogon nardus and Ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against C. musae and F. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a Poisoned food bioassay. Slightly lower concentrations of the test oils were needed for similar activity during liquid bioassays. The combination of Cymbopogon nardus and O. basilicum oils demonstrated synergistic action during both in-vivo bioassays.

  7. Bio-media Citizenship and Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Silva, M W Amarasiri

    2017-04-10

    In this article, I examine the crucial role of the biomedical industry, epidemiological and biomedical research, and the media in forming attitudes to and the understanding of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. Local conceptions of CKDu have been shaped by the circulation in the media of epidemiological research findings pertaining to the disease, biomedical interventions in the management of the disease in hospitals and clinics, community programs involving mass blood surveys and the testing of well water, and local food and health education programs carried out through village health committees. This process of circulation I identify as bio-media citizenship. [Figure: see text].

  8. The prevalence and associated factors of depression in policing: a cross sectional study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nuwan D; Wijesinghe, Pushpa R; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Agampodi, Suneth B

    2016-01-01

    Policing is regarded as a high-risk profession for the development of mental health disturbances owing to various critical incidents and potential traumatic events they encounter. Exploration of mental health problems in policing in Sri Lanka, which recently concluded a civil war expanded over three decades, is a timely, yet, a neglected issue. Hence, the present study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and associated factors of depression among police officers in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted using a simple random sample of 750 police officers employed in the Kandy police division, Sri Lanka. A self administered questionnaire, including "Peradeniya Depression Scale" to assess depression, was used to collect data. The prevalence of depression was calculated as point prevalence with 95 % confidence intervals. Multivariable logistic regression was carried out using backward elimination method to quantify the association between depression and selected predictors identified at bivariate analysis at p < 0.10. A total of 750 Police officers were invited for the study. The response rate was 94.5 % (n = 709). The mean age of the police officers in the sample was 39.6 years (SD 9.2 years). Majority of police officers (n = 591, 83.4 %) were males. The estimated prevalence of depression in the study sample was 22.8 % (95 % CI 19.9-26.1 %). However, the adjusted prevalence of depression was 10.6 % (95 % CI 6.6-15.1 %). In the multivariable analysis, of the postulated occupational factors, satisfactory welfare facilities at work place was negatively associated with depression (adjusted OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.7; p = 0.001). Satisfaction of the opportunity to serve the public (adjusted OR 0.2; 95 % CI 0.1-0.6; p = 0.003) and satisfaction related to social status gained in policing (adjusted OR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.3-0.8; p = 0.04) were identified as significant occupational factors that

  9. Policy and stakeholder analysis of infant and young child feeding programmes in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Godakandage, Sanjeeva S P; Senarath, Upul; Jayawickrama, Hiranya S; Siriwardena, Indika; Wickramasinghe, S W A D A; Arumapperuma, Prasantha; Ihalagama, Sathyajith; Nimalan, Srisothinathan; Archchuna, Ramanathan; Umesh, Claudio; Uddin, Shahadat; Thow, Anne Marie

    2017-06-13

    Infant and young child feeding practices (IYCF) play a critical role in growth and development of children. A favourable environment supported by appropriate policies and positive contributions from all stakeholders are prerequisites for achieving optimal IYCF practices. This study aimed to assess the IYCF-related policy environment and role of stakeholders in policy making in Sri Lanka, in order to identify opportunities to strengthen the policy environment to better support appropriate IYCF and reduce childhood malnutrition. We mapped national level policy-related documents on IYCF, and conducted a stakeholder analysis of IYCF policy making. A matrix was designed to capture data from IYCF policy-related documents using a thematic approach. A narrative synthesis of data from different documents was conducted to achieve the first objective. We then conducted an analysis of technical and funding links of stakeholders who shape IYCF policies and programmes in Sri Lanka using the Net-Map technique, to achieve the second objective. A total of 35 respondents were purposively selected based on their knowledge on the topic, and individual interviews were conducted. Twenty four policies were identified that contained provisions in line with global recommendations for best-practice IYCF, marketing of breast milk substitutes, strengthening health and non-health systems, maternity benefits, inter-sectoral collaboration, capacity building, health education and supplementation. However, there is no separate, written policy on IYCF in Sri Lanka. Participants identified 56 actors involved in shaping IYCF policies and programmes through technical support, and 36 through funding support. The Government Health Sector was the most connected as well as influential, followed by development partners. Almost all actors in the networks were supportive for IYCF policies and programmes. All evidence-based recommendations are covered in related policies. However, advocacy should be targeted

  10. Effects of the health service and environmental factors on infant mortality: the case of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M

    1980-01-01

    One of the findings of this study is that regional variations in the infant mortality rates of Sri Lanka are large, ranging from 26 per 1000 live births in Jaffna to 91 per 1000 in Nuwara Eliya, a tea estate district. These differences are more strongly associated with regional variations in environmental determinants of mortality than with regional variations in public health expenditure. The most significant environmental factor associated with interregional infant mortality rates was to be the nature of the water supply (r = -0.82, significant at the 99% level). Regional government expenditure on health had only a weak association with infant mortality rates (r = 0.08). PMID:6772730

  11. A geoarchaeological perspective on the rise and fall of the ancient capital of Anuradhapura (Sri Lanka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebermeier, Wiebke; Kohlmeyer, Kay; Meister, Julia; Reimann, Tony; Wagalawatta, Thusitha; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    Anuradhapura, the ancient capital of the Ceylonese kings (4th century BCE - 11th century CE) is located in the north-central Dry Zone of Sri Lanka. Covering an area of c. 40 km² Anuradhapura is one of the key sites for the development of an urban civilisation in South Asia. The settlement history of Anuradhapura can be traced back to the beginnings of the Protohistoric Iron Age (c. 900-500 BCE). During its existence, the centre of the ancient capital, the so-called Citadel, accumulated c. 10 meters of cultural sediments. Although archaeological research dated back to the beginning of the 20th century, none of the numerous excavations succeeded to extract an undisturbed archaeological sequence covering all periods of the city history. The objective of the presented study is to reconstruct natural surface processes, which went along with the formation and abandonment of the Citadel; possibly even triggering it. Based on sediment analysis (bulk parameters, magnetic susceptibility and mineralogical composition) and the application of dating techniques (radiocarbon, OSL) environmental conditions during and after the abandonment of the Citadel were reconstructed. The results reveal information about four phases of the city history: i) Lower Early Historic Period (500-250 BCE), ii) Mid-Early Historic Period (250-0 BCE), iii) the end of the Anuradhapura period (11th century CE) and iv) after its abandonment (after the 11th century CE). In the first phase mainly wattle and daub constructions characterise the architecture of the site. The facies of correlate sediment layers point to eolian and fluvial facies with intercalated occupation layers. It is concluded, that these layer reflect a typical mix of natural processes and processes induced by humans as typical for rural settlements. With the beginning of the 1st century BCE human made terraces seem to build the base for stone and brick constructions in order to protect them from surface runoff during the rainy seasons

  12. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Among all food and beverages-related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages-focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. © 2015 APJPH.

  13. Content Analysis of Food and Beverages Advertisements Targeting Children and Adults on Television in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Prathapan, Shamini; Wijewardena, Kumudu; Low, Wah Yun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Food marketing is one of the main factors in the increase in childhood obesity. The objective is to compare the strategies used for promotion of food and beverages advertisements on Sri Lankan television for children and adults. Method Among 16 analog television channels in Sri Lanka, 50% of the channels were selected randomly after stratifying according to language. Recording was during weekdays and weekends. In total, 95 different food and beverages advertisements were analyzed irrespective of the channel. Results Among all food and beverages–related advertisements, 78% were child focused, and among these 74% claimed health benefits. A statistically significant difference was found in terms of implications related to nutrition or health (P < .05). None of the advertisements contained disclaimers. Conclusion and recommendations The Ministry of Health needs to pursue all food and beverages–focused advertisements for policy formulation and implementation. PMID:26658325

  14. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Illangasekare, T.; Tyler, S.W.; Clement, T.P.; Villholth, K.G.; Perera, A.P.G.R.L.; Obeysekera, J.; Gunatilaka, A.; Panabokke, C.R.; Hyndman, D.W.; Cunningham, K.J.; Kaluarachchi, J.J.; Yeh, W.W.-G.; Van Genuchten, M. T.; Jensen, K.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of β-lactam resistance in carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jarrad M; Corea, Enoka; Sanjeewani, H D Anusha; Inglis, Timothy J J

    2014-08-01

    Carbapenemases are increasingly important antimicrobial resistance determinants. Little is known about the carbapenem resistance mechanisms in Sri Lanka. We examined 22 carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Sri Lanka to determine their β-lactam resistance mechanisms. The predominant resistance mechanisms we detected in this study were OXA-181, NDM-1 carbapenemases and extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M-15. All isolates were then genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, variable-number tandem repeat sequence analysis and multilocus sequence typing, and seven distinct genotypes were observed. Five OXA-181-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotypically related to an isolate of Indian origin. Multilocus sequence typing found that these related isolates belong to ST-14, which has been associated with dissemination of OXA-181 from the Indian subcontinent. Other genotypes we discovered were ST-147 and ST-340, also associated with intercontinental spread of carbapenemases of suspected subcontinental origin. The major porin genes ompK35 and ompK36 from these isolates had insertions, deletions and substitutions. Some of these were exclusive to strains within single pulsotypes. We detected one ompK36 variant, ins AA134-135GD, in six ST-14- and six ST-147, blaOXA-181-positive isolates. This porin mutation was an independent predictor of high-level meropenem resistance in our entire Sri Lankan isolate collection (P=0.0030). Analysis of the Sri Lankan ST-14 and ST-147 ins AA134-135GD-positive isolates found ST-14 was more resistant to meropenem than other isolates (mean MIC: 32±0 µg ml(-1) and 20±9.47 µg ml(-1), respectively, P=0.0277). The likely international transmission of these carbapenem resistance determinants highlights the need for regional collaboration and prospective surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.

  16. Impacts of the 2004 tsunami on groundwater resources in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illangasekare, Tissa; Tyler, Scott W.; Clement, T. Prabhakar; Villholth, Karen G.; Perera, A. P. G. R. L.; Obeysekera, Jayantha; Gunatilaka, Ananda; Panabokke, C. R.; Hyndman, David W.; Cunningham, Kevin J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath J.; Yeh, William W.-G.; van Genuchten, Martinus T.; Jensen, Karsten

    2006-05-01

    The 26 December 2004 tsunami caused widespread destruction and contamination of coastal aquifers across southern Asia. Seawater filled domestic open dug wells and also entered the aquifers via direct infiltration during the first flooding waves and later as ponded seawater infiltrated through the permeable sands that are typical of coastal aquifers. In Sri Lanka alone, it is estimated that over 40,000 drinking water wells were either destroyed or contaminated. From February through September 2005, a team of United States, Sri Lankan, and Danish water resource scientists and engineers surveyed the coastal groundwater resources of Sri Lanka to develop an understanding of the impacts of the tsunami and to provide recommendations for the future of coastal water resources in south Asia. In the tsunami-affected areas, seawater was found to have infiltrated and mixed with fresh groundwater lenses as indicated by the elevated groundwater salinity levels. Seawater infiltrated through the shallow vadose zone as well as entered aquifers directly through flooded open wells. Our preliminary transport analysis demonstrates that the intruded seawater has vertically mixed in the aquifers because of both forced and free convection. Widespread pumping of wells to remove seawater was effective in some areas, but overpumping has led to upconing of the saltwater interface and rising salinity. We estimate that groundwater recharge from several monsoon seasons will reduce salinity of many sandy Sri Lankan coastal aquifers. However, the continued sustainability of these small and fragile aquifers for potable water will be difficult because of the rapid growth of human activities that results in more intensive groundwater pumping and increased pollution. Long-term sustainability of coastal aquifers is also impacted by the decrease in sand replenishment of the beaches due to sand mining and erosion.

  17. Reconstruction of health service systems in the post-conflict Northern Province in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Mari; Abraham, Sandirasegaram; Okamoto, Miyoko; Kita, Etsuko; Aoyama, Atsuko

    2007-09-01

    Public health problems in armed conflicts have been well documented, however, effective national health policies and international assistance strategies in transition periods from conflict to peace have not been well established. After the long lasted conflicts in Sri Lanka, the Government and the rebel LTTE signed a cease-fire agreement in February 2002. As the peace negotiation has been disrupted since April 2003, a long-term prospect for peace is yet uncertain at present. The objective of this research is to detect unmet needs in health services in Northern Province in Sri Lanka, and to recommend fair and effective health strategies for post-conflict reconstruction. First, we compared a 20-year trend of health services and health status between the post-conflict Northern Province and other areas not directly affected by conflict in Sri Lanka by analyzing data published by Sri Lankan government and other agencies. Then, we conducted open-ended self-administered questionnaires to health care providers and inhabitants in Northern Province, and key informant interviews in Northern Province and other areas. The major health problems in Northern Province were high maternal mortality, significant shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and inadequate water and sanitation systems. Poor access to health facilities, lack of basic health knowledge, insufficient health awareness programs for inhabitants, and mental health problems among communities were pointed by the questionnaire respondents. Shortage of HRH and people's negligence for health were perceived as the major obstacles to improving the current health situation in Northern Province. The key informant interviews revealed that Sri Lankan HRH outside Northern Province had only limited information about the health issues in Northern Province. It is required to develop and allocate HRH strategically for the effective reconstruction of health service systems in Northern Province. The empowerment of inhabitants

  18. Chronic renal failure among farm families in cascade irrigation systems in Sri Lanka associated with elevated dietary cadmium levels in rice and freshwater fish (Tilapia).

    PubMed

    Bandara, J M R S; Senevirathna, D M A N; Dasanayake, D M R S B; Herath, V; Bandara, J M R P; Abeysekara, T; Rajapaksha, K H

    2008-10-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF), in the main agricultural region under reservoir based cascade irrigation in Sri Lanka has reached crisis proportion. Over 5,000 patients in the region are under treatment for CRF. The objective of this study is to establish the etiology of the CRF. Concentrations of nine heavy metals were determined in sediments, soils of reservoir peripheries, water and Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) grown in five major reservoirs that supply irrigation water. All five reservoirs carried higher levels of dissolved cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) and lead (Pb). Dissolved Cd in reservoir water ranged from 0.03 to 0.06 mg/l. Sediment Cd concentration was 1.78-2.45 mg/kg. No arsenic (As) was detected. Cd content in lotus rhizomes was 253.82 mg/kg. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) of Cd based on extreme exposure of rice is 8.702-15.927 microg/kg body weight (BW) for different age groups, 5-50 years. The PTWI of Cd due to extreme exposure of fish is 6.773-12.469 microg/kg BW. The PTWI on a rice staple with fish is 15.475-28.396 microg/kg BW. The mean urinary cadmium (UCd) concentration in CRF patients of age group 40-60 years was 7.58 microg Cd/g creatinine and in asymptomatic persons UCd was 11.62 microg Cd/g creatinine, indicating a chronic exposure to Cd. The possible source of Cd in reservoir sediments and water is Cd-contaminated agrochemicals. The CRF prevalent in north central Sri Lanka is a result of chronic dietary intake of Cd, supported by high natural levels of fluoride in drinking water, coupled with neglecting of routine de-silting of reservoirs for the past 20 years.

  19. A community-based cluster randomised trial of safe storage to reduce pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The WHO recognises pesticide poisoning to be the single most important means of suicide globally. Pesticide self-poisoning is a major public health and clinical problem in rural Asia, where it has led to case fatality ratios 20-30 times higher than self-poisoning in the developed world. One approach to reducing access to pesticides is for households to store pesticides in lockable "safe-storage" containers. However, before this approach can be promoted, evidence is required on its effectiveness and safety. Methods/Design A community-based cluster randomised controlled trial has been set up in 44,000 households in the North Central Province, Sri Lanka. A census is being performed, collecting baseline demographic data, socio-economic status, pesticide usage, self-harm and alcohol. Participating villages are then randomised and eligible households in the intervention arm given a lockable safe storage container for agrochemicals. The primary outcome will be incidence of pesticide self-poisoning over three years amongst individuals aged 14 years and over. 217,944 person years of follow-up are required in each arm to detect a 33% reduction in pesticide self-poisoning with 80% power at the 5% significance level. Secondary outcomes will include the incidence of all pesticide poisoning and total self-harm. Discussion This paper describes a large effectiveness study of a community intervention to reduce the burden of intentional poisoning in rural Sri Lanka. The study builds on a strong partnership between provincial health services, local and international researchers, and local communities. We discuss issues in relation to randomisation and contamination, engaging control villages, the intervention, and strategies to improve adherence. Trial Registritation The trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov ref: NCT1146496 (http://clinicaltrialsfeeds.org/clinical-trials/show/NCT01146496). PMID:22104027

  20. Analysis of effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in Sri Lanka using time series data.

    PubMed

    Goto, Kensuke; Kumarendran, Balachandran; Mettananda, Sachith; Gunasekara, Deepa; Fujii, Yoshito; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical regions of eastern and South-eastern Asia, dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) outbreaks occur frequently. Previous studies indicate an association between meteorological variables and dengue incidence using time series analyses. The impacts of meteorological changes can affect dengue outbreak. However, difficulties in collecting detailed time series data in developing countries have led to common use of monthly data in most previous studies. In addition, time series analyses are often limited to one area because of the difficulty in collecting meteorological and dengue incidence data in multiple areas. To gain better understanding, we examined the effects of meteorological factors on dengue incidence in three geographically distinct areas (Ratnapura, Colombo, and Anuradhapura) of Sri Lanka by time series analysis of weekly data. The weekly average maximum temperature and total rainfall and the total number of dengue cases from 2005 to 2011 (7 years) were used as time series data in this study. Subsequently, time series analyses were performed on the basis of ordinary least squares regression analysis followed by the vector autoregressive model (VAR). In conclusion, weekly average maximum temperatures and the weekly total rainfall did not significantly affect dengue incidence in three geographically different areas of Sri Lanka. However, the weekly total rainfall slightly influenced dengue incidence in the cities of Colombo and Anuradhapura.

  1. Women's labor in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka: the trade-off with technology.

    PubMed

    Ponniah, G; Reardon, G

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the impact of technological changes on women's employment in Bangladesh and Sri Lanka. The findings of the research initiated by UN University Institute for New Technologies were used to determine how globalization and technological change alter women's role in the society and the economy in two comparable yet contrasting economies. In Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, the manufacturing and service sectors have grown as a result of the globalization strategies of the two governments. The use of new technologies in work processes has been a function of the countries' participation in global trade, and high levels of foreign direct investment have been the source of much job creation. In both countries, a large proportion of the new industrial workforce consists of women. However, while creating new employment opportunities and improving pay and conditions for some women, jobs tend to be based on flexible, short-term forms of employment with serious health and safety risks. Furthermore, technological advancement like automation increases the number of unemployed "unskilled" workers. Lastly, these two countries seem unaware of the implications of new technology, which makes them vulnerable and weak participants in the global market. Therefore, awareness can be enhanced by a greater exposure to technology through work experience and good quality training.

  2. Gaps in awareness of peripheral arterial disease in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weragoda, Janaka; Weerasinghe, Manuj C; Seneviratne, Rohini; Wijeyaratne, S M

    2016-10-12

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is an emerging problem in Sri Lanka, particularly with the ageing population. A considerable number of patients are detected at a late stage with severe limb ischemia or chronic non-healing leg ulceration. Public awareness about PAD is important in developing preventive strategies. A cross sectional study was conducted to assess awareness of PAD among adults aged 40-74 years in a district in Sri Lanka. In total, 2912 adults were selected for the study using a multistage probability proportionate to size sampling technique. Data were collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Participants who were aware of PAD were asked about common risk factors, possible consequences of untreated PAD, and sources of information. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess the independent predictors of PAD awareness. We found that 4.1 % of participants were aware of PAD (95 % confidence interval: 3.4-4.8), which was significantly lower than awareness of other cardiovascular diseases such as cerebrovascular accidents (67.3 %) and myocardial infarction (57.6 %) (p < 0.001). Being male, an urban resident, and having a higher level of education were independent predictors of high PAD awareness. Our findings suggest that a comprehensive PAD awareness program that covers risk factors, consequences, and preventative strategies is needed to enhance public awareness of PAD.

  3. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  4. Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp aquaculture in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, M; Rowan, J S

    2005-10-01

    Mangrove ecosystems in Sri Lanka are increasingly under threat from development projects, especially aquaculture. An economic assessment is presented for a relatively large (42 ha) shrimp culture development proposed for the Rekawa Lagoon system in the south of Sri Lanka, which involved an extended cost-benefit analysis of the proposal and an estimate of the "total economic value" (TEV) of a mangrove ecosystem. The analysis revealed that the internal benefits of developing the shrimp farm are higher than the internal costs in the ratio of 1.5:1. However, when the wider environmental impacts are more comprehensively evaluated, the external benefits are much lower than the external costs in a ratio that ranges between 1:6 and 1:11. In areas like Rekawa, where agriculture and fisheries are widely practiced at subsistence levels, shrimp aquaculture developments have disproportionately large impacts on traditional livelihoods and social welfare. Thus, although the analysis retains considerable uncertainties, more explicit costing of the environmental services provided by mangrove ecosystems demonstrates that low intensity, but sustainable, harvesting has far greater long-term value to local stakeholders and the wider community than large shrimp aquaculture developments.

  5. The feminization of foreign currency earnings: women's labor in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, V

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers women's participation in foreign currency earning activities in Sri Lanka. The author first analyzes the structure of women's participation patterns in the major foreign currency earning activities in the country, including consideration of their wage levels and the impact of ethnicity, age, educational levels, and skills upon the different components of those activities in which women participate. She then probes the applicability for Sri Lanka of Guy Standing's argument that structural adjustment policies (SAP) have triggered a change in labor force practices leading to a feminization through flexible labor. Many studies have shown that cutbacks in subsidies mandated by SAPs and initiated in the 1980s among developing countries have adversely affected poor women. Women have adjusted to the new situation in a variety of ways, ranging from cutting their household budgets for basic needs to seeking income-generating work in the informal sector and participating in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. In closing, the author assesses the degree to which the new demands made upon women resulting from the effect of SAPs upon their households have stimulated women's increasing participation in foreign currency earning activities.

  6. Practice of clinical forensic medicine in Sri Lanka: does it need a new era?

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra

    2012-07-01

    Clinical forensic medicine is a sub-specialty of forensic medicine and is intimately associated with the justice system of a country. Practice of clinical forensic medicine is evolving, but deviates from one jurisdiction to another. Most English-speaking countries practice clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology separately while most non-English-speaking countries practice forensic medicine which includes clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Unlike the practice of forensic pathology, several countries have informal arrangements to deal with forensic patients and there are no international standards of practice or training in this discipline. Besides, this is rarely a topic of discussion. In the adversarial justice system in Sri Lanka, the designated Government Medical Officers practice both clinical forensic medicine and forensic pathology. Practice of clinical forensic medicine, and its teaching and training in Sri Lanka depicts unique features. However, this system has not undergone a significant revision for many decades. In this communication, the existing legal framework, current procedure of practice, examination for drunkenness, investigations, structure of referrals, reports, subsequent legal procedures, undergraduate, in-service, and postgraduate training are discussed with suggestions for reforms.

  7. Parental concerns towards children and adolescents with epilepsy in Sri Lanka--Qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Murugupillai, Roshini; Wanigasinghe, Jithangi; Muniyandi, Ravi; Arambepola, Carukshi

    2016-01-01

    Social, cultural, psychological and many other factors significantly impact the lives of epileptic children and their families. Parental concerns towards their children are less known in south Asian children with epilepsy. We aimed to identify the parental concerns regarding their children and adolescents with epilepsy in Sri Lanka. We carried out qualitative study in 3 districts of Sri Lanka, comprising 16 in-depth interviews with parents of children and adolescents with epilepsy and 3 focus group discussions with primary caregivers of epileptic children and key informants (schoolteachers, public health staffs). Content analysis of the interview data was performed. Parental concerns were spread among seven themes that emerged from the content analysis. These concerns were about the child's functioning in areas such as physical, behavioural, psychological and social, education, concerns related to anti-epileptic therapy and epilepsy as a disease. Parents were more concerned about their child's safety, educational achievements and future prospects in terms of employment and marriage. Unpredictability of seizures, fear of stigma and unawareness of epilepsy were the main reasons voiced by the parents for having such concerns. Increased concern and perception of vulnerability was seen among parents whose children had epilepsy and co-morbid illness. Parental concerns towards their children and adolescents show a multidimensional construct. Unpredictability of seizures, fear of stigma and unawareness of epilepsy were identified as key influential factors in moulding the parental concerns. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Taking stock -- what is known about suicide in Sri Lanka: a systematic review of diverse literature.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Melissa; Zwi, Anthony B; Rouse, Amanda K; Fernando, Ravindra; Buckley, Nicholas A; McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is and has been a major public health problem in Sri Lanka and has generated a wide range of literature. This review aimed to systematically appraise what is known about suicide in Sri Lanka. The patterns and content of articles were examined and recommendations for further research proposed. The paper describes the systematic search, retrieval, and quality assessment of studies. Thematic analysis techniques were applied to the full text of the articles to explore the range and extent of issues covered. Local authors generated a large body of evidence of the problem in early studies. The importance of the method of suicide, suicidal intention, and the high incidence of suicide were identified as key foci for publications. Neglected areas have been policy and health service research, gender analysis, and contextual issues. The literature reviewed has produced a broad understanding of the clinical factors, size of the problem, and social aspects. However, there remains limited evidence of prevention, risk factors, health services, and policy. A wide range of solutions have been proposed, but only regulation of pesticides and improved medical management proved to be effective to date.

  9. Health systems responsiveness and its correlates: evidence from family planning service provision in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perera, W L S P; Mwanri, Lillian; de A Seneviratne, Rohini; Fernando, Thushara

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization has described health systems responsiveness (HSR) as a multi-domain concept encompassing eight non-medical expectations of health-care service seekers. HSR is a valuable measure of health systems performance, providing policy-makers and service providers much information to improve services. This paper presents findings of a cross-sectional survey conducted to assess HSR and its correlates through family planning (FP) services in Colombo district, Sri Lanka. A Health Systems Responsiveness Assessment Questionnaire, developed and validated in Sri Lanka, was used. Trained interviewers administered the questionnaire in 38 FP clinics randomly selected to sample 1520 clients. The rating of responsiveness as 'good' for six domains ranged from 88% (n=1338) to 72% (n=1094). The overall HSR was rated to be 'good' by 83.4% (1268). Ethnicity being majority Sinhalese, persons who were currently employed and those using oral contraceptive pills (OCP) or condoms were negatively associated with rating of HSR. Positive associations with the HSR assessment were a family income of less than Rs 40 000 (US$ 303) per month, satisfaction with current FP method, use of only one method within the past year, use of only one FP clinic within the past year, health service provider being a medical officer, intention to use the FP clinic services in future, and satisfaction with overall services of the clinic. Though overall HSR was rated by the majority as 'good', some aspects need more attention in delivering FP services.

  10. Factors influencing preventive behaviors for dengue infection among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chanyasanha, Charnchudhi; Guruge, Geethika Rathnawardana; Sujirarat, Dusit

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease prevalent in Sri Lanka. Some factors may influence preventive behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and preventive behaviors associated with dengue and analyzed the factors influencing preventive behaviors among housewives in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The analytical study was designed, and data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The χ(2) test and binary logistic regression were used to analyze data. The mean age of housewives was 39.41 years, 91% were married, 52% were Buddhist, and 46.5% had a family monthly income of 15 000 to 25 000 rupees. The knowledge of dengue preventive behaviors was 69.2%. The majority (91.5%) had a positive attitude toward dengue prevention. Only 39.3% used a mosquito net, and 89.3% had water storage container covers. Overall, 58.5% were knowledgeable about preventive measures. Age, religion, family income, education, knowledge, and attitude were associated with preventive behaviors. These findings are useful for dengue control in Colombo.

  11. Mapping mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, Sri Lanka, India and Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited evidence about mental health finances in low and middle-income countries is a key challenge to mental health care policy initiatives. This study aimed to map mental health finances in Ghana, Uganda, India (Kerala state), Sri Lanka and Lao PDR focusing on how much money is available for mental health, how it is spent, and how this impacts mental health services. Methods A researcher in each region reviewed public mental health-related budgets and interviewed key informants on government mental health financing. A total of 43 key informant interviews were conducted. Quantitative data was analyzed in an excel matrix using descriptive statistics. Key informant interviews were coded a priori against research questions. Results National ring-fenced budgets for mental health as a percentage of national health spending for 2007-08 is 1.7% in Sri Lanka, 3.7% in Ghana, 2.0% in Kerala (India) and 6.6% in Uganda. Budgets were not available in Lao PDR. The majority of ring-fenced budgets (76% to 100%) is spent on psychiatric hospitals. Mental health spending could not be tracked beyond the psychiatric hospital level due to limited information at the health centre and community levels. Conclusions Mental health budget information should be tracked and made publically accessible. Governments can adapt WHO AIMS indicators for reviewing national mental health finances. Funding allocations work more effectively through decentralization. Mental health financing should reflect new ideas emerging from community based practice in LMICs. PMID:20507558

  12. Leptospirosis Outbreak in Sri Lanka in 2008: Lessons for Assessing the Global Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Agampodi, Suneth B.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Thevanesam, Vasanthi; Nugegoda, Danaseela B.; Smythe, Lee; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Craig, Scott B.; Burns, Mary Ann; Dohnt, Michael; Boonsilp, Siriphan; Senaratne, Thamarasi; Kumara, Athula; Palihawadana, Paba; Perera, Sahan; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Global leptospirosis disease burden estimates are hampered by the lack of scientifically sound data from countries with probable high endemicity and limited diagnostic capacities. We describe the seroepidemiologic and clinical characteristics of the leptospirosis outbreak in 2008 in Sri Lanka. Definitive/presumptive case definitions proposed by the World Health Organization Leptospirosis Epidemiology Reference Group were used for case confirmation. Of the 404 possible cases, 155 were confirmed to have leptospirosis. Highest titers of patient seum samples reacted with serovars Pyrogenes (28.7%), Hardjo (18.8%), Javanica (11.5%), and Hebdomadis (11.5%). Sequencing of the 16S ribosomal DNA gene identified six infections: five with Leptospira interrogans and one with L. weilli. In this patient population, acute renal failure was the main complication (14.8%), followed by myocarditis (7.1%) and heart failure (3.9%). The case-fatality rate was 1.3%. This report strengthens the urgent need for increasing laboratory diagnostic capabilities to determine the causes of epidemic and endemic infectious diseases in Sri Lanka, a finding relevant to other tropical regions. PMID:21896807

  13. Carrier status of leptospirosis among cattle in Sri Lanka: a zoonotic threat to public health.

    PubMed

    Gamage, C D; Koizumi, N; Perera, A K C; Muto, M; Nwafor-Okoli, C; Ranasinghe, S; Kularatne, S A M; Rajapakse, R P V J; Kanda, K; Lee, R B; Obayashi, Y; Ohnishi, M; Tamashiro, H

    2014-02-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance and one of the notifiable diseases in Sri Lanka. Recent studies on human leptospirosis have suggested that the cattle could be one of the important reservoirs for human infection in the country. However, there is a dearth of local information on bovine leptospirosis, including its implications for human transmission. Thus, this study attempted to determine the carrier status of pathogenic Leptospira spp in cattle in Sri Lanka. A total of 164 cattle kidney samples were collected from the meat inspection hall in Colombo city during routine inspection procedures conducted by the municipal veterinary surgeons. The DNA was extracted and subjected to nested PCR for the detection of leptospiral flaB gene. Amplicons were sequenced, and phylogenic distances were calculated. Of 164 samples, 20 (12.2%) were positive for flaB-PCR. Sequenced amplicons revealed that Leptospira species were deduced to L. borgpetersenii (10/20, 50%), L. kirschneri (7/20, 35%) and L. interrogans (3/20, 15%). The results indicate that a high proportion of the sampled cattle harbour a variety of pathogenic Leptospira spp, which can serve as important reservoirs for human disease. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Care seeking in Sri Lanka: one possible explanation for low childhood mortality.

    PubMed

    Amarasiri de Silva, M W; Wijekoon, A; Hornik, R; Martines, J

    2001-11-01

    This paper examines care-seeking practices of mother caretakers with children less than five years of age in a rural district of Sri Lanka. The study was carried out from June to September 1998, documenting care-seeking practices of mother caretakers in a population of 2248 children in 60 villages. Of the five targeted diseases in the IMCI programme (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses) that were the focus of the study, acute respiratory infections (82.0%) and diarrhoea (14.8%) were predominant. Although malnutrition was highly prevalent it was not recognised by mother caretakers as an illness. Findings show that in 65.0% of illness episodes in children the mother caretakers sought outside care and treatment. Caretakers sought treatment from both private and public sectors with the majority seeking care in the private sector. Care seeking of mother caretakers was driven by symptomology. Young children with higher perceived severity and high-risk symptoms were brought to provider care more frequently, although a large percentage of episodes with low-risk symptoms were also brought for outside care. Care seeking was similar across socio-economic groups. The study points out that high care seeking of mother caretakers in Sri Lanka, particularly for illnesses with acute high-risk symptoms and signs, is a plausible explanation for the low level of childhood mortality despite the prevalence of a high rate of malnutrition.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice assessment of construction workers for HIV/AIDS in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Koji; Obayashi, Yoshi; Ditangco, Rossana A; Matibag, Gino C; Yamashina, Hiroko; Okumura, Shoko; Silva, K Tudor; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2009-09-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence is relatively lower in Sri Lanka than in other Asian countries; however, the number of HIV-infected persons has rapidly increased in recent years. A baseline study on HIV, acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), and sexually transmitted infections (STI) knowledge, attitude, and practice was conducted at two construction sites in Sri Lanka from January to February 2007 to design an effective intervention strategy for the construction workers. Among 611 respondents (mostly males, mean age 32.8 years), nearly two-thirds lived away from home. Knowledge was fairly good on AIDS prevention but poorer on STI than on HIV. Some misconceptions were also observed. A high percentage did not consider HIV/AIDS as their own personal issue, and over 50% respondents expressed discriminatory attitudes towards HIV positives. Condom access was limited due to social and cultural norms. Mobility was not significantly associated with practice of prevention of HIV and STI. This study showed that the construction workers were not specially at higher risk of HIV at that time. In order to minimize the potential risk of infection, however, it would be effective to reduce stigma and discrimination among them through the prevention program, working together with community or religious leaders in the areas. More comprehensive assessment among other population groups would also be beneficial to identify their risk of infection.

  16. High road utilizers surveys compared to police data for road traffic crash hotspot localization in Rwanda and Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Staton, Catherine A; De Silva, Vijitha; Krebs, Elizabeth; Andrade, Luciano; Rulisa, Stephen; Mallawaarachchi, Badra Chandanie; Jin, Kezhi; RicardoVissoci, Joao; Østbye, Truls

    2016-01-20

    Road traffic crashes (RTCs) are a leading cause of death. In low and middle income countries (LMIC) data to conduct hotspot analyses and safety audits are usually incomplete, poor quality, and not computerized. Police data are often limited, but there are no alternative gold standards. This project evaluates high road utilizer surveys as an alternative to police data to identify RTC hotspots. Retrospective police RTC data was compared to prospective data from high road utilizer surveys regarding dangerous road locations. Spatial analysis using geographic information systems was used to map dangerous locations and identify RTC hotspots. We assessed agreement (Cohen's Kappa), sensitivity/specificity, and cost differences. In Rwanda police data identified 1866 RTC locations from 2589 records while surveys identified 1264 locations from 602 surveys. In Sri Lanka, police data identified 721 RTC locations from 752 records while survey data found 3000 locations from 300 surveys. There was high agreement (97 %, 83 %) and kappa (0.60, 0.60) for Rwanda and Sri Lanka respectively. Sensitivity and specificity are 92 % and 95 % for Rwanda and 74 % and 93 % for Sri Lanka. The cost per crash location identified was $2.88 for police and $2.75 for survey data in Rwanda and $2.75 for police and $1.21 for survey data in Sri Lanka. Surveys to locate RTC hotspots have high sensitivity and specificity compared to police data. Therefore, surveys can be a viable, inexpensive, and rapid alternative to the use of police data in LMIC.

  17. 77 FR 69592 - U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... small or medium-sized enterprises (SME) \\1\\ and trade associations. The fee for each additional... Internet Web sites, press releases to general and trade media, direct mail, broadcast fax, notices to... International Trade Administration U.S. Multi-Sector Trade Mission to South India and Sri Lanka AGENCY...

  18. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  19. Sustainability and local people's participation in coastal aquaculture: regional differences and historical experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Bergquist, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn (Penneaus monodon) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab (Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating < or =10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  20. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  1. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  2. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  3. The Politics, Policies and Progress of Basic Education in Sri Lanka. CREATE Pathways to Access. Research Monograph No. 38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Angela W.

    2010-01-01

    Sri Lanka is hailed internationally for her achievements in literacy, access to education and equality of educational opportunity. However, progress has not been straightforward due to the complex interactions between politics, policy formulation, and the implementation of reforms. This dynamic process has often led to contradictory outcomes. This…

  4. Molecular characterization of banana bunchy top virus isolate from Sri Lanka and its genetic relationship with other isolates.

    PubMed

    Wickramaarachchi, W A R T; Shankarappa, K S; Rangaswamy, K T; Maruthi, M N; Rajapakse, R G A S; Ghosh, Saptarshi

    2016-06-01

    Bunchy top disease of banana caused by Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV, genus Babuvirus family Nanoviridae) is one of the most important constraints in production of banana in the different parts of the world. Six genomic DNA components of BBTV isolate from Kandy, Sri Lanka (BBTV-K) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers using total DNA extracted from banana tissues showing typical symptoms of bunchy top disease. The amplicons were of expected size of 1.0-1.1 kb, which were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of sequence data revealed the presence of six DNA components; DNA-R, DNA-U3, DNA-S, DNA-N, DNA-M and DNA-C for Sri Lanka isolate. Comparisons of sequence data of DNA components followed by the phylogenetic analysis, grouped Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate in the Pacific Indian Oceans (PIO) group. Sri Lanka-(Kandy) isolate of BBTV is classified a new member of PIO group based on analysis of six components of the virus.

  5. Repetition rate after non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri-Lanka: a one year prospective longitudinal study

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, T N; Griffiths, K M; Cotton, S; Christensen, H

    2016-12-30

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is an important public health problem in Sri Lanka. Current evidence from Sri Lanka suggests that this phenomenon is more common among young people, and females, and is associated with a recent interpersonal conflict. International studies indicate that recent non-fatal selfharm is associated with an increased risk of repetition and completed suicide. Prospective follow-up data regarding rates of repetition of self-harm in Sri Lanka is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the rate of repetition, and rate of suicidal ideation, at one-year follow up among those who have survived an act of selfpoisoning. Participants who presented to the toxicology unit, Teaching Hospital Peradeniya over a 14-month period, for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, were contacted by telephone one-year following the initial presentation. A total of 949 persons were included in the study, of which 35.3% (n=335) were contactable at one-year follow-up. The rate of repetition of self-harm after one year was 2.5% and 2.7% of participants had suicidal ideation at one-year follow-up. The rate of repetition of self-harm in Sri Lanka is lower than the rate reported in the West (15%).

  6. Formula Funding and Decentralized Management of Schools--Has It Improved Resource Allocation in Schools in Sri Lanka?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arunatilake, Nisha; Jayawardena, Priyanka

    2010-01-01

    Using the experience of the Educational Quality Inputs (EQI) Scheme in Sri Lanka the paper examines the distributional aspects of formula-based funding and efficiency of decentralized management of education funds in a developing country setting. The study finds that the EQI fund distribution is largely pro-poor. However, results show that to…

  7. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  8. Outcomes of a school-based intervention on rabies prevention among school children in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Koji; Obayashi, Yoshi; Jayasinghe, Ananda; Gunawardena, G S P de S; Delpitiya, N Y; Priyadarshani, N G W; Gamage, Chandika D; Arai, Asuna; Tamashiro, Hiko

    2015-09-01

    In Sri Lanka, one of the major challenges in rabies control is to manage the dog population and subsequently to protect people, especially young children, from dog bites. In 2009, an educational-entertainment campaign called 'Rabies Edutainment 4 Kids' was introduced in the school curricula in rural Sri Lanka to improve practices on rabies prevention and pet care among school children, and to evaluate its effectiveness through pre- and post-tests. The level of rabies knowledge, attitude and practice among the pupils was dependent on their responses to a survey, and scores were significantly improved both among the study and control groups after the intervention. A lecture accompanied by a rabies awareness leaflet was much more effective in improving knowledge than the leaflet alone. The type of intervention and language used was significantly associated with the score increment (p<0.001). The threat of rabies to pupils in Sri Lanka would be reduced if they are given appropriate information on rabies prevention as a part of the school curricula. Close collaboration with local education offices is key to successful implementation of school-based rabies control programmes, which is, in turn, crucial to the eradication of rabies from Sri Lanka. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Sustainability and Local People's Participation in Coastal Aquaculture: Regional Differences and Historical Experiences in Sri Lanka and the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergquist, Daniel A.

    2007-11-01

    This article discusses environmental sustainability in aquaculture and its contribution to poverty alleviation, based on field studies in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. The aquaculture practices studied are the monoculture of the black tiger prawn ( Penneaus monodon) and milkfish ( Chanos chanos) and the polyculture of the two species together with the mud crab ( Scylla serrata). Factors affecting economic viability, social equity and environmental impacts in aquaculture are discussed and used to illuminate local and regional differences between aquaculture in Sri Lanka and the Philippines. Findings indicate that the most significant difference is the level of participation by local people (i.e., people originating ≤10 km away from the farm location). In the Philippines, 84 % of the people involved in aquaculture are locals, whereas in Sri Lanka, 55% are outsiders. Whether differences between the two areas can be explained by analyzing regional conditions, which might have resulted in different aquaculture practices, is discussed. In Sri Lanka, semi-intensive shrimp monoculture is currently the most common practice, whereas in the Philippines, extensive shrimp/fish polyculture is more common. Previous studies, as well as fieldwork, indicate that extensive culture practices reduce environmental impacts and benefit local people more. Sustainability in aquaculture is, however, also dependent on the extent of mangrove conversion into ponds. As such, extensive and locally owned farms do not necessarily result in an all but sustainable situation. Keeping this in mind, it is discussed if extensive polyculture practices might result in a more sustainable aquaculture, both environmentally and socioeconomically.

  10. Facilitating Long-Term Recovery from Natural Disasters: Psychosocial Programming for Tsunami-Affected Schools of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Jayasena, Asoka; Summerville, Meredith; Borja, Amanda P.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a school-based intervention project conducted in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka 15 to 18 months after the December 2004 Tsunami. The work responds to the need for culturally relevant programming to address long-term psychosocial recovery of children and adolescents affected by large scale disasters. Program…

  11. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  12. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  13. A Comparative Study of Student Support Services of Allama Iqbal Open University and the Open University of Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Chaudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Chaudhry, Amtul Hafeez

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences in student support services offered by the Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) Pakistan and The Open University of Sri Lanka (OUSL). It also aims to identify and report the deficiencies that students of both the institutions face in the student support services.…

  14. Reclaiming Reconciliation through Community Education for the Muslims and Tamils of Post-War Jaffna, Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Ross; Cardozo, Mieke Lopes

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the possibilities and challenges for ethno-religious reconciliation through secondary school education in post-war Sri Lanka, with a specific focus on the Muslim and Tamil communities in the Northern city of Jaffna. In doing so, we position our paper within the growing field of "education, conflict and emergencies" of…

  15. Situation Report--Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Samoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in nine foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, The Gambia, Papua and New Guinea, Rhodesia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, and Western Somoa. Information is provided under three topics, statistical information, general background information,…

  16. Understanding School Health Environment through Interviews with Key Stakeholders in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Eun Young; Gittelsohn, Joel; Nkala, Denis; Choi, Bo Youl

    2015-01-01

    Studies on health promoting schools (HPS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) are scarce. To contribute to the development of HPS in these countries, we conducted formative research to understand the school environment in Lao PDR, Mongolia, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. Forty-three teachers, 10 government workers and 5 parents participated in…

  17. Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Education Programme at Secondary Stage in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadav, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    The present research work has studied and compared the different issues of pre-service teacher education programme in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh and Pakistan. The data were collected from 24 principals, 88 teacher educators and 157 student teachers from institutions and universities where Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) course were. The data were…

  18. Chemical characterization of gallstones: an approach to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallstone disease in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerakoon, Harshi; Navaratne, Ayanthi; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Galketiya, Kuda Banda; Rosairo, Shanthini

    2015-01-01

    Records on gallstones and associated ailments in Sri Lankan community are scarce, despite frequent detection of gallstone disease. Identification of the chemical composition of gallstones in the local setting is important in defining aetiopathogenic factors which in turn are useful in implementing therapeutic and preventive strategies. This study aimed to describe the chemical composition of gallstones and the socio-demographic factors of a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with gallstone disease. Data on clinical and socio-demographic factors, and gallstones removed at surgery were collected from patients with cholelithiasis admitted to Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from May 2011 to December 2012. External and cross sectional morphological features of gallstones were recorded by naked eye observation. Compositional analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X - ray Powder Diffraction, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to identify the microstructure of gallstones. Data of 102 patients were analyzed. Of them majority (n = 77, 76%) were females with a female: male ratio of 3:1. Mean age of the study group was 46.1±11.6 years. All the patients had primary gallbladder stones. According to the physical and chemical analysis, majority (n = 54, 53%) were pigment gallstones followed by mixed cholesterol gallstones (n = 38, 37%). Only 10 (9%) had pure cholesterol gallstones. Calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were the commonest calcium salts identified in pigment gallstones and core of mixed cholesterol gallstones. Presence of a pigment nidus in gallstones is a common feature in majority of Sri Lankan patients denoting the possible role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin in bile on the pathogenesis of GS. Hence it is imperative to explore this further to understand the aetiopathogenesis of GS among Sri Lankans.

  19. Chemical Characterization of Gallstones: An Approach to Explore the Aetiopathogenesis of Gallstone Disease in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Weerakoon, Harshi; Navaratne, Ayanthi; Ranasinghe, Shirani; Sivakanesan, Ramaiah; Galketiya, Kuda Banda; Rosairo, Shanthini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Records on gallstones and associated ailments in Sri Lankan community are scarce, despite frequent detection of gallstone disease. Identification of the chemical composition of gallstones in the local setting is important in defining aetiopathogenic factors which in turn are useful in implementing therapeutic and preventive strategies. This study aimed to describe the chemical composition of gallstones and the socio-demographic factors of a cohort of Sri Lankan patients with gallstone disease. Materials and Methods Data on clinical and socio-demographic factors, and gallstones removed at surgery were collected from patients with cholelithiasis admitted to Teaching Hospital, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka from May 2011 to December 2012. External and cross sectional morphological features of gallstones were recorded by naked eye observation. Compositional analysis was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X - ray Powder Diffraction, and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Scanning Electron Microscopy was used to identify the microstructure of gallstones. Results Data of 102 patients were analyzed. Of them majority (n = 77, 76%) were females with a female: male ratio of 3:1. Mean age of the study group was 46.1±11.6 years. All the patients had primary gallbladder stones. According to the physical and chemical analysis, majority (n = 54, 53%) were pigment gallstones followed by mixed cholesterol gallstones (n = 38, 37%). Only 10 (9%) had pure cholesterol gallstones. Calcium bilirubinate, calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate were the commonest calcium salts identified in pigment gallstones and core of mixed cholesterol gallstones. Conclusion Presence of a pigment nidus in gallstones is a common feature in majority of Sri Lankan patients denoting the possible role of elevated unconjugated bilirubin in bile on the pathogenesis of GS. Hence it is imperative to explore this further to understand the aetiopathogenesis of GS among Sri Lankans. PMID

  20. Regional differences of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka: observations from a flood-associated outbreak in 2011.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, Suneth B; Dahanayaka, Niroshan J; Bandaranayaka, Anoma K; Perera, Manoj; Priyankara, Sumudu; Weerawansa, Prasanna; Matthias, Michael A; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis is known to be an important cause of weather disaster-related infectious disease epidemics. In 2011, an outbreak of leptospirosis occurred in the relatively dry district of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka where diagnosis was resisted by local practitioners because leptospirosis was not known in the area and the clinical presentation was considered atypical. To identify the causative Leptospira associated with this outbreak, we carried out a cross-sectional study. Consecutive clinically suspected cases in this district were studied during a two-and-a-half-month period. Of 96 clinically suspected cases, 32 (33.3%) were confirmed by qPCR, of which the etiological cause in 26 cases was identified using 16S rDNA sequencing to the species level. Median bacterial load was 4.1 × 10(2)/mL (inter-quartile range 3.1-6.1 × 10(2)/mL). In contrast to a 2008 Sri Lankan leptospirosis outbreak in the districts of Kegalle, Kandy, and Matale, in which a predominance of Leptospira interrogans serovars Lai and Geyaweera was found, most cases in the 2011 outbreak were caused by Leptospira kirschneri. Seven (21.9%) confirmed cases had acute renal failure; five (15.6%) had myocarditis; severe thrombocytopenia (<20,000/uL) was seen in five (15.6%) cases. This outbreak of leptospirosis in the relatively dry zone of Sri Lanka due primarily to L. kirschneri was characterized by markedly different clinical presentations and low leptospiremia. These observations and data demonstrate the public health relevance of molecular diagnostics in such settings, possibly related to the microgeographic variations of different Leptospira species, but of particular value to public health intervention in what appears to have been a regionally neglected tropical disease.

  1. Role of planned parenthood for enrichment of the quality of life in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chinnatamby, S

    1990-12-01

    The story of the Sri Lankan Family Planning movement is told from its inception in 1953, prompted by a visit by Margaret Sanger 1952. The Family Planning Association of Sri Lanka was founded with the health of women and children, and both contraception and infertility treatment as its policies. The first clinic, called the "Mothers Welfare Clinic," treated women for complications of multiparity: one woman was para 26 and had not menstruated in 33 years. The clinic distributed vaginal barriers, spermicides and condoms, but the initial continuation rate was 5% year. Sri Lanka joined the IPPF in 1954. In 1959, after training at the Worcester Foundation, and a personal visit by Pincus, the writer supervised distribution of oral contraceptives in a pilot project with 118 women for 2 years. Each pill user was seen by a physician, house surgeon, midwife, nurse and social worker. In 1958 Sweden funded family planning projects in a village and an estate that reduced the birth rate 10% in 2 years. The Sri Lankan government officially adopted a family planning policy in 1965, and renewed the bilateral agreement with Sweden for 3 years. In 1968 the government instituted an integrated family planning and maternal and child health program under its Maternal and Child Health Bureau. This was expanded in 1971 to form the Family Health Bureau, instrumental in lowering the maternal death rate from 2.4/1000 in 1965 to 0.4 in 1984. During this period IUDs, Depo Provera, Norplant, and both vasectomy and interval female sterilizations, both with 1 small incision under local anesthesia, and by laparoscopic sterilization were adopted. Remarkable results were being achieved in treating infertile copies, even from the beginning, often by merely counseling people on the proper timing of intercourse in the cycle, or offering artificial insemination of the husband's semen. Factors contributing to the success of the Sri Lankan planned parenthood program included 85% female literacy, training of

  2. Epidemiology and clinical features of Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) envenoming in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Namal Rathnayaka, R M M K; Ranathunga, P E A N; Kularatne, S A M

    2017-10-01

    Green pit viper is a venomous endemic snake in Sri Lanka. But little is known regarding its envenoming in the country. This study was carried out in order to find out epidemiology and clinical profile of its bites. A series of 17 patients with Sri Lankan Green pit viper (Trimeresurus trigonocephalus) bites was prospectively studied over 4 years. The mean age was 36 ½ years (range 12-61 years) and comprised 14 (82%) males. Except one case, all bites occurred during day time (0600 h-1800 h) due to inadvertent provocation. In 13 cases (76%) bite took place in estates (tea or cinnamon) and 8 patients (47%) were estate workers. The bitten sites were upper limbs in 11 cases (65%) and lower limbs in 6 cases (35%). Ten patients (59%) brought the offending snake to the hospital and one patient was asymptomatic. Sixteen (94%) developed local envenoming features- 16 (94%) local pain and swelling, 6 (35%) local bleeding and lymphadenopathy and blistering in 4 (24%) patients. Systemic envenoming developed in 4 (24%) patients including 3 (18%) with coagulopathy that was treated with fresh frozen plasma. One (6%) patient developed bradycardia. Sri Lankan Green pit viper bites commonly occurs in estates and causes local envenoming frequently and coagulopathy occasionally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Butching it up: an analysis of same-sex female masculinity in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kuru-Utumpala, Jayanthi

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the embodiment of female masculinity as experienced by 12 gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lanka. By drawing on western feminist and queer theories, it critiques western theories in relation to a non-western subjectivity, attempting to unravel the seemingly empowering, albeit problematic, category of female masculinity. Data gathered through qualitative interviews address one key research question: how do gender-non-conforming lesbians in Sri Lankan embody female masculinity? As the discussion unfolds, this paper analyses the ways they view themselves, the extent to which their actions and behaviours fit within a masculine framework and the ways in which notions of desire are felt and understood in relation to their understanding of gender. In terms of theory, the analysis is located in social constructivist theory, while drawing on a postmodernist approach. Theoretically, the concept of female masculinity allows a woman embodying masculinity to dislodge men and maleness from it. The reality within a Sri Lankan experience, however, can at times be different, as this paper reveals.

  4. Influence of pesticide regulation on acute poisoning deaths in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M.; Karunarathna, Ayanthi; Buckley, Nick A.; Manuweera, Gamini; Sheriff, M. H. Rezvi; Eddleston, Michael

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess in a developing Asian country the impact of pesticide regulation on the number of deaths from poisoning. These regulations, which were implemented in Sri Lanka from the 1970s, aimed to reduce the number of deaths - the majority from self-poisoning - by limiting the availability and use of highly toxic pesticides. METHODS: Information on legislative changes was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture, national and district hospital admission data were obtained from the Sri Lanka Health Statistics Unit, and individual details of deaths by pesticide poisoning were obtained from a manual review of patients' notes and intensive care unit records in Anuradhapura. FINDINGS: Between 1986 and 2000, the total national number of admissions due to poisoning doubled, and admissions due to pesticide poisoning increased by more than 50%. At the same time, the case fatality proportion (CFP) fell for total poisonings and for poisonings due to pesticides. In 1991_92, 72% of pesticide-induced deaths in Anuradhapura were caused by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate pesticides - in particular, the WHO class I OPs monocrotophos and methamidophos. From 1991, the import of these pesticides was reduced gradually until they were banned for routine use in January 1995, with a corresponding fall in deaths. Unfortunately, their place in agricultural practice was taken by the WHO class II organochlorine endosulfan, which led to a rise in deaths from status epilepticus - from one in 1994 to 50 in 1998. Endosulfan was banned in 1998, and over the following three years the number of endosulfan deaths fell to three. However, at the end of the decade, the number of deaths from pesticides was at a similar level to that of 1991, with WHO class II OPs causing the most deaths. Although these drugs are less toxic than class I OPs, the management of class II OPs remains difficult because they are, nevertheless, still highly toxic, and their toxicity is exacerbated by the paucity

  5. Gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of development programs in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, J; Sirisena, N L

    1988-10-01

    Data from a Sri Lanka national sample survey -- 3597 households stratified on the basis of development program areas -- were analyzed to compare impacts of 3 national development programs and their combinations upon the occupational and income status of females and males in Sri Lanka. These programs, implemented over the last 30 years, are guaranteed price schemes that develop markets for agricultural produce, land settlement schemes that include irrigation, and rural electrification. To date, no attempt has been made to assess the gender-specific socioeconomic impacts of these individual programs and their combinations. It was hypothesized that the utilization of development program outputs will exert a gender-differential impact upon occupational and income status, but the magnitude and direction of the impacts remain to be determined. Path analysis was applied to estimate the model for each development program and their mixes for males and females separated. A multistage stratified sampling design was utilized. All of the development programs and their mixes exhibited significant effect of educational attainment upon participation in nonagricultural occupations. Rural electrification (RE) was the only program whose effect was positive; in combinations with education it accounted for 15% of the variation in occupation. Among the programs that were negatively related to male participation in nonagricultural occupations, the most important predictors were the land settlement (LS) and guarantee price scheme (GPS) programs. Each program contributed to over 1/5 of the variation in occupation net of educational attainment. RE was the only program that was not significantly related to female participation in nonhousehold occupations. All of the remaining programs exerted a positive effect upon occupation. 3 of these programs -- RE + LS, GPS, and LS + GPS -- were of almost equally high importance in predicting participation of females in nonhousehold occupations, and in

  6. Drug utilization, prescription errors and potential drug-drug interactions: an experience in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rathish, Devarajan; Bahini, Sivaswamy; Sivakumar, Thanikai; Thiranagama, Thilani; Abarajithan, Tharmarajah; Wijerathne, Buddhika; Jayasumana, Channa; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-06-25

    Prescription writing is a process which transfers the therapeutic message from the prescriber to the patient through the pharmacist. Prescribing errors, drug duplication and potential drug-drug interactions (pDDI) in prescriptions lead to medication error. Assessment of the above was made in prescriptions dispensed at State Pharmaceutical Corporation (SPC), Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted. Drugs were classified according to the WHO anatomical, therapeutic chemical classification system. A three point Likert scale, a checklist and Medscape online drug interaction checker were used to assess legibility, completeness and pDDIs respectively. Thousand prescriptions were collected. Majority were hand written (99.8 %) and from the private sector (73 %). The most frequently prescribed substance and subgroup were atorvastatin (4 %, n = 3668) and proton pump inhibitors (7 %, n = 3668) respectively. Out of the substances prescribed from the government and private sectors, 59 and 50 % respectively were available in the national list of essential medicines, Sri Lanka. Patients address (5 %), Sri Lanka Medical Council (SLMC) registration number (35 %), route (7 %), generic name (16 %), treatment symbol (48 %), diagnosis (41 %) and refill information (6 %) were seen in less than half of the prescriptions. Most were legible with effort (65 %) and illegibility was seen in 9 %. There was significant difference in omission and/or errors of generic name (P = 0.000), dose (P = 0.000), SLMC registration number (P = 0.000), and in evidence of pDDI (P = 0.009) with regards to the sector of prescribing. The commonest subgroup involved in duplication was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (43 %; 56/130). There were 1376 potential drug interactions (466/887 prescriptions). Most common pair causing pDDI was aspirin with losartan (4 %, n = 1376). Atorvastatin was the most frequently prescribed substance

  7. Change in Dengue and Japanese Encephalitis Seroprevalence Rates in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Jeewandara, Chandima; Gomes, Laksiri; Paranavitane, S. A.; Tantirimudalige, Mihiri; Panapitiya, Sumedha Sandaruwan; Jayewardene, Amitha; Fernando, Samitha; Fernando, R. H.; Prathapan, Shamini

    2015-01-01

    Background Sri Lanka has been affected by epidemics of dengue infections for many decades and the incidence and severity of dengue infections have been rising each year. Therefore, we investigated the age stratified seroprevalence of dengue infections in order to facilitate future dengue vaccine strategies. In addition, since the symptomatic dengue infections have increased during the past few decades, we also investigated the possible association with Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) antibody seropositivity with symptomatic dengue in a community cohort in Sri Lanka. Methods 1689 healthy individuals who were attending a primary health care facility were recruited. Dengue and JEV antibody status was determined in all individuals and JEV vaccination status was recorded. Results 1152/1689 (68.2%) individuals were seropositive for dengue and only 133/1152 (11.5%) of them had been hospitalized to due to dengue. A significant and positive correlation was observed for dengue antibody seropositivity and age in children (Spearmans R = 0.84, p = 0.002) and in adults (Spearmans R = 0.96, p = 0.004). We observed a significant rise in the age stratified seroprevalence rates in children over a period of 12 years. For instance, in year 2003 the annual seroconversion rate was 1.5% per annum, which had risen to 3.79% per annum by 2014. We also found that both adults (p<0.001) and in children (p = 0.03) who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV antibodies. However, 244 (91.4%) of adults who were seropositive for JEV had not had the JEV vaccine. Conclusions Dengue seroprevalence rates have risen significantly over the last 12 years in Sri Lanka, possibly due to increased transmission. As individuals who were hospitalized due to dengue were more likely to be seropositive for JEV, the possibility of cross-reactive assays and/or of JEV infection on immunity to the DENV and clinical disease severity should be further investigated. PMID:26696417

  8. Molecular characterization of Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes from eight geographical locations of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weeraratne, Thilini C; Surendran, Sinnathambi N; Reimer, Lisa J; Wondji, Charles S; Perera, M Devika B; Walton, Catherine; Parakrama Karunaratne, S H P

    2017-06-02

    Genus Anopheles is a major mosquito group of interest in Sri Lanka as it includes vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. Taxonomy of the group is mainly based on morphological features, which are not conclusive and can be easily erased while handling the specimens. A combined effort, using morphology and DNA barcoding (using the markers cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, was made during the present study to recognize anophelines collected from eight districts of Sri Lanka for the first time. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and ITS2 regions of morphologically identified anopheline mosquitoes from Sri Lanka were sequenced. These sequences together with GenBank sequences were used in phylogenetic tree construction and molecular characterization of mosquitoes. According to morphological identification, the field-collected adult mosquitoes belonged to 15 species, i.e., Anopheles aconitus, Anopheles annularis, Anopheles barbirostris, Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles jamesii, Anopheles karwari, Anopheles maculatus, Anopheles nigerrimus, Anopheles pallidus, Anopheles peditaeniatus, Anopheles pseudojamesi, Anopheles subpictus, Anopheles tessellatus, Anopheles vagus, and Anopheles varuna. However, analysis of 123 COI sequences (445 bp) (16 clades supported by strong bootstrap value in the neighbour joining tree and inter-specific distances of >3%) showed that there are 16 distinct species. Identity of the morphologically identified species, except An. subpictus, was comparable with the DNA barcoding results. COI sequence analysis showed that morphologically identified An. subpictus is composed of two genetic entities: An. subpictus species A and species B (inter-specific K2P distance 0.128). All the four haplotypes of An. culicifacies discovered during the present study belonged to a single species. ITS2 sequences (542 bp) were obtained for all the species except for An. barbirostris, An

  9. Coping strategies used by traumatic spinal cord injury patients in Sri Lanka: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Arya, Sumedha; Xue, Siqi; Embuldeniya, Amanda; Narammalage, Harsha; da Silva, Tricia; Williams, Shehan; Ravindran, Arun

    2016-10-01

    Psychosocial consequences of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been well documented in Western populations, but there is no published literature on such incidence in the Sri Lankan population. The purpose of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of SCI in a Sri Lankan population and to examine this population's coping mechanisms. Participants were recruited purposively at the Ragama Rheumatology and Rehabilitation Hospital, the sole rehabilitation facility for SCI patients in Sri Lanka. Focus groups were conducted with 23 consenting individuals. Interview transcripts were analysed using descriptive thematic analysis. Four domains of life impact, three types of active coping strategies and four types of external supports were identified. Decreased ambulation and burden on family life were significant concerns for male and female participants alike. Religious practices were reported most frequently as active coping strategies, followed by positive reframing and goal-setting. Reported external supports included guided physiotherapy, informational workshops, social support and peer networks. Rehabilitation efforts for Sri Lankan SCI patients should be sensitive to psychosocial concerns in addition to physical concerns in order to help patients re-integrate into their family lives and community. Furthermore, religious practices should be respected as possible aids to rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Rehabilitative efforts should be conscientious of patients' psychosocial well-being in addition to their physical well-being. Hospital-based rehabilitative efforts for traumatic spinal cord injury patients should promote functional independence and community re-integration. Spiritual and/or religious practices should be respected as ways by which traumatic spinal cord injury patients may confront personal challenges that arise following injury.

  10. An ecological study for Sri Lanka about health effects of coconut.

    PubMed

    Athauda, L K; Wickremasinghe, A R; Kumarendran, B; Kasturiratne, A

    2015-09-01

    An ecological correlation study was conducted to determine the association between consumption of coconut products and cardiovascular disease (CVD) deaths in Sri Lanka. Data on coconut consumption patterns from 1961 to 2006 were abstracted from the FAO database, and mortality data from reports of the Department of Census and Statistics, and UN databases. Correlational and regression analyses were carried out. There was no increase in the per capita consumption of coconut products from 1961 to 2006 (range 54.1-76.2kg/ capita/year). The CVD death rates and the proportionate mortality rate due to CVD increased from 1961 to 2006. CVD death rates were significantly associated with per capita GDP, percentage of urban population, and elderly dependency ratio but not consumption of coconut products after adjusting for the other variables (R2=0.94). The results do not provide evidence at the population level that consumption of coconut products increases mortality due to cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Screening patients with tuberculosis for diabetes mellitus in Ampara, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapakshe, W; Isaakidis, P; Sagili, K D; Kumar, A M V; Samaraweera, S; Pallewatta, N; Jayakody, W; Nissanka, A

    2015-06-21

    Given the well-known linkage between diabetes mellitus (DM) and tuberculosis (TB), the World Health Organization recommends bidirectional screening. Here we report the first screening effort of its kind from a chest clinic in the Ampara district of Sri Lanka. Of 112 TB patients registered between January 2013 and October 2014, eight had pre-existing DM. Of those remaining, 83 (80%) underwent fasting plasma glucose testing, of whom two (2%) and 17 (20%) were found to have diabetes and impaired fasting glucose, respectively. All of these were enrolled in care. Screening TB patients for DM was found to be feasible at the district level. Further studies at the provincial/country level are required before making any decision to scale up bidirectional screening.

  12. Impacts of the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami on the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Goff, John A.; Nichol, Scott L.

    2007-01-01

    The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused major landscape changes along the southwest coasts of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the flow, natural topography and bathymetry, and anthropogenic modifications of the terrain. Landscape changes included substantial beach erosion and scouring of return-flow channels near the beach, and deposition of sand sheets across the narrow coastal plain. In many areas tsunami deposits also included abundant building rubble due to the extensive destruction of homes and businesses in areas of dense development. Trim lines and flow directions confirmed that shoreline orientation and wave refraction from embayments and rock-anchored headlands locally focused the flow and amplified the inundation. Tsunami deposits were 1 to 36 cm thick but most were less than 25 cm thick. Deposit thickness depended partly on antecedent topography. The deposits were composed of coarse to medium sand organized into a few sets of plane parallel laminae that exhibited overall upward fining and landward thinning trends.

  13. Municipal solid waste management in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka: Problems, issues and challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Vidanaarachchi, Chandana K. . E-mail: c.vidanaarachchi@civenv.unimelb.edu.au; Yuen, Samuel T.S.; Pilapitiya, Sumith

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the problems, issues and challenges faced by Sri Lanka based on the outcome of a recent study conducted in the country's Southern Province. The study consists of a public survey, discussions with local authority staff involved in waste management, discussions with Provincial Council and Government officials, dialogue with local politicians, review of documents and field observations. The study revealed that only 24% of the households have access to waste collection and that in rural areas it was less than 2%. A substantial number of households in areas without waste collection expect local authorities to collect their waste. The study also showed that most sites in the province are under capacity to handle any increased demand. Urgent and immediate improvement of the waste disposal sites is necessary to meet the current demand for improved waste collection. The study also revealed that there is a high willingness of people for home composting.

  14. Dataset for an analysis of tourism and economic growth: A study of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ronald Ravinesh; Stauvermann, Peter Josef

    2016-09-01

    We use the sample from 1978 to 2014 for the paper (doi:10.1016/j.tmp.2016.05.005). The data on GDP at constant 2005 USD (US dollar), and the gross fixed capital formation at constant 2005 USD are extracted from the World Bank (2015). The labour stock which includes direct and indirect employment and the tourism receipts (in USD) are sourced from the Sri Lanka Tourism Development Authority (http://www.sltda.lk/statistics). Tourism receipts as a per cent of GDP is used to measure tourism demand. The capital stock data is computed using perpetual inventory method, where a depreciation rate of 8 per cent is assumed with the initial capital stock as 1.05 times the GDP of 1969 at constant 2005 USD. The output per worker and capital per worker is computed by dividing the GDP and capital stock by the labour stock, respectively.

  15. Direct evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Patrick; Perera, Nimal; Wedage, Oshan; Deraniyagala, Siran; Perera, Jude; Eregama, Saman; Gledhill, Andrew; Petraglia, Michael D; Lee-Thorp, Julia A

    2015-03-13

    Human occupation of tropical rainforest habitats is thought to be a mainly Holocene phenomenon. Although archaeological and paleoenvironmental data have hinted at pre-Holocene rainforest foraging, earlier human reliance on rainforest resources has not been shown directly. We applied stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis to human and faunal tooth enamel from four late Pleistocene-to-Holocene archaeological sites in Sri Lanka. The results show that human foragers relied primarily on rainforest resources from at least ~20,000 years ago, with a distinct preference for semi-open rainforest and rain forest edges. Homo sapiens' relationship with the tropical rainforests of South Asia is therefore long-standing, a conclusion that indicates the time-depth of anthropogenic reliance and influence on these habitats. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Neighborhood environment and self-rated health among adults in Southern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perera, Bilesha; Østbye, Truls; Jayawardana, Chandramali

    2009-08-01

    The prevalence of different neighborhood environmental stressors and associations between the stressors and self-rated health are described in a representative sample of 2,077 individuals, aged 18-85 years, in southern Sri Lanka. Mosquito menace (69.4%), stray dog problems (26.8%), nuisance from neighbors (20.3%), and nuisance from drug users (18.7%) were found to be the most prevalent environmental stressors. None of the stressors investigated were associated with self-rated physical health, but nuisance from neighbors, nuisance from drug users, shortage of water and having poor water/sewage drainage system were associated with self-rated mental health among the respondents.

  17. Community-based rice ecosystem management for suppressing vector anophelines in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Yasuoka, Junko; Levins, Richard; Mangione, Thomas W; Spielman, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    Sri Lanka is one of the Asian countries most affected by mosquito-borne diseases, especially malaria. This 18-month study assessed the effectiveness of a new community-based ecosystem management programme to control mosquito vectors in the country's rice ecosystem. Farmers in a malaria-prone village were educated and motivated to engage in source reduction as well as measures to restore and maximise rice ecosystem functions. Over the course of the programme, the impact of farmers' ecosystem management on local mosquito ecology was also examined. Although little impact was detected on Culex and Aedes densities, adult Anopheles density was significantly suppressed in the southwest monsoon season. Rice farmers who manage their ecosystems can reduce the burden of Anopheles mosquitoes, interrupt malaria transmission and prevent the destruction of ecosystems.

  18. Chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology and ground-water ionicity: study based on Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Dharma-Wardana, M W C; Amarasiri, Sarath L; Dharmawardene, Nande; Panabokke, C R

    2015-04-01

    High incidence of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDU) in Sri Lanka is shown to correlate with the presence of irrigation works and rivers that bring-in 'nonpoint source' fertilizer runoff from intensely agricultural regions. We review previous attempts to link CKDU with As, Cd and other standard toxins. Those studies (e.g. the WHO-sponsored study), while providing a wealth of data, are inconclusive in regard to aetiology. Here, we present new proposals based on increased ionicity of drinking water due to fertilizer runoff into the river system, redox processes in the soil and features of 'tank'-cascades and aquifers. The consequent chronic exposure to high ionicity in drinking water is proposed to debilitate the kidney via a Hofmeister-type (i.e. protein-denaturing) mechanism.

  19. Effect of soil carbohydrates on nutrient availability in natural forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnayake, R. R.; Seneviratne, G.; Kulasooriya, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    Carbohydrates supply carbon sources for microbial activities that contribute to mineral nutrient production in soil. Their role on soil nutrient availability has not yet been properly elucidated. This was studied in forests and cultivated lands in Sri Lanka. Soil organic matter (SOM) fractions affecting carbohydrate availability were also determined. Soil litter contributed to sugars of plant origin (SPO) in croplands. The negative relationship found between clay bound organic matter (CBO) and glucose indicates higher SOM fixation in clay that lower its availability in cultivated lands. In forests, negative relationships between litter and sugars of microbial origin (SMO) showed that litter fuelled microbes to produce sugars. Fucose and glucose increased the availability of Cu, Zn and Mn in forests. Xylose increased Ca availability in cultivated lands. Arabinose, the main carbon source of soil respiration reduced the P availability. This study showed soil carbohydrates and their relationships with mineral nutrients could provide vital information on the availability of limiting nutrients in tropical ecosystems.

  20. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram

    2017-08-19

    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  1. Respiratory illnesses and ventilatory function among gem cutters in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Prathapan, S; Hettiarachchi, P; Wimalasekara, S W

    2013-03-01

    This study explores the proportion of respiratory symptoms and ventilatory functions among gem cutters in the city of gems, in Sri Lanka. All gem cutters in the Ratnapura Medical Officers of Health area were included and the control group was selected from the government officers residing in the same area. The gem cutters and the controls were matched according to their age and sex. Pulmonary function was measured with a spirometer and peak flow meter. A significantly higher percentage of the exposed workers reported recurrent and prolonged cough (35%) and chest tightening (10%). FEV1 and FEV1/FVC was significantly lower in the exposed workers compared with unexposed workers. The results remained the same for the FEV1/FVC ratio (p=0.004) after adjusting for age and body mass index. Adverse respiratory health effects observed among gem cutters were probably caused by exposure to gem dust.

  2. Housing anxiety and multiple geographies in post-tsunami Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Boano, Camillo

    2009-10-01

    Tsunami intervention has been an extraordinary and unprecedented relief and recovery operation. This article underlines the complexities posed by shelter and housing intervention in post-tsunami Sri Lanka, revealing a pragmatic, reductionist approach to shelter and housing reconstruction in a contested and fragmented environment. Competition, housing anxiety and buffer zone implementation have resulted in compulsory villagisation inland, stirring feelings of discrimination and tension, and becoming major obstacles to equitable rebuilding of houses and livelihoods. A new tsunami geography has been imposed on an already vulnerable conflict-based geography, in which shelter has been conceived as a mono-dimensional artefact. An analysis of the process and outcomes of temporary and permanent post-tsunami housing programmes yields information about the extent to which shelter policies and programmes serve not only physical needs but 'higher order' objectives for a comprehensive and sustainable recovery plan.

  3. Occurrence and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bolgoda and Beira Lakes, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Pathiratne, K A S; De Silva, O C P; Hehemann, David; Atkinson, Ian; Wei, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The pollution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been widely used to assess the potential impact of anthropogenic activities on aquatic environments because their occurrence in water is closely tied to urban activities. Many PAHs possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties (Menzie et al. 1992). PAH distribution and toxic potentials have therefore been the focus of numerous studies in waterways including the Great Lakes (USEPA Report 1994), Yanisei Bay (Dahle et al., 2003), and the Fraser River basin (Yunker et al., 2002). Sri Lanka, a small island nation with a dense population of about 20 million people, faces a multitude of environmental stresses ranging from deforestation to traffic congestion and the deterioration of water quality. This study was undertaken to understand the occurrence, sources, and potential impacts of PAHs in the waterways of Sri Lanka. Two lakes, Beira and Bolgoda, were selected for the study due to their economic value and high level of pollution. Beira Lake, situated in downtown Colombo, the capital city of Sri Lanka, is highly polluted. Sources of pollution are multifarious. For instance, clusters of communities have sprung up along the edges of the lake in recent times and many shacks have been built. These communities are generally not connected to municipal sewer systems and substantial quantities of domestic sewage and untreated wastewaters are discharged directly into the lake. Small industries have also grown rapidly around the lakes, most of which are not believed to have adequate facilities to treat industrial wastewater, especially organic wastes. In addition, Sri Lanka has experienced an upsurge of motor vehicles, including millions of three-wheelers and minivans that are powered by leaded gasoline and diesel fuels. Traffic congestion and severe air pollution due to vehicle emissions are now common daily occurrences and are considered a major potential source of PAHs in the lakes. Although Bolgoda Lake is situated

  4. Post-disaster community tourism recovery: the tsunami and Arugam Bay, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lyn; Jarvie, Jim K

    2008-12-01

    Tourism is highly vulnerable to external, non-controllable events. A natural disaster can affect the local tourism industry in numerous ways, and such events are particularly devastating for small communities whose local economy is heavily dependent on the sector. Loss of infrastructure plus negative media stories can have long-term ramifications for the destination. In spite of the economic importance of tourism, post-disaster recovery efforts in this sector are often overlooked by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), which focus on more traditional livelihoods such as agriculture or fishing. This paper describes Mercy Corps' support of tourism recovery activities in Arugam Bay, a remote village on the east coast of Sri Lanka, following the 2004 tsunami. The local economic base is built largely on two sectors: community tourism and fishing. As many other actors were supporting recovery in the local fishing industry, Mercy Corps concentrated on revitalising the tourism sector.

  5. Ticks (Acarina: Ixodida) infesting five reptile species in Sri Lanka with sixteen new host records.

    PubMed

    Liyanaarachchi, Dilrukshi R; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Dikkumbura, Anil W; De Silva, Anslem; Rajapakse, R P V Jayantha

    2015-05-29

    The first study on ticks on reptiles of Sri Lanka dates back to Seneviratna (1965) who reported ticks from five reptiles. Later studies were either limited to one reptile (Fernando & Fernando 2012), or captive animals in zoos (Fernando & Randeniaya 2009) and household pets (Nathanael et al. 2004). According to the current classification (Guglielmone et al. 2010), all the tick species previously recorded on reptiles belong to five species of Amblyomma: A. clypeolatum Neumann, A. gervaisi (Lucas), A. pattoni (Neumann), A. trimaculatum (Lucas) and A. varanense (Supino). Some of the species listed by Seneviratna (1965) were either synonyms or invalid in respect to the present classification. For example Amblyomma laeve sensu Warburton (1910) is a junior synonym of A. pattoni and A. gervaisii var. lucasi is considered a junior synonym of A. varanense (Guglielmone et al. 2010; D. Apanaskevich pers. comm.).

  6. Characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses observed from lightning in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekara, T. A. L. N.; Fernando, M.; Sonnadara, U.; Cooray, V.

    2016-02-01

    A detailed study on electric field characteristics of Narrow Bipolar Pulses (NBP) observed in Sri Lanka is presented here. NBPs analyzed in this work were recorded at a coastal location in the Southern part of Sri Lanka (Matara: 5.95 °N, 8.53 °E), from five highly active consecutive thunderstorm days during the month of May in 2013. The waveforms were recorded with a 10 ns resolution within a 100 ms time window. Both positive and negative NBPs were observed in this study with the negative type being the most frequent. Parameters presented in this study were the rise time (Tr), zero crossing time (Tz), the duration of slow front (Ts), the full width of half maximum (FWHM), the pulse duration and the ratio of amplitude of overshoot to the corresponding peak amplitude (Os/Pa). The corresponding average values of negative NBPs for these parameters were found to be 0.58 μs, 3.01 μs, 0.20 μs, 1.38 μs, 19.21 μs and 0.19 respectively. Similarly, for positive events corresponding values were 1.38 μs, 4.66 μs, 0.48 μs, 1.93 μs, 16.42 μs and 0.37 respectively. The above values conforms to a much narrower bipolar events when compared to previously reported values which is considered to be caused by the propagation effects of signals captured by the apparatus.

  7. Collective trauma in northern Sri Lanka: a qualitative psychosocial-ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, Daya

    2007-01-01

    Background Complex situations that follow war and natural disasters have a psychosocial impact on not only the individual but also on the family, community and society. Just as the mental health effects on the individual psyche can result in non pathological distress as well as a variety of psychiatric disorders; massive and widespread trauma and loss can impact on family and social processes causing changes at the family, community and societal levels. Method This qualitative, ecological study is a naturalistic, psychosocial ethnography in Northern Sri Lanka, while actively involved in psychosocial and community mental health programmes among the Tamil community. Participatory observation, key informant interviews and focus group discussion with community level relief and rehabilitation workers and government and non-governmental officials were used to gather data. The effects on the community of the chronic, man-made disaster, war, in Northern Sri Lanka were compared with the contexts found before the war and after the tsunami. Results Fundamental changes in the functioning of the family and the community were observed. While the changes after the tsunami were not so prominent, the chronic war situation caused more fundamental social transformations. At the family level, the dynamics of single parent families, lack of trust among members, and changes in significant relationships, and child rearing practices were seen. Communities tended to be more dependent, passive, silent, without leadership, mistrustful, and suspicious. Additional adverse effects included the breakdown in traditional structures, institutions and familiar ways of life, and deterioration in social norms and ethics. A variety of community level interventions were tried. Conclusion Exposure to conflict, war and disaster situations impact on fundamental family and community dynamics resulting in changes at a collective level. Relief, rehabilitation and development programmes to be effective will

  8. Evaluation of flood preparedness in government healthcare facilities in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Farley, Jessica M; Suraweera, Inoka; Perera, W L S P; Hess, Jeremy; Ebi, Kristie L

    2017-01-01

    Sri Lanka is vulnerable to floods and other hydro-meteorological disasters. Climate change is projected to increase the intensity of these events. This study aimed to assess the flood preparedness in healthcare facilities in Eastern Province. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study conducted in Trincomalee District. Surveys were conducted in 31 government healthcare facilities, using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire covering the last 5 years. Seven in-depth interviews were conducted with randomly selected Medical Officers in Charge or their equivalent, and 3 interviews were conducted with Medical Offices of Health. Two general hospitals, 3 base hospitals, 11 divisional hospitals, and 15 primary care units were included. Six respondents (19.4%) reported flooding in their facility, and 19 (61.3%) reported flooding in their catchment area. For the health workforce, 77.4% of respondents reported not enough staff to perform normal service delivery during disasters, and 25.5% reported staff absenteeism due to flooding. Several respondents expressed a desire for more disaster-specific and general clinical training opportunities for themselves and their staff. Most respondents (80.7%) reported no delays in supply procurement during weather emergencies, but 61.3% reported insufficient supplies to maintain normal service delivery during disasters. Four facilities (12.9%) had disaster preparedness plans, and 4 (12.9%) had any staff trained on disaster preparedness or management within the last year. One quarter (25.8%) of respondents had received any written guidance on disaster preparedness from the regional, provincial, or national level in the last year. While there is a strong health system operating in Sri Lanka, improvements are needed in localized and appropriate disaster-related training, resources for continuing clinical education, and investments in workforce to strengthen flood and other disaster resilience within the government

  9. Evaluation of flood preparedness in government healthcare facilities in Eastern Province, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Farley, Jessica M.; Suraweera, Inoka; Perera, W. L. S. P.; Hess, Jeremy; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Sri Lanka is vulnerable to floods and other hydro-meteorological disasters. Climate change is projected to increase the intensity of these events. Objective: This study aimed to assess the flood preparedness in healthcare facilities in Eastern Province. Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed methods study conducted in Trincomalee District. Surveys were conducted in 31 government healthcare facilities, using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire covering the last 5 years. Seven in-depth interviews were conducted with randomly selected Medical Officers in Charge or their equivalent, and 3 interviews were conducted with Medical Offices of Health. Results: Two general hospitals, 3 base hospitals, 11 divisional hospitals, and 15 primary care units were included. Six respondents (19.4%) reported flooding in their facility, and 19 (61.3%) reported flooding in their catchment area. For the health workforce, 77.4% of respondents reported not enough staff to perform normal service delivery during disasters, and 25.5% reported staff absenteeism due to flooding. Several respondents expressed a desire for more disaster-specific and general clinical training opportunities for themselves and their staff. Most respondents (80.7%) reported no delays in supply procurement during weather emergencies, but 61.3% reported insufficient supplies to maintain normal service delivery during disasters. Four facilities (12.9%) had disaster preparedness plans, and 4 (12.9%) had any staff trained on disaster preparedness or management within the last year. One quarter (25.8%) of respondents had received any written guidance on disaster preparedness from the regional, provincial, or national level in the last year. Conclusions: While there is a strong health system operating in Sri Lanka, improvements are needed in localized and appropriate disaster-related training, resources for continuing clinical education, and investments in workforce to strengthen flood

  10. Addressing domestic violence through antenatal care in Sri Lanka's plantation estates: Contributions of public health midwives.

    PubMed

    Infanti, Jennifer J; Lund, Ragnhild; Muzrif, Munas M; Schei, Berit; Wijewardena, Kumudu

    2015-11-01

    Domestic violence in pregnancy is a significant health concern for women around the world. Globally, much has been written about how the health sector can respond effectively and comprehensively to domestic violence during pregnancy via antenatal services. The evidence from low-income settings is, however, limited. Sri Lanka is internationally acknowledged as a model amongst low-income countries for its maternal and child health statistics. Yet, very little research has considered the perspectives and experiences of the key front line health providers for pregnant women in Sri Lanka, public health midwives (PHMs). We address this gap by consulting PHMs about their experiences identifying and responding to pregnant women affected by domestic violence in an underserved area: the tea estate sector of Badulla district. Over two months in late 2014, our interdisciplinary team of social scientists and medical doctors met with 31 estate PHMs for group interviews and a participatory workshop at health clinics across Badulla district. In the paper, we propose a modified livelihoods model to conceptualise the physical, social and symbolic assets, strategies and constraints that simultaneously enable and limit the effectiveness of community-based health care responses to domestic violence. Our findings also highlight conceptual and practical strategies identified by PHMs to ensure improvements in this complex landscape of care. Such strategies include estate-based counselling services; basic training in family counselling and mediation for PHMs; greater surveillance of abusive men's behaviours by male community leaders; and performance evaluation and incentives for work undertaken to respond to domestic violence. The study contributes to international discussions on the meanings, frameworks, and identities constructed at the local levels of health care delivery in the global challenge to end domestic violence. In turn, such knowledge adds to international debates on the roles

  11. Century scale climate change in the central highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. De; J Sonnadara, D. U.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, an analysis of century scale climate trends in the central highlands of Sri Lanka is presented. Monthly rainfall and temperature records of the period 1869-2006 from five climatological stations were analyzed. The trend is calculated by the least square regression analysis and the significance of the observed trend is estimated using the Mann-Kendall statistic. The results clearly show that there is a statistically significant decrease in annual rainfall in the western slopes of the central highlands. Throughout the last century, the annual reduction of rainfall in Nuwara Eliya which is at an altitude of 1895 m was 5.2 mm/year. The decrease is largely due to the reduction in southwest monsoon rainfall which contributes to 75% of the total reduction. No significant change was observed on the eastern side of the central highlands which receives rainfall predominantly from the northeast monsoons. The mean annual temperature in the mountainous region shows a uniform increasing trend which is in line with the 100-year global temperature increase of 0.8 ± 0.2∘C. Kandy, which is at an altitude of 477 m and closely linked with the rainfall climatology of Nuwara Eliya, showed no significant change in the mean annual temperature. If the current trend continues, in another 100 years, western and eastern slopes of central highlands will receive the same amount of rainfall from the southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon which will have far reaching consequences for Sri Lanka's economy and the ecology of the hill country.

  12. Mitigation of Sri Lanka Island Effects in Colombo Sounding Data during DYNAMO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielski, P. E.; Johnson, R. H.; Yoneyama, K.

    2013-12-01

    During the Dynamics of the MJO (DYNAMO) field campaign, upper-air soundings were launched at Colombo, Sri Lanka as part of the enhanced northern sounding array (NSA) of the experiment. The Colombo soundings were affected at low-levels by diurnal heating of this large island and by flow blocking due to elevated terrain to the east of the Colombo site. Because of the large spacing between sounding sites, these small-scale effects are aliased onto the larger scale impacting analyses and atmospheric budgets over the DYNAMO NSA. To mitigate these local island effects on the large-scale budgets, a procedure was designed which uses ECMWF-analyzed fields in the vicinity of Sri Lanka to estimate open-ocean conditions (i.e, as if this island were not present). These 'unperturbed' ECMWF fields at low-levels are then merged with observed Colombo soundings. This procedure effectively mutes the blocking effects and large diurnal cycle observed in the low-level Colombo fields. In westerly flow regimes, adjusted Colombo winds increase the low-level westerlies by 2-3 m/s with a similar increase of the low-level easterlies in easterly flow regimes. In general, over the NSA the impact of the adjusted Colombo winds results in more low-level divergence (convergence), more mid-level subsidence (rising motion) and reduced (increased) rainfall during the westerly (easterly) wind regimes. In comparison to independent TRMM rainfall estimates, both the mean budget-derived rainfall and its temporal correlation are improved by using the adjusted Colombo soundings. In addition, use of the 'unperturbed' fields result in a more realistic moisture budget analyses, both in its diurnal cycle and during the build-up phase of the November MJO when a gradual deepening of apparent drying was observed. Overall, use of the adjusted Colombo soundings appears to have a beneficial impact on the NSA analyses and budgets.

  13. Species Composition and Diversity of Malaria Vector Breeding Habitats in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunathilaka, Nayana; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Hapugoda, Menaka; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Mosquito larval ecology is important in determining larval densities and species assemblage. This in turn influences malaria transmission in an area. Therefore, understanding larval habitat ecology is important in designing malaria control programs. Method. Larval surveys were conducted in 20 localities under five sentinel sites (Padavisiripura, Gomarankadawala, Thoppur, Mollipothana, and Ichchallampaththu) in Trincomalee District, Eastern Province of Sri Lanka, between June 2010 and July 2013. The relationship between seven abiotic variables (temperature, pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), and salinity) was measured. Results. A total of 21,347 anophelines were recorded representing 15 species. Anopheles subpictus 24.72% (5,278/21,347) was the predominant species, followed by 24.67% (5,267/21,347) of An. nigerrimus and 14.56% (3,109/21,347) of An. peditaeniatus. A total of 9,430 breeding habitats under twenty-one categories were identified. An. culcicifacies was noted to be highest from built wells (20.5%) with high salinity (1102.3 ± 81.8 mg/L), followed by waste water collections (20.2%) having low DO levels (2.85 ± 0.03 mg/L) and high TDS (1,654 ± 140 mg/L). Conclusion. This study opens an avenue to explore new breeding habitats of malaria vectors in the country and reemphasizes the requirement of conducting entomological surveillance to detect potential transmission of malaria in Sri Lanka under the current malaria elimination programme. PMID:26583136

  14. Preschool teachers as agents of oral health promotion: an intervention study in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Fernando, S; Kanthi, R D F C; Johnson, N W

    2013-09-01

    According to National Oral Health Survey reports and research, Early Childhood Caries has been identified as a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka. More than 65% of preschool-aged children have dental decay and only 2% of them have had treatment. With proper interventions and commitment from public health personnel and responsible community leaders this should be a largely preventable disease. An intervention study was conducted among preschool teachers in the District of Colombo, Sri Lanka, to assess their influence on oral health promotion in the school environment. All the available 52 preschools and all 72 teachers registered under a local government authority were involved in the study. Preschools were divided into intervention group and control group based on geographically defined areas. The intervention included training preschool teachers using a manual covering health education, health promotion, incorporation of oral-health-friendly activities into the preschool curriculum, and hands-on experience of oral examination. Pre- and post- assessments were conducted with a 6 month interval. After 6 months, the median oral health knowledge score of the intervention group improved from 55 to 72 (p = 0.005) and the mean score for oral health related practices from 32 to 35 (p = 0.032). The variables: oral-health-friendly preschool environment (p = 0.02), availability of brushing facilities (p = 0.005) and availability of information, education and communication materials related to oral health (p = 0.004) were significantly different between the two groups after 6 months. Oral health promotion activities can be effectively instilled in a pre-school environment by the education of teachers.

  15. Toxoplasmosis awareness, seroprevalence and risk behavior among pregnant women in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Chandrasena, Nilmini; Herath, Rasika; Rupasinghe, Nawamalika; Samarasinghe, Buddhini; Samaranayake, Hasaranga; Kastuririratne, Anuradhani; de Silva, Nilanthi Renuka

    2016-03-01

    Primary gestational toxoplasmosis can be transmitted to the fetus with deleterious effects on the pregnancy. There is very little information regarding gestational toxoplasmosis in Sri Lanka. This survey was done to determine the prevalence and awareness of toxoplasmosis and to identify risk factors of infection among pregnant women in the Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Women attending obstetric clinics at the Colombo North Teaching Hospital in 2014 were tested for Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) specific Immunoglobulins G (IgG) and M (IgM) subtypes using the OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test-Dip Strip(®). Disease awareness and risk behaviors of the participants were investigated. Of the 293 participants (mean age 27 years, SD ± 5.92), 38% were primigravidae with a mean gestational age of 16.2 weeks (SD 7). The prevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies was 12.3% (n = 36) and zero, respectively. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated to determine risk factors of infection (cat-ownership, handling cats, consumption of meat, commercial meals and unwashed raw vegetables and fruits, handling soil and not washing hands after handling soil). On bivariate analysis, eating commercially prepared meals weekly or more was associated with toxoplasma seroprevalence with marginal statistical significance. On multivariate analysis, none of the considered risk factors were significant. Toxoplasma awareness was 4.4% (n = 13); health personnel (46.2%, n = 6) and media (53.8%, n = 7) being sources of information. Health education programs to increase awareness of toxoplasmosis is recommended at antenatal clinics.

  16. A deterministic analysis of tsunami hazard and risk for the southwest coast of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijetunge, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a multi-scenario, deterministic analysis carried out as a pilot study to evaluate the tsunami hazard and risk distribution in the southwest coast of Sri Lanka. The hazard and risk assessment procedure adopted was also assessed against available field records of the impact of the Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004. An evaluation of numerically simulated nearshore tsunami amplitudes corresponding to ‘maximum-credible' scenarios from different subduction segments in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka suggests that a seismic event similar to that generated the tsunami in 2004 can still be considered as the ‘worst-case' scenario for the southwest coast. Furthermore, it appears that formation of edge waves trapped by the primary waves diffracting around the southwest significantly influences the nearshore tsunami wave field and is largely responsible for relatively higher tsunami amplitudes in certain stretches of the coastline under study. The extent of inundation from numerical simulations corresponding to the worst-case scenario shows good overall agreement with the points of maximum penetration of inundation from field measurements in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami. It can also be seen that the inundation distribution is strongly influenced by onshore topography. The present study indicates that the mean depth of inundation could be utilised as a primary parameter to quantify the spatial distribution of the tsunami hazard. The spatial distribution of the risk of the tsunami hazard to the population and residential buildings computed by employing the standard risk formula shows satisfactory correlation with published statistics of the affected population and the damage to residential property during the tsunami in 2004.

  17. State-society relations and electricity infrastructure: Negotiating national energy security in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Cynthia Marie

    In this dissertation, I use electricity production and distribution and grid expansion as a lens to view and understand state-society relations. After discussing how electricity has resource-like characteristics and institutional characteristics as a field of organization, I examine how groups in society interact with state officials and their corresponding institutions over electricity production and distribution and the pursuit of national energy security. Taking Sri Lanka as the focus of my inquiry, I conducted a qualitative research project to: (1) identify how class, ethnicity, and locality (urban or rural location) are constitutive of and constituted by electricity-infrastructure development and grid expansion initiatives; (2) identify how grid expansion contributes to processes of social inclusion and exclusion by reconstituting on-grid and off-grid populations, and; (3) determine the effects of privatization and environmental regulation on relationships between the state and groups in society. The methodological approaches include analyses of open-ended interviews, participant observation, surveys of government documents, and speeches and sermons delivered at protests against power-plant sitings to examine how groups in society engage the state as a social force. The study finds that privatization occurring in Sri Lanka's energy sector may have the effect of maintaining exclusion from electricity access rather than increasing access to electricity as the neoliberal paradigm asserts. Environmental regulations enable groups in society to include their concerns into the development process and to challenge state decision making that have been made on their behalf by the Ceylon Electricity Board (CEB). The research suggests that class, ethnic, and rural-urban relations are constitutive factors in electricity production and distribution that complement foci on the technical and economic dimensions of electricity-infrastructure planning.

  18. Indicators of newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism in Sri Lanka: program challenges and way forward.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Manjula; Amarasena, Sujeewa

    2014-09-12

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The present study is aimed at evaluating the congenital hypothyroidism screening program in the Southern region of Sri Lanka in terms of coverage, effectiveness of detecting and managing the cases. The Newborn Screening System Database of Sri Lanka was reviewed from January 2011 to December 2012. The data of 47 babies who tested positive for hypothyroidism were analyzed. Total of 78,167 babies (99.0% of live births) were screened. Of them, 5.8% (n = 4,472) were discharged within 12 hrs of delivery where as 58.1% (n = 44969) were discharged afterwards but within next 12 hrs (i.e., day 1). The positive predictive value for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was 9.0%. The incidences of primary CH among screened infants were 1:1682. False positive rate among screened infants was maintained below 0.70%. Mean age of serum confirmation was 23.8 (±8) days. In the light of the present findings, we would suggest direct communication systems, linking newborn screening program to the family unit. This would enhance timely follow-up for screen-positive infants and facilitate information sharing. Establishing a program with, public-private sector partnership should be considered. Costs could be contained if the specimen collection, its transportation and communication are carried out by this partnership and the laboratory tests are conducted by a non-profit organization such as a University in order to achieve the goal of universal coverage.

  19. Cosmogenic nuclide evidence for low weathering and denudation in the wet, tropical highlands of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Hewawasam, Tilak; Kubik, Peter W.

    2004-09-01

    Some of the lowest weathering and erosion rates in any mountain range in the world have been measured using cosmogenic nuclides in the steep, humid, tropical highlands of Sri Lanka. The total preanthropogenic denudation rates were measured in creek sediments and soil samples from unperturbed rain forest sites, bedrock from mountain crests, and bedrock from inselbergs. Denudation rates are in the range of 5-30 t km-2 yr-1 (2-11 mm ky-1). These rates average denudation over the last 50-250 ky. Weathering exports in rivers draining the mountainous Central Highlands show that silicate weathering rates are also low, varying from 5 to 20 t km-2 yr-1 today (2-7 mm ky-1), but they represent a significant fraction of the total denudation. All these observations run contrary to the conventional geomorphologic and geochemical wisdom that would predict rapid erosion for highlands of high relief, temperatures, and precipitation. We speculate that the high relief in Sri Lanka represents the remnant of a geomorphic block that was uplifted during rifting at 130 Ma or even earlier and that was reduced to the interior of the island by rapid receding of escarpments after continental breakup. It is possible that throughout this history, hillslopes, where not exposing bare bedrock, were protected by thick weathered profiles. Such clay-rich layers would inhibit silicate weathering by shielding bedrock from weathering agents. In the absence of landscape rejuvenation, physical erosion rates are low, and fresh mineral surfaces are not being supplied. The observation that wet, steep, tropical highlands can have low rates of rock weathering and erosion has some potentially profound implications for the long-term controls of atmospheric CO2 budgets: High temperature and precipitation, which are much invoked though controversial agents for silicate dissolution and CO2 drawdown, become ineffective in promoting weathering in areas that are not tectonically active.

  20. Quality of inpatient care in public and private hospitals in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isurujith K; Dalpatadu, Shanti; de Alwis, Sanil; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Shanthikumar, Shivanthan

    2015-03-01

    To compare the quality of inpatient clinical care in public and private hospitals in Sri Lanka. A retrospective, cross-sectional comparison was done of inpatient quality, in a sample of 11 public and 10 private hospitals in three of 25 districts. Data were collected for 55 quality indicators from medical records of 2523 public and 1815 private inpatient admissions. These covered treatment of asthma, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), childbirth and five other conditions, along with outcome indicators, and medicine prescribing indicators. Overall quality scores were better in the public sector than the private sector (77 vs 69%). Performance was similar for management of AMI and childbirth and somewhat better in the private sector for management of asthma. The public sector performed better in those indicators that are not constrained by resources (94 vs 81%), but worse in indicators that are highly resource intensive (10 vs 31%). Quality was comparable in assessment and investigation, but the public sector performed better in treatment and management (70 vs 62%) and drug prescribing (68 vs 60%), and modestly worse in terms of outcomes (92 vs 97%). For a range of indicators where comparisons were possible, quality of inpatient clinical care in Sri Lanka was comparable to levels reported from upper-middle income Asian countries, and often approaches that in developed countries, although the findings cannot be generalized. Quality in the public sector is better than in the private sector in many areas, despite spending being substantially less. Quality in public hospitals is resource constrained, and needs greater government investment for improvement, but when resource limitations are not critical, the public sector appears able to deliver equal or better quality than the private sector. Overall similarities in quality between the two sectors suggest the importance of physician training and other factors. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  1. Barriers to prompt and effective treatment of malaria in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Reilley, B; Abeyasinghe, R; Pakianathar, M Vincent

    2002-09-01

    For the past 18 years, northern Sri Lanka has been affected by armed ethnic conflict. This has had a heavy impact on displacement of civilians, health delivery services, number of health professionals in the area and infrastructure. The north of Sri Lanka has a severe malaria burden, with less than 5% of the national population suffering 34% of reported cases. Health care providers investigated treatment-seeking behaviour and levels of treatment failure believed to be the result of lack of adherence to treatment. Pre- and post-treatment interviews with patients seeking treatment in the outpatient department (OPD) and focus groups. A total of 271 persons completed interviews: 54.4% sought treatment within 2 days of the onset of symptoms, and 91.9% self-treated with drugs with prior to seeking treatment, mainly with paracetamol. Self-treatment was associated with delaying treatment (RR 3.55, CI 1.23-10.24, P=0.002). In post-treatment interviews, self-reported default was 26.1%. The main reasons for not taking the entire regimen were side-effects (57.6%) and disappearance of symptoms (16.7%). Focus groups indicated some lack of confidence in chloroquine treatment and prophylaxis, and scant enthusiasm for prevention methods. A number of factors contribute to a lack of access and a lower quality of care for malaria: lack of medical staff and facilities because of the fighting; lack of confidence in treatment, and perception of malaria as a routine illness. Prevention efforts need to take into account certain beliefs and practices to be successful.

  2. Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school based study.

    PubMed

    Ranasinghe, Hasanthika M; Ranasinghe, Nilakshika; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Seneviratne, Rohini De A; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2013-12-20

    Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Although programmes promoting breast cancer awareness are being carried out throughout Sri Lanka, few have targeted school students. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding breast cancer with reference to screening, services available, breast self-examination, and sources of information, among adolescent schoolgirls in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka. The knowledge, attitudes and practices related to breast cancer were assessed among 859 adolescent girls in schools within the Colombo District, using a self-administered questionnaire. Classes and students were selected using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Of the total sample, approximately 60% of respondents identified 'history of breast lump', 'family history of breast cancer' & 'exposure to irradiation' as risk factors for breast cancer. Although most were aware that the presence of a breast lump was an important warning sign, awareness of other warning signs was poor. Only 35.6% identified mammogram as an effective screening method. One third of the sample maintained that they are unaware of symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer. Of those who were aware, 90.6% named surgery as a treatment option for breast cancer, 79.4% were unaware that chemotherapy is used. Of the total sample, 17.1% knew how to perform breast self-examination, and only 9.4% were aware of currently available breast cancer screening services. Knowledge was significantly better among students who had a relative with breast cancer. There were significant deficiencies in knowledge, attitudes and practices on breast cancer in the study population. In particular, knowledge on breast self examination was poor. There is a need for awareness programs aimed specifically at this important target group.

  3. Awareness of breast cancer among adolescent girls in Colombo, Sri Lanka: a school based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the commonest cancer in women worldwide. Although programmes promoting breast cancer awareness are being carried out throughout Sri Lanka, few have targeted school students. We conducted this study to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding breast cancer with reference to screening, services available, breast self-examination, and sources of information, among adolescent schoolgirls in the Colombo District of Sri Lanka. Methods The knowledge, attitudes and practices related to breast cancer were assessed among 859 adolescent girls in schools within the Colombo District, using a self-administered questionnaire. Classes and students were selected using multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Results Of the total sample, approximately 60% of respondents identified ‘history of breast lump’, ‘family history of breast cancer’ & ‘exposure to irradiation’ as risk factors for breast cancer. Although most were aware that the presence of a breast lump was an important warning sign, awareness of other warning signs was poor. Only 35.6% identified mammogram as an effective screening method. One third of the sample maintained that they are unaware of symptoms, diagnostics and treatment of breast cancer. Of those who were aware, 90.6% named surgery as a treatment option for breast cancer, 79.4% were unaware that chemotherapy is used. Of the total sample, 17.1% knew how to perform breast self-examination, and only 9.4% were aware of currently available breast cancer screening services. Knowledge was significantly better among students who had a relative with breast cancer. Conclusions There were significant deficiencies in knowledge, attitudes and practices on breast cancer in the study population. In particular, knowledge on breast self examination was poor. There is a need for awareness programs aimed specifically at this important target group. PMID:24359310

  4. Incidence of esophageal cancer in Sri Lanka: Analysis of cancer registry data and comparison with other South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Dakshitha P; Samarasekera, Dharmabandhu N

    2016-03-31

    The objectives of this study were to report the incidence of Carcinoma of Esophagus (CaE) in Sri Lanka and to compare these values with other cancer registry data of the region and with migrant populations. We compared the data published by the National Cancer Control Program over the last two decades with data from the National Cancer Registry Programme of the Indian Council of Medical Research and Karachi Cancer Registry. SEERstat was used to analyze the surveillance, epidemiology and end results database to analyze data on Indian migrant population. CaE was the fourth most common cancer overall and among females and third most common cancer among males. The incidence of CaE rises with age in both sexes, with a peak in the 70-74 year age group. There was a disproportionately higher number of CaE in the Tamil population (chi-square test, P < 0.00001). The commonest type of CaE in Sri Lanka was squamous cell carcinoma, Not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 750, 70.5%), followed by adenocarcinoma, NOS (n = 83, 7.8%). India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka have comparable age-adjusted incidence and age distribution of CaE. All migrant populations had lower incidence of CaE than original population or population in their present country. Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are more prevalent in Sri Lankan males than females. The incidence of CaE and its distribution among age groups in Sri Lanka was comparable to other countries of the region. Persons of Tamil ethnicity have a higher risk of developing CaE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Constipation in children: an epidemiological study in Sri Lanka using Rome III criteria.

    PubMed

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Adhikari, Chandralatha; Pannala, Waruni; Benninga, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a common paediatric problem, but its prevalence in Asia is unknown. A cross-sectional survey using a previously validated, self-administered questionnaire was conducted in randomly selected children aged 10-16 years, in five randomly selected schools in Sri Lanka. Two schools were in Eastern Province, which has been affected by the separatist war. Constipation was defined using Rome III criteria. Of 2694 children included in the analysis, 416 (15.4%) had constipation. Symptoms independently associated with constipation were straining (71.6% vs 28.4% of controls), bleeding per rectum (14.2% vs 2.2%) and abdominal pain (55% vs 35.2%). The prevalence of constipation was significantly higher in those with a family history of constipation (49% vs 14.8%), living in a war affected area (18.1% vs 13.7%) and attending an urban school (16.7% vs 13.3%). In conclusion, chronic constipation is a significant problem affecting 15% of Sri Lankan school children and adolescents.

  6. Factors Affecting Mental Health of Local Staff Working in the Vanni Region, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, Barbara Lopes; Crawford, Carol; Petit, Pilar; Ghitis, Frida; Sivilli, Teresa I.; Scholte, Willem F.; Ager, Alastair; Eriksson, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    In the aftermath of the civil war that extended from 1983–2009, humanitarian organizations provided aid to the conflict-affected population of the Vanni region in northern Sri Lanka. In August, 2010, a needs assessment was conducted to determine the mental-health status of Sri Lankan national humanitarian aid staff working in conditions of stress and hardship, and consider contextual and organizational characteristics influencing such status. A total of 398 staff members from nine organizations working in the Vanni area participated in the survey, which assessed stress, work characteristics, social support, coping styles, and symptoms of psychological distress. Exposure to traumatic, chronic, and secondary stressors was common. Nineteen percent of the population met criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 53% of participants reported elevated anxiety symptoms, and 58% reported elevated depression symptoms. Those reporting high levels of support from their organizations were less likely to suffer depression and PTSD symptoms than those reporting lower levels of staff support (OR =.23, p < .001) and (OR =.26, p < .001), respectively. Participants who were age 55 or older were significantly less likely to suffer anxiety symptoms than those who were between 15 and 34 years of age (OR =.13, p = .011). Having experienced travel difficulties was significantly associated with more anxiety symptoms (OR = 3.35, p < .001). It was recommended that organizations provide stress-management training and increase support to their staff. PMID:27099648

  7. The use of mindfulness practice in the treatment of a case of obsessive compulsive disorder in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2013-03-01

    For over 20 centuries, Buddhism has been the spiritual practice of the majority of Sri Lankans. Though Buddhist practices have been increasingly influencing psychotherapy in the West, the use of such practices in psychotherapy in Sri Lanka is not common. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by presenting a case study where Buddhist mindfulness practice was used successfully in the treatment of a case of obsessive compulsive disorder. This paper also presents an outline of the association between Buddhist mindfulness practice and mindfulness practices used in modern-day psychotherapy and discusses issues in the use of mindfulness practice in psychotherapy.

  8. Reactogenicity and safety of the human rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix™ in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India: a post-marketing surveillance study.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Lulu; Chitraka, Amarjeet; Liu, Aixue; Choudhury, Jaydeep; Kumar, Kishore; Berezo, Lennie; Cimafranca, Leonard; Chatterjee, Pallab; Garg, Pankaj; Siriwardene, Prasanna; Bernardo, Rommel; Mehta, Shailesh; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Karkada, Naveen; Htay Han, Htay

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory bodies in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India require post-marketing surveillance to provide additional safety data on Rotarix™ in real-life settings. In such studies conducted in The Philippines (November 2006 to July 2012; NCT00353366), Sri Lanka (November 2008 to August 2009; NCT00779779), and India (August 2009 to April 2010; NCT00938327), 2 doses of Rotarix™ were administered according to the local prescribing information (PI). The occurrence of at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited adverse event (AE) (fever, vomiting, or diarrhea), within 15 days in The Philippines or 8 days in Sri Lanka and India; unsolicited AEs within 31 days and serious adverse events (SAEs) throughout the study were recorded. Of the 1494, 522, and 332 infants enrolled in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India, 14.7% 14.9% and 12.7% infants, respectively recorded at least Grade "2"/"3" solicited AEs. The most commonly reported solicited AEs were irritability in The Philippines (32.2% post-Dose-1; 23.5% post-Dose-2) and India (23.0% post-Dose-1; 13.2% post-Dose-2), and fever (18.0% post-Dose-1; 20.2% post-Dose-2) in Sri Lanka. Unsolicited AEs were recorded in 24.5% (The Philippines), 4.8% (Sri Lanka), and 6.9% (India) of infants. Forty-one SAEs were recorded in the Philippines of which 6 (decreased oral intake with increased sleeping time and constipation; pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and intussusception) were considered by the investigators as causally related to vaccination. One vaccine-unrelated SAE occurred in a Sri Lankan infant. All SAEs resolved and the infants recovered. Two doses of Rotarix™, administered to healthy infants according to local PI, were well tolerated in The Philippines, Sri Lanka, and India.

  9. Village agroforestry systems and tree-use practices: A case study in Sri Lanka. Multipurpose tree species network research series

    SciTech Connect

    Wickramasinghe, A.

    1992-01-01

    Village agroforestry systems in Sri Lanka have evolved through farmers' efforts to meet their survival needs. The paper examines farmers' land-use systems and their perceptions of the role of trees in the villages of Bambarabedda and Madugalla in central Sri Lanka. The benefits of village agroforestry are diverse food, fuelwood, fodder, timber, and mulch, but food products are of outstanding importance. The ability of Artocarpus heterophyllus (the jackfruit tree) and Cocos nucifera (coconut) to ensure food security during the dry season and provide traditional foods throughout the year, as well as to grow in limited space, make them popular crops in the two study villages. The study recommends that further research precede the formulation of agricultural interventions and that efforts to promote improved tree varieties recognize farmers' practices and expressed needs.

  10. On the road to eliminate malaria in Sri Lanka: lessons from history, challenges, gaps in knowledge and research needs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most important tropical diseases that has caused devastation throughout the history of mankind. Malaria eradication programmes in the past have had many positive effects but failed to wipe out malaria from most tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Encouraged by the impressive levels of reduction in malaria case numbers during the past decade, Sri Lanka has launched a programme to eliminate malaria by year 2014. This article reviews the historical milestones associated with the malaria eradication programme that failed subsequently and the events that led to the launch of the ongoing malaria elimination plans at national-level and its strategies that are operational across the entire country. The existing gaps in knowledge are also discussed together with the priority areas for research to fill in these gaps that are posing as challenges to the envisaged goal of wiping out malaria from this island nation. PMID:24548783

  11. Effects of people-centred factors on enterprise resource planning implementation project success: empirical evidence from Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Gunawardena, Vathsala

    2010-08-01

    Extant literature suggests people-centred factors as one of the major areas influencing enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementation project success. Yet, to date, few empirical studies attempted to validate the link between people-centred factors and ERP implementation project success. The purpose of this study is to empirically identify people-centred factors that are critical to ERP implementation projects in Sri Lanka. The study develops and empirically validates a framework for people-centred factors that influence the success of ERP implementation projects. Survey research methodology was used and collected data from 74 ERP implementation projects in Sri Lanka. The people-centred factors of 'project team competence', 'rewards' and 'communication and change' were found to predict significantly the ERP implementation project success.

  12. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S.; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. Methods We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health’s perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. Results The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216–609 for pediatric cases and between US$196–866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. Conclusions This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka. PMID:26910907

  13. Homegardens as a multi-functional land-use strategy in Sri Lanka with focus on carbon sequestration.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Eskil; Ostwald, Madelene; Nissanka, S P; Marambe, Buddhi

    2013-11-01

    This paper explores the concept of homegardens and their potential functions as strategic elements in land-use planning, and adaptation and mitigation to climate change in Sri Lanka. The ancient and locally adapted agroforestry system of homegardens is presently estimated to occupy nearly 15 % of the land area in Sri Lanka and is described in the scientific literature to offer several ecosystem services to its users; such as climate regulation, protection against natural hazards, enhanced land productivity and biological diversity, increased crop diversity and food security for rural poor and hence reduced vulnerability to climate change. Our results, based on a limited sample size, indicate that the homegardens also store significant amount of carbon, with above ground biomass carbon stocks in dry zone homegardens (n = 8) ranging from 10 to 55 megagrams of carbon per hectare (Mg C ha(-1)) with a mean value of 35 Mg C ha(-1), whereas carbon stocks in wet zone homegardens (n = 4) range from 48 to 145 Mg C ha(-1) with a mean value of 87 Mg C ha(-1). This implies that homegardens may contain a significant fraction of the total above ground biomass carbon stock in the terrestrial system in Sri Lanka, and from our estimates its share has increased from almost one-sixth in 1992 to nearly one-fifth in 2010. In the light of current discussions on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+), the concept of homegardens in Sri Lanka provides interesting aspects to the debate and future research in terms of forest definitions, setting reference levels, and general sustainability.

  14. Suicide in Sri Lanka 1975-2012: age, period and cohort analysis of police and hospital data.

    PubMed

    Knipe, Duleeka W; Metcalfe, Chris; Fernando, Ravindra; Pearson, Melissa; Konradsen, Flemming; Eddleston, Michael; Gunnell, David

    2014-08-13

    Sri Lanka has experienced major changes in its suicide rates since the 1970s, and in 1995 it had one of the highest rates in the world. Subsequent reductions in Sri Lanka's suicide rates have been attributed to the introduction of restrictions on the availability of highly toxic pesticides. We investigate these changes in suicide rates in relation to age, gender, method specific trends and birth-cohort and period effects, with the aim of informing preventative strategies. Secular trends of suicide in relation to age, sex, method, birth-cohort and period effects were investigated graphically using police data (1975-2012). Poisoning case-fatality was investigated using national hospital admission data (2004-2010). There were marked changes to the age-, gender- and method-specific incidence of suicide over the study period. Year on year declines in rates began in 17-25 year olds in the early 1980s. Reduction in older age groups followed and falls in all age groups occurred after all class I (the most toxic) pesticides were banned. Distinct changes in the age/gender pattern of suicide are observed: in the 1980s suicide rates were highest in 21-35 year old men; by the 2000s, this pattern had reversed with a stepwise increase in male rates with increasing age. Throughout the study period female rates were highest in 17-25 year olds. There has been a rise in suicide by hanging, though this rise is relatively small in relation to the marked decline in self-poisoning deaths. The patterns of suicides are more consistent with a period rather than birth-cohort effect. The epidemiology of suicide in Sri Lanka has changed noticeably in the last 30 years. The introduction of pesticide regulations in Sri Lanka coincides with a reduction in suicide rates, with evidence of limited method substitution.

  15. Costs of Dengue Control Activities and Hospitalizations in the Public Health Sector during an Epidemic Year in Urban Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Thalagala, Neil; Tissera, Hasitha; Palihawadana, Paba; Amarasinghe, Ananda; Ambagahawita, Anuradha; Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Shepard, Donald S; Tozan, Yeşim

    2016-02-01

    Reported as a public health problem since the 1960s in Sri Lanka, dengue has become a high priority disease for public health authorities. The Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling dengue and other disease outbreaks and associated health care. The involvement of large numbers of public health staff in dengue control activities year-round and the provision of free medical care to dengue patients at secondary care hospitals place a formidable financial burden on the public health sector. We estimated the public sector costs of dengue control activities and the direct costs of hospitalizations in Colombo, the most heavily urbanized district in Sri Lanka, during the epidemic year of 2012 from the Ministry of Health's perspective. The financial costs borne by public health agencies and hospitals are collected using cost extraction tools designed specifically for the study and analysed retrospectively using a combination of activity-based and gross costing approaches. The total cost of dengue control and reported hospitalizations was estimated at US$3.45 million (US$1.50 per capita) in Colombo district in 2012. Personnel costs accounted for the largest shares of the total costs of dengue control activities (79%) and hospitalizations (46%). The results indicated a per capita cost of US$0.42 for dengue control activities. The average costs per hospitalization ranged between US$216-609 for pediatric cases and between US$196-866 for adult cases according to disease severity and treatment setting. This analysis is a first attempt to assess the economic burden of dengue response in the public health sector in Sri Lanka. Country-specific evidence is needed for setting public health priorities and deciding about the deployment of existing or new technologies. Our results suggest that dengue poses a major economic burden on the public health sector in Sri Lanka.

  16. Use of Social Media in Facilitating Health Care Research Among Nursing and Allied Health Undergraduates in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Silva, S N

    2016-01-01

    A mentoring program was designed to promote conduction, completion and dissemination of undergraduate research among Nursing and Allied Health students in Sri Lanka. Several social media platforms were used; mainly the Facebook, YouTube and Google Hangouts. Knowledge sharing, interaction and collaboration were promoted. Student motivation was also done. Research presentation skills and applying for conferences was also facilitated. Over 90% of the participated 262 students completed a research project and close to 50% presented them both locally and internationally.

  17. Revisiting Russell's Viper (Daboia russelii) Bite in Sri Lanka: Is Abdominal Pain an Early Feature of Systemic Envenoming?

    PubMed Central

    Kularatne, Senanayake A. M.; Silva, Anjana; Weerakoon, Kosala; Maduwage, Kalana; Walathara, Chamara; Paranagama, Ranjith; Mendis, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    The Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is responsible for 30–40% of all snakebites and the most number of life-threatening bites of any snake in Sri Lanka. The clinical profile of Russell's viper bite includes local swelling, coagulopathy, renal dysfunction and neuromuscular paralysis, based on which the syndromic diagnostic tools have been developed. The currently available Indian polyvalent antivenom is not very effective in treating Russell's viper bite patients in Sri Lanka and the decision regarding antivenom therapy is primarily driven by clinical and laboratory evidence of envenoming. The non-availability of early predictors of Russell's viper systemic envenoming is responsible for considerable delay in commencing antivenom. The objective of this study is to evaluate abdominal pain as an early feature of systemic envenoming following Russell's viper bites. We evaluated the clinical profile of Russell's viper bite patients admitted to a tertiary care centre in Sri Lanka. Fifty-five patients were proven Russell's viper bite victims who produced the biting snake, while one hundred and fifty-four were suspected to have been bitten by the same snake species. Coagulopathy (159, 76.1%), renal dysfunction (39, 18.7%), neuromuscular paralysis (146, 69.9%) and local envenoming (192, 91.9%) were seen in the victims, ranging from mono-systemic involvement to various combinations. Abdominal pain was present in 79.5% of these patients, appearing 5 minutes to 4 hours after the bite. The severity of the abdominal pain, assessed using a scoring system, correlated well with the severity of the coagulopathy (p<0.001) and the neurotoxicity (p<0.001). Its diagnostic validity to predict systemic envenoming is – Sensitivity 81.6%, Specificity 82.4%, Positive predictive value 91.2%. Thus, abdominal pain is an early clinical feature of systemic Russell's viper bite envenoming in Sri Lanka. However, it is best to judge abdominal pain together with other clinical manifestations on

  18. Comparative Analysis of Lipid Content and Fatty Acid Composition of Commercially Important Fish and Shellfish from Sri Lanka and Japan.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Chandravathany; Jayasinghe, Chamila; Sivakanesan, Ramiah; Senarath, Samanthika; Beppu, Fumiaki; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka is surrounded by the Indian Ocean, allowing plenty of fishes to be caught. Moreover, these fishes represent one of the undocumented fish resources in the world and their detailed lipid profiles have not been previously examined. In this study, the lipid content and fatty acid composition of 50 commercially important fishes from the Indian Ocean (Sri Lanka) and the Pacific Ocean (Japan) were compared. The total lipid content and fatty acid composition, including eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6n-3, DHA), differed significantly among species. Fish from the Pacific Ocean had higher proportions of fatty acids, including EPA and DHA. Herrings and mackerels from both oceanic areas demonstrated high levels of EPA and DHA, and n-3/n-6 ratio. Brackish and freshwater fishes from both groups showed low levels of PUFAs. Fish from the Indian Ocean were high in n-6 fatty acids. Monounsaturated fatty acid levels were high in omnivorous fish from the Pacific Ocean, and saturated fatty acid levels were high in fish from the Indian Ocean. The results of this study will be of value in determining the dietary usefulness of fish caught in Sri Lanka.

  19. Development and Validation of a Measure of Quality of Life for the Young Elderly in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal; Jayasuriya, Anura Rohan; Rajapaksa, Lalini Chandika; de Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; Barraclough, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the fastest aging populations in the world. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) in the elderly needs instruments developed that encompass the sociocultural settings. An instrument was developed to measure QoL in the young elderly in Sri Lanka (QLI-YES), using accepted methods to generate and reduce items. The measure was validated using a community sample. Construct, criterion and predictive validity and reliability were tested. A first-order model of 24 items with 6 domains was found to have good fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.567, RMR = 0.05, CFI = 0.95, and RMSEA = 0.053). Both criterion and predictive validity were demonstrated. Good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.93) was shown. The development of the QLI-YES using a societal perspective relevant to the social and cultural beliefs has resulted in a robust and valid instrument to measure QoL for the young elderly in Sri Lanka.

  20. Description of a new species of Cnemaspis (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Knuckles Range of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Batuwita, Sudesh; Udugampala, Sampath

    2017-04-12

    A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch is described from Knuckles Range of Sri Lanka. This new species had been previously confused with Cnemaspis podihuna Deraniyagala. Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. closely resembles C. podihuna and C. molligodai Wickramasinghe & Munindradasa. Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. differs from C. podihuna by having 7-8 (versus 3-6) unpored scales in each side of the precloacal-femoral pores row, lacking (versus having) an internasal scale, body (axilla to groin) relatively long 47.7-48.3 (versus 38.1-38.7)% of SVL and dorsum dark brown (versus bright yellow). Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. also distinguished from C. molligodai by having 4 (versus 5) precloacal pores, 5-6 (versus 7-9) femoral pores on each side, precloacal pores not in an inverted V-shaped arrangement (versus in inverted V-shaped arrangement), lacking (versus having) a distinct black marking on nape and a black lateral stripe begins behind eye extends laterally beyond the origin of forearm (versus not extending beyond the origin of forearm). Additionally, Cnemaspis kandambyi sp. nov. and C. molligodai show discrete distribution: former restricted to Knuckles Range and the latter confined to Lowland wet zone of Sri Lanka. We confirm that, no type material of Cnemaspis podihuna survive in the current collection of the National Museum of Sri Lanka.

  1. Morphological and molecular identification of cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi (Sinton, 1931) complex in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Tharmatha, T; Gajapathy, K; Ramasamy, R; Surendran, S N

    2017-02-01

    The correct identification of sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis is important for controlling the disease. Genetic, particularly DNA sequence data, has lately become an important adjunct to the use of morphological criteria for this purpose. A recent DNA sequencing study revealed the presence of two cryptic species in the Sergentomyia bailyi species complex in India. The present study was undertaken to ascertain the presence of cryptic species in the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka using morphological characteristics and DNA sequences from cytochrome c oxidase subunits. Sand flies were collected from leishmaniasis endemic and non-endemic dry zone districts of Sri Lanka. A total of 175 Se. bailyi specimens were initially screened for morphological variations and the identified samples formed two groups, tentatively termed as Se. bailyi species A and B, based on the relative length of the sensilla chaeticum and antennal flagellomere. DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and subunit II (COII) genes of morphologically identified Se. bailyi species A and B were subsequently analyzed. The two species showed differences in the COI and COII gene sequences and were placed in two separate clades by phylogenetic analysis. An allele specific polymerase chain reaction assay based on sequence variation in the COI gene accurately differentiated species A and B. The study therefore describes the first morphological and genetic evidence for the presence of two cryptic species within the Se. bailyi complex in Sri Lanka and a DNA-based laboratory technique for differentiating them.

  2. Application of a real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assay for the early diagnosis of human leptospirosis in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Denipitiya, D T H; Chandrasekharan, N V; Abeyewickreme, W; Hartskeerl, C M; Hartskeerl, R A; Jiffrey, A M; Hapugoda, M D

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis has a major impact on health in Sri Lanka but is probably grossly under-recognized due to difficulties in clinical diagnosis and lack of diagnostic laboratory services. The objective of this study was to establish and evaluate a SYBR Green-based real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rt-PCR) assay for early, rapid and definitive laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka. The rt-PCR assay was established and analytical specificity and sensitivity were determined using reference DNA samples. Evaluation of the assay for diagnosis of clinical samples was performed using two panels of serum samples obtained from 111 clinically suspected adult patients. Patients were confirmed as leptospirosis (n = 65) and non-leptospirosis (n = 30) by the Patoc - MAT. Other 16 samples gave ambiguous results. The analytical sensitivity of the rt-PCR was approximately 60 genome copies and no cross-reactivity was observed with saprophytic Leptospira spp. and other pathogenic microorganisms. Based on confirmation with Patoc-MAT on paired samples this corresponds to a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 67.7% (44/65) and 90.0% (27/30), respectively. This study showed that rt-PCR has the potential to facilitate rapid and definitive diagnosis of leptospirosis during early phase of infection in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Problem—solving counseling as a therapeutic tool on youth suicidal behavior in the suburban population in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Perera, E. A. Ramani; Kathriarachchi, Samudra T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicidal behaviour among youth is a major public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prevention of youth suicides using effective, feasible and culturally acceptable methods is invaluable in this regard, however research in this area is grossly lacking. Objective: This study aimed at determining the effectiveness of problem solving counselling as a therapeutic intervention in prevention of youth suicidal behaviour in Sri Lanka. Setting and design: This control trial study was based on hospital admissions with suicidal attempts in a sub-urban hospital in Sri Lanka. The study was carried out at Base Hospital Homagama. Materials and Methods: A sample of 124 was recruited using convenience sampling method and divided into two groups, experimental and control. Control group was offered routine care and experimental group received four sessions of problem solving counselling over one month. Outcome of both groups was measured, six months after the initial screening, using the visual analogue scale. Results: Individualized outcome measures on problem solving counselling showed that problem solving ability among the subjects in the experimental group had improved after four counselling sessions and suicidal behaviour has been reduced. The results are statistically significant. Conclusion: This Study confirms that problem solving counselling is an effective therapeutic tool in management of youth suicidal behaviour in hospital setting in a developing country. PMID:21431005

  4. Wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of intimate partner violence by husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and examined the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Then, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the authors examined the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and IPV. Of the 624 wives, 36% had experienced at least one episode of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by their husbands during their life time (ever abuse), and 19% had experienced such abuse during the past 12 months (current abuse). The wives were less likely to experience current abuse by husbands if they believed that "outsiders should not intervene to protect abused wives." They were more likely to experience ever and current isolated psychological abuse by husbands if they did not believe that "a good wife always obeys her husband." This study suggests that the prevalence of IPV is high in Sri Lanka. Although several published studies on IPV suggest that traditional gender role attitudes tend to increase women's vulnerability to IPV, this study suggests that in Sri Lanka, the wives who respect cultural norms tend to experience less IPV by husbands.

  5. Nutritional status and correlated socio-economic factors among preschool and school children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Iddawela, Devika; Dharmaratne, Samath D; Galgamuwa, G L S

    2017-05-02

    Child malnutrition is a major public health concern worldwide, leading to higher morbidity and mortality. It is mostly preventable through public health and economic development. The aim of the present study was to determine socio-economic factors associated with nutritional status among children in plantation communities, Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional study was performed among preschool and school going children in three rural communities of Sri Lanka from January to August 2014. Demographic and household characteristics were documented and anthropometric measurements were collected to calculate weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for-age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ). Anthroplus, epiinfo and SPSS versions were used for the analysis of data. A total of 547 children (aged 1-15 years, mean 7.0 ± 3.6 years, 53% female) participated in the study. 35.6%, 26.9% and 32.9% of children were underweight, stunting and wasting respectively. Undernutrition was more common in primary school children. Maternal employment, high number of siblings, high birth orders and female children were significantly associated with undernutrition among preschool children. Living in small houses, large number of family members, low monthly income and maternal employment were significantly associated with undernutrition among school children. Child undernutrition is a major public health concern in the plantation sector, Sri Lanka. Health education programs among the study population could be effective for solving the problem.

  6. Estimating dengue type reproduction numbers for two provinces of Sri Lanka during the period 2013–14

    PubMed Central

    Sardar, Tridip; Sasmal, Sourav Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an endemic disease in the southeast Asian country Sri Lanka. Two seasonal peaks of dengue incidence were observed every year since 2002 onwards. In this study, we formulate a 2-strain dengue model for analyzing the monthly seasonal dengue incidence data from 2 provinces of Sri Lanka during the period April 2013 to September 2014. The seasonality is incorporated in the model in terms of mosquito biting rate, which we assume to be time periodic. We estimated 2 primary reproduction numbers and the basic reproduction number in a periodic environment using dengue incidence data from the western and the central provinces of Sri Lanka. We also estimated different time-average type reproduction numbers from the model using the data from these 2 provinces. Using univariate sensitivity analysis, we measured the sensitivity of the time average reproduction number ( R¯0) When we vary different parameters of the proposed dengue model, we find the transmission probability of human susceptibility to strain-I infection and the mosquito mortality rate parameters are the most sensitive parameters in dengue transmission in these 2 provinces. PMID:26646355

  7. Enhydrina schistosa (Elapidae: Hydrophiinae) the most dangerous sea snake in Sri Lanka: three case studies of severe envenoming.

    PubMed

    Kularatne, S A M; Hettiarachchi, R; Dalpathadu, J; Mendis, A S V; Appuhamy, P D S A N; Zoysa, H D J; Maduwage, K; Weerasinghe, V S; de Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes are highly venomous and inhabit tropical waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Enhydrina schistosa is a common species of sea snake that lives in the coastal waters, lagoons, river mouths and estuaries from the Persian Gulf through Sri Lanka and to Southeast Asia. It is considered one of the most aggressive sea snakes in Sri Lanka where fishermen and people wading are at high risk. However, sea snake bites are rarely reported. In this report, we describe three cases where E. schistosa was the offending species. These three patients presented to two hospitals on the west coast of Sri Lanka within the course of 14 months from November 2011 with different degrees of severity of envenoming. The first patient was a 26-year-old fisherman who developed severe myalgia with very high creatine kinase (CK) levels lasting longer than 7 days. The second patient was a 32-year-old fisherman who developed gross myoglobinuria, high CK levels and hyperkalaemia. Both patients recovered and their electromyographic recordings showed myopathic features. The nerve conduction and neuromuscular transmission studies were normal in both patients suggesting primary myotoxic envenoming. The third patient was a 41-year-old man who trod on a sea snake in a river mouth and developed severe myalgia seven hours later. He had severe rhabdomyolysis and died three days later due to cardiovascular collapse. In conclusion, we confirm that E. schistosa is a deadly sea snake and its bite causes severe rhabdomyolysis.

  8. Development and Validation of a Measure of Quality of Life for the Young Elderly in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, Sudirikku Hennadige Padmal; Jayasuriya, Anura Rohan; Rajapaksa, Lalini Chandika; de Silva, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu; Barraclough, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Sri Lanka has one of the fastest aging populations in the world. Measurement of quality of life (QoL) in the elderly needs instruments developed that encompass the sociocultural settings. An instrument was developed to measure QoL in the young elderly in Sri Lanka (QLI-YES), using accepted methods to generate and reduce items. The measure was validated using a community sample. Construct, criterion and predictive validity and reliability were tested. A first-order model of 24 items with 6 domains was found to have good fit indices (CMIN/df = 1.567, RMR = 0.05, CFI = 0.95, and RMSEA = 0.053). Both criterion and predictive validity were demonstrated. Good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.93) was shown. The development of the QLI-YES using a societal perspective relevant to the social and cultural beliefs has resulted in a robust and valid instrument to measure QoL for the young elderly in Sri Lanka. PMID:26712893

  9. A pilot health information management system for public health midwives serving in a remote area of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, E Shan S; Wimalaratne, Samantha R U; Marasinghe, Rohana B; Edirippulige, Sisira

    2012-04-01

    We developed an electronic Health Information Management System (HIMS) for Public Health Midwives (PHMs) in Sri Lanka. We conducted a needs analysis amongst 16 PHMs, which found that they spent most of their time managing health records. The HIMS was designed so that it could accept data from the PHMs, and generate reports which could be used by the PHMs themselves as well as by their supervisors. The HIMS was trialled by a group of 16 PHMs in a remote area of the Ratnapura district of Sri Lanka. Mini-laptops with the software were distributed to the PHMs and they were given the necessary training. They started entering historical data from the registers into the system by themselves. Nearly 10,000 public health records were generated in the first three months. In a subsequent survey, the PHMs all gave positive answers indicating that they were happy with the pilot system, they would like to continue using it to enhance their service and they wanted to see it expanded across the whole of Ratnapura district. The system seems to be a practical solution for the field activities of PHMs in Sri Lanka.

  10. Barriers to healthy dietary choice amongst students in Sri Lanka as perceived by school principals and staff.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Nick; Williams, Julianne; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin; Karunarathne, Waruni; Olupeliyawa, Asela; Manoharan, Seenithamby; Friel, Sharon

    2017-02-01

    Sri Lanka has experienced a massive demographic, environmental, economic and social transition in recent decades. Over this period of time the country has undergone rapid urbanization leading to accompanying shifts in lifestyle and it suffers a double burden of under- and over-nutrition. Current programmes in the country focus on improving the dietary behaviour of secondary school students. The purpose of this study was to investigate principal's perceptions on barriers to healthy dietary choice among pupils within a socio-ecological framework. Focus groups (n = 11) were carried out with school principals and staff (n = 55) in two rural districts of Sri Lanka. Principals identified a number of barriers to healthy dietary choice by students, which could be found at a number of levels of influence of a socio-ecological framework: (i) structural level barriers included educational and agricultural policies, (ii) living and working level barriers included employment opportunities and local food production, (iii) social and community level barriers included traditions and social/cultural beliefs and (iv) individual level barriers included knowledge and preference. Findings from this study suggest that the barriers to healthy dietary choice amongst secondary school students in Sri Lanka occur at many levels supporting the use of multifactorial programmes to promote healthy eating. Only from understanding these barriers and finding ways to counter them can we hope to reduce the double burden of under- and over-nutrition the country is currently suffering.

  11. Respiratory health status of children from two different air pollution exposure settings of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Nandasena, Sumal; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-12-01

    Health effects due to air pollution is becoming a major public health problem with growing traffic congestion and establishment of small- to medium-scale industries with poor emission controls in urban cities of Sri Lanka. Respiratory health status of 7- to 10-year-old children in two settings (urban and semi-urban) was assessed using standard questionnaires. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and potential determinants of both outdoor and indoor air pollutants exposure levels were also obtained. The respiratory health status of children in the two settings was compared. We found that children from the urban setting had a significantly higher prevalence of wheezing within the last 12 months as compared to children from the semi-urban setting (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13-3.59). Indoor cooking with unclean fuels was a risk factor for wheezing independent of the area of residence (adjusted OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.01-2.46). Poor indoor air quality was a major determinant of wheezing for the overall study group. Children from urban areas of Sri Lanka have poorer respiratory health status as compared to children from semi-urban areas. Besides poor outdoor air quality, this difference may also be due to other unexplored factors which may differ between urban and semi-urban areas in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Home ranges and habitat use of sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus in Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratnayeke, S.; Van Manen, F.T.; Padmalal, U.K.G.K.

    2007-01-01

    We studied home ranges and habitat selection of 10 adult sloth bears Melursus ursinus inornatus at Wasgomuwa National Park, Sri Lanka during 2002-2003. Very little is known about the ecology and behaviour of M. u. inornatus, which is a subspecies found in Sri Lanka. Our study was undertaken to assess space and habitat requirements typical of a viable population of M. u. inornatus to facilitate future conservation efforts. We captured and radio-collared 10 adult sloth bears and used the telemetry data to assess home-range size and habitat use. Mean 95% fixed kernel home ranges were 2.2 km2 (SE = 0.61) and 3.8 km2 (SE = 1.01) for adult females and males, respectively. Although areas outside the national park were accessible to bears, home ranges were almost exclusively situated within the national park boundaries. Within the home ranges, high forests were used more and abandoned agricultural fields (chenas) were used less than expected based on availability. Our estimates of home-range size are among the smallest reported for any species of bear. Thus, despite its relatively small size, Wasgomuwa National Park may support a sizeable population of sloth bears. The restriction of human activity within protected areas may be necessary for long-term viability of sloth bear populations in Sri Lanka as is maintenance of forest or scrub cover in areas with existing sloth bear populations and along potential travel corridors. ?? Wildlife Biology 2007.

  13. Research-informed Outreach informs Research: Using games to inform and understand farmer decisions in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Yeung, K.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Researchers from the Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptation to Precipitation Trends in Sri Lanka (ADAPT-SL) team have been working for the past six years to understand Sri Lanka's agricultural vulnerability to climate change and how farmers and policy makers can adapt to and mitigate the variety of threats and uncertainties that climate change brings. In addition to academic publications, the compiled and developed knowledge from the ADAPT-SL research efforts are shared routinely with Sri Lankan stakeholders directly. While presentations are the norm for academic and government stakeholder outreach, we decided that an interactive component would increase farmers' learning. Drawing on teaching pedagogies, we designed a place-based, hands-on game that incorporated local climate and market characteristics to convey the impact of climate change on crop water needs for the Sri Lanka farmers. The process of developing the game, however, revealed gaps in our research knowledge, specifically regarding how farmers balance uncertainties associated with weather and market conditions. So we took advantage of the opportunity offered by the outreach effort to collect data; findings from the game led to the development of a system dynamics model. The game was well received by farmers and other Sri Lankan stakeholders in January 2016, with the former expressing that they played the game as if it was emulating actual farming decisions. The farmers also expressed a desire for more outreach efforts to be designed in such an interactive way. The game has since been used to engage U.S. students (from 5th grade to college seniors majoring in Sociology) regarding the complexities of tackling climate change issues.

  14. Drought and the predictability of the October-November rains over Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, D. N.; Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.; Premalal, S. K.

    2009-12-01

    Drought occurrence in Sri Lanka during the main cultivation season - the Maha - that lasts from October to March was analyzed using the 6-monthly standardized precipitation index (SPI) from 1961-2001. Two severe droughts (-1.99>SPI>-1.5), 10 moderate droughts (-1.49Sri Lanka from 1961-2005, using Canonical Correlation Analysis, revealed that the strength of the contemporaneous zonal (westerly) wind at 850hPa (U850) over the central Indian Ocean (5°S to 15°N and 40°E to 105°E) has a profound impact on the strength of ON rainfall. Temporal scores of the leading U850 mode were analyzed to identify salient characteristics of the U850 field in years when the ON rains failed. ON rain failure takes place under two scenarios: first, when the U850 is anomalously strong (anomaly = 0.32ms-1); and second, when U850 is relatively weak (anomaly = -0.44ms-1). Droughts associated with the first scenario occurred in 1964, 1971, 1980, 1981, 1988, 1995, 1996 and 2001 while droughts of the second scenario occurred in 1968, 1984, 1989 and 1991. The anomalously strong U850 field - associated with droughts of the first scenario - occurs most often (but not always) in conjunction with La Niña events. In all drought years, a combination of factors - including a strong vertical shear of the mean zonal wind; weak low-level vorticity; and anomalously low mid-tropospheric vertical velocity - suppress convection over Sri Lanka. This study demonstrates that ON rain failure can be predicted with good skill using predicted fields of contemporaneous U850 issued with a lag of one month in September. It uses

  15. A new species of the genus Calotes (Squamata: Agamidae) from high elevations of the Knuckles massif of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, A A Thasun; Karunarathna, D M S Suranjan; Hallermann, Jakob; Fujinuma, Junichi; Grillitsch, Heinz; Campbell, Patrick D

    2014-04-02

    A new species of agamid lizard, of the genus Calotes, is described based on morphological evidence. This species is restricted to the Knuckles massif (>900 m elevation) of Sri Lanka. The genus Calotes consists of seven species in Sri Lanka, five of which appear to form an endemic radiation. The new species most closely resembles C. liocephalus Günther, 1872 which has an isolated population in the central highlands and is only known from Pundaluoya (~1000m), Dickoya (~1200m), Upcot (~1400m), Agrapatanas (1665m) and Peak Wilderness (Sri Pada) (>1400m). The populations from Pundaluoya and Dickoya appear to be locally extinct from the wild and are known only from museum specimens collected over 120 years ago. Males of the new species are different from males of C. liocephalus because of the absence of a gular pouch; by having mid gular scales smaller in size than those of its counterpart; scales on the snout which are larger in size than those on the occipital and forehead; pectoral scales which are not enlarged; elongated subcaudal scales; slightly carinate and acuminate abdominal scales; and scales on venter which are somewhat larger in size than those on dorsum at the same level. Finally, we also redescribe Calotes liocephalus, and provide a key to the Sri Lankan species of genus Calotes.

  16. Sri Lanka: an innovative approach to the implementation of integrated parasite control, nutrition and family planning projects.

    PubMed

    Devendra, T

    1984-01-01

    The objective of the Sri Lanka Integrated Project of Parasite Control, Nutrition, and Family Planning is to approach the community through the medium of parasite control and lead it to a better life through community participation in an integrated health program built on the 3 pillars of parasite control, better nutrition, and family planning. Other objectives include studying the mechanism of community participation in 3 very different environments, which were typical of different regions of the country and therefore replicable models. The progress of the project areas was to be monitored so that they would provide viable models for future expansion. The 3 project areas selected are broadly typical of Sri Lanka, while, at the same time, being distinctly different from each other. The Nakulugamuwa Project may be described as a typical Sinhala rural area over 120 miles southeast of the capital city of Colombo. The project area consists of the 2 adjoining villages of Nakulagamuwa and Kudawella. The Panadura Project is a semi urban area of about 20 miles from Colombo and also exhibits typical characteristics. Its population of 10,358 is not homogeneous and consists of various conclaves as well as "mixed areas." The Galnewa Project is located over 100 miles northeast of Colombo in the Mahaweli Project area. It is a new settlement of over 10,000 persons. JOICFP's link organization in Sri Lanka has been the government's Ministry of Family Health. This contributed greatly to the success of the pilot project thanks to the high level and good coordination at the National Steering Committee (NSC). The key organization is the Project Committee. Volunteers constitute the backbone of the Project Committee and link the Committee with the community. Development of human resources in the integrated project areas has been a great success. The field level officials of the Health Department (nurses, sanitarians, midwives, and health educators) have been in the forefront of activities

  17. Holocene Summer Monsoon Variability- Evidence from Marine Sediment of western Continental Shelf of Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghage, P. N.; Ratnayake, K. M.; Dassanayake, D. M. K. K.; Mohtadi, M.; Hewawasam, T.; Jinadasa, S. U. P.; Jayawardena, S.; Siriwardana, S.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding long term variability of Indian monsoon system is essential for better climate forecasting which is a prerequisite for agricultural development and disaster management. Yet, it has been a least attended scientific question in Sri Lanka Therefore, this study was carried out to understand the monsoonal variability during the Holocene using multiple proxies on a sediment core, representing unmixed summer monsoonal record. A 390 cm long piston core was obtained from the continental shelf off Negombo by National Aquatic Resources Research and Development Agency , was used for this study. This site mainly receives sediment from rivers fed by summer monsoon. Colour reflectance and chemical composition of the sediments, and δ18O and δ13C of Globigerinoides ruber foraminifera, extracted from the sediments were measured at 0.1-2.0 cm resolutions. Principal component analysis of chemical compositional data and colour reflectance data was performed to extract important components that represent climate variability. Benthic and planktonic foraminifera species that indicate upwelling were counted at 2 cm resolution. Radiocarbon dating was carried out using intact micro-shells. Results indicate that upwelling proxies (δ13C, foraminiferal proxies, and colour reflectance-Chlorophyll) and δ18O, which indicates evaporation-precipitation (E-P), increased during 8000-10000 cal yrs BP, 2000-4000 cal yrs BP and again after 1000 cal yrs BP. This increase in upwelling and E-P indicates strengthening of summer monsoon during these periods. However, terrestrial proxies, (XRF-PC1-Terrestrial, Ti, and DSR-PC3-iron oxides)indicate decrease in terrestrial influx which represents rainfall, from 6000-1000 cal yrs BP followed by an increase after 1000 cal yrs BP. Gradual decrease in precipitation has been observed locally as well as regionally after around 6000 cal yrs BP followed by an increase after 1000 cal yrs BP. The contrast behavior of strengthening monsoonal winds and

  18. Cannabis use among Navy personnel in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Jayasekera, Nicholas; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-03-17

    Prevalence of cannabis use among military populations vary. There is evidence that drug use is associated with combat exposure and PTSD. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis use among Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) personnel and to identify any relationship with cannabis use and combat exposure. This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces (Special Boat Squadron) and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the 1 year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Cannabis use was defined as smoking cannabis at least once during the past 12 months. The sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of cannabis use was 5.22% (95% CI 3.53-6.9). There was no significant difference in prevalence of cannabis use among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. Cannabis use was significantly higher in the age group 18-24 years [OR 4.42 (95% CI 2.18-8.97)], personnel who were never married [OR 2.02 (95% CI 0.99-4.12)], or had an educational level less than GCE O'Level [OR 4.02 (95% CI 1.17-13.78)]. There was significant association between cannabis use and hazardous alcohol use [adjusted OR 5.47 (95% CI 2.65-11.28)], PTSD [adjusted OR 4.20 (95% CI 1.08-16.38)], GHQ caseness [adjusted OR 2.83 (95% CI 1.18-6.79)] and multiple somatic complaints [adjusted OR 3.61 (95% CI 1.5-8.7)]. Cannabis use was not associated with smoking. Risk of cannabis use was less in those who had seen dead or wounded [adjusted OR 0.42 (95% CI 0.20-0.85)]. Experiencing hostility from civilians was the only combat exposure that significantly increased the risk of cannabis use [adjusted OR 4.06 (95% CI 1.06-15.56)]. Among Sri Lanka Navy personnel exposed to combat cannabis use was significantly associated with hazardous

  19. Role of Possible Soil toxicity in Die back of Montane Forests in Sri Lanka.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, P. N.; Fernando, R.; Wimalasena, R. N.; Ekanayake, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Rapid dying back of Tropical Upper Montane Rain forests of Sri Lanka which are considered as "Biodiversity Hotspots" is a nationally as well as globally important environmental issue. Although various hypotheses were tested during recent past, nothing could be proved except the possible involvement of soil toxicity due to excess levels of certain elements. This study investigated the extractable soil trace and major element levels in 3 pilot plots situated in dieback and healthy forests. Based on the results, Al, Mn, Fe and Pb concentrations in 30 individuals of 08 most susceptible plant species at different dieback stages and in soils in the immediate vicinity in Hakgala Strict Nature Reserve of Sri Lanka were determined in order to recognize the contribution of these element in forest die back. Collected Plant leaves were analyzed for total element levels and soils were analyzed for the extractable element levels. This study reveals the presence of high DTPA extractable Pb (0.6 - 2.4 ppm), Mn (1.7-57.2ppm), Fe (48.1- 372.1ppm) and KCl extractable Al (0.7-390.8 ppm) in soils. The most important observation was the presence of high accumulations of Pb (2.2-36.3 ppm) and Al (18.9 - 20047.6 ppm) in plant leaves which are high above the normal range. Acidic conditions in soils (pH 4.2-5.6) may increase Al+3 from Al bearing feldspar rich soils. Increased soil acidity due to lowering the pH of precipitation by air pollution may also contribute in dissolution of toxic Al+3. Extractable Soil Pb levels are higher on wind exposed slope areas. Increased Pb levels in soils on slope areas, differences between total and extractable soil Pb levels, amounts of washable Pb on leaves before and after the banning of Pb containing gasoline usage and comparisons of Pb levels in plants with known Pb polluted areas of the country prove that air pollution could be the main Pb source in this montane forests soils. Although no direct relationship could be recognized between element levels

  20. Emergence of Epidemic Dengue-1 Virus in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Nagahawatte, Ajith; Devasiri, Vasantha; Kodikara Arachichi, Wasantha; Strouse, John J.; Sessions, October M.; Kurukulasooriya, Ruvini; Uehara, Anna; Howe, Shiqin; Ong, Xin Mei; Tan, Sharon; Chow, Angelia; Tummalapalli, Praveen; De Silva, Aruna D.; Østbye, Truls; Woods, Christopher W.; Gubler, Duane J.; Reller, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is a frequent cause of acute febrile illness with an expanding global distribution. Since the 1960s, dengue in Sri Lanka has been documented primarily along the heavily urbanized western coast with periodic shifting of serotypes. Outbreaks from 2005–2008 were attributed to a new clade of DENV-3 and more recently to a newly introduced genotype of DENV-1. In 2007, we conducted etiologic surveillance of acute febrile illness in the Southern Province and confirmed dengue in only 6.3% of febrile patients, with no cases of DENV-1 identified. To re-evaluate the importance of dengue as an etiology of acute febrile illness in this region, we renewed fever surveillance in the Southern Province to newly identify and characterize dengue. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional surveillance study was conducted at the largest tertiary care hospital in the Southern Province from 2012–2013. A total of 976 patients hospitalized with acute undifferentiated fever were enrolled, with 64.3% male and 31.4% children. Convalescent blood samples were collected from 877 (89.6%). Dengue virus isolation, dengue RT-PCR, and paired IgG ELISA were performed. Acute dengue was confirmed as the etiology for 388 (39.8%) of 976 hospitalizations, with most cases (291, 75.0%) confirmed virologically and by multiple methods. Among 351 cases of virologically confirmed dengue, 320 (91.2%) were due to DENV-1. Acute dengue was associated with self-reported rural residence, travel, and months having greatest rainfall. Sequencing of selected dengue viruses revealed that sequences were most closely related to those described from China and Southeast Asia, not nearby India. Conclusions/Significance We describe the first epidemic of DENV-1 in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka in a population known to be susceptible to this serotype because of prior study. Dengue accounted for 40% of acute febrile illnesses in the current study. The emergence of DENV-1 as the foremost serotype in

  1. Is Hiding Foot and Mouth Disease Sensitive Behavior for Farmers? A Survey Study in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Gunarathne, Anoma; Kubota, Satoko; Kumarawadu, Pradeep; Karunagoda, Kamal; Kon, Hiroichi

    2016-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) has a long history in Sri Lanka and was found to be endemic in various parts of the country and constitutes a constant threat to farmers. In Sri Lanka, currently there is no regular, nationwide vaccination programme devised to control FMD. Therefore, improving farmers’ knowledge regarding distinguishing FMD from other diseases and ensuring prompt reporting of any suspicion of FMD as well as restricting movement of animals are critical activities for an effective FMD response effort. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between farmers’ knowledge levels and their behaviors to establish a strategy to control FMD. In our study, item count technique was applied to estimate the number of farmers that under-report and sell FMD-infected animals, although to do so is prohibited by law. The following findings were observed: about 63% of farmers have very poor knowledge of routes of FMD transmission; ‘under-reporting’ was found to be a sensitive behavior and nearly 23% of the farmers were reluctant to report FMD-infected animals; and ‘selling FMD-infected animals’ is a sensitive behavior among high-level knowledge group while it is a non-sensitive behavior among the low-level knowledge group. If farmers would understand the importance of prompt reporting, they may report any suspected cases of FMD to veterinary officials. However, even if farmers report honestly, they do not want to cull FMD-infected animals. Thus, education programs should be conducted not only on FMD introduction and transmission, but also its impact. Furthermore, consumers may criticize the farmers for culling their infected animals. Hence, not only farmers, but also consumers need to be educated on the economic impact of FMD and the importance of controlling an outbreak. If farmers have a high knowledge of FMD transmission, they consider selling FMD-infected animals as a sensitive behavior. Therefore, severe punishment should

  2. Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.

    PubMed

    Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

    2006-01-01

    Due to its excessive cost thalassemia management is a major health care problem in Sri Lanka. The majority of doctors are using only desferrioxamine (DFO), in grossly inadequate doses mainly because of its unavailability. Deferiprone (L1), which is more affordable, is not used due to fear of toxicity, as previously reported. Arthropathy attributed to L1 has been observed in some patients, and has led to the discontinuation of the drug in all patients, without scientific rationale. The proposed thalassemia prevention project for Uva Province is based on prevention of marriages between carriers. This could be achieved by carrier screening and counseling of teenagers and adolescents well before they select their partners. In Sri Lanka, people find their marriage partners at their work place or universities, by themselves, or with the help of professional marriage brokers (they are called Kapuwa), through relatives and close friends. This process of finding a partner may also be helped by paper advertisements. However, in addition to the appearance and attitude of the prospective partner, the caste, social background and horoscope are major considerations in selecting a partner. Even when they select partners on their own at the work place or university, they keep these factors in the back of their minds to ensure social acceptance. Many relationships are given up due to objections and advice from parents when the caste or social background does not match. A horoscope is a written document that almost every child gets, written by a professional horoscope reader and depending on the time of birth. It is believed, according to the horoscope, that a person's attitudes, desires, future prospects of finding a suitable partner, could be predicted. It is rare to proceed with a marriage if the horoscope does not match. These customs are considered less seriously among educated people when they find their partner at the work place or university. The concept of thalassemia risk

  3. A village treatment center for malaria: community response in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, F; Amerasinghe, P H; Perera, D; Van der Hoek, W; Amerasinghe, F P

    2000-03-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of malaria cases is one of the basic elements of the current global malaria control strategy. In order to provide this service to people in rural areas there is a need for new cost-effective approaches. To ensure that such new approaches are acceptable to the target communities, it is important to know the rationale for people's malaria treatment-seeking behavior. The present study provides insights into the reasons for people's preferences for different types of healthcare facilities and describes variation of these preferences within a rural community in Sri Lanka. The study reports on the experiences with the establishment of a village health facility and its effect on the treatment-seeking behavior of the population. After the introduction of the village treatment center it quickly took over the role of main provider for diagnosis and treatment of malaria from the government facilities. The treatment center did not improve the response time in seeking treatment for young children, but the delay for adults was reduced by 1-2 days. Mothers with small children often preferred the government facilities since they wanted a more qualified opinion than available from the locally recruited staff of the village treatment center. The treatment center significantly reduced the stress and discomfort experienced by the elderly and handicapped segment of the community. The study indicated that the effective catchment area of a village treatment center will be influenced by the degree of initial support from key individuals in the communities, the selection procedure and training of assistants, and the history of the relationships between different villages to be served by the center. The government health services and communities across the dry zone of Sri Lanka could benefit substantially from the establishment of more village treatment centers. To ensure the long-term sustainability of these type of facilities it is necessary to assess the

  4. Oviposition and vertical dispersal of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in Colombo district, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayathilake, T A Hasini D G; Wickramasinghe, Mervyn B; de Silva, B G D Nissanka K

    2015-09-01

    The Colombo City in Sri Lanka is experiencing tremendous development and construction of multiple storey buildings and high rise apartments. The change in housing types and microhabitats might have altered the flight and breeding behaviour of Aedes mosquito population. This study was carried out to determine the vertical dispersal and abundance of Aedes mosquitoes in multiple storey buildings in the Colombo district, with respect to abiotic factors such as rainfall, humidity and wind speed. Hence, this study is of paramount importance, particularly for planning and implementation of control measures against Aedes mosquitoes. An ovitrap based study was carried out at four selected multiple storey buildings in four residential areas located in Colombo, Sri Lanka, from August to December 2013. Results were analyzed using four indices; ovitrap index, mean number of larvae, mean number of eggs and mean number of larvae per ovipaddle. The results implied that Aedes mosquitoes could be found in different elevations from ground floor to the highest floor (130 ft). There was a significant difference between height and ovitrap index (p<0.05), and height and mean number of larvae per recovered ovipaddle (p<0.05). The highest index value for mean number of eggs was observed as 3.492 ± 0.655 at the 6th floor (60 ft high from ground level). At the same height (60 ft height) other indices (ovitrap index, mean number of larvae and mean number of larvae per ovipaddle) also displayed higher values, i.e. 13.19 ± 2.98%, 1.366 ± 0.527, and 2.070 ± 0.421%, respectively. Abiotic factors such as wind speed, coastal nature, etc. displayed a significant effect to the vertical dispersal of Aedes mosquitoes (p<0.05). The study suggested that Aedes mosquitoes are able to breed at any level of the buildings and not restricted by their height. The indices (mean number of larvae, mean number of eggs) representing the vertical dispersal with respect to abundance seemed to be statistically non

  5. A quantitative exploration of the sociocultural context of teenage pregnancy in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Salway, Sarah Maria; Piercy, Hilary; Samarage, Sarath

    2014-12-05

    In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy. A population health-register based sample survey was conducted in Badulla District, Sri Lanka. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were administered to two samples: 450 pregnant women aged less than 20 years; and 150 male partners of pregnant women aged less than 20 years. Bivariate statistics described the characteristics and context of teenage pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression explored correlates of unplanned pregnancy. Over 60% of pregnant teenagers and male partners indicated that the current pregnancy was planned; while 79% of pregnant teenagers and 85% of male partners welcomed the pregnancy. Most pregnant teenagers were living within stable and supportive family environments, with 94% reporting that they felt 'very well supported'. Nevertheless, a sub-group of pregnant teenagers appeared to be vulnerable, reporting unplanned and unhappy pregnancy; factors that were also associated with first intercourse being reported as not wanted. Levels of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge were poor among both pregnant teenagers and male partners. Just 46% of teenagers and 64% of male partners knew that pregnancy was possible at first intercourse. Mothers appear to be an important source of information and support for young women, with peers being reported far less often. Intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy must recognise the normative nature of early childbearing for the majority of girls who currently conceive and their

  6. Laboratory studies of dune sand for the use of construction industry in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva Jayawardena, Upali; Wijesuriya, Roshan; Abayaweera, Gayan; Viduranga, Tharaka

    2015-04-01

    With the increase of the annual sand demand for the construction industry the excessive excavation of river sand is becoming a serious environmental problem in Sri Lanka. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the possibility for an alternative to stop or at least to minimize river sand mining activities. Dune sand is one of the available alternative materials to be considered instead of river sand in the country. Large quantities of sand dunes occur mainly along the NW and SE coastal belt which belong to very low rainfall Dry Zone coasts. The height of dune deposits, vary from 1m to about 30 meters above sea level. The objective of this paper is to indicate some studies and facts on the dune sand deposits of Sri Lanka. Laboratory studies were carried out for visual observations and physical properties at the initial stage and then a number of tests were carried out according to ASTM standards to obtain the compressive strength of concrete cylinders and mortar cubes mixing dune sand and river sand in different percentages keeping a constant water cement ratio. Next the water cement ratio was changed for constant dune sand and river sand proportion. Microscopic analysis shows that the dune sand consist of 95 % of quartz and 5 % of garnet, feldspar, illmenite and other heavy minerals with clay, fine dust, fine shell fragments and organic matters. Grains are sub-rounded to angular and tabular shapes. The grain sizes vary from fine to medium size of sand with silt. The degree of sorting and particle size observed with dune sands are more suited with the requirement of fine aggregates in the construction industry. The test result indicates that dune sand could be effectively used in construction work without sieving and it is ideal for wall plastering due to its'-uniformity. It could also be effectively used in concrete and in mortars mixing with river sand. The best mixing ratio is 75% dune sand and 25% river sand as the fine aggregate of concrete. For mortar the mixing

  7. A Historical Analysis of the Relationship Between Rice Production and PDSI Values in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, J. H.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    As world population grows, there are ever increasing demands being placed on the food production systems throughout the world. Climate change is complicating these stressors even further through more frequent severe weather events. In the developing world, where there are fewer resources to mitigate the effects of climate change, the combination of these two factors can have drastic consequences. In Sri Lanka, farmers in major rice production areas of the country are already struggling to produce enough rice, a staple food of the local diet, and a severe wet or dry spell could be ruinous. Faced with a changing climate and a growing demand for rice, it is important to be able to anticipate how climatic changes will affect rice production. By examining how extreme wet and dry spells have historically affected rice production, decision makers may be better able to predict and prepare for potential food shortages. We conducted an analysis of historic temperature, precipitation, and rice production statistics in order to determine the effects of extreme wet and dry spells on rice production. We also created a timeline of major developments in Sri Lankan agriculture in order to compare effects on rice production due to changes in agricultural practices with meteorological changes. Historical temperature and precipitation data were used to calculate the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) for a number of stations distributed throughout the Mahaweli river basin. The basin, the largest in the country, contains three different climatic regions - dry, intermediate, and wet - that all receive different amounts of annual precipitation. The PDSI values were used to quantify drought and wetness during the Yala (April-September) and Maha (October-March) growing seasons. Analysis of historical PDSI values, agricultural advances, and rice production statistics shows great promise for anticipating and mitigating future food shortages.

  8. Nephrotoxic contaminants in drinking water and urine, and chronic kidney disease in rural Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Jeuland, Marc; Manthrithilake, Herath; McCornick, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown ("u") cause (CKDu) is a growing public health concern in Sri Lanka. Prior research has hypothesized a link with drinking water quality, but rigorous studies are lacking. This study assesses the relationship between nephrotoxic elements (namely arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and uranium (U)) in drinking water, and urine samples collected from individuals with and/or without CKDu in endemic areas, and from individuals without CKDu in nonendemic areas. All water samples - from a variety of source types (i.e. shallow and deep wells, springs, piped and surface water) - contained extremely low concentrations of nephrotoxic elements, and all were well below drinking water guideline values. Concentrations in individual urine samples were higher than, and uncorrelated with, those measured in drinking water, suggesting potential exposure from other sources. Mean urinary concentrations of these elements for individuals with clinically diagnosed CKDu were consistently lower than individuals without CKDu both in endemic and nonendemic areas. This likely stems from the inability of the kidney to excrete these toxic elements via urine in CKDu patients. Urinary concentrations of individuals were also found to be within the range of reference values measured in urine of healthy unexposed individuals from international biomonitoring studies, though these reference levels may not be safe for the Sri Lankan population. The results suggest that CKDu cannot be clearly linked with the presence of these contaminants in drinking water. There remains a need to investigate potential interactions of low doses of these elements (particularly Cd and As) with other risk factors that appear linked to CKDu, prior to developing public health strategies to address this illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Active war in Sri Lanka: Children's war exposure, coping, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Soysa, Champika K; Azar, Sandra T

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity, and maternal PTSD symptom severity were significantly greater in the acute versus chronic community war exposure location, but children's approach and avoidance coping did not significantly differ, indicating a potential ceiling effect. Children's war exposure significantly, positively predicted child-reported child PTSD symptom severity, controlling for age, gender, and maternal PTSD symptom severity, but only maternal PTSD symptom severity significantly, positively predicted mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity. Avoidance coping (in both acute and chronic war) significantly positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported child PTSD symptom severity relation, but not mother-reports of the same. Approach coping (in chronic but not acute war) significantly, positively mediated the children's war exposure-child-reported and mother-reported child PTSD symptom severity relations. We advanced the literature on long-term active war by confirming the value of children's self-reports, establishing that both approach and avoidance coping positively mediated the war-exposure-PTSD symptom severity relation, and that the mediation effect of approach coping was situationally moderated by acute verses chronic community war exposure among Sri Lankan children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Creating a pro-active health care system to combat chronic diseases in Sri Lanka: the central role of preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle behaviors.

    PubMed

    Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka

    2016-10-01

    The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.

  11. Exposure to conflict and disaster: A national survey on the prevalence of psychotic experiences in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Keraite, Arune; Sumathipala, Athula; Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich

    2016-03-01

    Recent research conducted in high-income countries suggests psychotic experiences are common in the general population, but evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) remains limited. Sri Lanka is a LMIC affected by three decades of civil conflict and, in 2004, a devastating tsunami. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of psychotic experiences in a general population sample in Sri Lanka and associations with conflict- and tsunami-related trauma. This is a first National Mental Health Survey conducted in Sri Lanka. A cross-sectional, multi-stage, cluster sampling design was used to estimate the prevalence of psychotic symptoms. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, conflict- and tsunami-related trauma, and psychotic experiences were collected using culturally validated measures in a sample of 5927 participants. The weighted prevalence of psychotic symptoms was 9.7%. Exposure to one or more conflict-related events (adj. OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.40-2.31, p<0.001) and loss or injury of a family member or friend through conflict (adj. OR, 1.83, 95% CI 1.42-2.37, p<0.001) were associated with increased odds of reporting psychotic experiences. Psychotic experiences were more common in individuals directly exposed to tsunami disaster (adj. OR, 1.68, 95% CI 1.04-2.73, P=0.035) and in those who had a family member who died or was injured as result of tsunami (adj. OR, 1.42, 95% CI 1.04-1.94, p=0.029). Our findings suggest that psychotic experiences are common in the Sri Lankan population. Exposure to traumatic events in armed conflicts and natural disasters may be important socio-environmental factors in the development of psychotic experiences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Venomics of Bungarus caeruleus (Indian krait): Comparable