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Sample records for north-end orebody rosebery

  1. The North End Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connally, Nicole; And Others

    Goals and objectives, student activities, and evaluations are contained in this guide for a one-day scavenger hunt through the North End of Boston. The culmination of a unit involving urban planning and land-use problems, the field trip is intended to give students first-hand experience with city life and a better understanding of urban issues…

  2. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH END OF TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL SHOWING SPIRAL STAIR TO CABLE RACK. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the southwest. At upper left is firing pier. Shop building and power plant under construction at center. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 14. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT NORTH END OF SECONDFLOOR ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST AT NORTH END OF SECOND-FLOOR ASSEMBLY AREA. VIEW SHOWS DETAILS OF SAWTOOTH ROOF STRUCTURE. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Ford Assembly Plant, 1400 Harbour Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. 6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. NORTH END OF MACHINE SHOP. FORGE SHOP (HAER No. CA-326-K) ON LEFT, FORD PLANT IN DISTANCE, NE BY 60. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Machine Shop, 1311 Canal Boulevard, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  7. 3. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 184 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 184 DEGREES SOUTH. SAME PHOTO AS OR-36-2. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 4. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 224 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SANDY RIVER BRIDGE AT TROUTDALE, NORTH END, LOOKING 224 DEGREES SOUTHWEST. - Historic Columbia River Highway, Sandy River Bridge at Troutdale, Historic Columbia River Highway spanning Sandy River, Troutdale, Multnomah County, OR

  9. View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of North End of Oxide Building Interior Including Roof and Wall Juncture and Crane Trolley - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  10. 6. Main Control Switchboard (north end interior), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Main Control Switchboard (north end interior), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  11. 19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM WEST, SHOWING SIMPLE ORNAMENTATION OF BASE OF STANDARD, WITH 'UNION METAL' IMPRINT - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  12. 18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM NORTH, SHOWING ORIGINAL LIGHT STANDARD, WITH REPLACEMENT BRACKET AND COBRA-HEAD LAMP - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  13. Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west side, camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east side, north end, showing door and overhead rail for refrigeration room. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. 47. DETAIL OF INCLINED END POST AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. DETAIL OF INCLINED END POST AT NORTH END OF TRUSS R, FLYLOFT, LOOKING WEST. NOTE TERRA COTTA FIREPROOFING AND LATER REINFORCEMENT. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 3. Partial elevation: west side of north end, from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Partial elevation: west side of north end, from the San Antonio Railroad Bridge - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  17. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  18. 19. GENERAL VIEW OF EMPLOYEES' LOCKER ROOM AT NORTH END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. GENERAL VIEW OF EMPLOYEES' LOCKER ROOM AT NORTH END OF LEVEL 3; LOOKING NORTHWEST - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Oblique view of north end and east side, facing southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north end and east side, facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Locomotive Building, Lower Tank Farm, near intersection of Sixth Street & South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #3. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  1. INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR SPACE AT NORTH END, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF FIRST FLOOR SPACE AT NORTH END, LOOKING AT WEST WALL; CAMERA FACING NORTHWEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  2. DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF FIRST STORY WINDOWS ON NORTH END OF EAST ELEVATION; CAMERA FACING WEST. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Transportation Building & Gas Station, Third Street, south side between Walnut Avenue & Cedar Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  3. Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, north end of console and pneumatic tube message port, also showing mirror to reflect view of communications switchboard - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. 174. WIDE MEDIAN BETWEEN NORTH END OF ALEXANDRIA AND WASHINGTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    174. WIDE MEDIAN BETWEEN NORTH END OF ALEXANDRIA AND WASHINGTON SAILING MARINA LOOKING NORTH. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  5. View of north end of east elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of east elevation of Building No. 48. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 48, East side of South Twenty-eighth Street, opposite Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. 9. Interior of 'Pavilion Lounge' at north end of Second ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior of 'Pavilion Lounge' at north end of Second Grandstand, showing vaulted ceilings, bar and spider chandelier. (May 1993) - Longacres, Second Grandstand, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  7. J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    J SERIES MAGAZINE. J 107 NORTH END AND REAR (EAST). J 106-103 IN BACKGROUND. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Inert Storehouse Type, Twelfth Street between Kwajulein & New Mexico Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 11. Detail view of the north end of the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view of the north end of the east elevation highlighting the fluted tile door surround of the northeast entrance - Arlington Realty Building, 2300 North Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  9. 3. Perspective view of north end of Bunker 103 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of north end of Bunker 103 showing north set of steel doors. Camera pointed NW. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  10. 2. Elevation view of north end of Bunker 104 showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Elevation view of north end of Bunker 104 showing steps and slope of earthen roof. Camera pointed W. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, South of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Oblique view of the north end and east side, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of the north end and east side, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Type "B" Casualty Dressing & Decontamination Station, Intersection of Eighth Street, Avenue E & Central Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. 5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EXTERIOR ELEVATION OF NORTH END OF EAST FACADE OF STEAM PLANT, BUILDING 740, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Steam Plant, Sixth Street south of East K Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  13. 23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM NORTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING FOURTH STEAM UNIT IN PLACE AT FAR SOUTH END. April 6, 1950 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. View north at north end of drydock no. 2 with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north at north end of drydock no. 2 with the foundry/propeller shop (Haer no. Pa-387-O), in background. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 2, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  15. Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique of north end and west side, brig is in background to the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. View of north end of east elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of east elevation of Building No. 21, looking west - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. 35. NORTH END OF BALTIMOREWASHINGTON PARKWAY, WHERE MARYLAND HIGHWAY 295, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. NORTH END OF BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON PARKWAY, WHERE MARYLAND HIGHWAY 295, "THE BALTIMORE-WASHINGTON EXPRESSWAY," BEGINS, MARYLAND HIGHWAY 175 IN BACKGROUND. VIEWN. - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  18. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, WATER TOWER, POWER PLANT, AND RECREATION YARD IN LEFT FOREGROUND - Alcatraz, Power Plant, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF NORTH END OF ISLAND SHOWING INDUSTRIES BUILDING, WATER TOWER, POWER PLANT, AND RECREATION YARD IN LEFT FOREGROUND - Alcatraz, Power Plant, Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. Feature 6, removed culvert north end to south very little ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Feature 6, removed culvert north end to south very little showing due to vegetation - Victory Highway, One Mile Segment West of West Wendover and South of Interstate 80, West Wendover, Elko County, NV

  2. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  4. 25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Aerial photograph dated 20 June 1942, showing north end of Gould Island from the northeast (caption on photo is in error). Shop and power plant under construction at left, firing pier under construction at far right. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. Orebody Modelling for Exploration: The Western Mineralisation, Broken Hill, NSW

    SciTech Connect

    Lotfolah Hamedani, Mohammad Plimer, Ian Rutherford; Xu Chaoshui

    2012-09-15

    The Western Mineralisation in the Broken Hill deposit was studied to identify the zonation sequence of lithogeochemical haloes along and across the strike of the orebody. Samples used are from 77 drill holes and the samples were assayed for Pb, Zn, Fe, S, Cu, Ag, Cd, Sb, Bi and As. Variogram analyses were calculated for all the elements and kriging was used to construct the 3D block model. Analysis of cross sections along and across the strike of the orebody shows that Bi and Sb form broader halos around sulphide masses and this suggests that they are pathfinder elements for the Pb and Zn elements of this orebody. The threshold concentrations (minimum anomaly) of the 10 elements were determined using the concentration-area analysis. On east-west vertical cross sections, the values of linear productivity, variability gradient and zonality index were calculated for each element. Based on the maximum zonality index of each element, the sequence of geochemical zonation pattern was determined from top to bottom of the orebody. The result shows that S, Pb, Zn and Cd tend to concentrate in the upper part of the mineralisation whereas Ag, Cu, Bi and As have a tendency to concentrate in the lower part of the mineralised rocks. Also, an empirical product ratio index was developed based on the position of the elements in the zonation sequence. The methods and results of this research are applicable to exploration of similar Zn and Pb sulphide ore deposits.

  6. Interior, north end of building, looking north. At left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, north end of building, looking north. At left is the threading machine and the cutout in the wall for a long tube in the machine is on the north wall beyond the machine. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Shops Building, Northwest Corner of West Pennington Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. 8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END POST, TOP AND LOWER CHORDS, AND DIAGONAL EYE BARS, SEEN FROM NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  8. 6. INTERIOR OF NORTH END OF STEAM PLANT, GROUND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF NORTH END OF STEAM PLANT, GROUND FLOOR, SHOWING FORMER LOCATION OF DIESEL ENGINES. THIS WAS THE FIRST PART OF THE BUILDING TO BE CONSTRUCTED, WHEN IT HOUSED ONLY THE DIESEL ENGINES. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. Interior, north end, upper level, looking west. This photograph taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, north end, upper level, looking west. This photograph taken inside the refrigeration room whose door is in the background of CO-172-AQ-5. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Oblique view of north end and east side, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Oblique view of north end and east side, taken from back side of bus stop, with stair to Facility 2 in foreground, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Passenger Shelter, Seventh Street near Avenue F intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. 18. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF ATLAS CONTROL CONSOLE NEAR WEST WALL OF SLC-3W CONTROL ROOM SHOWING PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENT CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LABELED 'PECMP') - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 18. John N. Vogel, Photographer, August 1992 NORTH END COUNTERWEIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. John N. Vogel, Photographer, August 1992 NORTH END COUNTERWEIGHT PIT. VIEW TO EAST SOUTHEAST. STEP UP GEARS AT LEAST END OF MAIN DRIVE SHAFT GEAR (LOWER LEFT) - Tayco Street Bridge, Spanning Government Canal at Tayco & Water Streets, Menasha, Winnebago County, WI

  13. Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, view of north end, "No Smoking" sign, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. OVERVIEW OF THE NORTH END OF FACILITY NO. S 20. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF THE NORTH END OF FACILITY NO. S 20. NOTE THE RIGHT-ANGLE SECTION OF THE WHARF AT THE LEFT WHERE FACILITY NO. S 20 JOINS FACILITY NO. S 19. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Floating Dry Dock Quay, Hurt Avenue at northwest side of Magazine Loch, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Interior, north end, upper level, looking south towards door to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, north end, upper level, looking south towards door to one of the building's refrigeration rooms. Photograph taken just south of CO-172-AQ-4. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Ice Plant, Southwest Corner of East I Avenue & North Thirteenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north end of the Electrical Shop (foreground) and Sheet Metal Shop, note the metal-frame windows in the Electrical Shop, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Boiler House, Sheet Metal and Electrical Shops, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  17. Facility 208 North end view. View facing southsouthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 208 - North end view. View facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrine Dry Dock No. 2 & Latrine Dry Dock No.3, Near Avenue G adjacent to Dry Dock No. 2 & Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  19. 55. Aerial view looking north; end of openwater section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Aerial view looking north; end of open-water section of Dundee Canal at bottom, Botany Worsted Mills at center - Dundee Canal Industrial Historic District, Beginning at George Street in Passaic & extending north along Dundee Canal approximately 1.2 miles to Canal headgates opposite East Clifton Avenue in Clifton, Passaic, Passaic County, NJ

  20. DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF "FEET" OF MAIN TRUSS NORTH END. NOTE PLATES ON WHICH FEET REST ALLOWING EXPANSION OF TRUSS AS IT EXPANDS AND SHRINKS UNDER THE SUN - Missouri & North Arkansas Railroad Bridge, Spanning Middle Fork Little Red River, Shirley, Van Buren County, AR

  1. 31. Interior view, north end of the west wall looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior view, north end of the west wall looking at the section between the front door and the northwestern corner of the building, with scale (note position of post fire partition wall and floor joists as recorded in the brickwork) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  2. 7. Oblique view southeast of north end of building. Scale ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Oblique view southeast of north end of building. Scale visible adjacent to door at lower right. Compare to HABS-CA-2611-B-4. - Deetjen's Big Sur Inn, Hayloft Building, East Side of State Highway 1, Big Sur, Monterey County, CA

  3. 3. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST: taken from north end BLDG. 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST: taken from north end BLDG. 1. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  4. View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of plate girder spans at north end, looking west from beneath state route 18 bridge (which lies along previous alignment of Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway). - Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago Railway, Beaver River Bridge, Spanning Beaver River along line of Second Avenue, New Brighton, Beaver County, PA

  5. Facility 136, oblique view of east side and north end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Facility 136, oblique view of east side and north end with entry door, electrical panel with soda bottles, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Latrines, Off Avenue C, at Repair Basins B13, B15-B18 & B20, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    62. May 1985. NORTH END OF WASH HOUSE (Negative slightly reticulated. Tree behind fence is common fig, Ficus carica.) - Borough House, West Side State Route 261, about .1 mile south side of junction with old Garners Ferry Road, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  7. View of north end of west elevation of Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north end of west elevation of Building No. 21. South Twenty-sixth Street in foreground. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Building No. 21, East side of South Twenty-sixth Street, north of Hinkley Avenue, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  8. 6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF NORTH END OF EAST DAM, LOOKING SOUTH. (View is taken from lakeside with lowered water level. This view encompasses the same area as MT-88-A-5 above.) - Three Bears Lake & Dams, East Dam, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  9. 12. VIEW OF THE NORTH END, STATION 'L', FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE NORTH END, STATION 'L', FROM THE ROOF OF POWERHOUSE EXTENSION (BUILDING L5), WELDING SHOP (BUILDING F) IN FOREGROUND, PEPCO BUILDING (BUILDING A) IN BACKGROUND - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 5. HOUSE NORTH END EXTERIOR SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, CONCRETE WALKWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. HOUSE NORTH END EXTERIOR SHOWING ASBESTOS SIDING, CONCRETE WALKWAY TO REAR OF HOUSE, CLOSELINE SUPPORT AT EXTREME PHOTO RIGHT, AND CASEMENT WINDOW TO ATTIC JUST BELOW THE GABLE PEAK. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  11. VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO EAST OF THE NORTH END OF BASIN NO. 1 (THE WESTERN-MOST BASIN) SHOWING THE CRANEWAY AND GALLERY BETWEEN BASINS NO. 1 AND 2. BASSWOOD BUOY TENDER AND THREE SMALL VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASIN NO. 1. LARGER VESSELS ARE BERTHED IN BASINS TO THE EAST, SEEN IN BACKGROUND - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, Graving Docks, Shipyard No. 3, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  12. 5. Main Control Switchboard (north end rear), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Main Control Switchboard (north end rear), view to the south, with item 14 (the Libby transmission line panel) visible in left foreground, through item 9 (the Hot Springs No. 2 transmission line panel) obliquely visible on left side of the photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  13. 1. Streetscape of north ends of Detention Wards, Building Nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Streetscape of north ends of Detention Wards, Building Nos. 9946-B (left) and 9945-B (middle). Walled-in courtyard adjoins Building No. 9944-B at extreme right edge. Steam plant is in distance. This photo makes a panorama with photo WA-202-10-2. - Madigan Hospital, Detention Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  15. 11. PUMP ROOM FLOOR OF GENE PLANT FROM NORTH END, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. PUMP ROOM FLOOR OF GENE PLANT FROM NORTH END, CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS DESIGNED BY BYRON JACKSON CO., MANUFACTURED BY PELTON WATER WHEEL CO. OF SAN FRANCISCO. POWERED BY G.E. SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR 9000 HP, 6900 VOLTS, 612 AMPS, 7320 KVA, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLES, 400 RPM, EXCITATION AT 125 VOLTS, 540 AMPS. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  16. 2. View east at north end of west facade of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View east at north end of west facade of culvert outlet headwall with part of canal bank removed. Foreground to background: dewatered streambed with pump intake (left) and coffer dam (right); outlet headwall with partially intact voussoirs; partially removed canal bank revealing horizontal masonry cutoff wall (exposed in trenches to left and right); towpath at top of canal bank. - Delaware & Raritan Canal, Six Mile Run Culvert, .2 mile South of Blackwells Mills Road, East Millstone, Somerset County, NJ

  17. 2. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXT VIEW LOOKING WEST AT THE NORTH END OF BUILDING F, CENTER, SHOWING THE CORNER OF BUILDING D AT THE FAR RIGHT, AND THE NORTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING AT THE FAR LEFT. BUILDING E IS VISIBLE BY THE PALM TREE AT RIGHT CENTER, JUST NORTH OF BUILDING F. - U.S. Coast Guard Air Station San Francisco, Warehouse, 1020 North Access Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WASTE CALCINING FACILITY, LOOKING AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. CAMERA FACING SOUTH. TENT-ROOFED COVER IN RIGHT OF VIEW IS A TEMPORARY WEATHER-PROOFING SHELTER OVER THE BLOWER PIT IN CONNECTION WITH DEMOLITION PROCEDURES. SMALL BUILDING CPP-667 IN CENTER OF VIEW WAS USED FOR SUPPLEMENTARY OFFICE SPACE BY HEALTH PHYSICISTS AND OTHERS. INEEL PROOF SHEET NOT NUMBERED. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. The electromagnetic radiation from semiconductor minerals in orebody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, M.; Nagahama, H.; Muto, J.; Nagase, T.

    2013-12-01

    In complex ore deposits composing semiconductor minerals, electromagnetic radiation in the radio frequency (30 kHz ~ 3 MHz) is induced by propagation of elastic waves [1]. Semiconductor minerals are divided into n- or p-type. When each p-type and n-type is joined, the resulting junction (p-n junction) has the rectifying property. Many natural orebodies show this property, but it has not been evaluated qualitatively. A lot of p-n junctions exist as which connect in parallel and in series in the orebody [2]. They can be regarded as a single p-n junction at large scale. Hence elucidating the electric property of micro p-n junction is required to understand the semiconductor properties of orebody. To discuss the electromagnetic emission from semiconductor minerals in the orebody associated with tectonic process, we measure the electric property of the semiconductor pyrite. Composition and electric properties of natural semiconductor minerals are heterogeneous due to the presence of impurities and defects. Therefore, it is needed to clarify the properties at each microscopic region. In this research, we apply electroetching method and SEM analysis to acquire composition characteristics and use an indentation probe to reveal microscopic electric properties. Sample of pyrite is from Waga-Sennin mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. The area of cross section is 1.4 cm2 with thickness of 0.38 mm2. In the electrolytic etching, the surface of samples showed etching figures and zonal structures with widths of about 10 -100 μm. According to the SEM analysis, Pb inclusions were observed to be precipitated parallel to crystallographic planes. The heterogeneous change in electric properties of each area was observed to be as etching figure. Thermal probing method clarified that the regions of n-p type differences were also coincidence well to etching figure patterns. P-type regions showed a higher solubility than n-type regions. At p-n junction regions, rectifying property was observed

  20. Metallogenesis of the Nkana copper-cobalt South Orebody, Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brems, D.; Muchez, Ph.; Sikazwe, O.; Mukumba, W.

    2009-10-01

    The Central African Copperbelt is one of the largest and richest metallogenic provinces in the world. Despite the many studies, the genesis of the stratiform Cu-Co-mineralization remains a subject of intense discussion. A diagenetic, pre-folding origin is proposed for most ore deposits both in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, later mineralization and/or remobilization seem to be important in the enrichment of the ores. The geological mapping of the South Orebody mine at Nkana (Zambia) indicates a relation between the mineralization and the host rock but also with compressional deformation. The location of the rich ore bodies generally corresponds with the hinge zones of tight to isoclinal folds and with the contact between the sandstones and conglomerates of the Footwall Sandstone Formation and the overlying organic-rich shales of the Ore Formation. The circulation of the mineralizing/remobilizing fluids through the rocks was facilitated by fracturing, especially in the hinge zones of the folds resulting in a structural permeability. A petrographical study demonstrated that, in addition to disseminated sulphides, three successive vein generations occur at Nkana South Orebody, i.e. layer parallel veins, irregular, crosscutting veins and massive veins. These vein generations respectively formed during the initial phase of basin inversion, the main phase of deformation and a late phase of orogenesis or later extensional tensions. Early diagenetic disseminated framboidal pyrites were replaced by Cu-sulphides. The timing of this replacement could not be constrained. Silicification, K-feldspar alteration, albitization, carbonatization and replacement by anhydrite are the main alteration phases.

  1. Interior view, looking towards north end, facing northeast U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view, looking towards north end, facing northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Locomotive Building, Lower Tank Farm, near intersection of Sixth Street & South Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 1. 185/189D in center, north end west facades (190D front ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 185/189-D in center, north end west facades (190-D front left and west facade; 195-D rear right). Looking south. - D-Reactor Complex, Deaeration Plant-Refrigeration Buildings, Area 100-D, Richland, Benton County, WA

  3. Interior detail of sliding doors at north end U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of sliding doors at north end - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, United States All-Steel Hangar, Wasp Boulevard between Kingfisher Street and Ranger Loop, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. Progress report on geologic studies of the Ranger orebodies, Northern Territory, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J.T.; Frishman, David

    1982-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U3O8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulfides. In fact, graphite is rare and sulfides are generally low in abundance (<0.5 percent). Higher ore grades occur in disrupted zones a few centimeters thick and in some quartz-chlorite vein-like zones of uncertain origin. Uranium correlates strongly with chlorite, but not all of the many ages of chlorite have associated uranium. At least five textural varieties of chlorite are present and represent at least 3 ages. Preliminary microprobe analyses suggest that Mg-Fe-Al contents are relatively uniform. Apatite commonly occurs with chlorite. Uranium is not common in carbonate rocks and seems to occur only in disrupted zones that have chlorite alteration. Chloritization and silicification are more widespread and intense in the No. 1 orebody than in the No. 3. In both orebodies, hematite occurs tens to hundreds of meters below the weathered zone, in both altered and largely unaltered rocks, with and without uranium. The structure of the orebodies is outwardly simple, particularly in No. 3; dips are less than 40? on most lithologic contacts. The No. 1 orebody is in a basin-like structure about 400 m wide

  5. 52. VIEW FROM NORTH END OF SLC3W MAST TRENCH SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW FROM NORTH END OF SLC-3W MAST TRENCH SHOWING NORTH FACE OF ERECT UMBILICAL MAST. LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. METEOROLOGICAL TOWER AND SLC-3E MST IN DISTANT BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST. DETAIL OF REACTOR'S NORTH FACE AND ITS TEST HOLES. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-4. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 51. VIEW OF NORTH END OF SLC3W UMBILICAL MAST IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. VIEW OF NORTH END OF SLC-3W UMBILICAL MAST IN TRENCH WITH TRENCH DOORS OPEN. SLC-3W MST IN SERVICE POSITION OVER LAUNCHER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. PROGRESS REPORT ON GEOLOGIC STUDIES OF THE RANGER OREBODIES, NORTHERN TERRITORY, AUSTRALIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, J. Thomas; Frishman, David; ,

    1985-01-01

    The Ranger No. 1 and No. 3 orebodies contain about 124,000 tonnes U//3O//8 in highly chloritized metasediments of the lower Proterozoic Cahill Formation within about 500 m of the projected sub-Kombolgie Formation unconformity. In both orebodies, oxidized and reduced uranium minerals occur chiefly in quartzose schists that have highly variable amounts of muscovite, sericite, and chlorite. The effects of several periods of alteration are pervasive in the vicinity of orebodies where biotite and garnet are altered to chlorite, and feldspars to white mica or chlorite. Oxidized uranium minerals, associated with earthy iron oxides, occur from the surface to a depth of about 60 m. Below the oxidized zone, uranium occurs chiefly as uraninite and pitchblende disseminated through thick sections of quartz-chlorite-muscovite schist and has no apparent association with graphite or sulphides. The geologic age(s) of uranium emplacement are obscure because there are few age criteria. Reduced uranium minerals are younger than 1. 8-b. y. -old granite dykes, and some occur locally in 1. 65-b. y. -old Kombolgie Formation.

  9. Sampling and analysis of chemical element concentration distribution in rock units and orebodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agterberg, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Existing sampling techniques applied within known orebodies, such as sampling along mining drifts, yield element concentration values for larger blocks of ore if they are extended into their surroundings. The resulting average concentration values have relatively small "extension variance". These techniques can be used for multifractal modeling as well as ore reserve estimation approaches. Geometric probability theory can aid in local spatial covariance modeling. It provides information about increase of variability of element concentration over short distances exceeding microscopic scale. In general, the local clustering of ore crystals results in small-scale variability known as the "nugget effect". Parameters to characterize spatial covariance estimated from ore samples subjected to chemical analysis for ore reserve estimation may not be valid at local scale because of the nugget effect. The novel method of local singularity mapping applied within orebodies provides new insights into the nature of the nugget effect. Within the Pulacayo orebody, Bolivia, local singularity for zinc is linearly related with logarithmically transformed concentration value. If there is a nugget effect, moving averages resulting from covariance models or estimated by other methods that have a smoothing effect, such as kriging, can be improved by incorporating local singularities indicating local element enrichment or depletion. Although there have been many successful applications of the multifractal binomial/p model, its application within the Pulacayo orebody results in inconsistencies, indicating some shortcomings of this relatively simple approach. Local singularity analysis and universal multifractal modeling are two promising new approaches to improve upon results obtained by commonly used geostatistical techniques and use of the binomial/p model. All methods in this paper are illustrated using a single example (118 Pulacayo zinc values), and several techniques are applied to

  10. 46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, 1st FLOOR, BELOW PICKER AND CLOTH ROOM AREA. FUNCTION OF THIS SPACE UNKNOWN AT PRESENT. NOTE THAT EYE BEAM REPLACES ORIGINAL WALL OF 1892 PICKER HOUSE. CENTER (OR LEFT) DOOR IS ENTRY TO MILL NO. 2. RIGHT DOOR IS ENTRY TO 1892 NAPPER ROOM. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF THIRD FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHEAST AND ACROSS TOP OF REACTOR. MOCK-UP APPARATUS IS BEYOND REACTOR. BRIDGE CONNECTING BALCONY AND REACTOR TOP AT RIGHT OF VIEW. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-5-2. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BUILDING INTERIOR, TRA-603. CAMERA IS AT NORTH END OF SECOND FLOOR BALCONY LOOKING TOWARDS WORK PLATFORMS ON NORTH FACE OF REACTOR. BRIDGE TO THIRD FLOOR BALCONY FROM TOP OF REACTOR IS AT UPPER RIGHT OF VIEW. CAMERA FACING EASTERLY. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD-46-4-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  13. Oreshoot zoning in the Carlin-type Betze orebody, Goldstrike Mine, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Ferdock, Gregory C.; Woitsekhowskaya, Maria B.; Leonardson, Robert; Rahn, Jerry

    1998-01-01

    Field and laboratory investigations of the giant Betze gold orebody, the largest Carlin-type deposit known, in the north-central Carlin trend, Nevada document that the orebody is composed of individual high-grade oreshoots that contain different geologic, mineralogic, and textural characteristics. The orebody is typical of many structurally controlled Carlin-type deposits, and is hosted in thin-bedded, impure carbonate or limy siltstone, breccia bodies, and intrusive or calc-silicate rock. Most ores in the Betze orebody are highly sheared or brecciated and show evidence of syndeformational hydrothermal deposition. The interplay between rock types and pre- and syn-structural events accounts for most of the distribution and zoning of the oreshoots. Hydrothermal alteration is scale dependent, either in broad, pervasive alteration patterns, or in areas related to various oreshoots. Alteration includes decarbonatization (~decalcification) of carbonate units, argillization (illite-clay), and silicification. Patterns of alteration zoning in and surrounding the Betze orebody define a large porous, dilated volume of rock where high fluid flow predominated. Local restriction of alteration to narrow illite- and clay-rich selvages around unaltered marble or calc-silicate rock phacoids implies that fluid flow favored permeable structures and deformed zones. Gold mainly is present as disseminated sub-micron-sized particles, commonly associated with Asñrich pyrite, although one type of oreshoot contains micron-size free gold. Oreshoots form a three-dimensional zoning pattern in the orebody within a WNW-striking structural zone of shearing and shear folding, termed the Dillon deformation zone (DDZ). Main types of oreshoots are: (1) rutile-bearing siliceous oreshoots; (2) illite-clay-pyrite oreshoots; (3) realgar- and orpiment-bearing oreshoots; (4) stibnite-bearing siliceous oreshoots; and (5) polymetallic oreshoots. Zoning patterns result from paragenetically early development

  14. Definition imaging of an orebody with the radio imaging method (RIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarczyk, L.G. )

    1992-10-01

    Waste rock dilution is an economic concern in the planning and design of mining methods for mineralized ore zones. Diamond core drilling and mineralogical examination of core are routinely used to determine the general shape of the ore body. Drilling on closer centers enhances the definition of the mineralization and oregrade across the orebody. In a practical sense, drilling time and cost limit definition. Crosshole scanning between drillholes with the radio imaging method (RIM) has been used to map changes in mineralization in the rock mass. The magnitude and phase of the RIM radio wave depend on the electrical conductivity of the rock mass. The conductivity strongly depends on the percent mineralization. Since the attenuation rate and phase constants of the radio wave are proportional to the one half power of conductivity, the measured crosshole radio wave data can be processed in a tomography algorithm to reconstruct images (map the change in conductivity (mineralization)). The tomography image enhances definition in the orebody while reducing the number of drillholes. This paper compares reconstructed images of the radio wave propagation constants to percent mineralization in the ore body.

  15. THE WEATHERING OF A SULFIDE OREBODY: SPECIATION AND FATE OF SOME POTENTIAL CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra; Grosbois, Cecile; Marcus, Matthew A.; Fakra, Sirine C.; Beny, Jean Michel; Foster, Andrea L.

    2010-07-16

    Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogenically modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., {approx}500 mg/L Cu, {approx}3700 mg/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 {mu}m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (mXAS), scanning X-ray diffraction (mSXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (mSXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the

  16. The weathering of a sulfide orebody: Speciation and fate of some potential contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Courtin-Nomade, A.; Grosbois, C.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.C.; Beny, J.-M.; Foster, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    Various potentially toxic trace elements such as As, Cu, Pb and Zn have been remobilized by the weathering of a sulfide orebody that was only partially mined at Leona Heights, California. As a result, this body has both natural and anthropogeni- cally modified weathering profiles only 500 m apart. The orebody is located in a heavily urbanized area in suburban Oakland, and directly affects water quality in at least one stream by producing acidic conditions and relatively high concentrations of dissolved elements (e.g., ??500 ??g/L Cu, ??3700 ??g/L Zn). Micrometric-scale mineralogical investigations were performed on the authigenic metal-bearing phases (less than 10 ??m in size) using electron-probe micro-analysis (EPMA), micro-Raman, micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (??XAS), scanning X-ray diffraction ((??SXRD) and scanning X-ray fluorescence (??-SXRF) mapping techniques. Those measurements were coupled with classical mineralogical laboratory techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Authigenic metal-bearing phases identified are mainly sulfates (jarosite, epsomite, schwertmannite), Fe (oxy-)hydroxides (goethite, hematite and poorly crystalline Fe products) and poorly crystalline Mn (hydr-)oxides. Sulfates and Fe (oxy-)hydroxides are the two main secondary products at both sites, whereas Mn (hydr-) oxides were only observed in the samples from the non-mining site. In these samples, the various trace elements show different affinities for Fe or Mn compounds. Lead is preferentially associated with Mn (hydr-)oxides and As with Fe (oxy-)hydroxides or sulfates. Copper association with Mn and Fe phases is questionable, and the results obtained rather indicate that Cu is present as individual Cu-rich grains (Cu hydroxides). Some ochreous precipitates were found at both sites and correspond to a mixture of schwertmannite, goethite and jarosite containing some potentially toxic trace elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn. According to the trace

  17. Structure, hydrothermal alteration and composition of the Rubiales Pb-Zn orebody (Lugo, Spain): Genetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, D.; Suárez, O.; Corretgé, L. G.; Fernández-Jardón, L.; Pérez-Cerdán, F.

    1991-07-01

    The Rubiales Pb-Zn ore deposit, northwestern Spain, is situated in the Westasturian-Leonese zone, according to the division of the Hercynian Chain in the Iberian Peninsula (Julivert et al. 1972). The orebody is placed in a subvertical shear zone developed at the eastern limb of the Baralla syncline, within the middle and upper members of the lower Cambrian Transition Series. The deposit is a vertical lenticular mass with a N30°W direction. Its length is about 1200 m in a N-S direction by 600 m wide and has an average thickness of 30 m. Its mineralogy is simple: 99% of the sulphides consist of sphalerite and galena with a ratio of 7 to 1. The remaining 1% is mainly formed by pyrite and chalcopyrite with pyrrhotite traces. The deposit shows a large aureole of hydrothermal alteration which is the result of three consecutive processes: (1) sericitization of slates and ankeritization of limestones; (2) silicification of ankeritic rocks; and (3) chloritization of the lower part of the deposit. Since the deposit was discovered in 1967 there has been controversy concerning its origin. Two hypotheses have been considered so far: (1) a sedex model formation (Gilissen 1977; Vazquez 1987); and (2) a hydrothermal origin in a shear zone during the Hercynian Orogeny (Merayo et al. 1984; Arias 1988). The data herein presented support the second hypothesis.

  18. Map showing a deep-tow geophysical study of the north end of the San Clemente Fault, California Borderland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, George A.; Normark, William R.

    1980-01-01

    A deep-tow geophysical study of a small ridge along the north end of the San Clemente fault, informally termed Kimki Ridge by Arne Junger and J.G. Vedder (unpub. data, 1979), was conducted in April 1976 using the R/V Melville of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. The purpose of the survey was to search for evidence of active faulting along the north-ward extension of the San Clemente fault, a major structural feature in the California Borderland (fig. 1). 

  19. Redistributed orebodies of Poison Canyon, Sec. 18 and 19, T. 13 N. , R. 9 W. , McKinley County

    SciTech Connect

    Tessendorf, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Since the early 1950's, the Poison Canyon mine has been considered a classic example of uranium geology. Owing to present economic condtions, a close examination of the redistributed mineralization is taking place. Because of the evolution of the structure and geomorphology of Poison Canyon, the primary mineralization went through further oxidation and reduction. Enriched solutions of uranium migrated downdip through permeable sands. These solutions were controlled by north-trending fracture patterns, with some vertical movement along major faults. The uranium collected in structural and lithological traps, forming amoeba-like orebodies with the higher grade mineralization located in the fractures. First-generation redistributed ore is primarily coffinite. Forming later is second-generation redistributed ore, which is mainly tyuyamunite. The latter formed from further oxidation and redistribution of the primary and first-generation mineralization, combined with an increasing nearness to surface. The authigenic minerals in the redistributed mineralization are found in carbon-deficient sands. The redistributed minerals are locally associated with pascoite, although this mineral is rare. The radiometric equilibrium of the primary minerals differs from that of the redistributed minerals. The uranium has been leached from the primary minerals making chemical values less than radiometric values. The redistributed minerals are chemically greater than radiometric, producing a favorable equilibrium. The percent extraction in the mill process is greater for the redistributed ore than for the primary ore. The paragenetic position of the different minerals has a direct bearing on these observations.

  20. Komatiites and nickel sulfide ores of the Black Swan area, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia. 2: Geology and genesis of the orebodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, S. E.; Barnes, S. J.; Hill, R. E. T.; Hicks, J. D.

    2004-11-01

    The Black Swan Ultramafic Succession hosts a number of magmatic Fe Ni Cu PGE sulfide ore shoots, ranging from high grade massive ore to low grade disseminated sulfides. Of these, the most economically significant is the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody, associated with the basal contact of the succession. The deposit varies in thickness between 5 and 20 m, reaches a N S strike length of 75 m, extends for at least 1.2 km of vertical plunge and is open at depth. Overlying matrix (net-textured) ore is rare. Inclusions of dacite are abundant within the lower 5 m of the massive sulfide. They range from angular fragments through smooth sinuous and plumose morphologies to fine lace-like intergrowths with the sulfide matrix, and comprise variable proportions of cores of porphyritic dacite and carapaces with skeletal plagioclase phenocrysts. Dynamic crystallisation and kinetic melting textures in the carapaces indicate that the inclusions have been heated to various temperatures, some well above their liquidus temperature. The composition of the inclusions ranges from a perfect match with the immediate footwall dacites to mixtures of dacite with up to 30% komatiite. The consistent thickness of the inclusion-bearing basal layer within the massive sulphide is interpreted as the extent of 3-D physical connectivity between the inclusions and a partially molten underlying hybrid layer. Primary contacts between the Silver Swan massive sulfide orebody and overlying ultramafic rocks are marked by thin rinds containing coarse-grained chevron-textured chromites with skeletal textures. Compositions of these chromites match those from Kambalda, Perseverance and other localities, and are inconsistent with a metamorphic origin. They are interpreted as markers of primary magmatic contacts. The combination of this feature with the general paucity of matrix ore implies that the massive ore accumulated and solidified before the accumulation of the overlying thick sequence of olivine

  1. Seismic-refraction survey to the top of salt in the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackermann, Hans D.

    1979-01-01

    A seismic-refraction survey, consisting of three lines about 2700, 2760, and 5460 meters long, was made at the north end of the Salt Valley anticline of the Paradox Basin in eastern Utah. The target was the crest of a diapiric salt mass and the overlying, deformed caprock. The interpretations reveal an undulating salt surface with as much as 80 meters of relief. The minimum depth of about 165 meters is near the location of three holes drilled by the U.S. Department of Energy for the purpose of evaluating the Salt Valley anticline as a potential site for radioactive waste storages Caprock properties were difficult to estimate because the contorted nature of these beds invalidated a geologic interpretation in terms of velocity layers. However, laterally varying velocities of the critically refracted rays throughout the area suggest differences in the gross physical properties of the caprock.

  2. Rosebery County School for Girls, Epsom, Surrey: Sixth-Form Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This bulletin describes a facility designed to meet the needs of those students who desire to stay in school beyond the minimum leaving age and to satisfy the greater demand for higher education. Part I describes the findings of a planning group from a series of visits to schools and explains how the general conclusions were modified to the…

  3. D-0 North End Cap Calorimeter Cold Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-08-02

    The North endcap calorimeter vessel was recieved on July 1, 1990. A cooldown of the pressure vessel with liquid nitrogen was performed on July 10-11 to check the vessel's integrity. With the pressure vessel cold, the insulating vacuum was monitored for leaks. Through out the testing, the insulating vacuum remained good and the vessel passed the test. The cold test was carried out per the procedures of D-Zero engineering note 3740.220-EN-250. The test was very similar to the cold test performed on the Central Calorimeter in October of 1987. Reference D-Zero engineering notes 3740.210-EN-122, 3740.000-EN107, and 3740.210-EN-110 for information about the CC cold test. The insulating vacuum space was pumped on while equipment was being connected to the pressure vessel. Two hours after starting to pump with the blower the vacuum space pressure was at about 210 microns. Pumping on the vacuum space for the next 15 hours showed no progress and a leak detector was connected to the pumping line. A leak check showed a leak in a thermocouple feedthru on the vacuum space relief plate. After fixing the leak, the pressure dropped to 16 microns in less than one hour. A rate of rise test was performed starting at a pressure of 13 microns. The pressure rose to 39 microns within 8 minutes and then only rose to 43 microns in 2.5 hours (1.6 microns/hour). After all connections were made to the pressure vessel, a vacuum pump with an estimated effective pumping speed of about 70 scfm was valved on. The lowest pressure achieved after 2 days of pumping was 80 microns. Valving out the pump for 30 minutes resulted in a 5 micron per minute rate of rise. The rate of rise was considered acceptable since there were known leak paths through the bolts of the signal ports. The EC North vessel was rolled outside of Lab A in preparation for a 5000 gallon liquid nitrogen trailer which arrived July, 10 at 8:00am. Before filling the vessel, the vacuum space pump was valved off. The pressure in the vacuum space was 12 microns at that point. During the next 24 hours of the test, the vacuum space pressure decreased to 5 microns. A plot of the vacuum space pressure with time is included at the end of this note. The liquid nitrogen was pressure transferred from the trailer at 29 psig to the pressure vessel at 1 psig for ten hours. At that time there was sufficient (16-inch) of liquid nitrogen in the vessel to turn the LN2 trailer delivery pump on. Thirteen and one half hours after starting the fill, the vessel had 50-inch of LN2 collected. During the latter part of the filling, about twelve loud metallic bangs were heard. The noises came at random intervals with sometimes five minutes between and other times an hour between. The best way to describe the sound is to imagine the sound made if someone was trapped inside the vessel with a baseball bat and took a good swing. The trailer was disconnected and the the vessel was left overnight for ten hours. Due to the slow LN2 fill rate, the temperature gradient in the pressure vessel shell was not very large, only about 25 kelvin difference was found from a RTD in the warm-up nozzle of the vessel and the resistors of the liquid level probe. A temperature versus time graph is included at the end of this note.

  4. Geology of the north end of the Ruby Range, southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tysdal, Russell G.

    1970-01-01

    This study consists of two parts: stratigraphy and sedimentation, and structure of rocks in the northern one-third of the Ruby Range of southwestern Montana. Detailed studies of Cambrian marine dolomite rocks in the Red Lion Formation and in the upper part of the Pilgrim Limestone resulted in their division into distinct rock units, termed lithofacies. These lithofacies contain features suggestive of subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal environments similar to those presently forming in the Persian Gulf. Stromatolltic structures occurring in the uppermost part of the Red Lion Formation are similar to those presently forming in Shark Bay, Australia. The Ruby Range within the map area is broken into a series of northwest-plunging basement (Precambrian metamorphic rock) blocks, differentially uplifted during the Cretaceous-Tertiary orogenic period. These blocks are bordered by upthrust faults, which are nearly vertical in their lower segments and are .low-angle in their uppermost parts. Asymmetrical folds in Paleozoic sedimentary rocks formed in response to the differential uplift of the blocks; thus they too plunge to the northwest. Displaced masses of rock border the range on the three sides within the map area and are interpreted as gravity-slide features resulting from uplift of the range. Normal faulting began blocking out the present range margins by Oligocene time.

  5. Geology of the north end of the Salt Valley Anticline, Grand County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gard, Leonard Meade

    1976-01-01

    This report describes the geology and hydrology of a portion of the Salt Valley anticline lying north of Moab, Utah, that is being studied as a potential site for underground storage of nuclear waste in salt. Selection of this area was based on recommendations made in an earlier appraisal of the potential of Paradox basin salt deposits for such use. Part of sec. 5, T. 23 S., R. 20 E. has been selected as a site for subsurface investigation as a potential repository for radioactive waste. This site has easy access to transportation, is on public land, is isolated from human habitation, is not visible from Arches National Park, and the salt body lies within about 800 feet (244 m) of the surface. Further exploration should include investigation of possible ground water in the caprock and physical exploration of the salt body to identify a thick bed of salt for use as a storage zone that can be isolated from the shaly interbeds that possibly contain quantities of hydrocarbons. Salt Valley anticline, a northwest-trending diapiric structure, consists of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks arched over a thick core of salt of the Paradox Member of the Middle Pennsylvanian Hermosa Formation. Salt began to migrate to form and/or develop this structure shortly after it was deposited, probably in response to faulting. This migration caused upwelling of the salt creating a linear positive area. This positive area, in turn, caused increased deposition of sediments in adjacent areas which further enhanced salt migration. Not until late Jurassic time had flowage of the salt slowed sufficiently to allow sediments of the Morrison and younger formations to be deposited across the salt welt. A thick cap of insoluble residue was formed on top of the salt diapir as a result of salt dissolution through time. The crest of the anticline is breached; it collapsed in two stages during the Tertiary Period. The first stage was graben collapse during the early Tertiary; the second stage occurred after Miocene regional uplift had caused downcutting streams to breach the salt core resulting in further collapse. The axis of the anticline is a narrow generally flat-floored valley containing a few hills composed of downdropped Mesozoic rocks foundered, in the caprock. The caprock, which underlies thin alluvium in the valley, is composed of contorted gypsum, shale, sandstone, and limestone--the insoluble residue of the Paradox salt.

  6. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope data for the Pea Ridge Fe-REE orebody, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Sidder, G.B.; Day, W.C.; Rye, R.O. )

    1993-03-01

    New fluid-inclusion and stable-isotope data define the character of the mineralizing fluids that formed the iron and rare-earth-element ore deposit at the Pea Ridge Mine, southeast Missouri. These fluids were very hot and highly saline brines that may have been magmatically derived. Early, pre-magnetite ore skarn alteration of the host rhyolitic tuff took place at temperatures greater than 420 C and possibly as high as 680 C based upon calculated temperatures of quartz-magnetite pairs. Halite homogenization of three- or more phase (liquid + vapor + salts) fluid inclusions in quartz indicates that the skarn-forming fluid had a temperature of about 460 C to > 530 C and a salinity of about 45 to 57 equivalent weight percent NaCl. Analyses of [delta][sup 18]O in quartz from the skarn zone average about 14.5[per thousand], compared to a value of about 13.0[per thousand] for quartz in the host rhyolite. Average [delta][sup 34]S values for pyrite of about 2.3[per thousand] in the skarn zone may reflect a magmatic source. Magnetite ore was deposited at temperatures between about 340 C and 530 C from a fluid with a salinity between about 54 and 60 equivalent weight percent NaCl. The large apparent range of temperatures indicated by both fluid-inclusion and stable-isotope data within each zone may be due to contamination by quartz from multiple stages of quartz deposition. Also, the assumed isotopic equilibrium between some mineral pairs may be incorrect. Moreover, fluid inclusions are relatively rare in all ore and alteration zones except the silicified zone, and only a few inclusions are clearly primary in origin. Nonetheless, the predominance of high temperatures and high salinities in all of the mineralized and altered zones supports the interpretation that Pea ridge is a magmatic hydrothermal deposit. This magmatic hydrothermal model is also supported by paragenetic relations defined by geologic mapping and geochemical modeling of major-, minor-, and trace-element data.

  7. Genesis of superimposed hypogene and supergene Fe orebodies in BIF at the Madoonga deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The Madoonga iron ore body hosted by banded iron formation (BIF) in the Weld Range greenstone belt of Western Australia is a blend of four genetically and compositionally distinct types of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) iron ore that includes: (1) hypogene magnetite-talc veins, (2) hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins, (3) supergene goethite-hematite, and (4) supergene-modified, goethite-hematite-rich detrital ores. The spatial coincidence of these different ore types is a major factor controlling the overall size of the Madoonga ore body, but results in a compositionally heterogeneous ore deposit. Hypogene magnetite-talc veins that are up to 3 m thick and 50 m long formed within mylonite and shear zones located along the limbs of isoclinal, recumbent F1 folds. Relative to least-altered BIF, the magnetite-talc veins are enriched in Fe2O3(total), P2O5, MgO, Sc, Ga, Al2O3, Cl, and Zr; and depleted in SiO2 and MnO2. Mafic igneous countryrocks located within 10 m of the northern contact of the mineralised BIF display the replacement of primary igneous amphibole and plagioclase, and metamorphic chlorite by hypogene ferroan chlorite, talc, and magnetite. Later-forming, hypogene specular hematite-quartz veins and their associated alteration halos partly replace magnetite-talc veins in BIF and formed during, to shortly after, the F2-folding and tilting of the Weld Range tectono-stratigraphy. Supergene goethite-hematite ore zones that are up to 150 m wide, 400 m long, and extend to depths of 300 m replace least-altered BIF and existing hypogene alteration zones. The supergene ore zones formed as a result of the circulation of surface oxidised fluids through late NNW- to NNE-trending, subvertical brittle faults. Flat-lying, supergene goethite-hematite-altered, detrital sediments are concentrated in a paleo-topographic depression along the southern side of the main ENE-trending ridge at Madoonga. Iron ore deposits of the Weld Range greenstone belt record remarkably similar deformation histories, overprinting hypogene alteration events, and high-grade Fe ore types to other Fe ore deposits in the wider Yilgarn Craton (e.g. Koolyanobbing and Windarling deposits) despite these Fe camps being presently located more than 400 km apart and in different tectono-stratigraphic domains. Rather than the existence of a synchronous, Yilgarn-wide, Fe mineralisation event affecting BIF throughout the Yilgarn, it is more likely that these geographically isolated Fe ore districts experienced similar tectonic histories, whereby hypogene fluids were sourced from commonly available fluid reservoirs (e.g. metamorphic, magmatic, or both) and channelled along evolving structures during progressive deformation, resulting in several generations of Fe ore.

  8. A reinterpretation of the δDH2O of inclusion fluids in contemporaneous quartz and sphalerite, Creede mining district, Colorodo: a generic problem for shallow orebodies?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Bethke, Philip M.; Rye, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    The unusually high contrast between the salinities of the ore-depositing fluids and the ground water overlying the ore zone allowed recognition of this phenomenon at Creede. It is likely, however, that Creede is not unique. Similar phenomena may be common in shallow ore zones where rapid fluctuation of an interface between a deep, high-temperature thermal plume and an overlying, cooler ground water may be expected to occur. Careful study of the origins of fluid inclusions, particularly in quartz, is essential to characterize the primary ore fluids and to assess the role of ground water in the hydrology of shallow ore deposits.

  9. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System in Jinchuan Cu-Ni (PGE) Sulfide Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Zhou, M.; Song, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Jinchuan Cu-Ni (PGE) sulfide deposit is located in the southwestern margin of North China Craton. Jinchuan ultramafic intrusion hosts the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni deposit in the world. There are mainly four orebodies, namely, orebody-58, orebody-24, orebody-1, and orebody-2, respectively from west to east in the deposit. The primary characteristics of Jinchuan Cu-Ni sulfide deposit are the following: (1) There is an obvious boundary between orebodys and country rocks, usually orebodys intruded into country rocks. (2) "sulfide melts" migrate and settle in the later stage of magma evolution. (3) Fluid Minerals Assemblages are found in the sulfide ores, there is Phl+Cc+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-2; Phl+Dol+AP+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-24; Q+Mag+AP+Pn+Ccp+Po in orebody-58. (4) Massive sulfides mainly occur in orebody-2, and its PGE content is very rare. Pt-Pd enrichment zones mainly occur in orebody-1; orebody-24 and orebody-58. Ir vs. Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd show positive relationship in orebody-2, but Ir vs. Ru, Rh show positive relationship, Ir vs. Pt, Pd exhibit negative relationship in orebody-1, orebody-24 and orebody-58. The modeling of Ir-Pd shows that the massive sulfide in orebody-2 maybe the origin of MSS. Pt-Pd enrichment zones in orebody-1 orebody-24 and orebody-58 are the relic liquid of monosulfide solid solution segregation; (5) Cu/Ni value is 1.24 in orebody-58, 1.56 in orebody-24, 1.83 in orebody-1, and 2.06 in orebody-2. These features imply that (1) "ore magma" or "melt-fluid bearing metal" formed in the staging chamber in depth; (2) "ore magma" might contain a lot of fluids; (3) "melt-fluid bearing metal" flow moves as a whole; (4) The moving direction of melt-fluid bearing metal flow is form west to east. The ores are enriched in Ni in the front, and enriched in Cu, Pt, Pd in the back of Jinchuan Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System.

  10. 20. Interior second level view looking west within officers' wardroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior second level view looking west within officers' wardroom at the north end of this level. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. Geology, petrology and geochemistry of the "Americano do Brasil" layered intrusion, central Brazil, and its Ni-Cu sulfide deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E Silva, Jonas Mota; Ferreira Filho, Cesar Fonseca; Bühn, Bernhard; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The "Americano do Brasil" Complex (ABC) is part of a cluster of coeval synorogenic mafic-ultramafic intrusions emplaced during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogenic Cycle in Brazil. The medium-sized ABC consists of interlayered dunite, peridotite, websterite, and gabbronorite. High Fo values of olivine (up to Fo88) and the crystallization sequence of the ABC (Ol + Chr ≥ Ol + Opx + Chr ≥ Cpx + Opx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx ≥ Opx + Pl + Cpx + Ilm + Mag) suggest crystallization from tholeiitic high-MgO parental magmas. Light rare earth element (REE)-enriched mantle-normalized REE profiles and ɛNd(T) values of +2.4 for cumulate rocks from the ABC suggest a depleted mantle source for the parental magma. The ABC Ni-Cu sulfide deposit (3.1 Mt at 1.12 wt.% Ni and 1.02 wt.% Cu) consists of three distinctively different orebodies (S1, S2, and G2). The S2 orebody, an unusual occurrence of stratiform massive sulfide hosted by dunite and peridotite in the interior of a layered intrusion, results from sulfides accumulated at the transient base of the magma chamber following a new influx of parental magma. The G2 orebody has an irregular and roughly cylindrical shape, consisting mainly of net-textured sulfides. The G2 orebody is hosted by peridotite and pyroxenite and located stratigraphically below the S1 orebody. S2 and G2 orebodies are characterized by low Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly below 0.4). The S1 orebody, hosted by websterite and gabbronorite in the more fractionated sequence of the ABC, is a cluster of several irregular discontinuous orebodies of Ni-Cu disseminated sulfides. The sulfides of the S1 orebody have high Cu/Cu + Ni ratios (mainly between 0.5 and 0.8) and are highly depleted in PGE. The S1 orebody is interpreted to result from a later event of sulfide segregation in the magma chamber, possibly following the event that originated the G2 orebody. The bulk of δ34S values for sulfides of the ABC orebodies and their host rocks fall in the range of 0 ± 2‰. Higher

  12. Use of structural geology in exploration for and mining of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.

    2001-01-01

    Structural geology is an important component in regional-, district- and orebody-scale exploration and development of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits.Identification of timing of important structural events in an ore district allows analysis and classification of fluid conduits and construction of genetic models for ore formation.The most practical uses of structural geology deal with measurement and definition of various elements that comprise orebodies, which can then be directly applied to ore-reserve estimation,ground control,grade control, safety issues,and mine planning.District- and regional-scale structural studies are directly applicable to long-term strategic planning,economic analysis,and land ownership. Orebodies in sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits are discrete, hypogene, epigenetic masses usually hosted in a fault zone,breccia mass, or lithologic bed or unit. These attributes allow structural geology to be directly applied to the mining and exploration of sedimentary rock-hosted Au deposits. Internal constituents in orebodies reflect unique episodes relating to ore formation.The main internal constituents in orebodies are ore minerals, gangue, and alteration minerals that usually are mixed with one another in complex patterns, the relations among which may be used to interpret the processes of orebody formation and control.Controls of orebody location and shape usually are due to structural dilatant zones caused by changes in attitude, splays, lithologic contacts,and intersections of the host conduit or unit.In addition,conceptual parameters such as district fabric,predictable distances, and stacking also are used to understand the geometry of orebodies.Controls in ore districts and location and geometry of orebodies in ore districts can be predicted to various degrees by using a number of qualitative concepts such as internal and external orebody plunges,district plunge, district stacking, conduit classification, geochemical, geobarometric and

  13. 81. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SURFACE BUILDINGS, GENERAL, TRANSFORMER HOUSE, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SURFACE BUILDINGS, GENERAL, TRANSFORMER HOUSE, LOWER CAMP, NORTH END - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  14. 82. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SURFACE BUILDINGS, GENERAL, TRANSFORMER HOUSE, LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. PHOTOCOPY OF DRAWING, SURFACE BUILDINGS, GENERAL, TRANSFORMER HOUSE, LOWER CAMP, NORTH END - Kennecott Copper Corporation, On Copper River & Northwestern Railroad, Kennicott, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK

  15. 17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. HOLDING TANKS AND SLUICE DOORS This picture is taken from atop the redwood holding tanks at the north end of the building, looking across at the north end of the building. Below can be seen the sluice doors through which the fish flowed to the cutting area. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  16. 7. CABLE RACK, MEZZANINE LEVEL, INTERIOR OF TEST STAND 1A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CABLE RACK, MEZZANINE LEVEL, INTERIOR OF TEST STAND 1A. Looking north from north end of the cable tunnel leading toward Control Center. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Aerial photograph dated 22 April 1942, showing Gould Island from the northeast. Complex under construction includes shop building (large rectangle at north end of island, and firing pier (at far right). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. Fast 3D Focusing Inversion of Gravity Data Using Reweighted Regularized Lanczos Bidiagonalization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaie, Mohammad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Kalate, Ali Nejati; Aghajani, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Inversion of gravity data is one of the important steps in the interpretation of practical data. One of the most interesting geological frameworks for gravity data inversion is the detection of sharp boundaries between orebody and host rocks. The focusing inversion is able to reconstruct a sharp image of the geological target. This technique can be efficiently applied for the quantitative interpretation of gravity data. In this study, a new reweighted regularized method for the 3D focusing inversion technique based on Lanczos bidiagonalization method is developed. The inversion results of synthetic data show that the new method is faster than common reweighted regularized conjugate gradient method to produce an acceptable solution for focusing inverse problem. The new developed inversion scheme is also applied for inversion of the gravity data collected over the San Nicolas Cu-Zn orebody in Zacatecas State, Mexico. The inversion results indicate a remarkable correlation with the true structure of the orebody that is achieved from drilling data.

  19. Origin of the Mariano Lake uranium deposit, McKinley County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    The Mariano Lake uranium deposit, hosted by the Brushy Basin Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation, occurs in the trough of an east-west trending syncline at the western end of the Smith Lake-Mariano Lake group of uranium deposits near Crownpoint, New Mexico. The orebody, which contains abundant amorphous organic material, is situated on the reduced side of a regional reduction-oxidation (redox) interface. The presence of amorphous organic material suggests the orebody may represent a tabular (primary) deposit, whereas the close proximity of the orebody to the redox interface is suggestive that uranium was secondarily redistributed by oxidative processes from pre-existing tabular orebodies. Uranium contents correlate positively with both organic carbon and vanadium contents. Petrographic evidence and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive analyses point to uranium residence in the epigentically introduced amorphous organic material, which coats detrital grains and fills voids. Uranium mineralization was preceded by the following diagenetic alterations: precipitation of pyrite (d34S values ranging from-11.0 to-38.2 per mil); precipitation of mixed-layer smectite-illite clays; partial dissolution of some of the detrital feldspar population; and precipitation of quartz and adularia overgrowths. Alterations associated with uranium mineralization include emplacement of amorphous organic material (possibly uranium bearing); destruction of detrital iron-titanium oxide grains; coprecipitation of chlorite and microcrystalline quartz, and precipitation of pyrite and marcasite (d34S values for these sulfides ranging from -29.4 to -41.6 per mil). After mineralization, calcite, dolomite, barite, and kaolinite precipitated, and authigenic iron disulfides were replaced by ferric oxides and hydroxides. Geochemical data (primarily the positive correlation of uranium content to both organic carbon and vanadium contents) and petrographic observations (epigentically

  20. Historical lead isotope record of a sediment core from the Derwent River (Tasmania, Australia): a multiple source environment.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Ashley T; Seen, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    A 105 cm sediment core from the Derwent River (Tasmania, Australia) was collected in 2004 and was characterised considering both physical (loss on ignition at 550 °C and grain size) and chemical (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations, Pb isotope ratios and (210)Pb dating) properties. The core was analysed to (i) investigate the historical profiles of some important elements associated with the Risdon zinc refinery adjacent to the Derwent River, (ii) determine Pb isotopic signatures of sediment samples, and (iii) assess the veracity of Pb isotope ratios as indicators of contaminant Pb input. Extractable metal concentrations were (all values as mgkg(-1), non-normalised for grain size) Fe: 20,000-35,000, Zn: 42-4500, Pb: 5-1090, Cu: 13-141, and Cd: 1-31; with a close correlation between Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Metal enrichment factors (normalised to Al) were Pb: 0.9-144, Zn: 0.8-93, Cd: 0.8-30, Cu: 0.8-8.9 and Fe: 0.9-1.3, confirming anthropogenic contributions of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd to the sediments. The onset of metal contamination above background levels occurred at a depth between 43 and 49 cm, with maximum concentrations noted near 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb. Lead isotope ratios were determined in sediments using sector field ICP-MS, and were found to be 36.5-38.8, 16.5-18.7 and 1.07-1.20 for (208)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, respectively. Major Australian ores processed at the refinery over the previous ~90 years include those from Broken Hill, Rosebery, Mt Isa, Elura, Hellyer and Century deposits. Anthropogenic impact by Pb with Broken Hill type isotopic ratio was initially evident in the core at 43-49 cm. The introduction of Rosebery and Elura ores to the refinery was also clearly noted. Pb isotope ratios further highlight that the Derwent River has been exposed to a greater impact by anthropogenic Pb in comparison to other major Tasmanian rivers, namely the Huon and Tamar.

  1. Origin of the Nchanga copper-cobalt deposits of the Zambian Copperbelt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, Ross R.; Roberts, Stephen; Boyce, Adrian J.

    2006-01-01

    The Zambian Copperbelt forms the southeastern part of the 900-km-long Neoproterozoic Lufilian Arc and contains one of the world’s largest accumulations of sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization. The Nchanga deposit is one of the most significant ore systems in the Zambian Copperbelt and contains two major economic concentrations of copper and cobalt, hosted within the Lower Roan Group of the Katangan Supergroup. A Lower Orebody (copper only) and Upper Orebody (copper and cobalt) occur towards the top of arkosic units and within the base of overlying shales. The sulfide mineralogy includes pyrite, bornite, chalcopyrite, and chalcocite, although in the Lower Orebody, sulfide phases are partially or completely replaced by malachite and copper oxides. Carrollite is the major cobalt-bearing phase and is restricted to fault-propagation fold zones within a feldspathic arenite. Hydrothermal alteration minerals include dolomite, phlogophite, sericite, rutile, quartz, tourmaline, and chlorite. Quartz veins from the mine sequence show halite-saturated fluid inclusions, ranging from ~31 to 38 wt% equivalent NaCl, with homogenisation temperatures (ThTOT) ranging between 140 and 180°C. Diagenetic pyrites in the lower orebody show distinct, relatively low δ 34S, ranging from -1 to -17‰ whereas arenite- and shale-hosted copper and cobalt sulfides reveal distinctly different δ 34S from -1 to +12‰ for the Lower Orebody and +5 to +18‰ for the Upper Orebody. There is also a clear distinction between the δ 34S mean of +12.1±3.3‰ ( n=65) for the Upper Orebody compared with +5.2±3.6‰ ( n=23) for the Lower Orebody. The δ 13C of dolomites from units above the Upper Orebody give δ 13C values of +1.4 to +2.5‰ consistent with marine carbon. However, dolomite from the shear-zones and the alteration assemblages within the Upper Orebody show more negative δ 13C values: -2.9 to -4.0‰ and -5.6 to -8.3‰, respectively. Similarly, shear zone and Upper Orebody

  2. 3. VIEW OF EAST SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF EAST - SOUTHEAST, GROUND LEVEL VIEW OF APPROACH SPANS, NORTH END OF BRIDGE, MAIN SPANS IN BACKGROUND - Buffalo River Bridge, Spanning Buffalo River on U.S. Highway 65, Marshall, Searcy County, AR

  3. 7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATIONS FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  5. 10. VIEW OF BUILDING 6. INTERIOR OF SINGLE STORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF BUILDING 6. INTERIOR OF SINGLE STORY SECTION AT NORTH END. FACING SOUTHEAST. - Winehaven, Storage Cellar & Fermentation Room, Point Molate Naval Fuel Depot, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  6. 5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of photograph. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING ORIGINAL ROOF. (photographer unknown, pre-1922) - Cohoes Company, Gate House No. 1, On Mohawk River, North end of Canal abutting East bank, Cohoes, Albany County, NY

  7. VIEW OF THE BOILER ROOM WITH STACK TO THE LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE BOILER ROOM WITH STACK TO THE LEFT AND NORTH END OF THE BAGASSE STORE HOUSE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW FROM THE WEST - Kekaha Sugar Company, Sugar Mill Building, 8315 Kekaha Road, Kekaha, Kauai County, HI

  8. Interior detail of exit door on second floor at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of exit door on second floor at north end; camera facing north. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. 7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MOTION PICTURE CAMERA STAND AT BUILDING 8768. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING EAST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; WATER FLOWING THROUGH FISH LADDER IS VISIBLE AT BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST, SHOWING FISH LADDER AT NORTH END OF DAM/SPILLWAY; VIEW SHOWS SECTION OF FISH LADDER NEAR WHERE IT ENTERS THE COLUMBIA RIVER. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL SHOWING ROLLING ENGINE DECK AND NORTHEAST TRUSS OF SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1A. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DELUGE AND WATER RECLAMATION BASIN BELOW TEST STAND 1-A. Looking north northwest - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 8. BUILDING 8769, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. BUILDING 8769, WEST FRONT AND SOUTH SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 5. EAST SIDE, TEST STAND AND ITS SUPERSTRUCTURE. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EAST SIDE, TEST STAND AND ITS SUPERSTRUCTURE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 2. BUILDING 8767, SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 8767, SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. DETAIL, CONTROL BOOTH, RP1 TANK FARM Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL, CONTROL BOOTH, RP1 TANK FARM - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Combined Fuel Storage Tank Farm, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. Edwards Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUILDING 8767, INTERIOR. Looking west. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 6. BUILDING 8768, NORTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHWEST FRONT. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. BUILDING 8768, NORTHWEST SIDE AND SOUTHWEST FRONT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. Edwards Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL SHOWING FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, John O. Brostrup, Photographer January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, John O. Brostrup, Photographer January 13, 1937 11:35 A.M. COPY OF TEXT, NORTH END OF WEST WALL IN CHAPEL OF SAAL. - The Cloisters, Saal, Ephrata, Lancaster County, PA

  4. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, John O. Brostrup, Photographer January ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, John O. Brostrup, Photographer January 13, 1937 1:45 P.M. COPY OF TEXT, NORTH END OF EAST WALL IN CHAPEL OF SAAL. - The Cloisters, Saal, Ephrata, Lancaster County, PA

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Lanny Miyamoto, Photographer October 1958 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Lanny Miyamoto, Photographer October 1958 INTERIOR, BREAKFAST ROOM, NORTH END - Garrett-Jacobs House, 7, 9, 11, 13 West Mount Vernon Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. VIEW OF THE FRONT SIDE OF BOAT LANDING S370 NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE FRONT SIDE OF BOAT LANDING S370 NEAR NORTH END, FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat Landing S370, Along Essex Street at Southeast shore of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF SLEEPING PORCH, AT NORTH END CAPABLE OF SLEEPING SIX. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  8. 11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Submersible torpedo tube mounted on platform of elevator at northeast (starboard) elevator tower. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  9. 18. Interior first level view looking northnortheast within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior first level view looking north-northeast within forward (north) section of firing pier, with office module toward foreground. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. 17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. MEN FISHING ON DOCK SOUTH OF THE RAILROAD BRIDGE NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MEN FISHING ON DOCK SOUTH OF THE RAILROAD BRIDGE NEAR NORTH END OF BARTRAM'S GARDEN PROPERTY, LOOKING SOUTH. (SIMILAR TO HALS NO. PA-1-47). - John Bartram House & Garden, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, DETAIL OF FISH SMOKING OVEN LOCATED IN NORTH END OF BUILDING, ALONG WEST WALL; LOOKING WEST - Gerber Sheet Metal Works Building, 128 Porthand Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, August 16, 1935 VIEW OF REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - United States Hotel, North Broadnax & East Green Streets, Dadeville, Tallapoosa County, AL

  14. 16. DETAIL SHOWING LIQUID OXYGEN TANK FOURTEENINCH BALL VALVE. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL SHOWING LIQUID OXYGEN TANK FOURTEEN-INCH BALL VALVE. Looking southwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of horse lamp fixture in original Clubhouse bar. Fixture is at north end of bar. Camera pointed up and NW. (July 1993) - Longacres, Clubhouse & Additions, 1621 Southwest Sixteenth Street, Renton, King County, WA

  16. 6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. ROOF OF TURBINE BUILDING AND OF L.P. BOILER ROOM FROM NORTH END OF TURBINE BUILDING ROOF - Portland General Electric Company, Turbine Building, 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  17. 22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Interior second level view of central corridor between crew mess and galley, showing representative hallway treatment. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  18. 44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. 'Submarine Torpedo Tube Foundation and Towers,' Y&D Drawing 226855, approved by Bureau of Ordnance. Dated 20 October 1943. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  19. 21. Interior second level view of representative quarters for officers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior second level view of representative quarters for officers and Chief Petty Officers. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. 5. From Span 6 to portal on span 5 looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. From Span 6 to portal on span 5 looking down grade toward north end. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  1. 4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT AND LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. 2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. 5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, NEXT TO BASKETBALL COURT, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  6. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy c. 1923 from J. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Photocopy c. 1923 from J. J. Glessner The Story of a House FIRST FLOOR STAIRCASE: MAIN HALL NORTH END - John J. Glessner House, 1800 South Prairie Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. NY32649 ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION (BUILDING 2675) AND EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NY-326-49 ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION (BUILDING 2675) AND EDUCATION CENTER (BUILDING 2670) AT NORTH END OF ARIZONA AVENUE. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  9. 25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Detail of cast iron lamp post base with fluted wooded post at top, located at north end of bridge. VIEW NORTHEAST - Chelsea Street Bridge & Draw Tender's House, Spanning Chelsea River, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  10. 4. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT AND RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  11. 1. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  12. 2. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, RIGHT SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  13. 5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  14. 3. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARRACKS, WITH PARKING LOT IN FRONT, LEFT SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. 11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION OF TAILRACE ARCH; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW NORTHEAST, DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION OF TAILRACE ARCH; BREAK IN MASONRY OF PARAPET PROBABLY INDICATES RAISING OF THE LEVEL OF THE ROADWAY AT THE NORTH END - Windham Road Bridge, Windham Road, spanning Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  16. 1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  17. 2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PAINT AND OIL STORAGE SHED, FRONT AND RIGHT SIDES, LOOKING SOUTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Paint & Oil Storage Shed, North end of base, northwest of Mess Hall & south of Basketball Court, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  18. 15. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of photograph (original in the possession of the Cooper County Court) Photographer Lloyd Grotjan (1987). ORIGINAL BLUEPRINT OF NORTH END APPROACH STRUCTURE - Roberts Bluff Bridge, .5 mile East of Blackwater, Blackwater, Cooper County, MO

  19. 14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF AREA TO BE INUNDATED FOR EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST FROM OBSERVATORY HILL AT NORTH END OF WEST DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. 12. View to north along recovery dock along east side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View to north along recovery dock along east side of firing pier. Steel brackets originally supported a sheltering canopy over the dock. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 24. Detail view of the east elevation, looking at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Detail view of the east elevation, looking at the north end T-shaped chimney stack (Note: top of flag pole peeking above the ridge line) - Kiskiack, Naval Mine Depot, State Route 238 vicinity, Yorktown, York County, VA

  2. 14. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES. Looking southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 WEST DOOR DETAILS. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  4. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 DETAIL OF TOWER. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 SOUTH ELEVATION. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 VIEW FROM NORTHEAST. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 WEST ELEVATION. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer July, 1961 WEST ELEVATION (CLOSEUP). - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  9. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, W. Eugene George, Jr., Photographer September, 1961 TOWER FROM SOUTH. - Church of our Lady of Refuge of Sinners, North end of Main Plaza on Estrella Street, Roma Creek, Starr County, TX

  10. Front (south side) of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (south side) of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. Front (south side) and west side of building. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (south side) and west side of building. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  12. West side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  13. North side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  14. East side of building Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Housing, North end of North Hickey Street, 725 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Rear (north side) and west side of building. Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (north side) and west side of building. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Civilian Employee Garage, North end of North Hickey Street, 775 feet North-Northwest of intersection of North Hickey Street & West Loosley Avenue, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  16. 17. DETAIL, FOURTEENINCH LIQUID OXYGEN BALL VALVE. Looking south southeast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL, FOURTEEN-INCH LIQUID OXYGEN BALL VALVE. Looking south southeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. HIGH-ANGLE AEOLIAN CROSSBEDDING AT TRAIL RIDGE, FLORIDA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Force, Eric; Garnar, Tom

    1985-01-01

    This paper described new evidence concerning the origin of the Trail Ridge mineral sands deposit in Florida. Rarely exposed sections of the orebody exhibit structures indicative of sand dune formation rather than coastal beach sand accumulation. The implications for mineral sands exploration, and therefore resources, in the southeastern USA are highlighted.

  18. U-Pb isotope systematics and apparent ages of uranium ores, Ambrosia Lake and Smith Lake districts, Grants mineral belt, New Mexico.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.; Webster, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of uranium orebodies occur in continental sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison formation: 1) 'primary' tabular peneconcordant bodies rich in interstitial organic material (containing most of the U) and older than the overlying Cretaceous Dakota sandstone and 2) younger discordant ore-bodies associated with Tertiary faults, containing little organic material (coffinite is the U-carrier) and considered to be redistributed primary ore. U/Pb isotope ages of four of the younger ore-bodies from the Ambrosia Lake district are concordant at 3.3-12.5 m.y. U/Pb isotope ages of primary ores from the same district show pronounced normal discordance, explained by continuous loss of Pb and 238U daughters and, locally, by U-gain during Tertiary redistribution. The primary ores, without Tertiary U-gain, plot on the concordia diagram close to a calculated continuous diffusion curve for coupled loss of Pb and 238U daughters. The concordia intercept of this curve corresponds with an age of approx 130 m.y. Ore-bodies in the Smith Lake district have characteristics both of primary (co-extensive with organic material) and redistributed (discordant) types. They show less coherent U/Pb isotope systematics but give only pre-Tertiary apparent ages.-G.J.N.

  19. 27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Aerial photograph dated 14 October 1943 taken directly over Gould Island. Completed complex shown at north end of the island (to right in photograph), including power plant, shop, frame approach, firing pier, and small harbor formed by finger pier off east side of firing pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  20. Preliminary mineralogic, fluid inclusion, and stable isotope study of the Mahd adh Dhahab gold mine, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rye, Robert O.; Hall, W.E.; Cunningham, C.G.; Czamanske, G.K.; Afifi, A.M.; Stacey, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Mahd adh Dhahab mine, located about 280 km northeast of Jiddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, has yielded more than 2 million ounces of gold from periodic production during the past 3,000 years. A new orebody on the southern side of the ancient workings, known as the South orebody, is being developed by Gold Fields-Mahd adh Dhahab Limited. A suite of samples was collected from the newly exposed orebody for preliminary mineralogic, stable isotope, fluid inclusion, and geochemical studies. The Mahd adh Dhahab deposit is in the carapace of a Proterozoic epizonal rhyolite stock that domed pyroclastic and metasedimentary rocks of the Proterozoic Halaban group. Ore of gold, silver, copper, zinc, tellurium, and lead is associated with north-trending, steeply dipping quartz veins in a zone 1,000 m long and 400 m wide. The veins include an assemblage of quartz-chlorite-pyrite-hematite-chalcopyrite-sphalerite-precious metals, which is similar to the mineral assemblage at the epithermal deposit at Creede, Colorado. The primary ore contains abundant chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and pyrite in addition to a complex precious metal assemblage. Gold and silver occur principally as minute grains of telluride minerals disseminated in quartz-chlorite-hematite and as inclusions in chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Telluride minerals include petzite, hessite, and sylvanite. Free gold is present but not abundant. All of the vein-quartz samples contained abundant, minute inclusions of both low-density, vapor-rich fluids and liquid-rich fluids. Primary fluid inclusions yielded homogenization temperatures of from 110? to 238? C. Preliminary light-stable isotope studies of the sulfide minerals and quartz showed that all of the d34S values are between 1.2 and 6.3 per mil, which is a typical range for hydrothermal sulfide minerals that derive their sulfur from an igneous source. The data-suggest that the sulfide sulfur isotope geochemistry was controlled by exchange with la large sulfur isotope

  1. Geochemical characteristics of the Church Rock 1 and 1 East uranium deposits, Grants uranium region, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Neil S.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    In the Church Rock 1 and 1 East mines, Grants uranium region (GUR), New Mexico, uranium orebodies occur within three sandstone units in the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the late Jurassic Morrison Formation. Geochemical analyses reveal that organic carbon contents in ore samples from all three sand units are uniformly low (most are less than 0.01 percent). Vanadium (ranging from 0.0002 to 0.19 percent) and sulfur (ranging from <0.01 to 0.74 percent) typically show positive correlations with uranium; however, vanadium contents rarely exceed those of uranium in ore samples. Although no systematic relationship of either selenium or molybdenum to uranium is evident, some ore samples contain anomalously high concentrations of either of these elements. Geochemically, the ore deposits of the Church Rock area contrast greatly with primary (tabular) uranium orebodies in the GUR which contain abundant organic carbon and greater amounts of vanadium and sulfur. These differences and radiometric age determinations strongly suggest that the Church Rock ores formed as a result of the redistribution of uranium from preexisting uranium deposits within the last 1 m.y. However, the Church Rock deposits differ geochemically from redistributed orebodies in the Westwater Canyon Member elsewhere in the GUR. Specifically, redistributed orebodies in the Ambrosia Lake district, which are comparable in contents of uranium and organic carbon with the Church Rock deposits, are characterized by vanadium contents typically higher than those of uranium. Similarly, sulfur contents in the redistributed deposits of the Ambrosia Lake district are greater than those found in the Church Rock ores. In addition, anomalously high concentrations of molybdenum have rarely been found in other redistributed orebodies of the GUR.

  2. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, Lena V. S.; Xavier, Roberto P.; de Carvalho, Emerson R.; Hitzman, Murray W.; Johnson, Craig A.; de Souza Filho, Carlos Roberto; Torresi, Ignácio

    2008-02-01

    The Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista-Sequeirinho-Baiano and Sossego-Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW-ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano-sedimentary units of the ˜2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ˜2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista-Sequeirinho-Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite-hematite) alteration and later sodic-calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite-(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile-brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego-Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic-sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite-quartz-epidote-chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego-Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with subsidiary siegenite, and millerite

  3. Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide-copper-gold deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Brazil: Paragenesis and stable isotope constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteiro, Lena V.S.; Xavier, R.P.; Carvalho, E.R.; Hitzman, M.W.; Johnson, C.A.; Souza, Filho C.R.; Torresi, I.

    2008-01-01

    The Sossego iron oxide–copper–gold deposit (245 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.28 g/t Au) in the Carajás Mineral Province of Brazil consists of two major groups of orebodies (Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano and Sossego–Curral) with distinct alteration assemblages that are separated from each other by a major high angle fault. The deposit is located along a regional WNW–ESE-striking shear zone that defines the contact between metavolcano–sedimentary units of the ∼2.76 Ga Itacaiúnas Supergroup and tonalitic to trondhjemitic gneisses and migmatites of the ∼2.8 Ga Xingu Complex. The deposit is hosted by granite, granophyric granite, gabbro, and felsic metavolcanic rocks. The Pista–Sequeirinho–Baiano orebodies have undergone regional sodic (albite–hematite) alteration and later sodic–calcic (actinolite-rich) alteration associated with the formation of massive magnetite–(apatite) bodies. Both these alteration assemblages display ductile to ductile–brittle fabrics. They are cut by spatially restricted zones of potassic (biotite and potassium feldspar) alteration that grades outward to chlorite-rich assemblages. The Sossego–Curral orebodies contain weakly developed early albitic alteration and very poorly developed subsequent calcic–sodic alteration. These orebodies contain well-developed potassic alteration assemblages that were formed during brittle deformation that resulted in the formation of breccia bodies. Breccia matrix commonly displays coarse mineral infill suggestive of growth into open space. Sulfides in both groups of deposits were precipitated first with potassic alteration and more importantly with a later assemblage of calcite–quartz–epidote–chlorite. In the Sequeirinho orebodies, sulfides range from undeformed to deformed; sulfides in the Sossego–Curral orebodies are undeformed. Very late, weakly mineralized hydrolytic alteration is present in the Sossego/Currral orebodies. The sulfide assemblage is dominated by chalcopyrite with

  4. The exhumed ``Carlin-type'' fossil oil reservoir at Yankee Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Collister, James W.; Stout, Bill; Curtiss, David K.; Dahdah, Nicolas F.

    1998-12-01

    The Carlin-type disseminated gold orebodies of Yankee basin in the southern part of the Alligator Ridge mining district in Nevada contain widespread oil as smears, open-space fillings, and fluid inclusions in syn- and pre-mineral calcite veins. These unusual oils are the relicts of an exhumed and deeply oxidized oil reservoir that encom-passes the orebodies at the crest of a dissected, anticlinal trap. Results of fluid-inclusion microthermometry and organic geochemistry demonstrate that the oils experienced peak paleotemperatures of no more than about 150°C, a temperature unusually low for Carlin-type mineralization, but ideal for the transport, entrapment, and preservation of liquid hydrocarbon. Similar geothermal systems are actively circulating at three of Nevada’s producing oil fields—Grant Canyon, Bacon Flat, and Blackburn. Accordingly, concealed Carlin-type fossil hydrothermal systems of this type, even if subeconomic for gold, could contain commercial concentrations of oil.

  5. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-10-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado. They are the Hansen orebody, which contains about 12 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and the Picnic Tree orebody, which contains about 1 million kg of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Host rock for the Hansen is the upper Eocene Echo Park Alluvium, and host rock for the Picnic Tree is the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek onglomerate. Average ore grade for both deposits is about 0.08 percent U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The principal source rock for the uranium depsoits is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff, although a younger volcanic rock, the Oligocene Thirtynine Mile Andesite, and Precambrian granitic rocks probably also contributed some uranium. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the ground water to favorable sites where it was deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by ground-water flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. Ground-water flow, which was apparently to the southeast in Echo Park Alluvium that is confined in the Echo Park graben, was impeded by a fault that offsets the southern end of the graben. This offset prevented efficient discharge into the ancestral Arkansas River drainage, and protected chemically reducing areas from destruction by the influx of large amounts of oxidizing ground water. The location of orebodies in the Echo Park Alluvium also may be related to areas where overlying rocks of low permeability were breached by erosion during deposition of the fluvial Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate allowing localized entry of uranium-bearing water.

  6. Post-depositional tectonic modification of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castroviejo, Ricardo; Quesada, Cecilio; Soler, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The original stratigraphic relationships and structure of VMS deposits are commonly obscured by deformation. This can also affect their economic significance, as shown by several Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, SW Iberia) examples. The contrasting rheologic properties of the different lithologies present in an orebody (massive sulphide, feeder stockwork, alteration envelope, volcanic and sedimentary rocks) play a major role in determining its overall behaviour. Variscan thin-skinned tectonics led to stacking of the massive pyrite and stockwork bodies in duplex structures, resulting in local thickening and increased tonnage of minable mineralization. Furthermore, differential mechanical behaviour of the different sulphide minerals localised the detachments along relatively ductile sulphide-rich bands. The result was a geochemical and mineralogical reorganisation of most deposits, which now consist of barren, massive pyrite horses, bounded by base metal-rich ductile shear zones. Metal redistribution was enhanced by mobilisation of the base metal sulphides from the initially impoverished massive pyrite, through pressure-solution processes, to tensional fissures within the already ductile shear zones. In NW Iberia, VMS deposits were also strongly overprinted by the Variscan deformation during emplacement of the Cabo Ortegal and Órdenes allochthonous nappe complexes, but no stacking of the orebodies was produced. Original contacts were transposed, and the orebodies, their feeder zones and the country rock acquired pronounced laminar geometry. In lower-grade rocks (greenschist facies, Cabo Ortegal Complex), solution transfer mechanisms are common in pyrite, which remains in the brittle domain, while chalcopyrite shows ductile behaviour. In higher-grade rocks (amphibolite facies, Órdenes Complex), metamorphic recrystallisation overprints earlier deformation textures. The contrasting behaviour of the IPB and NW Iberian deposits is explained by key factors that affect their

  7. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale entrance cone looking north, exit cone looking south, wind vanes north end, wind vanes north end of east return passage, wind vanes south end of west exit cone looking north east, wind vanes at south end of east exit cone looking north west, entrance cone looking south from north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) entrance cone under construction. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'The entrance cone is 75 feet in length and in this distance the cross section changes from a rectangle 72 by 110 feet to a 30 by 60 foot elliptic section. The area reduction in the entrance cone is slightly less than 5:1. The shape of the entrance cone was chosen to give as fas as possible a constant acceleration to the air stream and to retain a 9-foot length of nozzle for directing the flow.' (p. 293)

  8. Ore mineralogy and sulfur isotope study of the massive sulfide deposit of Filon Norte, Tharsis Mine, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kase, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Nakamura, T.; Mitsuno, C.

    1990-10-01

    The volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit of Filon Norte at Tharsis is hosted by carbonaceous black slate and connected only partly with stockwork veins. The massive ores are usually composed of fine-grained pyrite with subordinate amounts of sphalerite, chalcopyrite, galena and arsenopyrite. Monoclinic pyrrhotite sometimes occurs in massive pyritic ores in the apparently middle and upper horizons of the orebody, and siderite-rich ores are interstratified with compact pyritic ores in the apparently lower horizons. From the occurrence of monoclinic pyrrhotite, together with the FeS contents of sphalerite mostly ranging from 11 to 16 mol %, it is inferred that the sulfide minerals of the massive orebody were precipitated in euxinic muds on the sea-floor at temperatures below 250°C. The negatively shifted, highly variable δ 34S values of the massive ores and their close similarity to those of the underlying black slates strongly suggest that the sulfide sulfur of the massive orebody and the slates is cognate and biogenic.

  9. Syndepositional and postdepositional features of the manganese ore deposits of the Proterozoic Penganga group, Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandopadhyay, P. C.

    1988-04-01

    The Proterozoic Penganga Group consisting of terrigenous and orthochemical sediments including a manganese orebody is well developed in the northwestern part of the Adilabad district, Andhra Pradesh. The manganese orebody of unmetamorphosed and undeformed, interbanded manganese oxide ore, chert, and minor calcareous shale has retained excellent syndepositional and postdepositional features both on the macro-and microscales. The primary depositional features include meso- and microbands of manganese oxide and silica of different descriptions, scour-and-fill structures, and Mn oxide micronodules. Spherical siliceous μm-sized structures and other features of biogenic origin have been observed. Diagenetic features such as fabric changes, syneresis cracks, concretionary pods, and Mn oxide nodules have been recorded. They are accompanied by penecontemporaneous deformation structures such as pinch-and-swell structures, gravity-density features, brecciation, and folding and faulting of various kinds. All these features suggest that the manganese orebody was formed in a shallow-marine environment on a stable shelf possibly behind a barrier bar and subsequently underwent diagenetic reorganization and penecontemporaneous deformation when the sediments were still in a hydroplastic state.

  10. Geology of the Brick Flat massive sulfide body, Iron Mountain cluster, West Shasta district, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brick Flat massive sulfide body is one of a group of 8 individual bodies that constitute the Iron Mountain cluster in the S part of the West Shasta district. Before they were separated by postmineral faulting, 5 of the 8 sulfide bodies formed a single large deposit about 1375 m long with a mass of some 23 million metric tons. The pyritic Brick Flat sulfide body is one of the 5 faulted segements of this deposit. The Brick Flat massive sulfide lies within medium phenocryst rhyolite that is characteristic of the ore-bearing middle unit of the Balaklala Rhyolite. It is interpreted to be downfaulted a vertical distance of 75 to 85 m from the Old Mine sulfide-gossan orebody along the N-dipping Camden South fault. It is bounded in turn on its N side by another parallel fault, the Camden North, which drops the orebody down another 75 m to the level of the Richmond orebody. -from Author

  11. The geology of the Morro Velho gold deposit in the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vial, Diogenes Scipioni; DeWitt, Ed; Lobato, Lydia Maria; Thorman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    The Morro Velho gold deposit, Quadrilátero Ferrífero region, Minas Gerais, Brazil, is hosted by rocks at the base of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt. The deposit occurs within a thick carbonaceous phyllite package, containing intercalations of felsic and intermediate volcaniclastic rocks and dolomites. Considering the temporal and spatial association of the deposit with the Rio das Velhas orogeny, and location in close proximity to a major NNW-trending fault zone, it can be classified as an orogenic gold deposit. Hydrothermal activity was characterized by intense enrichment in alteration zones of carbonates, sulfides, chlorite, white mica±biotite, albite and quartz, as described in other Archean lode-type gold ores. Two types of ore occur in the deposit: dark gray quartz veins and sulfide-rich gold orebodies. The sulfide-rich orebodies range from disseminated concentrations of sulfide minerals to massive sulfide bodies. The sulfide assemblage comprises (by volume), on average, 74% pyrrhotite, 17% arsenopyrite, 8% pyrite and 1% chalcopyrite. The orebodies have a long axis parallel to the local stretching lineation, with continuity down the plunge of fold axis for at least 4.8 km. The group of rocks hosting the Morro Velho gold mineralization is locally referred to as lapa seca. These were isoclinally folded and metamorphosed prior to gold mineralization. The lapa seca and the orebodies it hosts are distributed in five main tight folds related to F1 (the best examples are the X, Main and South orebodies, in level 25), which are disrupted by NE- to E-striking shear zones. Textural features indicate that the sulfide mineralization postdated regional peak metamorphism, and that the massive sulfide ore has subsequently been neither metamorphosed nor deformed. Lead isotope ratios indicate a model age of 2.82 ± 0.05 Ga for both sulfide and gold mineralization. The lapa seca are interpreted as the results of a pre-gold alteration process and may be

  12. 19. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. SECOND FLOOR, INTERIOR, NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Jet Lowe, Photographer, June 1979. SECOND FLOOR, INTERIOR, NORTH END, SHOWING REMAINS OF FLOUR AND WHEAT BINS, PLATFORM FLOUR SIFTERS, D.C. GENERATOR FROME, SALEM MACHINE WORKS FLOUR MIXER AND SPROUT, WALDRON AND CO. CENTRIFUGAL REEL. - Womack's Mill, Yanceyville, Caswell County, NC

  13. 12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE RESTROOM AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE NORTH OF THE RESTROOM AND UTILITY ROOM AT THE NORTH END OF THE MAIN ENTRANCE HALLWAY OF THE ADMINISTRATION AREA. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  14. 6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, FOUNDATION AND FLOOR PLAN DRAWING OF E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 1, North end of base, southest of Basketball Court & northwest of Barracks No. 2, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  15. Interior sump/sewerage room from entry, view facing northeast U.S. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior sump/sewerage room from entry, view facing northeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Interior of sump/sewerage room looking up four levels, ladder on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of sump/sewerage room looking up four levels, ladder on pipe, view facing southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Interior view of pump 4, taken from stairs looking down, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of pump 4, taken from stairs looking down, doorway to sump/sewerage room at bottom, tapered stairs, view facing east - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    White Sands Space Harbor Area 1, Microwave Scanning Beam Landing Ground Stations, 1,500' to the south of the north end of Runway 17/35; 1,500' to the west of the east end of Runway 23/05; and 1,500' southwest of the northeast end of Runway 20/02., White Sands, Dona Ana County, NM

  19. 25. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative VIEW OF THE NORTH END OF THE OLD TIMBER DAM AT DAM SITE No. 3 - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  20. 22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. STEAM PLANT TURBINE DECK FROM SOUTH END OF BUILDING, SHOWING TOPS OF DIESEL ENGINES AT FAR NORTH END, PRIOR TO INSTALLATION OF STEAM UNIT NO. 4. Ca. 1948 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 80. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PRESSURE GAUGE IN NITROGEN AND HELIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. DETAIL OF TYPICAL PRESSURE GAUGE IN NITROGEN AND HELIUM STORAGE AND TRANSFER CONTROL SKIDS ON NORTH END OF SLC-3W FUEL APRON - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. RP1 (KEROSENE) STORAGE TANKS ON HILLSIDE EAST OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RP1 (KEROSENE) STORAGE TANKS ON HILLSIDE EAST OF TEST STAND 1-B. THIS TANK FARM SERVES BOTH TEST STANDS 1-A AND 1-B - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Combined Fuel Storage Tank Farm, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PUMP SETS NO. 5 AND NO. 4. Each pump set consists of a Worthington Pump and a General Electric motor - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 6. CABLE RACK, MEZZANINE LEVEL, INTERIOR OF TEST STAND 1A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CABLE RACK, MEZZANINE LEVEL, INTERIOR OF TEST STAND 1A. Looking south from north wall of terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  6. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOP AREA. Looking west into storage cage from near northeast corner of room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TERMINAL ROOM, INTERIOR, SHOP LEVEL, SHOWING FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM PIPES AND VALVES AT LEFT. Looking southeast from entrance to terminal room. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 2. NORTH FRONT, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE TO FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTH FRONT, FROM SUPERSTRUCTURE TO FLAME DEFLECTOR. Looking south southwest from Observation Post No. 1 (Building 8767). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ONE MILLION GALLON WATER TANK, PUMP HEADER PIPE (AT LEFT), HEADER BYPASS PIPE (AT RIGHT), AND PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS. Looking northeast - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. TRAVELING CRANE ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM RUN LINE DECK. Looking up to north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 21. VALVES, GAUGES, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF LIGHTING ALONG ROAD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VALVES, GAUGES, AND SEVERAL TYPES OF LIGHTING ALONG ROAD AT SOUTH REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. RP1 TANK FARM IN MIDDLE DISTANCE. Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 5. METAL SHOP ROOM (AREA 108 ON PLAN CA236R36). Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. METAL SHOP ROOM (AREA 108 ON PLAN CA-236-R-36). Looking northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. TERMINAL ROOM, SHOP LEVEL INTERIOR, SHOWING MEZZANINE LEVEL CABLE RACK AT UPPER RIGHT. Looking north. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 24. SATURN V Fl ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. SATURN V F-l ENGINE TEST FIRING ON TEST STAND 1A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 3. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH SUPERSTRUCTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT AND WEST SIDE, WITH SUPERSTRUCTURE, FROM NEAR OBSERVATION POST NO. 3. Looking south southeast from below. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. GENERAL VIEW OF PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS, ALSO SHOWING THREE PUMPS STILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF PUMPHOUSE FOUNDATIONS, ALSO SHOWING THREE PUMPS STILL ON THE PAD, AND THE ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION IN LEFT MIDDLE DISTANCE - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Flame Deflector Water System, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL SHOWING THRUST MEASURING SYSTEM. Looking up from the test stand deck to east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. 10. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, WEST OF TEST STAND 1A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, WEST OF TEST STAND 1-A. SOUTH SIDE AND EAST FRONT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. 9. WEST SIDE, TEST STAND AND SUPERSTRUCTURE. TEST STAND 1B ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST SIDE, TEST STAND AND SUPERSTRUCTURE. TEST STAND 1-B IN DISTANCE. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 16. Detail view of the scale area at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail view of the scale area at the north end of the 1937 main section, looking east-northeast; the original office is at th left, and the scale at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  5. Closer view of farm complex looking from the east southeast; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Closer view of farm complex looking from the east southeast; note east (rear) elevation and north end of barn (HABS No. Md-85-A) and east (rear) elevation of springhouse/kitchen (HABS No. Md-85-B) - Roulette Farm, House, Sharpsburg, Washington County, MD

  6. The auditorium is visible in the center distance, beyond the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    The auditorium is visible in the center distance, beyond the north end of the administration building, in the shadow at left, and beyond the west end of the life sciences building at the right. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. Courtyard between the library, at left, and the life sciences ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Courtyard between the library, at left, and the life sciences building, at right. The north end of the administration building is just out of view to the right. - San Bernardino Valley College, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey PHOTOCOPY CA. 1916 OF FRENCH ROOM LOOKING AT NORTH END OF ROOM. WALLS COVERED IN SILK WITH HAND- EMBROIDERED APPLIQUES. NOTE CARVINGS AND MOLDINGS IN WHITE GUM WOODWORK. FLOORS ARE PARQUET. Original in Collections of Marian College - James A. Allison Mansion, 3200 Coldspring Road, Indianapolis, Marion County, IN

  9. 18. Interior view of large unoccupied meeting/gathering room looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior view of large unoccupied meeting/gathering room looking towards small stage and opened doorway to exterior vestibule; showing through wall air conditioning unit; north end of east wing on main floor; view to southwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  10. 17. Interior view of courtroom looking towards judge's bench; showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view of courtroom looking towards judge's bench; showing built in linear seating on both ends of room, clerical desk and equipment, through wall air conditioning units, exterior windows and door; north end of west wing on top floor; view to northwest. - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Group Administration & Secure Storage Building, 2372 Westover Avenue, Blackhawk, Meade County, SD

  11. 23. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, concrete superstructure - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  12. 19. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, north pierhead crib - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  13. 15. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, crib sections - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  14. 16. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, steel plates - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  15. 22. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, timber molds for concrete superstructure - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  16. 24. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, present and proposed piers - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  17. 21. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, crib no. 17 - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  18. 17. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, steel plates - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  19. 20. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, monolithic blocks - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  20. 18. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of blueprints and plans (from the originals in possession of Detroit District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Duluth, Minnesota). North pier of Duluth Canal, 1899, main crib - Duluth Ship Canal, North Pier, North end of Minnesota Point at Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  1. 41. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3867-46, Y&D Drawing 190841. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. 19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. Objects pictured include torpedo cart (left), floor-mounted roller tray (extending to lower right), and (at center rear), deck-type firing tube. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. 14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. View south from first level roof of firing pier. Pitched corrugated metal roof marks location of the frame approach connecting the firing pier to the shop (shown in left distance). - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  4. 40. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3866-46, Y&D Drawing 190840. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 34. 'Firing Pier, Longitudinal Sectional Elevation, Looking East,' submitted 29 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. 'Firing Pier, Longitudinal Sectional Elevation, Looking East,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3873-46, Y&D Drawing 190847. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. 39. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 4,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 4,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3865-46, Y&D Drawing 190839. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  7. 36. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 1,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3862-46, Y&D Drawing 190836. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  8. 38. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 3,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 3,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3864-46, Y&D Drawing 190838. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  9. 31. 'Firing Pier, Elevation, East,' submitted 29 December 1941 by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. 'Firing Pier, Elevation, East,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3871-46, Y&D Drawing 190845. Scale 1/8' = 1' - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  10. 42. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 3,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. 'Firing Pier, Second Floor Plan, Section No. 3,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3868-46, Y&D Drawing 190842. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  11. 32. 'Firing Pier, Elevation, West,' submitted 29 December 1941 by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. 'Firing Pier, Elevation, West,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3872-46, Y&D Drawing 190846. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  12. 37. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. 'Firing Pier, First Floor Plan, Section No. 2,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3863-46, Y&D Drawing 190837. Scale 1/4' = 1. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  13. 15. Interior firstlevel view looking north within rear section of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior first-level view looking north within rear section of firing pier. Debris includes a junked torpedo firing tube mounted on a dolly. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  14. 35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. 'Firing Pier, Cross Sections, Looking South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3874-46, Y&D Drawing 190848. Scale 1/8' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  15. 33. 'Firing Pier, Elevations, North & South,' submitted 29 December ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. 'Firing Pier, Elevations, North & South,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3870-46, Y&D Drawing 190844. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  16. 43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. 'Firing Pier, Third and Fourth Floors and Roof Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3869-46, Y&D Drawing 190843. Scale 1/4' = 1'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  17. 16. VIEW OF DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY317724) ON THE DOWNSLOPE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-24) ON THE DOWNSLOPE SIDE OF KINGS CANYON ROAD. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 2.45 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR SITE TY-3177). PHOTO IS TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE FEATURE, FACING DUE WEST (2700). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  18. 4. VIEW OF A DRYLAID ROCK WALL (TY31772) ON THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF A DRY-LAID ROCK WALL (TY-3177-2) ON THE KINGS CANYON ROAD WHERE BLADING AND GRADING WILL OCCUR. LOCATED AT MILEPOST 0.07 (ACCORDING TO THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE RECORD FOR TY-3177). TAKEN FROM THE NORTH END OF THE WALL, FACING SOUTH 24ø WEST (214ø). - Kings Canyon Road, Carson City, Carson City, NV

  19. 47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Detail of gears for steam powered Marine Railway #1, and drive equipment for Railways #l and #2, Marine Railway Headhouse, ground floor, north end, drive gears in foreground, pulling gears for Railway # 1 in background. - Thames Tow Boat Company, Foot of Farnsworth Street, New London, New London County, CT

  20. 45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 'Replace Starboard Elevator and Repairs, Gould Island, Building No. 35,' approved 26 July 1981, NUSC Drawing No. 80-67, NAV. FAC. Drawing No. 2,047,203. Scales as noted. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING J. CLARK SALYER NATIONAL WILDLIFE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING J. CLARK SALYER NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE, JUST EAST OF WESTHOPE, NORTH DAKOTA (THE NORTH END OF THE REFUGE JUST SOUTH OF DAM 357 AND THE CANADIAN BORDER) - J. Clark Salyer National Wildlife Refuge Dams, Along Lower Souris River, Kramer, Bottineau County, ND

  2. 30. XX byproducts building (containing coke gas compressors at north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. XX by-products building (containing coke gas compressors at north end, ammonia stills in south end), #20 coal conveyor jutting out of top on east side, continuing out west side to bunker. Looking south/southeast - Rouge Steel Company, 3001 Miller Road, Dearborn, MI

  3. Currents and Undercurrents: An Administrative History of Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Kathryn L.; Renk, Nancy F.

    The 1,259-mile Columbia River flows out of Canada and across eastern Washington state, forming the border between Washington and Oregon. In 1941 the federal government dammed the Columbia River at the north end of Grand Coulee, creating a man-made reservoir named Lake Roosevelt that inundated homes, farms, and businesses, and disrupted the lives…

  4. 10. View east from northwest (port) elevator tower to northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View east from northwest (port) elevator tower to northeast (starboard) elevator tower. Muzzle of deck torpedo tube projects from wall at lower right. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. 'Gould Island Facilities, General Plan,' submitted 29 December 1941 by John Brackett, Consulting Engineer, to Public Works Department, Bureau of Yards & Docks. PW Drawing 3859-46, Y&D Drawing 190833. Scales 1' = 50' and 1' = 10'. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  6. 21. Interior, Turbo Blower Building. Furnaceblowing engines included one Elliot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Interior, Turbo Blower Building. Furnace-blowing engines included one Elliot and two Brown-Boveri steam-drive turbines (shown here). The north end of the building house the plant's machine shop. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  7. Overall contextual view of Facility S17, southeast side with Dry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall contextual view of Facility S17, southeast side with Dry Dock No. 1 below, P-77 behind, view facing west - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Dry Dock No. 1, Pumpwell, By-Pass Valve & Saltwater Pumphouse, North end of Fifth Street, between Dry Dock No. 1 & Facility GD2 , Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 28. VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR DOUBLE DOORS LEADING TO CLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR DOUBLE DOORS LEADING TO CLASS ROOM (VETERAN'S HALL) AT NORTH END OF BUILDING. SHOWS OAK DOORS, CEILING HEIGHT, GLASS TRANSOM AND ACCESS TO DUMB WAITER AT THE RIGHT OF THE DOOR. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  9. 4. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627. West side and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627. West side and north end. Camera facing southeast. Shows original (lower roofed section) and later addition. Metal building next to south end is related to decontamination and demolition activities. Ineel photo no. 1-7. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. 9. ARAI Shop and maintenance building ARA627 interior view. Metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. ARA-I Shop and maintenance building ARA-627 interior view. Metal roll-up door on north end (rear) of building. Camera facing northeast. Ineel photo no. 1-12. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. 33 CFR 110.155 - Port of New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of Hart Island; west of Hart Island; and northwest of a line extending from Hart Island Light to... southwest end of Hart Island; northwest of a line ranging from the water tank at the north end of Davids Island 207°40′ to the northwest end of City Island; and south of latitude 40°52′12″; and (ii) the...

  12. 33 CFR 110.155 - Port of New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of Hart Island; west of Hart Island; and northwest of a line extending from Hart Island Light to... southwest end of Hart Island; northwest of a line ranging from the water tank at the north end of Davids Island 207°40′ to the northwest end of City Island; and south of latitude 40°52′12″; and (ii) the...

  13. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  14. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  15. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  16. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone... Turning Basin west of Snake Island; (3) The area of Texas City Channel from the north end of the...

  17. 1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR VIEW OF BOILER HOUSE FROM SOUTHWEST. THE BOILER HOUSE WAS USED FOR HEATING THE MILL; HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER FOR PRODUCTION WAS PURCHASED FROM THE COLUMBUS LIGHT & POWER COMPANY. NORTH END OF 1924 MILL TO RIGHT, c. 1970 WINDOWLESS WEAVE ROOM ADDITION TO LEFT. - Stark Mill, Boiler House, 117 Corinth Road, Hogansville, Troup County, GA

  18. FACILITY 72, INTERIOR. 15LIGHT DOUBLE DOORS WITH 15LIGHT SIDELIGHTS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 72, INTERIOR. 15-LIGHT DOUBLE DOORS WITH 15-LIGHT SIDELIGHTS AND 2-LIGHT TRANSOM. LIVING ROOM BEYOND. VIEW FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Senior Officers' Quarters Type C, North end of Makalapa Drive, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM NUMBER TWO SHOWING FLOOR TO CEILING BUILT-IN CLOSET OCCUPING ENTIRE NORTH END OF ROOM, AND 6-LIGHT OVER 1-LIGHT SASH WINDOW ON EAST WALL. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  20. 2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. UPSTREAM SIDE OF DAM AND BRIDGE WITH ABANDONED SAN TAN FLOOD-WATER HEADGATE IN FOREGROUND. TAKEN FROM NORTH END OF DAM - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Sacaton Dam & Bridge, Gila River, T4S R6E S12/13, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  1. 6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, ELEVATION DRAWING FOR E.M. BARRACKS, N.C.O. AND OFFICERS QUARTERS. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Barracks No. 2, North end of base, southeast of Barracks No. 1 & northeast of Mess Hall, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. Detail, east porch, view to southsouthwest. This was originally an ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, east porch, view to south-southwest. This was originally an open porch (note chamfered porch post in center, enclosed at unknown date. Note also 6/6 windows, which appear only here and in north end of second floor. - Drew-Sherwood Farm, House, 7927 Elk Grove Boulevard, Elk Grove, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 15. VIEW OF COTTAGES 361, 362, AND 361, FROM PICNIC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF COTTAGES 361, 362, AND 361, FROM PICNIC PARK AT NORTH END OF VILLAGE, FACING SOUTH. ROOF AT UPPER LEFT IS COTTAGE 101, HOSE HOUSE 106. DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF COTTAGE 231 IS VISIBLE IN CENTER OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Swan Falls Village, Snake River, Kuna, Ada County, ID

  4. Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, equipment room, weather support area (from July, 1968 drawing) at north end of display area, looking west. Window looks south towards the main console - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. 22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSPORTING STEEL FLOOR PLATES ON HAND CART TO NORTH END OF BRIDGE. NOTE RETAINING ANGLE FOR SURFACING AT CUT-SIDE EDGE OF FLOOR PLATES. NOTE TUNNELS IN TOP OF ROCK FACE FOR MAIN CABLES - Kaibab Trail Suspension Bridge, Spanning Colorado River, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  6. Airfield setting of Facility Nos. 175 and 176, taken from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Airfield setting of Facility Nos. 175 and 176, taken from north end of Ford Island Runway, with landplane hangars on the right - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Landplane Hangar Type, Wasp Boulevard and Gambier Bay Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. 18. CROWS NEST ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking up from northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. CROWS NEST ATOP SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking up from northeast corner of run line deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. View from northeast of Car Shop showing east wall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from northeast of Car Shop showing east wall and north end; also a portion of (east facade) of Foundry building. Structure between houses the boilers and stationary steam engine - East Broad Top Railroad & Coal Company, State Route 994, West of U.S. Route 522, Rockhill Furnace, Huntingdon County, PA

  9. 12. DETAIL SHOWING EAST SIDE OF THE OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL SHOWING EAST SIDE OF THE OXYGEN AND HYDROGEN PRE-VALVE DECK (2ND LEVEL). Looking south. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DECOMMISIONED HYDROGEN TANK IN FORMER LIQUID OXYGEN STORAGE AREA, BETWEEN TEST STAND 1-A AND INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL BUILDING. Looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  11. 15. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) SPHERICAL TANKS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL SHOWING HYDROGEN (LEFT) AND OXYGEN (RIGHT) SPHERICAL TANKS ON RUN LINE DECK, THIRD LEVEL. DARK TONED PIPING IS THE FIRE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. Looking south southwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. 13. DETAIL SHOWING OXYGEN (LEFT) AND HYDROGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL SHOWING OXYGEN (LEFT) AND HYDROGEN (RIGHT) PREVALVES ON SECOND DECK OF SUPERSTRUCTURE, ABOVE THE ENGINE. Looking northwest. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 11. Interior view of first floor of 1922 north section, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of first floor of 1922 north section, showing east wall and windows at far north end of building. Camera pointed E. Rear of building is partially visible on far left. - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Pattern Shop, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  14. DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE SET INTO THE CONCRETE SLAB OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF STEEL PLATE SET INTO THE CONCRETE SLAB OF THE NORTH END OF THE ABOVE-GROUND PORTION. VIEW FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island 5-Inch Antiaircraft Battery, Battery Command Center, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  15. Domainal fabrics of hematite in schistose, shear zone-hosted high-grade Fe ores: The product of the interplay between deformation and mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosière, Carlos A.; Garcia, Orlando L.; Siemes, Heinrich; Schaeben, Helmut

    2013-10-01

    Schistose high-grade hematite orebodies (>64 wt % Fe) in the Iron Quadrangle, Minas Gerais, were formed in shear zones by hydrothermal alteration of the Paleoproterozoic Cauê BIF during the Transamazonian orogenesis. The ore is comprised of platy hematite (specularite) grains that define the foliation and overprint a relict banded martite-hematite fabric resembling, at first sight, a mylonite. The EBSD analyses of a m-scale schistose orebody from the Pau Branco mine show that specularite grew as elongated plates with the (00.1) plane parallel to the foliation. The population of the measured grain aspect ratio (GAR) is homogenous in different scales, and the longest axes of the crystals align with the stretching lineation (L//X) building continuous domains, or anastomose around stretched iron oxide aggregates and rootless fold hinges. The pole figure of the (00.1) plane shows usually a maximum centered on the pole of the foliation Z often elongated on a girdle perpendicular to the lineation L. The {10.4} pole figure has the configuration of a symmetric cleft girdle and the corresponding {11.0} and {10.0} pole figures present well developed girdles parallel to the foliation with an elongated maximum centered on X. Microstructures associated with crystal-plastic behavior and dynamic recrystallization are missing and the fabric of the orebody probably results from precipitation of strain-controlled oriented hematite plates and anisotropic syntaxial growth of favorably oriented grains with the intervention of hydrothermal fluids during Fe enrichment. The shear zone provided pathways for the percolation of mineralizing fluids under temperatures that varied from 140 to 350 °C or higher, under ductile or ductile-brittle conditions. The orthorhombic fabric and CPO (crystallographic preferred orientation) of the ore nevertheless contrast with the asymmetry of simple shear as observed in the torsion experiments by Siemes et al. (2010, 2011), probably due to volume loss and

  16. In situ LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology of igneous rocks in the Ashele Basin, Altay orogenic belt, northwest China: Constraints on the timing of polymetallic copper mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuquan; Liu, Feng; Li, Qiang; Geng, Xinxia

    2014-01-01

    The Altay orogenic belt of Kazakhstan hosts a world-class polymetallic copper volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) metallogenic belt, and the eastern margin of this belt extends into the southern Chinese Altay. The Ashele Basin is located at the western end of the Chinese Altay and borders Kazakhstan. The basin hosts the large Ashele copper-zinc deposit, which is a typical VMS deposit and the largest deposit in the Ashele Basin, and it hosts the subvolcanic-hosted medium-sized Sarsuk polymetallic gold deposit. Both of these deposits are hosted in the Ashele Formation volcanic sequence. The Ashele copper-zinc orebodies are stratabound orebodies located between basalt and tuff units, and were formed during exhalative sediment deposition; in comparison, the Sarsuk gold-copper-lead-zinc orebodies are hosted by rhyolite porphyry that contains disseminated, veinlet, and veinlet-stockwork ore that formed during intrusion of the rhyolite porphyry. This study presents new zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses of six volcanic and subvolcanic units, and dikes associated with the Sarsuk and Ashele deposits. The ore-bearing rhyolite porphyry, diabase dike, basalt, tuff, and dacite porphyry samples analyzed during this study yielded ages of 382.0-382.8, 381.7, 388.2, 387.0, and 379.4 Ma, respectively. These data indicate that the Ashele Formation formed during the Early-Mid-Devonian (375-402 Ma), whereas the Ashele copper-zinc deposit formed during the Middle Devonian (388-387 Ma) and the Sarsuk polymetallic copper-gold deposit formed during the latest Middle Devonian (382 Ma). Inherited zircons within the six samples analyzed during this study yielded U-Pb ages of 618-2294 Ma, suggesting the presence of Precambrian crystalline basement within the Altay orogenic belt.

  17. Lead-isotope study of the sulphide ore and alteration zone, Bleikvassli zinc-lead deposit, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, H.; Bjørlykke, A.; Thorpe, R. I.

    1992-09-01

    The Bleikvassli Zn-Pb deposit is located in the Uppermost Allochthon of the northern Norwegian Caledonides and is enclosed in amphibolite facies, multiply deformed supracrustal rocks. The stratiform orebody occurs stratigraphically above a sequence of gneiss and amphibolite and below a thick carbonate unit. The orebody, spatially associated with a footwall microcline gneiss that contains as much as 12wt‰ K2O, occurs in the lower part of the Mine Sequence which also comprises (kyanite-) mica schist and quartzo-feldspathic to siliceous rocks. The host rock lithology and the metal content of the Bleikvassli orebody are consistent with a SEDEX origin of the deposit. Field relationships and chemistry suggest that the microcline gneiss represents a potassic alteration of pelitic sediments related to the ore-forming process. A 464 ± 22 Ma Rb-Sr isochron for the microcline gneiss is interpreted to be a metamorphic age resulting from resetting of the Rb-Sr isotopic system during the Caledonian orogeny. The U-Pb in the whole rock shows evidence of recent mobilization of uranium and a partial or total resetting of the system during peak metamorphism. As with most SEDEX deposits, the lead isotope composition of the Bleikvassli ore plots close to the orogen growth curve. The geological setting of the ore and the lead — isotope compositions of the galenas indicate a Cambrian age of mineralization. However, the slope of the lead isotope data indicate an age of about 1000 Ma, which is also a maximum age of ore deposition. The lead isotope data for the galena, in conjunction with the compositions of the microcline gneiss during peak metamorphism, support a model whereby the microcline rock was formed as an alteration product by the ore forming fluid and the initial lead isotope composition of the microcline rock was similar to that of the galenas during ore deposition.

  18. Hydrothermal remobilisation around a deformed and remobilised komatiite-hosted Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Sarah's Find, Agnew Wiluna greenstone belt, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Vaillant, Margaux; Saleem, Ahmad; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Miller, John; Beresford, Steve; Perring, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    The Sarah's Find nickel deposit, located 4.5 km north of the Mount Keith nickel mine, Western Australia, was chosen as a case study to investigate the nature and three-dimensional geometry of a geochemical halo created by the hydrothermal remobilisation of base metals and platinum group elements into the country rock surrounding a small massive Ni sulphide orebody. Portable and laboratory-based XRF analyses were carried out on samples from a shear zone localised along the basal komatiite-dacite contact that hosts the orebody. A geochemical halo was identified that extends along the shear zone up to 1780 m away from the massive sulphides, parallel to a prominent stretching lineation. Elevated Ni and Pd are associated with high As, Co, Cu and S. Palladium and Pt concentrations increase with proximity to massive sulphides (from 6 to 1190 ppb Pd). These anomalous concentrations reflect the presence of sulfarsenides and sulphides, either physically remobilised and forming veinlets close to the massive sulphides, or hydrothermally transported and redeposited within the foliation. In situ laser ablation ICP-MS indicates that Pd and Pt are hosted within these nickel sulfarsenides. This Ni-Co-As-Pd geochemical halo, observed around the Sarah's Find ore body, is interpreted as forming syn deformation, by the circulation of As-rich hydrothermal fluids dissolving base metals, Pd and Pt from the orebody and redepositing them along the sheared footwall contact. Similar Ni-Co-Pd-Pt-As geochemical haloes could potentially exist around any magmatic nickel sulphide mineral system that has undergone a phase of arsenic metasomatism and may be a generally applicable proximity indicator for nickel sulphides in hydrothermally altered terranes.

  19. Magmatic conduit melt-fluid metallogenic system- A new Genetic Model for Xishimen Iron Deposit, Wuan area, Hebei province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SU, S.; Hou, J.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.; Yang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Xishimen Iron deposit is located in Wuan city, Hebei province, China. it is a typical skarn deposit, but some geological characteristics in the deposit cannot been explained by skarn model. We will try to reveal the genetic mechanism of the iron deposit¢s in this paper. Orebodys mainly occur along the boundary of diorite and metalimestone in the Xishimen iron deposit. Some orebodys intruded into diorites or limestones. There are vesicles in some massive ores. Magnetite from the lower part of orebody occur between diopside and tremolite as an intersititial minerals. Magnetites from upper part of the orebody are eqilibrium with calcite, apatite, Talc, pyrite and chalcopyrite. Magnetites coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite have more than 15000 ppm TiO2, and riched in SiO2. However, magnetites coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfides have 200 ppm- 400 ppm TiO2, and poored in SiO2. Magnetites coexisting with talc have highest Al2O3, MgO, and MnO. Magnetites coexisting with calcite and sulfide have lowest Al2O3, MnO and MgO. Trace element analysis results of magnetite show that magnetite coexisting with dioposide, tremolite and phlogopite are riched in Ti and Ta, and depleted Nb and Y. Magnetite coexisting with calcite, talc and sulfide are usually have poor positive or no anomaly of Ti and Ta, and have poor positive anomaly of Nb, Hf, and Y. The analysis results of Fe isotope for ores and rocks in Xishimen iron deposit show that there is a negative correlation relationship between altitude and the value of Fe isotope. The heavy Fe isotopes of ores are richer in the lower part than in the upper part. The origin processes of Xishimen iron deposit are: (1) mafic-intermediate magma riched in iron reacted with limestone, and make the "iron magma" formation; (2) Fluids are added into the metallogenic system continuously, and "iron magma" was getting less density; (3) "iron magma" bearing fluids uplifting along magma conduit because of fluid superpressure

  20. Dal'negosrk skarn deposit, Sikhote-Alin: Stages and sources of matter for borosilicate ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karas', O. A.; Ratkin, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    The danburite orebody at the northeastern wall of the open pit of the Dal'negorsk borosilicate deposit is studied. The comparative mineralogical-, isotopic-, and thermobarogeochemical analyses of danburite from the Levoberezhnyi area and datolite of the late skarn stage from the Tsentral'nyi open pit confirms that danburite is a result of the early borosilicate stage of formation of the deposit. Combined with previously published data, it is concluded that marine sedimentary rocks or Early Cretaceous arkose sandstones from the matrix of the Taukhin accretionary prism could be the source of boron.

  1. H-bonding scheme and cation partitioning in axinite: a single-crystal neutron diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatta, G. Diego; Redhammer, Günther J.; Guastoni, Alessandro; Guastella, Giorgio; Meven, Martin; Pavese, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    The crystal chemistry of a ferroaxinite from Colebrook Hill, Rosebery district, Tasmania, Australia, was investigated by electron microprobe analysis in wavelength-dispersive mode, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and single-crystal neutron diffraction at 293 K. The chemical formula obtained on the basis of the ICP-AES data is the following: ^{X1,X2} {{Ca}}_{4.03} Y ( {{{Mn}}_{0.42} {{Mg}}_{0.23} {{Fe}}^{2 + }_{1.39} } )_{Σ 2.04} ^{Z1,Z2} ( {{{Fe}}^{3 + }_{0.15} {{Al}}_{3.55} {{Ti}}_{0.12} } )_{Σ 3.82} ^{T1,T2,T3,T4} ( {{{Ti}}_{0.03} {{Si}}_{7.97} } )_{Σ 8} ^{T5} {{B}}_{1.96} {{O}}_{30} ( {{OH}} )_{2.18} . The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum shows unambiguously the occurrence of Fe2+ and Fe3+ in octahedral coordination only, with Fe2+/Fe3+ = 9:1. The neutron structure refinement provides a structure model in general agreement with the previous experimental findings: the tetrahedral T1, T2, T3 and T4 sites are fully occupied by Si, whereas the T5 site is fully occupied by B, with no evidence of Si at the T5, or Al or Fe3+ at the T1- T5 sites. The structural and chemical data of this study suggest that the amount of B in ferroaxinite is that expected from the ideal stoichiometry: 2 a.p.f.u. (for 32 O). The atomic distribution among the X1, X2, Y, Z1 and Z2 sites obtained by neutron structure refinement is in good agreement with that based on the ICP-AES data. For the first time, an unambiguous localization of the H site is obtained, which forms a hydroxyl group with the oxygen atom at the O16 site as donor. The H-bonding scheme in axinite structure is now fully described: the O16- H distance (corrected for riding motion effect) is 0.991(1) Å and an asymmetric bifurcated bonding configuration occurs, with O5 and O13 as acceptors [i.e. with O16··· O5 = 3.096(1) Å, H··· O5 = 2.450(1) Å and O16- H··· O5 = 123.9(1)°; O16··· O13 = 2.777(1) Å, H··· O13 = 1.914(1) Å and O16- H··· O13 = 146

  2. Sedimentary model for the giant Broken Hill Pb-Zn deposit, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John V.; Haydon, Robert C.; McConachy, Geoff W.

    1987-07-01

    During the past 15 years there has been increasing acceptance of a volcanic exhalative origin for the giant 300-Mt Broken Hill Pb-Zn orebody. Supposedly, silicic pyroclastic rock types have been identified in the host-rock succession, and because of an association with basic volcanics (amphibolites), comparison is made with Phanerozoic continental rifts. The orebody has also been described as distal and deep water. We report that the so-called silicic volcanic rocks are all normal clastic sediments. The metasedimentary succession (more than 5 km thick) is interpreted as a series of major continental, fluvio-deltaic, progradational wedges interfingering with marine transgressive cycles, deposited in a gradually deepening basin. Pb-Zn mineralization is hosted by shallow-marine sands that later became reservoirs for the metal-bearing brines. Basin formation, stratigraphic architecture, and Pb-Zn mineralization can all be interpreted in terms of concepts understood from studies of the development of younger sedimentary basins. The inference is that Pb-Zn mineralization was generated by compactive expulsion of metal-bearing brines during accumulation of the sedimentary pile. *Request reprints from McConachy

  3. Mineralogy, textures, and relative age relationships of massive sulfide ore in the West Shasta district, California ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, S.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Devonian massive sulfide orebodies of the West Shasta district in N California are composed primarily of pyrite, with lesser amounts of other sulfide and gangue minerals. Examination of polished thin sections of more than 100 samples from the Mammoth, Shasta King, Early Bird, Balaklala, Keystone, and Iron Mountain mines suggests that mineralization may be divided into 6 paragenetic stages, the last 5 each separated by an episode of deformation: 1) precipitation of fine-grained, locally colloform and framboidal pyrite and sphalerite; 2) deposition of fine-grained arsenopyrite and coarse-grained pyrite; 3) penetration and local replacement of sulfide minerals of stages 1 and 2 along growth zones and fractures by chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, tennantite, pyrrhotite, bornite, and idaite; 4) recrystallization and remobilization of existing minerals; 5) deposition of quartz, white mica, chlorite, and calcite; and 6) formation of bornite, digenite, chalcocite, and covellite during supergene enrichment of several orebodies at the Iron Mountain mine. Mineralogic and textural evidence do not support a second major episode of massive sulfide mineralization during the Permian. -from Author

  4. Three-dimensional oxygen isotope imaging of convective fluid flow around the Big Bonanza, Comstock lode mining district, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criss, R.E.; Singleton, M.J.; Champion, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen isotope analyses of propylitized andesites from the Con Virginia and California mines allow construction of a detailed, three-dimensional image of the isotopic surfaces produced by the convective fluid flows that deposited the famous Big Bonanza orebody. On a set of intersecting maps and sections, the δ18O isopleths clearly show the intricate and conformable relationship of the orebody to a deep, ~500 m gyre of meteoric-hydrothermal fluid that circulated along and above the Comstock fault, near the contact of the Davidson Granodiorite. The core of this gyre (δ18O = 0 to 3.8‰) encompasses the bonanza and is almost totally surrounded by rocks having much lower δ18O values (–1.0 to –4.4‰). This deep gyre may represent a convective longitudinal roll superimposed on a large unicellular meteoric-hydrothermal system, producing a complex flow field with both radial and longitudinal components that is consistent with experimentally observed patterns of fluid convection in permeable media.

  5. Timing of the formation of the Changba-Lijiagou Pb-Zn ore deposit, Gansu Province, China: Evidence from Rb-Sr isotopic dating of sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qiaoqing; Wang, Yitian; Mao, Jingwen; Wei, Ran; Liu, Shengyou; Ye, Dejin; Yuan, Qunhu; Dou, Ping

    2015-05-01

    The giant Changba-Lijiagou Pb-Zn deposit is located in the north of the Xihe-Chengxian (abbreviated as "Xicheng") ore cluster in Gansu Province, China. The orebodies in the deposit are mainly hosted in the marble, dolomitic marble, and biotite-calcite-quartz schist of the Middle Devonian Anjiacha Formation. The genesis of the deposit has previously been argued to be of SEDEX type (sedimentary exhalative type) or of epigenetic hydrothermal type. This paper reports results of Rb-Sr isotopic dating on sphalerite and pyrite taken from the main orebody, which yield an isochron age of 222.3 ± 2.2 Ma for eight sphalerite samples, and 222.0 ± 3.0 Ma for the eight sphalerite samples combined with four pyrite samples, indicating that the deposit formed during the Late Triassic. The (87Sr/86Sri) value of the sphalerite is 0.71370 ± 0.00013, and that of the sphalerite and pyrite is 0.71371 ± 0.00014, which are identical within experimental error, suggesting that the ore metals are derived mainly from the continental crust. By integrating the present results with the regional geology, we propose that the Changba-Lijiagou Pb-Zn deposit is a product of regional hydrothermal mineralization processes, forced by tectono-magmatic activities, which took place in the Xicheng ore cluster during Triassic orogenic processes.

  6. Shallow to near-surface, vein-type epithermal gold mineralization at Lalab in the Sibutad gold deposit, Zamboanga del Norte, Mindanao, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, F. A.; Yumul, G. P.; Maglambayan, V. B.; Tamayo, R. A.

    2002-12-01

    The Sibutad vein-type epithermal gold deposit is the most promising economically feasible gold mineralization found in recent years in Zamboanga del Norte province in Zamboanga Peninsula, Mindanao island. The Sibutad gold deposit occurs in Pliocene to Pleistocene volcanic rocks, resting on a deformed island arc block to the east of the tectonically active Sindangan-Cotabato-Daguma Lineament. The host rocks are the Malindang Volcanics, composed of lower and upper members, which are both intruded by andesite porphyry. The lower member is made up of andesite flows, dacite tuff and tuffite, whereas volcanic breccia and tuff breccia characterize the upper member. The Sibutad gold deposit is subdivided into the Larayan and Lalab prospects. In Lalab, which is the prospect studied, hydrothermal activity and gold mineralization occur in the andesite flows. The geology, alteration and mineralization of the Lalab orebody are of adularia-sericite type that suggests the gold was precipitated from reduced, near-neutral pH solutions within a shallow to near-surface environment. The following events produced the Lalab orebody: (1) pre-breccia wallrock alteration, (2) hydrothermal brecciation, (3) post-breccia wallrock alteration, and (4) gold mineralization. Gold precipitated in quartz veins was a response to boiling, followed by fluid mixing. Prolific gold zones occur between 30 m below sea level and 200 m above sea level.

  7. 33 CFR 165.704 - Safety Zone; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... safety zone starts at Tampa Bay Cut “F” Channel from Lighted Buoys “3F” and “4F” and proceeds north ending at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “3” and “4”. The safety zone starts again at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “7” and “8” and proceeds north through Hillsborough Cut “C”, Port Sutton Entrance...

  8. 33 CFR 165.704 - Safety Zone; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... safety zone starts at Tampa Bay Cut “F” Channel from Lighted Buoys “3F” and “4F” and proceeds north ending at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “3” and “4”. The safety zone starts again at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “7” and “8” and proceeds north through Hillsborough Cut “C”, Port Sutton Entrance...

  9. 33 CFR 165.704 - Safety Zone; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... safety zone starts at Tampa Bay Cut “F” Channel from Lighted Buoys “3F” and “4F” and proceeds north ending at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “3” and “4”. The safety zone starts again at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “7” and “8” and proceeds north through Hillsborough Cut “C”, Port Sutton Entrance...

  10. 33 CFR 165.704 - Safety Zone; Tampa Bay, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... safety zone starts at Tampa Bay Cut “F” Channel from Lighted Buoys “3F” and “4F” and proceeds north ending at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “3” and “4”. The safety zone starts again at Gadsden Point Cut Lighted Buoys “7” and “8” and proceeds north through Hillsborough Cut “C”, Port Sutton Entrance...

  11. 24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. BUILDING NO. 452, ORDNANCE FACILITY (BAG CHARGE FILLING PLANT), INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL CORRIDOR (ROOM 3). STAIRWAY WORKBENCH WITH COMPRESSED-AIR POWERED CARTRIDGE LOADER. ARMORED PASS-THROUGH OF TRANSFER BOX FOR PASSING EXPLOSIVES MATERIALS THROUGH TO NEXT ROOM TO THE NORTH. - Picatinny Arsenal, 400 Area, Gun Bag Loading District, State Route 15 near I-80, Dover, Morris County, NJ

  12. 119. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. VIEW OF NORTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (206), LSB (BLDG. 751). POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS AND CABLE DISTRIBUTION UNITS ON RIGHT SIDE OF PHOTO; LOGIC CONTROL AND MONITOR UNITS FOR BOOSTER AND FUEL SYSTEMS LEFT OF AND PARALLEL TO EAST ROW OF CABINETS; SIGNAL CONDITIONERS AT NORTH END OF ROOM PERPENDICULAR TO OTHER CABINETS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 10. "ARCHITECTURAL, SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG043535572; Drawing No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. "ARCHITECTURAL, SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 23 of 148; file no. 1320/74. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; SIDEWALL, NORTH WALL AND SOUTH WALL FRAMING ELEVATIONS." Specifications No. ENG-04353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 27 of 148; file no. 1320/78. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, Rev. B; date: 15 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. OC1-55-72-(Rev.); Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 43 of 148; file no. AF 1320/94, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; DEFLECTOR PIT DETAILS, SHEET NO. 1." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 41 of 148; file no. 1320/92, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. 12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC25572; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. "OBSERVATION POSTS, STRUCTURAL PLANS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 89 of 148; file no. 1321/40, Rev. A. Very faint stamp above note reads: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  18. 11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. "INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL SYSTEMS, EQUIPMENT LOCATION, TEST STAND TERMINAL ROOM, PLANS AND SECTION." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 106 of 148; file no. 1321/57. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  19. 26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG043535572; Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 25 of 148; file no. 1320/76. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. 8. "TEST STAND, ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANS AND SCHEDULES." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. "TEST STAND, ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANS AND SCHEDULES." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 22 of 148; file no. 1320/73. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 25. Photographic copy of ink on linen drawing (at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of ink on linen drawing (at the archives of Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation, 300 Eric Boulevard West, Syracuse, New York 13202), Strand, Draftsman, July 3, 1913. Sheet 1-260, Finch, Pruyn & Company and International Paper Company. Detail of concrete dam and headgate wall. Detail showing profile of the north end of headgate wall. - Glens Falls Dam, 100' to 450' West of U.S. Route 9 Bridge Spanning Hudson River, Glens Falls, Warren County, NY

  2. 29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Aerial photograph (1973) looking south across Gould Island. Firing pier (still possessing third and fourth levels) in foreground. Pitched roof extending from south end of firing pier marks location of frame approach between pier and shop building (center rear) and power plant (to right of shop). Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  3. 22. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING NORTH. FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE MACHINE SHOP LOOKING NORTH. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, NORTH END OF THE LONG LATHE, WOOD STOVE WITH A BRICK HEARTH FLOOR, FAR BACK LEFT CORNER IS THE MAIN CLUTCH FOR THE MILL POWER SHAFTS, SHAFT LATHE, SMALL PLANER, BORING MACHINE WITH IONIC COLUMN DETAIL., AND THE ENTRANCE TO THE ELECTRICAL MOTOR ROOM. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  4. 28. Undated aerial photograph taken prior to removal of third ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Undated aerial photograph taken prior to removal of third and fourth levels of firing pier in the 1980s. View looking northwest shows harbor serving the firing pier, with craft berthed alongside the recovery dock and finger pier. Photo courtesy of Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport, Rhode Island. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  5. 27. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF ROOM 126 AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF ROOM 126 AT THE NORTH END OF THE ENTRANCE HALLWAY TO THE POST-MORTEM CELLS. IN THE CEILING IS A HATCHWAY TO THE UPPER LEVEL OF ROOM 123, THE DISASSEMBLY BAY, BY WHICH PARTS OF THE NUCLEAR REACTOR WERE PASSED FOR FURTHER DISASSEMBLY IN THE VARIOUS POST-MORTEM CELLS. - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance Assembly & Dissassembly Facility, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Junction of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  6. 1. TEST STAND 1A ENVIRONS, SHOWING WEST SIDE OF TEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TEST STAND 1-A ENVIRONS, SHOWING WEST SIDE OF TEST STAND 1-A, RP1 COMBINED FUEL STORAGE TANK FARM BELOW WATER TANKS ON HILLSIDE TO LEFT, AND TEST STAND 1-B IN DISTANCE AT RIGHT. Looking east. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. "A CAPTIVE ATLAS MISSILE EXPLODED DURING THE TEST ON TEST STAND 1-A, 27 MARCH 1959, PUTTING THAT TEST STAND OUT-OF-COMMISSION. STAND WAS NOT REPAIRED FOR THE ATLAS PROGRAM BUT TRANSFERRED TO ROCKETDYNE AND MODIFIED FOR THE F-l ENGINE PROGRAM." - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 25. "TEST STAND 1A UTILIZED TO TEST THE ATLAS ICBM", ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. "TEST STAND 1-A UTILIZED TO TEST THE ATLAS ICBM", CROPPED OUT: "DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB." Photo no. 11,371 57; G-AFFTC 15 OCT 57. Looking southwest from below the stand. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BARN EXTERIOR PERSPECTIVE OF WEST FAÇADE FROM ACCESS ROAD, LOOKING EAST. (A shed addition was added to the north end of the barn in the mid-1950s for squash storage. Another addition was built in the early 1970s to provide feeding and watering troughs for cattle. This image also shows the granary, on the right.) - Smith Farm, Barn, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  10. 27. Bollinger twinchain tandem, pigcasting machine, located at the north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Bollinger twin-chain tandem, pig-casting machine, located at the north end of the plant. Prior to closing, approximately 40 percent of the plant's: iron production was cast into pigs and sold to foundry customers. The pig-casting machine employed a controller, lime man, trough man, and crane operator. - Central Furnaces, 2650 Broadway, east bank of Cuyahoga River, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. 17. A closeup detail, looking east from the northeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. A close-up detail, looking east from the northeast corner of the roadbed. This image shows the concrete commemorative inscription which is let into the inside of the eastern balustrade at the north end of the bridge. The name of one of the county commissioners has been chiselled out of the inscription. The parting fault between the parapet and its coping is evident. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  12. Fluid inclusion and noble gas studies of the Dongping gold deposit, Hebei Province, China: A mantle connection for mineralization?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Li, Y.; Goldfarb, R.; He, Y.; Zaw, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Dongping gold deposit (>100 t Au) occurs about 200 km inboard of the northern margin of the North China craton. The deposit is mainly hosted by syenite of a middle Paleozoic alkalic intrusive complex that was emplaced into Late Archean basement rocks. Both groups of rocks are intruded by Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal-melt granite dikes and stocks, some within a few kilometers of the deposit. The gold ores were deposited during this latter magmatic period at about 150 Ma, a time that was characterized by widespread regional north-south compression that formed the east-west-trending Yanshan deformational belt. The ores include both the telluride mineral-bearing, low sulfide quartz veins and the highly K-feldspar-altered syenite, with most of the resource concentrated in two orebodies (1 and 70). Fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates heterogeneous trapping of low-salinity (e.g., 5-7 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids that varied from a few to 60 mole percent nonaqueous volatile species. Laser Raman spectroscopy confirms that the vapor phase in these inclusions is dominated by CO2, but may be comprised of as much as 9 mole percent H2S and 20 mole percent N2; methane concentrations in the vapor phase are consistently <1 mole percent. The variable phase ratios are consistent with fluid immiscibility during ore formation. Fluid inclusion trapping conditions are estimated to be 250?? to 375??C and 0.6 to 1.0 kbar. Helium isotope studies of fluid inclusions in ore-stage pyrites indicate He/He ratios of 2.1 to 5.2 Ra (Ra = 1.4 x 10-6 for air) for orebody 1 and 0.3 to 0.8 Ra for orebody 70. The former data suggest that at least 26 to 65 percent mantle helium occurs in the fluids that deposited the veins in orebody 1. The lower values for orebody 70, which is characterized by a more disseminated style of gold mineralization, are interpreted to reflect an increased interaction of ore fluids with surrounding crustal rocks, which may have contributed additional He to

  13. Full Scale Wind Tunnel and Seaplane Tow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Construction progress, Full Scale exit cone looking south from entrance cone, east switchboard, west switchboard, wind vanes at north end looking north through entrance cone, north end looking south through entrance cone, entrance cone looking north from exit cone, wind vanes south end of west exit cone, wind vanes south end of east exit cone, Tow Channel trolley lines looking north, east and west incline braces at north end. Full-Scale Tunnel (FST) exit cone construction and installation of fan motors. Smith DeFrance describes the entrance cone in NACA TR 459 as follows: 'Forward of the propellers and located on the center line of the tunnel is a smooth fairing which transforms the somewhat elliptic section of the single passage into two circular ones at the propellers. From the propellers aft, the exit cone is divided into two passages and each transforms in the length of 132 feet from a 35-foot 61/2-inch circular section to a 46-foot square. The included angle between the sides of each passage is 6 inches.' (p. 293)

  14. Towards a volcanic-structural balance: relative importance of volcanism, folding, and remobilisation of nickel sulphides at the Perseverance Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposit, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Bleeker, Wouter; Beresford, Steve W.; Hayward, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    remobilised up to 20 m from their primary footwall position into deposit-scale fold hinges to form the 1A and Felsic Nose orebodies. First-order controls on the geometry of the Perseverance deposit include the thermomechanical erosion of footwall rocks and the channelling of the mineralised komatiitic magma. Second- or third-order controls are several postvolcanic deformation events, which resulted in the progressive folding and shearing of the footwall contact, as well as the passive fold thickening of massive and disseminated sulphide orebodies. Massive sulphides were physically remobilised into multiple generations of fold hinges and shear zones. Important implications for near-mine exploration in the Leinster camp include identifying nickeliferous komatiite units, defining their three-dimensional geometry, and targeting fold hinge areas. Fold plunge directions and stretching lineations are indicators of potential plunge directions of massive sulphide orebodies.

  15. Arkachan: A new gold-bismuth-siderite-sulfide type of deposits in the West Verkhoyansky tin district, Yakutia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamyanin, G. N.; Vikent'eva, O. V.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Bortnikov, N. S.

    2015-11-01

    The formation sequence of orebodies, chemical composition of gangue and ore minerals, fluid inclusions, REE patterns, 40Ar/39Ar isotopic age, and relationships of stable isotopes (C, O, S) in minerals of the Arkachan gold-bismuth-siderite-sulfide deposit have been studied. The deposit has been localized in the Kuranakh Anticlinorium of the Verkhoyansky Fold-Nappe Belt at the intersection of the near-meridional Kygyltas and the NE-trending North Tirekhtyakh faults. The orebodies are extended (>2 km) and steeply dipping zones of veins and veinlets are hosted in Carbonaceous and Permian sandstones and siltstones deformed in anticlines and cut through by dikes pertaining to diorite-granodiorite-granite association. The deposit was formed during hydrothermal-metamorphic, productive main gold, silver-polymetallic, and silver-antimony stages. The orebodies are largely composed of quartz and siderite; arsenopyrite, pyrite, and pyrrhotite are widespread; bismuthinite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and bismuth sulfosalts (gustavite, cosalite, matildite) are less abundant. The REE patterns of carbonates and quartz are characterized by a negative Eu anomaly. Three types of fluid inclusions (FI) in quartz and carbonates are distinguished: (I) liquid H2O + CO2 ± CH4 + NaCl, (II) gaseous CO2 ± CH4, and (III) aqueous salt solutions. The homogenization temperature and salinity of FI I vary from 385 to 280°C and 18.8 to 26.2 wt % NaCl equiv, respectively, whereas in FI III these parameters vary from 261 to 324°C and 3.7 to 9.5 wt % NaCl equiv. The pressure is estimated at 1830 to 1060 bar. The δ18O of quartz II associated with siderite I, native gold, and sulfosalts changes from +13.6 to 16.3‰(SMOW); δ18O and δ13C of siderite I related to gold-ore stage vary from +13.6 to +17.7‰ (SMOW) and from-6.0 to-3.0 (PDB). A wide range of δ34S from-5.7 to 16.0‰ (CDT) has been obtained for sulfides. The isotopic 40Ar/39Ar age of muscovite is 101.9 ± 1.4 Ma. The isotopic

  16. Chemical and boron isotopic compositions of tourmaline from the Paleoproterozoic Houxianyu borate deposit, NE China: Implications for the origin of borate deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xue-long; Chen, Bin

    2014-11-01

    The Houxianyu borate deposit in northeastern China is one of the largest boron sources of China, hosted mainly in the Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic and sedimentary rocks (known as the Liaohe Group) that are characterized by high boron concentrations. The borate ore-body has intimate spatial relationship with the Mg-rich carbonates/silicates of the Group, with fine-grained gneisses (meta-felsic volcanic rocks) as main country rocks. The presence of abundant tourmalinites and tourmaline-rich quartz veins in the borate orebody provides an opportunity to study the origin of boron, the nature of ore-forming fluids, and possible mineralization mechanism. We report the chemical and boron isotopic compositions of tourmalines from the tourmaline-rich rocks in the borate deposit and from the tourmaline-bearing fine-grained gneisses. Tourmalines from the fine-grained gneisses are chemically homogeneous, showing relatively high Fe and Na and low Mg, with δ11B values in a narrow range from +1.22‰ to +2.63‰. Tourmalines from the tourmaline-rich rocks, however, commonly show compositional zoning, with an irregular detrital core and a euhedral overgrowth, and have significantly higher Mg, REE (and more pronounced positive Eu anomalies), V (229-1852 ppm) and Sr (208-1191 ppm) than those from the fine-grained gneisses. They show varied B isotope values ranging from +4.51‰ to +12.43‰, which plot intermediate between those of the terrigenous sediments and arc rocks with low boron isotope values (as represented by the δ11B = +1.22‰ to +2.63‰ of the fine-grained gneisses of this study) and those of marine carbonates and evaporates with high boron isotope values. In addition, the rim of the zoned tourmaline shows notably higher Mg, Ti, V, Sn, and Pb, and REE (particularly LREEs), but lower Fe, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Mn, and lower δ11B values than the core. These data suggest that (1) the sources of boron of the borate ore-body are mainly the Paleoproterozoic meta-volcanic and

  17. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  18. Fluid dynamics, particulate segregation, chemical processes, and natural ore analog discussions that relate to the potential for criticality in Hanford tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1996-09-27

    This report presents an in-depth review of the potential for nuclear criticality to occur in Hanford defense waste tanks during past, current and future safe storage and maintenance operations. The report also briefly discusses the potential impacts of proposed retrieval activities, although retrieval was not a main focus of scope. After thorough review of fluid dynamic aspects that focus on particle segregation, chemical aspects that focus on solubility and adsorption processes that might concentrate plutonium and/or separate plutonium from the neutron absorbers in the tank waste, and ore-body formation and mining operations, the interdisciplinary team has come to the conclusion that there is negligible risk of nuclear critically under existing storage conditions in Hanford site underground waste storage tanks. Further, for the accident scenarios considered an accidental criticality is incredible.

  19. Sulphur isotope geochemistry of the ores and country rocks at the Almadén mercury deposit, Ciudad Real, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saupé, Francis; Arnold, Michel

    1992-10-01

    Seventy-four new S isotope analyses of ore minerals and country rocks are given for the Hg deposit of Almadén. The spread of the cinnabar δ34S is narrow within each of the three orebodies, but the δ34S average values differ sufficiently between them (mean δ34S: San Nicolas = 0.2 ± 1.1 %., San Francisco = 8.1 ± 0.7%., San Pedro = 5.9 ± 1.0%.) to indicate three different mineralization episodes and possibly processes. The unweighted mean for all cinnabar samples is 5.6%. and the S source is considered to be the host-rocks, either the Footwall Shales ( δ34S = 5.5%.) or the spilites ( δ34 S = 5.1 ± 1.3%.). For geometric and chronologic reasons, the former seem the best potential source. However, the high δ34 S values of the San Francisco cinnabar cannot be explained without addition of heavy S from reduction of seawater sulphate. Orderly distributions of the δ34S values are observed in all three orebodies: (1) their increase from the stratigraphic bottom to the top in the San Pedro orebody is explained by a Rayleigh process, and (2) the maxima in the centres of the San Francisco and San Nicolas orebodies are explained by mixing of the S transporting hydrothermal fluids with seawater within the sediments. Associated pyrite and cinnabar were deposited under isotopic disequilibrium, probably because the low solubility of cinnabar caused rapid precipitation of cinnabar. The different morphological pyrite types have their own isotopic δ34S signatures. The spilites are notably enriched in S ( n = 3; average S content = 0.56%) compared to normal basalts (1000 ppm) and have an average δ34S = 5.1 ± 1.3%.. The linear relationship between the δ34S and the S content of the spilites is interpreted as a mixing line between mantle S and a constant S source, probably an infinite open reservoir. An incomplete basalt-seawater reaction at nearly constant temperature is the best explanation for this relation. The S (predominantly pyrite) of the black shales ( n = 3; δ34S

  20. Epigenetic lead, zinc, silver, antimony, tin, and gold veins in Boulder Basin, Blaine and Custer counties, Idaho; potential for economic tin mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratchford, Michael E.

    2002-01-01

    Boulder Basin is in a northwest-trending belt of allochthonous Paleozoic rocks in the Boulder Mountains of central Idaho. Regional Tertiary extension resulted in widespread normal faulting and coeval emplacement of shallow-level intrusions and extrusive rocks of the Challis Volcanic Group. Epigenetic lead-zinc-silver-antimony-tin-gold vein deposits formed during Tertiary extension and are hosted within Paleozoic strata. The major orebodies are in the lower plate of the Boulder Basin thrust fault, in massive quartzite of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Wood River Formation. Anomalous concentrations of tin are present in the base-metal mineral assemblage of the Boulder Basin ore deposits. The tin-bearing veins in Boulder Basin are strikingly similar to Bolivian tin deposits. The deposit model for Bolivian tin deposits identifies buried tin porphyry below the tin-bearing vein system.

  1. Model of heat and mass transfer by fluid during formation of Mo-U deposits in the Strel'tsovka ore field, eastern Transbaikal region: Forced convection of solutions generated by a deep source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkovsky, V. I.; Pek, A. A.; Aleshin, A. P.; Velichkin, V. I.

    2010-02-01

    The Strel’tsovka and Antei uranium deposits located in the Strel’tsovka caldera are unique in ore resources. According to the considered mathematical model, the uranium source of these deposits was related to the middle-lower crustal silicic magma chambers or had mantle origin. Boundary conditions of the model are based on modern views of physicochemical conditions of hydrothermal process in the Strel’tsovka ore field and factors governing ore deposition therein. Modeling results are consistent with morphology of orebodies and ultimate uranium resources of the deposits and thus confirm indirectly that the physicochemical parameters of the ore-forming system are coherent. The maximal duration of uranium ore deposition is estimated at 500 ka.

  2. Geologic studies in the Sierra de Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Cortes, Ignacio Alfonso

    grade of the rock units; and the possible paths of potential leachate through the geologic media. The last part of the work relates to the natural analog of the Yucca Mountain, the Nopal I orebody, which is compared and found similar in its geologic frame work, in the lithologic units and their weathering, in the stratigraphic relationships with the vitrophyres and tuff horizons, in the climatic dryness, in the regional water table depth and the hydrologic features, in the ignimbritic units mineralogy, and in the radioactive waste fuel compared to the ore mineralogy of the Nopal I. There are mineralogic determinations of the fracture fill material in the orebody and host rock; detailed mapping of the fractures and surface alterations; and gamma ray grid measurements and electromagnetic soundings. All these studies indicate a support criteria to take the Nopal I as a natural analogue of the Yucca Mountain repository. The total evolution of the Nopal I orebody is exposed in the walls and floors of the +00 and +10 levels, which are ready to perform final safety tests in order to compare it with the future Yucca Mountain repository behavior. The Nopal in orebody has been there for several hundred of thousands and may be millions of years in an natural equilibrium with the surrounding environment. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. The Relief Canyon gold deposit, Nevada: a mineralized solution breccia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Relief Canyon gold deposit in the Humboldt Range of western Nevada is a low-grade, high-tonnage orebody of Tertiary or younger age. The host rocks include limestones of the Triassic Cane Spring Formation, which are overlain by shales of the Triassic Grass Valley Formation. Gold, fluorite, pyrite, silver, calcite, and fine-grained silica are the principal hydrothermal minerals in the deposit. The deposit formed at a relatively shallow depth. On the basis of fluid inclusion data, late-stage hydrothermal fluids related to gold and fluorite deposition were extremely dilute and had temperatures near 200??C. The fluid inclusions in fluorite show no evidence for boiling, but porous crackle breccias in the jasperoids suggest that hydrobrecciation took place. -from Author

  4. Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System - A New Model for the Origin of Ore-deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, S.; Tang, Z.; Wu, G.; Deng, J.; Xiao, Q.; Luo, Z.; Cui, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Origin and emplacement processes of ore-deposits connected with intrusions remains poorly understood. Here we propose a new model 'Magmatic Conduit Metallogenic System' to explain the origin of ore-deposits. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals will finally settle in the conduits at later stage of magma evolved in magma metallogenic system. Magmatic flow (or Melt-fluid flow) bearing metals include many types, such as sulfide melts and iron melts bearing fluids. Conduits will form along the zones of structural weakness, such as fault zone and interface of two different types of rocks. These conduits are usually very complicated in the magmatic system, exemplified by two typical ore-deposits, detailed as follows. The Jinchuan sulfide deposit, located in Gansu Province, China, is the third largest magmatic Cu-Ni Platinum Group Elements (PGE) in the world. There are mainly four orebodies (orebody 58, 24, 1, and 2) from west to east, with Ni/Cu value at 1.24, 1.56, 1.83 and 2.06 respectively; the content of Pt+Pd ranges from 0.4 to 10.3 ppm, with the highest value occurs in the west. This suggests that the direction of the melt flow bearing sulfide is from west to east and the front of the conduit system is in the east part of the deposit. Sulfide segregation in the magmatic chamber or in the conduits might have caused ore content to change in different part of the conduit systems. Another typical example is the Xishimen iron deposit, which is located in the South of Hebei Province, China. It has been considered as a skarn-type iron deposit conventionally. However, many geological evidence suggests that Xishimen iron deposit is a magmatic iron deposit instead. Such evidence includes: 1. The boundaries between iron orebodies and country rocks are obvious, no transitional relationship; 2. Iron ore body injected into the country rocks (including genesis, diorite, and marble); 3. There are some vesicular in the iron ores; 4. Magnetite as an interstitial mineral

  5. Diagnosis of environmental problems related to vein gold mining in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Gloria R.; Gonzalez, Myriam L.

    Since 1985 the annual gold production in Colombia has been fluctuating between 30 and 35 tons (1-1.4 million ounces troy). Exploitation plants can be found in vein and placer gold deposits. During 1992 a preliminary study was undertaken, resulting in a diagnosis of problems in small scale mining in 6 gold areas (vein type) of Colombia. In order to evaluate the general impact caused to the environment due to mining activities, six gold districts located in Nariño, Antioquia, Bolivar, Valle and Caldas Departments were visited. Geochemical analysis (ES, AAS, HGAAS, GFAAS) of orebodies, tailings and waters were carried out, with results that showed high levels of heavy metals in the environmental compartments studied.

  6. Importance of monitoring family members in establishing sources and pathways of lead in blood.

    PubMed

    Gulson, B L; Mizon, K J; Korsch, M J; Howarth, D

    1996-10-11

    High precision lead isotope measurements were undertaken to establish the sources and pathways in blood and environmental samples of five families from the Broken Hill lead mining community, New South Wales, Australia. The five families were selected from 27 families investigated to illustrate the different sources and pathways of lead into blood and the importance of monitoring the whole family. The results illustrate that although the major source of lead is from the orebody, paint and petrol can be significant contributors to both house dust and blood leads. The results also show that the sources and pathways can be from the father's occupation and hence monitoring of families is important, especially in high risk locations. In two cases, the elevated blood leads in the children did not derive from their current residence but from other residences in the community.

  7. Geologic controls of uranium mineralization in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, K.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two important orebodies have been defined by drilling in the Tallahassee Creek uranium district, Fremont County, Colorado, namely the Hansen and the Picnic Tree. Host rocks are respectively the upper Eocene Echo park Alluvium, and the lower Oligocene Tallahassee Creek Conglomerate. Average ore grade is about 0.08% U3O8. The principal source rock is the lower Oligocene Wall Mountain Tuff. Leaching and transportation of the uranium occurred in alkaline oxidizing ground water that developed during alteration of the ash in a semi-arid environment. The uranium was transported in the groundwater and deposited in a reducing environment controlled by carbonaceous material and associated pyrite. Localization of the ore was controlled by groundwater flow conditions and by the distribution of organic matter in the host rock. -from Author

  8. Helicopter EM (ZTEM-VTEM) survey results over the Nuqrah copper-lead-zinc-gold SEDEX massive sulphide deposit in the Western Arabian Shield, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Izarra, Carlos; Prikhodko, Alexander; Zhao, Shengkai; Saadawi, Emad M.

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic and electromagnetic (EM) results from two helicopter EM surveys, a time-domain (VTEM) and AFMAG (ZTEM), are compared over the Nuqrah sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX) massive sulphide deposits in the Western Arabian Shield of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The magnetic and EM data from both surveys map the major controlling structures that host the Nuqrah North and South deposits. Neither Nuqrah deposits stand out as distinctive aeromagnetic anomalies, but both EM surveys define the massive sulphide mineralised vent and bedded portions of the SEDEX orebodies. ZTEM is interpreted to be more capable in defining the larger, lower conductance and less mineralised distal portions of the SEDEX system. The modelled ZTEM also defines a down-dip extension of the Nuqrah South zone below a depth of 750 m.

  9. Carbonate-replacement Pb-Zn-Ag ± Au mineralization in the Kamariza area, Lavrion, Greece: Mineralogy and thermochemical conditions of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voudouris, P.; Melfos, V.; Spry, P. G.; Bonsall, T. A.; Tarkian, M.; Solomos, Ch.

    2008-09-01

    Carbonate-replacement Pb-Zn-Ag ± Au deposits in the Kamariza area, Lavrion district, Attica, Greece, are genetically related to the emplacement of Miocene andesitic dikes within a rapidly extending continental back-arc basin, which formed during exhumation of the Attic-Cycladic Crystalline Belt. Replacement veins as well as chimneys and mantos of massive sulfides are the major orebody types with mantos grading into chimneys and veins. Ore minerals are similar among the various types of orebodies in the Kamariza area and consist of sulfides and sulfarsenides (pyrite, arsenopyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, gersdorffite, marcasite), native metals (Au and Bi), Sn-bearing phases (petrukite), sulfosalts and sulfbismuthites of Ag, Bi, Cu, Pb, As, Sb (tetrahedrite-group minerals, bournonite, boulangerite, stephanite, pyrargyrite, semseyite, enargite, bismuthinite, lillianite homologues, Cu-matildite, aikinite, Ag-aikinite, mummeite, emplectite, wittichenite). The elemental association of Bi, Au, and Ag is common. The assemblages gersdorffite-bismuthinite-native gold and native gold-native bismuth are evidence for a contribution of magmatic components to the hydrothermal system. A fluctuation in the sulfidation states of the ore fluid during the evolution of the Kamariza system is evident from the deposition of early arsenopyrite, as well as of enargite-luzonite and both low-Fe and Fe-rich sphalerite in the same samples. Microthermometry of fluid inclusion assemblages show that carbonate replacement mineralization was deposited from a warm to hot (100°C to 400°C), low to moderately saline (1.8 to 17.3 wt% NaCl equiv) fluid. Eutectic temperatures of fluid inclusions as low as -55°C suggest the presence of CaCl2 in addition to NaCl, in the ore fluid. The Kamariza deposit occurs distal to the Plaka granodiorite intrusion and the associated porphyry-Mo mineralization, but is likely to be genetically related to a granitoid buried at depth.

  10. A precise 232Th-208Pb chronology of fine-grained monazite: Age of the Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Jingyuan; Tatsumoto, M.; Li, X.; Premo, W.R.; Chao, E.C.T.

    1994-01-01

    We have obtained precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages on monazite and bastnaesite for the world's largest known rare earth elements (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit, the Bayan Obo of Inner Mongolia, China. The monazite samples, collected from the carbonate-hosted ore zone, contain extremely small amounts of uranium (less than 10 ppm) but up to 0.7% ThO2. Previous estimates of the age of mineralization ranged from 1.8 to 0.255 Ga. Magnetic fractions of monazite and bastnaesite samples (<60-??m size) showed large ranges in 232Th 204Pb values (900-400,000) and provided precise Th-Pb internal isochron ages for paragenetic monazite mineralization ranging from 555 to 398 Ma within a few percent error (0.8% for two samples). These results are the first indication that REE mineralization within the giant Bayan Obo ore deposit occurred over a long period of time. The initial lead isotopic compositions (low 206Pb 204Pb and high 208Pb 204Pb) and large negative ??{lunate}Nd values for Bayan Obo ore minerals indicate that the main source(s) for the ores was the lower crust which was depleted in uranium, but enriched in thorium and light rare earth elements for a long period of time. Zircon from a quartz monzonite, located 50 km south of the ore complex and thought to be related to Caledonian subduction, gave an age of 451 Ma, within the range of monazite ages. Textural relations together with the mineral ages favor an epigenetic rather than a syngenetic origin for the orebodies. REE mineralization started around 555 Ma (disseminated monazite in the West, the Main, and south of the East Orebody), but the main mineralization (banded ores) was related to the Caledonian subduction event ca. 474-400 Ma. ?? 1994.

  11. [Study on Mineralogical Characteristics of Quartz and Calcite from Feieling Skarn-Type Pb-Zn Deposit in Southwest Margin of Yunkai Massif].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chang-yu; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Li, Hong-zhong; Niu, Jia; Zhang, Jie-tang; He, Jun-guo; Zhou, Yong-zhang; Yang, Zhi-jun

    2015-09-01

    The Feieling Pb-Zn deposit of skarn-type is located the in Southwest margin of Yunkai massif, China. This ore deposit can be divided into wall rock near ore, concealed rock mass, endoskarn, exoskarn and orebody. The Raman and FTIR spectrum are conducted to study the mineralogical characteristics of quartz and calcite from five types of rocks from Feieling skarn-type deposit. The analysis shows that the quartz included in the near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, comparing with recrystallized quartz of concealed rock mass, has a tend to change into low symmetry quartz in varying degrees. The crystalinity and order degree of quartz from near ore wall rock to concealed rock mass and to endoskarn are becoming higher, but that of quartz from different exoskarn samples display no regular. The origin or the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. The quartz, included in near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, become easier to recrystallize and adjust microstructure under the influence of the multi-stage hydrothermal and temperature effect. In anyone sample, the earlier crystalline calcite, showing subhedral-euhedral crystal, display higher crystalinity and order degree. On the contrary, the later crystalline calcite, showing xenomorphic crystal, display lower crystalinity and order degree. Calcite crystal of exoskarn rock contains some silica impurity, while endoskarn and orebody rock is pure. The purity of calcite crystal may relate to Multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. At the early and late skarn stage, active silica-containing fluid is easier to join into calcite, which is under higher temperature environments. On the contrary, at the late quartz-surfide stage, the later crystalized calcite displays higher purity, which is under lower temperature environments. Therefore, spectral characteristics of quartz and calcite reflect multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization

  12. Lithostratigraphic position and petrographic characteristics of R.A.T. (“Roches Argilo-Talqueuses”) Subgroup, Neoproterozoic Katangan Belt (Congo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cailteux, J. L. H.; Kampunzu, A. B. H.; Batumike, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    The Neoproterozoic Katangan R.A.T. ("Roches Argilo-Talqueuses") Subgroup is a sedimentary sequence composed of red massive to irregularly bedded terrigenous-dolomitic rocks occurring at the base of the Katangan succession in Congo. Red R.A.T. is rarely exposed in a continuous section because it was affected by a major layer-parallel décollement during the Lufilian thrusting. However, in a number of thrust sheets, Red R.A.T. is in conformable sedimentary contact with Grey R.A.T which forms the base of the Mines Subgroup. Apart from the colour difference reflecting distinct depositional redox conditions, lithological, petrographical and geochemical features of Red and Grey R.A.T. are similar. A continuous sedimentary transition between these two lithological units is shown by the occurrence of variegated to yellowish R.A.T. The D. Strat. "Dolomies Stratifiées" formation of the Mines Subgroup conformably overlies the Grey R.A.T. In addition, a transitional gradation between Grey R.A.T. and D. Strat. occurs in most Cu-Co mines in Katanga and is marked by interbedding of Grey R.A.T.-type and D. Strat.-type layers or by a progressive petrographic and lithologic transition from R.A.T. to D. Strat. Thus, there is an unquestionable sedimentary transition between Grey R.A.T. and D. Strat. and between Grey R.A.T. and Red R.A.T. The R.A.T. Subgroup stratigraphically underlies the Mines Subgroup and therefore R.A.T. cannot be comprised of syn-orogenic sediments deposited upon the Kundelungu (formerly "Upper Kundelungu") Group as suggested by Wendorff (2000). As a consequence, the Grey R.A.T. Cu-Co mineralisation definitely is part of the Mines Subgroup Lower Orebody, and does not represent a distinct generation of stratiform Cu-Co sulphide mineralisation younger than the Roan orebodies.

  13. Isotope composition of carbon in the carbonates of the Gumbeykan scheelite deposits in the southern Urals

    SciTech Connect

    Korzhinskii, A.F.; Mamchur, G.P.; Yarynych, O.A.

    1980-10-01

    Through investigations of the isotope composition of carbon of various generations and carbonates from marbles, skarns, and nested and vein scheelite orebodies, the probable source of carbon of these carbonates has been established as a mixture of sedimentary carbonates, carbon dioxide with carbonic acid that was formed by oxidation of the organic matter from sedimentary terrane (..delta..C/sup 13/ - 0.05 to -0.62%). In the calcite and dolomite phenocrysts of marble and the coarse-grained dolostone, containing scheelite, the carbon was lighter (..delta..C/sup 13/ from -0.60 to -0.87%). For the dolomite and ankerite from scheelite pockets of the Balkan deposit and quartz veins of the Buranovo, ..delta..C/sup 13/ varied from -0.44 to -0.87%. The lightest carbon found in strontianite (..delta..C/sup 13/ = -1.32%), located near the coating of the organic matter (..delta..C/sup 13/ = -1.26%) in fractures of the quartz vein of the Buranovo deposit. In the section through the orebodies and near-ore diffusion-metasomatic zones of the Balkan deposit, the lessening of carbon in the carbonates was observed, with increasing distance away from the fracture. ..delta..C/sup 13/ in the altered granitoids ranged from -0.44 to -1.03%; while in the diopside-wollastonite hornfels, from -0.89 to 1.13%. The lessening in weight of the carbon is explained by diffusional fractionation of the isotopes caused apparently by the differential movement of volatile mixtures of carbon during ore-forming processes and the formation of their diffusion-metasomatic zones.

  14. Bioaccessibility of lead in urban soil of Broken Hill, Australia: A study based on in vitro digestion and the IEUBK model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Cattle, Stephen R

    2015-12-15

    This study was conducted to investigate lead (Pb) bioaccessibility in urban soil and to assess health risk to children in the city of Broken Hill, Australia, which was established around one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver mines. Fifty-three topsoil (0-0.1m) and 50 subsoil (0.3-0.5m) samples were collected from earthen footpaths, nature strips, parks or vacant land throughout the urban area. The soil samples were analysed for total Pb concentration, Pb bioaccessibility and Pb mineral phases, together with important soil physicochemical properties known to influence Pb bioaccessibility. Lead bioaccessibility ranged from 24% to 89% in topsoil and from 16% to 100% in subsoil, exhibiting a generally decreasing pattern with increasing distance from the orebody. Lead bioaccessibility was strongly positively related to total Pb concentration in both the topsoil and subsoil. In subsoil, a moderate negative correlation existed between Pb bioaccessibility and soil pH, while a moderate positive correlation existed between Pb bioaccessibility and soil organic matter (OM) content. In contrast, only a weak positive correlation existed between Pb bioaccessibility and OM content in topsoil. The presence of different Pb mineral phases also appeared to have caused variation in soil Pb bioaccessibility, with galena (PbS)-rich samples tending to exhibit lower Pb bioaccessibility. The prediction of blood lead (PbB) levels in Broken Hill children aged 1-4years using the IEUBK model well matched the measured data from a recent PbB screening, suggesting a high risk of childhood chronic low-level Pb exposure (PbB levels >5μg/dL) in Broken Hill, especially in the vicinity of the orebody. Future Pb abatement programs in Broken Hill should utilise the IEUBK model to establish target soil Pb values in an effort to achieve particular child PbB outcomes.

  15. [Study on Mineralogical Characteristics of Quartz and Calcite from Feieling Skarn-Type Pb-Zn Deposit in Southwest Margin of Yunkai Massif].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Chang-yu; Zhao, Ming-zhen; Li, Hong-zhong; Niu, Jia; Zhang, Jie-tang; He, Jun-guo; Zhou, Yong-zhang; Yang, Zhi-jun

    2015-09-01

    The Feieling Pb-Zn deposit of skarn-type is located the in Southwest margin of Yunkai massif, China. This ore deposit can be divided into wall rock near ore, concealed rock mass, endoskarn, exoskarn and orebody. The Raman and FTIR spectrum are conducted to study the mineralogical characteristics of quartz and calcite from five types of rocks from Feieling skarn-type deposit. The analysis shows that the quartz included in the near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, comparing with recrystallized quartz of concealed rock mass, has a tend to change into low symmetry quartz in varying degrees. The crystalinity and order degree of quartz from near ore wall rock to concealed rock mass and to endoskarn are becoming higher, but that of quartz from different exoskarn samples display no regular. The origin or the quartz microstructure changes may be related to the multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. The quartz, included in near ore wall rock, endoskarn and exoskarn, become easier to recrystallize and adjust microstructure under the influence of the multi-stage hydrothermal and temperature effect. In anyone sample, the earlier crystalline calcite, showing subhedral-euhedral crystal, display higher crystalinity and order degree. On the contrary, the later crystalline calcite, showing xenomorphic crystal, display lower crystalinity and order degree. Calcite crystal of exoskarn rock contains some silica impurity, while endoskarn and orebody rock is pure. The purity of calcite crystal may relate to Multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization process. At the early and late skarn stage, active silica-containing fluid is easier to join into calcite, which is under higher temperature environments. On the contrary, at the late quartz-surfide stage, the later crystalized calcite displays higher purity, which is under lower temperature environments. Therefore, spectral characteristics of quartz and calcite reflect multi-stage evolution of skarn mineralization

  16. A sulphur isotopic study of the Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-Cu deposit, Nordland, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skauli, H.; Boyce, A. J.; Fallick, A. E.

    1992-09-01

    The Bleikvassli Zn-Pb-Cu deposit occurs in the Uppermost Allochthon in the Caledonides of northern Norway. The orebody is enclosed in amphibolite-facies schists and gneisses, underlain by amphibolites, and it has been classified as a sediment-hosted massive sulphide (SEDEX) deposit. The stratiform ore is dominantly pyritic, with a basal layer of pyrrhotitic ore. Sulphide veins occur in the footwall. The orebody generally has a limited range of δ34S, from 0.3 to 4.5% (x = 2.4 ± 1.2‰, 1 σ, n = 26). The lowest δ34S values (0.3 2.3‰) were found in sulphide veins in the footwall and vent proximal stratiform ore. More distal pyritic Zn-Pb ore has heavier average δ34S values (up to 4.5‰). The ore sulphides were deposited from a hydrothermal solution with δ34S about 2‰ perhaps with the incorporation of a minor portion of sulphide from the ambient seawater. The hydrothermal solution probably acquired most of its sulphide from the underlying mixed lithology; notably basaltic rocks. Sulphide produced by thermochemical reduction of seawater in the deep conduit system may also have been incorporated. Bacteriogenic sulphide is not likely as a major source of ore sulphur in the massive ore. Sulphide incorporated in distal pyrite, which have δ34S from -12 to-10‰, could have formed either by oxidation of the hydrothermal sulphide, or by bacterial reduction of seawater sulphate in the depositional environment. Exchange of sulphur isotopes probably took place only on a localized scale during Caledonian metamorphism, the bulk sulphur isotopic composition of the ore being preserved in a hand specimen scale.

  17. Adapting coastal structures to a moving relative sea level: Roman Time geoarchaeological evidence from Posillipo promontory (Naples, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aucelli, Pietro; Cinque, Aldo; Giordano, Francesco; Mattei, Gaia; Pappone, Gerardo; Rizzo, Angela

    2016-04-01

    The Posillipo promontory belongs to the southern periphery the active volcanic complex called Campi Flegrei. Especially the central caldera of CF is well known for offering a rich geoarchaeological record of the vertical ground movements it has been suffering since Roman times; which includes the ruins of Portus Julius (built in 37 BC) presently found between 10 and 5 m bsl and the Middle Ages Lithophaga perforations at about 7m asl on the marble columns of the Serapeo building (Morhange, 2006 and references therein). In order to better constraint the vertical movements suffered by the Posillipo promontory during the last two millennia, we selected three geoarcaeolgical coastal sites (Nisida Roman port, Marechiaro Roman port and Villa Robery) and we studied them by means of both geomorphological observations and geophysical surveys (Side Scan Sonar and Single Beam echo-sounder). Within the submerged Roman port of Nisida, built in the 1st AD, we found two pilae of the ancient pier. The submersion measuring of the well-preserved one provided a palaeo-sea level at 3.1±0.30 m bsl. In the submerged Roman port of Marechiaro, we recognized a still preserved breakwater connected to the tuffaceous sea cliff, and submerged foundations of a 1st century small sea-side villa. Nearby there is also a two-storeyed Roman building (Palazzo degli Spiriti), built in the 1st cent. BC and later restructured to adapt to a phase of subsidence (Gunther 1908). From our submersion measurements, two different paleo-sea levels can be deduced: one for the 1st cent. BC at -4.4 + -0.50 m and another for the 1st cent. AD at -3 + - 0.30 m. Finally, in front of the modern Villa Rosebery the sea bottom shows a sub-horizontal element at -3m to -3.5m bsl, emerged during the 1st BC century. In fact, at least three houses were erected there during said century (Gunther, 1908). As the area was very little elevated, an alignment of pilae was also constructed to protect those houses from the breakers. By

  18. Chemical, geological, and hydrological factors governing radionuclide migration from a formerly used seepage trench: a field study. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2202

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.R.; Lowry, P.D.; Lee, S.Y.; Larsen, I.L.; Cutshall, N.H.

    1983-09-01

    A total of 3.2 x 10/sup 7/ L of intermediate-level liquid wastes (ILW) generated from routine Oak Ridge National Laboratory operations, were disposed in Trench 7 between 1962 and 1966. The disposed ILW contained about 10/sup 7/ GBq of fission nuclides (primarily /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr), activation products (primarily /sup 60/Co), actinides (primarily /sup 232/Th and /sup 238/U decay series nuclides), and transuranics (primarily /sup 241/Pu-/sup 241/Am). Gamma-log profiles of the wells near ILW Trench 7 indicate that the waste liquids seeped along discrete layers parallel to bedding and along the strikes of faults and folds. Although most of the radioactivity has been retained by sorption reactions with the trench fill, soils, and weathered bedrock, groundwater characteristics in the vicinity of ILW Trench 7 are still greatly influenced by the constituents of the waste liquids disposed two decades ago. Radionuclide concentrations in the groundwaters near the north end of ILW Trench 7 undergo seasonal variations, with the lowest activities occurring in fall and winter and the highest activities occurring in the spring and after prolonged rainstorm events. The rise in radioactivity in these wells correlates with a rise in the groundwater level and a concurrent increase in groundwater pH. Although ILW Trench 7 has worked effectively to retain most of the disposed radioactivity, two suspected transport pathways from the trench to a nearby seep area have been identified and both appear to be associated with fault zones. Only the pathway near the north end of the trench appears to be leaching alkalinity and thus affecting the retention capacity for /sup 90/Sr. A groundwater interceptor at the north end of ILW Trench 7 is one possible remedial action to help maintain a dry alkaline environment and ensure the integrity of the trench for nuclide retention.

  19. Aerial views of the San Andreas Fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.

    1988-01-01

    These aerial photographs of the San Andreas fault were taken in 1965 by Robert E. Wallace of the U.S Geological Survey. The pictures were taken with a Rolliflex camera on 20 format black and white flim; Wallace was aboard a light, fixed-wing aircraft, flying mostly at low altitudes. He photographed the fault from San Francisco near its north end where it enters by the Salton Sea. These images represent only a sampling of the more than 300 images prodcued during this project. All the photographs reside in the U.S Geological Survey Library in Menlo Park, California. 

  20. Regional gravity and magnetic surveys in the Albion Mountains area of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.; Wilson, Carol W.

    1973-01-01

    Fault-bounded basins containing several thousand feet of sedimentary and volcanic rock of Cenozoic age are indicated by gravity lows in the Oakley area and in Upper-Raft River and Raft River Valleys. A gravity low and a magnetic high in the north end of Raft River Valley extends over the Cotterel Mountains and into Marsh Creek valley. These anomalies may reflect a Tertiary caldera. A gravity high and a magnetic high in the Raft River Valley south of Malta suggests a buried intrusive that may be the source of heat for the thermal waters in that area.

  1. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF OBSERVATION BUNKERS TO THE EAST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF OBSERVATION BUNKERS TO THE EAST OF TEST STAND 1-A: IN FOREGROUND, BUILDING 8769, A TWO WINDOW DESIGN (NOT ON SITE PLAN); IN THE MIDDLE DISTANCE, BUILDING 8768, A ONE WINDOW DESIGN "OBSERVATION AND CAMERA BUILDING NO. 2" ON SITE PLAN; IN THE DISTANCE, AT FAR LEFT, BUILDING 8767, A FOUR WINDOW DESIGN "MASTER OBSERVATION AND CAMERA BUILDING NO. 1" ON SITE PLAN. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Cape Canaveral and Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This single view of Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center, Florida (28.5N, 80.5W), shows the layout of the entire Kennedy Space Center in minute detail. All of the early Mercury and Gemini series launch facilities can be seen at the hook of the Cape. At the north end of the space center where the newer Apollo, Skylab and Space Shuttle series facilities are located, the vehicle assembly building, two launch pads and landing strip are easily seen.

  3. 33 CFR 110.126 - Monterey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... latitude 36°36′27.5″ N., longitude 121°53′35.0″ W.; thence to latitude 36°36′32.4″ N., longitude 121°53′31... latitude 36°36′23.1″ N., longitude 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence to the north end of Municipal Wharf No. 1 at latitude 36°36′20.0″ N., longitude 121°53′28.0″ W....

  4. 33 CFR 110.126 - Monterey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... latitude 36°36′27.5″ N., longitude 121°53′35.0″ W.; thence to latitude 36°36′32.4″ N., longitude 121°53′31... latitude 36°36′23.1″ N., longitude 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence to the north end of Municipal Wharf No. 1 at latitude 36°36′20.0″ N., longitude 121°53′28.0″ W....

  5. 33 CFR 110.126 - Monterey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... latitude 36°36′27.5″ N., longitude 121°53′35.0″ W.; thence to latitude 36°36′32.4″ N., longitude 121°53′31... latitude 36°36′23.1″ N., longitude 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence to the north end of Municipal Wharf No. 1 at latitude 36°36′20.0″ N., longitude 121°53′28.0″ W....

  6. 33 CFR 110.126 - Monterey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... latitude 36°36′27.5″ N., longitude 121°53′35.0″ W.; thence to latitude 36°36′32.4″ N., longitude 121°53′31... latitude 36°36′23.1″ N., longitude 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence to the north end of Municipal Wharf No. 1 at latitude 36°36′20.0″ N., longitude 121°53′28.0″ W....

  7. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 PALLADIAN WINDOW AT NORTH END OF CENTRAL HALL. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 CENTRAL VIEW OF DOUBLE PARLORS FROM SOUTHWEST PARLOR TOWARD NORTHWEST PARLOR. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 WALLPAPER IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 FIREPLACE IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 WINDOW IN SOUTHWEST PARLOR. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, Laurence E. Tilley, Photographer April, 1958 DETAIL OF WALLPAPER AND WOODWORK IN ... - Eliza Ward House, 2 George Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  8. EAST PART OF THE RAYMOND PEAK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; Federspiel, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The east part of the Raymond Peak Roadless Area, Alpine County, California encompasses about 58 sq mi along the crest and eastern slope of the Sierra Nevada. Based on a mineral survey there are demonstrated silver-gold resources at five properties within a large area of probable silver-gold potential in the east part of the area. A small area with probable mineral-resource potential for skarn-type tungsten resources occurs at the north end of the roadless area. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil fuels and no other energy resources were identified in the study.

  9. 2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overview showing Medical Detachment Barracks on both Ramp No. 5 (left buildings) and Ramp No. 6 (right buildings). View is to west from roof of Corridor A. Note that a pedestrian sidewalk separates buildings instead of a street for automobiles. In left foreground is the north end of Building No. 9962-B; followed by the north B-sides of Buildings Nos. 9963, 9964, 9965, 9966, 9967 and 9968 on Ramp No. 5. Large white building in far distance is a barracks on the other side of Wilson Avenue. - Madigan Hospital, Medical Detachment Barracks, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  10. 33 CFR 110.126 - Monterey Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... latitude 36°36′27.5″ N., longitude 121°53′35.0″ W.; thence to latitude 36°36′32.4″ N., longitude 121°53′31.0″ W., in an easterly direction to latitude 36°36′28.8″ N., 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence south to latitude 36°36′23.1″ N., longitude 121°53′19.0″ W.; thence to the north end of Municipal Wharf No. 1...

  11. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation.

  12. Lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil and house dust in the communities surrounding the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds.

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Timothy W; Lane, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in the residential communities adjacent to the Sydney, Nova Scotia, tar ponds, the area considered Canada's worst contaminated site. The tar pond remediation policy has been limited to the site and some residential properties. We compared background concentrations in 91 soil samples taken 5-20 km from the coke oven site with those in soil samples from the three communities surrounding the tar ponds: Whitney Pier, Ashby, and North End. These surrounding communities were statistically different from background regarding arsenic, lead, and PAHs. Twenty percent of the background soil samples and 95% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian health-risk-based soil guidelines for arsenic (12 ppm), and 5% of the background samples and 80% of the tar pond soil samples were above the Canadian guidelines for lead (140 ppm). Regarding dust lead and arsenic loading, the results provide no evidence that Whitney Pier is significantly different than Ashby and North End. Children in these communities are predicted to have a 1-15% chance of blood lead > 10 microg/dL. The results suggest that lead and arsenic found in the homes originate outside. The lead content of paint in the homes was not evaluated, but consideration of painted wood at the doorway did not confound the results of the study. The results indicate that the residential environment has been adversely affected by PAHs, lead, and arsenic and should be considered for remediation. PMID:14698928

  13. Analytical results, geology, and sample locality map of mercury-sulfur-gypsum mineralization at Crater, Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, M.S.; Marsh, S.P.; Roemer, T.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Crater mercury-su l fur-gypsum ~ineral ized area is located in east-central California along the crest of the Last Chance Range, west of the north end of Death Valley (fig. 1). The area is in the northwest quarter of the Last Chance Range 15-minute quadrangle and occupies the area between 117 39 and 117 45 longitude and 37 10 and 37 15 latitudP.. The area studied lies between 5000 ( 1525 m) and 6000 ( 1830 m) feet above sea level. Relief isgenerally moderate but can be extreme in some places, as at Hanging Rock Canyon (plate 1). The climate is arid, and there are no active streams in the area. The range fronts east and west of the area are precipitous and incised by many steep canyons, whereas the range crest has relatively low relief. The old abandoned town and mine site of Crater 1 ie in this area of low relief. Access to the Crater area is by paved and dirt roads from Big Pine to the west or from the north end of the Death Valley National Monument to the southeast.

  14. Sedimentary carbonate-hosted giant Bayan Obo REE-Fe-Nb ore deposit of Inner Mongolia, China; a cornerstone example for giant polymetallic ore deposits of hydrothermal origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chao, E.C.T.; Back, J.M.; Minkin, J.A.; Tatsumoto, M.; Junwen, Wang; Conrad, J.E.; McKee, E.H.; Zonglin, Hou; Qingrun, Meng; Shengguang, Huang

    1997-01-01

    Detailed, integrative field and laboratory studies of the textures, structures, chemical characteristics, and isotopically determined ages and signatures of mineralization of the Bayan Obo deposit provided evidence for the origin and characteristics favorable for its formation and parameters necessary for defining giant polymetallic deposits of hydrothermal origin. Bayan Obo is an epigenetic, metasomatic, hydrothermal rare earth element (REE)-Fe-Nb ore deposit that is hosted in the metasedimentary H8 dolostone marble of the Middle Proterozoic Bayan Obo Group. The metasedimentary sequence was deposited on the northern continental slope of the North China craton. The mine area is about 100 km south of the suture marking Caledonian subduction of the Mongolian oceanic plate from the north beneath the North China craton. The mineralogy of the deposit is very complex, consisting of more than 120 different minerals, some of which are epigenetic minerals introduced by hydrothermal solutions, and some of which are primary and secondary metamorphic minerals. The major REE minerals are monazite and bastnaesite, whereas magnetite and hematite are the dominant Fe-ore minerals, and columbite is the most abundant Nb mineral. Dolomite, alkali amphibole, fluorite, barite, aegirine augite, apatite, phlogopite, albite, and microcline are the most widespread gangue minerals. Three general types of ores occur at Bayan Obo: disseminated, banded, and massive ores. Broad zoning of these ore types occurs in the Main and East Orebodies. Disseminated ores are in the outermost zone, banded ores are in the intermediate zone, and massive ores are in the cores of the orebodies. On the basis of field relations, host rocks, textures, structures, and mineral assemblages, many varieties of these three types of ores have been recognized and mapped. Isotopic dating of monazite, bastnaesite, aeschynite, and metamorphic and metasomatic alkali amphiboles associated with the deposit provides constraints

  15. Origin of the granites and related Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic ore deposits in the Pengshan district, Jiangxi Province, South China: constraints from geochronology, geochemistry, mineral chemistry, and Sr-Nd-Hf-Pb-S isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Luo, Lan; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Ma, Liang

    2016-05-01

    The Pengshan Sn and Pb-Zn polymetallic deposits are located in the south margin of the Jiujiang-Ruichang (Jiurui) district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Metallogenic Belt in South China. Four large deposits include Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo, and Zhangshiba, the former three are Sn-dominant deposits which occur as stratiform orebodies in the contact zones of the Pengshan granites and within the country rock strata, whereas Zhangshiba consists of stratiform Pb-Zn orebodies within the Precambrian metasedimentary strata. In this study, we present results on zircon U-Pb ages, major and trace elements, and mineral chemistry as well as Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data of the granites, Pb and S isotopes of both the Sn-dominant and Pb-Zn dominant deposits, and U-Pb dating of cassiterite from the Pengshan district. SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that the Pengshan granites were emplaced in the Early Cretaceous (129-128 Ma), which is in good agreement with the U-Pb dating (130-128 Ma) of cassiterite from the Jianfengpo Sn deposit. The Pengshan granites consist mainly of weakly peraluminous highly fractionated I-type affinity granitic rocks. Detailed elemental and isotopic data suggest that the granites formed by partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metamorphic basement materials with minor input of mantle-derived melts. The mineral chemistry of biotite demonstrates that the Pengshan granitic magma had a low oxygen fugacity, thereby precluding the tin dominantly partitioning into the rock-forming silicate minerals and favoring accumulation in the exsolved residual liquid during magma crystallization stages. Sulfur isotopes show a relatively heavy sulfur isotopic composition from 5.8 to 17.6 ‰, and no difference for sulfur isotopes between the Sn deposits (5.8-13.4 ‰, Huangjinwa, Zengjialong, Jianfengpo) and the Pb-Zn deposit (mostly 7.1-13.0 ‰, except for one 17.6 ‰, Zhangshiba). The sulfur isotope data of pyrite from the host sedimentary rocks show

  16. Geochemistry and jasper beds from the Ordovician Løkken ophiolite, Norway: origin of proximal and distal siliceous exhalites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Stratiform beds of jasper (hematitic chert), composed essentially of SiO2 (69-95 wt %) and Fe2O3 (3-25 wt %), can be traced several kilometers along strike in the Ordovician L??kken ophiolite, Norway. These siliceous beds are closely associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits and are interpreted as sea-floor gels that were deposited by fallout from hydrothermal plumes in silica-rich seawater, in which plume-derived Fe oxyhydroxide particles promoted flocculation and rapid settling of large (???200 ??m) colloidal particles of silica-iron oxyhydroxide. Concentrations of chalcophile elements in the jasper beds are at the parts per million level implying that sulfide particle fallout was insignificant and that the Si-Fe gel-forming plumes were mainly derived from intermediate- (100??-250??C) to high-temperature (>250??) white smoker-type vents with high Fe/S ratios. The interpreted setting is similar to that of the Lau basin, where high-temperature (280??-334??C) white smoker venting alternates or overlaps with sulfide mound-forming black smoker venting. Ratios of Al, Sc, Th, Hf, and REE to iron are very low and show that the detrital input was <0.1 percent of the bulk jasper. Most jasper beds are enriched in U, V, P, and Mo relative to the North American Shale Composite, reflecting a predominantly seawater source, whereas REE distribution patterns (positive Eu and negative Ce anomalies) reflect variable mixing of hydrothermal solutions with oxic seawater at dilution ratios of ???102 to 104. Trace element variations in the gel precursor to the jasper are thought to have been controlled by coprecipitation and/or adsorption by Fe oxyhydroxide particles that formed by the oxidation of hydrothermal Fe2+ within the variably seawater-diluted hydrothermal plume(s). Thick jasper layers near the H??ydal VMS orebody show distinct positive As/Fe and Sb/Fe anomalies that are attributed to near-vent rapid settling of Si-Fe particles derived from As- and Sb

  17. Epithermal paleosurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillitoe, Richard H.

    2015-10-01

    Many active volcanic-hydrothermal and geothermal systems are characterized by distinctive surface and near-surface landforms and products, which are generated during discharge of a spectrum of fluid types under varied conditions. Remnants of most of these products are preserved in some of their less-eroded, extinct equivalents: epithermal deposits of high-sulfidation (HS), intermediate-sulfidation (IS), and low-sulfidation (LS) types. Steam-heated alteration occupying vadose zones and any underlying silicified horizons formed at paleogroundwater tables characterize HS, IS, and LS deposits as do hydrothermal eruption craters and their subaerial or shallow sub-lacustrine breccia aprons and laminated infill. Although rarely recognized, HS, IS, and LS systems can also contain finely laminated, amorphous silica sediments that accumulated in acidic lakes and mud pots and, exclusive to HS systems, in hyperacidic crater lakes. In contrast, silica sinter and more distal carbonate travertine are hot spring discharge products confined mainly to LS and IS settings, as both form from near-neutral-pH liquids. Hydrothermal chert deposition and sediment silicification can take place in shallow, lacustrine rift settings, also largely restricted to LS and IS deposits. These surface and near-surface hydrothermal products are typically metal deficient, although mercury concentrations are relatively commonplace and were formerly exploited in places. Nonetheless, sinters, hydrothermal eruption craters, and silicified lacustrine sediments may contain anomalously high precious metal values; indeed, the last of these locally constitutes low-grade, bulk-tonnage orebodies. The dynamic nature of epithermal paleosurfaces, caused by either syn-hydrothermal aggradation or degradation, can profoundly affect deposit evolution, leading to either eventual burial or telescoping of shallower over deeper alteration ± precious metal mineralization. Formational age, tectonic and climatic regime

  18. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: A record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Akmaz, Recep Melih; Saka, Samet; Kapsiotis, Argyrios

    2016-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for its large ophiolitic peridotite exposures, which host various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites occurring in the form of lenses or veinlets, and commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite are both high- and intermediate-Cr varieties (Cr# = 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are exclusively Cr-rich (Cr# = 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. However, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from intermediate chromitites are dissimilar to those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir, and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt, and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting in negatively-sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in intermediate chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (≥ 10 μm) euhedral laurite crystals, followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial amounts of Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM grains are not encountered in the intermediate chromitites, potentially due to crystallization resulting from PGE-poor melt. Laurite is Os-poor and exhibits a narrow range of Os-for-Ru substitution [Ru/(Ru + Os) = 0.75-0.99]. However, the concomitance of laurite and millerite in the Cr-rich chromitites of the mutual Antalya-Isparta mantle suite is in favour of their precipitation from an Os

  19. Silver-cobalt mineralization in the Upper Seymchan ore cluster, Northeastern Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, N. A.; Gamyanin, G. N.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Savva, N. E.; Velivetskaya, T. A.; Ignat'ev, A. V.

    2014-09-01

    This paper is focused on the Early Cretaceous Ag-Bi-Co-sulfoarsenide mineralization atypical of northeastern Asia, which contains diverse Co-Ni sulfoarsenides, Se-bearing Bi sulfotellurites, and Ag-Bi-Pb sulfosalts. The Upper Seymchan ore cluster is located at the boundary between the Paleozoic Omulevka Terrane of carbonate platform and the In'yali-Debin Synclinorium of the Kular-Nera Terrane. These ore-bearing sequences are represented by the Middle Jurassic terrigenous rocks that rest upon the Upper Triassic sandshale rocks of the upper structural stage. The sedimentary rocks are cut through by high-Al granitic plutons and younger granite-porphyry dikes. The orebodies that are superposed on igneous rocks were formed during (1) the quartz-chlorite-tourmaline stage of metasomatic alteration, (2) the main economic tourmaline-chlorite-quartz-sulfoarsenide vein stage, (3) the polysulfide-quartz stage with Ag, Se, Bi minerals, and (4) the postore quartz-calcite stage with fluorite. The epithermal veins of festoon chalcedony-like quartz with Sb-bearing arsenopyrite occupy a special position. In particular orebodies, the chlorite-quartz ore veins dominate at the upper levels, whereas the quartz-tourmaline veins occur at the lower levels. Wall-rock alteration is represented by metasomatic chloritization and tourmalinization up to the formation of monomineralic metasomatic zones. Sulfides and sulfoarsenides are distinguished by anomalous enrichment of sulfur in the light isotope (δ34S = -12.8 to -16.7‰) in contrast to the sulfur isotopic composition of Sb-asenopyrite (-1.7‰) from the genetically different epithermal veins. The oxygen isotopic composition of calcite (the third stage) is uniform at all studied deposits and reveals a tendency to updip enrichment in δ18O within a vertical interval of 200 m. Quartz from ore-bearing and epithermal veins has an almost identical δ18O value (±2‰) but differs from quartz at the tin deposits related to granites of the

  20. Noise-based body-wave seismic tomography in an active underground mine.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, G.; Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Lynch, R.; Roux, P.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, ambient noise tomography has become increasingly popular to image the earth's upper crust. The seismic noise recorded in the earth's crust is dominated by surface waves emanating from the interaction of the ocean with the solid earth. These surface waves are low frequency in nature ( < 1 Hz) and not usable for imaging smaller structures associated with mining or oil and gas applications. The seismic noise recorded at higher frequencies are typically from anthropogenic sources, which are short lived, spatially unstable and not well suited for constructing seismic Green's functions between sensors with conventional cross-correlation methods. To examine the use of ambient noise tomography for smaller scale applications, continuous data were recorded for 5 months in an active underground mine in Sweden located more than 1km below surface with 18 high frequency seismic sensors. A wide variety of broadband (10 - 3000 Hz) seismic noise sources are present in an active underground mine ranging from drilling, scraping, trucks, ore crushers and ventilation fans. Some of these sources generate favorable seismic noise, while others are peaked in frequency and not usable. In this presentation, I will show that the noise generated by mining activity can be useful if periods of seismic noise are carefully selected. Although noise sources are not temporally stable and not evenly distributed around the sensor array, good estimates of the seismic Green's functions between sensors can be retrieved for a broad frequency range (20 - 400 Hz) when a selective stacking scheme is used. For frequencies below 100 Hz, the reconstructed Green's functions show clear body-wave arrivals for almost all of the 153 sensor pairs. The arrival times of these body-waves are picked and used to image the local velocity structure. The resulting 3-dimensional image shows a high velocity structure that overlaps with a known ore-body. The material properties of the ore-body differ from

  1. Structural localization and origin of compartmentalized fluid flow, Comstock lode, Virginia City, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, B.R.; Tingley, J.V.; Drew, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Bonanza-grade orebodies in epithermal-style mineral deposits characteristically occur as discrete zones within spatially more extensive fault and/or fracture systems. Empirically, the segregation of such systems into compartments of higher and lower permeability appears to be a key process necessary for high-grade ore formation and, most commonly, it is such concentrations of metals that make an epithermal vein district world class. In the world-class silver- and gold-producing Comstock mining district, Nevada, several lines of evidence lead to the conclusion that the Comstock lode is localized in an extensional stepover between right-lateral fault zones. This evidence includes fault geometries, kinematic indicators of slip, the hydraulic connectivity of faults as demonstrated by veins and dikes along faults, and the opening of a normal-fault-bounded, asymmetric basin between two parallel and overlapping northwest-striking, lateral- to lateral-oblique-slip fault zones. During basin opening, thick, generally subeconomic, banded quartz-adularia veins were deposited in the normal fault zone, the Comstock fault, and along one of the bounding lateral fault zones, the Silver City fault. As deformation continued, the intrusion of dikes and small plugs into the hanging wall of the Comstock fault zone may have impeded the ability of the stepover to accommodate displacement on the bounding strike-slip faults through extension within the stepover. A transient period of transpressional deformation of the Comstock fault zone ensued, and the early-stage veins were deformed through boudinaging and hydraulic fragmentation, fault-motion inversion, and high- and low-angle axial rotations of segments of the fault planes and some fault-bounded wedges. This deformation led to the formation of spatially restricted compartments of high vertical permeability and hydraulic connectivity and low lateral hydraulic connectivity. Bonanza orebodies were formed in the compartmentalized zones of

  2. Clay alteration and gold deposition in the genesis and blue star deposits, Eureka County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drews-Armitage, S. P.; Romberger, S.B.; Whitney, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    The Genesis and Blue Star sedimentary rock-hosted gold deposits occur within the 40-mile-long Carlin trend and are located in Eureka County, Nevada. The deposits are hosted within the Devonian calcareous Popovich Formation, the siliciclastic Rodeo Creek unit and the siliciclastic Vinini Formation. The host rocks have undergone contact metamorphism, decalcification, silicification, argillization, and supergene oxidation. Detailed characterization of the alteration patterns, mineralogy, modes of occurrence, and associated geochemistry of clay minerals resulted in the following classifications: least altered rocks, found distal to the orebody, consisting of both metamorphosed and unmetamorphosed host rock that has not been completely decalcified; and altered rocks, found proximal to the orebody that have been decalcified. Altered rocks are classified further into the following groups based on clay mineral content: silicic, 1 to 10 percent clay; silicicargillic, 10 to 35 percent clay; and argillic, 35 to 80 percent clay. Clay species identified are 1M illite, 2M1 illite, kaolinite, halloysite, and dioctahedral smectite. An early hydrothermal event resulted in the precipitation of euhedral kaolinite and at least one generation of silica. This event occurred contemporaneously with decalcification which increased rock permeability and porosity. A second clay alteration event resulted in the precipitation of hydrothermal 1M illite which replaced hydrothermal kaolinite and is associated with gold deposition. Silver and silica deposition is also associated with this phase of hydrothermal alteration. Hydrothermal alteration was followed by supergene alteration which resulted in the formation of supergene kaolinite, halloysite, and smectite as well as the oxidation of iron-bearing minerals. Supergene clays are concentrated along faults, dike margins, and within rocks containing carbonate. Gold mineralization is not associated with supergene clay minerals within the Genesis and

  3. Sulphur isotope constraints on formation conditions of the Luiswishi ore deposit, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Cailteux, J.; Kampunzu, A. B.; Milesi, J. P.; Fléhoc, C.

    2005-07-01

    Luiswishi is a Congo-type Neoproterozoic sediment-hosted stratiform Cu-Co ore deposit of the Central Africa Copperbelt, located northwest of Lubumbashi (DRC). The ores form two main Cu-Co orebodies hosted by the Mines Subgroup, one in the lower part of the Kamoto Formation and the other at the base of the Dolomitic Shales Formation. Sulphides occur essentially as early parallel layers of chalcopyrite and carrolite, and secondarily as late stockwork sulphides cross-cutting the bedding and the early sulphide generation. Both types of stratiform and stockwork chalcopyrite and carrolite were systematically analyzed for sulphur isotopes, along the lithostratigraphic succession of the Mine Series. The quite similar δ 34S values of stratiform sulphides and late stockwork sulphides suggest an in situ recrystallization or a slight remobilization of stockwork sulphides without attainment of isotopic equilibrium between different sulphide phases (chalcopyrite and carrolite). The distribution of δ 34S values (-14.4‰ to +17.5‰) combined with the lithology indicates a strong stratigraphic control of the sulphur isotope signature, supporting bacterial sulphate reduction during early diagenesis of the host sediments, in a shallow marine to lacustrine environment. Petrological features combined with sulphur isotopic data of sulphides at Luiswishi and previous results on nodules of anhydrite in the Mine Series indicate a dominant seawater/lacustrine origin for sulphates, precluding a possible hydrothermal participation. The high positive δ 34S values of sulphides in the lower orebody at Luiswishi, hosted in massive chloritic-dolomitic siltite (known as Grey R.A.T.), fine-grained stratified dolostone (D.Strat.) and silicified-stromatolitic dolomites alternating with chloritic-dolomitic silty beds (R.S.F.), suggest that they were probably deposited during a period of regression in a basin cut off from seawater. The variations of δ 34S values (i.e. the decrease of δ 34S values

  4. The Application of Gravity and CSAMT Survey on Baishan Molybdenum Deposit, Hami, Xinjiang,China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y.; Lu, H.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Baishan molybdenum deposit is located in the eastern Tianshan Carboniferous rift at Hami, Xinjiang, China, where exposed upper Carboniferous Gandun formation. Molybdenum ore appeared at thermal contact metamorphism hornfelsed banded quartz stockwork in the concealed porphyritic granite top, Potassium and metal sulfide mineralization existed in the top of concealed rockbody.The Baishan molybdenum ore bodies were delineated 2700 meters long and 40 meters thickness, with molybdenum @ 0.59%. The main orebody shows in stratoid, small orebody appears in lenticular and vein.In order to predict potential resources, we proposes a combined method of CSAMT and GS technology,and has applied it to the survey of concealed molybdenum deposit in the Baishan.This combind method can explore to larger depths, discriminate anomalies well and has higher resolution to deep objects, thus it is an efficient tool for surveys.By drilling, we found there exsit a hidden granite body in 1400 meters deep of Hami Baishan molybdenum mine, it confirmed that Baishan molybdenum mine is a porphyry molybdenum ore. Cataclastic hornfelsed zone in the coping granite are the product of heat contact metamorphism, the ore materials are mainly derived from deep magma hydrothermal solution. The CSAMT and Gravity Survey were able to reflect the space and intrusive boundary in rough of buried granite body clearly, deep hidden granite showed high-resistivity and high-gravity anomaly and the low-resistivity anomaly distributied around them, drilling verified that 200-2500Ω low-resistivity anomaly range at top of high-resistivity corresponded to the molybdenum ore horizon. Line 15 of southern section shows two low resistance anomaly zone, and the surface of them is corresponding to the granite and intrusive contact parts,inferring it was caused by the fault structure.In granite gravity anomaly is obviously high and the width is about 560m,Δg residual value is 400 × 10-8m/s2. According to the control of

  5. An Inexpensive Way of Teaching Uncertainty and Mineral Exploration Drilling in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation is all about inexpensive ways of teaching uncertainty and mineral exploration drilling in the classroom. These labs were developed as an off-shoot of my years of mineral industry experience before I transitioned to geoscience education. I have developed several classroom lab exercises that relate to the role of modeling, uncertainty and prediction in mineral exploration. These lessons are mostly less expensive ($<5/group) hands-on activities that can be differentiated across grade levels. Early in the semester, modeling is explored through the cube and toilet paper roll puzzle lab. This is then immediately followed by the penny experiment that gives a physical meaning to the concept of uncertainty. However, it is the end-of-semester shoebox drilling lab that serves as the culminating activity for modeling, uncertainty and prediction. An object (orebody) is hidden inside a shoebox and the students are challenged to design a drilling program to predict the location and topology of a "mineral deposit". The students' decision on the location of the first few drill holes will be based on how they analyze, synthesize and evaluate simple surface topographic, geologic and geochemical +/- geophysical data overlain on top of the box. Before drilling, students are required to construct several geologic sections that will "model" the shape of the hidden orebody. Using bamboo skewers as their drilling equipment, students then commence their drilling and along the way learn the importance of drill spacing in decreasing uncertainty or increasing confidence. Lastly, the mineral separation lab gives them an opportunity to design another experiment that mimics mineral processing and learns a valuable lesson on the difficulties in recovery and how it relates to entropy (no such thing as 100% recoverability). The last two labs can be further enhanced with economic analysis through incorporation of drilling and processing costs. Students further appreciate the world

  6. Effects of overburden, biomass and atmospheric inversions on energy and angular distributions of gamma rays from U, K, Th, and airborne radon sources. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, R.M.; Leggett, D.; Wells, M.B.

    1980-12-01

    This report describes a set of radiation transport calculations that were run with the AHISN S/sub n/ discrete ordinates code and a point kernel code to determine the energy, polar angle and height in air distributions of the total and direct gamma-ray flux densities from: (1) uranium sources of 3.2, 200 and 800 ppM in a sandstone orebody covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (2) thorium sources of 12, 25 and 80 ppM in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (3) potassium source (2.5 wt %) in a sandstone ore body covered with biomass densities of 0, 10.2, 20.4, 51.0 and 102.0 kg/m/sup 2/; (4) constant airborne source with height for no inversion and for inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (5) exponentially decreasing airborne source for no inversion and inversion layer heights of 65.22, 260.32 and 458.43 m; (6) 3.2 ppM uranium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; (7) 12 ppM thorium source in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm; (8) 2.5 wt % of potassium in overburden layers of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm thick; and (9) 3.2 ppM, 200 ppM, and 800 ppM uranium source in sandstone orebody covered with overburden thicknesses of 10.266, 17.110, 26.399 and 32.509 cm. Gamma-ray emission from the decay of natural uranium, thorium, radon, and potassium are given in a 45-energy group structure applicable to the energy windows used to map the potential uranium ore reserves.

  7. Genesis of the Datuanshan stratabound skarn Cu(-Mo) deposit, Middle-Lower Yangtze Valley, Eastern China: constraints from geology, Re-Os geochronology, mineralogy, and sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yi; Gao, Fuping; Du, Yangsong; Du, Yilun; Pang, Zhenshan

    2016-07-01

    Stratabound deposits are the most abundant and economically significant ore type in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Valley, one of the most important metallogenic belts in China. The Datuanshan deposit is one of the largest and most representative stratabound Cu(-Mo) deposits in the Tongling district of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River metallogenic belt. All the orebodies of the Datuanshan deposit occur around Mesozoic quartz monzodiorite and are tabular or semi-tabular bodies along bedding-parallel faults within upper Permian to Lower Triassic strata. However, discordant and crosscutting relationships (e.g., the host rocks crosscut by skarn- and quartz-sulfide veins, with alteration halos around the veins) have also been found, especially along the skarn-host contact and orebody-host contact, indicating that skarnitization and mineralization postdated the deposition of the host sediments. The skarn consists mainly of prograde garnet and pyroxene and retrograde alteration assemblages of amphibole, epidote, and chlorite, as well as quartz and sulfides. Electron microprobe analyses show that the garnets and pyroxenes are grossular-andradite and hedenbergite-diopside series, respectively, and all samples plot in the field of typical skarn copper deposits worldwide. Molybdenite samples from stratiform copper ores yield Re-Os model ages of 138.2-139.9 Ma with a weighted mean age of 139.2 ± 0.9 Ma. This is reasonably consistent with the ages of the stratiform Mo ores (138.0-140.8 Ma) and genetically related quartz monzodiorite (135.2-139.3 Ma) in the Datuanshan deposit, indicating that the stratiform Cu and Mo mineralization was contemporaneous with emplacement of the quartz monzodiorite magmas in the Early Cretaceous. Fifteen δ34S values for sulfides range from -1.8 to +4.7 ‰, with a mean of 0.5 ‰, indicating that the sulfur was derived mainly from a magmatic source. Moreover, the sulfur isotope values of the ores are consistent with those of Mesozoic intermediate

  8. Sulfur isotope evidence for penetration of MVT fluids into igneous basement rocks, southeast Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, K. L.; Burstein, I. B.; Hagni, R. D.; Vierrether, C. B.; Grant, S. K.; Hennigh, Q. T.; Bradley, M. F.; Brandom, R. T.

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies of galena and sphalerite from Paleozoic MVT deposits in the Viburnum Trend, southeast Missouri documented large variations in δ34S values throughout the ore-forming event. The present study of Cu-Fe-sulfides reveals a similar δ34S variation that reflects two end-member sulfur reservoirs whose relative importance varied both temporally and spatially. More 34S-enriched sulfides (δ34S approaching 25‰) indicate introduction of sulfur from basinal sedimentary sources, whereas more 32S-enriched sulfides (δ34S < 5‰) may reflect fluids moving through underlying granitic basement. Two areas containing Precambrian, igneous-hosted FeCu mineralization in southeast Missouri (West and Central Domes of Boss-Bixby) were investigated to elucidate their relationship to Cu-rich MVT orebodies hosted nearby within the overlying Cambrian Bonneterre Dolomite. Mineralization at Boss-Bixby is composed of an early phase of iron oxide deposition followed by Cu-Fe-sulfides. The Central Dome is faulted and its mineralization is more fracture-controlled than the typically podiform ores of the West Dome. The δ34S values of West Dome sulfides are 0.9 to 6.5‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate a temperature of 525° ± 50 °C. These data indicate an igneous source of sulfur during Precambrian ore deposition. In contrast, δ34S values of Central Dome sulfides are 9.4 to 20.0‰ and pyrite-chalcopyrite indicate temperatures of 275° ± 50 °C. Similar δ34S values are obtained for chalcopyrite from the overlying MVT deposits. We speculate that deeply circulating, basin-derived MVT fluids mobilized sulfur and copper from the underlying igneous basement and redeposited them in overlying Curich MVT orebodies, as well as overprinting earlier Precambrian sulfides of the Central Dome with a later, Paleozoic MVT sulfur isotope signature. Many models for MVT fluid circulation in the Midcontinent region of North America assume that igneous basement rocks are an impermeable boundary

  9. Cretaceous Cu-Au, pyrite, and Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in the Ningwu basin, Lower Yangtze Area, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jin-Jie; Lu, Bang-Cheng; Wang, Tie-Zhu; Che, Lin-Rui

    2015-05-01

    The Cretaceous Ningwu volcanic basin of the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Valley metallogenic belt of eastern China hosts numerous Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits. The mineralization in the Ningwu basin is associated with subvolcanic rocks, consisting of gabbro-diorite porphyry and/or pyroxene diorite. However, the mineralization is associated with subvolcanic and volcanic rock suite belonging to the Niangniangshan Formation in the Tongjing Cu-Au deposit, including nosean-bearing aegirine-augite syenites, quartz syenites, and quartz monzonites. The zoning displayed by the alteration and mineralization comprises: (1) an upper light-colored zone of argillic, carbonate, and pyrite alteration and silicification that is locally associated with pyrite and gold mineralization, (2) a central dark-colored zone of diopside, fluorapatite-magnetite, phlogopite, and garnet alteration associated with fluorapatite-magnetite mineralization, and (3) a lowermost light-colored zone of extensive albite alteration. The Cu-Au and pyrite orebodies are peripheral to the Fe-oxide-apatite deposits in this area and overlie the iron orebodies, including the Meishan Cu-Au deposit in the northern Ningwu basin and the pyrite deposits in the central Ningwu basin. The δ34S values of sulfides from the Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits in the Ningwu basin show large variation, with a mixed sulfur source, including magmatic sulfur and/or a mixture of sulfur derived from a magmatic component, country rock, and thermochemical reduction of sulfate at 200-300 °C. The ore-forming fluids associated with iron mineralization were derived mainly from magmatic fluids, and the late-stage ore-forming fluids related to Cu-Au and pyrite mineralization may have formed by the introduction of cooler meteoric water to the system. The Fe-oxide-apatite, Cu-Au, and pyrite deposits of the Ningwu basin formed in an extensional environment and are associated with a large-scale magmatic

  10. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). The entire country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in northwest Saudi Arabia. The sweep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulates around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under clouds top right.

  11. Seismic-refraction study of suspected drift-filled bedrock valleys in Ramsey County, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    A drift-filled bedrock valley was thought to incise the St. Peter aquifer to an altitude between 770 and 800 feet above sea level at the Koppers site. The interpretation of a seismic profile just east of the Koppers site is not conclusive, but suggests that a bedrock valley may be present near the middle of the line. The interpretation of a second seismic profile across the westward extension of the same suspected valley also is not conclusive, but suggests that a bedrock valley may be present at the north end of the line. The optimal field layout for each line at the site (longer shot offsets) could not be obtained because of limited space available in the densely developed residential neighborhoods.

  12. Availability of Additional Water for Chiricahua National Monument, Cochise County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Phillip W.

    1962-01-01

    The Chiricahua National Monument is in the eastern part of Cochise County, Ariz. The monument is about 35 miles southeast of Wilicox in the north end of the Chiricahua Mountains which border Sulphur Springs Valley on the west. The area is drained by two intermittent washes, one in Bonita and the other in Rhyolite Canyons. Shake Spring is the present source of water for the monument. It ranges in rate of flow from 2 to 12 gpm (gallons per minute) and during dry periods It is not adequate to support the requirements of the monument. Ample water to meet the present and future needs of the Chiricahua National Monument is available from a combination of several sources - undeveloped springs or seeps, capture of runoff out of the canyons, and wells drilled in the alluvium.

  13. Tuscarora area, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case history, northern basin and range. Final report, 1 October 1978-9 September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkington, H.D.

    1981-08-01

    The Tuscarora prospect is located at the north end of Independence Valley approximately 90 km north-northwest of Elko, Nevada. Geothermal exploration on the prospect consisted of an integrated program of geologic, hydrogeochemical and soil geochemistry studies. Geophysical exploration included heatflow studies, aeromagnetic, self-potential, gravity, dipole-dipole resistivity and magnetotelluric surveys. Exploration drilling includes thirty-two shallow thermal gradient holes, six intermediate depth temperature gradient wells and one 5454 foot test for discovery well. Shallow low-temperature reservoirs were encountered in the Tertiary rocks and in the Paleozoic rocks immediately beneath the Tertiary. Drilling problems forced the deep well to be stopped before the high-temperature reservoir was reached.

  14. Haines - Scagway Submarine Cable Intertie Project, Haines to Scagway, Alaska Final Technical and Construction Report

    SciTech Connect

    See, Alan; Rinehart, Bennie N; Marin, Glen

    1998-11-01

    The Haines to Skagway submarine cable project is located n Taiya Inlet, at the north end of Lynn Canal, in Southeast Alaska. The cable is approximately 15 miles long, with three landings and splice vaults. The cable is 35 kV, 3-Phase, and armored. The cable interconnects the Goat Lake Hydro Project near Skagway with the community of Haines. Both communities are now on 100% hydroelectric power. The Haines to Skagway submarine cable is the result of AP&T's goal of an alternative, economic, and environmentally friendly energy source for the communities served and to eliminate the use of diesel fuel as the primary source of energy. Diesel units will continue to be used as a backup system.

  15. Tectonic history of the north portion of the San Andreas fault system, California, inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griscom, A.; Jachens, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Geologic and geophysical data for the San Andreas fault system north of San Francisco suggest that the eastern boundary of the Pacific plate migrated eastward from its presumed original position at the base of the continental slope to its present position along the San Andreas transform fault by means of a series of eastward jumps of the Mendocino triple junction. These eastward jumps total a distance of about 150 km since 29 Ma. Correlation of right-laterally displaced gravity and magnetic anomalies that now have components at San Francisco and on the shelf north of Point Arena indicates that the presently active strand of the San Andreas fault north of the San Francisco peninsula formed recently at about 5 Ma when the triple junction jumped eastward a minimum of 100 km to its present location at the north end of the San Andreas fault. -from Authors

  16. Geology of Area A, Catak iron deposit, Egrigoz Mountains Kutahya Province, Turkey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barosh, Patrick James

    1972-01-01

    The Catak iron deposit consist of magnetite-bearing lenses distributed along the northeast-trending contact of the north end of. the Egrigoz granitic massif in Kutahya Province. Area A is near the northeast end of the deposit and contains three main irregular magnetite lenses. A body of talc-silicate hornfels, almost surrounded by quartzite and schist , lies a short distance from the contact with quartz monzonite and contains the magnetite-bearing lenses west-northwest to northwest-trending structural grain is expressed by schistosity, joints, shears, lithologic contacts and outcrop patterns, although the mineralized rock and general intrusive contact trend northeast. The ranges of the average content of Fe, Si, and S, determined from drill data are 33.54-53.95 percent; 5.86-12.25 percent; and. 8.33-9.49 percent, respectively.

  17. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  18. The increase in September precipitation in the Mediterranean region as a result of changes in atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojarov, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The study analyzes changes in September precipitation in the Mediterranean region and their possible causes. The research period is 1950-2014. The main finding is that the reduction in aerosol pollution over Europe in the late twentieth century has led to an upward shift of air temperatures in the region, which in turn has reduced the meridional temperature gradient, leading to weakening and shift to the north of the Azores High (the north end of Hadley circulation). This northward shift placed the Mediterranean region in an area with decreasing SLP, which results in an increase in the number or intensity of cyclones, increase in cloudiness and precipitation and a decrease in air temperatures. In the period 1995-2014 the region (especially its eastern part) lies within the boundaries of Inter Tropical Convergence Zone in September.

  19. LANDSAT image studies as applied to petroleum exploration in Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The Chevron-Kenya oil license, acquired in 1972, covers an area at the north end of the Lamu Embayment. Immediately after acquisition, a photogeologic study of the area was made followed by a short field inspection. An interpretation of LANDSAT-1 images as a separate attempt to improve geological knowledge was completed. The method used in the image study, the multispectral characteristics of rock units and terrain, and the observed anomalous features as seen in the LANDSAT imagery are described. It was found that the study helped to define the relationship of the Lamu Embayment and its internal structure with surrounding regional features, such as the East Africa rifting, the Rudolf Trough, the Bur Acaba structural ridge, and the Ogaden Basin.

  20. Cultural Resource Assessment of the Test Area North Demolition Landfill at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda R. Pace

    2003-07-01

    The proposed new demolition landfill at Test Area North on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) will support ongoing demolition and decontamination within the facilities on the north end of the INEEL. In June of 2003, the INEEL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify all cultural resources that might be adversely affected by the project and to provide recommendations to protect those listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that landfill construction and operation would affect two significant cultural resources. This report outlines protective measures to ensure that these effects are not adverse.

  1. Provenance of the Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: evidence for early Paleocene Laramide uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, P.L.; Brown, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrologic and provenance study indicates that Laramide uplifts to the west and south of the Powder River Basin (PRB) were emergent and shedding detritus by early Paleocene time. This conclusion is based largely on the presence of abundant first-cycle carbonate clasts in the northwestern PRB, and metamorphic and igneous clasts and labile heavy-mineral grains in the Tullock throughout the basin. The proximity and composition of the north end of the Bighorn uplift strongly suggest that it was the source for carbonate, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments in northwestern Tullock outcrops. The conclusions are supported by recent fission-track, palynological, and sedimentological studies that indicate that Laramide-style foreland deformation in southwestern Montana began in late Cenomanian to Turonian time and migrated through central Wyoming to the Colorado Front Range by late Maastrichtian time. -from Authors

  2. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Stringfellow acid pits site, Glen Avon, California (second remedial action), June 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-06-25

    The Stringfellow site is located in Riverside County, California. Approximately 34,000,000 gallons of industrial waste, primarily from metal finishing, electroplating, and DDT production were deposited in onsite evaporation ponds. In 1972, the site was voluntarily closed. The primary contaminants of concern affecting onsite and downgradient ground-water include: organics including TCE, inorganics, and metals. The selected remedial action for the site includes: installation of a ground water barrier system in the lower canyon area and treatment of extracted ground water, if necessary, followed by discharge to a publicly owned treatment works installation of a peripheral channel around the north end of the original site to direct upgradient surface-water runoff; and extension of the existing gunite channels southward to discharge surface water to Pyrite Creek.

  3. New explorations along the northern shores of Lake Bonneville

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    This field trip begins in Salt Lake City and makes a clockwise circuit of Great Salt Lake, with primary objectives to observe stratigraphie and geomorphic records of Lake Bonneville. Stops include Stansbury Island, Puddle Valley, gravel pits at Lakeside and the south end of the Hogup Mountains, several stops in Curlew Valley and Hansel Valley, and a final stop at the north end of Great Salt Lake east of the Promontory Mountains. Stratigraphie observations at gravel-pit and natural exposures will be linked to interpretations of lake-level change, which were caused by climate change. Evidence of paleoseismic and volcanic activity will be discussed at several sites, and will be tied to the lacustrine stratigraphic record. The trip provides an overview of the history of Lake Bonneville and introduces participants to some new localities with excellent examples of Lake Bonneville landforms and stratigraphy.

  4. Middle Eocene deformation and sedimentation in the Puna-Eastern Cordillera transition (23°-26°S): Control by preexisting heterogeneities on the pattern of initial Andean shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hongn, F.; Del Papa, C.; Powell, J.; Petrinovic, I.; Mon, R.; Deraco, V.

    2007-03-01

    The Quebrada de los Colorados Formation, at the north end of Calchaquí Valley in Salta Province, northwest Argentina, preserves evidence of syndepositional deformation since the middle Eocene (ca. 40 Ma) that includes (1) an angular unconformity with the underlying Salta Group (Paleogene), and (2) internal unconformities and changes in vertical facies succession and provenance. Its fossil record [mammalian (notoungulates), middle Eocene] is correlatable to the Casa Grande Formation, which also unconformably overlies the Salta Group; both units record middle Eocene deformation along the eastern border of the Puna Plateau and outline previous first-order mechanical heterogeneities related to the Cretaceous rift basin border. Along the western margin of the Puna, Eocene deformation coincides with thermal (magmatic arc) and mechanical (basin inversion) heterogeneities. Thus, the distribution of Eocene deformation followed an irregular pattern as a consequence of the heritage of preexisting heterogeneities.

  5. Land subsidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.

    1986-01-01

    In November 1966, sixty percent of Venice, Italy, is inundated by a storm surge that causes waters in the Venetian lagoon to rise more than 6 feet. On December 28, 1971, a janitor at the Washington Elementary School in Johnston City, Illinois, discovers sever cracking of the school. In January 1972, the school is abandoned and subsequently razed. In the 1970's, five homes in New Orleans, Louisiana, are destroyed by gas explosins. In May 198, a 350 feet diameter sink-hole forms in a business area in Winter Park, Florida, and swallows a home and parts of several businesses. In August 1983, Hurricane Alicia slams into the texas Gulf Coast near Houston, Texas, and devastates the 500 home Brownwood subdivision on the north end of Galveston Bay. Homes are torn from their foundations and reduced to rubble. 

  6. Hydrologic conditions: Dade County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohout, Francis Anthony; Klein, Howard; Sherwood, C.B.; Leach, Stanley D.

    1964-01-01

    Thin layers of dense limestone of low permeability that occur near the top of the Biscayne aquifer in the vicinity of the north end of Levee 30 in Dade County, Florida are of hydrologic importance because they retard the downward infiltration of ponded water in Conservation Area No. 3. This retarding effect frequently results in high head differentials across the levee. Tests made in a small area adjacent to Levee 30 indicate that the coefficient of transmissibility of the aquifer is 3,600,000 gpd (gallons per day) per foot, and the coefficient of vertical permeability of the dense limestones is 13 gpd per square foot. If ground-water flow beneath the levee is laminar, the total inflow to the Levee 30 Canal from Conservation Area No. 3 will be about 350 mgd (million gallons per day), or 540 cfs (cubic feet per second), per mile length of levee when the head difference across the levee is 10 feet.

  7. Federally Qualified Health Centers Minimize the Impact of Loss of Frequency and Independence of Movement in Older Adult Patients through Access to Transportation Services

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Krystal Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Loss of mobility in older adults (65 and older) is associated with falling, loss of independence, and mortality. This paper, which to the author's knowledge is the first of its kind, summarizes findings of Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) case reports and how FQHCs minimize the impacts of mobility loss in older adult patients (who would not receive primary services without these transportation programs) by providing access to primary care services through transportation programs. This paper features the transportation programs of four FQHCs located in both urban and rural United States areas: LifeLong Medical Care (Oakland, CA); Hudson Headwaters Health Network (Queensbury, NY); North End Community Health Center (Boston, MA); Aaron E. Henry Community Health Services Center, Inc. (Clarksdale, MS). This paper is beneficial to primary care providers and public health officials in outlining how transportation may be used to minimize the effects of mobility loss in older adult patients. PMID:21748013

  8. A summary of the geology and mineral resources of the Paris Plateau-House Rock Valley area, Coconino County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, Morris W.; Pierson, C.T.; Bauer, D.P.; Umshler, D.B.

    1977-01-01

    The Paria Plateau-House Rock Valley area of north-central Arizona is located on the southwestern edge Of the Colorado Plateau physiographic province in an area underlain by about 5,000 meters of fossiliferous marine and continental sedimentary rock ranging in age from Precambrian through Quaternary. The area, which lies north of the Grand and Marble Canyons, is bounded on the west by the East Kaibab monocline and on the east by the Echo monocline. The Paria Plateau, bounded on the South by the scenic Vermilion Cliffs, is composed of continental red-beds of Triassic and Jurassic age, which dip gently northward at 2? to ? away from the north end of the Marble Platform upon which the Paria Plateau sits.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL AUDITING: An Integrated Approach to Reservoir Management: The Williston Reservoir Case Study.

    PubMed

    Baker; Young; Arocena

    2000-05-01

    / The management of industrial reservoirs for hydroelectric energy can cause severe impacts to surrounding communities. This study examines the generation of dust along the northern foreshore zones of Williston Reservoir in northern British Columbia. The dust is generated in the spring when the reservoir levels are low and impacts a relocated First Nations' village (Tsay Keh) at the north end of the reservoir. Data were gathered to provide an overview of the physical conditions that contribute to the dust problem, including a social survey, soil analysis, and vegetation inventory. The study provides a scoping method to assess a large-scale and complex problem with respect to dust management along a large reservoir. Methods for dust control include short- and long-term solutions that integrate the use of native vegetation along the foreshore zones of the reservoir.

  10. Freshwater bryozoa of Tonle Sap, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-06-01

    We identified a collection of freshwater bryozoans from Tonle Sap (meaning Tonle Lake), Cambodia, a body of water fed by the Mekong River and characterized by extreme fluctuations in water level between the wet and dry seasons. The collection also included specimens from the moat of Angkor Wat, located at the north end of the lake. We found four phylactolaemate species (Plumatella bombayensis, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella vorstmani, Hyalinella lendenfeldi) and one ctenostome species (Hislopia cambodgiensis) from the lake, and only a single, additional phylactolaemate species (Plumatella javanica) from the moat. We provide brief descriptions of these species, photographs of colonies for some, and photomicrographs by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of statoblasts. None of the species encountered in this study is endemic to Cambodia, and the wide distributions of the species are possibly related to the dispersability of floatoblasts by birds. We briefly discuss some of the taxonomic problems surrounding Hislopia cambodgiensis.

  11. Origin and deformation of Holocene shoreline terraces, Yellowstone Lake, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, G.A.; Locke, W.W.

    1986-08-01

    Geodetic surveys within the Yellowstone caldera have documented active uplift that is most likely caused by magmatic processes in the upper crust. Along the northeast shore of Yellowstone Lake, maximum relative uplift rates are 10 mm/yr for the period 1923-1975. However, information on deformation prior to historic instrumental records has been lacking. In this study, closely spaced data on elevations of postglacial shoreline terraces around the north end of Yellowstone Lake reveal complex tilting. Though most Holocene deformation is probably magma related, the pattern of shoreline tilting deviates significantly from the historic pattern of roughly symmetric inflation of the caldera. Along the northeast shore, where tilt directions of historic and shoreline deformation are similar, differential uplift of a > 2500-yr-old terrace is roughly 10 m; this gives a maximum uplift rate of 4 mm/yr. These unique Holocene terraces may exist due to episodic deformation because vertical movements affecting the lake outlet directly control lake level.

  12. Archive of digital chirp subbottom profile data collected during USGS cruise 11BIM01 Offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, June 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forde, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Miselis, Jennifer L.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2013-01-01

    From June 3 to 13, 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a geophysical survey to investigate the geologic controls on barrier island framework and long-term sediment transport along the oil spill mitigation sand berm constructed at the north end and just offshore of the Chandeleur Islands, LA. This effort is part of a broader USGS study, which seeks to better understand barrier island evolution over medium time scales (months to years). This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital chirp subbottom data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Gained (showing a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided.

  13. Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. 2605, Weather Support Area, Floor Plan & Details" Also includes a site plan and a finish schedule. The exact location of this construction is obscure, but it appears to be the enclosure of space at the north end of room 101, the "Display Area" or "War Room") Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. B-1081, sheet no. 1 of 2, 9 July 1968; project no. MAR-132-8; CE-562; file drawer 2605-9, also 1315. Various scales. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  14. Chryse 'Alien Head'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an impact crater in Chryse Planitia, not too far from the Viking 1 lander site, that to seems to resemble a bug-eyed head. The two odd depressions at the north end of the crater (the 'eyes') may have formed by wind or water erosion. This region has been modified by both processes, with water action occurring in the distant past via floods that poured across western Chryse Planitia from Maja Valles, and wind action common occurrence in more recent history. This crater is located near 22.5oN, 47.9oW. The 150 meter scale bar is about 164 yards long. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  15. A High-Resolution Aeromagnetic Survey to Identify Buried Faults at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Richard Paul; Grauch, V. J. S.; Blackwell, David D.

    2002-09-01

    Preliminary results from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey (200m line spacing) acquired in Dixie Valley early in 2002 provide confirmation of intra-basin faulting based on subtle surface indications. In addition the data allow identification of the locations and trends of many faults that have not been recognized at the surface, and provide a picture of intrabasin faulting patterns not possible using other techniques. The data reveal a suite of northeasterly-trending curving and branching faults that surround a relatively coherent block in the area of Humboldt Salt Marsh, the deepest part of the basin. The producing reservoir occurs at the north end of this coherent block, where rampart faults from the northwest side of the valley merge with anthithetic faults from the central and southeast parts of the valley.

  16. Hydrologic data collection activities in the Solomon Gulch basin near Valdez, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigelow, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    In 1981, the Alaska Power Authority completed construction of a dam spillway at the north end of Solomon Lake near Valdez. Regulation and diversion from the dam since 1982 have significantly altered the natural flow characteristics of Solomon Gulch. In September 1986, the Geological Survey began data collection to determine mean daily discharge at four sites below Solomon Lake and thus document the effects of regulation and diversion of water on the flow at various points in the system. Periodic discharge measurements and continuous records of water stage were obtained at two of the sites, and daily discharge values were computed for all four sites. The report contains descriptions of the data collection sites and the discharge records for each site for September 1986 and water year 1987. (USGS)

  17. The spatial distribution of precipitation frequency for atmospheric river storms in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.; Kingsmill, D.; White, C.; Wilbanks, M.; Hardin, N.; Cunningham, J.

    2011-12-01

    A key missing piece on the role of atmospheric rivers (ARs ) in flooding events in California is knowledge of the detailed spatial distribution of precipitation over the slopes of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada. Existing rain gauges provide incomplete information on precipitation in this region, particularly over rugged mountainous terrain. We utilize operational radar data from National Weather Service WSR-88D radars at six locations in California and Nevada to determine the spatial distribution of precipitation frequency for selected AR events. Preliminary results suggest that the southerly moisture transport by the Sierra Barrier Jet becomes more southeasterly toward the north end of the Sacramento Valley and enhances precipitation in the lee of the Coastal Range.

  18. The genesis of sediment-hosted, exhalative zinc + lead deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M. J.; Solomon, M.; Walshe, J. L.

    1981-05-01

    Large sediment-hosted lead+zinc deposits like Mount Isa, McArthur River, Navan, Rammelsberg and Sullivan form a distinctive group characterised by stratiform, syngenetic sulphide ores that formed in local basins on the sea floor as a result of protracted hydrothermal activity accompanying continental rifting. Generally there is a development of a sedimentary pre-ore phase mineralization often featuring manganese followed by zinc±lead, iron and chert. Lower main phase zinc+lead lenses are usually almost devoid of copper but Cu tenors increase toward the middle or top of the ore sequences. Hanging wall trace element haloes are common. These characteristics are accounted for by deriving the ore solutions from subsurface convective circulation of modified highly saline seawater. The circulation is initiated during rifting and driven by a high geothermal gradient. As a result of continued extensional strain and cooling of the rock column the brittle-to-ductile transition zone is depressed and the circulation penetrates to greater depth with time. Of the ore metals the downward-penetrating convection fluids first leach and transport zinc and lead, but with increasing temperature are later able to leach and transport some copper. Unless convective circulation ceases the metal sequence generally reverses as the cooling phase sets in. The minimum distance separating major coeval orebodies of this type is 18 km which is a function of the size of the convective systems.

  19. A study of radionuclides, metals and stable lead isotope ratios in sediments and soils in the vicinity of natural U-mineralisation areas in the Northern Territory.

    PubMed

    Frostick, A; Bollhöfer, A; Parry, D

    2011-10-01

    Australian guidelines recommend that tailings materials from uranium (U) mining and milling be contained without any detrimental impact on the environment for at least 1000 years. Natural analogue sites are being investigated to determine if they can provide data on the rates of natural erosion processes which occur over these timescales, for input into predictive geomorphic computer models. This paper presents radionuclide, metal and stable lead (Pb) isotope data from sediment cores and surface soils in the vicinity of two mineralised areas in the Alligator Rivers Region. Surface scrapes from the natural Anomaly #2, south of the Ranger mineral lease, exhibit radiogenic (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios, and elevated U and metal concentrations typical for a near surface U anomaly. In contrast, samples taken from the Koongarra mineral lease (KML) show radionuclide activity and metal concentrations similar to natural areas elsewhere in the Alligator Rivers Region and Pb isotope ratios are closer to present day average crustal ratios (PDAC), as the orebodies at KML are covered by surficial sand. A sediment core collected from Anbangbang Billabong, downstream of KML, exhibits small variations in Pb isotope ratios that indicate that approximately 1% of the upper sediments in the sediment core may be derived from material originating from the U anomaly at Koongarra.

  20. Passive airborne EM and ground IP\\resistivity results over the Romero intermediate sulphidation epithermal gold deposits, Dominican Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legault, Jean M.; Niemi, Jeremy; Brett, Jeremy S. Zhao, Shengkai; Han, Zihao; Plastow, Geoffrey C.

    2016-04-01

    The Romero gold-copper-zinc-silver deposits are located in the Province of San Juan, Dominican Republic, ~165 km west-north-west of Santo Domingo. Romero and Romero South orebodies contain stratabound gold mineralisation with copper, silver and zinc of intermediate sulphidation (IS), epithermal style. The gold mineralisation is associated with disseminated to semi-massive sulphides, sulphide veinlets and quartz-sulphide veins within quartz-pyrite, quartz-illite-pyrite and illite-chlorite-pyrite alteration. Ground direct current (DC) resistivity and induced polarisation (IP) supported by ground magnetics remain the preferred geophysical targeting tools for drill follow-up along with geologic mapping and geochemistry. However, Z-axis tipper electromagnetics (ZTEM) passive airborne electromagnetics (AEM) and magnetics have recently also been applied with success for reconnaissance mapping of deep alteration and fault structures regionally. The airborne ZTEM-magnetic surveys, supported by three-dimensional (3D) inversions, show good correlation with the ground IP\\resistivity surveys in the Romero and Romero South gold-copper-zinc-silver IS deposit area. The results have provided targets for ground follow-up and deep targeted drilling, and were successful in identifying a previously unknown deep (>500 m) continuity between the Romero and Romero South deposits.

  1. Diffusional transport and fluid connectivity in mineral aggregates. Final report [for the period August 15, 1994 to August 15, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Yund, Richard; Farver, John

    1999-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to determine diffusional transport rates of oxygen and selected geologically and environmentally important cations in polycrystalline mineral aggregates. The samples included both natural and hot-pressed single and polyphase aggregates of common mineralogies. In addition to determining grain boundary diffusion rates in these samples, bulk diffusivity measurements were made to evaluate the connectivity of common geological fluids as a function of temperature, pressure, fluid composition and volume fraction, mineralogy (anisotropy of interfacial energies), and stress state in the solid. An integral part of these investigations was the detailed characterization of the sample microstructures using SEM and TEM in order to evaluate whether a correlation between microstructure observations and bulk diffusional transport distances can be established, thus providing a valuable tool for predicting diffusional transport and fluid connectivity in natural samples. Applications of these data include evaluating the retentiveness of different geological medium for the isolation and confinement of nuclear and chemical wastes, modeling the migration of formation fluids and hydrocarbons through different rock types to refine exploration and development strategies for more efficient oil and natural gas recovery, and determining fluid/rock interactions and thermal histories from isotope systematics which, among other things, provide models for modern-day geothermal/hydrothermal energy systems and ore-body deposition associated with fossil hydrothermal systems.

  2. Preliminary investigation of the elemental variation and diagenesis of a tabular uranium deposit, La Sal Mine, San Juan County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Robert A.; Campbell, John A.

    1976-01-01

    Ore in the La Sal mine, San Juan County, Utah, occurs as a typical tabular-type uranium deposit of the-Colorado Plateau. Uranium-vanadium occurs in the Salt Wash Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation. Chemical and petrographic analyses were used to determine elemental variation and diagenetic aspects across the orebody. Vanadium is concentrated in the dark clay matrix, which constitutes visible ore. Uranium content is greater above the vanadium zone. Calcium, carbonate carbon, and lead show greater than fifty-fold increase across the ore zone, whereas copper and organic carbon show only a several-fold increase. Large molybdenum concentrations are present in and above the tabular layer, and large selenium concentrations occur below the uranium zone within the richest vanadium zone. Iron is enriched in the vanadium horizon. Chromium is depleted from above the ore and strongly enriched below. Elements that vary directly with the vanadium content include magnesium, iron, selenium, zirconium, strontium, titanium, lead, boron, yttrium, and scandium. The diagenetic sequence is as follows: (1) formation of secondary quartz overgrowths as cement; (2) infilling and lining of remaining pores with amber opaline material; (3) formation of vanadium-rich clay matrix, which has replaced overgrowths as well as quartz grains; (4) replacement of overgrowths and detrital grains by calcite; (5) infilling of pores with barite and the introduction of pyrite and marcasite.

  3. Geology, geochemistry and Ar Ar geochronology of the Nangimali ruby deposit, Nanga Parbat Himalaya (Azad Kashmir, Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pêcher, A.; Giuliani, G.; Garnier, V.; Maluski, H.; Kausar, A. B.; Malik, R. H.; Muntaz, H. R.

    2002-12-01

    The Nangimali ruby deposit in the southern part of the Nanga Parbat Himalaya, has been investigated through field work, geochemistry, stable and radiogenic isotopes. It outcrops in the Shontar valley in a large north-vergent syncline consisting of high-grade metamorphic gneisses capped by a metasedimentary series dominated by marbles and amphibolites. The ore-body is stratiform. Ruby is found within 0.1-2 cm thick shear-veinlets and gash veins cutting dolomitic marbles and carbonate-bearing bands. The marbles of the Nangimali Formation display restricted ranges in δ18O (from 23.6 to 27.6‰ relative to SMOW) and in δ13C (from -1.9 to 2.6‰ relative to PDB). Fluid infiltration along the shear-zone in the marble has no effect on the isotopic signatures of the carbonates. Fluids are metamorphic and CO 2 is derived from the decarbonation of marbles. Mass-balance and geochemical analyses suggest that the mobilisation by the fluids of aluminium and chromium in the marbles is sufficient to enable the formation of ruby in the shear-zone. Rubies have been indirectly dated using a stepwise 40Ar- 39Ar laser heating technique on syngenetic phlogopites. The Miocene age records a Neogene cooling in the South of the Nanga Parbat massif and a minimum formation age for ruby of 16 Ma.

  4. Lebediny gold deposit, Central Aldan: Mineral parageneses, stages, and formation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovol'skaya, M. G.; Razin, M. V.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.

    2016-07-01

    The mineral parageneses and succession of their formation are considered for the first time for the Zverevsky, Orekhovy, and Vodonosny ore lodes of the Lebediny gold deposit and the Radostny prospect in the Central Aldan ore district, which are genetically related to the epoch of Mesozoic tectonomagmatic reactivation. The orebodies, represented by two morphological varieties—ribbonlike lodes and steeply dipping veins—are hosted in lower part of the Vendian-Cambrian dolomitic sequence, which is cut through by Mesozoic subalkaline intrusive bodies. The chemistry of fahlore and rare minerals, including native gold and bismuth, altaite, aikinite, tetradymite, and sulfosalts of lillianite series, has been studied. Native gold is related to the late hydrothermal process and occurs in skarn and in quartz-tremolite-sulfide and quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins. The data on stable sulfur (δ34S) isotopes of sulfides, oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes of carbonates, as well as on fluid inclusions in various generations of tremolite and quartz, provide evidence for the heterogeneity of ore-bearing solutions, their relationships to magmatism, the depth of the source feeding each specific lode, and different sources of ore-forming hydrothermal solutions.

  5. Detour Lake mine - gold in upper greenschist-lower amphibolite terrane

    SciTech Connect

    Marmont, S.

    1985-01-01

    The Detour Lake mine, Abitibi belt, Superior Province, Canada, shows many similarities and some significant disimilarities with other gold deposits in the belt. The deposit is in tholeiitic basalts, granodioritic feldspar porphyries, massive felsic units and an amphibole-carbonate-mica schist. The structural footwall of the orebody consists of well layered, pelitic metasediments. Alteration is extensive and comprises carbonatization, biotitization, sericitization, introduction of potassic feldspars, silicification and sulfidation. The relationships between penetrative tectonic fabrics, veins, intrusions and primary flow features suggest that many intermittent stages of ductile and brittle deformation, representative of a simple shear system with an overall dextral motion took place. These features are shared by numerous other gold deposits in the Abitibi belt. However, unlike the deposits in the core of the belt, which are found in lower greenschist facies, the rocks of the Detour Lake mine constitute an upper greenschist-lower amphibolite assemblage. This higher grade of metamorphism represents either the thermal aureole of a granitic body or a deeper level in the crust. In addition, gold is commonly submicroscopic with preference for chalcopyrite, and occurs in veins or in their immediate wall rock. The structural history of the auriferous veins demonstrates that gold was deposited late in the hydrothermal processes, post-dates folding and is synchronous with or later than the felsic intrusions.

  6. Geologic map of the Weka Dur gold deposit, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1967 original map compilation of M.P. Guguev and others

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Stephen G.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The Weka Dur gold deposit lies in a cluster of other gold deposits in Badakhshan Province (Ragh district), such as the Kadar, Nesheb Dur, and Rishaw gold occurrences. These gold occurrences lie within a zone of late Hercynian folding and are most likely related to fluids that originated from orogenic processes. The Weka Dur deposit is the largest recorded gold occurrence in Afghanistan and is hosted in Proterozoic mica schist and amphibolite that is intruded by diabase dikes and other intrusive rocks. The tabular orebody is 350 meters (m) long and 2 m wide and can be traced downdip for 110 m. Mineralization consists of ochreous, brecciated schists containing high gold concentrations along gently and steeply dipping fissures. The brecciated rocks grade to 46.7 grams per ton (g/t) silver and contain arsenopyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, and scheelite. Trenches and adits were constructed, mapped, and sampled during the 1960s. Calculated resources are 958.3 kilograms of gold, averaging 4.1 g/t gold.

  7. Geochemistry of vanadium in an epigenetic, sandstone-hosted vanadium- uranium deposit, Henry Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Northrop, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The epigenetic Tony M vanadium-uranium orebody in south-central Utah is hosted in fluvial sandstones of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Measurements of the relative amounts of V+3 and V +4 in ore minerals show that V+3 is more abundant. Thermodynamic calculations show that vanadium was more likely transported to the site of mineralization as V+4. The ore formed as V+4 was reduced by hydrogen sulfide, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of V+3 in oxide minerals or chlorite. Uranium was transported as uranyl ion (U+6), or some complex thereof, and reduced by hydrogen sulfide, forming coffinite. Detrital organic matter in the rocks served as the carbon source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Vanadium most likely was derived from the dissolution of iron-titanium oxides. Uranium probably was derived from the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies have shown that the ore formed at the density-stratified interface between a basinal brine and dilute meteoric water. The mineralization processes described above occurred within the mixing zone between these two fluids. -from Authors

  8. Simulation Of Broadband Seismic Wave Propagation In A Deep Mine in Sudbury Ontario Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, R.; Chen, H.; Milkereit, B.; Liu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    In an active underground mine, amplitudes and travel times of seismic events are critical parameters that have to be determined at various locations. These parameters are useful to better understand the process of spatial and temporal stress distributions in a mine. In this study, variations of travel time and amplitude of seismic waves derived from the conventional constant velocity models are compared to the ones derived from 3D variable velocity model. The results show a significant variation in seismic energy distribution at the mine due to presence of very strong elastic contrast, and the observed complexity of the propagated seismic waves require the use of a variable velocity model. An active deep mine located in Sudbury Ontario Canada hosted this study. Dense 3D arrays of geophones, which are distributed around ore-bodies, have been monitoring controlled production blasts and microseismic events since the mine has started production. It is shown here that the conventional empirical method used to calculate peak particle velocities and accelerations (PPVs/PPAs), tends to underestimate the intensity of seismic waves in stopes or areas close to blast sites. This could be corrected if a more realistic model was implemented. Comparing the travel time information from recorded events in the past few years showed the temporal changes in the mine velocity model as mining progressed, thus updating the velocity model of the mine is needed if better accuracy of event location is required. In this study, a 2D/3D finite difference modeling method is used.

  9. Quantitative interpretation of airborne gravity gradiometry data for mineral exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Cericia D.

    In the past two decades, commercialization of previously classified instrumentation has provided the ability to rapidly collect quality gravity gradient measurements for resource exploration. In the near future, next-generation instrumentation are expected to further advance acquisition of higher-quality data not subject to pre-processing regulations. Conversely, the ability to process and interpret gravity gradiometry data has not kept pace with innovations occurring in data acquisition systems. The purpose of the research presented in this thesis is to contribute to the understanding, development, and application of processing and interpretation techniques available for airborne gravity gradiometry in resource exploration. In particular, this research focuses on the utility of 3D inversion of gravity gradiometry for interpretation purposes. Towards this goal, I investigate the requisite components for an integrated interpretation workflow. In addition to practical 3D inversions, components of the workflow include estimation of density for terrain correction, processing of multi-component data using equivalent source for denoising, quantification of noise level, and component conversion. The objective is to produce high quality density distributions for subsequent geological interpretation. I then investigate the use of the inverted density model in orebody imaging, lithology differentiation, and resource evaluation. The systematic and sequential approach highlighted in the thesis addresses some of the challenges facing the use of gravity gradiometry as an exploration tool, while elucidating a procedure for incorporating gravity gradient interpretations into the lifecycle of not only resource exploration, but also resource modeling.

  10. Iron isotope and REE+Y composition of the Cauê banded iron formation and related iron ores of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Mônica; Lobato, Lydia M.; Kunzmann, Marcus; Halverson, Galen P.; Rosière, Carlos A.

    2016-04-01

    The Minas Supergroup banded iron formations (BIFs) of the Brazilian Quadrilátero Ferrífero (QF) mineral province experienced multiple deformational events synchronous with hypogene mineralization, which resulted in the metamorphism of BIFs to itabirites and their upgrade to high-grade iron ore. Here, we present rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) compositions together with iron isotope ratios of itabirites and their host iron orebodies from 10 iron deposits to constrain environmental conditions during BIF deposition and the effects of hypogene iron enrichment. The REE+Y characteristics of itabirites (positive Eu anomaly and LREE depletion) indicate hydrothermal iron contribution to the Minas basin. Iron isotope data and Ce anomalies suggest BIFs were precipitated by a combination of anoxic biological-mediated ferrous iron oxidation and abiotic oxidation in an environment with free oxygen (such as an oxygen oasis), perhaps related to increase in oxygen concentrations before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The similarity of the REE+Y composition of the itabirites from the different QF deformational domains, as well as to other Superior-type BIFs, indicates that the metamorphism and synchronous hydrothermal mineralization did not significantly affect the geochemical signature of the original BIFs. However, iron isotope compositions of iron ore vary systematically between deformational domains of the QF, likely reflecting the specific mineralization features in each domain.

  11. Uranium immobilization and nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, C.J.; Ogard, A.E.

    1982-02-01

    Considerable information useful in nuclear waste storage can be gained by studying the conditions of uranium ore deposit formation. Further information can be gained by comparing the chemistry of uranium to nuclear fission products and other radionuclides of concern to nuclear waste disposal. Redox state appears to be the most important variable in controlling uranium solubility, especially at near neutral pH, which is characteristic of most ground water. This is probably also true of neptunium, plutonium, and technetium. Further, redox conditions that immobilize uranium should immobilize these elements. The mechanisms that have produced uranium ore bodies in the Earth's crust are somewhat less clear. At the temperatures of hydrothermal uranium deposits, equilibrium models are probably adequate, aqueous uranium (VI) being reduced and precipitated by interaction with ferrous-iron-bearing oxides and silicates. In lower temperature roll-type uranium deposits, overall equilibrium may not have been achieved. The involvement of sulfate-reducing bacteria in ore-body formation has been postulated, but is uncertain. Reduced sulfur species do, however, appear to be involved in much of the low temperature uranium precipitation. Assessment of the possibility of uranium transport in natural ground water is complicated because the system is generally not in overall equilibrium. For this reason, Eh measurements are of limited value. If a ground water is to be capable of reducing uranium, it must contain ions capable of reducing uranium both thermodynamically and kinetically. At present, the best candidates are reduced sulfur species.

  12. The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia: Some petrologic and geochemical constraints on genesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ewers, G.R.; Donnelly, T.M.; Ferguson, J.

    1983-08-01

    The Nabarlek uranium deposit, Northern Territory, Australia, is confined to a shear zone in contorted and metasomatized early Proterozoic schists and occurs near an unconformity with overlying middle Proterozoic sandstone. Massive chlorite + or - sericite + or - hematite rocks, breccias, and intensely altered schists are characteristic of the ore zone, and at least three generations of chlorite have been recognized and described. The primary ore mineral assemblage is dominated by uraninite intergrown with chlorite. The orebody was sericitized at or after 920 m.y. ago, resulting in the widespread replacement and breakdown of chlorite, the formation of hematite, and the solution and redeposition of uraninite. Redox reactions involving iron and uranium are evident in sericitized rocks containing hematite and residual uraninite. High U/Th ratios in the ore zone suggest that uranium was transported to the site of deposition as a uranyl complex. Although no carbonaceous material occurs in the ore zone, isotopic data on minor carbonate associated with uraninite suggest that organic material was originally associated with the mineralization and indicate that these carbonates have evolved from the interaction of hydrothermal fluids with this material. Erosion of the middle Proterozoic cover rocks in the recent past has exposed the deposit to the effects of weathering.

  13. Saturation-dependent Coupled Seismic and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smeulders, D.; Grobbe, N.; Heller, K.; Schakel, M.

    2014-12-01

    The seismoelectric effect where acoustic/seismic waves are converted into electromagnetic waves and vice versa, is of importance for hydrocarbon exploration as it is complementary to the conventional seismic surveys. Also for the detection of orebodies (for example massive sulfides), seismoelectric techniques are promising. For hydrological purposes, seismoelectric techniques can provide us with information as well, mapping for example water tables and water-retentive layers. Also for mapping of water-bearing strata beneath glaciers or monitoring of ice fracturing, seismoelectric methods are argued to be very powerful as they can distinguish between conductive and non-conductive layers that have similar acoustic impedances and thus cannot be mapped in conventional seismic surveys. We designed and developed an experimental setup in which acoustic to electromagnetic (EM) wave conversions at interfaces can be measured. Theoretical results are obtained with an electrokinetic full-waveform theoretical model, where use was made of the Sommerfeld approach. Using bimodal samples, different fluid-solid interface effects and saturating fluids were investigated. The contrast between water and water-saturated porous glass samples is larger than the contrast between water and oil-saturated porous glass samples. The contrast between water and water-saturated Fontainebleau sandstone is larger than the contrast between oil and water-saturated Fontainebleau sandstone. These data are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions on the basis of the Biot-Pride theory.

  14. Detailed mineralogy and petrology of manganese oxyhydroxide deposits of the Imini district (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoninck, A.; Bernard, A.; Barbarand, J.; Saint-Bezar, B.; Missenard, Y.; Lepretre, R.; Saddiqi, O.; Yans, J.

    2016-01-01

    Manganese ore in the Cenomanian-Turonian dolostone of the Imini district (south of the High Atlas, Morocco) displays a high Mn content due to the occurrence of pyrolusite, cryptomelane, hollandite sensu stricto, coronadite, romanechite, and lithiophorite. The orebodies occur mainly as three stratabound layers along the ~25-km-long ore belt following a WSW-ENE direction. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS) coupled with X-ray diffraction (XRD), we here refine the mineralogy and petrology of Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides in order to constrain the paragenetic sequence and define the main processes of ore formation. Deposition and concentration of Mn oxyhydroxides follow a two-step sequence after dolomitization: (1) replacement of dolomite fabric (dolomite micrite and dolomite rhombs) by hollandite group minerals leading to a textural conservation and then (2) neoformation of collomorphous aggregates in an opened and brecciated system. These observations are consistent with a multistage evolution including multiple reworking and brecciation. Pyrolusite is the main Mn oxide observed in the Imini district during both early and late stages. The superficial environment provides supergene conditions suitable for the deposition of only Mn oxyhydroxides. This supergene environment and the occurrence of multiple bands of hollandite group minerals indicate an external migration (allochthonous supply) of Mn and associated elements, contemporaneous to an in situ chemical and mechanical dissolution of the host dolostone. The lithological heterogeneities of dolostone and its chemical environment compared to less permeable surrounding rocks may have provided the conditions to concentrate Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides.

  15. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals and its implication to gold exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit, Hebei Province, P.R. China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiacheng; Yao, Yuzeng; Wang, Yingpeng; Yuan, Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Hydrothermal alteration is of great importance for mineral exploration, especially the blind ore-hunting due to its larger scale and special zonation compared to the ore bodies. Infrared spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals can be done with little or no sample preparation and quantitative result can be obtained. In this paper, 65 wall-rock samples of several horizontal and vertical profiles were selected from Shihu Gold deposit in Hebei Province to do reflectance spectrum measurements by means of rough surface, smooth section and powder with portable ASD FieldSpec®3 spectrometer. ViewspecPro software was used to preprocess the spectrum, and metasomatic alteration minerals were spectrally discriminated by SII (Spectral International Inc) Specmin software package with wavelength of 1100~2500nm. The results shows that: (1) among all the three spectral libraries embedded in SPECMIN software, i.e., ASD, USGS and JPL, ASD spectral library is more suitable for the spectral hydrothermal alteration minerals identification in Shihu Gold Deposit; (2) the observed mineral zonation from wall-rock gneiss to ore-body indicates obvious downtrend of amphibole, chlorite, sericite, carbonate and barite, which is consistent with the microscopic and XRD results; (3) spectral identification of metasomatic alteration minerals is theoretically feasible, which is economic and convenient, and most important of all, the result can be quantitative or semi-quantitative. The results are helpful and successfully applied to the further mineral exploration in Shihu Gold Deposit.

  16. U-Pb dating of uranium deposits in collapse breccia pipes of the Grand Canyon region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Simmons, K.R.

    1992-01-01

    Two major periods of uranium mineralization are indicated by U-Pb isotope dating of uranium ores from collapse breccia pipes in the Grand Canyon region, northern Arizona. The Hack 2 and 3, Kanab North, and EZ 1 and 2 orebodies apparently formed in the interval of 200 ?? 20 Ma, similar to ages inferred for strata-bound, Late Triassic-hosted uranium deposits in southern Utah and northern Arizona. Samples from the Grand Canyon and Pine Nut pipes, however, indicate a distinctly older age of about 260 Ma. The clustering in ages for a variety of uranium deposits at about the age of the lower part of the Chinle Formation (Late Triassic) suggests that uranium in these deposits may have been derived by leaching from volcanic ash in the Chinle and mobilized by ground-water movement. Pb isotope ratios of galenas in mineralized pipes are more radiogenic than those of sulfides from either uranium-poor pipes or occurrences away from pipes. Fluids which passed through the pipes had interacted with the Proterozoic basement, possibly through the vertical fractures which influenced the location and evolution of the pipes themselves. -from Authors

  17. Clay minerals on Mars: Riotinto mining district (Huelva, Spain) as Earth analogue for acidic alteration pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, C.; Cuadros, J.; Bishop, J. L.; Nieto, J. M.; Michalski, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages indicating processes for which Earth analogues exist. Among them, aluminous clay-sulfate assemblages have been observed, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue site for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration. The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided mild to extreme acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years. The mineral assemblages are strongly dependent on their acidic alteration intensity. The observed mineralogical parageneses and leaching conditions for our sites at Riotinto are consistent with three alteration sequences: i) Mild: containing a range of clay minerals from vermiculite to kaolinite, with a wide variety of crystal order and mixed-layering; ii) Intermediate: containing smectite to kaolinite with jarosite-group phases; iii) Advanced: containing kaolinite, jarosite-group phases, and iron oxides. Our findings suggest that, even within this general scheme, the specific alteration pathways can be different.

  18. 234U /238U and 230Th /234U activity ratios in the colloidal phases of aquifers in lateritic weathered zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Stephen A.; Lowson, Richard T.; Ellis, John

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed for comparing solute and colloid phases of groundwaters in contact with uranium ore bodies at Nabarlek and Koongarra in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Single-pass ultrafiltration of large volumes with cut-offs of 18 nm and 1 μm was used. Colloids were composed of Fe and Si species with sorbed U and U daughters. Uranium isotopes were mostly present as soluble species. Thorium was significantly associated with the colloids. The 234U /238U activity ratios (ARs) were similar in solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies but further down-gradient colloids were generally more depleted of 234U than the solute. The 230Th /234U ARs rose from very low values for both solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies through several orders of magnitude to much higher values further down-gradient. Colloid 230Th /234U ARs were always significantly greater than solute ARs. Results were consistent with a systematic leaching of U from colloids going down-gradient and very little mobilization of ore-body 230Th relative to U. Ubiquitous complexed 232Th appeared to suppress the solubility of 230Th.

  19. Three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geologic bodies and its parallel implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xiancheng; Zhang, Bin; Deng, Hao; Zou, Yanhong; Chen, Jin

    2016-11-01

    It has been found that the spatial locations and distributions of orebodies, especially for certain hydrothermal mineral deposits, are closely related to the shape of intrusive geologic bodies. For complex and large-scale geologic bodies, however, it is challenging to achieve rigorous and quantitative morphological analysis by standard geological surface reconstruction and trend-surface analysis methods. This paper presents a novel, quantitative morphological analysis method for general geologic bodies of closed 2-manifold surface based on mathematical morphology. Through the processes of morphological filtering, set operations and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform (3D-EDT), the global trend shape, local convex and concave zones as well as degree of surface undulation of a geologic body are extracted respectively. All of the three analysis phases are speeded up via parallel algorithms implemented by using the message passing interface (MPI) standard. The proposed method is tested with a case study of the Xinwuli intrusion with complex shape in Fenghuangshan deposit of the Tongling district, China. The results demonstrate that the method is an effective and efficient way to achieve quantitative morphological analysis, thereby decreasing the time necessary to find the association between morphological parameters of geologic bodies and mineralization.

  20. Zn, Fe and S isotope fractionation in a large hydrothermal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnevin, D.; Boyce, A. J.; Barrie, C. D.; Menuge, J. F.; Blakeman, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    The genesis of hydrothermal ore deposits is of crucial economic importance. This study investigates the extent, causes and consequences of zinc and iron isotope fractionation in a large hydrothermal system at the world-class Navan Zn-Pb orebody, Ireland. Large variations in Zn, Fe and S isotope compositions have been measured in microdrilled sphalerite (ZnS) at the millimetre scale. δ66Zn and δ56Fe display a well-defined positive correlation and both also correlate with δ34S. These relationships represent the combined effects of kinetic Zn and Fe isotope fractionation during sphalerite precipitation, and S isotope variation through mixing of hot, metal-rich hydrothermal fluids and cool, bacteriogenic sulfide-bearing brines. Combined with S isotope data, δ56Fe and δ66Zn data on mine concentrates confirm that hydrothermal sulfide is a minor component of the overall deposit signature. Our data suggest that incoming pulses of metal-rich hydrothermal fluid triggered sulfide mineralisation, and that rapid precipitation of sphalerite from hydrothermal fluids will lead to strong kinetic fractionation of Zn and Fe isotopes at very short time and length scales, thereby limiting the use of Fe and Zn isotopes as exploration tools within deposits, but revealing the possibility of detecting new deposits from isotopically heavy Zn-Fe geochemical halos.

  1. Size and Spatial Distribution of VMS Deposits Produced by Hydrothermal Systems Driven by the Convective Cooling of Sill Intrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, P. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Barrie, C. T.

    2009-05-01

    VMS districts are typically ˜40 km in diameter and contain about a dozen regularly spaced Cu-Zn orebodies, one or two of which contain more than half of the district's resources. We numerically investigate this deposit size and spatial distribution through two-dimensional finite element modeling of the convection in systems driven by a sill of a simple geometry and the system above the Bell River sill in the Matagami district, Quebec. In the heuristic models, convection is strongest at the edge, and the edge convection induces a subsequent progression of convection cells towards the center. The Matagami simulations are based on a sill that tapes from 6.5 to 0 km thickness over a distance of 30 km. The zinc transport across the seafloor is dominated by those hydrothermal plumes driven by the strong horizontal gradient in temperature alongside the vertical portion of the retreating 350°C isotherm of the edges of the cooling intrusion. Convection occurs both above the sill and along its underside, and metal is extracted from both sides of the cooling sill.

  2. Clay mineralogical evolution as a function of acidic leaching conditions: implications for alteration pathways on Mars' surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, Christian; Cuadros, Javier; Nieto, Jose Miguel; Bishop, Janice; Vega, Raquel; Michalski, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Combined satellite and in-situ measurements of Mars surface have detected mineral assemblages suggesting processes for which Earth analogues exist. One of these cases is represented by aluminous clay-sulphate assemblages, which suggest alteration by acidic fluids. The Riotinto mining district (SW Spain) provides an Earth analogue for such Martian processes. The parent rocks belong to an Upper Palaeozoic (Late Famennian-Tournaisian) volcano-sedimentary complex including siliciclastic sediments and mafic and felsic volcanics, all of which underwent hydrothermal alteration.The oxidation of an extensive pyrite-rich orebody provided extreme to mild acidic fluxes that leached the surrounding rocks for over 20 million years (1). Samples from several locations in the Riotinto area show a range of clay products: vermiculite, smectite, possibly halloysite, and kaolinite with a wide range of crystal order. Jarosite and iron oxides appear in the most intensely leached areas. The different alteration products are due to the nature of the original rocks and the conditions in which low-pH leaching took place. Both mineral assemblages and spectral features of clay minerals from Riotinto can be used to interpret acidic alteration on Mars' surface. (1) Essalhi et al., 2011. Mineralium Deposita 46, 981-999.

  3. Syn-deformational features of Carlin-type Au deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, S.G.

    2004-01-01

    Syn-deformational ore deposition played an important role in some Carlin-type Au deposits according to field and laboratory evidence, which indicates that flow of Au-bearing fluids was synchronous with regional-scale deformation events. Gold-related deformation events linked to ore genesis were distinct from high-level, brittle deformation that is typical of many epithermal deposits. Carlin-type Au deposits, with brittle-ductile features, most likely formed during tectonic events that were accompanied by significant fluid flow. Interactive deformation-fluid processes involved brittle-ductile folding, faulting, shearing, and gouge development that were focused along illite-clay and dissolution zones caused by hydrothermal alteration. Alteration along these deformation zones resulted in increased porosity and enhancement of fluid flow, which resulted in decarbonated, significant dissolution, collapse, and volume and mass reduction. Carlin-type Au deposits commonly are hosted in Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks (limestone, siltstone, argillite, shale, and quartzite) on the margins of cratons. The sedimentary basins containing the host rocks underwent tectonic events that influenced the development of stratabound, structurally controlled orebodies. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The solubilities of some major and minor element minerals in ground waters associated with a sandstone-hosted uranium deposit.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Chatcham, J.R.; Langmuir, D.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water samples from 41 wells penetrating basal Oakville sandstone (Miocene) in S Texas were chemically analysed to identify chemical changes related to nearby U orebodies. The coverage included a 240 km2 area which contains several fault-related U deposits. Factors affecting the hydrochemistry include: 1) relatively high permeabilities of buried fluvial-channel sediments; 2) upwards leakage of brines along growth faults into the aquifer; 3) development of a redox interface (Eh = 0 volts) within the aquifer; and 4) the semi-arid climate. Variations in the saturation index (SI) for chemically reduced minerals of U, As, Mo, Se and for associated minerals such as pyrite outlined the position of known deposits. The SI increases towards zero as the deposits are approached from updip distances of 3-4.5 km, then decreases again downdip. The radiogenic pathfinders Ra and Rn showed very strong anomalies with ore, but diminished to background levels at short distances from ore. A strong He anomaly is deflected in the direction of ground-water flow away from the ore.-R.A.H.

  5. Sedimentation and subsidence patterns in the central and north basins of Lake Baikal from seismic stratigraphy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, T.C.; Klitgord, Kim D.; Golmshtok, A.J.; Weber, E.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of sedimentation patterns, basement subsidence, and faulting histories in the north and central basins of Lake Baikal aids in developing an interbasinal seismic stratigraphy that reveals the early synrift evolution of the central portion of the Baikal rift, a major continental rift system. Although there is evidence that the central and northern rift basins evolved at approximately the same time, their sedimentation histories are markedly different. Primary sediment sources for the initial rift phase were from the east flank of the rift; two major deltas developed adjacent to the central basin: the Selenga delta at the south end and the Barguzin delta at the north end. The Barguzin River system, located at the accommodation zone between the central and north basins, also fed into the southern part of the north basin and facilitated the stratigraphic linkage of the two basins. A shift in the regional tectonic environment in the mid Pliocene(?) created a second rift phase distinguished by more rapid subsidence and sediment accumulation in the north basin and by increased subsidence and extensive faulting in the central basin. The Barguzin delta ceased formation and parts of the old delta system were isolated within the north basin and on Academic Ridge. These isolated deltaic deposits provide a model for the development of hydrocarbon plays within ancient rift systems. In this second tectonic phase, the dominant sediment fill in the deeper and more rapidly subsiding north basin shifted from the flexural (eastern) margin to axial transport from the Upper Angara River at the north end of the basin.

  6. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  7. Legacies of Glacio-fluvial Interactions in the Finger Lakes, Central New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safran, E. B.; Fountain, A. G.

    2011-12-01

    The Finger Lakes region of central New York exhibits spectacular examples of the interplay between glacial and fluvial processes. The Finger Lakes themselves were carved by ice sheets and related subglacial hydrologic processes that enlarged, over-deepened, and reversed the drainage direction of pre-existing fluvial valleys. The region's famous gorges flank the glacial troughs and reflect ongoing fluvial adjustment to glacially driven base level variations. Modern tools of topographic analysis permit quantification of the imprint that glacial processes leave on fluvial form and process. Regionally, ice sheet erosion is maximized along the north end of the Seneca/Cayuga trough. Local relief ranges from ~100 m at the north end of Seneca and Cayuga lakes to 250-400 m on the southern ends of these lakes and on the smaller, flanking lakes (Keuka, Canandaigua, Skaneateles, Owasco). Concavity indices for lake-tributary stream profiles are predominantly in the range of -7 to 0, reflecting a convex initial form imposed by glacial processes, while normalized channel steepness (ksn) indices are generally under 40 (reference concavity of 0.45), reflecting the gentle gradients of the glacial uplands. Concavity index and ksn values are maximized (>0, and >75, respectively) along short segments at the downstream ends of the so-called interglacial or post-glacial gorge reaches, again maximized at the southern and peripheral parts of the Seneca/Cayuga trough. Finally, streams that cross former channel courses buried by subglacial debris typically have more numerous and/or more pronounced knickpoints and more concave long profile segments than streams that do not. In short, the legacy of glaciations from the regional to the reach scale appears to be driving patterns of fluvial response in the Finger Lakes.

  8. Nest fate and productivity of American Oystercatchers, Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sabine, J.B.; Schweitzer, Sara H.; Meyers, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus) is listed as a species of high priority by the U.S. Shorebird Conservation Plan and is state-listed as rare in Georgia; however, biologists have not focused on identifying the causes of egg and hatchling losses. In 2003 and 2004, continuous video monitoring was used to document reproductive success of American Oystercatchers and identify causes of nest failure at Cumberland Island National Seashore, Georgia. The modified Mayfield method and program CONTRAST were used to determine and compare survival of eggs and nestlings. Eleven pairs made 32 nest attempts during two seasons. Nine attempts were successful, fledging 15 chicks. Daily survival of clutches was 0.973 (95% CI = 0.960-0.987) for 2003, 0.985 (95% CI = 0.974-0.995) for 2004, and 0.979 (95% CI = 0.970-0.987) for combined years. Daily survival was greater on the North End, than on the South End of the island (X21 = 7.211, P = 0.007). Eighteen of 20 nest failures during the egg stage and one of eight chick losses were documented. Egg predators included raccoon (Procyon lotor, N = 9), bobcat (Lynx rufus, N = 3), and American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos, N = 1). A ghost crab (Ocypode quadata) preyed on one chick. Other causes of nest failure were tidal overwash (N = 1), horse trampling (N = 1), abandonment (N = 2), and human destruction (N = 1). The North End of the island has one of the highest reproductive rates reported along the Atlantic coast. Predator control may be an effective means of increasing reproductive success on the South End of the island.

  9. Relantionships between gold mineralization and granite - Discussion with the support of a pluridisciplinary study of the Passa Tres gold deposit (South Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressel, Bárbara; Chauvet, Alain; Trzaskos, Barbara; Biondi, Joao Carlos; Bruguier, Olivier; Monie, Patrick; Villanova, Sandro; Bazille, Jose

    2016-04-01

    The Passa Três Granite, located at East of the Paraná State is elongated following a NNE-SSW direction. This sienogranite is emplaced within metapelites of the meso to neoproterozoic Açungui Group, between the Morro Agudo and Lancinha transcurrent faults, comprising the N040°E trending Lancinha Transcurrent Fault System. Gold mineralization within the Passa Três Granite is constituted by huge quartz veins with sulfides, variable quantities of fluorite and carbonates, forming orebodies with different internal textures, including massive, banded, sheared and brecciated. Structural data indicate the existence of two major fault systems, one N-S and the other E-W, with dips of 15-45°W and 20-75°S, respectively. Both NS and EW systems are interpreted to be contemporaneous and conjugate. Normal motions are everywhere suspected and main mineralized veins are located at opening sites at these fault systems, such as pull-aparts. The structural model suggests that the normal motion can be initiated by shearing along a "guide" level, in which sulfides and clay minerals are concentrated. This configuration can be observed at several scales, such as field, hand samples and thin section. Mineralized veins mainly contain, in addition to the quartz of the gangue, sulphides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, galena, molybdenite), fluorite, chlorite, muscovite, sericite, and carbonate. The presence of sericite, kaolinite and chlorite indicate the occurrence of, at least, propylitic and phyllic-type alterations, both in core of the granite and best-expressed at the rim of quartz-rich orebodies. Gold occurs as native grains in core of the quartz veins, within fractures that affect pyrite and frequently exhibiting normal motions consistent with the one observed at larger scale and systematically associated with chalcopyrite and galena. Quartz veins are sometimes bordered by aplitic dike. Additionally, some of the veins can exhibit a very thin margin of adularia minerals that seems to

  10. Gold mineralisation throughout about 45 Ma of Archaean orogenesis: protracted flux of gold in the Golden Mile, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, Roger; Hagemann, Steffen

    2004-10-01

    The Golden Mile deposit was discovered in 1893 and represents today the largest Archaean orogenic lode gold system in the world (50 M oz produced gold). The Golden Mile deposit comprises three major styles of gold mineralisation: Fimiston, Oroya and Charlotte styles. Fimiston-style lodes formed at 250 to 350 °C and 100 to 200 MPa and are controlled by brittle ductile fault zones, their subsidiary fault zone and vein networks including breccias and open-cavity-infill textures and hydrothermally altered wall rock. Fimiston lodes were formed late D1, prior to D2 regional upright folding. Hydrothermal alteration haloes comprise a progression toward the lode of diminishing chlorite, an increase in sericite and in Fe content of carbonates. Lodes contain siderite, pyrite, native gold, 17 different telluride minerals (Au Ag tellurides contain ~25% of total gold), tourmaline, haematite, sericite and V-rich muscovite. Oroya-style lodes formed at similar P T conditions as the Fimiston lodes and are controlled by brittle ductile shear zones, associated dilational jogs that are particularly well developed at the contact between Paringa Basalt and black shale interflow sedimentary rocks and altered wall rock. The orebodies are characterised by micro-breccias and zones of intense shear zone foliation, very high gold grades (up to 100,000 g/t Au) and the common association of tellurides and vanadian mica (green leader). Oroya lodes crosscut Fimiston lodes and are interpreted to have formed slightly later than Fimiston lodes as part of one evolving hydrothermal system spanning D1 and D2 deformation (ca. 2,675 2,660 Ma). Charlotte-style lodes, exemplified by the Mt Charlotte deposit, are controlled by a sheeted vein (stockwork) complex of north-dipping quartz veins and hydrothermally altered wall rock. The Mt Charlotte orebody formed at 120 to 440 °C and 150 to 250 MPa during movement along closely spaced D4 (2,625 Ma) and reactivated D2 faults with the quartz granophyre in the

  11. Coexistence of compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitites in the Antalya-Isparta ophiolitic suite, SW Turkey: a record of sequential magmatic processes in the sub-arc lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uysal, Ibrahim; Kapsiotis, Argyrios; Melih Akmaz, Recep; Saka, Samet; Avci, Erdi; Müller, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The Antalya-Isparta region in southwestern Turkey is well known for large, ophiolitic in origin, peridotite exposures hosting various chromite orebodies. These are small-sized, massive to disseminated in texture chromitites that occur in the form of lenses or veinlets and are commonly surrounded by dunite envelopes of variable thickness. Chromitite seams from the Antalya mantle suite belong to both high-Cr and high-Al varieties (Cr#: 0.56-0.83), whereas chromitites in the Isparta mantle sequence are merely Cr-rich (Cr#: 0.75-0.85). In situ minor and trace element abundances obtained by LA-ICP-MS analyses of unaltered Cr-spinel from the Cr-rich chromitites are comparable to those reported in Cr-spinel of chromitites from typical fore-arc peridotite complexes. Nevertheless, minor and trace element concentrations in Cr-spinel from the Al-rich chromitites do not bear resemblance with those acquired from Cr-spinels of chromitites from well-known back-arc basin-derived ultramafic massifs. Calculation of parental magma compositions indicates that both types of chromitites share a common parentage with progressively fractionating arc-related melts. A quite interesting dissimilarity between the unaltered Cr-spinel compositions from both Cr-rich and Al-rich chromitites is that the former display a perceptible positive Ti anomaly in ChromiteMORB-normalized profiles, which signifies the hidden impact of post-magmatic processes in the composition of the high-Cr chromitite bodies that otherwise seem to be unaffected by metamorphism. The studied chromitites are characterized by a systematic enrichment in IPGE [Os, Ir and Ru (41-317 ppb)] with respect to PPGE [Rh, Pt and Pd (3-49 ppb)], resulting to negatively sloping chondrite-normalized PGE patterns that are less fractionated in case of high-Al chromitites. Their noble mineral assemblage is vastly dominated by tiny (up to 10 μm), euhedral laurite crystals followed by subsidiary irarsite and trivial Os-Ir alloy grains. PGM

  12. Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J.

    1990-01-01

    The Buckeye manganese deposit, 93 km southeast of San Francisco in the California Coast Ranges, preserves a geologic history that provides clues to the origin of numerous lenses of manganese carbonate, oxides, and silicates that occur with interbedded radiolarian chert and metashale of the Franciscan Complex. Compositionally and mineralogically laminated Mn-rich protoliths were deformed and dismembered, in a manner that mimics in smaller scale the deformation of the host complex, and then were incipiently metamorphosed at blueschistfacies conditions. Eight phases occur as almost monomineralic protoliths and mixtures: rhodochrosite, caryopilite, chlorite, gageite, taneyamalite, braunite, hausmannite, and laminated chert (quartz). Braunite, gageite, and some chlorite and caryopilite layers were deposited as gel-like materials; rhodochrosite, most caryopilite, and at least some hausmannite layers as lutites; and the chert as turbidites of radiolarian sand. Some gel-like materials are now preserved as transparent, sensibly isotropic relics of materials that fractured or shattered when deformed, creating curved surfaces. In contrast, the micrites flowed between the fragments of gel-like materials. The orebody and most of its constituent minerals have unusually Mn-rich compositions that are described by the system MnO-SiO2-O2-CO2-H2O. High values of Mn/Fe and U/Th, and low concentrations of Co, Cu, and Ni, distinguish the Buckeye deposit from many high-temperature hydrothermal deposits and hydrogenous or diagenetic manganese and ferromanganese nodules and pavements. This chemical signature suggests that ore deposition was related to fluids from the sediment column and seawater. Tungsten is associated exclusively with gageite, in concentrations as high as 80 parts per million. The source of the manganese is unknown; because basalts do not occur near the deposit, it was probably manganese leached from the sediment column by reducing solutions. Low concentrations of calcium

  13. The Sarylakh and Sentachan gold-antimony deposits, Sakha-Yakutia: A case of combined mesothermal gold-quartz and epithermal stibnite ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortnikov, N. S.; Gamynin, G. N.; Vikent'eva, O. V.; Prokof'ev, V. Yu.; Prokop'ev, A. V.

    2010-10-01

    New mineralogical, thermobarometric, isotopic, and geochemical data provide evidence for long and complex formation history of the Sarylakh and Sentachan Au-Sb deposits conditioned by regional geodynamics and various types of ore mineralization, differing in age and source of ore matter combined in the same ore-localizing structural units. The deposits are situated in the Taryn metallogenic zone of the East Yakutian metallogenic belt in the central Verkhoyansk-Kolyma Fold Region. They are controlled by the regional Adycha-Taryn Fault Zone that separates the Kular-Nera Terrane and the western part of the Verkhoyansk Fold-Thrust Belt. The fault extends along the strike of the northwest-trending linear folds and is deep-rooted and repeatedly reactivated. The orebodies are mineralized crush zones accompanied by sulfidated (up to 100 m wide) quartz-sericite metasomatic rocks and replacing dickite-pyrophyllite alteration near stibnite veinlets. Two stages of low-sulfide gold-quartz and stibnite mineralization are distinguished. The formation conditions of the early milk white quartz in orebodies with stibnite mineralization at the Sarylakh and Sentachan deposits are similar: temperature interval 340-280°C, salt concentration in fluids 6.8-1.6 wt % NaCl equiv, fluid pressure 3430-1050 bar, and sodic bicarbonate fluid composition. The ranges of fluid salinity overlapped at both deposits. In the late regenerated quartz that attends stibnite mineralization, fluid inclusions contain an aqueous solution with salinity of 3.2 wt % NaCl equiv and are homogenized into liquid at 304-189°C. Syngenetic gas inclusions contain nitrogen 0.19 g/cm3 in density. The pressure of 300 bar is estimated at 189°C. The composition of the captured fluid is characterized as K-Ca bicarbonatesulfate. The sulfur isotopic composition has been analyzed in pyrite and arsenopyrite from ore and metasomatic zones, as well as in coarse-, medium-, and fine-grained stibnite varieties subjected to

  14. Leaching of silica bands and concentration of magnetite in Archean BIF by hypogene fluids: Beebyn Fe ore deposit, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duuring, Paul; Hagemann, Steffen

    2013-03-01

    The ~2,752-Ma Weld Range greenstone belt in the Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia hosts several Fe ore deposits that provide insights into the role of early hypogene fluids in the formation of high-grade (>55 wt% Fe) magnetite-rich ore in banded iron formation (BIF). The 1.5-km-long Beebyn orebody comprises a series of steeply dipping, discontinuous, <50-m-thick lenses of magnetite-(martite)-rich ore zones in BIF that extend from surface to vertical depths of at least 250 m. The ore zones are enveloped by a 3-km-long, 150-m-wide outer halo of hypogene siderite and ferroan dolomite in BIF and mafic igneous country rocks. Ferroan chlorite characterises 20-m-wide proximal alteration zones in mafic country rocks. The magnetite-rich Beebyn orebody is primarily the product of hypogene fluids that circulated through reverse shear zones during the formation of an Archean isoclinal fold-and-thrust belt. Two discrete stages of hypogene fluid flow caused the pseudomorphic replacement of silica-rich bands in BIF by Stage 1 siderite and magnetite and later by Stage 2 ferroan dolomite. The resulting carbonate-altered BIF is markedly depleted in SiO2 and enriched in CaO, MgO, LOI, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) compared with the least-altered BIF. Subsequent reactivation of these shear zones and circulation of hypogene fluids resulted in the leaching of existing hypogene carbonate minerals and the concentration of residual magnetite-rich bands. These Stage 3 magnetite-rich ore zones are depleted in SiO2 and enriched in K2O, CaO, MgO, P2O5 and Fe2O3(total) relative to the least-altered BIF. Proximal wall rock hypogene alteration zones in mafic igneous country rocks (up to 20 m from the BIF contact) are depleted in SiO2, CaO, Na2O, and K2O and are enriched in Fe2O3(total), MgO and P2O5 compared with distal zones. Recent supergene alteration affects all rocks within about 100 m below the present surface, disturbing hypogene mineral and the geochemical zonation patterns associated with

  15. Re-Os isotopic evidence for an enriched-mantle source for the Noril'sk-type, ore-bearing intrusions, Siberia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Morgan, J.W.; Horan, M.F.; Czamanske, G.K.; Krogstad, E.J.; Fedorenko, V.A.; Kunilov, V.E.

    1994-01-01

    Magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide ores and spatially associated ultramafic and mafic rocks from the Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions are examined for Re-Os isotopic systematics. Neodymium and lead isotopic data also are reported for the ultramafic and mafic rocks. The Re-Os data for most samples indicate closed-system behavior since the ca. 250 Ma igneous crystallization age of the intrusions. There are small but significant differences in the initial osmium isotopic compositions of samples from the three intrusions. Ores from the Noril'sk I intrusion have ??Os values that vary from +0.4 to +8.8, but average +5.8. Ores from the Talnakh intrusion have ??Os values that range from +6.7 to +8.2, averaging +7.7. Ores from the Kharaelakh intrusion have ??Os values that range from +7.8 to +12.9, with an average value of +10.4. The osmium isotopic compositions of the ore samples from the Main Kharaelakh orebody exhibit minimal overlap with those for the Noril'sk I and Talnakh intrusions, indicating that these Kharaelakh ores were derived from a more radiogenic source of osmium than the other ores. Combined osmium and lead data for major orebodies in the three intrusions plot in three distinct fields, indicating derivation of osmium and lead from at least three isotopically distinct sources. Some of the variation in lead isotopic compositions may be the result of minor lower-crustal contamination. However, in contrast to most other isotopic and trace element data, Os-Pb variations are generally inconsistent with significant crustal contamination or interaction with the subcontinental lithosphere. Thus, the osmium and lead isotopic compositions of these intrusions probably reflect quite closely the compositions of their mantle source, and suggest that these two isotope systems were insensitive to lithospheric interaction. Ultramafic and mafic rocks have osmium and lead isotopic compositions that range only slightly beyond the compositions of the ores. These rocks also

  16. Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril'sk sulfide ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, E. M.; Kulagov, E. A.; Serova, A. A.; Kulikova, I. M.; Korotaeva, N. N.; Sereda, E. V.; Tushentsova, I. N.; Belyakov, S. N.; Zhukov, N. N.

    2015-09-01

    The undeformed ore-bearing intrusions of the Noril'sk ore field (NOF) cut through volcanic rocks of the Late Permian-Early Triassic trap association folded in brachysynclines. Due to the nonuniform load on the roof of intrusive bodies, most sulfide melts were squeezed, up to the tops of ore-bearing intrusions; readily fusible Ni-Fe-Cu sulfide melts were almost completely squeezed. In our opinion, not only one but two stages of mineralization developed at the Noril'sk deposits: (i) syntrap magmatic and (ii) epigenetic post-trap metamorphic-hydrothermal. All platinum-group minerals (PGM) and minerals of gold are metasomatic in the Noril'sk ores. They replaced sulfide solid solutions and exsolution structures. All types of PGM and Au minerals occur in the ores, varying in composition from pyrrhotite to chalcopyrite, talnakhite, mooihoekite, and rich in galena; they are localized in the inner and outer contact zones and differ only in the quantitative proportions of ore minerals. The aureoles of PGM and Au-Ag minerals are wider than the contours of sulfide bodies and coincide with halos of fluid impact on orebodies and adjacent host rocks. The pneumatolytic PGM and Au-Ag minerals are correlated in abundance with the dimensions of sulfide bodies. Their amounts are maximal in veins of late fusible ore composed of eutectic PbS ss and iss intergrowths, as well as at their contacts. The Pd and Pt contents in eutectic sulfide ores of NOF are the world's highest. In the process of noble-metal mineral formation, the fluids supply Pd, Pt, Au, As, Sb, Sn, Bi, and a part of Te, whereas Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb, Ag, Rh, a part of Te and Pd are leached from the replaced sulfide minerals. The pneumatolytic PGM of the early stage comprises Pd and Pt intermetallic compounds enriched in Au along with Pd-Pt-Fe-Ni-Cu-Sn-Pb(As) and (Pd,Pt,Au)(Sn,Sb,Bi,Te,As) solid solutions. Pneumatolytic PGM and Au minerals of the middle stage are products of solid-phase transformation and recrystallization of

  17. Zonation of primary haloes of Atud auriferous quartz vein deposit, Central Eastern Desert of Egypt: A potential exploration model targeting for hidden mesothermal gold deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harraz, Hassan Z.; Hamdy, Mohamed M.

    2015-01-01

    The Atud gold mine located in the Neoproterozoic diorite and metagabbro of the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt has been initially excavated during Pharaonic times. Between 1953 and 1969, the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority performed underground prospection in the auriferous quartz vein and metasomatic alteration zones in the main Atud area, estimating a principal gold lode of 19,000 tones (16.28 g/ton), and 1600 tons of damp (1.24 g/ton). Yet the potentiality of the deposit has not been exhausted. However, for exploration of hidden ore, quantitative characterization using trace elements zoning of mineralization haloes with 280 samples from surface and three underground mining levels is applied. This was through multivariate statistical analysis (Factor analysis) of 11 selected trace elements. Axial (vertical) extents of primary haloes above and beneath gently dipping orebody are also visualized to interpret the level of erosion, determine the direction of mineralizing solutions as well as to examine whether the hidden orebody is promising at the Atud mine. Axial zones of primary dispersion aureoles of trace elements are: Ag, As, S and U around the auriferous quartz veins; Cu, and Pb in the surface horizons; and Zn, Ni, Co, and U along the lower margin of mineralization zone. Gold contents in bedrock and quartz vein samples from level-42M are the highest (5.7 and 40.3 ppm, respectively). In the transverse (lateral) direction, the maximum relative accumulation of Au and Zn occurs at the Northern Shaft; Pb, Cu, As, and U at the Main Shaft; and Ag, S, Co, and Ni at the Southern Shaft. The estimated axial zonation sequence of indicator elements using the variability index is Pb → Cu → Ag → Au → As → S → Ni → Co → U → Zn. According to this zonation, an index such as (Pb × Cu)D/(U × Zn)D can be a significant for predicting the Au potentiality at a particular depth. In addition, the Pb/U zonality index is an appropriate indicator for the

  18. Mg- and K-bearing borates and associated evaporites at Eagle Borax spring, Death Valley, California: A spectroscopic exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent crusts at the Eagle Borax spring in Death Valley, California, contain an array of rare Mg and K borate minerals, several of which are only known from one or two other localities. The Mg- and/or K-bearing borates include aristarainite, hydroboracite, kaliborite, mcallisterite, pinnoite, rivadavite, and santite. Ulexite and probertite also occur in the area, although their distribution is different from that of the Mg and K borates. Other evaporite minerals in the spring vicinity include halite, thenardite, eugsterite, gypsum-anhydrite, hexahydrite, and bloedite. Whereas the first five of these minerals are found throughout Death Valley, the last two Mg sulfates are more restricted in occurrence and are indicative of Mg-enriched ground water. Mineral associations observed at the Eagle Borax spring, and at many other borate deposits worldwide, can be explained by the chemical fractionation of borate-precipitating waters during the course of evaporative concentration. The Mg sulfate and Mg borate minerals in the Eagle Borax efflorescent crusts point to the fractionation of Ca by the operation of a chemical divide involving Ca carbonate and Na-Ca borate precipitation in the subsurface sediments. At many other borate mining localities, the occurrence of ulexite in both Na borate (borax-kernite) and Ca borate (ulexite-colemanite) deposits similarly reflects ulexite's coprecipitation with Ca carbonate at an early concentration stage. Such ulexite may perhaps be converted to colemanite by later reaction with the coexisting Ca carbonate - the latter providing the additional Ca2+ ions needed for the conversion. Mg and Ca-Mg borates are the expected late-stage concentration products of waters forming ulexite-colemanite deposits and are therefore most likely to occur in the marginal zones or nearby mud facies of ulexite-colemanite orebodies. Under some circumstances, Mg and Ca-Mg borates might provide a useful prospecting guide for ulexite-colemanite deposits

  19. Characterization of novel archaeal lineages associated with acid mine drainage in Iron Mountain, CA using anaerobic cultivation and cultivation-independent genomic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B. J.; Tyson, G. W.; Hugenholtz, P.; Banfield, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Iron Mountain in northern California, contains a pyritic orebody undergoing dissolution from mining creating extremely acidic (generally ~pH 0.8), warm (>40° C), and highly concentrated metal solutions, referred to as acid mine drainage (AMD). AMD communities are limited in the number of lineages that have been associated with them. The archaeal members of the mine community, in the past, have been restricted to the Thermoplasmatales order. The various clades within the Thermoplasmatales have been named the "alphabet plasma" (ie. Aplasma through Gplasma). The majority of them remain uncultured. Anaerobic media containing ferric sulfate and glucose has been successful in enriching and maintaining members of the "alphabet plasmas". Analysis of aqueous chemistry of these cultures shows a reduction of ferric iron, suggesting a subset of these archaea are capable of iron reduction. This may be a relevant part of iron cycling in the mine previously overlooked. Recently, another deeply branched archaeal group, named WTF1102, has been identified. Completely independent of all previously identified AMD lineages, its closest relative available in present databases is to that of the euryarchaeota group referred to as VAL1, which consists entirely of uncultured and poorly represented in sequences. Screening of the community genomic library constructed from the site revealed a contiguous fragment from two shotgun clones, totaling ~4.4kb in length. These clones have been fully sequenced and contain two genes, a phosphatase and 16S rRNA. The 16S rRNA gene has a 515 bp long intron at 1102 (E. coli numbering) that contains an open reading frame which encodes for a ubitiquitin-like protein modifier. Phylogenetic analysis of the phosphotase amino acid sequence revealed it branches with that of other acidophiles, Thermoplasma and Ferroplasma. We are developing FISH probes to target the individual "alphabet plasma" and WTF1102. This work extends what we know about the diversity and

  20. Element redistribution and mobility during upper crustal metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks: an example from the eastern Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerli, Johannes; Spandler, Carl; Oliver, Nicholas H. S.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed study on element mobility during prograde metamorphism of metasedimentary rocks of the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Mineral and bulk rock compositions were monitored across a regional metamorphic gradient from ≈350-400 °C to migmatite grade (≈650-700 °C) at ≈0.3-0.5 GPa, where pervasive up-temperature fluid flow during metamorphism has been proposed previously. Major and most trace elements (including rare earth elements) are isochemical during metamorphism as they are effectively redistributed into newly formed major and/or accessory minerals. Monazite or allanite and xenotime control the whole rock concentration of rare earth elements (REEs), whereas apatite and titanite are minor REE hosts. The only non-volatile elements that are demonstrably mobilized by metamorphic fluids are Zn, Pb, Ag, Cs, Sb, Bi and As, whose concentrations decreased with increasing metamorphic grade. Depletion of Zn, Sb and Pb was progressive with increasing temperature in staurolite-absent psammopelites, with losses of ≈80 % of the original Zn and >80 % of the protolithic Sb and ≈50 % of the original Pb from the rocks from high-grade metamorphic zones. Pronounced depletion of As and Cs occurs at the greenschist/amphibolite facies boundary and the transition to migmatite grade, respectively, while Ag and Bi contents decrease between 500 and 550 °C where >50 % of the original Ag and Bi is lost. While for most elements, unmetamorphosed sedimentary sequences can be considered chemical equivalents of metasedimentary rocks occupying deeper crust levels, in some cases, such as the extensive flow of Cl-rich fluid documented here, metals such as Zn, Pb and Ag may be stripped and may serve as a metal source for orebody formation. The decrease of As, Bi and Sb contents during prograde metamorphism might be a more universal feature that is linked with sulphide phase transitions.

  1. Remote sensing applied to the exploration for uranium-mineralized breccia pipes in northwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Kwarteng, A.M.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Exploration for uranium-mineralized breccia pipes in northwestern Arizona has been active because of the high-grade ore they contain, which may also include such by-products as Ag, Au, Cu, Pb, Zn, and V. These breccia pipes were formed from the collapse of the overlying sedimentary strata into karst caverns developed in the Mississippian Redwall Limestone; mineralization occurred between 200 and 220 m.y. ago as determined previously by U-Pb isotopic analyses. Spectroscopic and statistical analyses of field, laboratory, and digital Landsat Thermatic Mapper (TM) data were carried out to determine the fundamental spectral and mineralogical differences between samples on the surface of breccia pipes and their background areas. Spectroscopic and XRD mineralogical studies clearly demonstrate that hydrothermally altered rocks associated with mineralized breccia pipes are distinguished from the surrounding rocks by the Fe{sup 3+}, hydroxyl, and carbonate minerals content. Discriminant analyses of field, laboratory, and TM data indicates that 64-80% of the samples collected on the surfaces of breccia pipes and their immediately surrounding areas were correctly classified. Digitally enhanced TM images printed at the scale of 1:100,000 resulted in the recognition of more than 80% of previously known orebodies as well as additional anomalies identified in the study areas. Digital image processing techniques were applied to airborne geophysical data consisting of apparent resistivity, total-field magnetics, derived overburden thickness, and very low-frequency electromagnetics (VLF-EM) to evaluate the utility of the data sets for breccia pipe exploration. The processing and critical analysis of the geophysical data is apparently the most promising approach to breccia pipe exploration in this study.

  2. Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive Sulfide: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.

    2005-12-01

    Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in basalt aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive sulfide deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive sulfide deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the sulfide orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen sulfide continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the sulfide ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results

  3. Planning additional drilling campaign using two-space genetic algorithm: A game theoretical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Ozer, Umit

    2013-03-01

    Grade and tonnage are the most important technical uncertainties in mining ventures because of the use of estimations/simulations, which are mostly generated from drill data. Open pit mines are planned and designed on the basis of the blocks representing the entire orebody. Each block has different estimation/simulation variance reflecting uncertainty to some extent. The estimation/simulation realizations are submitted to mine production scheduling process. However, the use of a block model with varying estimation/simulation variances will lead to serious risk in the scheduling. In the medium of multiple simulations, the dispersion variances of blocks can be thought to regard technical uncertainties. However, the dispersion variance cannot handle uncertainty associated with varying estimation/simulation variances of blocks. This paper proposes an approach that generates the configuration of the best additional drilling campaign to generate more homogenous estimation/simulation variances of blocks. In other words, the objective is to find the best drilling configuration in such a way as to minimize grade uncertainty under budget constraint. Uncertainty measure of the optimization process in this paper is interpolation variance, which considers data locations and grades. The problem is expressed as a minmax problem, which focuses on finding the best worst-case performance i.e., minimizing interpolation variance of the block generating maximum interpolation variance. Since the optimization model requires computing the interpolation variances of blocks being simulated/estimated in each iteration, the problem cannot be solved by standard optimization tools. This motivates to use two-space genetic algorithm (GA) approach to solve the problem. The technique has two spaces: feasible drill hole configuration with minimization of interpolation variance and drill hole simulations with maximization of interpolation variance. Two-space interacts to find a minmax solution

  4. Iron-rich fragments in the Yamansu iron deposit, Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints on metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hou-Min; Ding, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Zhao-Chong; Li, Li-Xing; Chen, Jing; Yao, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic rock-hosted iron deposits are among the important iron ores in China. However, the nature of primary magma and petrogenesis associated with these iron ores remains controversial. Here, we report iron-rich fragments (IRF) from the Yamansu iron deposit in Eastern Tianshan Mountains, NW China, which occurs in association with volcanic breccia, submarine volcanic breccia and ignimbrite. The IRF is composed of five types including oligoclase-iron oxide type (OIO), oligoclase-albite-iron oxide type (OAIO), albite-iron oxide type (AIO), albite-K-feldspar-iron oxide type (AKIO) and K-feldspar-iron oxide type (KIO). These fragments display typical volcanic fabric features, such as porphyritic texture, hyalopilitic texture of the groundmass and vesicles filled by minerals to form amygdales. The feldspar phenocrysts of IRF are dominantly albite. The groundmass of IRF consists of magnetite and feldspar. The magnetite is distributed in between the feldspar laths, and together display hyalopilitic texture which could be observed only in volcanic rocks. The vesicles are filled with magnetite, feldspar, chlorite and calcite from the margin to the interior. The IRF has high Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Ti, Na and K contents and low Mg content. The average total Fe is 26 wt.%. The magnetite is mostly titanium-vanadium magnetite, with the TiO2 content ranging up to 4.86 wt.% and V2O3 content up to 3.20 wt.%. The IRF probably came from iron-rich melts and represent the products of the Fenner magma evolution. The basaltic magma evolved into the Fe-Na-rich residual melts by crystallization under low oxygen fugacity condition in a closed magma chamber after intruding into the shallow crust. The Fe-Na-rich residual melts were emplaced in hypabyssal environments or erupted generating the orebodies or providing the material source for the generation of the high-grade iron ores which were subsequently enriched by the late-stage hydrothermal fluids.

  5. Geochronology of the Porgera gold deposit, Papua New Guinea: Resolving the effects of excess argon on K-Ar and sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar age estimates for magmatism and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, J.P.; McDougall, I. )

    1990-05-01

    Mesothermal/epithermal gold mineralization at Porgera in the highlands of Papua New Guinea (PNG), occurs in structurally controlled veins and disseminations, which overprint and cross-cut a suite of shallow-level, comagmatic, mafic alkaline stocks and dykes and their sedimentary host rocks. Conventional K-Ar apparent ages of twelve hornblende separates from eight different intrusions scatter between 7 and 14 Ma, but four biotite separates are concordant at 6.02 {plus minus} 0.29 Ma (2{sigma}). {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar step-heating experiments on six of the hornblende separates reveal saddle-shaped age spectra, which indicate the presence of excess {sup 40}Ar. One of these samples yields a well-defined plateau with an apparent age of 5.96 {plus minus} 0.25 Ma (2{sigma}). Conventional K-Ar analyses of six separates of hydrothermal illite and roscoelite associated with gold mineralization yield apparent ages of between 5.1 and 6.1 Ma and indicate that ore deposition occurred within 1 Ma of magmatism at Porgera. Evidence for the evolution of a magmatic volatile phase, and the presence of excess {sup 40}Ar both in the intrusives and in hydrothermal fluids associated with the orebody, suggest that magmatic fluids may have had some involvement in metallogenesis, but the exact nature of this involvement is not yet clear. Late Miocene magmatism and mineralization at Porgera are thought to have occurred shortly prior to or during the initiation of continent/arc collision and to pre-date associated Pliocene uplift and foreland deformation in the highlands.

  6. Re-Os isotopic and trace element compositions of pyrite and origin of the Cretaceous Jinchang porphyry Cu-Au deposit, Heilongjiang Province, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Huang, Xiao-Wen; Cui, Bin; Wang, Bo-Chao; Yin, Yi-Fan; Wang, Jing-Rui

    2016-11-01

    The Jinchang Cu-Au deposit in Northeast China contains more than 76 tons of Au and 4683 tons of Cu with average ore grades of 11.34 g/t Au and 1.44% Cu. The deposit is typical of porphyry types and consists of gold orebodies mainly hosted in a ∼113 Ma granitic porphyry and breccia pipes within the porphyry intrusion. Mineralization is closely associated with early potassic alteration and late phyllic alteration. Pyrite is the main Au-bearing mineral and contains 1.48-18.9 ppb Re and 11.4-38 ppt common Os. Extremely low common Os concentrations and high Re/Os ratios are indicative of derivation of ore-forming materials from the crust. Low Re in pyrite from the Jinchang deposit may indicate a mixing source of mantle and crust or a crustal source. Five Re-Os isotopic analyses yield a model 1 isochron age of 114 ± 22 Ma (2σ, MSWD = 0.15), similar to the age of the host porphyry. Pyrite contains detectable Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Au, Sb, Pb and Bi. Pyrite has Co/Ni ratios similar to that of volcanogenic and hydrothermal sulfide deposits, indicating a magmatic-hydrothermal origin, and has Au and As contents similar to that of porphyry-epithermal systems. Pyrite grains from potassic and phyllic alteration stages have different trace element contents, reflecting the evolution of ore-forming fluids from magmatic dominated to magmatic mixed with meteoric water. In combination with regional geology, our new results are suggestive of origin of the Jinchang Cu-Au deposit from contemporary intrusions of granitic porphyries related to the Early Cretaceous subduction of the Paleo-Pacific plate.

  7. External Sulfur Addition in the Generation of Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: The Importance of Focused Magma Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Sulfide-rich Ni-Cu-PGE orebodies hosted in mafic to ultramafic igneous rocks require focused magma flow and vigorous interaction with country rocks to liberate sulfide, as well as to produce traps for immiscible sulfide liquid. In the 1.1 Ga Midcontinent Rift System (MRS), Ni-rich sulfide deposits occur in conduit systems. Variations in S and Os isotope ratios indicate that magmas which followed different crustal pathways were focused into a central conduit that supplied overlying flows and sills. The 1.3 Ga Voisey's Bay deposit in Labrador represents sulfide liquid collection in a conduit system which includes dike-like bodies and larger sub-horizontal chambers. Variable d34S values again strongly suggest that focused magma flow and turbulence in the conduit resulted in the input of magmatic pulses that had undergone S isotopic homogenization even though pelitic country rocks are characterized by a range in S isotope values from -17 to +18 ‰. A very similar physical setting characterizes the sulfide-bearing Duke Island Complex, a Cretaceous - aged Ural-Alaskan intrusion in an arc setting. Magma pulses of variable sulfur isotopic compositions were focused into a central chamber where sulfide-bearing magma spread laterally. Trapped silicate liquid was efficiently expelled, leaving sulfide-bearing ultramafic cumulates. A less turbulent environment is indicated for sheet-like intrusions that carry disseminated sulfide mineralization in the Duluth Complex within the MRS. However, the potential ore sequences were built from multiple pulses of magma of distinct S isotope values that had interacted with sulfidic country rocks characterized by different S isotope compositions. Hence, the focusing of magmas from different pathways has been essential for the generation of potential sulfide-rich ore bodies in the Duluth Complex as well.

  8. Composition, distribution, and hydrologic effects of contaminated sediments resulting from the discharge of gold milling wastes to Whitewood Creek at Lead and Deadwood, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, K.E.

    1989-01-01

    The Whitewood Creek-Belle Fourche-Cheyenne River stream system in western South Dakota has been extensively contaminated by the discharge to Whitewood Creek of about 100 million tons of mill tailings from gold-mining operations. The resulting contaminated sediments contain unusually large concentrations of arsenic, as much as 11,000 micrograms/g, derived from the mineral arsenopyrite, as well as potentially toxic constituents derived from the ore-body minerals or from the milling processes. Because of the anomalous arsenic concentrations associated with the contamination, arsenic was used as an indicator for a geochemically based, random, sediment-sampling program. Arsenic concentrations in shallow, contaminated sediments along the flood plains of the streams were from 1 to 3 orders of magnitude larger than arsenic concentrations in uncontaminated sediments in about 75% of the flood plains of Whitewood Creek and the Belle Fourche River. Appreciable surface-water contamination resulting from the contaminated sediments is confined to Whitewood Creek and a reach of the Belle Fourche River downstream from the mouth of Whitewood Creek. In Whitewood Creek , dissolved-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 80 microgram/L during the year in response to variations in groundwater inflow and dilution, whereas total-recoverable-arsenic concentrations vary from about 20 to 8 ,000 micrograms/L during short periods in response to rapid changes in suspended-sediment concentration. Contamination of the alluvial aquifer along the stream system is limited to areas in direct contact with large deposits of contaminated sediments. Within the aquifer, arsenic concentrations are thought to be controlled by sorption-desorption on metallic hydroxides. (USGS)

  9. Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, X.; Cawood, Peter A.; Wilde, S.A.; Liu, R.; Song, H.; Li, W.; Snee, L.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Cangshang gold deposit of the northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula contains reserves of greater than 50 tonnes (t) and is developed by the largest open pit gold mine in China. This deposit is a Jiaojia-style (i.e. disseminated-and-veinlet) deposit. It is controlled by the San-Cang fault zone, which trends ???040?? and dips 40-75??SE at the mine site. The main (no. 1) orebody lies between a hanging wall of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (mainly amphibolite) of the Fenzishan Group and a footwall composed of the Mesozoic Linglong granitoid. The ore zone is mainly composed of pyritized, sericitized and silicified granitoid, which has undergone variable degrees of cataclasis. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircon indicates that the protolith of the hanging wall amphibolite was formed at 2530 ?? 17 Ma and underwent metamorphism at 1852 ?? 37 Ma. The footwall granodiorite has been dated at 166 ?? 4 Ma, whereas zircons from the ore zone yield a younger age of 154 ?? 5 Ma. Cathodoluminescence images of zircons from the granodiorite and ore zone show oscillatory zonation indicative of an igneous origin for both and the ages of these zircons, therefore, are all interpreted to be representative of magmatic crystallization. Dating of sericite by 40Ar-39Ar has been used to directly determine the timing of formation of the Cangshang deposit, providing the first time absolute age on formation of the Jiaojia-style gold deposits. The well-defined age of 121.3 ?? 0.2 Ma provides the precise timing of gold mineralization at the Cangshang deposit. This age is consistent with those of Linglong-style (vein type) gold mineralization, also from the north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, at between 126 and 120 Ma. Therefore, our work indicates that both styles of gold deposits in the Jiaodong Peninsula were formed during the same mineralization event.

  10. Geology and mineral deposits of the Minnie Moore and Bullion mineralized areas, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Link, Paul Karl; Worl, Ronald G.

    2001-01-01

    In the early 1880?s the discovery of rich ores in the Minnie Moore and Bullion mineralized areas sparked a rush to settle and develop the Wood River valley. Silver and lead discoveries in these areas spurred the boom in mining after completion of the Oregon Short Line Railroad to Hailey in 1883. In both areas the ore comprises galena, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite in a gangue of siderite, calcite, or quartz. Minor goldbearing quartz veins are also present. The ore is in fissure and replacement veins along fracture systems that formed in Late Cretaceous time, after intrusion of nearby granodiorite or quartz diorite stocks. The ore formed under mesothermal conditions and heat was supplied by the nearby plutons. In the Minnie Moore area, the mineralized veins are cut by low-angle normal faults that are of probable Eocene age. In the Minnie Moore mineralized area, the host rock is the middle part of the Devonian Milligen Formation, (the informal Lucky Coin limestone and Triumph argillite), which is the same stratigraphic level as the host ore in the rich Triumph mine northeast of Hailey. In the Bullion mineralized area, the ore is hosted by the lower member of the Middle Pennsylvanian to Lower Permian Dollarhide Formation. Rich ore was mined in several tunnels that reached the Mayflower vein, a northwest-striking mineralized shear zone. The deposits are thought to be mainly mesothermal veins that formed in association with Cretaceous magmatism. The syngenetic stratiform model of ore formation has often been applied to these deposits, however, no evidence of syngenetic mineralization was found in this study. Faulting has displaced most of the major orebodies and thus has made mining these deposits a challenge.

  11. Mineral Mapping with Imaging Spectroscopy: The Ray Mine, AZ

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Roger N.; Vance, J. Sam; Livo, K. Eric; Green, Robert O.

    1998-01-01

    Mineral maps generated for the Ray Mine, Arizona were analyzed to determine if imaging spectroscopy can provide accurate information for environmental management of active and abandoned mine regions. The Ray Mine, owned by the ASARCO Corporation, covers an area of 5700 acres and is situated in Pinal County, Arizona about 70 miles north of Tucson near Hayden, Arizona. This open-pit mine has been a major source of copper since 1911, producing an estimated 4.5 million tons of copper since its inception. Until 1955 mining was accomplished by underground block caving and shrinkage stope methods. (excavation by working in stepped series usually employed in a vertical or steeply inclined orebody) In 1955, the mine was completely converted to open pit method mining with the bulk of the production from sulfide ore using recovery by concentrating and smelting. Beginning in 1969 a significant production contribution has been from the leaching and solvent extraction-electrowinnowing method of silicate and oxide ores. Published reserves in the deposit as of 1992 are 1.1 billion tons at 0.6 percent copper. The Environmental Protection Agency, in conjunction with ASARCO, and NASA/JPL obtained AVIRIS data over the mine in 1997 as part of the EPA Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI) (Tom Mace, Principal Investigator). This AVIRIS data set is being used to compare and contrast the accuracy and environmental monitoring capabilities of remote sensing technologies: visible-near-IR imaging spectroscopy, multispectral visible and, near-IR sensors, thermal instruments, and radar platforms. The goal of this effort is to determine if these various technologies provide useful information for envirorunental management of active and abandoned mine sites in the arid western United States. This paper focuses on the analysis of AVIRIS data for assessing the impact of the Ray Mine on Mineral Creek. Mineral Creek flows to the Gila River. This paper discusses our preliminary AVIRIS mineral mapping

  12. Geological and petrological aspects of Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization in the early Paleoproterozoic Monchegorsk layered mafic-ultramafic complex, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkov, E. V.; Chistyakov, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Early Paleoproterozoic Monchegorsk Complex comprises two independent large layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions: the Monchegorsk pluton and the Main Range massif formed about 2.50 and 2.46 Ga ago, respectively. They are composed of similar cumulates, though they differ somewhat in the isotopic parameters of rocks, cumulate stratigraphy and derived from siliceous high-Mg series melts that arose in the same large long-living volcanic center. The economic syngenetic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization related to the earlier Monchegorsk pluton is represented by two types of ores. The first type, pertaining to fractionation of the primary melt, is opposite to the reef formed due to injection of a special ore-bearing melt into the solidifying intrusive chamber. The primary magmatic mineralization is largely composed of Ni-Fe-Cu sulfides and Pd-Pt sulfides, bismuthides, and tellurides. Only small PGE and probably chromite occurrences are related to the Main Range massif. In the Mid-Paleoproterozoic (2.0-1.9 Ga), the complex was transformed into a collage of tectonic blocks confined to the regional fault zone. The Monchegorsk pluton was retained better, and only rocks of its southern framework were involved into tectonic and metamorphic reworking with the formation of economic metamorphic low-sulfide PGE mineralization with widespread Pd and Pt telluro-bismuthides, arsenides, stannides, antimonides, and selenides. The ore formation was accompanied by PGE redistribution and segregation of lenticular orebodies with diffuse contours. Thus, the Monchegorsk ore cluster is characterized by juxtaposition of unaltered primary magmatic deposits and those formed as a result of their metamorphism and distinguished from the former by structure and composition. The comparative study of these deposits opens up new possibilities for comprehending ore-forming processes in the same situations.

  13. The role of crustal contamination in the formation of Ni-Cu sulfide deposits in Eastern Tianshan, Xinjiang, Northwest China: Evidence from trace element geochemistry, Re-Os, Sr-Nd, zircon Hf-O, and sulfur isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Dong-Mei; Qin, Ke-Zhang; Sun, He; Su, Ben-Xun; Xiao, Qing-Hua

    2012-04-01

    Tulaergen, Xiangshan, Huangshan, Tianyu, and Baishiquan magmatic Ni-Cu sulfide deposits, which are all located in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, and associated with small mafic-ultramafic intrusions with high-grade Cu and Ni orebodies have similar ages of formation. Their magma sources are MORB-like and OIB-like depleted mantle. Modeling calculations of Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic data show that about 10-15% of oceanic slab components are added into the source of Baishiquan and Tianyu intrusions, but only less than 5% are in the three other intrusions. The higher degree of subduction metasomatism in the Baishiquan and Tianyu magma sources is likely the result of the Paleozoic multiple-stage subduction. Moreover, the relative enrichment of LILE, depletion of HFSE, and lower Ce/Pb ratios indicate that these intrusions experienced crustal contaminations. The effects of crustal contamination are also identified in the magmatic sulfide deposits by the higher zircon δ18O, higher sulfide γOs, and δ34S values observed. We propose a two-stage crustal contamination model of the Tulaergen, Xiangshan, Tianyu, and Baishiquan intrusions. However, the Huangshan intrusion, which has the highest degree of crustal contamination, likely experienced only single-stage upper crustal contamination (˜14.2%). The addition of crustal S appears to be directly related to triggering S saturation in these deposits. According to a simple S isotopic modeling calculation, 11%, 2.9%, 1.2% and 2.1% of the crustal sulfur addition into the parental magma would be required to form the Tianyu, Baishiquan, Xiangshan, and Tulaergen deposits, respectively.

  14. Results of deep exploratory drilling between long and Newark Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada - implications for oil migration in the nearby Yankee gold mine paleohydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Pinnell, M.L. ); Hulen, J.B. ); Cox, J.W. )

    1993-08-01

    In mid-1992, a consortium headed by Pioneer Oil and Gas (Midvale, Utah) drilled a deep (6700 ft) exploratory well in the southern Ruby Mountains-Buck Mountain are near the Alligator Ridge mining district in White Pine County, Nevada. The test well is located 1.5 mi southwest of USMX, Inc.'s, Yankee gold mine, an open-pit operation centered on a Carlin-type, sediment-hosted gold orebody noteworthy for containing abundant, fracture-controlled live oil. The Pioneer well as dry, but intersected much of the same stratigraphic section hosting gold at Yankee, thereby providing valuable clues to mechanisms of oil migration at this unusual, oil-bearing precious-metal deposit. Most of the gold at Yankee is hosted by the Devonian Pilot Shale, with a basal argillaceous limestone containing the bulk of the deposit's live oil. The equivalent section in the Pioneer wildcat well is a silty calcareous dolomite. Whereas the basal Pilot limestone at Yankee is rich in thick, locally gold- and arsenic-anomalous calcite veins and modules hosting abundant oil-bearing fluid inclusion, the basal Pilot dolomite in the Pioneer well contains only a few thin calcite-pyrite veinlets devoid of fluid inclusions. Moreover, the Yankee calcite veins have the same light-stable-isotope signatures as hydrothermal carbonate veins near or elsewhere in the Alligator Ridge district. These relationships imply that oil at Yankee migrated in the same hydrothermal system responsible for gold mineralization. Such systems elsewhere in the eastern Basin and Range, given favorable source rocks, traps, seals, and migratory pathways, might well have formed not only gold deposits, but also rich, spatially coincident oil reservoirs.

  15. Deep structure and metallogeny of the Kirovograd polymetallic ore district, the Ukrainian Shield: Correlation of geological and seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazansky, V. I.; Makivchuk, O. F.; Popov, N. I.; Drogitskaya, G. M.; Starostenko, V. I.; Tripol'Sky, A. A.; Chicherov, M. V.

    2012-02-01

    The study of deep structure of the Kirovograd ore district proceeds from a broad treatment of its geological boundaries and combination of metasomatic uranium, pegmatitic lithium, and hydrothermal gold deposits, as well as lodes of magmatic titanium ore within these boundaries. The spatial juxtaposition of the Novoukrainsk-Kirovograd granitoid massif and the Korsun-Novomirgorod rapakivi granite-anorthosite massif is a distinguishing feature of the Kirovograd ore district. The former massif along with stratified metamorphic rocks forms an intrusive-ultrametamorphic basement, whereas the latter massif is autonomous with respect to the basement. Taken together, both massifs make up the Novoukrainsk-Korsun-Novomirgorod composite pluton, which determines the architecture of the Kirovograd ore district not only at the present-day erosion surface but also at deeper levels of the lithosphere. The uranium, lithium, and gold deposits are localized in the intrusive-ultrametamorphic basement and controlled by various combinations of intrinsic and superposed structures; the vertical extent of mineralization is also controlled by their combinations. Some combinations are unique. Primarily, these are triple junctions of superposed faults, which host the largest metasomatic uranium orebodies. At the same time, the deposits are spatially related to the local mediumscale trough in topography of the Moho discontinuity. This mantle trench is discordant relative to the Novoukrainsk-Korsun-Novomirgorod pluton. These and other data discussed in the paper allow us to consider the Kirovograd polymetallic ore district as a Paleoproterozoic center of crustal-mantle magmatic activity and ore formation. This center was formed 2.1-1.7 Ga ago in the course of juxtaposition of three development stages differing in associations of intrusive rocks, style of deformation and metamorphism of rocks, origin and localization of ore deposits.

  16. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar isotopic dates from the Cripple Creek gold-Telluride district, Colorado: Constraints on the timing of magmatism and mineralization

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, K.D.; Snee, L.W. ); Thompson, T.B. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1993-04-01

    The Cripple Creek district is within a Tertiary diatreme-intrusive complex, a steep-walled basin in Proterozoic pelitic and igneous rocks that is filled with terrigenous sedimentary rocks, volcanic and hydrothermal breccias, and tuffs. The orebodies occur as veins in Proterozoic and Tertiary rocks or as deposits localized within hydrothermal breccia bodies or disseminated in diatreme breccias. [sup 40]Ar/[sup 39]Ar dates from igneous rocks demonstrate the approximately contemporaneous emplacement of the most differentiated phonolitic rocks. Three sanidine samples from phonolite yield apparent ages ranging from 30.9 [+-] 0.1 to 31.8 [+-] 0.1 Ma (1 sigma). Biotite and sanidine age spectra from relatively less differentiated tephriphonolite are discordant; the emplacement age is estimated to be between 31.4 [+-] 0.1 and 32.5 [+-] 0.1 Ma. A maximum age of 31.5 [+-] 0.1 Ma was obtained on a whole-rock sample of trachyandesite. The mafic phonolitic rocks are relatively younger. A sample of the Isabella dike, a phonotephrite dike cutting phonolite, yields a whole-rock age of 28.7 [+-] 0.04 Ma. The data suggest that mineralization both predates and postdates emplacement of the mafic phonolitic rocks. Hydrothermal biotite in a vein cutting phonolite yields an age of 29.9 [+-] 0.1 Ma. The age spectrum of adularia from a vein cutting volcaniclastic rocks is difficult to interpret due to the presence of excess argon, but an age is estimated to be between 29.5 and 30.4 Ma. In the vicinity of the phonotephrite dike, field evidence suggests that vein mineralization postdates emplacement of the dike; potassium feldspar from potassium altered phonolite in the vicinity of mineralized rock yields ages of 28.2 [+-] 0.1 and 28.8 [+-] 0.1 Ma.

  17. Zinc isotopes in sphalerite from base metal deposits in the Red Dog district, northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, K.D.; Wilkinson, J.J.; Chapman, J.B.; Crowther, H.L.; Weiss, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Analyses of sphalerite samples from shale-hosted massive sulfide and stratigraphically underlying vein breccia deposits in the Red Dog district in northern Alaska show a range ??66Zn values from zero to 0.60 per mil. The lowest values are observed in the vein breccia deposits, and the stratigraphically overlying (but structurally displaced) shale-hosted massive sulfide deposits show a systematic trend of increasing ??66Zn values from south to north (Main-Aqqaluk-Paalaaq-Anarraaq). The ??66Zn values are inversely correlated with sphalerite Fe/Mn ratio and also tend to be higher in low Cu sphalerite, consistent with precipitation of lower ??66Zn sphalerite closer to the principal hydrothermal fluid conduits. The most likely control on isotopic variation is Rayleigh fractionation during sulfide precipitation, with lighter zinc isotopes preferentially incorporated in the earliest sphalerite to precipitate from ore fluids at deeper levels (vein breccias) and close to the principal fluid conduits in the orebodies, followed by precipitation of sulfides with higher ??66Zn values in shallower and/or more distal parts of the flow path. There is no systematic variation among the paragenetic stages of sphalerite from a single deposit, suggesting an isotopically homogeneous zinc source and consistent transport-deposition conditions and/or dissolution-reprecipitation of earlier sphalerite without significant fractionation. Decoupled Zn and S isotope compositions are best explained by mixing of separate metal- and sulfur-bearing fluids at the depositional site. The results confirm that Zn isotopes may be a useful tracer for distinguishing between the central and distal parts of large hydrothermal systems as previously suggested and could therefore be of use in exploration. ?? 2009 by Economic Geology.

  18. Effect of weathering product assemblages on Pb bioaccessibility in mine waste: implications for risk management.

    PubMed

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark R; Wagner, Doris

    2013-11-01

    General assessments of orebody types and associated mine wastes with regard to their environmental signature and human health hazards are needed to help in managing present and historical mine waste facilities. Bioaccessibility tests and mineralogical analysis were carried out on mine waste from a systematic sampling of mine sites from the Central Wales orefield, UK. The bioaccessible Pb widely ranged from 270 to 20,300 mg/kg (mean 7,250 mg/kg, median 4,890 mg/kg), and the bioaccessible fraction from 4.53 to >100% (mean 33.2%, median 32.2%), with significant (p=0.001) differences among the mine sites. This implies sensitivity of bioaccessibility to site-specific conditions and suggests caution in the use of models to assess human health impacts generalised on the basis of the mineral deposit type. Mineralogical similarities of the oxidation products of primary galena provided a better control over the observed Pb bioaccessibility range. The higher Pb bioaccessibility (%) was related to samples containing cerussite, irrespective of the presence of other Pb minerals in the mineral assemblage; lower Pb bioaccessibility resulted where anglesite was the main Pb mineral phase and cerussite was absent. A solubility diagram for the various Pb minerals in the waste was derived using PHREEQC model, and the experimental Pb concentrations, measured in the simulated gastric solution, were compared with the equilibrium modelling results. For samples containing cerussite, the model well predicted the soluble Pb concentrations measured in the gastric solution, indicative of the carbonate mineral phase control on the Pb in solution for these samples and little kinetic control on the dissolution of cerussite. On the contrary, most mine waste samples containing dominant anglesite and or plumbojarosite (no cerussite) had lower solution Pb values, falling at or below the anglesite and plumbojarosite solubility equilibrium concentrations, implying kinetic or textural factors hindering

  19. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: a case study.

    PubMed

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-15

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered 'controllable' for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of (226)Ra soil activity concentration and (222)Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, (226)Ra soil activity concentrations, and (222)Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data.

  20. Boron isotope systematics of tourmaline formation in the Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, S.-Y.; Palmer, M.R.; Slack, J.F.; Shaw, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    We report here the results of 54 boron isotope analyses of tourmaline associated with the giant Sullivan Pb-Zn-Ag deposit in southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The ??11B values range from -11.1 to -2.9???, which is almost as great as the range found worldwide in tourmalines from 33 massive sulfide deposits and tourmalinites in dominantly clastic metasedimentary terranes. The major control on the overall ??11B values of the Sullivan tourmalinites is the boron source. Potential controls over the large range of the data also include: (1) differences in formation temperatures of the tourmalinites, (2) different stages of tourmaline formation, (3) variations in the proportions of dissolved boron incorporated into the tourmaline (Rayleigh fractionation), (4) seawater entrainment, and (5) post-depositional metamorphism. The boron isotope data at Sullivan are consistent with boron derivation from leaching of footwall clastic sediments. However, the great abundance of tourmaline in the Sullivan deposit suggests that the local clastic sediments were not the sole source of boron, and we argue that non-marine evaporites, buried deep below the orebody, are the most viable source of this additional boron. It is likely that some of the variation in tourmaline ??11B values reflect mixing of boron from these two sources. Comparison of the potential effects of these controls with geologic and other geochemical evidence suggests that major causes for the wide range of ??11B values measured at Sullivan are seawater entrainment and Rayleigh fractionation, although in places, post-depositional alteration and thermal metamorphism were important in determining ??11B values of some of the recrystallized tourmalinites.