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Sample records for northern anthracite field

  1. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (<0.063 mm) of bed sediment in mining-affected tributaries and the main stem of Swatara Creek. As a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits, concentrations of suspended solids and total metals in the water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in

  2. Quality of water in mines in the Western Middle Coal Field, Anthracite Region, east-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.; Growitz, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of mine water in the 75 sq-mi Western Middle anthracite field, Pennsylvania was determined by sampling discharges and boreholes at 60 abandoned and flooded mines during 1975-78. The Vulcan-Buck Mountain mine, east-northeast of Mahanoy City, contains an estimated 6,100 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of 380 to 460 micromhos and a pH of 4.4 to 4.6 units. Twenty-two mines are in a 15-sq mi area between Mahanoy City and Girardville, all of which closed prior to 1958. Seven of these mines in the Mahanoy Basin may contain 30,000 acre-ft of water. Specific conductance ranges from 630 micromhos in the Tunnel mine to 1,800 micromhos in the Gilberton mine. Fifteen of these mines are in the Shenandoah complex; specific conductance ranges from 240 to 310 micromhos in mines in the eastern end of the complex to 2,400 micromhos in the western end. The specific conductance of water in 25 mines in the Mount Carmel-Shamokin area ranges from 460 to 980 micromhos. The North Franklin mine near Trevorton contains about 4,900 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of about 1,100 micromhos. (USGS)

  3. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  4. Use of anthracite in the foundry industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bethray, A.

    1994-12-31

    Anthracite has been used for smelting iron in North America for nearly 200 years and is still used today in cupolas. Environmental and market factors contribute to continued cost increases in foundry coke that will continue in the future. This paper reviews the availability, quality and properties of anthracite and considers some of the differences in operation when using anthracite in place of coke.

  5. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality

  6. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  7. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  8. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  9. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  10. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  11. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  12. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  13. Coal: Pennsylvania anthracite 1978. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.

    1980-10-01

    Production of Pennsylvania Anthracite in 1978 decreased 14.1 percent or 824 thousand short tons from the 1977 figure of 5861 thousand short tons to 5037 thousand short tons. Buckwheat No. 1 and smaller sizes accounted for 3768 thousand short tons or 75 percent of production. Pea and larger sizes accounted for 1259 thousand short tons or 25 percent of production. Average price per ton (f.o.b. preparation plant) increased 1.1 percent from the 1977 figure of $34.86 to $35.25. Productivity declined 6.6 percent from 6.97 to 6.51 short tons per miner per day. Domestic distribution of anthracite in 1978 totaled 3895 thousand short tons or 77.3 percent of production. Of this amount, 1597 thousand short tons or 41 percent went to residential and commercial consumers, 1064 thousand short tons or 27.3 percent went to electric utilities, 748 thousand short tons or 19.2 percent went to other industrial users, 476 thousand short tons or 12.2 percent went to the iron and steel industry, and 10 thousand short tons or 0.3 percent was consumed at mining operations. US exports of anthracite in 1978 totaled 1142 thousand short tons or 22.7 percent of production. Exports to Canada were 405 thousand short tons, to South Korea - 331 thousand short tons, and to US military forces in West Germany - 276 thousand short tons. The Canadian, Korean, and German exports accounted for 1012 thousand short tons or 88.6 percent of all exports in 1978.

  14. Polarization of anthracite electrodes in electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Lopanov; E.V. Blaido; O.V. Smirnova

    2007-10-15

    The regularities of the polarization of anthractie electrodes for the liberation of hydrogen from electrolyte (potassium chloride and hydrogen chloride) solutions were found, and electrode processes occurring at the surface of coals in the Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} redox system were studied. It was found that the deviations of standard electrode potentials from the equilibrium values of redox systems depend on the exchange current densities of electrochemical processes occurring at the surface of coal matter. Low transfer coefficients (0.04-0.051) for the discharge reaction of hydrogen ions on anthracites indicate that the reaction occurs under conditions close to those of an activationless process.

  15. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  16. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  17. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  18. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  19. Standard test method for size of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covering screen analysis of anthracite is used to determine the percentage of undersize or oversize in ny given commercial size. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Procedure, in case th coal is wet, air-dryit before screening. Determine the undersize first. For broken, egg, and stove sizes, up-end each piece by hand on the screen, to determine whether in any position it passes through the screen. For nut, pea, buckwheat, and rice sizes, shake the screens gently with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so as to avoid breakage ofthe coal, until practically no more coal will pass through the openings. Screen the coal in such increments as will allow the pieces to be in direct contact with the screen openings after the completion of the shaking of each increment.

  20. Health status of anthracite surface coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Amandus, H.E.; Petersen, M.R.; Richards, T.B.

    1989-03-01

    In 1984-1985, medical examinations consisting of a chest radiograph, spirometry test, and questionnaire on work history, respiratory symptoms, and smoking history were administered to 1,061 white males who were employed at 31 coal cleaning plants and strip coal mines in the anthracite coal region of northeastern Pennsylvania. The prevalence of radiographic evidence of International Labour Office (ILO) category 1 or higher small opacities was 4.5% in 516 men who had never been employed in a dusty job other than in surface coal mining. Among these 516 workers, all 4 cases of ILO radiographic category 2 or 3 rounded opacities and 1 case of large opacities had been employed as a highwall drill operator or helper. The prevalence of category 1 or higher opacities increased with tenure as a highwall drill operator or helper (2.7% for 0 y, 6.5% for 1-9 yr, 25.0% for 10-19 y, and 55.6% for greater than or equal to 20 y drilling). Radiographic evidence of small rounded opacities, dyspnea, and decreases in FEV1.0, FVC, and peak flow were significantly related to tenure at drilling operations after adjusting for age, height, cigarette smoking status, and exposures in dusty jobs other than in surface coal mining. However, tenure in coal cleansing plants and other surface coal mine jobs were not related to significant health effects. The apparent excess prevalence of radiographic small rounded opacities in anthracite surface coal mine drillers suggests that quartz exposures have been increased. Average respirable quartz concentrations at surface coal mine drilling operations should be evaluated to determine whether exposures are within existing standards, and dust exposures should be controlled.

  1. Objective styles in northern field science.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in style. A field style treats epistemic alterity as a resource rather than an obstacle for objective knowledge production. A sociological stylistics of the field should thus explain how objective science can co-exist with radical conceptual difference. I discuss examples from the Canadian North, focussing on collaborations between state wildlife biologists and managers, on the one hand, and local Aboriginal Elders and hunters, on the other. I argue that a sociological stylistics of the field can help us to better understand how radically diverse agents may collaborate across cultures in the successful production of reliable natural knowledge. PMID:26193783

  2. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  3. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  4. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  5. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from...

  6. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from...

  7. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from...

  8. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from...

  9. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... diamond shapes. The cones must be placed within reach of the lifeline. (B) A branch line leading from...

  10. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  11. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  12. Inventory of federally-funded projects and programs related to anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    This report is a compilation of descriptions of federal projects and programs that are concerned in some way with anthracite. It is the first inventory of its type to be prepared. Among the projects and programs described are those completed in the latter half of 1979, those that are currently active, and others that will start soon. Of the 43 projects described, 8 involve research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of technologies aimed at enhancing the use of anthracite or anthracite mining waste; 6 address environmental problems associated with anthracite mining or use; 9 provide information on the anthracite industry; 16 involve studies related to anthracite; and 4 are miscellaneous projects and programs. These projects and programs represent federal government expenditures of $27.1 million, excluding current military purchases of anthracite for use in European bases of $33.6 million, and US Bureau of Mines mined land demonstration and reclamation projects of $38.3 million.

  13. Effect of simple anthracite pneumoconiosis on lung mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, D.M.; Metzger, L.F.; Silage, D.A.; Fogarty, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    A respiratory questionnaire was administered to 20 miners with simple anthracite coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and ten normal subjects. Lung function studies which included lung mechanics and small airways disease measurements were also performed. Seventeen of the miners admitted to having symptoms of bronchitis. No significant differences were demonstrated between the two groups for vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and three seconds (FEV3), midmaximal flow rate (FEF25-75%), and peak flow rate (PEFR). A significant decrease in the maximum expiratory flow rate at 50 percent of vital capacity (V max50%) was detected; however, this was not evident when the flow rate was corrected for lung volume. Also, there were no significant differences in lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DCO) and diffusion coefficient (DCO/TLC). The mean static expired compliance (Cstate) was significantly increased in the anthracite miners, but no difference in specific compliance (Cstate/FRC) could be demonstrated. Also, no significant differences were detected in the mean values of any of the tests of small airways disease. There is little evidence of significant alterations in lung mechanics or small airway narrowing in miners with simple anthracite pneumoconiosis.

  14. Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Baldridge, W.S.; Shafiqullah, M.

    1988-06-10

    Volcanic centers previously mapped as the 20 Ma El Rechuelos Rhyolite in the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico, include three distinct episodes of rhyolitic volcanism. An early (7.5 Ma) extrusive dome of flow-banded biotite rhyolite and an intermediate (5.8 Ma) rhyolite, possibly a volcanic neck, correspond in age to rhyolites of the Keres Group in the southern Jemez volcanic field. Three other extrusive domes of aphyric, pumiceous rhyolite and obsidian comprise a late volcanic episode, dated at 2.0 Ma. We retain the name El Rechuelos Rhyolite only for these late centers. Another center, farther north than the others but previously mapped with the El Rechuelos Rhyolite, is a dacite pumice ring whose age (5.2 Ma), petrography, major- and trace-element chemistry, and Sr initial ratio all suggest it should be included with rocks of the Tschicoma Formation. Nd and Sr isotopic ratios of the Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field suggest that these rhyolites were not produced by partial melting of either upper or lower crust. Rather, they may have been generated from a mantle-derived mafic magma, such as the nearby Lobato Basalt, by fractional crystallization with concomitant assimilation of small amounts (<6%) of lower crust. If the El Rechuelos is derived from a lower crust magma chamber, as seems likely, then it is not related to the bandelier magma system, even though it is part of a continuum of rhyolite volcanism ranging from 3.6 Ma to 130,000 years ago that includes the Bandelier and precursor rhyolitic units. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  15. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  16. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  17. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2014-10-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict-Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion.

  18. Experimental Study of High-Temperature Fracture Propagation in Anthracite and Destruction of Mudstone from Coalfield Using High-Resolution Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yang; Lu, Jun-Hui; Wang, Cai-Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The coalfield fire is determined by fractures of coal and rock that provide tunnel for gases and heat exchange. To study fracture propagation at high temperatures, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to scan anthracite and mudstone samples collected from the Qinshui coalfield, Shanxi Province, northern China. The samples were scanned at 100 °C intervals as they were subjected to temperatures of up to 500 °C. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed by the CT software to analyze changes in the fractures and pores in the samples. The experimental results show that fracturing of anthracite began at 200 °C. The generation rate of fractures in the coal samples increases slowly below 300 °C, but above 300 °C there is a sharp increase in fracture development. This indicates that the thermal fracturing temperature threshold for anthracite is 300 °C. During the experiment, it was found that preexisting fractures, voids, and regenerative fractures formed around the hard portions of anthracite particles or along the weak boundaries between particles. Some regenerative fractures developed along the fabric of the relatively crystalline particles within the particle and terminate at the edge of the particle or where the fracture encounters a harder portion of coal. Some fractures even expanded enough to be transformed into voids as temperatures rose. In the mudstone, the porosity changed suddenly at 300 °C. This indicated that there was a void generated at 200 °C, but the void expanded when the temperature was increased. However, changes in the void were not obvious from 200 to 300 °C.

  19. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  20. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  1. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER... this subchapter shall apply to bonding and insuring anthracite surface coal mining and...

  2. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER... this subchapter shall apply to bonding and insuring anthracite surface coal mining and...

  3. A review of the use of anthracite in electric arc furnace steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    The applications of anthracite in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking, include the adjustment of hot metal carbon content, the generation of foamy slags, and its use as a support fuel in the EAF to reduce power consumption per tonne of product. Incentives to use support fuel in EAF steelmaking include the reduction of electric power consumption without reducing plant output. As such, the concept can reduce steelmaking costs and can serve as a basis for maximizing an EAF operation`s demand side management program. The use of carbon and oxygen additions to the EAF can cause significant release of energy within the furnace. This energy can offset a portion of the electrical energy required by the system for production of steel. Reduced consumption of electricity per tonne of hot metal is the result Electrode consumption and tap to tap times can also be reduced. significant interest in the use of anthracite as EAF support fuel, as well as the other applications of anthracite in EAF steelmaking, have combined to establish the EAF steelmaking trade as a significant market sector for anthracite. This discussion is a review of key anthracite properties and production considerations, and their interplay with the requirements of the EAF process.

  4. Water quality of large discharges from mines in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, 99 of the 102 coal mines in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that discharged 1.0 cubic foot per second or more when water-quality samples were collected in 1975 were revisited. Water was not discharging from 15 of these 99 mines in 1991. Discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, sulfate, iron, manganese, alkalinity, and acidity were measured in water samples collected at 84 mines to assess changes in water quality from 1975 to 1991. The pH increased in water samples of 64 of the 81 mines. However, acidity was essentially unchanged. Concentrations of iron decreased in water discharge samples from 57 of 82 mines, manganese concentrations decreased in samples from 23 of 26 mines, and sulfate concentrations decreased in samples from 62 of 77 mines. The median change in sulfate was a decrease of 139 milligrams per liter. Alkalinity increased in water discharge samples from 43 mines, remained the same at 22 mines, and decreased at 14 mines. In 1975, the samples were collected during high base flow in the spring; in 1991, samples were collected during lower-than-normal base flow in the fall. This may have affected the comparison. Many mine discharges have elevated concentrations of aluminum, calcium, cobalt, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, strontium, zinc, and sulfate.

  5. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials. PMID:27135862

  6. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-06-16

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification.

  7. More on giant fields of northern S. America

    SciTech Connect

    Duval, B.C.; Cramez, C.; Valdes, G.E.

    1995-07-24

    The first part of this article profiled Cano Limon-Guafita, Ceuta-Tomoporo (centro), and El Furrial-Carito-Tejero oil fields in Venezuela. In this concluding part the authors take a look at the Colombian foothills. It is concluded that the dangers and limits of big magic classifications and simple paradigms like thrust belt hydrocarbons are evident. The understanding of a single field, although it is a much needed step, is not sufficient to get the full picture. Petroleum systems are dynamic, discontinuous, and heterogeneous. Any seemingly slight difference in the initial conditions can have a disproportionate impact on key parameters, and recognizing them is very much what makes a lucky explorer.

  8. To Be Transformed: Emotions in Cross-Cultural, Field-Based Learning in Northern Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah; Hodge, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Students undertaking field-based learning, in which they work with Indigenous people in Northern Australia, describe a profound learning experience redolent with emotion. Inspired, challenged and transformed, the students are compelled in ways that require them to interrogate their own selves and taken-for-granted beliefs. In this paper, we draw…

  9. Co-carbonization of two anthracites with a fat coal or two pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Wang, Z.Z.

    2006-04-15

    The blends of two anthracite powders (YQ and JC) with a fat coal (C4) or a petroleum pitch (PP) or a coal tar pitch (CTP) in different proportions were co-carbonized at 3{sup o}C/min up to 1000{sup o}C in an experimental 1 kg coke oven. Coke yield, coke particulate size, coke micro-strength and coke cracking strength were measured respectively. Coke optical textures were watched under a microscope. The results show that as anthracite proportion increases, coke yields of all blends improve; > 0.8 mm lump coke yields of blends with CTP or PP decline slightly, blends with C4 drop heavily; coke microstrengths do not change sharply, and coke cracking strength of blends with C4 or PP decrease more than blends with CTP. C4 produces fine-grained mosaics, and two anthracites are mainly fusinite and fragments, PP is coarse-grained mosaics, and CTP is chiefly flow or domain textures. Independent optical textures were observed in cokes. There exist evident borders between the two contact optical textures which were produced by different components, and a few phenomena that domain or flow textures penetrating into fusinite appeared in the blends. It seems that CTP is the best adhesives for blending with anthracites for producing high quality cokes.

  10. Chemical oxidation of anthracite with hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, I.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions of 30% H2O2 ranging from pH = 0 to pH = 11.5 have been used to oxidize anthracite at room temperature. The inorganic impurities, primarily pyrite, catalysed the oxidation and reduction of H2O2 (the Fenton reaction) to form the hydroxyl radical; the oxidation of the organic matter was minimal and was observed only in strong acidic solutions (pH < 1.5). After acid demineralization, samples of the same anthracite underwent a significant enhancement of oxidation in both acid and alkaline solutions (pH = 0.4-11.5). As all the iron had been removed from the surface and the reactions were completed in a much shorter time, the oxidation mechanism must have been of a different nature than that for the untreated anthracite. A qualitative model based on the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 by activated carbon sites in the coal surface is used to explain the oxidation of the demineralized anthracite. ?? 1984.

  11. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  12. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  13. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  14. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  15. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 816-817, the requirements of 30 CFR part 820 shall apply. (2) All other requirements of this chapter including the bonding and insurance requirements of 30 CFR 800.70, except the bond limits and the... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and...

  16. Field examination of shale and argillite in northern Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, J. R.; Woodward, L. A.; Emanuel, K. M.; Keil, K.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-two locales underlain by clay-rich strata ranging from Cambrian Pioche Shale to Mississippian Chainman Shale and equivalents were examined in northern Nye County, Nevada. The text of the report summarizes data for each stratigraphic unit examined. Checklists for tabulating field data at each locale are included in an appendix. Working guidelines used to evaluate the locales include a minimum thickness of 150 m (500 ft) of relatively pure clay-rich bedrock, subsurface depth between 150 m (500 ft) and 900 m (3000 ft), low topographic relief, low seismic and tectonic activity, and avoidance of areas with mineral resource production or potential. Field studies indicate that only the Chainman Shale, specifically in the central and northern parts of the Pancake Range, appears to contain sites that meet these guidelines.

  17. High-performance super capacitors based on activated anthracite with controlled porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang-Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2015-02-01

    Mongolian anthracite is chemically activated using potassium hydroxide as an activation agent to make activated carbon materials. Prior to the chemical activation, the chemical agent is introduced by two different methods as follows, (1) simple physical mixing, (2) impregnation. The physical properties such as specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and adsorption energy distribution are measured to assess them as carbon electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC). The surface functional groups and morphology are also characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses respectively. The electrochemical results for the activated carbon electrodes in 3 M sulfuric acid electrolyte solution indicate that the activated Mongolian anthracite has relatively large specific capacitances in the range of 120-238 F g-1 and very high electrochemical stability, as they keep more than 98% of initial capacitances until 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  18. Experimental study on combustion characteristics and NOX emissions of pulverized anthracite preheated by circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Qing-Gang

    2011-08-01

    A 30 kW bench-scale rig of pulverized anthracite combustion preheated by a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. The CFB riser has a diameter of 90 mm and a height of 1,500 mm. The down-fired combustion chamber (DFCC) has a diameter of 260 mm and a height of 3,000 mm. Combustion experiments were carried out using pulverized anthracite with 6.74% volatile content. This low volatile coal is difficult to ignite and burn out. Therefore, it requires longer burnout time and higher combustion temperature, which results in larger NOX emissions. In the current study, important factors that influence the combustion characteristics and NOX emissions were investigated such as excess air ratio, air ratio in the reducing zone, and fuel residence time in the reducing zone. Pulverized anthracite can be quickly preheated up to 800°C in CFB when the primary air is 24% of theoretical air for combustion, and the temperature profile is uniform in DFCC. The combustion efficiency is 94.2%, which is competitive with other anthracite combustion technologies. When the excess air ratio ranges from 1.26 to 1.67, the coal-N conversion ratio is less than 32% and the NOX emission concentration is less than 371 mg/m3 (@6% O2). When the air ratio in the reducing zone is 0.12, the NOX concentration is 221 mg/m3 (@6% O2), and the coal-N conversion ratio is 21%, which is much lower than that of other boilers.

  19. Study on CO₂ gasification properties and kinetics of biomass chars and anthracite char.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Xinmei; Shao, Jiugang; Geng, Weiwei

    2015-02-01

    The CO2 gasification properties and kinetics of three biomass chars (WS-char, RL-char and PS-char) and anthracite char (AC-char) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis method. Three nth-order representative gas-solid reaction models, random pore model (RPM), volume reaction model (VM) and unreacted core model (URCM) were employed to describe the reactive behavior of chars. Results show that gasification reactivity order of different chars from high to low was WS-char, PS-char, RL-char and AC-char. In addition, the chemical components as well as physical structures of four chars were systematically tested. It was found that gasification properties of char were determined by carbonaceous structure. It was concluded from kinetics analysis that RPM model was the best model for describing the reactivities of biomass chars and VM was the model that best fitted the gasification process of anthracite char. The activation energies obtained for the biomass and anthracite char samples lie in the range of 236.4-284.9 kJ/mol.

  20. Study on CO₂ gasification properties and kinetics of biomass chars and anthracite char.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Xinmei; Shao, Jiugang; Geng, Weiwei

    2015-02-01

    The CO2 gasification properties and kinetics of three biomass chars (WS-char, RL-char and PS-char) and anthracite char (AC-char) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis method. Three nth-order representative gas-solid reaction models, random pore model (RPM), volume reaction model (VM) and unreacted core model (URCM) were employed to describe the reactive behavior of chars. Results show that gasification reactivity order of different chars from high to low was WS-char, PS-char, RL-char and AC-char. In addition, the chemical components as well as physical structures of four chars were systematically tested. It was found that gasification properties of char were determined by carbonaceous structure. It was concluded from kinetics analysis that RPM model was the best model for describing the reactivities of biomass chars and VM was the model that best fitted the gasification process of anthracite char. The activation energies obtained for the biomass and anthracite char samples lie in the range of 236.4-284.9 kJ/mol. PMID:25479395

  1. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  2. Reservoir development in Brahaney northwest and Patricia fields, northern Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1990-02-01

    Porous pay zones in the Silurian-Devonian section of the northern Midland basin, Texas, vary stratigraphically, as well as structurally, with their locations beneath the pre-Woodford unconformity. These variations are related to at least two major periods of widespread pre-Woodford tectonism and erosion. A major unconformable surface, present at the top of the Lower Silurian Fusselman formation, was later modified by tectonism and erosion immediately preceding deposition of the Woodford Shale. In places where the Fusselman subcrops beneath the Woodford, its capacity for reservoir development is dependent upon the severity of geologic events that affected the formation during the two major tectonic/erosional events. Where the Wristen and Thirtyone formations subcrop, their reservoir capacity depends upon the extent of structuring and subsequent erosion immediately prior to Woodford deposition. Two pre-Woodford oil fields in the northern Midland basin illustrate geologic complexity that bears on the successful application of subsurface mapping in defining potential pay zones. Brahaney Northwest field in Yoakum County is productive from fractured, coarse crystalline Silurian-Devonian dolomites on subtle, fault-bounded structures. These structures, defined seismically on the base of the Woodford, do not reveal the more complex structural and stratigraphic variations within the reservoir itself. Patricia field in Dawson County is productive from Fusselman carbonates where upper Fusselman structural and topographic relief coincides with post-Woodford faulting and low-relief anticlinal closure as defined at the base of the Woodford.

  3. Improved Constraints on the Eruptive History of Northern Harrat Rahat Volcanic Field, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, M. E.; Downs, D. T.; Calvert, A. T.; Sherrod, D. R.; Hassan, K. H.; Muquyyim, F. A.; Ashur, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Harrat Rahat is a large (~20,000 km2) alkalic volcanic field located in central western Saudi Arabia. A variety of eruptive products ranging from alkali basalt to trachyte have erupted at Harrat Rahat over the past ~10 m.y., with the most recent eruptions occurring at 641 CE (uncertain) and 1256 CE in the northern part of the volcanic field. Despite the field's young age and its close proximity to two major city centers, the eruptive history of Harrat Rahat remains poorly constrained. Previous researchers grouped the volcanic strata of northern Harrat Rahat into seven subunits based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, and on the degree of erosion displayed by the eruptive products. The youngest eruptive products (subunits Qm7 - Qm4) are thought to be ≤600 ka, whereas the older lavas (Qm3 - Qm1) are thought to be >600 ka. However, due to the sparse geochronologic control on the ages of the eruptive units, it remains unclear if the currently defined subunits accurately reflect the age distribution of lavas in northern Harrat Rahat. Additionally, the temporal relation between basaltic magmatism and the more evolved eruptive products has yet to be examined. To better constrain the eruptive history of Harrat Rahat we measured >50 new 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages for Qm1 through Qm5 lavas in northern Harrat Rahat. These new 40Ar/39Ar ages suggest that the majority of volcanism in the region occurred ≤400 ka and is significantly younger than previously thought, indicating that the magmatic system at Harrat Rahat has been more active over the past 400 kyr then previously recognized. Additionally, these new age data suggest that nearly all trachytic magmatism occurred <125 ka and was preceded by a pulse of more mafic magmatism. It is likely the magmatic system at Harrat Rahat reached an evolved state late in the history of the volcanic field due to increased and/or prolonged input of basaltic magmas into the crust.

  4. Comparison of quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite for adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Liyue; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kirumba, George

    2014-02-01

    The choice of substrates with high phosphorus adsorption capacity is vital for sustainable phosphorus removal from waste water in constructed wetlands. In this study, four substrates were used: quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite. These substrate samples were characterized by Xray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy studies for their mineral components (chemical components) and surface characteristics. The dynamic experimental results revealed the following ranking order for total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency: anthracite > biological ceramsite > shale > quartz sand. The adsorptive removal capacities for TP using anthracite, biological ceramsite, shale and quartz sand were 85.87, 81.44, 59.65, and 55.98 mg/kg, respectively. Phosphorus desorption was also studied to analyze the substrates' adsorption efficiency in wastewater treatment as well as the substrates' ability to be reused for treatment. It was noted that the removal performance for the different forms of phosphorus was dependent on the nature of the substrate and the adsorption mechanism. A comparative analysis showed that the removal of particulate phosphorus was much easier using shale. Whereas anthracite had the highest soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) adsorptive capacity, biological ceramsite had the highest dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) removal capacity. Phosphorus removal by shale and biological ceramsite was mainly through chemical adsorption, precipitation or biological adsorption. On the other hand, phosphorus removal through physical adsorption (electrostatic attraction or ion exchange) was dominant in anthracite and quartz sand.

  5. Technological improvements in the field-based monitoring of glaciers in the Huasco basin, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, Sebastián; Uribe, José; Carrión, Daniela; Rivera, Andrés; Corripio, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Difficulties with the terrain, weather conditions and accessibility makes high altitude field-based glacier monitoring (>4000 m.a.s.l) particularly challenging. Due to this field measurements are often incomplete and temporally limited when available. Given the importance of temporal analyses when monitoring glacierised environments (especially those that are directly influenced by human activities such as mining) the development and improvement of field-based monitoring techniques is thus essential. Here a series of field technologies are presented that are intended to improve the monitoring of glaciers in the Pascua Lama mining project, Northern Chile (29º18'S , 70º03'W). Efforts focus on monitoring changes in the energy balance and the spatial distribution of albedo variation over glacier surfaces. Technological innovations are described in the use of: (1) meteorological networks (automatic weather stations) - improved for better transmission in unfavourable weather conditions through the use of high frequency portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; (2) Non-metric fixed camera systems - improved to allow continuous monitoring of glacier albedo variations by using high frequency transmission over the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band and low power servers based on ARM architecture. The implementation of these technologies has so far successfully improved data acquisition were applied and offers a robust alternative to the traditional field-based glacier monitoring methods used previously.

  6. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Improvement of stability and efficiency of combustion for low rank anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Sun, X.

    1994-12-31

    A new kind of burner, bluff-body with cavity burner, which is based on the bluff-body burner is developed in this paper. The three dimension mean velocity and turbulent characteristics have been measured in the burner`s recirculation zone by using three dimension laser dynamics analysis. For a low rank anthracite, combustion test shows this burner is better than bluff-body in ignition and flame stability. 50 MW(220T/H) boiler operation show that the temperature in the flame zone is high, combustion is very stable and the efficiency is increased when this burner is used.

  8. Northern elephant seal field bioacoustics and aerial auditory masked hearing thresholds in three pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon Lee

    This dissertation comprises four interrelated studies on acoustic communication (including both signal production and signal reception) in pinnipeds, primarily northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Field measurements of vocalization parameters were obtained in elephant seal breeding rookeries. Additionally, auditory masking experiments were conducted with individuals representing three pinniped species, including a northern elephant seal. This study quantified how aerial noise masks aerial hearing and provided preliminary data on auditory frequency filtering. All of these studies were conducted in air for a variety of practical and theoretical reasons. Some governmental, media, and research organizations have recently become concerned with the impacts of underwater anthropogenic noise on aquatic animals. However, little consideration has been given to the dual pressures imposed by aerial and underwater noise on amphibious marine mammals such as the pinnipeds. This dissertation sought to provide some basic data bearing on this matter by investigating aerial signals and aerial masked hearing. Data were obtained on aerial vocalization source levels, signal directivity patterns, natural aerial ambient noise, signal propagation properties, multi-modal aspects of signaling, motivation-specific signal variability, aerial critical masking ratios, and auditory filter bandwidths. The results indicate that different signal components may be more readily detectable in variable noise conditions, frequency resolution likely affects detection ranges, developmental and motivational factors affect signal parameters, and that some pinnipeds apparently detect signals over masking noise relatively well both in air and water. Using the northern elephant seal as a representative model, a model for quantifying constraints on vocal communication was developed to provide first-order predictions about detection ranges for signals in variable noise conditions.

  9. Late Permian age of ammonium-bearing illite in Pennsylvania anthracites: Temporal constraints on coalification in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    K/Ar dating of authigenic NH4-bearing illite in coal from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yields apparent ages of 253-236 Ma ({+-}8 m.y.). The oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ({+-}8 m.y.) is a minimum age for the thermal event associated with anthracite formation and illite authigenesis. This date is probably within {approx}10 m.y. of the time at which coal-bearing rocks experienced peak temperatures, which suggests an age range of 265-255 Ma for this event. Age dates for authigenic NH{sub 4}-bearing illite reflect the approximate age of late-stage coalification (formation of anthracite-rank coal) because this mineral formed only during late-stage coalification (T=200-275{degrees}C) from a kaolinite (potassium-free) precursor, and the K/Ar data suggest that NH{sub 4} does not significantly influence the closure temperature of illite. K/Ar dates, in conjunction with paleomagnetic and vitrinite reflectance data, constrain the thermal pulse and deformation associated with the Alleghanian orogenic episode to a time period of 25-35 m.y., beginning in Early Permian time ({approx}285 Ma) after coal deposition, and concluding by Late Permian time ({approx}260-250 Ma). Syn- and post-folding secondary chemical remanent magnetizations constrain Alleghanian folding in the Central Appalachians to Late Permian time, which coincides with the postulated time range of 265-255 Ma for NH{sub 4}-bearing illite authigenesis and anthracite formation derived from the K/Ar data. The similar time range for anthracite formation and Alleghanian folding is consistent with vitrinite reflectance data that suggests anthracite formation was a syn-folding thermal event.

  10. Late Permian age of ammonium-bearing illite in Pennsylvania anthracites: Temporal constraints on coalification in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J. )

    1996-01-01

    K/Ar dating of authigenic NH4-bearing illite in coal from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yields apparent ages of 253-236 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.). The oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) is a minimum age for the thermal event associated with anthracite formation and illite authigenesis. This date is probably within [approx]10 m.y. of the time at which coal-bearing rocks experienced peak temperatures, which suggests an age range of 265-255 Ma for this event. Age dates for authigenic NH[sub 4]-bearing illite reflect the approximate age of late-stage coalification (formation of anthracite-rank coal) because this mineral formed only during late-stage coalification (T=200-275[degrees]C) from a kaolinite (potassium-free) precursor, and the K/Ar data suggest that NH[sub 4] does not significantly influence the closure temperature of illite. K/Ar dates, in conjunction with paleomagnetic and vitrinite reflectance data, constrain the thermal pulse and deformation associated with the Alleghanian orogenic episode to a time period of 25-35 m.y., beginning in Early Permian time ([approx]285 Ma) after coal deposition, and concluding by Late Permian time ([approx]260-250 Ma). Syn- and post-folding secondary chemical remanent magnetizations constrain Alleghanian folding in the Central Appalachians to Late Permian time, which coincides with the postulated time range of 265-255 Ma for NH[sub 4]-bearing illite authigenesis and anthracite formation derived from the K/Ar data. The similar time range for anthracite formation and Alleghanian folding is consistent with vitrinite reflectance data that suggests anthracite formation was a syn-folding thermal event.

  11. Geochemistry of igneous rocks from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, northern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzig, C. T.

    1990-08-01

    Fractional crystallization of basaltic magma, derived from an oceanic affinity source region present beneath the Salton Trough and emplaced into a pull-apart basin of this continental rift regime, produced a tholeiitic suite of hypabyssal rocks consisting of basalt, andesite and dacite within the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, located in northern Baja California, Mexico. Higher light-rare-earth-element abundances for a basalt from the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in comparison to basalts from the Gulf of California and the East Pacific Rise suggest partial assimilation of crustal materials into the parental magmas generated beneath the Salton Trough. The crustal contaminant may be present near the surface today in the form of granitoids of the Peninsular Ranges batholith, at deeper levels as hydrothermally altered materials near the base of the Salton Trough, or may be a relict feature of Tertiary subduction contained within the upper mantle beneath the Salton Trough. The Sr isotopic compositions of dacites from the nearby Cerro Prieto volcano range from 0.7029 to 0.7036, indicating an oceanic affinity source for these rocks. The suite of hypabyssal rocks of tholeiitic affinity present within the Cerro Prieto geothermal field, related by fractional crystallization, link the dacite volcano of Cerro Prieto to gabbroic plutons inferred to exist beneath the Cerro Prieto geothermal field.

  12. Geology and coastal hazards in the northern Monterey Bay, California: field trip guidebook, November 4, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this field trip is to explore the relationships between local geology, coastal hazards, and human influences in the northern Monterey Bay, which is a tectonically active high wave energy coastal environment. Seacliffs, shore platforms, pocket beaches and a headland/embayment morphology characterize this rocky coastline. Many studies of the onshore and offshore geology and geophysics, the local wave climate, and the effects of large storm events and earthquakes on the coastline have been conducted in this region (see Related Reading section). This field trip summarizes many of the findings of these research investigations, and also considers the relationship between the rates and styles of seacliff erosion and the variations in the local geology. The field trip stops allow the participant to examine seacliff sites of different geological lithologies, geographic orientations, and varying protection from wave attack, and consider how these variables affect not only the rate or magnitude of seacliff retreat but also the styles of retreat. In general the two primary forcing factors in the retreat of seacliffs are marine and terrestrial processes. At the various field trip stops, the relative importance of these processes in shaping the coastline at that particular location will be explored. Where beaches have developed, whether naturally or by emplacement of man-made structures, field trip stops are designed to look at the occurrence of the beaches (why they exist where they do) and to understand the response of the beaches to large storm events. Finally, this trip focuses on the various coastline protection structures that have been built in the area, and their effectiveness in protecting development on the beaches or at the tops of the seacliffs. The first stop of the trip is the Long Marine Lab facility where the seacliffs are composed of the most resistant geological unit in the area, the Miocene Santa Cruz Mudstone. This stop also includes discussion

  13. Estimates of the seasonal mean vertical velocity fields of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Indirect methods are employed to estimate the wintertime and summertime mean vertical velocity fields of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere and intercomparisons are made, together with comparisons with mean seasonal patterns of cloudiness and precipitation. Twice-daily NMC operational analyses produced general circulation statistics for 11 winters and 12 summers, permitting calculation of the seasonal NMC averages for 6 hr forecasts, solution of the omega equation, integration of continuity equation downward from 100 mb, and solution of the thermodynamic energy equation in the absence of diabatic heating. The methods all yielded similar vertical velocity patterns; however, the magnitude of the vertical velocities could not be calculated with great accuracy. Orography was concluded to have less of an effect in summer than in winter, when winds are stronger.

  14. Interplanetary magnetic field and solar cycle dependence of Northern Hemisphere F region joule heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjoland, L. M.; Chen, X.; Jin, Y.; Reimer, A. S.; Skjæveland, Å.; Wessel, M. R.; Burchill, J. K.; Clausen, L. B. N.; Haaland, S. E.; McWilliams, K. A.

    2015-02-01

    Joule heating in the ionosphere takes place through collisions between ions and neutrals. Statistical maps of F region Joule heating in the Northern Hemisphere polar ionosphere are derived from satellite measurements of thermospheric wind and radar measurements of ionospheric ion convection. Persistent mesoscale heating is observed near postnoon and postmidnight magnetic local time and centered around 70° magnetic latitude in regions of strong relative ion and neutral drift. The magnitude of the Joule heating is found to be largest during solar maximum and for a southeast oriented interplanetary magnetic field. These conditions are consistent with stronger ion convection producing a larger relative flow between ions and neutrals. The global-scale Joule heating maps quantify persistent (in location) regions of heating that may be used to provide a broader context compared to small-scale studies of the coupling between the thermosphere and ionosphere.

  15. Science teachers as metascientists: an inductive-deductive dialectic immersion in northern alpine field ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Elshof, Leo

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to promote more realistic conceptions about science are often limited by teachers' inexperience in this domain. In this paper, we describe an 'inductive-deductive, dialectic immersion' approach towards assisting teachers in developing more realistic conceptions about science -- along with corresponding revised perspectives about science teaching. Three secondary teachers of science with minimal science research experience engaged in a case study of science in action -- specifically, in an episode of northern alpine ecological field research. Qualitative data analyzed by constant comparative methods suggested that these teachers shifted along a modernist through postmodernist continuum -- as indicated by increased support for a more Naturalist epistemology of science, a more Antirealist ontology of science, and corresponding priorities towards science teaching and learning. Results suggest that teachers of science can develop postmodern views about science and science teaching if given opportunities to induce and deduce propositions about science in realistic cases of science in action.

  16. Structure and flow-induced variability of the subtidal salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Kimmerer, W.; Burau, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay and how it is affected by freshwater flow are discussed. Two datasets are examined: the first is 23 years of daily salinity data taken by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation along the axis of northern San Francisco Bay: the second is a set of salinity transects taken by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1988 and 1993. Central to this paper is a measure of salinity intrusion. X2: the distance from the Golden Gate Bridge to where the bottom salinity is 2 psu. Using X2 to scale distance, the authors find that for most flow conditions, the mean salinity distribution of the estuary is nearly self-similar with a salinity gradient in the center 70% of the region between the Golden Gate and X2 that is proportional to X2-1. Analysis of covariability of Q and X2 showed a characteristics timescale of adjustment of the salinity field of approximately 2 weeks. The steady-state response deduced from the X2 time series implies that X2 is proportional to riverflow to the 1/7 power. This relation, which differs from the standard 1/3 power dependence that is derived theoretically assuming constant exchange coefficients, shows that the upstream salt flux associated with gravitational circulation is more sensitive to the longitudinal salinity gradient than theory supposes. This is attributed to the strengthening of stratification caused by the stronger longitudinal salinity gradient that accompanies larger river flows.

  17. Neogene carbonate exploration play concepts for Northern New Guinea: New iteration from field work and seismic stratigraphy along the Northern New Guinea Fault Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Pigott, J.D.; Geiger, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Recent field reconnaissance, petrography, nanno and foraminifera age determinations, and seismic stratigraphy of the Sepik and Piore subbasins of northern New Guinea reveal the existence of an extensive, tectonically unstable, Miocene-Pliocene carbonate shelf system. These findings represent the first recorded evidence of northern Papuan limestones coeval in age to those of the hydrocarbon productive Salawati Basin of Irian Jaya. Moreover, these observations also demonstrate the significance of episodic activities of the northern New Guinea fault zone upon the changes in carbonate sedimentation and diagenesis. During the Neogene, algal biosparites to foraminiferal biomicrites defined the clean portion of a mixed clastic-carbonate shelf system of the northern New Guinea basin, which began at the central New Guinea cordillera and deepened northward. This shelf was interrupted by coral-coralline algal boundstone fringing- to patch-reef buildups with associated skeletal grainstones. Clean carbonates were spatially and temporally restricted to basement blocks, which episodically underwent uplift while terrigenous dilutes carbonates were more common in adjacently subsiding basement block bathymetric lows. These tectonic expressions were caused by the spatially transient nature of constraining bends of the evolving north New Guinea faults. As shown by seismic stratigraphy, by the late Miocene to the early Pliocene the uplift of the Bewani-Torricelli Mountains sagittally divided the shelf of the northern New Guinea basin into the Ramu-Sepik and the Piore basins. Continued regional sinistral transpression between the Pacific and the New Guinea leading edge of the Indo-Australian plates led to the reverse tilting of the Piore basin, the shallowing of the former distal shelf with concomitant extensive biolithite development (e.g., on subsiding volcanic islands) eventual uplifting of the Oenake Range, and en echelon faulting of the Bewani-Torricelli Mountains.

  18. Effects of 76 Hz electromagnetic fields on forest ecosystems in northern Michigan: Tree growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David D.; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Mroz, Glenn D.; Liechty, Hal O.; Cattelino, Peter J.; Jürgensen, Martin F.

    1993-12-01

    Since 1984, the possible effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic (EM) fields generated by a 76 Hz communication antenna on the growth and productivity of four deciduous and one coniferous species have been studied in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Results from two research sites are discussed here: one site near an antenna element and a control site located 50 km from the communication system. Growth models for individual tree diameters were developed for northern red oak ( Quercus rubra), paper birch ( Betula papyrifera), aspen ( Populus tremuloides with a few individuals of P. grandidentata), and red maple ( Acer rubrum). A growth model for individual tree height was developed for young red pine ( Pinus resinosa). Average differences between the observed and predicted growth were calculated for each growing season and then compared between the study sites and across the study periods to evaluate changes in growth patterns which could be attributed to EM field effects. For aspen and red maple, the results showed a stimulation of diameter growth at magnetic flux density levels of 1 to 7 milliGauss; height growth of red pine was increased at about the same exposure levels. There are no clear indications of an EM field effect on total annual diameter growth for either of the other two species.

  19. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  20. Space and time variability of the surface color field in the northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barale, Vittorio; Mcclain, Charles R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1986-01-01

    A time series of coastal zone color scanner images for the years 1979 and 1980 was used to observe the spatial and temporal variability of bio-optical processes and circulation patterns of the northern Adriatic Sea on monthly, seasonal, and interannual scales. The chlorophyll-like pigment concentrations derived from satellite data exhibited a high correlation with sea truth measurements performed during seven surveys in the summer of both years. Comparison of the mean pigment fields indicates a general increase in concentration values and larger scales of coastal features from 1979 to 1980. This variability may be linked to the different patterns of nutrient influx due to coastal runoff in the 2 years. The distribution of surface features is consistent with the general cyclonic circulation pattern. The pigment heterogeneity appears to be governed by fluctuations of freshwater discharge, while the dominant wind fields do not appear to have important direct effects. The Po River presents a plume spreading predominantly in a southeastern direction, with scales positively correlated with its outflow. The spatial scales of the western coastal layer, in contrast, are negatively correlated with this outflow and the plume scales. Both results are consistent with, and may be rationalized by, recent theoretical and experimental results involving a dynamical balance between nonlinear advection and bottom friction, with alternate predominance of one of the two effects.

  1. Tertiary fluvial systems within the Bear Creek coal field, northern Big Horn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, J.N. ); Gruber, J.R. Jr. )

    1991-06-01

    The Bear Creek coal field contains the 250-m-thick coal-bearing Paludal Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation in the northern Big Horn Basin, Montana. Detailed field and subsurface data show two contrasting geometries in alluvial strata, each bounded by an economic coal bed. The lower 50 m of the Paludal Member is dominated by sheet and ribbon sandstones. The sheet sandstones are as long as 1.5 km and fine upwards from medium to fine grained. Some sandstones are multistory with sharp upoper and lower contacts. The upper portion has convolute bedding, ripple lamination, and some horizontal and tabular crossbeds. Stratigraphically higher is a 12-m-thick fine-grained sequence, containing large tree trunks in growth position and extensively rooted mud rocks. Sandstone bodies, 6 m thick and 10 m wide, are enclosed within mudstones and siltstones. The sandstones are primarily ripple laminated and have stepped bases and internal erosion surfaces. This interval has previously been interpreted as deposits of an anastomosed fluvial system. The sandstones show little evidence of significant lateral migration. In contrast to the lower interval, the environment here consisted of well-developed vegetated islands separating fluvial channels. Subsurface data show that the major coal beds are laterally continuous within the study area. The cyclic development of the coals reflects intermittent periods of long-term basin stability. Alternating dominance of the sandstones suggests that influx and distribution were controlled through episodic uplift of the nearby Beartooth Mountains.

  2. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  3. Prototype anthracite culm combustion boiler/heater unit. Quarterly technical report No. 4, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    There are currently about 910 million cubic yards of anthracite culm (mine refuse) contained in 800 separate banks in a 480 square mile area in the Wilkes-Barre (W-B) anthracite mining region. Although this material represents a significant fuel value, equivalent to approximately 1.25 billion barrels of fuel oil, the culm banks have accumulated because no satisfactory method of combusting this fuel was available until the relatively recent development of the atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) steam generator. A program was initiated in October 1978 to design, construct and evaluate a 100,000 pph AFB steam generator burning anthracite culm with the addition of fresh anthracite, if required. The unit is to demonstrate the technical, economical and environmental feasibility of producing 150 psig saturated steam for district heating in downtown W-B. Phase I of the program consists of the design of the atmospheric fluidized bed (AFB) plant and a hot model test program. Phase II of the program consists of construction, operation, testing and evaluation of the boiler and boiler plant.

  4. Indication of meta-anthracite by magnetotellurics in the Köszeg-Rechnitz Penninic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Attila; Ádám, Antal; Prácser, Ernő

    2013-04-01

    In the Eastern end of the Eastern Alps - at the Austrian-Hungarian border - there are Pennninic Nappes among them the Köszeg-Rechnitz tectonic window having complicated metamorphic history from the Jurassic time. The organic material of the Penninic Ocean transformed to meta-anthracite. Its amount in the calc-phyllite has been estimated by the geochemists to 0.2 percent. Magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out to determine: - the resistivity decrease due to the above amount of conductive material, - the different EM distortions in E and B polarization caused by the conductor near and far from it, - the asthenospheric depth in the area of the tectonic window stepping out from the shallow asthenosphere of the Pannonian Basin, - looking for relation between geoelectric and seismic crustal structures.

  5. Influence of the degree of metamorphism and reduction of the anthracites of the Donbas on the properties of the products of their thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eremin, I.V.; Ivanov, V.P.; Maloletnev, A.S.; Danilova, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the reported experiments, the influence of high-temperature treatment on the structure and properties of anthracites of the Donbas of different degrees of metamorphism and reduction has been studied. It has been shown that on thermal treatment up to 1250/degree/C feebly metamorphosed anthracites achieve structural orderedness to a considerable degree and their use in the electrode industry is possible. The predominating influence of the degree of metamorphism of the initial anthracites on the physicochemical properties of the products of their thermal treatment, as compared with that of the degree of reduction, has been established. 5 refs.

  6. Changes in tectonic stress field in the northern Sunda Shelf Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Tjia, H.D.; Liew, K.K. )

    1994-07-01

    The Tertiary hydrocarbon basins of the northern Sunda Shelf are underlain by continental and attenuated continental crust characterized by moderate to high average geothermic gradients in excess of 5[degrees]C/100 m. In the Malay basin, Oligocene and younger sediments are more than 12 km thick. The smaller basins (which are commonly half grabens) and probably also the main Malay basin were developed as pull-apart depressions associated with regional north-to-northwest-striking wrench faults. Initial basin subsidence took place during the Oligocene, but at least one small basin may have developed as early as the Jurassic. Sense of movement of the regional wrench faults was reversed during middle to late Miocene and in some of these faults, evidence was found for yet a younger phase of lateral displacement. These offsets range up to 45 km right-laterally along north-trending fault zones. During most of the Cenozoic, succeeding wrench faulting with sense of movement in the opposite direction caused structural inversion of the basin-filling sediments, which became folded. The regional wrench faults act as domain boundaries, each tectonic domain being characterized by different stress fields. The evolving stress system can be attributed to varying degrees of interference of plate motions coupled with changes in movement directions and/or rates of the Pacific plate Indian Ocean-Australian plate and possible expulsion of southeast Asian crustal slabs following the collision of the Indian subplate with the Eurasian plate.

  7. Electric potential patterns in the northern and southern polar regions parameterized by the interplanetary magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Papitashvili, V.O. |; Belov, B.A.; Faermark, D.S.; Feldstein, Ya.I.; Golyshev, S.A.; Gromova, L.I.; Levitin, A.E.

    1994-07-01

    Electric potential patterns have been obtained from the IZMIRAN electrodynamic model (IZMEM) for the northern and southern polar regions during summer, winter, and equinox. The model is derived from a large quantity of high-latitude ground-based geomagnetic data (above {+-} 57{degrees} corrected geomagnetic latitude) at all magnetic local time hours. A linear regression analysis technique has been used to obtain the quantitative response of each magnetic observatory to changes of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) components. Since no ionospheric conductivity model exists specifically for the southern polar region, the statistical model of Wallis and Budzinski has been applied in both hemispheres. A cross-polar `background` potential of {approximately} 35 kV, derived by Reiff et al., is used to calibrate IZMEM`s potential patterns. The model`s response to changes in the IMF B{sub y} and B{sub z} components are analyzed to obtain a set of {open_quotes}elementary{close_quotes} convection patterns in both polar regions for each season of the year. Asymmetry in the potential pattern geometry in both hemispheres can be attributed either to the influence of the {open_quotes}northern{close_quotes} ionospheric conductivity model which was applied to the southern polar region, or to some natural phenomena. Average values of the modeled potential drop caused by each nanotesla of the IMF are the following: {approximately} 14 kV for southward B{sub z}; {approximately} {minus}4 kV for northward B{sub z}; and {approximately} {+-} 4.5 kV for B{sub y} components. The latter is not applicable to the {open_quotes}dawn-dusk{close_quotes} potential drop; it may be applied across the cusp region only. It is concluded that IZMEM provides realistic convection patterns parameterized by the IMF component directions and magnitudes and may be used to provide routine estimates of convection patterns and electric potentials if IMF data are available. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Effects of Field History on Corn Root Injury and Adult Abundance of Northern and Western Corn Rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Mike W; O'Neal, Matthew E; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2016-10-01

    Western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), and northern corn rootworm, Diabrotica barberi Smith & Lawrence, are major pests of corn (Zea mays L.). Corn producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are widely used to manage Diabrotica spp.; however, Bt resistance by D. v. virgifera has led to high levels of feeding injury in the field. We tested whether field history affected root injury and abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. In 2013 and 2014, four types of cornfields were sampled: 1) recently rotated fields, 2) continuous cornfields, 3) fields with a history of injury to Bt corn (past problem fields), and 4) fields with greater than one node of injury to Bt corn at the time of sampling (current problem fields). Data were collected on field history, root injury, and the abundance of adult Diabrotica spp. from each field. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera were significantly greater in current problem fields compared to the other field types, while D. barberi were significantly more abundant in recently rotated fields. Root injury and the abundance of D. v. virgifera did not differ among recently rotated fields, continuous cornfields, and past problem fields. Analysis of field history showed that recently rotated fields were characterized by significantly less Bt corn, soil-applied insecticides, and years planted to corn continuously. These results suggest that greater cropping practice diversity can reduce management inputs for Diabrotica spp.; however, its effects on resistance evolution remain undetermined.

  9. Past Activity of Non-sorted Circles Fields in Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher, M.; Klaminder, J.

    2011-12-01

    Non-sorted circles (NSCs), also known as frost boils, are common geomorphological features created by cryogenic processes in subarctic and arctic soils [Washburn, 1979]. Near-surface permafrost is thought to be a prerequisite for the activity of NSCs [Walker et al., 2008], where an active NSC maintains a sparsely vegetated circle-like zone in the centre due to frost heave and up-freezing of silt. Little is known about the historical activity of NSCs in northern Scandinavia. Here we summarize some results of our ongoing research where we have assessed historical changes in NSC activity in the Abisko area, northern Sweden. In short, we have estimated how the distribution of NSCs along an altitude gradient has changed from 1959 to 2008 by using digitized aerial photos. Unsupervised classification with two classes (bare mineral soil and shrub vegetation) was performed on NSC fields to achieve estimations on how the aerial coverage of up-frozen mineral soil has changed over the last decades. Here, over growth of previous bare mineral soil surfaces by shrubs was interpreted as decreased NSC activity, considering that vascular plants are unable to colonize active NSCs due to significant heave and disruption of plant roots [Jonasson, 1986]. In addition to observations from aerial photos, we have conducted vertical sampling of NSC soil stratigraphies and 14C-dated buried organic soil layers to constrain the historical activity of the NSC in time. Preliminary analyses of the aerial photos indicate a general overgrowth of bare mineral surfaces within the NSCs since 1959. Of 137 studied sites 92 sites (corresponding to 67%) show an net overgrowth of previous bare mineral soil surface within the circles. On average, about 29 % of the bare mineral soil within the NSC fields is estimated to have been colonized by shrub vegetation. Clearly, our findings indicate that permafrost-controlled soil frost activities of the studied NSCs have mainly decreased during the last five decades

  10. The Northern Plains MSATT Meeting, and a call for a field-oriented successor to MSATT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop was devoted to a review of our knowledge of the Martian northern plains and presentation of recent ideas pertaining to the geologic and climatic evolution of this interesting region. The meeting was held in Fairbanks to allow easy access to Mars-like terrains in central and northern Alaska. There is no place on Earth that is a close analog of the Martian northern plains, but parts of Alaska come reasonably close in some respects, so we may expect that some of the processes occurring there are similar to processes that have occurred on Mars.

  11. Zircon U-Th-Pb-He double dating of the Merlin kimberlite field, Northern Territory, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brent I. A.; Evans, Noreen J.; McDonald, Brad J.; Kinny, Peter D.; Jakimowicz, Janusz

    2009-11-01

    This paper discusses the development of a combined U/Pb and (U-Th)/He geochronology method for single zircon grains and the potential application of this technique in diamond exploration. Zircon entrained within kimberlite deposits should have distinctive U-Th-Pb-He signatures compared to those found in the host terrane. To investigate the application of zircon double dating to kimberlite diamond exploration, we analysed zircon from the Sacramore kimberlite pipe located in the Merlin field in the Northern Territory of Australia. We also conducted a double dating study of detrital zircon from a regional sample of the Bukalara Sandstone, the principal host rock for the Merlin field. Repeated analysis of Fish Canyon zircon verified that the ion microprobe sputtering process used for U/Pb dating does not disturb the He content of the sample. The zircon U/Pb age for the Sacramore pipe ( n = 14) ranged from 1541-2433 Ma, consistent with the Mesoproterozoic formation of the North Australian Craton and indicating that the zircon obtained from the kimberlite is of xenocrystic origin. (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of these kimberlite zircon xenocrysts ( n = 33) yielded a mean weighted average age of 368 ± 4 Ma (2 σ), concordant with a previously determined phlogopite Rb-Sr age of 367 ± 4 Ma for the Merlin field. The U/Pb age (1472-2939 Ma; n = 41) of detrital zircon from the Bukalara Sandstone is statistically indistinguishable from that of the kimberlite zircon xenocrysts, while the detrital (U-Th)/He ages range from 459 to 1279 Ma. The double dating study indicates that the majority of the zircon grains in the Sacramore kimberlite pipe had their helium clocks reset to the time of kimberlite emplacement. Thermal resetting of the zircon xenocrysts may have been caused by either one or a combination of these processes: (i) the grains originated from lower- to mid-crustal depths (> 6 km) where ambient geothermal temperatures allowed the helium to diffuse out of the zircon as

  12. A decomposition of northern polar external magnetic fields using the method of Empirical Orthogonal Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Robert; Freeman, Mervyn; Wild, James; Dorrian, Gareth; Gjerloev, Jesper

    2015-04-01

    We describe our application of the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method to characterise and separate contributions to the variability of the Earth's external magnetic field (EMF), using ground magnetometer measurements. The method (commonly employed in meteorology) analyses the spatio-temporal co-variance of the data to decompose it into dynamically distinct 'modes'. A small number of these modes can cumulatively represent most of the variance of the original data, with the additional aim that a physical meaning can be given to each mode. Since the basis vectors of the decomposition are defined by the data, the EOF method resolves the spatial and temporal structure of the EMF without a priori assumptions, in contrast to other decomposition methods such as Fourier and spherical harmonic expansions. We present the results from a case study focusing on northern high latitudes throughout February 2001, using data from 97 observatories and 78 variometers collated by SuperMAG. We have devised a new baseline in order to make the observatory and variometer data comparable, and subsequently binned the data in an inertial frame. Despite the sparse and irregular station distribution, a complete spatial morphology of the EMF is achieved using a self-consistent iterative infill method. The majority (67%) of the variance in our case-study is described by the first four modes. From the spatial morphology and a comparison of the temporal behaviour of these four modes alongside independent measures, we demonstrate that the leading two modes define the well-known DP2 (Disturbance-Polar 2) and DP1 (Disturbance-Polar 1) current systems, and the other two modes describe the spatial motion of the DP1 and DP2 systems. This practical demonstration is a prelude to producing a model of EMF variations over a whole solar cycle using the full SuperMAG archive from 1996 to 2008.

  13. Free phase gas processes in a northern peatland inferred from autonomous field-scale resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Neil; Slater, Lee; Comas, Xavier; Reeve, Andrew S.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Yu, Zhongjie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms that control free phase gas (FPG) dynamics within peatlands, and therefore estimates of past, present, and future gas fluxes to the atmosphere remain unclear. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is capable of autonomously collecting three-dimensional data on the centimeter to tens of meter scale and thus provides a unique opportunity to observe FPG dynamics in situ. We collected 127 3-D ERI data sets as well as water level, soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, and limited methane flux data at a site in a northern peatland over the period July-August 2013 to improve the understanding of mechanisms controlling gas releases at a hitherto uncaptured field scale. Our results show the ability of ERI to image the spatial distribution of gas accumulation and infer dynamics of gas migration through the peat column at high (i.e., hourly) temporal resolution. Furthermore, the method provides insights into the role of certain mechanisms previously associated with the triggering of FPG releases such as drops in atmospheric pressure. During these events, buoyancy-driven gas release primarily occurs in shallow peat as proposed by the "shallow peat model." Releases from the deeper peat are impeded by confining layers, and we observed a large loss of FPG in deep peat that may likely represent a rupture event, where accumulated FPG escaped the confining layer as suggested by the "deep peat model." Negative linear correlations between water table elevation and resistivity result from hydrostatic pressure regulating bubble volume, although these variations did not appear to trigger FPG transfer or release.

  14. Seismic network detection capability within the natural gas fields in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Northern German basin is a tectonic region of relatively low seismic activity with only singular and weak tectonic events. However, during the last decades seismicity raised in the vicinity of the natural gas fields. Due to the spatial vicinity of the epicenters to the operated gas fields and their appearance starting after the beginning of extraction they are ranked as induced events. The epicenters of these events extend 50 km NS and 400 km EW from the border to the Netherlands in the West to Altmark region in the East. Altogether, 63 events with ML 0.5 to 4.5 were detected between 1977 and 2015. Many of them were felt by parts of the inhabitants up to 15 km from the epicenter whereas the strongest one, the magnitude 4.5 event close to the village of Rotenburg on 20th October 2004, was even felt in Hamburg as far as 65 km from the epicenter. Several new installed surface and borehole stations have recently improved the monitoring capabilities in the region. The station network design and number of station varied significantly during the last years and only a few seismic stations were operational over the entire period. This variability was not taken into account for the assessment of the seismicity like the b-value and completeness. For some of the areas it is still difficult to detect and analyze events with magnitude below 2 due to bad noise conditions invoked by the thick sediments as well as to the relatively large area to be covered. Up to now, it is not clear whether the small number of fore- and aftershocks is an inherent characteristic of the induced events and thereby different from tectonic earthquake sequences or only the effect of the non appropriate seismic surveillance during the last decades. Seismicity in a low magnitude range could not be detected in some of the areas but should exist if the Gutenberg-Richter relation is valid. The detection capability can be one of the reasons and is now estimated for the main active areas as a function of

  15. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  16. Thermogravimetric and Raman spectroscopic investigations on different coals in comparison to dispersed anthracite found in permineralized tree fern Psaronius sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nestler, Klaus; Dietrich, Dagmar; Witke, Klaus; Rößler, Ronny; Marx, Günter

    2003-12-01

    Permineralized samples of the tree fern Psaronius sp. belong to the spectacular discoveries of the Lower Permian Rotliegend 'Petrified forest of Chemnitz', one of the most famous palaeontological sites in the world. The cellular tissues of the 280 million years old fossil fern show a delicate three-dimensional preservation by permineralization. Moreover, anatomical detail can be distinguished very well because of the black coloured former cell walls. By means of Raman spectroscopy this fossilised tissue of the adventitious roots is revealed to be carbon which structure seems to correspond to anthracite. The aim of this work is the experimental confirmation of the carbon structure by means of thermogravimetry and Raman spectroscopy on coal samples of different rank, especially anthracite samples from different times and localities. Coal maturation involves the sequence peat-lignite-coal-anthracite-microcrystalline graphite by incresasing the density and specific energy. The loss of in situ moisture (typically up to 200 °C) and volatile organic matter (up to 600 °C) has been acquired by thermogravimetry. The increasing carbon content, density resp. structure results in Raman spectra with typical band shape of the D- and G-peaks. We used these methods to characterise and compare the separated coal samples to the dispersed carbon inclusions in permineralized Psaronius.

  17. Community-Provider Partnerships to Reduce Immunization Disparities: Field Report From Northern Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Findley, Sally E.; Irigoyen, Matilde; See, Donna; Sanchez, Martha; Chen, Shaofu; Sternfels, Pamela; Caesar, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    In 1996 we launched a community–provider partnership to raise immunization coverage for children aged younger than 3 years in Northern Manhattan, New York City. The partnership was aimed at fostering provider knowledge and accountability, practice improvements, and community outreach. By 1999 the partnership included 26 practices and 20 community groups. Between 1996 and 1999, immunization coverage rates increased in Northern Manhattan 5 times faster than in New York City and 8 times faster than in the United States (respectively, 3.4% vs 0.4% [t = 6.05, p < 0.001] and vs 0.6% [t = 5.65, p < 0.001]). The coverage rate for Northern Manhattan stayed constant through 2000, although it declined during this period for the United States and New York City. We attribute the success at reducing the gap to the effectiveness of our partnership. PMID:12835176

  18. Fluid Leakage Pathways and Shallow Gas Accumulation in Peon field, northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Planke, S.; Bunz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Shallow gas accumulations are well known as a hazard for drilling activities as well as future prospective reservoirs. The Peon field is a huge shallow gas accumulation located in the northern North Sea discovered by Statoil in 2005. The Peon sandstone reservoir is formed as a sub-aquatic, ice-contact glaciomarine fan in Pleistocene (0.01-1.8 Ma) and is located 574m below sea level. The reservoir covers a large area of 250 km2 and contains approximately 35GSm3 gas in place. We use high-resolution P-Cable 3D seismic data to characterize the shallow gas reservoir, fluid leakage pathways and geological features in the Pleistocene sediments. The survey was acquired in 2009 and covers an area of 210 km2. The seismic data has a vertical resolution of 4.5m and provide significantly improved details of the internal structure of shallow gas reservoir and associated fluid flow. The P-Cable data provide high-resolution seismic images up to one second two-way travel time. Conventional 3D seismic data is used to analyze deeper features. In addition, well logs from exploration wells in the area are integrated with the seismic interpretation. The top of Peon sandstone reservoir is marked by a strong, polarity-reversed reflection at ~165m below seafloor. The neutron porosity log and density log distinguish gas-water contact at ~184m below seafloor. The upper regional unconformity (URU) marks the base of the sandstone body at ~198m below seafloor and separates it from westward dipping Late Pliocene sequences. Unconsolidated Pleistocene sediment sequences overlying the reservoir exhibits glacial plough marks indicating periodic glacial activity. High-amplitude reflections in the glacially deposited, unconsolidated formations above the reservoir and pull-down in reflections indicate presence of gas. Chaotic, low-amplitude reflections below the high-amplitude reflections could be due to upward migrating gas. Pockmark-like depressions, varying in width from ~200m to ~400m occur at

  19. Size effects in the conduction electron spin resonance of anthracite and higher anthraxolite.

    PubMed

    Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Strzelczyk, Roman; Coy, Emerson; Maćkowiak, Mariusz; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria A

    2016-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of conduction electrons, i.e. Conduction Electron Spin Resonance (CESR), is a powerful tool for studies of carbon samples. Conductive samples cause additional effects in CESR spectra that influence the shape and intensity of the signals. In cases where conduction electrons play a dominant role, whilst the influence of localized paramagnetic centres is small or negligible, the effects because of the spins on conduction electrons will dominate the spectra. It has been shown that for some ratios of the bulk sample sizes (d) to the skin depth (δ), which depend on the electrical conductivity, additional size effects become visible in the line asymmetry parameter A/|B|, which is the ratio of the maximum to the absolute, minimum value of the resonance signal. To study these effects the electrical direct current-conductivity and CESR measurements are carried out for two amorphous bulk coal samples of anthracite and a higher anthraxolite. The observed effects are described and discussed in terms of the Dyson theory. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  1. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  2. Stress field in the Northern Rhine area, Central Europe, from earthquake fault plane solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2003-12-01

    Fault plane solutions (FPS) from 110 earthquakes in the northern Rhine area with local magnitudes, ranging from 1.0 to 6.1, and occurring between 1976 and 2002 are determined. FPS are retrieved from P-wave first motions using a grid search approach allowing a detailed exploration of the parameter space. The influence of the 1D velocity model on take-off angles and resulting FPS is examined. All events were relocated with a recently developed minimum 1D model of the velocity structure [J. Geophys. Res. (2003)]. Rose diagrams of the orientation of P, T and B axes show a clear preference of trends of P and T axes at N292°E and N27°E, respectively. The majority of B axes trend in northerly directions. Plunges of P and T axes are mostly around 45° while most B axes are subhorizontal. The main direction of the maximum horizontal stress directly inferred from the fault plane solutions is N118°E. To calculate the orientations of the principal stress axes and the shape of the stress tensor, the inversion method of Gephard and Forsyth [J. Geophys. Res. 89 (1984) 9305] was applied to the whole data set and to several subsets of data. The subsets were formed by grouping events from various geological and tectonic areas and by grouping events into different depth ranges. The subset areas include the Lower Rhine Embayment, the Rhenish Massif, the middle Rhine area, the Neuwied Basin and the area known as the Stavelot-Venn Massif. Inversion of the entire data set shows some ambiguity between a strike-slip and extensional stress regime, with a vertical axis for the medium principal stress and a trend of N305°E and N35°E for the σ1 and σ3 axis, respectively, as the best fitting tensor. Earthquakes from the Lower Rhine Embayment and, to some degree, from the middle Rhine area indicate an extensional stress regime. In the Lower Rhine Embayment, plunge and trend of the σ1 axis are 76° and N162°E and for the σ3 axis 7° and N42°E. The best fitting solution for the area of

  3. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  4. Heterogeneous stress field in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture, NE Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Keisuke; Hasegawa, Akira; Okada, Tomomi

    2016-07-01

    We investigated a detailed spatial distribution of principal stress axis orientations in the source area of the 2003 M6.4 Northern Miyagi Prefecture earthquake that occurred in the forearc of northeastern Japan. Aftershock hypocentres were precisely relocated by applying the double difference method to arrival time data obtained at temporary stations as well as at surrounding routine stations. We picked many P-wave polarity data from seismograms at these stations, which enabled us to obtain 312 well-determined focal mechanism solutions. Stress tensor inversions were performed by using these focal mechanism data. The results show that quite a lot of focal mechanisms are difficult to explain by the uniform stress field, especially near the large slip area of the main-shock rupture. Stress tensor inversions at the location of individual earthquakes show that σ1 axes are orientated mainly to WSW-ENE in the northern part of the source area, while they are oriented to NW-SE in the southern part. This spatial pattern is roughly similar to those of the static stress change by the main shock, which suggests that the observed spatially heterogeneous stress field was formed by the static stress change. If this is the case, the deviatoric stress magnitude before the main shock was very small. Another possibility is the heterogeneous stress field observed after the main shock had existed even before the main shock, although we do not know why it was formed. Unfavourable orientation of the main shock fault with respect to this stress field suggests that the fault is not strong in this case too.

  5. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  6. Estimating biodiversity impacts without field surveys: A case study in northern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Shirley, Rebekah

    2016-02-01

    In many regions of the world, biodiversity surveys are not routinely conducted prior to activities that lead to land conversion, such as development projects. Here we use top-down methods based on global range maps and bottom-up methods based on macroecological scaling laws to illuminate the otherwise hidden biodiversity impacts of three large hydroelectric dams in the state of Sarawak in northern Borneo. Our retrospective impact assessment finds that the three reservoirs inundate habitat for 331 species of birds (3 million individuals) and 164 species of mammals (110 million individuals). A minimum of 2100 species of trees (900 million individuals) and 17 700 species of arthropods (34 billion individuals) are estimated to be affected by the dams. No extinctions of bird, mammal, or tree species are expected due to habitat loss following reservoir inundation, while 4-7 arthropod species extinctions are predicted. These assessment methods are applicable to any data-limited system undergoing land-use change.

  7. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in diamagnetic limestones reveals deflection of the strain field near the Dead Sea Fault, northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, we measured the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in northern Israel. Through integrated magnetic and geochemical methods we found that the rocks are almost pure calcite rocks and therefore the magnetic fabric is primarily controlled by preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) with the minimum principal AMS axes (k3) parallel to calcite c-axes. We applied a separation procedure in several samples with high Fe content in order to calculate the AMS anisotropy parameters and compare them to pure diamagnetic rocks. AARM, thermo-susceptibility curves and IRM were used to characterize the magnetic phases. We found that for Fe content below 500 ppm the AMS is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase and showed that differences in the degree of anisotropy P' up to 3% (P' = 1.005 to 1.023) and in anisotropy difference Δk (up to ~ 0.25 × 10- 6 SI) in diamagnetic rocks are related to differences of strain magnitudes. The spatial distribution of the magnetic fabrics indicates ~ N-S maximum shortening parallel to the strike of the Hula Western Border fault (HWBF), one of the main strands of the DSF in northern Israel. The anisotropy parameters suggest that the strain magnitudes increase eastward with the proximity to the HWBF. These results suggest that the strain field near the HWBF is locally deflected as a consequence of the DSF activity. In light of the "fault weakness" model and geological setting of the study area, we suggest that the area accommodates dominant transtension during the Pleistocene. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "iron-free" limestones as recorders of the strain field near plate boundaries.

  9. Regional horizontal stress and its effect on longwall mining in the northern Appalachian coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Su, D.W.H.; Hasenfus, G.J.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents the results of in situ horizontal stress measurements using a Minifrac system in several northern Appalachian coal mines. The effect of stress magnitude and orientation on longwall gate entry stability was analyzed using a series of three-dimensional finite element analyses. The best headgate stability is achieved if the maximum horizontal stress is aligned with the direction of longwall retreat or if the panel is oriented such that the maximum stress relaxes over the headgate due to the presence of the newly formed gob. The degree of horizontal stress damage to longwall gate entries depends largely on the stress magnitude and roof geology. Accurate assessments of support or design techniques which may mitigate longwall headgate or tailgate instability in areas of thinly laminated roof and high horizontal stresses must account for the in situ horizontal stress state and site specific roof geology. The ability to measure stresses and map geology is thus essential to prevent ground control failures at the longwall headgate.

  10. Two episodes of structural fractures and their stress field modeling in the Ordos Block, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wentao; Hou, Guiting; Hari, K. R.

    2016-07-01

    The importance of the Ordos Block, which is surrounded by different Chinese continental blocks, is well documented, but the development of the structural fractures and the stress fields within the Late Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras in this stable block (dips of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic strata are less than 3°) have been poorly studied. In this paper, two dominant groups of structural fractures with NW to EW and NNE to ENE trends are identified through field measurements and imaging log observations. The maximum principal compressive stress magnitudes and stress trajectories are calculated employing 2D finite element models (2D-FEM). Based on the displacement fields, the rotation of the Ordos Block and comparisons between the measured and the calculated stresses, it can be deduced that there are two episodes of fracture formation in the Ordos Block. The calculated orientations of maximum compressive stress in the Late Mesozoic and the Cenozoic eras are found to be WNW and NE respectively, which imply that the NW to EW trending structural fractures were developed in a Late Mesozoic stress field whereas the NNE to ENE ones were developed in a Cenozoic stress field in the block. The change in stress fields may have resulted in the change in tectonic setting from the northwestward subduction of the Izanagi Plate in the Late Mesozoic to the collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate in the Cenozoic. The change in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic stress fields is of great significance to the further fracture prediction in fractured reservoirs, basin analyses in the Ordos Basin and research on the geodynamics of the North China Craton.

  11. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative impor- tance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and deter- mined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selec- tion (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were lit- tle used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irri- gated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should

  12. The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field: petrological diversity and implications for magmatic evolution of mafic volcanic centers from the northern Puna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maro, Guadalupe; Caffe, Pablo J.

    2016-07-01

    The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field (CBAF) is one of the two largest mafic volcanic fields in northern Puna (22-24° S) and is spatially and temporally associated with ignimbrites erupted from some central Andean Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex calderas. The CBAF comprises seven scoria cones and widespread high-K calcalkaline lava flows that cover an area of 200 km2. Although all erupted rocks have a relatively narrow chemical range (56-62 % SiO2, 3-6 % MgO), there is a broad diversity of mineral compositions and textures. The least evolved lavas (˜58-61 % SiO2) are high-Mg andesites with scarce (<10 %) microphenocrysts of either olivine or orthopyroxene. The small compositional range and low phenocryst content indicate evolution controlled by low percentages (<10 %) of fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene of magmas similar to the least evolved rocks from the field, accompanied by assimilation during rapid ascent through the crust. Evolved andesites (˜62 wt% SiO2), on the other hand, are porphyritic rocks with plagioclase + orthopyroxene + biotite and ubiquitous phenocryst disequilibrium textures. These magmas were likely stored in crustal reservoirs, where they experienced convection caused by mafic magma underplating, magma mixing, and/or assimilation. Trace element and mineral compositions of CBAF lavas provide evidence for complex evolution of distinct magma batches.

  13. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  14. Liquid and Emulsified Sulfur in Submarine Solfatara Fields of two Northern Mariana Arc Volcanoes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Embley, R. W.; Chadwick, W. W.; Butterfield, D. A.; Takano, B.; Resing, J. A.; de Ronde, C. E.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Merle, S. G.; Inagaki, F.

    2006-12-01

    Because elemental sulfur melting point is ca 100 deg C (depend on allotropes and heating rate, S8 triple point temperature: 115 deg C), the evidence of liquid sulfur has been known for many subaerial crater lakes and small ponds in geothermal regions throughout the world. But the milky nature of water (sulfur-in- water emulsion in limited water mass) prohibited the direct observation of on-going processes at the bottom of these subaerial lakes. In the passive degassing environment at the summit craters of Daikoku and Nikko Seamounts of the northern Mariana Arc, the continuous flushing of sulfur emulsion by seawater allowed us to observe on- going submarine solfatara processes and associated chemistry through dives with ROVs during the NT05-18 cruise (JAMSTEC R/V Natsushima and ROV hyper-Dolphin) and the Submarine Ring of Fire 2006 cruise (R/V Melville and ROV JASON II). A higher viscosity for liquid elemental sulfur relative to that of seawater, as well as a limited stability of sulfur emulsion (aqueous sulfur sol) at high temperatures in electrolyte solution (seawater), ensures limited mobility of liquid sulfur in the conduits of hydrothermal vents. The subseafloor boiling depth of hydrothermal fluid limits the locus of any liquid sulfur reservoir. It was observed in an exposed liquid sulfur pond that the penetration of gas bubbles (mostly CO2) created sulfur emulsion while collapsing liquid sulfur film between seawater and gas bubbles. Liquid sulfur pits, encrusted sulfur, liquid sulfur fountain structure, sulfur stalactites and stalagmites, mini-pillow lava-like sulfur flows, accretionary sulfur lapilli and sulfur deltas were also observed at the summits of two volcanoes. Note: Solfatara: Italian. A type of fumarole, the gases of which are characteristically sulfurous. In 'Glossary of geology.'

  15. Field trip overview: habitat loss and plant invasions in northern Utah's Basin and Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An all-day field trip was conducted on May 19, 2010, as part of the 16th Wildland Shrub Symposium program. The tour consisted of Tour A and Tour B, which visited Utah's west desert shrublands in Park Valley (Tour A), and Bear River Mountains montane shrublands and Hardware Ranch Wildlife Management...

  16. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  17. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  18. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Recent eruptive episodes of the Rungwe volcanic field (Tanzania) recorded in lacustrine sediments of the Northern malawi rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, T. M.; Henney, P. J.; Owen, R. B.

    1993-07-01

    Discrete ash horizons in Holocene sediments from northern Lake Malawi provide evidence of six eruptive episodes within the nearby Rungwe Volcanic Field between c.9000-360 BP. Rare earth element (REE) analyses show the ash layers to be strongly enriched in La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu, with low Eu/Eu∗ and high La N/Sm N values, relative to the surrounding muds. Mixing calculations suggest possible affinities between the Rungwe ash emissions and silicic volcanics from other important Quaternary centres (e.g. Naivasha) with respect to HREE geochemistry. The LREE spectra are less comparable and may indicate a less fractionated ash assemblage for Rungwe Field. In the absence of clear in situ evidence regarding the timing and frequency of Holocene eruptions at Rungwe, the Lake Malawi sediments may prove a valuable reconstructive tool. However, the direction and extent of ash dispersal is strongly controlled by wind/climatic factors and the retention of a complete record at any single location is unlikely.

  20. Imaging Seismic Source Variations Using Back-Projection Methods at El Tatio Geyser Field, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, C. L.; Lawrence, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    During October 2012, 51 geophones and 6 broadband seismometers were deployed in an ~50x50m region surrounding a periodically erupting columnar geyser in the El Tatio Geyser Field, Chile. The dense array served as the seismic framework for a collaborative project to study the mechanics of complex hydrothermal systems. Contemporaneously, complementary geophysical measurements (including down-hole temperature and pressure, discharge rates, thermal imaging, water chemistry, and video) were also collected. Located on the western flanks of the Andes Mountains at an elevation of 4200m, El Tatio is the third largest geyser field in the world. Its non-pristine condition makes it an ideal location to perform minutely invasive geophysical studies. The El Jefe Geyser was chosen for its easily accessible conduit and extremely periodic eruption cycle (~120s). During approximately 2 weeks of continuous recording, we recorded ~2500 nighttime eruptions which lack cultural noise from tourism. With ample data, we aim to study how the source varies spatially and temporally during each phase of the geyser's eruption cycle. We are developing a new back-projection processing technique to improve source imaging for diffuse signals. Our method was previously applied to the Sierra Negra Volcano system, which also exhibits repeating harmonic and diffuse seismic sources. We back-project correlated seismic signals from the receivers back to their sources, assuming linear source to receiver paths and a known velocity model (obtained from ambient noise tomography). We apply polarization filters to isolate individual and concurrent geyser energy associated with P and S phases. We generate 4D, time-lapsed images of the geyser source field that illustrate how the source distribution changes through the eruption cycle. We compare images for pre-eruption, co-eruption, post-eruption and quiescent periods. We use our images to assess eruption mechanics in the system (i.e. top-down vs. bottom-up) and

  1. Field Analogues of Shallow-water Hydrocarbon Seepages in the Pleistocene Argille Azzurre Formation: the Chimneys Field of Enza River, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Capozzi, R.; Dinelli, E.; Negri, A.; Montagna, P.; Picotti, V.; Scarponi, D.; Taviani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The geologically young Northern Apennines contain various natural seeps documenting a variability of reservoirs and fluids in terms of origin, age and evolution. Hydrocarbon and saline water seepages are controlled by the structures of the chain and the foredeep. In the geological record, the witness of these natural seepages are represented by authigenic carbonates. Their isotopic content allows to understand the carbon source and the processes of carbonate precipitation. The better known regional examples of Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDAC) and chemoherm build-ups, clustered in the Upper Miocene and Lower-Upper Pliocene successions, are formed in deep water (> 300 m) sediments. Occurrences in shallow water (shelf) settings have never been reported. Our case study describes the palisade chimneys field, recently exposed along the Enza riverbanks in the Northern Apennines in the Argille Azzurre Formation (blue mudstones) of Pleistocene age. The paleontological content (mainly bivalves) documents that this unit was deposited in an open marine muddy shelfal setting, in a bathymetric range of about 50-70 m, with local anoxic condition, documented by benthic foraminifer assemblages. The succession is biostratigraphically dated at the Early Pleistocene (Calabrian, nannoplancton zone MNN19e). A number of subvertical, metric-high columnar chimneys, ranging in diameter from 10 to 35 cm, in association with discontinuous planar carbonate concretions, intervening along the bedding planes, outcrop within the mudstones. Such concretions are clearly formed by the moderate cementation of the hosting pelitic sediments. The tubular concretions show central conduits running along the whole length, locally filled by sediments. The grain size within the concretions is homogeneous, both in the chimneys and planar concretions and irrespective of the bedding planes, suggesting a process of transport and homogenization prior to the cementation. Within the Enza river succession

  2. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    PubMed

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1). PMID:22629609

  3. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field. PMID:24456231

  4. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field.

  5. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution.

  6. A spectroscopic survey of X-ray-selected AGNs in the northern XMM-XXL field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, M.-L.; Merloni, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Salvato, M.; Aubourg, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Pâris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Schwope, A.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a survey of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical spectroscopic follow-up in a ˜ 18 deg2 area of the equatorial XMM-XXL north field. A sample of 8445 point-like X-ray sources detected by XMM-Newton above a limiting flux of F_{0.5-10 keV} > 10^{-15} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} was matched to optical (Sloan Digital Sky Survey, SDSS) and infrared (IR; WISE) counterparts. We followed up 3042 sources brighter than r = 22.5 mag with the SDSS Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) spectrograph. The spectra yielded a reliable redshift measurement for 2578 AGNs in the redshift range z = 0.02-5.0, with 0.5-2 keV luminosities ranging from 1039-1046 erg s- 1. This is currently the largest published spectroscopic sample of X-ray-selected AGNs in a contiguous area. The BOSS spectra of AGN candidates show a distribution of optical line widths which is clearly bimodal, allowing an efficient separation between broad- and narrow-emission line AGNs. The former dominate our sample (70 per cent) due to the relatively bright X-ray flux limit and the optical BOSS magnitude limit. We classify the narrow-emission line objects (22 per cent of the full sample) using standard optical emission line diagnostics: the majority have line ratios indicating the dominant source of ionization is the AGN. A small number (8 per cent of the full sample) exhibit the typical narrow line ratios of star-forming galaxies, or only have absorption lines in their spectra. We term the latter two classes `elusive' AGN, which would not be easy to identify correctly without their X-ray emission. We also compare X-ray (XMM-Newton), optical colour (SDSS) and and IR (WISE) AGN selections in this field. X-ray observations reveal, by far, the largest number of AGN. The overlap between the selections, which is a strong function of the imaging depth in a given band, is also remarkably small. We show using spectral stacking that a large fraction of the X-ray AGNs would not be

  7. Independent component analysis of geoelectric field data in the northern Nagano, Japan.

    PubMed

    Orihara, Yoshiaki; Kamogawa, Masashi; Nagao, Toshiyasu; Uyeda, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous anomalous change of geoelectric field was observed on January 17, 1999 at three far-distant stations in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Eleven days after the anomalous change, an earthquake swarm with a M4.8 main shock started at a location within the triangle formed by the three stations. This change was rectangular in shape like the VAN-type anomalous change in Greece. The anomaly could be detected because it occurred at midnight when the noise level was low. In fact, there were a few M4-class earthquakes in the area for which no preceding anomalous electric changes were observed, perhaps because the changes occurred during the noisy daytime. In this paper, we examine if it is possible to extract the signal with the size of the anomalous change on January 17, 1999 from the noisy daytime data by Independent Component Analysis. For this purpose, a simulated noise was embedded in the real daytime data which were highly influenced by not only artificial noise but also by geomagnetic disturbances and rainfall. Even when the influence of geomagnetic disturbance or rainfall was large, the anomalous change was clearly recognized at least at two stations in all cases. PMID:19907128

  8. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  9. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  10. Organic tissues, graphite, and hydrocarbons in host rocks of the Rum Jungle Uranium Field, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, C.B.; Robbins, E.I.; Bone, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Rum Jungle Uranium field consists of at least six early Proterozoic deposits that have been mined either for uranium and/or the associated base and precious metals. Organic matter in the host rocks of the Whites Formation and Coomalie Dolomite is now predominantly graphite, consistent with the metamorphic history of these rocks. For nine samples, the mean total organic carbon content is high (3.9 wt%) and ranged from 0.33 to 10.44 wt%. Palynological extracts from the host rocks include black, filamentous, stellate (Eoastrion-like), and spherical morphotypes, which are typical of early Proterozoic microbiota. The colour, abundance, and shapes of these morphotypes reflect the thermal history, organic richness, and probable lacustrine biofacies of the host rocks. Routine analysis of rock thin sections and of palynological residues shows that mineral grains in some of the host rocks are coated with graphitized organic matter. The grain coating is presumed to result from ultimate thermal degradation of a petroleum phase that existed prior to metamorphism. Hydrocarbons are, however, still present in fluid inclusions within carbonates of the Coomalie Dolomite and lower Whites Formation. The fluid inclusions fluoresce dull orange in blue-light excitation and their hydrocarbon content is confirmed by gas chromatography of whole-rock extracts. Preliminary analysis of the oil suggests that it is migrated, and because it has escaped graphitization through metamorphism it is probably not of early Proterozoic age. The presence of live oil is consistent with fluid inclusion data that suggest subsequent, low-temperature brine migration through the rocks. The present observations support earlier suggestions that organic matter in the host formations trapped uranium to form protore. Subsequent fluid migrations probably brought additional uranium and other metals to these formations, and the organic matter provided a reducing environment for entrapment. ?? 1990.

  11. Field evidence of colonisation by Holm Oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the Anthropocene period.

    PubMed

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Porté, Annabel J

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880-2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change.

  12. Absolute paleointensity of the Earth's magnetic field during Jurassic: case study of La Negra Formation (northern Chile)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Juan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Alva-Valdivia, Luis M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2003-08-01

    We carried out a detailed rock-magnetic and paleointensity study of the ˜187-Ma volcanic succession from northern Chile. A total of 32 consecutive lava flows (about 280 oriented standard paleomagnetic cores) were collected at the Tocopilla locality. Only 26 samples with apparently preserved primary magnetic mineralogy and without secondary magnetization components were pre-selected for Thellier paleointensity determination. Eleven samples coming from four lava flows yielded reliable paleointensity estimates. The flow-mean virtual dipole moments range from 3.7±0.9 to 7.1±0.5 (10 22 A m 2). This corresponds to a mean value of (5.0±1.8)×10 22 A m 2, which is in reasonably good agreement with other comparable quality paleointensity determinations from the Middle Jurassic. Given the large dispersion and the very poor distribution of reliable absolute intensity data, it is hard to draw any firm conclusions regarding the time evolution of the geomagnetic field. To cite this article: J. Morales et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  13. Geochemistry of stream-sediment samples from the Santa Renia Fields and Beaver Peak quadrangles, northern Carlin Trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Kotlyar, Boris B.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.; Singer, Donald A.; Edstrom, Sven A.

    1999-01-01

    A broad west-to-east increase of many metal concentrations has been found in stream sediments during a reconnaissance investigation conducted in conjunction with geologic studies in the Santa Renia Fields and Beaver Peak 7–1/2 minute quadrangles near the northern end of the Carlin trend of gold deposits in the Tuscarora Mountains. This regional increase in metal concentrations coincides with a dramatic change in landform wherein high concentrations of metals in stream sediments appear to correlate directly with areas of high elevations and steep slopes in the Beaver Peak quadrangle. Robust erosion combined with high flow rates in streams from these higher elevations are envisaged to have contributed significantly to increased metal concentrations in the stream sediments by an enhanced presence of minerals with high specific gravities and a correspondingly diminished presence of minerals with low specific gravities. Minerals with low specific gravities probably have been preferentially flushed down stream because of high transporting capacities for sediment by streams in the Beaver Peak quadrangle. In addition, the Carlin trend, a generally northwest-alignment of gold deposits in the Santa Renia Fields quadrangle, is well outlined by arsenic concentrations that include a maximum of approximately 54 parts per million. Further, a weakly developed distal-to-proximal metal zonation towards these gold deposits appears to be defined respectively in plots showing distributions of thallium, arsenic, antimony, and zinc. A broad area of high metal concentrations—including sharply elevated abundances of Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Te, V, and especially Zn—near the southeast corner of the Beaver Peak quadrangle primarily could be the result of stratiform mineralized rocks in the Ordovician Vinini Formation or Devonian Slaven Chert, or the result of a subsequent Mesozoic or Tertiary epigenetic overprint.

  14. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, A. J.; Ryan, E. H.; Huntley, H. S.; Laurindo, L. C.; Coelho, E.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D.; Chen, S. S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K. L.; Gough, M.; Haus, B. K.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Iskandarani, M.; Jacobs, G.; Kirwan, A. D.; Laxague, N.; Lipphardt, B.; Magaldi, M. G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.; Restrepo, J. M.; Smith, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1-2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea breeze; 5-6 days due to wind forcing and submesoscale eddies; 9-10 days and two weeks or longer periods due to wind forcing and mesoscale variability, including the period of eddy rotation. The temporal e-folding scales of a fitted drifter velocity autocorrelation function are bimodal with time scales, 0.25-0.50 days and 0.9-1.4 days, and are the same order as the temporal e-folding scales of observed winds from nearby moored National Data Buoy Center stations. The Lagrangian integral time scales increase from coastal values of 8 h to offshore values of approximately 2 days with peak values of 3-4 days. The velocity variance is large, O>(1>) m2/s2, the surface velocity statistics are more anisotropic, and increased dispersion is observed at flow bifurcations. Horizontal diffusivity estimates are O>(103>) m2/s in coastal regions with weaker flow to O>(105>) m2/s in flow bifurcations, a strong jet, and during the passage of Hurricane Isaac. The Gulf of Mexico surface velocity statistics sampled by the GLAD drifters are a strong function of the feature sampled, topography, and wind forcing.

  15. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  16. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk.

  17. Stress field variations in the Swiss Alps and the northern Alpine foreland derived from inversion of fault plane solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastrup, U.; Zoback, M.L.; Deichmann, N.; Evans, Kenneth F.; Giardini, D.; Michael, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is devoted to a systematic analysis of the state of stress of the central European Alps and northern Alpine foreland in Switzerland based on focal mechanisms of 138 earthquakes with magnitudes between 1 and 5. The most robust feature of the results is that the azimuth of the minimum compressive stress, S3, is generally well constrained for all data subsets and always lies in the NE quadrant. However, within this quadrant, the orientation of S3 changes systematically both along the structural strike of the Alpine chain and across it. The variation in stress along the mountain belt from NE to SW involves a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of S3 and is most clear in the foreland, where it amounts to 45??-50??. This pattern of rotation is compatible with the disturbance to the stress field expected from the indentation of the Adriatic Block into the central European Plate, possibly together with buoyancy forces arising from the strongly arcuate structure of the Moho to the immediate west of our study area. Across the Alps, the variation in azimuth of S3 is defined by a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of about 45?? from the foreland in the north across the Helvetic domain to the Penninic nappes in the south and is accompanied by a change from a slight predominance of strike-slip mechanisms in the foreland to a strong predominance of normal faulting in the high parts of the Alps. The observed rotation can be explained by the perturbation of the large-scale regional stress by a local uniaxial deviatoric tension with a magnitude similar to that of the regional differential stress and with an orientation perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine belt. The tensile nature and orientation of this stress is consistent with the "spreading" stress expected from lateral density changes due to a crustal root beneath the Alps. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Health risk assessment from contaminated foodstuffs: a field study in chromite mining-affected areas northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Li, Gang; Khan, Sardar; Sher, Hassan; Aamir, Muhammad; Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Anwarzeb; Khan, Muhammad Amjad

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the potential health risk associated with toxic metals in contaminated foodstuffs (fruits, vegetables, and cereals) collected from various agriculture fields present in chromite mining-affected areas of mafic and ultramafic terrains (northern Pakistan). The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cd, and Pb were quantified in both soil and food samples. The soil samples were highly contaminated with Cr (320 mg/kg), Ni (108 mg/kg), and Cd (2.55 mg/kg), which exceeded their respective safe limits set by FAO/WHO. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were found in the order of Cr>Ni>Pb>Zn>Cd and showed significantly (p < 0.001) higher concentrations as compared to reference soil. The integrated pollution load index (PLI) value was observed greater than three indicating high level of contamination in the study area. The concentrations of Cr (1.80-6.99 mg/kg) and Cd (0.21-0.90 mg/kg) in foodstuffs exceeded their safe limits, while Zn, Pb, and Ni concentrations were observed within their safe limits. In all foodstuffs, the selected heavy metal concentrations were accumulated significantly (p < 0.001) higher as compared to the reference, while some heavy metals were observed higher but not significant like Zn in pear, persimmon, white mulberry, and date-plum; Cd in pear, fig and white mulberry; and Pb in walnut, fig, and pumpkin. The health risk assessment revealed no potential risk for both adults and children for the majority of heavy metals, except Cd, which showed health risk index (HRI) >1 for children and can pose potential health threats for local inhabitants. Graphical Abstract Heavy metals released from chromite mining lead to soil and foodstuff contamination and human health risk. PMID:26971962

  19. Bentonite and anthracite in alginate-based controlled release formulations to reduce leaching of chloridazon and metribuzin in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Flores Céspedes, F; Pérez García, S; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Fernández Pérez, M

    2013-08-01

    The leaching of herbicides through soil can be minimized using controlled release formulations (CRFs). In this research, bentonite and anthracite have been used as modifying agents in alginate-based CRFs prepared with chloridazon and metribuzin. These CRFs have been evaluated in a calcareous soil. The Kf and Koc values obtained from sorption experiments in soil have demonstrated a high leaching potential for both herbicides, mainly for metribuzin. Release kinetics in soil have showed that the control of release rate of chloridazon and metribuzin was possible by using bentonite and anthracite in CRFs, being this effect greater when we use anthracite as modifying sorbent. Using an empirical equation, the time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released (T50(soil)) was calculated. T50 values ranged between 2.88 d for metribuzin-bentonite alginate-based granules and 14.37 d for chloridazon-anthracite alginate-based granules, being the release rate higher in metribuzin CRFs than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, a linear correlation between T50 values in water and soil was obtained. Mobility experiments carried out in a calcareous soil have shown that the use of CRFs reduces the presence of herbicides in the leachate compared to technical products, mainly for chloridazon. We found that one could design a right profile in the release rate of active ingredients from CRFs in each agro-environmental situation, and thus prevent the environmental pollution derived from the use of chloridazon and metribuzin. PMID:23562547

  20. Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Wang, Yafen; Ruan, Congying

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the application of anthracite particles of different sizes and coated with nine kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) varying in MII-MIII cations, as alternative substrates in the simulated vertical-flow constructed wetland columns. Effects of LDHs-coating and particle size of modified anthracites were examined to evaluate their abilities in removing oxygen demand and nitrogen from sewage wastewater. Results showed that LDHs modification effectively enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. The removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) , ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were best improved by 28.5%, 11.9% and 4.1% for the medium particle size (1-3 mm), followed by 9.2%, 5.5% and 13.6% for the large size (3-5 mm), respectively. Only TN removal was improved up to 16.6% for the small particle size (0.5-1 mm). Nitrate tended to accumulate and fluctuate greatly across all the treatments, probably due to the dominancy of aerobic condition in the vertical-flow columns. Overall, MgFe-LDHs was selected as the best-modified coating for anthracite. The results suggested LDHs modification would be one of the promising strategies to provide new-types of highly efficient and lasting wetland substrates.

  1. Field-mapping and petrographic analysis of volcanoes surrounding the Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, S. M.; Zimmer, B.; Liutkus, C.; Carmichael, S. K.; McGinnis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site is located in northern Tanzania along the East African Rift escarpment. The site is positioned south of Lake Natron within an ephemeral channel of the Engare Sero River. The hominid footprints are preserved in a tuff, which originated from one of the volcanic centers surrounding the site. Two large volcanoes in the surrounding region, including the active carbonatite producing Oldoinyo L’engai and the now extinct Kerimasi are possible sources. This area also contains over 30 smaller tuff cones and tuff rings that have been poorly mapped and not analyzed in detail. The site is significant as it is the oldest modern human trackway in East Africa and one of the largest collections of hominid footprints in the world. Determining the source of the footprinted volcanic ash requires detailed field mapping, and both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extensive field-mapping of the region revealed multiple regional beds that stratigraphically overlay the footprinted layer. Age dating as well as geochemical analysis is being conducted to relate these beds to the footprinted layer. Field-mapping showed that the footprinted tuff is over 35 cm thick, suggesting a large, sustained eruption. The bulk of the tuff cones examined in the field visibly varied in composition to the footprinted tuff and, based on proximity to the footprint site, are too small to produce the requisite volume of ash. Field analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal the most similar mineral assemblages to the footprinted layer, and the large volcano provides a source substantial enough to create a thick ash bed 10 km north of the summit. Preliminary research reveals that the footprinted tuff is a phonolite, characterized by silica depletion and the presence of sanidine, augite, and annite with interstitial calcite. XRD analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal a nepheline-rich phonolite with zeolites (ie. phillipsite

  2. Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seewald, Jeffrey; Cruse, Anna; Saccocia, Peter

    2003-12-01

    The Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge, experienced intense seismic activity in June 1999. Hydrothermal vent fluids were collected from sulfide structures in September 1999 and July 2000 and analyzed for the abundance of H2, H2S, CH4, CO2, NH3, Mg and Cl to document temporal and spatial changes following the earthquakes. Dissolved concentrations of CO2, H2, and H2S increased dramatically in the September 1999 samples relative to pre-earthquake abundances, and subsequently decreased during the following year. In contrast, dissolved NH3 and CH4 concentrations in 1999 and 2000 were similar to or less than pre-earthquake values. Aqueous Cl abundances showed large decreases immediately following the earthquakes followed by increases to near pre-earthquake values. The abundances of volatile species at the Main Endeavour Field were characterized by strong inverse correlations with chlorinity. Phase separation can account for 20-50% enrichments of CO2, CH4, and NH3 in low-chlorinity fluids, while temperature- and pressure-dependent fluid-mineral equilibria at near-critical conditions are responsible for order of magnitude greater enrichments in dissolved H2S and H2. The systematic variation of dissolved gas concentrations with chlorinity likely reflects mixing of a low-chlorinity volatile-enriched vapor generated by supercritical phase separation with a cooler gas-poor hydrothermal fluid of seawater chlorinity. Decreased abundances of sediment-derived NH3 and CH4 in 1999 indicate an earthquake-induced change in subsurface hydrology. Elevated CO2 abundances in vent fluids collected in September 1999 provide evidence that supports a magmatic origin for the earthquakes. Temperature-salinity relationships are consistent with intrusion of a shallow dike and suggest that the earthquakes were associated with movement of magma beneath the ridge crest. These data demonstrate the large and rapid response of chemical fluxes at mid-ocean ridges to magmatic activity and

  3. Style of Plate Spreading Derived from the 2008-2014 Velocity Field Across the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, V.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Ofeigsson, B.; Sturkell, E.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland is a subaerial part of the divergent boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates. At this latitude, the full spreading between the plates is accommodated by the NVZ. We derived the plate boundary velocity field from GPS campaign and continuous measurements between 2008 and 2014, a time period free of any magma intrusion. Average velocities were estimated in the ITRF08 reference frame. The overall extension is consistent with 18 mm/yr in the 104°N direction spreading, in accordance with the MORVEL2010 plate motion model. We find that a 40km-wide band along the plate boundary accommodates about 75% of the full plate velocities. Within this zone, the average strain rate is approximately 0.35 μstrain/yr. The deformation field and the strain rate are, however, much affected by other sources of deformations in the NVZ. These include magmatic sources at the most active volcanic centers, glacial rebound near the ice-caps and geothermal power-plant water extraction. Magmatic sources include a shallow magma chamber deflation under Askja caldera, as well as under Þeistareykir and eventual deep magma inflation north of Krafla volcano. Vatnajökull ice cap melting causes large uplift and outward displacements in the southern part of the NVZ. The two geothermal power-plants near Krafla are inducing local deflations. Our GPS velocities show a 35° change in the direction of the plate boundary axis north of Askja volcano that we infer to be linked to the geometric arrangement of volcanic systems within the NVZ.We use a simple arctangent model to describe the plate spreading to provide constraints on the location and the locking depth of the spreading axis. For that purpose we divided the area in short overlapping segments having the same amount of GPS points along the plate spreading direction and inverted for the location of the center of the spreading axis and locking depth. With this simple model we can account for most

  4. Detailed Observations and Sampling of the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal Field (GR-14) on the Northern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, J. S.; Zierenberg, R.; Clague, D. A.; Von Damm, K. L.; Davis, A.; Goffredi, S.; Mayer, N.; Orphan, V.; Olsen, E.; Ross, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, on a research cruise of the MBARI research ship, Western Flyer, we deployed the ROV Tiburon for a series of dives at the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge. The Sea Cliff site is near the top of a terrace on the west facing rift valley wall (fault), about 300 meters above, and 3 km east of the ridge axis. The 1996 Gorda Ridge eruption occurred on axis in the region west and south of the vent site. The vents were first predicted on the basis of water column anomalies and seafloor structure, and the field was discovered in 1988 during dives of the Sea Cliff submersible. In 2000, we made 4 dives at the site and collected a suite of rock and vent fluid samples. The high temperature water vents from as many as 10 individual chimneys. Measured vent temperatures at several of the chimneys fall in a narrow range of around 304\\deg C. The chimneys are arrayed along two low ridges that are oriented roughly perpendicular to the strike of the rift valley. Venting fluids have low salinity indicating subsurface phase separation. The waters are isotopically enriched (\\delta 18O = 1.9%), suggesting extensive water-rock interaction. The chimneys themselves are primarily anhydrite and a pale green Mg-rich clay with minor amounts of amorphous silica, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, and isocubanite. The chimneys are delicate and are surrounded by aprons (5 -10 m) of collapsed chimney material. As a result, no macro fauna were observed colonizing the high temperature vents. Silica-rich hydrothermal crust and talus cover the fault slope. A broad region of diffuse venting surrounds the active chimneys and locally supports a rich biological community that includes blue ciliate mats near the vents, that give way to tube worm fields and low tube worm mounds formed on massive barite. The Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site is unusual in that it lies off axis and above the rift valley floor. Faulting must play a role in its location and perhaps geometry, and the

  5. A Study on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Characteristics from Anthracite Circulating Fluidized Bed Power Plant in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH4 and N2O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH4 emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N2O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come. PMID:22666126

  6. A study on methane and nitrous oxide emissions characteristics from anthracite circulating fluidized bed power plant in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH₄ and N₂O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH₄ emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N₂O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come. PMID:22666126

  7. Geology of the Right Stepover region between the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, northern San Francisco Bay region: a contribution to Northern California Geological Society Field Trip Guide, June 6-8, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    This Open file report was written as part of a two-day field trip on June 7 and 8, 2003, conducted for the Northern California Geological Society. The first day of this field trip (June 7) was led by McLaughlin and Sarna-Wojcicki in the area of the right- step between the Rodgers Creek- Healdsburg fault zone and the Maacama fault. The second day of the trip (June 8), was led by David Wagner of the California Geological Survey and students having recently completed MS theses at San Jose State University (James Allen) and San Francisco State University (Carrie Randolph-Loar), as well as a student from San Francisco State University whose MS thesis was in progress in June 2003 (Eric Ford). The second day covered the Rodgers Creek fault zone and related faults of the Petaluma Valley area (the Tolay and Petaluma Valley fault zones).

  8. Channel response to tectonic forcing: field analysis of stream morphology and hydrology in the Mendocino triple junction region, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Noah P.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2003-07-01

    An empirical calibration of the shear stress model for bedrock incision is presented, using field and hydrologic data from a series of small, coastal drainage basins near the Mendocino triple junction in northern California. Previous work comparing basins from the high uplift zone (HUZ, uplift rates around 4 mm/year) to ones in the low uplift zone (LUZ, ˜0.5 mm/year) indicates that the HUZ channels are about twice as steep for a given drainage area. This observation suggests that incision processes are more effective in the HUZ. It motivates a detailed field study of channel morphology in the differing tectonic settings to test whether various factors that are hypothesized to influence incision rates (discharge, channel width, lithology, sediment load) change in response to uplift or otherwise differ between the HUZ and LUZ. Analysis of regional stream gaging data for mean annual discharge and individual floods yields a linear relationship between discharge and drainage area. Increased orographic precipitation in the HUZ accounts for about a twofold increase in discharge in this area, corresponding to an assumed increase in the erosional efficiency of the streams. Field measurements of channel width indicate a power-law relationship between width and drainage area with an exponent of ˜0.4 and no significant change in width between the uplift rate zones, although interpretation is hampered by a difference in land use between the zones. The HUZ channel width dataset reveals a scaling break interpreted to be the transition between colluvial- and fluvial-dominated incision processes. Assessments of lithologic resistance using a Schmidt hammer and joint surveys show that the rocks of the study area should be fairly similar in their susceptibility to erosion. The HUZ channels generally have more exposed bedrock than those in the LUZ, which is consistent with protection by sediment cover inhibiting incision in the LUZ. However, this difference is likely the result of a

  9. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  10. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  11. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  12. Characteristics of the near-bottom suspended sediment field over the continental shelf off northern California based on optical attenuation measurements during STRESS and SMILE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trowbridge, J.H.; Butman, B.; Limeburner, R.

    1994-01-01

    Time-series measurements of current velocity, optical attenuation and surface wave intensity obtained during the Sediment Transport Events on Shelves and Slopes (STRESS) experiments, combined with shipboard measurements of conductivity, temperature and optical attenuation obtained during the Shelf Mixed Layer Experiment (SMILE), provide a description of the sediment concentration field over the central and outer shelf off northern California. The questions addressed are: (1) existence and characteristics of bottom nepheloid layers and their relationship to bottom mixed layers; (2) characteristics of temporal fluctuations in sediment concentration and their relationship to waves and currents; (3) spatial scales over which suspended sediment concentrations vary horizontally; and (4) vertical distribution of suspended sediment. ?? 1994.

  13. Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires: Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Edwards, Andrew C.; Cook, Garry D.

    2003-02-01

    This paper estimates the two-daily extent of savanna burning and consumption of fine (grass and litter) fuels from an extensive 230,000 km2 region of northern Australia during August-September 1999 encompassing the Australian continental component of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B (BIBLE B) campaign [, 2002]. The extent of burning for the study region was derived from fire scar mapping of imagery from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite. The mapping was calibrated and verified with reference to one Landsat scene and associated aerial transect validation data. Fine fuel loads were estimated using published fuel accumulation relationships for major regional fuel types. It is estimated that more than 43,000 km2 was burnt during the 25 day study period, with about 19 Mt of fine (grass and litter) fuels. This paper examines assumptions and errors associated with these estimates. It is estimated from uncalibrated fire mapping derived from AVHRR imagery that 417,500 km2 of the northern Australian savanna was burnt in 1999, of which 136,405 km2, or 30%, occurred in the Northern Territory study region. Using generalized fuel accumulation equations, such biomass burning consumed an estimated 212.3 Mt of fine fuels, but no data are available for consumption of coarse fuels. This figure exceeds a recent estimate, based on fine fuels only, for the combined Australian savanna and temperate grassland biomass burning over the period 1990-1999 but is lower than past estimates derived from classification approaches. We conclude that (1) fire maps derived from coarse-resolution optical imagery can be applied relatively reliably to estimate the extent of savanna fires, generally with 70-80% confidence using the approach adopted here, over the major burning period in northern Australia and (2) substantial further field assessment and associated modeling of fuel accumulation

  14. Late Holocene lava flow morphotypes of northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for the description of continental lava fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H.; Németh, K.; Moufti, M. R.; Lindsay, J. M.; El-Masry, N.; Cronin, S. J.; Qaddah, A.; Smith, I. E. M.

    2014-04-01

    A "lava morphotype" refers to the recognizable and distinctive characteristics of the surface morphology of a lava flow after solidification, used in a similar way to a sedimentary facies. This classification method is explored on an example volcanic field in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where copious lava outpourings may represent an important transition between monogenetic and flood basalt fields. Here, young and well-preserved mafic lava fields display a wide range of surface morphologies. We focussed on four post-4500 yrs. BP lava flow fields in northern Harrat Rahat (<10 Ma) and propose a framework for describing systematic changes in morphotypes down-flow. The morphotypes give insight into intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of emplacement, rheology and dominant flow behavior, as well as the occurrence and character of other lava structures. The Harrat Rahat lava flow fields studied extend up to 23 km from the source, and vary between 1-2 m and 12 m in thickness. Areas of the lava flow fields are between ˜32 and ˜61 km2, with individual flow field volumes estimated between ˜0.085 and ˜0.29 km3. They exhibit Shelly-, Slabby-, and Rubbly-pahoehoe, Platy-, Cauliflower-, and Rubbly-a'a, and Blocky morphotypes. Morphotypes reflect the intrinsic parameters of: composition, temperature, crystallinity and volatile-content/vesicularity; along with external influences, such as: emission mechanism, effusion rate, topography and slope control of flow velocity. One morphotype can transition to another in individual flow-units or lobes and they may dominate zones. Not all morphotypes were found in a single lava flow field. Pahoehoe morphotypes are related to the simple mechanical disaggregation of the crust, whereas a'a morphotypes are related to the transitional emergence and subsequent transitional disappearance of clinker. Blocky morphotypes result from fracturing and auto-brecciation. A'a morphotypes (i.e. platy-, cauliflower-, rubbly-a'a) dominate the lava flow

  15. Polarimetric imaging of the Galactic center at 12.4 microns - The detailed magnetic field structure in the northern arm and the east-west bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitken, David K.; Smith, Craig H.; Gezari, Daniel; Mccaughrean, Mark; Roche, Patrick F.

    1991-01-01

    Recent closely sampled imaging polarimetry of the central 0.5 pc of the Galaxy at 12.4 microns with a 58 x 62 array camera system is presented. The results clearly show that the magnetic field is a property of the diffuse material of the large-scale structures in Sgr A (the northern arm and east-west bar) rather than the embedded sources. The magnetic field is independent of the changes of density and temperature in the compact source environments. The magnetic field direction in much of the east-west bar is complex, and its polarization is probably the result of the superposition of differently oriented filaments. The abrupt decrease of polarization southwest of IRS 1 observed previously is confirmed and shown to reverse sign. This is due either to a rapid change of magnetic field direction close to the dynamical center, or to the superposition of nearly orthogonal fields. The field direction changes smoothly across IRS 1, and no discontinuity of motion here is found.

  16. Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W.; McKeever, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

  17. Field study site selection, species abundance and monthly distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in the northern Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the ecology and behaviour of a target species is a prerequisite for the successful development of any vector control strategy. Before the implementation of any strategy it is essential to have comprehensive information on the bionomics of species in the targeted area. The aims of this study were to conduct regular entomological surveillance and to determine the relative abundance of anopheline species in the northern Kruger National Park. In addition to this, the impact of weather conditions on an Anopheles arabiensis population were evaluated and a range of mosquito collection methods were assessed. Methods A survey of Anopheles species was made between July 2010 and December 2012. Mosquitoes were collected from five sites in the northern Kruger National Park, using carbon dioxide-baited traps, human landing and larval collections. Specimens were identified morphologically and polymerase chain reaction assays were subsequently used where appropriate. Results A total of 3,311 specimens belonging to nine different taxa was collected. Species collected were: Anopheles arabiensis (n = 1,352), Anopheles quadriannulatus (n = 870), Anopheles coustani (n = 395), Anopheles merus (n = 349), Anopheles pretoriensis (n = 35), Anopheles maculipalpis (n = 28), Anopheles rivulorum (n = 19), Anopheles squamosus (n = 3) and Anopheles rufipes (n = 2). Members of the Anopheles gambiae species complex were the most abundant and widely distributed, occurring across all collection sites. The highest number of mosquitoes was collected using CO2 baited net traps (58.2%) followed by human landing catches (24.8%). Larval collections (17%) provided an additional method to increase sample size. Mosquito sampling productivity was influenced by prevailing weather conditions and overall population densities fluctuated with seasons. Conclusion Several anopheline species occur in the northern Kruger National Park and their densities

  18. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte I; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated with time spent at sea under both treatments (P<0.0001). These results suggest that transiting elephant seals have a limited capacity to modify their locomotory behaviour without increasing their transport costs. Based on this, we conclude that elephant seals and other ocean predators occupying similar niches may be particularly sensitive to increased transport costs incurred when avoiding unanticipated disturbances.

  19. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  20. Young displacements on the Atacama Fault System, northern Chile from field observations and cosmogenic 21Ne concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GonzáLez L., Gabriel; Dunai, Tibor; Carrizo, Daniel; Allmendinger, Richard

    2006-06-01

    We present the first numerical age constraint for young deformation of the Atacama Fault System (AFS) in northern Chile. The young activity of the AFS is expressed by several fault scarps which affects alluvial fan sediments of the eastern side of the Coastal Cordillera (23°30'-23°42'S). Detailed mapping of alluvial fans reveals a complex relationship between fault motion, erosion and alluvial fan development. An older group of alluvial fans became inactive prior to the scarp formation. Younger alluvial fans, arising directly from feeder channels and entrenched in the fault scarps, posts date the scarp formation. The youngest slip on the AFS is recorded by headward eroding channels entrenched across the scarp which are in turn displaced vertically 0.3-0.5 m by the fault. Quartz fragments in four sites on the older inactive fan group were analyzed for cosmogenic 21Ne concentrations yielding an average age of 424 ± 151 ka, the upper limit for the recent activity of the fault. Combined with the height of fault scarp, we calculate a 0.01 mm/yr minimum vertical fault slip rate. Thus young displacement on the AFS is Quaternary in age and confined to the late Pleistocene.

  1. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte I; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated with time spent at sea under both treatments (P<0.0001). These results suggest that transiting elephant seals have a limited capacity to modify their locomotory behaviour without increasing their transport costs. Based on this, we conclude that elephant seals and other ocean predators occupying similar niches may be particularly sensitive to increased transport costs incurred when avoiding unanticipated disturbances. PMID:24790099

  2. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation—charity and school donations—sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism. PMID:26640449

  3. Seasonal thermal fronts on the northern South China Sea shelf: Satellite measurements and three repeated field surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Zhiyou; Qi, Yiquan; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Du, Yan; Lian, Shumin

    2016-03-01

    Seasonal thermal fronts associated with wind-driven coastal downwelling/upwelling in the northern South China Sea are investigated using satellite measurements and three repeated fine-resolution mapping surveys in winter, spring, and summer. The results show that vigorous thermal fronts develop over the broad shelf with variable widths and intensities in different seasons, which tend to be approximately aligned with the 20-100 m isobaths. Driven by the prevailing winter/summer monsoon, the band-shaped fronts were observed with a magnitude exceeding 0.1°C/km in the subsurface, and accompanied by energetic coastal downwelling/upwelling due to shoreward/offshore Ekman transport. The downward/upward tilting of seasonal thermoclines across the shelf exceeds 20 m, significantly contributing to the development of thermal fronts over the shelf. In addition, the diagnostic analysis of Potential Vorticity (PV) suggests that the summer frontal activities induced by the coastal upwelling are more stable to convection and symmetric instabilities in comparison to the winter fronts associated with downwelling-favorable monsoon forcing. This is primarily due to their essential differences in the upper ocean stratification and horizontal buoyancy gradients arising from wind forcing. At the same time, the coastal currents are substantially regulated by the seasonal winds. An expected lag correlation between the velocity from mooring measurements and alongshore wind stress is detected near the frontal region. These results indicate that seasonal wind forcing plays an important role in the frontal activities and coastal water transport over the shelf.

  4. Late Holocene lava flow morphotypes of the northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: implications for the description of continental lava fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H. F.; Nemeth, K.; Moufti, R.; Lindsay, J. M.; El-Masry, N.; Cronin, S. J.; Qaddah, A.; Smith, I. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava morphotype refers to the surface morphology of a lava flow after solidification. In Saudi Arabia, young and well-preserved mafic lava fields (Harrats) display a wide range of these morphotypes. This study examines those exhibited by four of the post-4500 yrs. BP lava fields in the northern Harrat Rahat (<10 Ma) and describes these lava fields from general characteristics to detailed lava structures. This study also discusses the relationship between rheology and morphotypes, and proposes a preliminary correlation with whole-rock chemical composition. The Harrat Rahat lava fields include one or more lobes that may extend over 20 km from the source, with thicknesses varying between 1-2 m up to 12 m. Each lava flow episode covered areas between ~32 and ~61 km2, with individual volumes estimated between ~0.085 and ~0.29 km3. The whole-rock chemical compositions of these lavas lie between 44.3 to 48.4% SiO2, 9.01-4.28% MgO and 3.13-6.19% NaO+K2O. Seven different morphotypes with several lava structures are documented: Shelly, Slabby, Rubbly-pahoehoe, Platy, Cauliflower, Rubbly-a'a, and Blocky. These may be related to the shear strain and/or apparent viscosity of the lava flows formed from typical pahoehoe (pure or Hawaiian-pahoehoe, or sheet-pahoehoe). The well-preserved lava fields in Harrat Rahat allow the development of a more expanded classification scheme than has been traditionally applied. In addition to the whole-rock composition, these morphotypes may be indicators of other properties such as vesicularity, crystallization, effusion mechanism, as well as significant along-flow variations in topography and lava thickness and temperature that modify the rheology. The linearity of transitions between morphotypes observed in the lava fields suggest that real time forecasting of the evolution of lava flows might be possible.

  5. Sequence stratigraphic setting of turbidite-related petroleum fields, Green Canyon and Ewing Bank lease areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.; Pulham, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Green Canyon (GC) and Ewing Bank (EW) OCS lease areas have 17 discoveries/fields, primarily from bathyal turbidite systems. Salt has played a significant role in the formation of the intraslope basins that the turbidite systems were deposited in, by influencing the flows of turbidities throughout the basin, in the subsequent trap formation, and, in some cases, as a seal. Nearly every field/discovery is associated with a seismic amplitude anomaly. Fields generally have multiple pay zones, with up to 22 in GC 184 (Jolliet). To date, eight of the fields are producing: EB 826, EB 873 (Lobster), GC 6 (Kodiak), GC 18, GC 53/54 (Marquette), GC 65/110 (Bullwinkle), GC 184 (Jolliet), and GC 205 (Vancouver). Other fields expected to be developed are GC 72/116 (Popeye), GC 254 (Allegheny), GC 200/244 (Olivella), GC and GC 166 (Bison). Other discoveries that were produced and then abandoned include GC 19, and GC29. Producing reservoir facies are highly variable across the area. Turbidite reservoir geometries in Pliocene sands (>1.6 Ma) consist of sheets and amalgamated sheet sands. Pleistocene sands are characterized primarily from channel-levee systems and related deposits. These sands tend to more compartmentalized with separate oil/water or gas/water contacts. Most reservoir sands occur within 100 ft overlying a sequence boundary, indicating the eustatic control on the timing of reservoir sand deposition.

  6. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and <0.2 mg/L, respectively). In 2001, the laboratory aeration experiment demonstrated rapid oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) without supplemental alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Williams, K. K.; Bussey, B.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar surface, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future, landed, scientific or engineering operations on the Moon. GPR can yield insight into the physical properties, clast-size distribution, and layering of the subsurface, granting a unique view of the processes affecting an area over geologic time. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate these capabilities at sites at which geologic processes, settings, and/or materials are similar to those that may be encountered on the moon, especially lava flows, impact-crater ejecta, and layered materials with varying properties. We present results from transects obtained at Barringer Meteor Crater, SP Volcano cinder cone, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, all in northern Arizona. Transects were taken at several sites on the ejecta of Meteor Crater, all within a crater radius (~400 m) of the crater rim. Those taken across ejecta lobes or mounds reveal the subsurface contact of the ejecta upper surface and overlying, embaying sediments deposited by later alluvial, colluvial, and/or aeolian processes. Existing mine shafts and pits on the south side of the crater provide cross sections of the subsurface against which we compare adjacent GPR transects. The ‘actual’ number, size, and depth of clasts in the top 1-2 m of the subsurface are estimated from photos of the exposed cross sections. In GPR radargrams, reflections attributed to blocks in the top 2-5 m of the subsurface are counted, and their depth distribution noted. Taking GPR measurements along a transect at two frequencies (200 and 400 MHz) and to various depths, we obtain the ratio of the actual number of blocks in the subsurface to the number detectable with GPR, as well as an assessment of how GPR detections in ejecta decline with depth and depend on antenna

  8. Spatial and temporal variation of bulk snow properties in northern boreal and tundra environments based on extensive field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Derksen, Chris; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-08-01

    An extensive in situ data set of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow density collected in support of the European Space Agency (ESA) SnowSAR-2 airborne campaigns in northern Finland during the winter of 2011-2012 is presented (ESA Earth Observation Campaigns data 2000-2016). The suitability of the in situ measurement protocol to provide an accurate reference for the simultaneous airborne SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data products over different land cover types was analysed in the context of spatial scale, sample spacing, and uncertainty. The analysis was executed by applying autocorrelation analysis and root mean square difference (RMSD) error estimations. The results showed overall higher variability for all the three bulk snow parameters over tundra, open bogs and lakes (due to wind processes); however, snow depth tended to vary over shorter distances in forests (due to snow-vegetation interactions). Sample spacing/sample size had a statistically significant effect on the mean snow depth over all land cover types. Analysis executed for 50, 100, and 200 m transects revealed that in most cases less than five samples were adequate to describe the snow depth mean with RMSD < 5 %, but for land cover with high overall variability an indication of increased sample size of 1.5-3 times larger was gained depending on the scale and the desired maximum RMSD. Errors for most of the land cover types reached ˜ 10 % if only three measurements were considered. The collected measurements, which are available via the ESA website upon registration, compose an exceptionally large manually collected snow data set in Scandinavian taiga and tundra environments. This information represents a valuable contribution to the snow research community and can be applied to various snow studies.

  9. Detection of hydrocarbon microseepage in a rain forest environment (Jurua Gas field, northern Brazil) using Landsat MSS data

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.P.; Cunha, F.M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Jurua gas field is the first important hydrocarbon accumulation found in the jungle-covered Solimoes basin. The tectonic framework in this area is characterized by a right-lateral transpressional zone (Jurua structural trend). Hydrocarbon traps are anticlines developed along the upthrown block of a reverse fault. The prospective 2,200-m-thick Paleozoic section is unconformably covered by a 2,800-m-thick pile of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental sediments. Anomalous concentrations of hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) in soil samples are concordantly aligned with the trace of the reverse fault crossing the gas field, indicating that this feature acted as a conduit for hydrocarbon microseepage. Gas-producing wells are located over a tabular watershed which coincides with the northeast-southwest Jurua structural trend. An unsupervised classification of Landsat MSS data over the gas field area reveals that one spectral class of vegetation is aligned with the Jurua structural trend. Field checking shows that the vegetation near the gas-producing well 1-JR-1-AM is not as dense as the forest outside the limits of the Jurua gas field. Two geologic factors may account for the vegetation anomaly over the gas field. (1) The northeast-southwest tabular watershed corresponds to a Pleistocene erosional surface associated with weathering products such as bauxite and laterite. The resulting soil is impermeable and low in nutrients. (2) The spectral behavior of vegetation may represent the response of plants to long-term anaerobic soil conditions brought about by gas leakage from the Paleozoic reservoir.

  10. Field relationships and geochemistry of pre-collisional (India-Asia) granitoid magmatism in the central Karakoram, northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, M. B.; Searle, M. P.

    1992-05-01

    In the central Karakoram Range, northern Pakistan, seven major granitic units which were emplaced prior to the Eocene (ca. 50 Ma) India-Asia collision have been mapped and analysed geochemically. The mid-Cretaceous Hunza plutonic complex dominates the Karakoram batholith in the west and is composed of quartz diorite-granodiorite plutons which have been deformed in the south by later collision-related thrusting. The Sost and Khunjerab plutons intrude the Palaeozoic-early Mesozoic sediments north of the batholith. In the east pre-collision magmatic units occur both north of (K2 gneiss, Broad Peak quartz diorite, Muztagh Tower unit) and south of (Hushe gneiss) the batholith which is dominated by a Miocene monzogranite-leucogranite pluton (Baltoro unit). The plutonic units to the north of the batholith are mid- to late Cretaceous with an age range of ca. 115-80 Ma whereas the Hushe gneiss to the south is dominantly Jurassic spanning the age range 200-145 Ma. All the pre-collision magmatic units display similar chemical and isotopic characteristics. Major, trace and REE variations in the Hunza plutonic complex are controlled by high-level fractionation of clinopyroxene, hornblende, plagioclase, biotite, ilmenite and allanite. High LILE/HFSE and LREE/HREE ratios, together with negative Nb, P and Ti anomalies suggest an ultimate source in the mantle wedge above the subducting slab. 87Sr/ 86Sr initial ratios (0.7055-0.7157) in the Hunza plutonic complex can best be explained by contamination of a mantle-derived magma by a crustal component with highly radiogenic Sr. All the units except the Hushe gneiss are probably related to subduction during closure of a back-arc basin between the Karakoram to the north and the Kohistan-Dras arc to the south during the mid- to late Cretaceous, and correlate with widespread plutonism from the same period in Kohistan, Ladakh and southern Tibet along the southern margin of Asia. The Hushe gneiss is probably related to an earlier northward

  11. Old problems on a new playing field: Helminth zoonoses transmitted among dogs, wildlife, and people in a changing northern climate.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M

    2011-11-24

    Although surveillance is limited, indigenous residents at latitudes ranging from 53 to 73°N in Canada appear to have a higher occurrence of infection with some zoonotic parasites than the general population. Conversely, they are relatively naïve to other zoonotic parasites that have previously been unable to establish at northern latitudes. For those parasites that circulate among dogs, wildlife, and people, potential risk factors in the North include limited availability of veterinary services, presence of free-roaming dog populations, and consumption of locally harvested fish and wildlife. These regions are also experiencing some of the greatest impacts of climate change in North America, including increased temperature, precipitation, and frequency and severity of extreme weather. We review the current taxonomy, genetic diversity, host and geographic distributions, epidemiology and risk factors for 3 genera of helminths (Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus spp., and Toxocara sp.) in Canada's North in order to identify climate-sensitive aspects of their ecology. Free-living stages of parasitic zoonoses endemic in the Arctic (such as Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, the cervid strain of Echinococcus granulosus, and Arctic strains of Echinococcus multilocularis) will experience trade-offs between enhanced survival under wetter conditions and increased mortality under warmer conditions. Climate change might also lead to the introduction and establishment in the Arctic of parasitic zoonoses previously restricted to the sub-Arctic, such as Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and the prairie strain of E. multilocularis. Molecular techniques applied in broad geographic surveys are needed to address critical knowledge gaps in the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and public health significance of zoonotic helminths already in the circumpolar North, and to determine the current barriers to range expansion of temperate-adapted parasites into the North. Dogs

  12. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) based on two fall/winter field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V.; Bacco, D.; Castellazzi, S.; Ricciardelli, I.; Vecchietti, R.; Zigola, C.; Pietrogrande, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The carbonaceous aerosol in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) was characterized in two fall/winter monitoring campaigns conducted through the years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were collected at three monitoring stations describing urban background (main city Bologna, MS, Parma and Rimini) and one rural background site (San Pietro, SP). OC and EC values were measured by the thermal-optical transmittance method (TOT). Low flow-rate sampling strategy (24 m3 air volume per day) was used to reduce loading of light absorbing material on the filter surface in order to ensure the correct OC/EC discrimination. The TC values measured in winter 2011-2012 ranged from 9.8 μgC m- 3 at San Pietro to 12.0 μgC m- 3 at Parma, consisting of OC from 8.6 μgC m- 3 at SP to 9.9 μgC m- 3 at MS and EC from 1.3 μgC m- 3 at SP to 2.5 μgC m- 3 at Rimini. In winter 2012-2013, lower values were in general found with TC values ranging from 7.8 to 9.1 μgC m- 3 consisting of OC from 5.1 to 7.0 μgC m- 3 and EC from 1.5 to 2.2 μgC m- 3. Such differences can be likely explained by higher pollutant emissions related to domestic heating in colder fall/winter 2011/2012 (mean temperature ≈ 2 °C in comparison with ≈ 7 °C in winter 2012/2013). This hypothesis is supported by high levels of levoglucosan, as unambiguous tracer for biomass burning emission, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons related to combustion (levoglucosan ≃ 1000 ng m- 3 and burning PAHs ≃ 4 ng m- 3 at MS and SP sites).

  13. Orographic and Climatic Influence on Leaf Wax Carbon and Hydrogen Isotopic Ratios: a Field Survey From Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipple, B. J.; Pagani, M.; Smith, R.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-01

    The primary objective of this research was to empirically ground-truth environmental controls on δD and δ13C values of higher plant n-alkanes, since these higher-plant specific compounds are refractory and commonly preserved in the geologic record they hold great paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental information. Our approach was to extensively sample leaves and stems of nine species of trees across two Northern California east-west transects twice during the growing season. One hundred and ninety trees from ninety-three sites were collected along with topsoils and surface waters from most localities. Bigleaf Maple ( Acer macrophyllum), California White Oak ( Quercus lobata) and Blue Oak ( Quercus douglasii) n--alkanes δ13C have been analyzed and range from -38.0 to -29.6‰, -35.2 to - 30.4‰ and -34.5 to -30.4‰, respectively. Currently, all tree species show little to no relationship with any physical variable, such as longitude, elevation, tree height, aspect, slope, etc. The large range in tree isotope values suggests these plants are reacting to a yet unknown climatic variable or these species operate within a range of water-use efficiencies. Similarly, soil-extracted n--alkane δ13C values range between -36.5 to -29.2‰ and do not strongly correlate with any physical parameter. Surface water δD and δ18O are highly correlated and similar to the meteoric water line, however, not as robust, soil-extracted n--alkane δD show similar trends. Notably, the apparent enrichment factor between soil lipids and surface waters is not as stable as seen in other localities, varying by over 30‰, illustrating uncertainties in paleo-applications. Interestingly, water δD and δ18O from surface waters varied little between early June and mid-September and demonstrate a roughly -90‰ depletion in deuterium across the two transects. This D-depletion is reflected in the early growing season stem waters with a consistent slope to that of surface waters.

  14. [The importance of sports medicine field tests as a means of training control in northern endurance sports].

    PubMed

    Baumgartl, P; Aigner, A

    1985-05-31

    In endurance sports heart frequency at the aerobic threshold (2 mmol/l lactate) is recommended for extensive training and heart rate at the anaerobic threshold (4 mmol/l lactate) for intensive training. Both values could be estimated by means of exercise tests in the laboratory as well as in the field. However for training-recommendations only data estimated on a specific exercise procedure should be used.

  15. Independent steam-electric power plants in the Anthracite region, NE Pennsylvania: Site geology, coal-refuse bank utilization, and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Inners, J.D.; Edmunds, W.E.; Laregina, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 created economic incentives that resulted in the proliferation of small independent, coal-refuse burning, steam-electric stations in Pennsylvania during the 1980`s and 1990`s. Eight such plants, ranging from 18 to 83 MW in net power output, have been operating for several years within the Anthracite region of northeastern Pennsylvania, and a ninth (having a net output of 108 MW) has recently come on line in the Lehigh Valley just to the south. All of these plants utilize circulating fluidized-bed combustion boilers in which finely crushed limestone is burned along with pulverized coal-refuse fuel. Seven are cogeneration plants that sell process steam commercially. Heat value of the pulverized coal-refuse used in the boilers ranges from 2,810 to 7,000 BTU/lb; higher values indicate washing of the fuel to remove some non-combustible material. Past episodes of bank-processing for fine coal, in addition to historic changes in coal-preparation and mining methods, give the refuse banks a complex stratigraphy in which beds vary greatly in thickness and quality. Detailed sampling and study of historic air photos are necessary to evaluate the economic potential of each individual bank. Environmental benefits of the Anthracite region`s independent power plants include: (1) removal of many black, barren piles of colliery refuse which contribute to acid-pollution and siltation of streams and (2) reclamation of strip-mined lands through disposal, compaction and grading of the alkaline ash generated by the fluidized-bed boilers.

  16. Magnetic Fabric Investigations of the Sapinero Mesa and Fish Canyon Tuffs, Northern Part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, C.; Martin, M.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Exposures of two laterally extensive ignimbrites in the northern part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) allow examination of the emplacement mechanisms of these pyroclastic deposits as a function of deposition on irregular preexisting topography using magnetic fabric techniques. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff (28.19 × 0.03 Ma) was erupted from the San Juan/Uncompahgre Caldera Complex and the Fish Canyon tuff (ca. 28.02 × 0.16 Ma) was erupted from the La Garita caldera. These ignimbrites are major components of the SRMVF and were emplaced on highly irregular paleotopography. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff was emplaced directly on the late Eocene West Elk Breccia near and west of the Blue Mesa reservoir and directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south of the Blue Mesa reservoir. The Fish Canyon Tuff was emplaced directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south and southwest of Gunnison. Our study of these two ignimbrites is concentrated in the northern part of the SRMVF and examines how these deposits were emplaced on different topographic features. To date, a total of 16 sites in the Fish Canyon and Sapinero Mesa tuffs have been collected and analyzed for determination of magnetic fabrics through measurements of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). These samples are currently being analyzed for measurements of anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Initial analyses indicate transport directions that generally coincide with the inferred regional north-northwest transport direction. Additional sampling includes a greater spatial extent and a more focused method of collection with an emphasis on localities chosen with careful consideration of relationships to paleotopographic features present during emplacement of the ignimbrites. Specifically, we have selected linear features of varying scales with strikes that vary significantly from the regional, inferred transport directions. Our work provides a means to compare regional inferred

  17. Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Structural and topographic relief along the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift, northern New Mexico, provides a remarkable cross-section through the 26-Ma Questa caldera and cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Latir field. Exposed levels increase in depth from mid-Tertiary depositional surfaces in northern parts of the igneous complex to plutonic rocks originally at 3-5 km depths in the S. Erosional remnants of an ash-flow sheet of weakly peralkaline rhyolite (Amalia Tuff) and andesitic to dactitic precursor lavas, disrupted by rift-related faults, are preserved as far as 45 km beyond their sources at the Questa caldera. Broadly comagmatic 26 Ma batholithic granitic rocks, exposed over an area of 20 by 35 km, range from mesozonal granodiorite to epizonal porphyritic granite and aplite; shallower and more silicic phases are mostly within the caldera. Compositionally and texturally distinct granites defined resurgent intrusions within the caldera and discontinuous ring dikes along its margins: a batholithic mass of granodiorite extends 20 km S of the caldera and locally grades vertically to granite below its flat-lying roof. A negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (15-20 mgal), which encloses exposed granitic rocks and coincides with boundaries of the Questa caldera, defined boundaries of the shallow batholith, emplaced low in the volcanic sequence and in underlying Precambrian rocks. Paleomagnetic pole positions indicate that successively crystallised granitic plutons cooled through Curie temperatures during the time of caldera formation, initial regional extension, and rotational tilting of the volcanic rocks. Isotopic ages for most intrusions are indistinguishable from the volcanic rocks. These relations indicate that the batholithic complex broadly represents the source magma for the volcanic rocks, into which the Questa caldera collapsed, and that the magma was largely liquid during regional tectonic disruption. -from Author

  18. Stress fields during the evolution of large-scale strike-slip systems and tectonic slivers, Atacama Fault Zone, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veloso, E. E.; Gomila, R.

    2009-12-01

    Tectonic evolution of crustal slivers generated during oblique subduction involves a series of translations and rotations. Slivers are defined by large-scale strike-slip faults, whereas internal blocks are by the faulting pattern related to the fault system. Translations and rotations are then likely to accommodate the internal deformation caused by external forces. The Atacama Fault System (AFS), a crustal-scale strike-slip fault in northern Chile, can be divided into three concave, oceanward segments, that show sinestral (Mesozoic) and normal (Cenozoic) displacements. Clockwise rotations of ca. 50° have been suggested for the AFS, mostly for the northernmost segment. The Paposo segment defines a sliver of 160 km long and 25 km wide. In the northern part, it exhibits intense internal faulting, duplexes, single- and multiple-core faults. To determine the stress field responsible for the development and evolution of the sliver, we measured 162 brittle fault planes on which we determined the sense and direction of maximum shear. Fault planes show a main NW-SE trend and subvertical dip-angles (Fig. 1). Brittle kinematic indicators indicate subhorizontal (sinestral) and subvertical (normal) movements. Fault-slip data was processed with the multiple inverse method. Input parameters were k=5 (grouping), e=9 (enhance) and d=1 (dispersion). Calculations show that σ1 axes are distributed on a NW-SE trending great-circle whereas σ3 axes are clustered near the horizontal in NE and SW orientations. Stress ratios average 0.55±0.20. In the horizontal, σ1 axes cover an arc of about 30° and σ3 axes cover about 60° (Fig. 1), suggesting a strike-slip stress field. On the contrary, the subvertical cluster of σ1 axes suggests a normal stress field. These analyses indicate that the Paposo Sliver developed during a period of NW-SE compression and NE-SW tension. The wide distribution of the tensile axes may denote rotation of the internal blocks to accommodate the deformation or

  19. Near-field co-seismic ionospheric response due to the northern Chile Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake on April 1, 2014 from GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. D.; Sunil, A. S.; González, G.; Shrivastava, Mahesh N.; Moreno, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    Large earthquakes can induce near and far-field ionospheric perturbations by direct/secondary acoustic and gravity waves through Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere (LAI) coupling. We analyze co-seismic induced ionospheric TEC perturbations following the northern Chile Mw 8.1 Pisagua earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014. The continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data at 15 sites from the Integrated Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) and International GPS Service (IGS) GPS networks have been used in the present study. The nearest GPS site iqqe, ~98 km away from the epicenter, recorded the ionospheric disturbance 12 min after the event. The maximum co-seismic induced peak-to-peak TEC amplitude is ~1.25 TECU (1TECU=1016 electrons/m2), and the perturbations are confined to less than 1000 km radius around the epicenter. The observed horizontal velocity of TEC perturbations has been determined as ~1180 m/s. We could also discern the signatures of acoustic gravity waves (AGW) with velocity~650 m/s and frequency~2 mHz. The ionospheric signal components due to Rayleigh and/or Tsunami waves could not be observed. This contribution presents characteristics of near-field co-seismic ionospheric response due to the 2014 Pisagua earthquake.

  20. Virulence and polar tube protein genetic diversity of Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) field isolates from Northern and Southern Europe in honeybees (Apis mellifera iberiensis).

    PubMed

    Van der Zee, Romee; Gómez-Moracho, Tamara; Pisa, Lennard; Sagastume, Soledad; García-Palencia, Pilar; Maside, Xulio; Bartolomé, Carolina; Martín-Hernández, Raquel; Higes, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Infection of honeybees by the microsporidian Nosema ceranae is considered to be one of the factors underlying the increased colony losses and decreased honey production seen in recent years. However, these effects appear to differ in function of the climatic zone, the distinct beekeeping practices and the honeybee species employed. Here, we compared the response of Apis mellifera iberiensis worker bees to experimental infection with field isolates of N. ceranae from an Oceanic climate zone in Northern Europe (Netherlands) and from a Mediterranean region of Southern Europe (Spain). We found a notable but non-significant trend (P = 0.097) towards higher honeybee survival for bees infected with N. ceranae from the Netherlands, although no differences were found between the two isolates in terms of anatomopathological lesions in infected ventricular cells or the morphology of the mature and immature stages of the parasite. In addition, the population genetic survey of the N. ceranae PTP3 locus revealed high levels of genetic diversity within each isolate, evidence for meiotic recombination, and no signs of differentiation between the Dutch and Spanish populations. A cross-infection study is needed to further explore the differences in virulence observed between the two N. ceranae populations in field conditions.

  1. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  2. Lithofacies and palynostratigraphy of some Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks, Surghar and Salt Range coal fields, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Javed, Shahid; Mashhadi, S. Tahir A.; Shakoor, Tariq; Khan, Asrar M.; Khan, A. Latif

    1995-01-01

    high concentrations of the environmentally sensitive element selenium (average 13.4 ppm (parts per million)), compared to concentrations from United States coals of similar rank. The Makarwal coal bed represents a paleopeat that formed during changing relative ground-water base levels. Relatively low base levels were associated with periods of slow clastic deposition and lateritic paleosol development, followed by relatively high base levels that coincided with increased runoff, marine flooding, and clastic sedimentation that buried the paleopeat of the Makarwal. These environments formed along the northwestern margin of the Indian subcontinent as it drifted northward through equatorial latitudes in the Tethys Sea. The Makarwal coal bed is thin or absent in the northern part of the range where the Lumshiwal and Hangu Formations are the thinnest. Such rapid lateral changes (over about 25 km) in formation thickness and the apparent change in relative ground-water base level indicate that tectonically induced subsidence rates varied across the Surghar Range and influenced the deposition of the rocks that compose the two formations.

  3. Ground Penetrating Radar and Magnetic Investigations of Phreatomagmatic Tephra Rings in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S.; Macorps, E.; Charbonnier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be a valuable geophysical tool for studying near-surface volcanic stratigraphy in areas where outcrops do not exist. Likewise, high resolution ground-based magnetic surveys have the potential to reveal significant features not exposed at the surface, especially in the case of small-volume basaltic volcanoes. Here we present the results of geophysical studies to investigate the eruptive history of deposits surrounding phreatomagmatic eruption sites, and why some may become magnetized. Magnetic surveys undertaken at basaltic phreatomagmatic sites suggest that some tuff rings carry no discernable magnetic signature, while others reveal slight to significant magnetic anomalies. Material deposited in the tephra ring could become magnetized through Thermal Remanent Magnetization - emplacement of magnetically susceptible material above 560° C. In this case tephra layers would need to be deposited in sufficient thickness to retain high temperatures long enough for the magnetic material to orient itself to the magnetic field. To test this hypothesis we examine GPR data collected at Rattlesnake Maar in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona, and we will collect GPR data at two other tephra rings in the same volcanic field. The first site, Sugarloaf Mountain, is an active quarry with excellent exposures of tephra ring stratigraphy. Although this site is rhyolitic in composition and not suitable for magnetic study, it is an excellent site to determine how well GPR reflectors correlate with actual stratigraphy. The second site, an un-named phreatomagmatic ring nearby, will then be studied by GPR and walking magnetic survey. GPR reflectors will be compared to depositional patterns defined in previous studies and correlated with magnetic survey results to determine if a correlation can be made - little to no magnetization where only thin units are recorded by GPR, and positive magnetization where thick units are recorded.

  4. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth. PMID:26371882

  5. The Oldest Known Caldera Associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot: New Geologic Mapping, Geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology for the Northern McDermitt Volcanic Field, Northern Nevada and Southeastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. R.; Mahood, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    McDermitt Volcanic Field (MVF) of Nevada and Oregon is one of three major caldera centers associated with Mid-Miocene Steens/Columbia River flood basalts. Pioneering geologic mapping of MVF by Rytuba and McKee (1984) and subsequent work established four main ignimbrites within the field. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages (FCT=28.02 Ma) are 16.41±0.02 (±2σ) Ma for Tuff of Oregon Canyon, 16.35±0.04 Ma for Tuff of Trout Creek Mountains, 16.30±0.04 Ma for Tuff of Long Ridge, and 15.56±0.08 Ma for Tuff of Whitehorse Creek. We have mapped two previously unrecognized overlapping calderas that we interpret as sources for Tuff of Oregon Canyon and Tuff of Trout Creek. These ~20-km diameter calderas lie north of the well-known McDermitt Caldera; a smaller 7-km caldera that formed on eruption of the Tuff of Whitehorse Creek is nested within them. Argon ages and geochemistry of alkali rhyolite lava domes in the northern MVF define two populations: ~16.6-16.3 Ma associated with the newly recognized calderas, and ~15.5-15.3 Ma outlining the margins of the younger Whitehorse Caldera. Consistent with both ignimbrites erupting from the same evolving magma system, the high-silica alkali rhyolite Tuff of Oregon Canyon lies on compositional trends defined by the Tuff of Trout Creek, which is zoned from a moderately crystal-rich high-silica alkali rhyolite to a strongly porphyritic low-silica alkali rhyolite. They both are distinguished from the Tuff of Long Ridge from McDermitt Caldera by their higher Zr/Rb, and relatively high FeO* concentrations distinguish all MVF ignimbrites from ignimbrites from the nearby High Rock Caldera Complex, where the oldest caldera formed on eruption of the Idaho Canyon Tuff at 16.38±0.02 Ma (Coble and Mahood, in review). The Tuff of Trout Creek rests conformably on the Tuff of Oregon Canyon west and southwest of the calderas, where they overlie a thick stack of Steens Basalt lavas. To the east and southeast the two ignimbrites are separated by as much as

  6. Modifications to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum by Hedgerows - Observations from a field site in Northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    UK farming practices have changed significantly over the past 100 years. This is evident in arable fields, where the use of larger machinery has led to the removal of hedgerows. In the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK this has led to a doubling in field size since 1892. The national-wide change is responsible for longer slope lengths, increased runoff velocities and greater potential for connectivity, which may be responsible for an increase in flood risk at the catchment scale. However there is a lack of physical evidence to support this theory. Hedgerows are a widespread, man-made boundary feature in the rural UK landscape. They play an important ecological role in providing shelter, changing the local climate, reducing erosion and have a strong influence on local soil properties. Their impact on hydrology has not been widely studied but it is hypothesised that their presence could alter soil moisture levels and the soil structure, therefore affecting runoff. This paper presents observations of a hedgerow on the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum, through 15 months field monitoring conducted in the River Skell catchment. Firstly, to assess soil moisture levels TDR probes were installed at different depths and distances from the hedgerow. To assess the soil quality and therefore its infiltration capacity, soil cores were collected to determine soil horizons and root density. Also, laboratory tests were undertaken to determine the soil type and the porosity. Secondly, to assess the physical impact of the hedgerow plant on the partitioning of rainfall, gauges were installed to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall, along a transect perpendicular to the hedgerow, as well as stemflow. Throughfall gauges were also installed within the hedgerow and leaf area index calculated. Thirdly, to assess the impact of the hedgerow on the micro-climate, temperature sensors and four leaf wetness sensors were installed to determine evapotranspiration and interception

  7. Low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2010-11-01

    Despite its location on sediment-free basalt, vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) contain chemical species that indicate fluids have interacted with sediments during circulation. We report on the distribution and isotopic abundances of organic compounds ( C1- C3 alkanes and alkenes, benzene and toluene) in fluids collected from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) in July, 2000, to understand the processes that regulate their abundances and characterize fluid sources. Aqueous organic compounds are derived from the thermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter and subsequently undergo further oxidation reactions during fluid flow. Fluid:sediment mass ratios calculated using ΣNH 4 concentrations indicate that the sediments are distal to the MEF, resulting in a common reservoir of fluids for all of the vents. Following the generation from sediment alteration, aqueous organic compounds undergo secondary alteration reactions via a stepwise oxidation reaction mechanism. Alkane distributions and isotopic compositions indicate that organic compounds in MEF fluids have undergone a greater extent of alteration as compared to Middle Valley fluids, either due to differences in subsurface redox conditions or the residence time of fluids at subsurface conditions. The distributions of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene are qualitatively consistent with the subsurface conditions indicated by equilibration of aqueous alkanes and alkanes. However, benzene and toluene do not achieve chemical equilibrium in the subsurface. Methane and CO 2 also do not equilibrate chemically or isotopically at reaction zone temperatures, a likely result of an insufficient reaction time after addition of CO 2 from magmatic sources during upflow. The organic geochemistry supports the assumption that the sediments with which MEF fluids interact has the same composition as sediments present in Middle Valley itself, and highlight differences in subsurface reaction zone conditions and fluid

  8. [Responses of soil microbial carbolic metabolism characteristics to home-field advantage of leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve of northern Hebei Province, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-yu; Kang, Feng-feng; Han, Hai-rong; Gao, Jing; Song, Xiao-shuai; Yu, Shu

    2015-07-01

    Using litter bag method, we studied the responses of soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiration (MR) and microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) in 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers to home-field advantage of Betula platyphlla and Quercus mongolica leaf litter decomposition in Liaoheyuan Nature Reserve, northern Hebei Province. The results showed that the contents of MBC in Betula platyphila and Quercus mongolica leaf litter treatments in home environment (Bh and Qh treatments) were significant higher than that in B. platyphlla and Q. mongolica leaf litter treatments in non-home environment (Ba and Qa treatments). There was no significant difference in MR between home and non-home environments. Response degree of MBC and MR to home-field advantage of different litter decomposition was inconsistent. The MBC of the different soil layers in Qa treatment fell by 39.6%, 34.9% and 33.5% compared to Qh treatment, respectively, and that in B. platyphlla treatment was decreased by 31.6%, 27.1% and 17.0%, respectively. MR of the different soil layers in Qa treatment accounted for 96.3%, 92.4% and 83.7% of Qh treatment, respectively, while MR in B. platyphila treatment was 99. 4%, 97. 3% and 101.3%, respectively. In contrast to MBC, qCO2 in soil showed a reverse pattern. Our study suggested that rich nutrients in soil enhanced microbial activity and weakened the conflict of nutrient uptake between plants and microorganisms, which led to the result that MBC and qCO2 had an obvious response to home-field advantage of litter decomposition, when litter decomposed in its home environment. There was a weak response between MR and home-field advantage of litter decomposition, because of influence of soil temperature, water content and their interaction. Furthermore, MBC, MR and qCO2 had a higher response degree to home-field advantage of Q. mongolica litter than B. platyphila litter, since lower quality litter exhibited higher home-field advantage of litter

  9. Potential fields and seismicity at northern La Hispaniola Island: useful constraints to determine the crustal structure of an oblique convergence area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, C.; García-Lobón, J. L.; Rey Moral, C.; Escuder-Viruete, J.

    2012-04-01

    The interpretation of aeromagnetic and gravity data together with petrophysical analysis allow characterize the tectonic domains and the determination of the crustal structure up to Moho levels. In order to compare the crustal structure deduced from the potential fields with the seismicity, a set of earthquakes events from the USGS database have been studied (hypocenters shallower than 40 km and magnitude greater than 3.5). This study is focused on the northern part of the La Hispaniola Island, where an oblique subduction and strike-slip collision is taking place since the Mesozoic. The Septentrional Fault Zone (SFZ), an almost WNW-ESE directed strike slip fault, is bounded by a set of earthquakes up to 6 in magnitude whose hypocenter is located from 20 to 30 km in depth, with some deeper events (up to 40 km) in places. Northward of this fault zone, there is an area of mainly shallower hypocenters (up to 20 km) characterized by events of comparatively higher magnitude (up to 7) that deepen slightly again towards offshore where the range of depths is 0 to 30 km clustering around what is believed to be the subduction zone. The Bouguer anomaly shows a sharp gradient that separates the Cibao Valley to the south, characterized by an elongated minimum, from the accretionary prism (Mamey group and Puerto Plata-Rio San Juan Complex) to the north, characterized by a set of relative maxima and minima of higher intensity. Moreover, the accretionary prism presents a well defined magnetic zonation over the Mamey Group and the igneous-metamorphic complexes of Puerto Plata and Rio San Juan. In this area, magnetic anomalies are an order of magnitude higher than in the Cibao Valley, where the magnetic fabric is rather uniform with the exception of three prominent anomalies that can be associated to igneous rocks emplaced to the northern border of La Hispaniola Fault Zone. The Camú Fault, that separates Mamey Group from Puerto Plata Complex, constitutes another clear magnetic

  10. Laboratory and field evaluations of chemical and plant-derived potential repellents against Culicoides biting midges in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    González, M; Venter, G J; López, S; Iturrondobeitia, J C; Goldarazena, A

    2014-12-01

    The efficacy of 23 compounds in repelling Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), particularly Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) females, was determined by means of a Y-tube olfactometer. The 10 most effective compounds were further evaluated in landing bioassays. The six most promising compounds (including chemical and plant-derived repellents) were evaluated at 10% and 25% concentrations in field assays using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps. At least three compounds showed promising results against Culicoides biting midges with the methodologies used. Whereas olfactometer assays indicated DEET at 1 µg/µL to be the most effective repellent, filter paper landing bioassays showed plant-derived oils to be better. Light traps fitted with polyester mesh impregnated with a mixture of octanoic, decanoic and nonanoic fatty acids at 10% and 25% concentrations collected 2.2 and 3.6 times fewer midges than control traps and were as effective as DEET, which is presently considered the reference standard insect repellent. The best plant-derived product was lemon eucalyptus oil. Although these have been reported as safe potential repellents, the present results indicate DEET and the mixture of organic fatty acids to be superior and longer lasting. PMID:25079042

  11. Spectroscopy of the Ca II Line in Metal-Poor Field Red Giants. II. Northern Hemisphere Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupree, A. K.; Smith, Graeme H.

    1995-07-01

    Echelle spectra of the Ca II K line (λ3933.7) for a sample of 53 metal-deficient field giants, including first-ascent red giant branch stars and asymptotic giant branch stars, demonstrate that chromospheres are ubiquitous among these objects. The atmospheres of the metal-deficient giants are found to be quite dynamic; motions in the deeper regions of the chromosphere appear to be irregular, and evidence for both outflows and infall has been found. An absolute magnitude of MV≍-1.7 corresponds to a critical brightness for metal-deficient giants; as stars evolve beyond this magnitude the atmospheric structure and dynamics affecting the Hα and Ca II K profiles undergo a change. Metal-poor giants brighter than this magnitude exhibit evidence of systematic outflows. However, no circumstellar component is seen in any of the spectra of the Ca II K line acquired in this project. The winds of bright Population II red giants are inferred to be hotter than those of Population I giants. The classic Wilson-Bappu effect is found to depend on metal abundance.

  12. In situ nitrogen mineralization, nitrification, and ammonia volatilization in maize field fertilized with urea in Huanghuaihai region of northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Xu, Jun; Gilliam, Frank S; Tremblay, Nicolas; Li, Chaohai

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha(-1)) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha(-1) has been routinely applied to soil during maize growth period of 120 days. Responses of net N mineralization, inorganic N flux (0-10 cm), NH3 volatilization, and maize yield to N fertilization were measured. During the growth period, net N mineralization and nitrification varied seasonally, with higher rates occurring in August and coinciding with the R1 stage of maize growth. Soil NO3(-)-N contributed to more than 60% of inorganic N flux during maize growth. Cumulative NH3 volatilization increased with N additions, with total NH3 volatilization during maize growth accounting for about 4% of added N. Relative to the control, mean maize yield in the fertilizer treatments increased by 17% and 20% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. However, grain yield, aboveground biomass, and plant N accumulation did not increase with added N at levels > 215 kg N ha(-1). These results suggest that the current N rate of 300 kg N ha(-1) is not only excessive, but also reduces fertilizer efficacy and may contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and eutrophication of ground water and streams. PMID:25635864

  13. In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, and Ammonia Volatilization in Maize Field Fertilized with Urea in Huanghuaihai Region of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Xu, Jun; Gilliam, Frank S.; Tremblay, Nicolas; Li, Chaohai

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha-1) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha-1 has been routinely applied to soil during maize growth period of 120 days. Responses of net N mineralization, inorganic N flux (0–10cm), NH3 volatilization, and maize yield to N fertilization were measured. During the growth period, net N mineralization and nitrification varied seasonally, with higher rates occurring in August and coinciding with the R1 stage of maize growth. Soil NO3−-N contributed to more than 60% of inorganic N flux during maize growth. Cumulative NH3 volatilization increased with N additions, with total NH3 volatilization during maize growth accounting for about 4% of added N. Relative to the control, mean maize yield in the fertilizer treatments increased by 17% and 20% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. However, grain yield, aboveground biomass, and plant N accumulation did not increase with added N at levels > 215 kg N ha-1. These results suggest that the current N rate of 300 kg N ha-1 is not only excessive, but also reduces fertilizer efficacy and may contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and eutrophication of ground water and streams. PMID:25635864

  14. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  15. Dissolved Carbon Species in Diffuse and Focused Flow Hydrothermal Vents at the Main Endeavour Field, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.; Ding, K.; Pester, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    The magmatic and tectonic event of 1999 had a significant impact on the chemical composition of vent fluids issuing from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF), Juan de Fuca Ridge. Here, we report dissolved concentrations of H2, CO2, CO and C1-C3 alkanes measured in low and high-temperature hydrothermal fluids collected in August 2005 during an RV Atlantis/DSV Alvin expedition at MEF. In comparison with time series data, temperatures of the 2005 vent fluids were slightly lower than those recorded in the aftermaths of the tectonic event of 1999. The possible cooling of the hydrothermal subseafloor reaction zone is consistent with the observed increase in dissolved Cl to pre-1999 values. Converging compositional trends to pre-1999 conditions are also suggested for dissolved CO2 concentrations (~20 mmol/kg) in Puffer, Sully, Bastille and S&M vent fluids. In these focused flow and high-temperature vent fluids, dissolved CO2 is in thermodynamic equilibrium with CO(aq). The systematics of organic species in diffuse flow fluids, however, appears to be closely related to processes occurring within the near-seafloor environment. For example, excess CO(aq) observed in the diffuse flow fluids at Easter Island is attributed to sluggish CO- CO2(aq) equilibria at low temperatures, suggesting hydrothermal circulation of short-residence times. Short-lived hydrothermal circulation is further supported by the nearly identical C1/(C2+C3) ratios between focused and diffuse flow fluids. Furthermore, alkane distribution in the MEF diffuse flow fluids suggests direct mixing between seawater and hydrothermal fluid with minimal biological inputs, in contrast with the greater effect of microbial methanogenesis proposed in other ridge-crest hydrothermal environments. Thus, the coupling of CO2(aq)-CO(aq) redox equilibrium with dissolved carbon species in low- temperature vent fluids could provide a better understanding of the effect of subsurface microbial communities upon the composition of mid

  16. Meteorites constrain the age of Antarctic ice at the Frontier Mountain blue ice field (northern Victoria Land)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folco, L.; Welten, K. C.; Jull, A. J. T.; Nishiizumi, K.; Zeoli, A.

    2006-08-01

    We show that meteorites can provide chronological constraints upon the age of the ice cropping out at the Frontier Mountain meteorite trap (Antarctica) when their terrestrial age is placed in a glaciological context. Amongst the over 700 meteorites found so far, Frontier Mountain (FRO) 84001, 99028, 93005 and 93054 were most likely not wind-drifted across the ice field, since their masses (772-1665 g) are much heavier than the local ˜ 200 g wind transport threshold. The four meteorites were found along a stretch of ice where a representative section of the Frontier Mountain blue ice crops out. Based on the bedding of englacial tephra layers, the structure of the ice along the section appears to be essentially an up-glacier dipping monocline. The 14C terrestrial age of FRO 8401, 99028 and 93005 are 13 ± 2, 21 ± 3 and 27 ± 2 ky, respectively; the 41Ca/ 36Cl age of FRO 93054 is 40 ± 10 ky. The terrestrial ages of the four meteorites increase from the top to the bottom layers of the monocline. This geographic distribution is best explained by delivery of meteorites at the ice surface through the "ice-flow model" (i.e., englacial transport from the snow accumulation zone and exhumation in the blue ice area through ablation) rather than direct fall. Since the effect of ablation in decoupling terrestrial ages of meteorites and the age of the ice on which they sit must have been minor (most likely ≤ 7 ky) based on the local ice dynamics, we conclude that the age of the bulk of the ice body currently under ablation at Frontier Mountain is up to ˜ 50 ky old. This result has implications on both the meteorite concentrations mechanism at Frontier Mountain and the regional ice dynamics.

  17. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  18. Tectonic inversion and magmatism in the Lautaro Basin, northern Chile, Central Andes: A comparative approach from field data and analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Fernando; Bonini, Marco; Montanari, Domenico; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a series of analog models addressing the relationships between tectonic inversion and magmatism, taking the Lautaro Basin in northern Chile (27-28° S), Central Andes as a natural case. The experiments consisted of extension and orthogonal shortening of sand-silicone models to reproduce the tectonic inversion of a previous extensional system synchronous with the emplacement of analog magma. We analyzed how the variation in the rate of magma intrusion, shortening, and syn-compressive sedimentation may affect the final configuration of an inverted system, and the results were compared with field observations. Our results showed that (i) folding of syn-rift deposits and increased steepness of the master faults accommodate the shortening of the extensional system, (ii) magmatic intrusions condition the final geometries (top view and cross-section) of inverted normal faults in the models and in the Lautaro Basin, (iii) magma tends to migrate preferentially along the inverted faults, and accumulates beneath the faults and in the core of the inversion anticlines, (iv) the syn-inversion magmatism may indicate the migration pathways, which favor major lubrication and slip on the structures during their reactivation.

  19. foF2 long-term trend linked to Earth's magnetic field secular variation at a station under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham Thi Thu, Hong; Amory-Mazaudier, Christine; Le Huy, Minh; Elias, Ana G.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term trend of the critical frequency of the F2 ionospheric region, foF2, at Phu Thuy station (21.03°N, 105.96°E), Vietnam, located under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly, EIA, is studied. Annual mean data are analyzed at 04 LT and 12 LT for the period 1962-2002 using monthly median values and monthly mean values during magnetically quiet days (am < 20). In both cases we obtain similar trends at 4 LT and 12 LT, which we interpret as an absence of geomagnetic activity effect over trends. The positive trends obtained are not consistent with the negative values expected from greenhouse gases effect at this layer of the upper atmosphere. The increasing trend observed at 12 LT is qualitatively in agreement with the expected effect of the secular displacement of the dip equator over the EIA latitudinal profile. At 04 LT, when the EIA is absent, the positive trend is in qualitative agreement with the secular variation of the Earth's magnetic field inclination, I, and the consequent increase of the sin(I)cos(I) factor at the corresponding location.

  20. Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Wannasan, A; Pitasawat, B

    2009-02-01

    The potential of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical product, as a repellent against natural mosquito populations was evaluated in comparison to commercial (Insect Block 28) and standard (25% DEET) repellents in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. These repellent products afforded encouragingly excellent personal protection against a broad range of mosquito species belonging to various genera, including Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia. No mosquito bite was observed on the volunteers treated with G10 and Insect Block 28 throughout the field study, whereas two species, i.e., six A. barbirostris and two A. subalbatus, came to bite or land on 25% DEET-treated volunteers. Thus, it can be concluded that while G10 and Insect Block 28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with complete (100%) protection, 25% DEET was effective in minimizing bites with 99.68% protection. G10 formula was also studied for physical properties and biological stability after being kept under two conditions; a heating and cooling cycle, and varying temperature and time storage. Most samples of stored G10 not only demonstrated a similarity in appearance and physical properties, but also provided comparable repellency to that of the fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercial development of G10 formula as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents.

  1. Assessment of Temporal and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and its implications on soil water content predictions for a maize field in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feki, Mouna; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ceppi, Alessandro; Mancini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Use of hydrological models to simulate water movement from soil surface to groundwater requires intensive, time consuming and expensive soil related parameters collection, such as, water retention curve (WRC) parameters and hydraulic conductivity (K).Typically, soils to be characterized, , exhibit large variations in space and time as well during the cropping cycle, due to biological processes and agricultural management practices : tillage , irrigation , fertilization and harvest. Soil properties are subjected to diverse physical and chemical changes that leads to a non-stability in term of water and chemical movements within the soil as well to the groundwater. The aim of this study is to assess the variability of soil hydraulic properties dynamics over a cropping cycle. The study site is a surface irrigated Maize field (typical in this area) located in Secugnago (45°13'31.70'' N, 9°36'26.82 E), in Northern Italy-Lombardy region. The field belongs to the Consortium Muzza Bassa Lodigiana, within which meteorological data together with soil moisture were monitored during the cropping season of 2015 . To investigate soil properties variations, both measurements in the field and laboratory tests on both undisturbed and disturbed collected samples were performed. Soil samples were taken from different locations within the study area and at different depths( 0cm , 20cm and 40cm) as well at different growth stages of the plant ,after irrigation events or tillage and as well after harvest. During three measuring campaigns, for each soil samples several parameters were monitored (Organic matter , bulk density) together with soil-water related parameters (Soil water retention curve parameters , saturated hydraulic conductivity). Soil water retention curves parameters were measured following the evaporative method, using the Hyprop (Hydraulic Property Analyzer; UMS Munich, 2010). Parameters were assessed using Hyprop-fit software, by fitting data to Brooks and Corey and

  2. N2O emission and CH4 uptake in arable fields managed under conventional and reduced tillage cropping systems in northern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tsuruta, Haruo; Sawamoto, Takuji; Nishimura, Seiichi; Yagi, Kazuyuki

    2004-12-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and methane (CH4) uptake were measured in an experimental long-term tillage field (Andosol) in Hokkaido, northern Japan, to assess their contributions to net global warming, associated with arable crop production. From May 2001 to August 2002, the field was cultivated with winter wheat, adzuki bean, sugar beet, potato, and cabbage, where the total N applied was 110, 40, 150, 60, and 220 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Under conventional tillage (CT) cropping systems, basal N fertilization and plowing for residue incorporation had little effect on N2O fluxes, but vigorous N2O emission was observed when rotary harrowing was used for incorporating N-rich cabbage residues into soil in summer. Also, high N2O emissions occurred when there was heavy rainfall after a large amount of N fertilizer had been applied to sugar beet and also when there was thawing of frozen soil and snow in the winter wheat treatment. Despite the differing N2O flux patterns among the crops, the annual N2O emissions from each crop were positively correlated with the total N applied as fertilizer. Under CT systems, across all five crops, the mean N2O emission factor (the percent ratio of N2O-N emitted out of total N applied as fertilizer) was 0.36%. Under reduced tillage (RT) cropping systems, where crop residues were left on the ground over winter, large quantities of N2O were emitted from adzuki bean and sugar beet residues when the frozen soil and snow thawed. Therefore, total N2O emissions from adzuki bean and sugar beet cultivated under RT systems were much greater than under CT systems. The rates of CH4 uptake by arable soils were less sensitive to crop type, field management practices, and fertilizer application rates, but the rates were strongly influenced by long-term tillage management. For fallow, winter wheat, adzuki bean, and sugar beet treatments, the CH4 uptake rates in the CT soils (1.36 kg CH4 ha-1 yr-1), which had a 20-year history of intensive plowing

  3. Flood variability over 1871-2012 in Northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree-rings and on geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Caya, Daniel; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2015-04-01

    For the next couple of decades, the impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes are likely to be masked by climate natural variability. Thus, a better understanding and quantification of natural climate variability on hydrological extremes would be helpful for short-term adaptation. However, studying natural variability requires long instrumental records, which are inexistant in remote regions such as Northern Québec. Different methods have been proposed to extend observed hydroclimatic time-series, based on other data sources such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in Northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of spring flood series (Boucher et al., 2011) and of annual and seasonal mean flow series (Nicault et al., 2014), for the last 150 years. Here, we apply a different reconstruction method on the same catchment, using historical reanalysis of geopotential height fields, to compare the flood series obtained and study the observed flood variability over the 1871-2012 period. The applied method, named ANATEM (Kuentz et al., 2013), aims firstly at producing climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) which are then used as inputs to one or several hydrological model previously calibrated in order to obtain streamflow time series. The climatic reconstruction is based on the analog method, using the link between atmospheric pressure situations and local climatic variables and thus requires (i) a geopotential height field reanalysis (here the NOAA reanalysis, available over the 1871-2012 period (Compo et al., 2011)), and (ii) the available observed temperature and precipitation time series (here available over the 1960-2012 period). The hypothesis of the analog method is that two different days having similar atmospheric circulations are expected to produce similar temperature and precipitation patterns. Using this hypothesis, the method

  4. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  5. Ambient air/near-field measurements of methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from a natural gas facility in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Bonsang, Bernard; Baisnee, Dominique; Vogel, Félix; Yver Kwok, Camille; Ars, Sébastien; Finlayson, Andrew; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1970's, the natural gas consumption saw a rapid growth in large urban centers, thus becoming an important energy resource to meet continuous needs of factories and inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can be a substantial source of methane (CH4) and pollutants in urban areas. For instance, we have determined that about 20% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in downtown Paris are originating from this emission source (Baudic, Gros et al., in preparation). Within the framework of the "Fugitive Methane Emissions" (FuME) project (Climate-KIC, EIT); 2-weeks gas measurements were conducted at a gas compressor station in Northern Europe. Continuous ambient air measurements of methane and VOCs concentrations were performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (model G2201, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, USA) and two portable GC-FID (Chromatotec, Saint-Antoine, France), respectively. On-site near-field samplings were also carried out at the source of two pipelines using stainless steel flasks (later analyzed with a laboratory GC-FID). The objective of this study aims to use VOCs as additional tracers in order to better characterize the fugitive methane emissions in a complex environment, which can be affected by several urban sources (road-traffic, others industries, etc.). Moreover, these measurements have allowed determining the chemical composition of this specific source. Our results revealed that the variability of methane and some VOCs was (rather) well correlated, especially for alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.). An analysis of selected events with strong concentrations enhancement was performed using ambient air measurements; thus allowing the preliminary identification of different emission sources. In addition, some flasks were also sampled in Paris to determine the local natural gas composition. A comparison between both was then performed. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented here.

  6. Wehrlitisation in the upper mantle beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (Northern Pannonian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patkó, Levente; Előd Aradi, László; Liptai, Nóra; Szabó, Csaba

    2013-04-01

    The Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field is situated in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin, where Plio-Pleistocene alkaline basalts brought upper mantle xenoliths to the surface. We collected great number of ultramafic xenoliths from the central part of the region, Medves-plateau (Eresztvény, Magyarbánya) and Baby hill (Ratka, Filakovske Kovace, Terbelovce), and detailed petrographic studies were carried out. As a result, beside the dominating lherzolite xenoliths, large number of wehrlite xenoliths also appeared, in which the modal proportion of clinopyroxene was increased in contrast to the descending amount of ortopyroxene. These wehrlite xenoliths show very unique texture, which is characterized by irregularly shaped olivine grains hosted in clinopyroxene and vermicular spinel inclusions in clinopyroxenes. According to petrographic features, ten wehrlite xenoliths have been selected for a detailed study. Based on the major elements of rock forming minerals, Fe and Mn enrichment in olivines, Ti, Al and Fe enrichment in clinopyroxenes, and Fe and Ti enrichment in spinels can be observed compared to those of lherzolite xenoliths. In the studied wehrlite xenoliths silicate, fluid and sulfide inclusions are also abundant. We focused on the latter ones in this thesis. The mineralogy of these multi-phase sulfides is in agreement with those usually found in the upper mantle with domination of pyrrhotite, pentlandite and chalcopyrite. However, bulk composition of the sulfides slightly differs from the lherzolite xenoliths. Sulfides in wehrlite xenoliths show higher Fe and lower Cu concentrations. Based on our detailed petrography and geochemistry of rock forming constituents and sulfide minerals, wehrlite xenoliths are products of a process called stealth mantle metasomatism where new minerals, in our case clinopyroxene is introduced to the system that is mineralogically indistinguishable from common upper mantle peridotites. This metasomatism is supposed to be

  7. Streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree rings and geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decades, different methods have been used by hydrologists to extend observed hydro-climatic time series, based on other data sources, such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of flow time series for the last 150 years. In this paper, we applied a new hydro-climatic reconstruction method on the Caniapiscau Reservoir and compare the obtained streamflow time series against time series derived from dendrohydrology by other authors on the same catchment and study the natural streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in that region. This new reconstruction is based not on natural proxies but on a historical reanalysis of global geopotential height fields, and aims firstly to produce daily climatic time series, which are then used as inputs to a rainfall-runoff model in order to obtain daily streamflow time series. The performances of the hydro-climatic reconstruction were quantified over the observed period, and showed good performances, in terms of both monthly regimes and interannual variability. The streamflow reconstructions were then compared to two different reconstructions performed on the same catchment by using tree ring data series, one being focused on mean annual flows and the other on spring floods. In terms of mean annual flows, the interannual variability in the reconstructed flows was similar (except for the 1930-1940 decade), with noteworthy changes seen in wetter and drier years. For spring floods, the reconstructed interannual variabilities were quite similar for the 1955-2011 period, but strongly different between 1880 and 1940. The results emphasize the need to apply different reconstruction methods on the same catchments. Indeed, comparisons such as those above highlight potential differences between available reconstructions and, finally, allow a retrospective analysis of the

  8. Constraints on the seismic properties of the mantle beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (Northern Pannonian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebesz, Rita; Liptai, Nora; Kovacs, Istvan; Patko, Levente; Pinter, Zsanett; Falus, Gyorgy; Graczer, Zoltan; Szanyi, Gyongyver; Wesztergom, Viktor; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    In the Carpathian Pannonian Region (CPR) Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts have sampled the upper mantle at five known occurrences, bringing upper mantle xenoliths to the surface. One of these is the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (NGVF), which is located in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. For this study, 25 representative lherzolite and wehrlite xenoliths were selected from the central and southern parts of the NGVF. These xenoliths sample a small volume (~4000 km3) of the upper mantle from a depth of about 35-50 km. Xenoliths collected from the southern part of NGVF originate from shallower depth (35-40 km) than those from the central part (40-50 km) [1]. Crystal preferred orientations (CPO) of the minerals were measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Two distinct orientation types (A-Type, D-Type) based on the distribution and alignment of crystallographic axes were recognized, which show some correlation not only with the macroscopic texture, but also with olivine J-factors that indicate the strength of the xenolith fabric [2]. The seismic properties, i.e. seismic anisotropy and velocities, of these 25 mantle xenoliths were calculated based on the CPO and volume fractions of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene. It was found that P wave and fast split shear wave polarization direction is always close to the density maximum of the a-axis of olivine. Seismic anisotropy is higher for stronger CPO. Maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy ranges are 4.5%-6.9% and 5.3%-11.9%, for the southern and the central area respectively. Maximum S wave polarization anisotropy ranges are 2.92%-5.31% and 3.97%-7.46%for the southern area and the central area respectively. The anisotropy that would be measured by SKS, Rayleigh and Love waves for end-member orientations of the lineation and foliation could be predicted based on the already calculated seismic properties of the xenoliths [3]. The calculated anisotropy is compared to the results of S receiver function

  9. Regional-scale geometry of the central Skellefte district, northern Sweden—results from 2.5D potential field modeling along three previously acquired seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Bauer, Tobias E.; Elming, Sten-Åke; Thunehed, Hans; Weihed, Pär

    2012-10-01

    The Skellefte district in northern Sweden is one of the most important mining districts in Europe hosting approximately 80 volcanic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. Due to its economical importance, geological and geophysical studies were carried out in order to create an image of the geometry of the upper crustal structure and integral geological elements and to evaluate their relationship to mineral deposits. Consequently, seismic reflection data along three sub-parallel profiles were acquired during 2009-2010 to map the spatial relationships between the geological structures down to a depth of ~ 4.5 km. Although these seismic studies helped researchers understand the regional relationship between geologic units in the central Skellefte district (CSD), the seismic reflection data did not succeed entirely in mapping the lithological contacts in the area. In this study, the model derived from the seismic reflection data was examined by using 2.5D modeling of potential field data (down to a 5 km depth) constrained by physical properties of the rocks and surface geology. Moreover, we modeled gravity and magnetic data along the non-reflective or poorly reflective parts of the seismic profiles to identify major lithological contacts and shear zones in the CSD, which could not be modeled on the basis of the seismic reflection data. Gravity and magnetic data helped reveal the spatial relationship between the Skellefte volcanic rocks, Vargfors group meta-sedimentary rocks and two meta­intrusive complexes. Results suggest a maximum depth extent of 2.1 km for the tectonic contact at the southern border of the Jörn granitoid. Furthermore, this north-dipping Skellefte-Jörn contact coincides closely with magnetic lows and gravity highs, which implies that the Jörn intrusive rocks have a greater thickness than the underlying basalt. Further to the NW, gravity and magnetic data suggest a depth extent of 2 km for the Gallejaur complex, which coincides with a set of gently

  10. Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However

  11. Field and Geochronological Evidence of Partial Melting, Melt Mobilisation and - in a 2.7 GA Metatexite-Diatexite Complex in Troms, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Altevann area in east Troms, Northern Norway represents the easternmost extent of the poorly investigated, Neoarchean Norrboten Province of the Fennoscandian Shield. Mapping in the Altevann area reveals well-preserved tonalitic metatexite, commonly grading into diatexite, and spatially associated with moderately to strongly foliated granite. Although outcrops are too scattered to demonstrate a genetic relationship between the meta-/diatexite and granite, geochronological data show they are coeval at ca. 2.7 Ga. The focus here is on field observations that lend support to a genetic transition from metatexite through diatexite to granite. These observations lay the foundation for ongoing petrologic and isotopic investigations. The metatexite protolith is medium-grained and tonalitic, typically with a strongly foliated to gneissic texture. Several-m-thick sheets of fine-grained amphibolite, concordant to the foliation in the tonalitic gneiss, are common. Granitic leucosomes are typically concordant to the foliation, commonly ca. 1-3 cm thick and folded by upright, tight folds with N-dipping fold axes. Numerous dm-long, N-S-oriented, melt-filled shear bands suggest that melting was coeval with deformation. Although the proportion of leucosome locally exceeds 50%, these structural relationships suggest a rock-dominated rather than melt-dominated rheology, the defining characteristic between meta- and diatexite, respectively. Unlike the metatexite, the diatexite does not show any signs of coherent structural behavior, such as folds or shear bands, and is characterised by irregular, mm-thick and dm-long, biotite-rich schlieren. The diatexite also lacks continuous sheets of amphibolite, but contains numerous dm- to m-size angular amphibolite blocks that most likely represent disrupted amphibolite sheets, as well as blocks of metatexite. These structural relationships indicate a large rheological contrast between the stronger amphibolite/metatexite and the weaker

  12. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  13. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (approx. 6. 5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, G.M.; Sanders, J.E.

    1982-02-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Catskill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190/sup 0/C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ (17/sup 0/F.1,000 ft/sup -1/), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/ imply a temperature of 307/sup 0/C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170/sup 0/C.km/sup -1/, which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955/sup 0/GAMMA, which is far higher than the 600 to 650/sup 0/C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas.

  14. Thermospheric neutral wind signatures dependent on the east-west component of the interplanetary magnetic field for Northern and Southern Hemispheres as measured from Dynamics Explorer-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Killeen, T. L.; Mccormac, F. G.; Tschan, C. R.; Ponthieu, J.-J.; Spencer, N. W.

    1987-01-01

    DE-2 neutral-wind measurements obtained between November and January 1981-1982 and 1982-1983 were analyzed to investigate the effect of the sign of the IMF By component on neutral thermosphere dynamics at F-region altitudes. Maps of the mean neutral circulation for the northern (winter) and southern (summer) polar regions were derived for By positive and negative using polar geomagnetic coordinates. The mean neutral winds demonstrate clear By-dependent neutral wind signatures in both hemispheres.

  15. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  16. Vertical Distribution and Columnar Optical Properties of Springtime Biomass-Burning Aerosols over Northern Indochina during the 7-SEAS/BASELInE field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N. H.; Wang, S. H.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tsay, S. C.; Giles, D. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Janjai, S.; Anh, N. X.; Hsiao, T. C.; Chen, W. N.; Lin, T. H.; Buntoung, S.; Chantara, S.; Wiriya, W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the aerosol optical properties and vertical distributions in major biomass-burning emission area of northern Indochina were investigated using ground-based remote sensing (i.e., four Sun-sky radiometers and one lidar) during the Seven South East Asian Studies/Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment conducted during spring 2014. Despite the high spatial variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD; which at 500 nm ranged from 0.75 to 1.37 depending on the site), the temporal variation of the daily AOD demonstrated a consistent pattern among the observed sites, suggesting the presence of widespread smoke haze over the region. Smoke particles were characterized as small (Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.72 and fine mode fraction of 0.96), strongly absorbing (single-scattering albedo at 440 nm of 0.88), mixture of black and brown carbon particles (absorption Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.5) suspended within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Smoke plumes driven by the PBL dynamics in the mountainous region reached as high as 5 km above sea level; these plumes subsequently spread out by westerly winds over northern Vietnam, southern China, and the neighboring South China Sea. Moreover, the analysis of diurnal variability of aerosol loading and optical properties as well as vertical profile in relation to PBL development, fire intensity, and aerosol mixing showed that various sites exhibited different variability based on meteorological conditions, fuel type, site elevation, and proximity to biomass-burning sources. These local factors influence the aerosol characteristics in the region and distinguish northern Indochina smoke from other biomass-burning regions in the world.

  17. Time-temperature-burial significance of Devonian anthracite implies former great (˜6.5 km) depth of burial of Catskill Mountains, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Gerald M.; Sanders, John E.

    1982-02-01

    Specimens of coalified plant debris in Tully-correlative strata of the Gilboa Formation (uppermost Middle Devonian) within the eastern Cat-skill Mountains of New York State have been converted to anthracite having a vitrinite reflectance of 2.5%. This implies a level of organic metamorphism (LOM) of 16. A similar degree of thermal activity is implied by the black color (Staplin kerogen-alteration index of 4) of the associated (possibly recycled) carbonized kerogen, a conodont-alteration index of 4, and authigenic chlorite and local sericite fillings of the former interparticle pores of interbedded sandstones. The specimens are about 350 m.y. old; if 200 m.y. is taken as the duration of the time of exposure to the maximum geothermal temperature, then the LOM of 16 and other thermal indicators imply a maximum temperature of 190 °C. Using a geothermal gradient of 26 °C · km-1 (17 °F · 1,000 ft-1), a former depth of burial of 6.5 km is implied. Such former deep burial is not usually inferred for the Catskills, but it is consistent with the idea that the thick (about 6.4 km or 21,000 ft) Carboniferous strata of northeastern Pennsylvania formerly extended northeast far enough to bury the Catskills. The lack of metamorphism of the Paleozoic strata lying about 4.5 km beneath the Tully-correlative rocks and exposed in the adjacent Hudson Valley places low limits on the former geothermal gradient; this supports the concept of great depth of former burial of the Catskills. For example, 6.5 km of former burial and a geothermal gradient of 26 °C · km-1 imply a temperature of 307 °C for the base of the Paleozoic. By contrast, only 1 km of former burial requires a geothermal gradient of 170 °C · km-1, which would have subjected the base of the Paleozoic to a temperature of 955 °C, which is far higher than the 600 to 650 °C recently inferred for the Acadian-age metamorphism of the Taconic allochthon in southwestern Massachusetts and adjoining areas.

  18. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  19. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  20. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic fields in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay are temporally and spatially associated with the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and the transition from subduction and associated arc volcanism to a slab window tectonic environment. Our geochemical analyses from the Sonoma volcanic field highlight the geochemical diversity of these volcanic rocks, allowing us to clearly distinguish these volcanic rocks from those of the roughly coeval ancestral Cascades magmatic arc to the west, and also to compare rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field to rocks from other slab window settings.

  1. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  2. Copper and nickel effects on survival and growth of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles in field-collected smelting effluent water.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Joël; Echaubard, Pierre; Trudeau, Vance; Lesbarrères, David

    2016-03-01

    Trace metals can have subtle yet chronic impacts on organisms by inducing physiological stress that reduces their survival or impedes their ability to tolerate additional environmental stressors. The toxicity literature indicates, however, that aquatic organisms react differently to trace metals depending on the environments in which they reside. The objective of the present study was to understand the response of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) larvae to ionic copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and their combination within an effluent water collected downstream of a tailings wetland area. Tadpoles were assigned randomly to 1 of 8 Cu concentrations (8-200 μg/L), 7 Ni concentrations (160-1200 μg/L), or 8 Cu and Ni combined concentrations (8:160-200:1200 μg/L) and showed significant differences in survival and life history traits among treatments. In the Cu and Cu and Ni combined treatments, tadpole survival decreased with increased Cu exposure starting at Cu = 160 μg/L and in the Ni treatment, tadpole survival decreased with increased Ni exposure starting at Ni = 650 μg/L. All Cu-exposed treatments induced a growth increase as the concentration increased, whereas the tadpoles showed a significant decrease in growth rate in Ni treatments. These contrasting outcomes suggest a plastic response to trace metals whereby tadpoles allocate energy reserves toward either escaping or coping with stress. Finally, the authors' argue that future studies will benefit from examining the impacts of multiple stressors in aquatic ecosystems to provide better environmental mitigation. PMID:26329298

  3. Field-Based Evaluation of Two Herbaceous Plant Community Composition Sampling Methods for Long-Term Monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  4. Copper and nickel effects on survival and growth of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles in field-collected smelting effluent water.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Joël; Echaubard, Pierre; Trudeau, Vance; Lesbarrères, David

    2016-03-01

    Trace metals can have subtle yet chronic impacts on organisms by inducing physiological stress that reduces their survival or impedes their ability to tolerate additional environmental stressors. The toxicity literature indicates, however, that aquatic organisms react differently to trace metals depending on the environments in which they reside. The objective of the present study was to understand the response of northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) larvae to ionic copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and their combination within an effluent water collected downstream of a tailings wetland area. Tadpoles were assigned randomly to 1 of 8 Cu concentrations (8-200 μg/L), 7 Ni concentrations (160-1200 μg/L), or 8 Cu and Ni combined concentrations (8:160-200:1200 μg/L) and showed significant differences in survival and life history traits among treatments. In the Cu and Cu and Ni combined treatments, tadpole survival decreased with increased Cu exposure starting at Cu = 160 μg/L and in the Ni treatment, tadpole survival decreased with increased Ni exposure starting at Ni = 650 μg/L. All Cu-exposed treatments induced a growth increase as the concentration increased, whereas the tadpoles showed a significant decrease in growth rate in Ni treatments. These contrasting outcomes suggest a plastic response to trace metals whereby tadpoles allocate energy reserves toward either escaping or coping with stress. Finally, the authors' argue that future studies will benefit from examining the impacts of multiple stressors in aquatic ecosystems to provide better environmental mitigation.

  5. Reconstruction of Cenozoic paleostress fields and revised tectonic history in the northern part of the Central Western Carpathians (the Spišská Magura and Východné Tatry Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtko, Rastislav; Tokárováá, Eva; Sliva, Ľubomír; Pešková, Ivana

    2010-06-01

    This study investigates the chronology of paleostress evolution and faulting in the northern part of the Central Western Carpathians (Spišská Magura and Východné Tatry Mts). Paleostress analysis of brittle and semibrittle structures of the Eocene-Oligocene succession of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin (CCPB) supplemented by measurements in the Triassic sequence of the Krížna Nappe, revealed the existence of six tectonic regimes during the Cenozoic. Orientation of the paleostress field before the deposition of the CCPB was characterized by the E-W oriented compression. After this compression, the paleostress field rotated approximately 40-50°, and NW-SE directed compression took place in the Early Miocene. During the latest Early Miocene, the extensional tectonic regime with fluctuation of σ3 orientation between NW-SE to NE-SW dominated. The Late Badenian-Pannonian is characterized by a new compressive to strike-slip tectonic regime during which the principal maximum stress axis σ1 progressively rotated from a NW-SE to a NE-SW position. Uplift and tilting of the Tatra Massif took place during this stage. The neotectonic stage (Pliocene to Holocene) is characterized by extensional tectonic regime with the two directions of tension. The first one is oriented in the E-W direction and could be considered older and the second one, NNW-SSE tension is considered to be Late Pliocene to Quaternary in age. In general, orientation of the stress fields shows an apparent clockwise rotation from the Oligocene to Quaternary times. This general clockwise rotation of the Oligocene to Quaternary paleostress fields could be explained by both the effect of the counter-clockwise rotation of the ALCAPA microplate and by the regional stress field changes.

  6. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture in regions with high production potential is a prerequisite for providing services for an increasing human population, not only food, animal feed, fiber and biofuel but also to promote biodiversity and the beauty of landscapes. We investigated the effect of different management practices on soil fertility and carbon sequestration in long-term experiments, mainly from Northern Europe. In addition, a meta-analysis on the effect of catch crops was conducted. Improved management of croplands was found to be a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of different management practices such as N fertilization, organic amendments, catch crops and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks. Increasing net primary productivity (NPP) was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between those of continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. The annual C accumulation rate for catch crops determined in the meta-analysis was well within that range (0.32±0.08 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely in a decadal time scale. Retention of root and rhizodeposit carbon was higher than for above-ground crop residues. We conclude that NPP is the major driver for C sequestration and emphasize that increased soil

  7. Krasnotur'insk Skarn copper ore field, Northern Urals: The U-Pb age of ore-controlling diorites and their place in the regional metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabezhev, A. I.; Ronkin, Yu. L.; Puchkov, V. N.; Gerdes, A.; Rovnushkin, M. Yu.

    2014-06-01

    The Krasnotur'insk skarn copper ore field known from the theoretical works of Academician K.S. Korzhinskii is located in the western part of the Tagil volcanic zone (in the area of the town of Krasnotur'insk). The ore field is composed of layered Devonian (Emsian) volcanosedimentary rocks intruded by small plutons of quartz diorites, diorites, and gabbrodiorites. Widespread pre-ore and intra-ore dikes of similar composition control the abundance of the andradite skarns formed after limestones and the magnetitesulfide and sulfide ore bodies formed after skarns. The LA-ICP-MS U-Pb concordant age of zircon from the quartz diorite of the Vasil'evsko-Moskalevskii pluton calculated by 16 analyses (16 crystals) is 407.7 ± 1.6 Ma (MSWD = 1.5). Taking into account the geological and petrogeochemical similarity of diorites of small plutons and intra-ore dikes, it is assumed that this age corresponds to the period of formation of the ore-magmatic system of the Krasnotur'insk skarn copper ore field. It was probably formed somewhat earlier than the Auerbakh montzonitic pluton and the accompanying skarn magnetite deposits in the south.

  8. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  9. Storage-Dependent Drainable Porosity Implemented in the Hillslope-Storage Boussinesq Model: An application to Field Data From a Site in Northern Idaho, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberts, A.; Troch, P.; Boll, J.; Brooks, E.

    2004-12-01

    Specific yield is a parameter used to quantify the available amount of water for drainage. The instantaneous release of water from the aquifer during drainage however is determined by a related parameter, viz drainable porosity. In this work we present an analytical expression for drainable porosity as a function of water table depth and soil hydraulic parameters. This expression allows us to extend the hillslope-storage Boussinesq equation, recently introduced by the authors, to account for some of the effects of the unsaturated zone on dynamic hydrological behavior during free drainage from complex hillslopes. The concept of a storage-dependent drainable porosity is evaluated by comparing simulation results to field data, which were obtained from a site in Troy, Idaho, where a shallow silt loam soil layer is overlying a fragipan. Evaluation of the model is based on measurements of water table height, soil moisture and outflow. The field site is characterized by the influence of macropores, a decreasing saturated hydraulic conductivity with depth, and a small drainable porosity. Modeling of these data involved making the saturated hydraulic conductivity a function of the depth to the water table, and allowing for variable precipitation inputs.

  10. Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    WAP scores and weighted average scores for wetland vegetation were generally consistent with the results of the flooded area analysis. The WAP scores and weighted average scores were higher overall and did not decline with time at four wetlands in well fields (W-33, W-56, Starkey N, and Starkey 108) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates. These four wetlands also had increases in the extent and duration of the flooded area during the post-reduction period. Scores for trees were more consistent than scores for shrubs and groundcover. WAP scores remained relatively low or generally declined at five well-field wetlands (Q-1, W-17, W-41, Starkey D, and Starkey E) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates, and weighted average scores either declined over time or remained low. These five wetlands either did not have an increase in the extent and duration of the flooded area, or if there was an increase, it was small.

  11. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of Carbonate Rocks as a Proxy for the Strain Field near the Dead Sea Transform in Northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, Ran; Levi, Tsafrir; Weinberger, Ram; Marco, Shmuel

    2014-05-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes (k1, k2, k3) and magnitudes as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) were measured. The low-field bulk-susceptibility of Bar-Kokhba limestone formation is -10.67±1.69 [µSI], very close to the value of a single calcite crystal. Thermomagnetic curves show temperature independent and reversible behavior. Chemical composition analysis indicates minor amounts of Fe contents <300 ppm. Results of XRD diffraction and petrofabric study of thin-sections and SEM images indicate that the Bar-Kokhba rocks are calcite mono-mineralic rocks. The magnetic fabrics are solely controlled by the alignment of c-axes of almost pure calcite crystals and help to assess the direction of the maximum shortening prevailing post-deposition and during the tectonic evolution of the DST. In one studied site, high Fe contents <6000 ppm were found, which are associated with young morphological processes of chemical alteration. In this site, thermomagnetic curves indicate temperature dependency and irreversibility. IRM curves show saturation around 200 mT, evidence of ferro/ferimagnetic minerals. AARM measurements reveal isotropic fabric which suggesting that the ferro/ferimagnetic minerals are contributing no anisotropy to the AMS. The AMS of the diamagnetic fabric is masked by a paramagnetic fabric of Fe-bearing minerals. Using liner correlation between Fe content and bulk susceptibility we applied a novel tensor subtraction method and successfully isolated the diamagnetic fabric from the total AMS. The paramagnetic fabric has characteristics of sedimentary fabrics, while that of the diamagnetic fabric has tectonic characteristics. The isolation process indicates that the AMS of carbonate rocks is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase, where the Fe content is below 500 ppm. Differences in the degree of

  12. [Effects of no-tillage on soil water content and physical properties of spring corn fields in semiarid region of northern China].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Ying; Peng, Wen-Ying; Ma, Xiu; Zhang, Ke-Li

    2011-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in 2006-2008 to study the effects of no-tillage on the spatiotemporal dynamics of soil water content and related soil physical properties in spring corn fields in Beijing region during growth season. In study period, the water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer in tillage and no-tillage treatments had the same variation trend with time and precipitation, but the water storage at different time periods and under different precipitations was 2.7%-30.3% higher in no-tillage treatment than in tillage treatment. When the precipitation was relatively abundant, the increment of soil water storage was somewhat increased, but no-tillage was still worth to be popularized in the regions relatively deficit in precipitation. Under no-tillage, the average water storage in 0-100 cm soil layer during the three growth seasons in 2006-2008 was 3.4%-12.8% higher than that under conventional tillage, and the increment of the water storage in 0-20 cm and 80-100 cm soil layers under no-tillage was higher than that in intermediate layer, with the highest increment reached 22.2%. No-tillage improved soil water-holding capacity and water use efficiency via decreasing soil bulk density, increasing soil porosity, and promoting the formation of soil water-stable aggregates, and thereby, promoted crop yielding. After 3 years no-tillage, the soil water use efficiency and spring corn yield were increased by 13.3% and 16.4%, respectively, compared with those under conventional tillage.

  13. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-01-01

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov

  14. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    the evolution of the basin. Furthermore, results demonstrate that integration of accurate photo-geological maps produced through API and geological field mapping, can contribute to: (i) characterize the tectono-stratigraphic architecture and the geomorphological evolution of continental basins, (ii) help mineral reserves investigation, (iii) provide new input for active tectonic studies, (iv) produce new geological maps in other continental and marine basins, where field data are hard to collect.

  15. Chemistry of hydrothermal vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: Geochemical controls in the aftermath of June 1999 seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, W. E.; Seewald, J. S.; Berndt, M. E.; Ding, Kang; Foustoukos, D. I.

    2003-09-01

    In June 1999, an intense swarm of earthquakes occurred on the Endeavour segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge influencing hydrothermal activity in and around the Main Endeavour Field (MEF). Here we report the dissolved concentrations of 31 species from five high-temperature vents sampled 3 months after the seismic event. The spatial variability of vent fluid chemistry is extreme. Vapor-dominated vent fluids at Cantilever and Sully sites have high measured temperatures (375°-379°C), high dissolved gas and boron concentrations, but low SiO2. Modeling results indicate that these fluids can be accounted for by supercritical phase separation and brine condensation. Other vent fluids have moderate temperatures (340°-366°C) and chloride concentrations (208-426 mmol/kg), and may result from mixing of supercritical, vapor-rich fluids with evolved seawater. Phase equilibria calculations indicate that in addition to chloride, redox, temperature, and especially pressure play key roles in accounting for compositional variability of vent fluids at MEF. In comparison with earlier (1988) data, the 1999 data set reveals significantly lower chloride concentrations and higher boron, whereas alkali and alkaline earth cations are lower by 10-20% in keeping with chloride decrease. That dissolved chloride, boron, and other elements returned to preevent levels when again sampled in 2000 provide additional data documenting the inherently dynamic nature of hydrothermal systems at mid-ocean ridges.

  16. The questa magmatic system: Petrologic, chemical and isotopic variations in cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the latir volcanic field and associated intrusives, northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Field, chemical and isotopic data demonstrate that nearly all igneous rocks at Questa resulted from interactions between mantle-derived parental magmas and the crust. Strontium, neodymium and lead isotope ratios of early andesites to rhyolites (28 to 26 Ma) indicate that these magmas assimilated > 25% lower crust. Injection of basaltic magmas extensively modified the strontium and neodymium but not the lead isotope compositions of the lower crust. Eruption of comendite magmas and the peralkaline Amalia Tuff 26 Ma is correlated with inception of regional extension. Lead isotope ratios identify different sources for the metaluminous granites and the peralkaline rocks. 26 Ma metaluminous granite to granodiorite intrusions have chemical and isotopic compositions to those of the precaldera intermediate-composition rocks, and are interpreted as representing the solidified equivalents of the precaldera magmatic episode. However, both conventional and ion-microprobe isotopic data prohibit significant assimilation of crustal rocks at the level of exposure, suggesting that the plutons were emplaced a relatively crystal-rich mushes which did not have sufficient heat to assimilate country rocks. This suggest that in some cases plutonic rocks are better than volcanic rocks in representing the isotopic compositions of their source regions, because the assimilation potential of crystal-rich magmas is significantly less than that of largely liquid magmas.

  17. Quantitative Interpretation of Arctic Tundra Attributes Using Remote Sensing: Leveraging Field Data, Modern- and Legacy Landsat Data, and Commercial Imagery in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V., Jr.; Macander, M. J.; Nelson, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated analysis of ground-based vegetation data and remote sensing supports vegetation mapping, landscape-change detection, wildlife habitat assessment, and tracking of phenological events such as green-up and senescence. The life-cycles of tundra plants occur within a highly compressed seasonal window, making the quantitative assessment of vegetation and landscape attributes from ≤30m resolution remotely-sensed imagery, such as above-ground biomass, % shrub cover, and % surface water, a difficult task when applied across large study domains. To support mapping of vegetation and landscape attributes across ~100,000 km2 of Alaska's North Slope, we obtained ground data for tundra vegetation using a point-intercept sampling approach across a network of 107 field plots spanning gradients of bioclimate, landscape position (upland, lowland, riverine), and geomorphic setting (foothills, coastal plain). At each plot, vegetation data were collected along three 50-m linear transects, compatible with 30-m Landsat imagery. We summarized live vegetation, litter, and non-vegetated surfaces using three terms: top cover (uppermost "hit"), percent cover (total areal cover along transect), and hit density (all "hits" at a point). We then evaluated a suite of data models (e.g., General Additive Models, classification tree, clustering) and data-mining approaches (e.g., neural networks, random forest) using midsummer Landsat TM/ETM+ acquisitions since 1985, and OLI acquisitions for 2013-2014. The large size, frequent cloudiness, and interannual variability of the study area necessitated the compositing of a multitude of Landsat scenes. A median NDVI compositing technique was used to select Landsat observations from cloud- and shadow-free pixels that met day-of-year and year constraints. This technique produced seamless, phenologically consistent composites that are largely free of artifacts and suitable for regional-scale analysis. Ground-based training data and an archive of

  18. Field testing and adaptation of a methodology to measure "in-stream" values in the Tongue River, northern Great Plains (NGP) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Gore, James A.; Silverman, Arnold J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive, multi-component in-stream flow methodology was developed and field tested in the Tongue River in southeastern Montana. The methodology incorporates a sensitivity for the flow requirements of a wide variety of in-stream uses, and the flexibility to adjust flows to accommodate seasonal and sub-seasonal changes in the flow requirements for different areas. In addition, the methodology provides the means to accurately determine the magnitude of the water requirement for each in-stream use. The methodology can be a powerful water management tool in that it provides the flexibility and accuracy necessary in water use negotiations and evaluation of trade-offs. In contrast to most traditional methodologies, in-stream flow requirements were determined by additive independent methodologies developed for: 1) fisheries, including spawning, rearing, and food production; 2) sediment transport; 3) the mitigation of adverse impacts of ice; and 4) evapotranspiration losses. Since each flow requirement varied in important throughout the year, the consideration of a single in-stream use as a basis for a flow recommendation is inadequate. The study shows that the base flow requirement for spawning shovelnose sturgeon was 13.0 m3/sec. During the same period of the year, the flow required to initiate the scour of sediment from pools is 18.0 m3/sec, with increased scour efficiency occurring at flows between 20.0 and 25.0 m3/sec. An over-winter flow of 2.83 m3/sec. would result in the loss of approximately 80% of the riffle areas to encroachment by surface ice. At the base flow for insect production, approximately 60% of the riffle area is lost to ice. Serious damage to the channel could be incurred from ice jams during the spring break-up period. A flow of 12.0 m3/sec. is recommended to alleviate this problem. Extensive ice jams would be expected at the base rearing and food production levels. The base rearing flow may be profoundly influenced by the loss of streamflow

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  20. Field guide to sedimentary structures in the Navajo and Entrada sandstones in southern Utah and northern Arizona: Chapter in Field-trip guidebook, 100th annual meeting, The Geological Society of America, Phoenix, Arizona, October 26-29, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Hunter, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    This field-trip guide describes the common sedimentary structures that occur in eolian sands. The outcrops that are described occur in the Navajo and Entiaia Sandstones between the areas of Page, Arizona and St. George, Utah (figure I), but the sedimentary structures of these two sandstones are typical of most eolian deposits. The main part of the guide discusses the geologic setting and the origin of the various structures, and the road log discusses which structures are best displayed at selected outcrops.

  1. The nature and origin of off-fault damage surrounding strike-slip fault zones with a wide range of displacements: A field study from the Atacama fault system, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, T. M.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2009-08-01

    Damage surrounding the core of faults is represented by deformation on a range of scales from microfracturing of the rock matrix to macroscopic fracture networks. The spatial distribution and geometric characterization of damage at various scales can help to predict fault growth processes, subsequent mechanics, bulk hydraulic and seismological properties of a fault zone. Within the excellently exposed Atacama fault system, northern Chile, micro- and macroscale fracture densities and orientation surrounding strike-slip faults with well-constrained displacements ranging over nearly 5 orders of magnitude (˜0.12 m-5000 m) have been analyzed. Faults have been studied that cut granodiorite and have been passively exhumed from 6 to 10 km depth. This allows direct comparison of the damage surrounding faults of different displacements. The faults consist of a fault core and associated damage zone. Macrofractures in the damage zone are predominantly shear fractures orientated at high angles to the faults studied. They have a reasonably well-defined exponential decrease with distance from the fault core. Microfractures are a combination of open, healed, partially healed and fluid inclusion planes (FIPs). FIPs are the earliest set of fractures and show an exponential decrease in fracture density with perpendicular distance from the fault core. Later microfractures do not show a clear relationship of microfracture density with perpendicular distance from the fault core. Damage zone widths defined by the density of FIPs scale with fault displacement but appear to reach a maximum at a few km displacement. One fault, where damage was characterized on both sides of the fault core shows no damage asymmetry. All faults appear to have a critical microfracture density at the fault core/damage zone boundary that is independent of displacement. An empirical relationship for microfracture density distribution with displacement is presented. Preferred FIP orientations have a high angle to

  2. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  3. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  4. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  5. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sam Y S; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Mayo, Sherry C; Wang, Yu Dan; Wang, Hai Peng

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials.

  6. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Preliminary vitrinite reflectance study of the post-Acadian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formation, northern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.

  8. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  9. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  10. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  11. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  12. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  14. Relief history and denudation evolution of the northern Tibet margin: Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He dating and implications for far-field effect of rising plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Feng, Huile; Shi, Wenbei; Zhang, Weibin; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Wang, Yinzhi; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-04-01

    How does the rising Tibetan Plateau affect its peripheral region? The current understanding of the mechanism of orogenic plateau development is incomplete and thus no consensus yet exists in this regard. However, our new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He dataset presented in this study may shed some light on this issue. 40Ar/39Ar dating, on two vertical transects from the massif between Nuomuhong and Golmud, indicates that the Eastern Kunlun Range was built-up and exhumated during the later Triassic initially, and a minimum overburden of ~ 11.7-14.0 km has been eroded since ~ 220 Ma. (U-Th)/He age-elevation relationships (AERs) indicate a rapid exhumation event at ~ 40 Ma following a long period of slow exhumation phase from late Mesozoic to early Eocene time. In this study, two scenarios - one assuming a single stage and the other assuming multiple stages of evolution history - are modeled. Modeling of a multiple stage scenario is reasonable and is able to reflect the "actual" situation, which reveals the entire denudation and relief history of the northern Tibet from late Mesozoic to the present time. After prolonged denudation before 50 Ma, a low topography (~ 0.17 times the relief of the present) developed by 50 Ma with an erosion rate of 0.013-0.013+ 0.025 mm/yr. The highest relief (~ 1.82 times the relief of the present) of the Cenozoic time came into being at 40 Ma with an erosion rate of 0.052 ± 0.025 mm/yr, which was possibly a result of the collision between India and Eurasia. Subsequently, the relief steadily decreased to the present level due to continued denudation. This suggests that deformation propagation from the continued convergence boundary between India and Eurasia was insignificant after the construction of the highest relief. This observation is broadly consistent with published accounts on the stratigraphic, cooling, and faulting histories of the northern Tibet margin.

  15. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  16. WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  17. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  18. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data - an approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.

    2015-12-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous synextensional deposits recognized within the basin, suggest that its structure could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  19. Geometry of the inverted Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin based on 2-D gravity and field data. An approach to the structure of the western Central Andes of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, F.; Maksymowicz, A.; Ochoa, H.; Díaz, D.

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses an integrated approach that provides new ideas about the structural geometry of the NNE-striking, Cretaceous Chañarcillo Basin located along the eastern Coastal Cordillera in the western Central Andes of northern Chile (27-28° S). The results obtained from the integration of two transverse (E-W) gravity profiles with previous geological information, show that the architecture of this basin is defined by a large NNE-SSE-trending and east-vergent anticline ("Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium"), which is related to the positive reactivation of a former Cretaceous normal fault (Elisa de Bordos Master Fault). Moreover, intercalations of high and low gravity anomalies and steep gravity gradients reveal a set of buried, west-tilted half-grabens associated with a synthetic normal fault pattern. These results, together with the uplift and folding style of the Cretaceous syn-rift recognized within the basin, suggest that their complete structural geometry could be explained by an inverted fault system linked to the shortening of pre-existing Cretaceous normal fault systems. Ages of the synorogenic deposits exposed unconformably over the frontal limb of the Tierra Amarilla Anticlinorium confirm a Late Cretaceous age for the Andean deformation and tectonic inversion of the basin.

  20. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  1. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  2. Mars’ Northern Dunes: Volatiles and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Bridges, N.; Bourke, M.; Byrne, S.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; Herkenhoff, K.; McEwen, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.; Colon, C.

    2010-10-01

    Mars has a vast sea of sand dunes at high northern latitudes known as the north polar erg. These dunes are blanketed with seasonal CO2 frost in the winter and early spring. Sharp dune crests, steep slipfaces and lack of craters suggest that these northern dunes have experienced geologically recent resurfacing. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaged a limited number of sites in the dunes with resolution better than 1 m to look for changes. New HiRISE images show extensive erosion of northern hemisphere dunes associated with seasonal CO2 ice sublimation in the spring. With 2 Mars years of observations we have observed the CO2-ice-free state of the dunes in the first year, frost-covered in late winter, the spring sublimation process, and the ice-free state of the dunes again in the second year. Temporal sequences of images of individual sites were acquired to monitor the sublimation process throughout spring. Ice-free images have been compared between northern summer in MRO year 1 (Mars Year 29) and MRO year 2. New alcoves and aprons are detected on numerous dunes in several sites. In one particular barchan dune field 20% of the dunes show substantial changes and 20% show minor changes. These changes can be traced to locations of early enhanced CO2 ice sublimation. The sublimation activity manifests itself on the dunes as cracks along the dune crest from which dark streaks of sand and dust move down the slipface. The sand travels out onto patterned ground, enabling measurement of the extent of the new aprons, in some cases meters from the dune boundary one year earlier. In order to maintain fresh dunes against such erosion the dune-building processes must still be at work on Mars today. This work was partially supported by JPL/CIT/NASA.

  3. 75 FR 13524 - Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company, Southern Natural Gas Company, Florida Gas Transmission Company, LLC, Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Company, LLC, Enterprise Field Services, LLC; Notice of Application March 16, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Northern Natural Gas...

  4. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  5. 8. Another environmental view, from the northern bridge approach looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Another environmental view, from the northern bridge approach looking south along 74th Place, through the roadbed. Grain fields which have been harvested can be seen in the background. The bridge's characteristic profile and balustrade are prominent. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  6. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  7. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  8. The interaction of a magnetic cloud with the Earth - Ionospheric convection in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for a wide range of quasi-steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Hairston, M. R.; Greenspan, M. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations are presented of the ionospheric convection in cross sections of the polar cap and auroral zone as part of the study of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the magnetic cloud of January 13-15, 1988. For strongly northward IMF, the convection in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a two-cell convection pattern comfined to high latitudes with sunward flow over the pole. The strength of the flows is comparable to that later seen under southward IMF. Superimposed on this convection pattern there are clear dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with a one-cell convection component whose sense depends on the polarity of the magnetic cloud's large east-west magnetic field component. When the cloud's magnetic field turns southward, the convection is characterized by a two-cell pattern extending to lower latitude with antisunward flow over the pole. There is no evident interhemispheric difference in the structure and strength of the convection. Superimposed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the flow patterns are observed which are only in part attributable to the east-west component of the magnetic field.

  9. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  10. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  11. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  12. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  13. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  14. Models, data available, and data requirements for estimating the effects of injecting saltwater into disposal wells in the greater Altamont- Bluebell oil and gas field, northern Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freethey, Geoffrey W.

    1988-01-01

    Permits for disposing of salty oil-production water have been issued for 19 wells in the Greater Altamont-Bluebell field, Utah. During 1986 more than 500 million gal of production water were injected into the Duchesne River, the Uinta, and the Green River Formations through 18 of these wells. The physical and chemical effects of injecting this water on aquifers containing potable water are poorly understood. Interfingering and the structural configuration of these formations add complexity to the description of the geometry and hydrogeology of the groundwater system. A preliminary assessment of the problem indicates that numerical modeling may offer a method of estimating the hydrologic and hydrochemical effects of injection. Modeling possibilities include variable-density, three-dimensional flow, sectional transport, and areal transport modeling. Data needed to develop these models can be derived from a synthesis of geologic, hydrologic, and hydrochemical data already available in the files of State and Federal agencies, oil companies, and private data-base companies. Results from each modeling phase would contribute information for implementing the following phase. The result would be a better understanding of how water moves naturally through the groundwater system, the extent of alterations of both vertical and horizontal flow near the disposal wells, and an overall concept of the effects of deep injection on near-surface aquifers. (USGS)

  15. Gaspé Belt subsurface geometry in the northern Québec Appalachians as revealed by an integrated geophysical and geological study: 2 — Seismic interpretation and potential field modelling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Geological information, seismic reflection profiles and potential field data are used to study the geometry of the Middle Paleozoic Gaspé Belt (eastern Canada) that has been interpreted in various ways in the past. On the western edge of the Gaspé Belt, in the Matapédia area, growth strata are imaged on seismic profiles and testify of normal (or transtensional) motion during the period spanning the Silurian (and possibly Late Ordovician) to earliest Devonian along several faults, including the Shickshock-Sud Fault. In this area, Acadian deformation during the Middle to Late Devonian is associated with relatively modest shortening (less than 20%) accommodated by broad open folds, steeply-dipping neo-formed faults and inversion of previously formed faults. Neo-formed faults cut the entire Middle Paleozoic succession and offset the Ordovician Taconian unconformity suggesting that no sedimentary interval acted as an efficient décollement level. Toward the SE, the Sainte-Florence Fault divides rock assemblages with different paleogeographic settings and structural styles. Increase in tectonic complexity and amount of shortening to the south of the fault is interpreted as resulting of a vise effect between two basement blocks.

  16. First oilfields of the Central and Northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. ); Martin, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Only 25 years ago the areas now termed the Central and Northern North Sea were the true frontier exploration basins. Stratigraphy and structure were essentially unknown, except inferences drawn from the Mesozoic outcrops of Britain and Denmark. At that time the majority of small British onshore oil fields were reservoired in Paleozoic strata. In the Central North Sea, oil was first discovered in Paleocene deep-water sandstone and Upper Cretaceous chalk reservoirs. The first commercial reserves were proven with the discovery of the Ekofisk field (Upper Cretaceous) in 1969 and Forties field (Paleocene) in 1970, both now classed as giants. Subsequently stratigraphically deeper reservoirs were established, including Jurassic sandstones (Piper field) and Permian carbonates and sandstones (Auk and Argyll fields). Diversity of trap type and reservoir age is now a hallmark of the Central North Sea basin. In the Northern North Sea, the first exploration well in 1971 on the Brent field structure, a true wildcat whose nearest UK well control was 320 mi to the south, found oil in Middle Jurassic deltaic sandstones. A spate of discoveries on similar tilted fault blocks with Middle Jurassic and underlying Triassic alluvial-fluvial sandstone targets followed. Later, Upper Jurassic deep-water sandstones became established as a further significant reservoir with the Brae field and Magnus field discoveries. Original seismic data, well prognoses, and structure maps tell the story of these early discoveries. Public response in Norway and the UK to the emergence of the North Sea oil province on their doorstep will be reviewed.

  17. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  18. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.70 Northern Sonoma. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Sonoma... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000,...

  19. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.70 Northern Sonoma. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Sonoma... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000,...

  20. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  1. 21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, T1S-R3E, SHOWING NON-PROJECT LAND, STILL DESERT, IN FOREGROUND AND CULTIVATED FIELDS OF THE SALT RIVER PROJECT BELOW THE CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. A SMALL PORTION OF NON-IRRIGABLE LAND BELOW THE CANAL IS SHOWN AT LEFT, March 1990 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  3. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  4. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  5. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  6. Reappraisal of the relationship between the northern Nevada rift and Miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Nevada rift is a prominent mafic dike swarm and magnetic anomaly in north-central Nevada inferred to record the Middle Miocene (16.5-15.0 Ma) extension direction in the northern Basin and Range province in the western United States. From the 245°-250° rift direction, Basin and Range extension is inferred to have shifted 45° clockwise to a modern direction of 290°-300° during the late Miocene. The region surrounding the northern Nevada rift was actively extending while the rift formed, and these domains are all characterized by extension oriented 280°-300°. This direction is distinctly different from the rift direction and nearly identical to the modern Basin and Range direction. Although the rate, structural style, and distribution of Basin and Range extension appear to have undergone a significant change in the late Miocene (ca. 10 Ma), the overall spreading direction does not. Middle Miocene extension was directed perpendicular to the axis of the thickest crust formed during Mesozoic shortening and this orientation may reflect gravitational collapse of this thick crust. Orientation of northern Nevada rift dikes may reflect a short-lived regional stress field related to the onset of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism.

  7. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  8. Early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Ren; Wei, Hong-Hong; Wu, Guo-Li; Duan, Liang

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to reconstruct early Mesozoic tectonic settings of the northern North China craton based on investigations of Triassic-Middle Jurassic successions and age determinations of some lithostratigraphic units and dikes cutting tilted early Mesozoic strata. It used to be regarded that the northern North China craton experienced fold-thrust deformations in the Triassic to Early Jurassic based on the occurrences of unconformity beneath Triassic/Lower Jurassic units, synorogenic conglomerate, and Late Triassic thrusting. We revisited early Mesozoic stratigraphy of the Xiabancheng basin in the middle Yanshan belt to restore tectonic environments during that period of time. Detrital zircon data reveal that the Liujiagou and Ermaying Formations are actually of Middle and Late Triassic ages, respectively. Field observations show that the Ermaying and Xingshikou Formations are conformable, making up a sequence from fluvial to alluvial-fan facies. It is also noticeable that Lower-Middle Jurassic Xingshikou through Xiahuayuan succession is typified by fining- and deepening-upward depositional trend and contains abundant volcaniclastic rocks, indicative of continued subsidence of the Xiabancheng basin in a volcanic setting. All the results cast doubts on the long-held view that the first phase of shortening in the northern North China craton happened in the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic. The angular unconformity beneath Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan volcanics registered shortening in the northern North China craton, which plausibly took place around 170 Ma on account of zircon U-Pb ages of two dikes penetrating deformed Middle Triassic-Lower Jurassic strata and ages of Tiaojishan volcanics above the unconformity. Given the widespread occurrence of magmatism, rift basins and metamorphic core complexes during the Triassic and Early Jurassic, it follows that the northern North China craton was more likely under an extensional setting during the early Mesozoic.

  9. Modeling snow season controls on northern net ecosystem exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luus, K. A.; Lin, J. C.; Kelly, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Recent field studies have indicated that the timing of snow melt and snow fall, the quantity of snow, and soil temperature are important controls on snow season net ecosystem exchange (NEE). The low thermal conductivity of snow reduces soil heat loss, thereby enabling a greater rate of subnivean respiration under deeper snowpacks, whereas snow melt and snow fall alter the seasonal timing of photosynthetic uptake. Although a substantial portion of annual NEE in northern regions occurs during the snow season, model estimates have not previously included representations of snow season controls on NEE. The objective of this study was therefore to 1) incorporate remotely sensed estimates of snow water equivalent, soil temperature, and the timing of initial snow fall and final snow melt into model estimates of northern NEE; and 2) examine whether incorporating representations of key snow season variables reduces model uncertainty. NEE was estimated using the Vegetation Photosynthesis Respiration Model (VPRM), a simple diagnostic biosphere model that relies on a remote sensing based approach. Findings indicate that a potential exists to improve northern estimates of NEE by incorporating information on snow season controls from remote sensing observations. Soil respiration can be better assessed using soil temperature rather than surface air temperature. The influence of changes in snow water equivalent on soil temperature dynamics can be assessed using remotely sensed estimates of snow water equivalent. Incorporating remotely sensed estimates of snow cover area can improve the timing of seasonal changes in photosynthetic uptake. Furthermore, including snow season controls on northern NEE can enable experiments to be run analyzing the influence of changes in snowpack dynamics, the frequency of extreme winter warming events, and the timing of the snow season on northern NEE.

  10. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  11. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  12. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  13. Road facilitation of trematode infections in snails of northern Alaska.

    PubMed

    Urban, Mark C

    2006-08-01

    Road disturbances can influence wildlife health by spreading disease agents and hosts or by generating environmental conditions that sustain these agent and host populations. I evaluated field patterns of trematode infections in snails inhabiting ponds at varying distances from the Dalton Highway, a wilderness road that intersects northern Alaska. I also assessed the relationships between trematode infections and snail densities and six environmental variables: calcium concentration, aquatic vegetative cover canopy cover temperature, pond size, and community structure. Presence of trematode infections and snail density were negatively correlated with distance from the highway. Of the pond characteristics measured, only calcium concentration and vegetation density declined with distance from road. However neither variable was positively associated with snail density or trematode presence. One potential explanation for observed patterns is that vehicles, road maintenance, or vertebrate vectors attracted to the highway facilitate colonization of snails or trematodes. Emerging disease threats to biological diversity in northern ecosystems highlight the importance of understanding how roads affect disease transmission.

  14. Preliminary digital map of cryptocrystalline occurrences in northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Lorre A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose was to identify potential cryptocrystalline material sources for tools used by indigenous people of the northern Nevada portion of the Great Basin. Cryptocrystalline occurrence data combed from the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS, 1995) were combined with sites described in Nevada rockhound guides and entered into a geographic information system (GIS). The map area encompasses northern Nevada (fig.1). This open-file report describes the methods used to convert cryptocrystalline occurrence data into a digital format, documents the file structures, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey's World Wide Web site. Uses of the spatial dataset include, but are not limited to, natural and cultural resource management, interdisciplinary activities, recreational rockhounding, and gold exploration. It is important to note that the accuracy of the spatial data varies widely, and for some purposes, field checks are advised.

  15. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  16. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  17. Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P

    2005-09-22

    Air pressure at sea level during winter has decreased over the Arctic and increased in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics in recent decades, a change that has been associated with 50% of the Eurasian winter warming observed over the past 30 years, with 60% of the rainfall increase in Scotland and with 60% of the rainfall decrease in Spain. This trend is inconsistent with the simulated response to greenhouse-gas and sulphate-aerosol changes, but it has been proposed that other climate influences--such as ozone depletion--could account for the discrepancy. Here I compare observed Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure trends with those simulated in response to all the major human and natural climate influences in nine state-of-the-art coupled climate models over the past 50 years. I find that these models all underestimate the circulation trend. This inconsistency suggests that we cannot yet simulate changes in this important property of the climate system or accurately predict regional climate changes.

  18. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  19. Growth Pattern Responses to Photoperiod across Latitudes in a Northern Damselfly

    PubMed Central

    Śniegula, Szymon; Nilsson-Örtman, Viktor; Johansson, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background Latitudinal clines in temperature and seasonality impose strong seasonal constraints on ectotherms. Studies of population differentiation in phenotypic plasticity of life history traits along latitudinal gradients are important for understanding how organisms have adapted to seasonal environments and predict how they respond to climate changes. Such studies have been scarce for species with a northern distribution. Methodology/Principle Finding Larvae of the northern damselfly Coenagrion johanssoni originating from semivoltine central, partivoltine northern, and partivoltine northernmost Swedish populations were reared in the laboratory. To investigate whether larvae use photoperiodic cues to induce compensatory growth along this latitudinal gradient, larvae were reared under two different photoperiods corresponding to a northern and southern latitude. In addition, field adult size was assessed to test the strength of possible compensatory growth mechanisms under natural conditions and hatchling size was measured to test for maternal effects. We hypothesized that populations originating from lower latitudes would be more time constrained than high-latitude populations because they have a shorter life cycle. The results showed that low-latitude populations had higher growth rates in summer/fall. In general northern photoperiods induced higher growth rates, but this plastic response to photoperiod was strongest in the southernmost populations and negligible in the northernmost population. During spring, central populations grew faster under the southern rather than the northern photoperiod. On the other hand, northern and northernmost populations did not differ between each other and grew faster in the northern rather than in the southern photoperiod. Field sampled adults did not differ in size across the studied regions. Conclusion/Significance We found a significant differentiation in growth rate across latitudes and latitudinal difference in growth rate

  20. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  1. Woodcock nesting habitat in northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, L.E.; Hale, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Of 32 woodcock nests studied in northern Wisconsin, 29 were in forest stands dominated by aspen, and 3 were in northern hardwoods. Well-drained, upland nest sites near the brushy edges of poorly stocked poletimber stands were apparently preferred. More than 30 woody plant species were found at the 32 nest sites. Hazel was the most important shrub species noted.

  2. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  3. Political Strategies in Northern School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David J.; And Others

    This is a study of school desegregation as it was fought in 91 Northern and Western Cities between 1963 and 1969. In the summer of 1963, the de facto school segregation issue exploded in dozens of Northern cities; in the next 6 years school integration was front page news in most cities. What this book attempts to do in effect is to record a…

  4. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  5. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  6. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  7. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  8. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  9. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia.

  10. Is there continental crust underneath the northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Coastal Plains?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinweber, Volker Thor; Jokat, W.

    2011-07-01

    To draw conclusions about the crustal nature and history of the Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge, systematic potential field data were obtained during the AISTEK III cruise with R/V Pelagia in 2009. This paper presents and interprets the results of that expedition. The new magnetic data reveal a pattern of linear magnetic spreading anomalies, NW-SE trending in the southwestern part of the Mozambique Ridge and E-W trending on its central part. The Ariel Graben, which separates the Mozambique Ridge from the Northern Natal Valley, is represented by a pronounced negative anomaly in the magnetic- as well as the free-air gravity field. The Northern Natal Valley bears a complicated pattern of anomalies with mainly SW-NE trends. In the Northern Natal Valley, no indications for a continent-ocean-boundary between continental crust in the north and oceanic crust in the south exist, either in the free-air gravity or in the magnetic field. The magnetic wavelengths of the Mozambique Coastal Plains are similar to those of the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge. Particularly in the gravity data, the Mozambique coastal plains, the Northern Natal Valley and the Mozambique Ridge appear as one continuous geological province. We interpret the region from the Mateke-Sabi monocline in the north to the southwestern tip of the Mozambique Ridge as mainly being floored by thickened oceanic crust.

  11. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  12. Young children's awareness of violence in Northern Ireland: the influence of Northern Irish television in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cairns, E; Hunter, D; Herring, L

    1980-02-01

    Children aged 5 to 6 years living in either a suburb of London or in a small town in Northern Ireland which has been virtually free from violence, were asked to make up stories in response to a series of pictures depicting such things as derelict houses or a train crash. More Northern Irish children mentioned bombs and explosions than did the London children. To investigate the possibility that this knowledge of explosions might be the result of at least incidental exposure to coverage of such events on Northern Irish television news a further study was initiated. Children from another relatively quiet part of Northern Ireland were compared with children from two separate areas of Scotland where television reception is only possible from Northern Ireland and from a third area in Scotland where Northern Ireland television news cannot be received. Children from those areas where Northern Irish television news can be received again outnumbered those from the control area in terms of mentions of the words bomb or explosion. PMID:7357227

  13. Extrusional Tectonics over Plate Corner: an Example in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chia-Yu; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Li, Zhinuo; Lee, Ching-An; Yeh, Chia-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In northern Taiwan, contraction, transcurrent shearing, block rotation and extension are four essential tectonic deformation mechanisms involved in the progressive deformation of this arcuate collision mountain belt. The neotectonic evolution of the Taiwan mountain belt is mainly controlled not only by the oblique convergence between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate but also the corner shape of the plate boundary. Based on field observations and analyses, and taking geophysical data (mostly GPS) and experimental modelling into account, we interpret the curved belt of northern Taiwan as a result of of contractional deformation (with compression, thrust-sheet stacking & folding, back thrust duplex & back folding) that induced vertical extrusion, combined with increasing transcurrent & rotational deformation (with transcurrent faulting, bookshelf-type strike-slip faulting and block rotation) that induced transcurrent/rotational extrusion and extension deformation which in turn induced extensional extrusion. As a consequence, a special type of extrusional folds was formed in association with contractional, transcurrent & rotational and extensional extrusions subsequently. The extrusional tectonics in northern Taiwan reflect a single, albeit complicated, regional pattern of deformation. The crescent-shaped mountain belt of Northeastern Taiwan develops in response to oblique indentation by an asymmetric wedge indenter, retreat of Ryukyu trench and opening of the Okinawa trough.

  14. Extrusional Tectonics at Plate Corner: an Example in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Li, Z.; Yeh, C. H.; Lee, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In northern Taiwan, contraction, transcurrent shearing, block rotation and extension are four essential tectonic deformation mechanisms involved in the progressive deformation of this arcuate collision mountain belt. The neotectonic evolution of the Taiwan mountain belt is mainly controlled not only by the oblique convergence between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate but also the corner shape of the plate boundary. Based on field observations and analyses, and taking geophysical data (mostly GPS) and experimental modelling into account, we interpret the curved belt of northern Taiwan as a result of of contractional deformation (with compression, thrust-sheet stacking & folding, back thrust duplex & back folding) that induced vertical extrusion, combined with increasing transcurrent & rotational deformation (with transcurrent faulting, bookshelf-type strike-slip faulting and block rotation) that induced transcurrent/rotational extrusion and extension deformation which in turn induced extensional extrusion. As a consequence, a special type of extrusional folds was formed in association with contractional, transcurrent & rotational and extensional extrusions subsequently. The extrusional tectonics in northern Taiwan reflect a single, albeit complicated, regional pattern of deformation. The crescent-shaped mountain belt of Northeastern Taiwan develops in response to oblique indentation by an asymmetric wedge indenter and opening of the Okinawa trough at plate corner.

  15. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  16. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems. PMID:22170159

  17. Lick Northern Proper Motion Program. III. Lick NPM2 Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert B.; Klemola, Arnold R.; Jones, Burton F.; Monet, David G.

    2004-09-01

    The Lick Northern Proper Motion (NPM) program, a two-epoch (1947-1988) photographic survey of the northern two-thirds of the sky (δ>~-23deg), has measured absolute proper motions, on an inertial system defined by distant galaxies, for 378,360 stars in the magnitude range 8<~B<~18. The 1993 NPM1 Catalog contains 148,940 stars in 899 fields outside the Milky Way's zone of avoidance. The 2003 NPM2 Catalog contains 232,062 stars in the remaining 347 NPM fields near the plane of the Milky Way. This paper describes the NPM2 star selection, plate measurements, astrometric and photometric data reductions, and catalog compilation. The NPM2 Catalog contains 122,806 faint (B>=14) anonymous stars for astrometry and Galactic studies, 91,648 bright (B<14) positional reference stars, and 34,868 ``special stars'' chosen for astrophysical interest. The NPM2 proper motions are on the ICRS system, via Tycho-2 stars, to an accuracy of 0.6 mas yr-1 in each field. The rms proper-motion precision is 6 mas yr-1. Positional errors average 80 mas at the mean plate epoch 1968, and 200 mas at the NPM2 catalog epoch 2000. NPM2 photographic photometry errors average 0.18 mag in B and 0.20 mag in B-V. The NPM2 Catalog and the updated (to J2000.0) NPM1 Catalog are available at the CDS Strasbourg data center and on the NPM Web site. The NPM2 Catalog completes the Lick Northern Proper Motion program after a half-century of work by three generations of Lick Observatory astronomers. The NPM Catalogs will serve as a database for research in Galactic structure, stellar kinematics, and astrometry.

  18. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  19. Beneficial insect borders provide northern bobwhite brood habitat.

    PubMed

    Moorman, Christopher E; Plush, Charles J; Orr, David B; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  20. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  1. The northern Walker Lane refraction experiment: Pn arrivals and the northern Sierra Nevada root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, John N.; Thelen, Weston; Smith, Shane B.; Scott, James B.; Clark, Matthew; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2004-09-01

    In May 2002, we collected a new crustal refraction profile from Battle Mountain, Nevada across western Nevada, the Reno area, Lake Tahoe, and the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains to Auburn, CA. Mine blasts and earthquakes were recorded by 199 Texan instruments extending across this more than 450-km-long transect. The use of large mine blasts and the ultra-portable Texan recorders kept the field costs of this profile to less than US$10,000. The seismic sources at the eastern end were mining blasts at Barrick's GoldStrike mine. The GoldStrike mine produced several ripple-fired blasts using 8000-44,000 kg of ANFO each, a daily occurrence. First arrivals from the larger GoldStrike blasts are obvious to distances of 300 km in the raw records. First arrivals from a quarry blast west of the survey near Watsonville, CA, located by the Northern California Seismic Network with a magnitude of 2.2, can be picked across the recording array to distances of 600 km. The Watsonville blast provides a western source, nearly reversing the GoldStrike blasts. A small earthquake near Bridgeport, CA. also produced pickable P-wave arrivals across the transect, providing fan-shot data. Arrivals from M5 events in the Mariana and Kuril Islands also appear in the records. This refraction survey observes an unexpectedly deep crustal root under the northern Sierra Nevada range, over 50 km in thickness and possibly centered west of the topographic crest. Pn delays of 4-6 s support this interpretation. At Battle Mountain, Nevada, we observe anomalously thin crust over a limited region perhaps only 150 km wide, with a Moho depth of 19-23 km. Pn crossover distances of less than 80 km support this anomaly, which is surrounded by observations of more normal, 30-km-thick crust. A 10-km-thick and high-velocity lower-crustal "pillow" is an alternative hypothesis, but unlikely due to the lack of volcanics west of Battle Mountain. Large mine and quarry blasts prove very effective crustal refraction sources

  2. Paraffin control in the Northern Michigan Niagaran reef trend

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, M.E.; Addison, G.E.; Barker, K.M.

    1986-05-01

    Wax deposition on downhole equipment and in chokes, flowlines, separators, dehydration and storage equipment is a costly problem in the northern Michigan area called the Niagaran Reef trend. A number of mechanical removal techniques have been used to treat for paraffin. Among these are paraffin cutters, plunger lift, rod scrapers, hot oil or water, plastic coatings, and flowline pigging. Improvements in chemical formulation, testing, and applications have resulted in a number of economically successful chemical programs for paraffin control. Examples of field problems and solutions are presented.

  3. Paraffin control in the Northern Michigan Niagaran Reef Trend

    SciTech Connect

    Newberry, M.E.; Addison, G.E.; Barker, K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Wax deposition on downhole equipment, in chokes, flowlines, separators, dehydration and storage equipment is a costly problem in the Northern Michigan area called the Niagaran Reef Trend. A number of mechanical removal techniques have been used to treat for paraffin. Among these are paraffin cutters, plunger lift, rod scrapers, hot oil or water, plastic coatings and flowline pigging. Improvements in chemical formulating, testing and applications have resulted in a number of economically successful chemical programs for paraffin control. Examples of field problems and solutions are presented.

  4. Indications of Subsurface Ice: Polygons on the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Someone's kitchen floor? A stone patio?This picture actually does show a floor--the floor of an old impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. Each 'tile' is somewhat larger than a football field. Polygonal patterns are familiar to Mars geologists because they are also common in arctic and antarctic environments on Earth. Typically, such polygons result from the stresses induced in frozen ground by the freeze-thaw cycles of subsurface ice. This picture was taken by MOC in May 1999 and is illuminated from the lower left.

  5. STS-56 color infrared Earth observation of northern Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 color infrared Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows the agricultural frontier (rectangular field patterns) impinging on the natural grasslands (pampas) of northern Argentina. Note the sharp delineation between the upland agricultural areas (red and pink rectangles), and the lowland semi-arid grasslands or pampas (shown in violet and purple). In addition, several large smoke plumes associated with biomass burning are visible. These smoke plumes and their burn point sources are considered to be evident of extended agricultural preparations in the lowland pampas.

  6. Biomarker studies in northern Bohemia.

    PubMed Central

    Binková, B; Lewtas, J; Mísková, I; Rössner, P; Cerná, M; Mrácková, G; Peterková, K; Mumford, J; Meyer, S; Srám, R

    1996-01-01

    Studies were conducted in northern Bohemia to simultaneously evaluate personal exposures to air pollution in the form of respirable particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers of exposure, biological effective dose, genetic effects, and metabolic susceptibility. The series of biomarkers included PAH metabolites in urine, urine mutagenicity, PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells determined by 32P-postlabeling, PAH-albumin adducts determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA damage in lymphocytes detected by comet assay, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotypes. For these studies, a group of women who work outdoors about 30% of their daily time was selected. In a pilot study, a group of women from a polluted area of the Teplice district (northern Bohemia) was compared with a group of women from a control district of southern Bohemia (Prachatice). In a follow-up repeated-measures study, a group of nonsmoking women from Teplice was sampled repeatedly during the winter season of 1993 to 1994. Personal exposure monitoring for respirable particles (< 2.5 microns) was conducted for the 24-hr period before collection of blood and urine. Particle extracts were analyzed for carcinogenic PAHs. In the pilot study and in the follow-up study, a highly significant correlation between individual personal exposures to PAHs and DNA adducts was found (r = 0.54, p = 0.016; r = 0.710, p < 0.001, respectively). The comet parameter (percentage DNA in tail; %T) correlated with exposures to respirable particles (r = 0.304, p = 0.015). The GSTM1 genotype had a significant effect on urinary PAH metabolites, urine mutagenicity, and comet parameters (% T and tail moment) when the GSTM1 genotype was considered as a single factor affecting these biomarkers. Multifactor analysis o variance considering exposure and adjusting the data for GSTM1, age, and diet showed that the effect of

  7. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  8. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  9. Student Teachers of Technology and Design into Industry: A Northern Ireland Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based in Northern Ireland, is a case study of an innovative programme which places year 3 B.Ed. post-primary student teachers of Technology and Design into industry for a five-day period. The industrial placement programme is set in an international context of evolving pre-service field placements and in a local context defined by the…

  10. Trophic Structure Over the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Bathypelagic Zone Really Matters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present preliminary results and ongoing efforts to characterize the trophic structure and energy flow of the pelagic ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), from Iceland to the Azores. This study is one component of the international CoML field project MAR-ECO (ww...

  11. Primates and their habitats in northern Colombia with recommendations for future management and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Norman J.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano

    1976-01-01

    This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.

  12. Tree-section harvesting of northern hardwood thinnings. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the results of a field trial of tree-section harvesting, a shortwood version of whole-tree harvesting, in a northern hardwood thinning. This technique is technically feasible and especially useful where the appearance of the residual stand is a primary concern.

  13. Case Study on Education Opportunities for Hill Tribes in Northern Thailand: Implications for Sustainable Rural Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujioka, Rika

    This research analyzes the impact of the Thai government's activities to promote educational opportunities for people of the northern hill tribes. In addition to interviews with government and nongovernmental organization staff, field surveys were conducted in hill tribe villages. The introductory chapter provides background information on the…

  14. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  15. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  16. Structure and evolution of the northern Potwar deformed zone, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Jaswal, T.M.; Lillie, R.J.; Lawrence, R.D.

    1997-02-01

    The northern Potwar deformed zone (NPDZ) is part of the active foreland fold and thrust belt of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau in northern Pakistan. About 500 km of seismic reflection profiles are integrated with surface geologic and drilling data to examine the deformation style and structure of the NPDZ with particular emphasis on history of deformation of the Dhurnal oil field. The seismic lines suggest that the overall structure of the eastern NPDZ is a duplex structure developed beneath a passive roof thrust. The roof thrust is generated from a tipline in the Miocene Murree Formation, and the sole thrust is initiated from the same Eocambrian evaporate zone that extends 80 km southward beneath the Soan syncline and Salt Range. The Dhurnal oil field structure is a pop-up at the southern margin of the NPDZ, and developed beneath the passive roof thrust. The passive roof thrust crops out just north of Dhurnal on the steep, northern limb of the Soan syncline. An overstep passive roof thrust (Sakhwal fault) is interpreted west of Dhurnal; this fault developed due to southward progression of the deformation front beneath the earlier passive roof thrust. Very gentle basement dip and almost zero topographic slope in the NPDZ suggest that the Eocambrian salt provides effective decoupling at the present position of the NPDZ. The strong deformation in the NPDZ appears to have developed farther north, in an area where the evaporates may be lacking. Since 2 Ma, the NPDZ moved farther south over the evaporates without further deformation, whereas erosion removed any former topographic slope. Restoring a balanced cross section suggests that the minimum shortening across the NPDZ is more than 55 km. Assuming that this shortening occurred between 5.1 and 2 Ma, the shortening rate is about 18 mm/yr.

  17. 72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) LOOKING NORTH. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  18. Factors favouring phytoplankton blooms in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2016-01-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic (NA) production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and to Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phytoplankton abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to Po River discharge rates 1-15 days earlier and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phytoplankton abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of the circulation fields. During the entire year the phytoplankton abundances were dependent on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. The role of wind was uncertain but that was partly due to unmatched sampling time frames between meteorological and sea data. Low evaporation rates in November reflected significantly on the next February circulation pattern and, although with somewhat lower significance, on large phytoplankton blooms in the same month. We showed that the role of wind in evaporative flux enhancements is not straightforward as evaporative fluxes are highly dependent on other factors, e.g. air-sea temperature difference. Wind-induced vertical mixing was only sporadically related to phytoplankton abundances. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. The investigations performed represent the preliminary actions in the construction of an empirical ecological model of the NA which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, as well as for validation of the numerical ecological model

  19. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  20. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  1. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  2. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  3. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  4. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  5. Topography of Small Volcanic Edifices in the Mars Northern Polar Region from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Garvin, J. B.; Wright, H.

    2000-01-01

    Topography of the Borealis Volcanic Field adjacent to and within Chasma Boreale of the Mars Northern Polar Cap. Results suggest that the volcanic field extent and population is larger than previously thought, with primarily fresh-appearing basaltic shield edifice types.

  6. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-07-03

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies.

  7. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies. PMID:26249987

  8. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  9. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  10. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    SciTech Connect

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C.

    1999-06-01

    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  11. Visual field

    MedlinePlus

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  12. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the bora over the northern Adriatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorman, C.E.; Carniel, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Sclavo, M.; Chiggiato, J.; Doyle, J.; Haack, T.; Pullen, J.; Grbec, B.; Vilibic, I.; Janekovic, I.; Lee, C.; Malacic, V.; Orlic, M.; Paschini, E.; Russo, A.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10??C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002-2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was -438 W m-2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  14. Technical-Environmental Permafrost Observatories (TEPO) of northern West Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurchatova, A. N.; Griva, G. I.; Osokin, A. B.; Smolov, G. K.

    2005-12-01

    During the last decade one of the most developed topics in environmental studies was the effect of global climate change. This has been shown to be especially pronounced in northern regions, having an important influence on the subsequent transformation of frozen soil distribution and potential permafrost degradation. In West Siberia such studies are especially important with the prospect of plans for development of oil-gas fields (Yamal, Gydan and Kara Sea shelf). Presently the enterprises independently determine the necessary research for ecological control of the territory. Therefore, the Tyumen State Oil and Gas University (TSOGU) together with one of the leading gas enterprises "Nadymgasprom" started to create an observational network along the meridian transect of northern West Siberia (Yamal-Nenets administrative district). Observational network consists from a number of monitoring sites - Technical-Environmental permafrost Observatories (TEPO). The research complex includes temperature observations in boreholes (depths of 30) equipped with automatic systems for registration and data collection; seasonal field investigations on spatial distribution and temporal variability of the snow cover and vegetation and soil distribution. TSOGU and "Nadymgasprom" plan for the realization of long-term monitoring to obtain representative results on permafrost-climate interaction. At present there are three monitoring observatories located in the main landscape types and gas fields in use since 1972 (Medvezhye), 1992 (Yubileynoe) and in development (Harasavey). The next contribution to International Polar Year (2007-2008) will be renewal of one of the former monitoring sites (established in 1972) with a long-term period of observation and creation of a new site at the Yamal peninsula (Arctic tundra zone). At the last site the installation of an automatic Climate-Soil Station is being planned in the framework of the INTAS Infrastructure Action project with cooperation of

  15. Consolidating and updating estimates of northern peatland extents and carbon stocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugelius, G.; Loisel, J.; MacDonald, G. M.; Jackson, R. B.; Treat, C. C.; Turetsky, M. R.; Yu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Conditions favoring peat accumulation have been particularly prevalent in boreal and subarctic regions. The large pool of organic carbon accumulated in Northern peatlands has been an important component in the global carbon cycle throughout the Holocene. All northern peatlands store an estimated 440 Pg organic carbon while a separate study estimates that permafrost region peatlands store ca. 300 Pg organic carbon. However, the degree of overlap between these studies remains unclear and there are differences in methodologies and definitions which prevent direct harmonization of estimates. Here we address this problems by (1) compiling several different databases of field observation data and by (2) comparing previously estimated northern peatland areal extents to the extents of organic soils estimated from compiled harmonized regional and national soil maps from the northern mid and high latitudes. Organic soils are by definition peatlands with >40 cm of near surface peat. The combined estimated extent of organic soils in these maps is 3.44 million km2. This is very similar to the spatial extents of Northern peatlands derived from various national peat resource inventories as reported by previous studies. Our results show that roughly one third of this organic soil area is in permafrost. Based on newly compiled databases we provide spatially distributed estimates of peatland depth and stocks of peat carbon across different biomes. These analyses reveal significant differences in peat depth and carbon stocks between peatland regions and between non-permafrost and permafrost peatlands.

  16. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  17. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  18. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  19. Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades, northern Eurasia (north of 40°N and east of 15°E) was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts, including a heat wave in 2010 (that in European Russia may have been the cause of up to an additional 60,000 deaths in July-August of that year, compared to the previous year; see http://ifaran.ru/science/seminars/Summer2010.html); alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next.

  20. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  1. Uav Photogrammetry for Mapping and Monitoring of Northern Permafrost Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R. H.; Olthof, I.; Maloley, M.; Fernandes, R.; Prevost, C.; van der Sluijs, J.

    2015-08-01

    Northern environments are changing in response to recent climate warming, resource development, and natural disturbances. The Arctic climate has warmed by 2-3°C since the 1950's, causing a range of cryospheric changes including declines in sea ice extent, snow cover duration, and glacier mass, and warming permafrost. The terrestrial Arctic has also undergone significant temperature-driven changes in the form of increased thermokarst, larger tundra fires, and enhanced shrub growth. Monitoring these changes to inform land managers and decision makers is challenging due to the vast spatial extents involved and difficult access. Environmental monitoring in Canada's North is often based on local-scale measurements derived from aerial reconnaissance and photography, and ecological, hydrologic, and geologic sampling and surveying. Satellite remote sensing can provide a complementary tool for more spatially comprehensive monitoring but at coarser spatial resolutions. Satellite remote sensing has been used to map Arctic landscape changes related to vegetation productivity, lake expansion and drainage, glacier retreat, thermokarst, and wildfire activity. However, a current limitation with existing satellite-based techniques is the measurement gap between field measurements and high resolution satellite imagery. Bridging this gap is important for scaling up field measurements to landscape levels, and validating and calibrating satellite-based analyses. This gap can be filled to a certain extent using helicopter or fixed-wing aerial surveys, but at a cost that is often prohibitive. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has only recently progressed to the point where it can provide an inexpensive and efficient means of capturing imagery at this middle scale of measurement with detail that is adequate to interpret Arctic vegetation (i.e. 1-5 cm) and coverage that can be directly related to satellite imagery (1-10 km2). Unlike satellite measurements, UAVs permit frequent

  2. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the northern Apennines, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Elosegui, P.; Normandeau, J. E.; Serpelloni, E.

    2003-12-01

    Continuous GPS stations within and around the northern Apennines, northern Italy, provide sparse but very precise constraints on crustal deformation associated with Africa, Eurasia, and Adriatic plate interactions. We analyzed data acquired by these stations during the time period of 1996 to 2003.5, finding distributed northwest range-parallel crustal shortening, totaling some 2 mm/yr, and northeast directed crustal extension across the Apennines hinterland, totaling 2.5--3.0 mm/yr or more. Extensional strain rates vary as a function of latitude within the northern Apennines, with higher strain rates across a narrow belt in the central part of the northern Apennines (latitude ˜43N) and lower strain rates across a broader zone further north (latitude ˜44N). Northeast directed crustal extension is prominent in the geology and seismicity of the Apennines hinterland, and forms an important observational basis for contemporary geodynamical models describing present-day deformation processes in northern Italy. Range-parallel crustal shortening is less well understood, however, because there are very few geological or seismological indicators of northwest directed crustal shortening for the northern Apennines. On the other hand, combined paleomagnetic and tomographic inferences suggest that the northern Apennines is an orocline, achieving its arcuate shape as a result of progressive bending of an originally straight orogen. The rates and patterns of range-parallel deformation may thus provide important new constraints on geodynamical models for this complex region.

  3. Rift-stage evolution of northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, J.S.

    1989-03-01

    Distribution of salt, location of major growth-fault trends, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and deep seismic reflections appear to be related to relict rift-stage basement structures in the northern Gulf of Mexico and Gulf Coast. The basement contains a number of discrete salt basins, probably half grabens, formed during initial rifting. Transform faults trending north-northwest-south-southeast form the sides of the basins. Salt thickness is variable but increases in basins to the east and south. The Corsair fault appears to root in the northern edge of a salt basin, but the surface of the fault crops out over an interbasin high. East-west dislocations of the gravity and magnetic fields coincide with the inferred transform faults; in some cases, linear magnetic anomalies are associated with interbasin highs. Strong deep reflectors are locally associated with basement highs. Overall, the picture appears to be one of north-south rifting, broken by north-northwest-south-southeast-trending transform faults. The overall pattern suggests left-lateral shear.

  4. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  5. Effects of permafrost thaw on northern wetland methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Olefeldt, D.; Waddington, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    There has been a renewed interest in northern, high latitude methane emissions because of 1) the recent unexpected increase in atmospheric methane concentrations after a period of stability, 2) large releases of methane in bubbles from arctic thermokarst lakes, and 3) the recent discovery that high latitude soil carbon stocks are much larger than previously recognized. Global inverse modeling shows that Arctic methane emissions increased by 30% from 2003-2007, and that high latitude emissions were more sensitive to warming than water table fluctuations. Arctic wetlands and lakes likely have contributed at least partly to recent increases in atmospheric methane concentrations. Across the circumpolar region, thermokarst associated with permafrost thaw is creating lakes and wetlands that tend to have elevated methane emissions. Thaw wetlands in interior Alaska release methane primarily through plants, especially Carex species, as well as ebullition (bubbles). Ebullition was sensitive to soil temperature both in the field and in a laboratory experiment, indicating that continued warming may contribute to increases in northern wetland methane emissions by increasing the area of thaw wetlands on the landscape as well as by stimulating bubble formation and release. A meta-analysis of data from more than 300 sites suggests that increased methane emissions following permafrost thaw are more likely related to altered water table position, soil temperature and vegetation composition, rather than increases in unfrozen soil carbon stocks.

  6. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  7. Exploring Earth's Magnetism and Northern lights in High School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Peticolas, L.

    2008-05-01

    Present studies are being conducted as a part of the outreach project entitled Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) to share excitement of the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorm) mission launched during February, 2007. The goal of this mission is to investigate the causality of events that lead to the explosive release of energy (derived from the Sun) stored in the Earth's magnetic field. The visible manifestation of the energy release is Aurora Borealis observed in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth. Inherent to understanding the root-cause of formation of spectacular aurora is the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. To achieve this ambitious objective in a high school classroom, students conducted activities using the magnetic field of bar magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic induction, and Lenz's Law. Following the fundamental understanding of these concepts, students acquired the necessary vocabulary and explored the various components of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. They were also familiarized with the general format in which THEMIS spacecraft data is displayed. In this presentation, we will address student's misconceptions, their struggle to make connections before they can appreciate "Big Idea" in terms of its components. Discussion will highlight the relationship between student understanding of new ideas and how these ideas connect with their prior knowledge.

  8. Late Cenozoic Exhumation in the Northern Peruvian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, M.; Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Orogens represent first-order morphological manifestations of the dynamical forces that drive plate tectonics. Despite advances in techniques that quantify geologic processes, understanding these processes at a continental scale remains challenging. The South American Andes are an example of a long-lived, morphologically and tectonically segmented orogen. The Northern Peruvian Andes are characterized by flat slab subduction and a relatively narrow section of high topography, in contrast to the central Andes, which contain the broad Altiplano-Puna plateau and normal-angle subduction. Current models of Andean orogenesis suggest that most of the high topography evolved recently beginning about 10-20Ma. Recent data from the Central Andes further suggest that this uplift occurred rapidly from ~6-10Ma. However, as many of these data are from the central Andean region, they may not be directly applicable to the entire Andean chain. Therefore, it is critical to investigate areas outside of the central Andean region using similar techniques to test the applicability of these models elsewhere in the Andes. Here, we use low-temperature thermochronology to characterize the shallow crustal cooling history from four sites in the northern Peruvian Andes, across three degrees of latitude (5°S to 8°S). By using both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometers we are able to record rates of crustal exhumation as well as temporal and spatial accelerations and decelerations of exhumation. In contrast to previous studies based on stratigraphical, structural and sedimentological relationships, our preliminary results show no significant exhumation until the Miocene in the Eastern Cordillera of Northern Peru. In general, our results indicate slow exhumation (<0.01 mm/yr) during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic and record an acceleration of exhumation in the late Miocene to the present, to rates of 0.2-0.5 mm/yr. This regional acceleration signal occurs in field sites in the north (5

  9. Construction Services at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Gary

    Construction Services is an innovative response to a chronic construction-remodeling problem at Northern Arizona State University. It is an in-house facilities maintenance department designed to address a variety of needs: prevention of construction or remodeling done by individual staff or faculty members without regard for applicable codes;…

  10. Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Pillwax, Cora

    2001-01-01

    Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

  11. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  12. Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of natural gas, composed mainly of methane, can occur in arctic sedimentary basins in the form of gas hydrates under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Gas hydrates are solids, composed of rigid cages of water molecules that trap molecules of gas. These substances are regarded as a potential unconventional source of natural gas because of their enormous gas-storage capacity. Most published gas hydrate resource estimates are highly simplified and based on limited geological data. The gas hydrate resource assessment for northern Alaska presented in this paper is based on a "play analysis" scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation and preservation of gas hydrates are individually evaluated and risked for each hydrate play. This resource assessment identified two gas hydrate plays; the in-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of northern Alaska are estimated to range from 6.7 to 66.8 trillion cubic metres of gas (236 to 2,357 trillion cubic feet of gas), at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels respectively. The mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic metres of gas (590 trillion cubic feet of gas). If this assessment is valid, the amount of natural gas stored as gas hydrates in northern Alaska could be almost seven times larger then the estimated total remaining recoverable conventional natural gas resources in the entire United States.

  13. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  14. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  15. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  16. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  17. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  18. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  19. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music classroom and…

  20. Unemployment and suicide in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M L

    1992-06-01

    For Northern Ireland, yearly mean percentages of unemployment and suicide rates (per 100,000 population) for specific age groups and by sex were compared over a 19-year period. Significant results were obtained for only two age groups of males (15-24 yr. and 45-54 yr.) and none for females. PMID:1496080

  1. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  2. 1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  3. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  7. Late Cenozoic Basins of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tor H.; Clarke, Samuel H.

    1989-12-01

    The late Cenozoic basins of northern California developed in response to both convergent tectonics associated with subduction of the Farallon plate (and its modern representatives, the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates) and transform tectonics associated with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and formation of the San Andreas fault system. The modern Eel River basin north of the Mendocino triple junction is an active forearc basin located between the Cascade magmatic arc to the east and the trench at the foot of the continental slope of northern California and Oregon to the west. Five different types of late Cenozoic basins or fragments of basins are preserved in onshore northern California south of the Mendocino triple junction: (1) remnants of a formerly more extensive Neogene forearc basin preserved locally in downdropped blocks within the San Andreas fault system; (2) remnants of slightly older trench-slope basins that generally developed west of but which may locally structurally underlie the younger forearc basin; (3) younger strike-slip-related structural basins that have developed along active right-lateral faults of the San Andreas fault system; (4) broad shallow embayments, perhaps similar to the modern San Francisco Bay, that were connected to the deeper Pacific Ocean to the west; and (5) structurally emplaced remnants of oceanic crust and its overlying sedimentary cover (the King Range terrane). Our preliminary stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies suggest that much of northern California was covered during the Neogene by a forearc basin that may have extended as far south as the San Francisco Bay region and into the southern San Joaquin Valley. As the Mendocino triple junction migrated northward during the late Cenozoic, the southern margin of the forearc basin was uplifted, basin deposits were stripped off by erosion, and the locus of forearc sedimentation shifted progressively northward through time. Preserved but isolated fragments

  8. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  9. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). The entire country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in northwest Saudi Arabia. The sweep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulates around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under clouds top right.

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  11. Hydrogeologic data from the northern Powder River Basin, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slagle, Steven E.; Stimson, James R.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data have been collected as part of energy-related projects conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the northern Powder River basin of southeastern Montana. Records of 1924 stock, domestic, irrigation, public supply and test wells are tabulated in the report. The data include well location, depth of well, casing diameter, type of lift, type of power, use of water, principal aquifer, altitude of land surface , water level, discharge, field specific conductance, and water temperature. Locations of the inventoried wells are shown on a map at a scale of 1:500,000. Lighologic logs of 373 wells and test holes are also included. The geologic units considered range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene. (Kosco-USGS)

  12. Wind-Diesel Hybrid Systems for Russia's Northern Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgian, V.; Touryan, K.; Bezrukikh, P.; Karghiev, V.

    1999-09-01

    This paper will summarize the DOE/Russian Ministry of Fuel and Energy (MF&E) activities in Russia's Northern Territories in the field of hybrid wind-diesel power systems over the last three years (1997-1999). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) supplied technical assistance to the project, including resource assessment, system design, site identification, training and system monitoring. As a result, several wind-diesel systems have been installed and are operating in the Arkhangelsk/Murmansk regions and in Chukotka. NREL designed and provided sets of data acquisition equipment to monitor several of the first pilot wind-diesel systems. NREL's computer simulation models are being used for performance data analysis and optimizing of future system configurations.

  13. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-06-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  14. Northern Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Using Coupled Models and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Sun, G.; Knox, R. G.; Levine, E. R.; Weishampel, J. F.; Fifer, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics modeling, remote sensing data analysis, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used together to determine the possible growth and development of a northern forest in Maine, USA. Field measurements and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to produce maps of forest cover type and above ground biomass. These forest attribute maps, along with a conventional soils map, were used to identify the initial conditions for forest ecosystem model simulations. Using this information along with ecosystem model results enabled the development of predictive maps of forest development. The results obtained were consistent with observed forest conditions and expected successional trajectories. The study demonstrated that ecosystem models might be used in a spatial context when parameterized and used with georeferenced data sets.

  15. Rank Ordovician wildcats staked in northern Mississippi counties

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports that Ordovician Knox dolomite is the objective at two rank wildcats in northern Mississippi. The wells appear to be the first modern drilling to Ordovician in the area, about 400 miles southeast of prolific Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle gas production discovered in late 1987 in Wilburton field, Latimer County, Okla. The author discusses how an oil company plans a 12,500 ft Knox test at 1 Lay, in 27-25n-2e, in central Tallahatchie County, Miss., about 80 miles south of Memphis. This paper also reports on plans to drill 1 Jenkins 8-1, in 8-19n-15e, to 10,800 ft or Ordovician.

  16. Active transpression in the northern Calabria Apennines, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, L.; Santoro, E.; Mazzella, M. E.; Monaco, C.; Morelli, D.

    2009-10-01

    An integrated analysis of geomorphologic and structural data, offshore seismic profiles and local network seismicity, is used to shed light on the hitherto poorly known active deformation field that affects the Southern Apennines orogen in northern Calabria region. In the Southern Apennines, Middle Pleistocene waning of Miocene-Early Pleistocene thin-skinned frontal thrust belt motion toward the Apulian foreland to the NE was coeval to onset of regional uplift, which is documented by flights of raised marine terraces. Short-wavelength (˜ 5-10 km) and amplitude (˜ 20-50 m) undulations are superposed to the regional uplift (˜ 100 km length and ˜ 500 m amplitude scale) profile of Middle-Upper Pleistocene marine terraces on the Ionian Sea coast of northern Calabria stretching along the borders of the Sila and Pollino mountain ranges and across the intervening Sibari coastal plain. The secondary undulations spatially coincide with the last generation of ˜ W- to ˜ WNW-striking folds traced in bedrock and locally within Early to Middle Pleistocene continental to transitional deposits. The very recent activity of these structures is highlighted by a range of fluvial geomorphic anomalies and by involvement in folding and locally transpressional faulting of the Middle Pleistocene and younger depositional sequences submerged beneath the continental shelf. We argue that the local-scale, but pervasive undulations in the deformation profile of marine terraces represent shallow-crustal folds grown within a recent and still active transpressional field. A major structural culmination bound by fore- and retro-verging transpressional shear zones is represented by the Pollino mountain range and its offshore extension in the Amendolara ridge, and a further SW-directed transpressional belt is found in northern Sila and adjacent sea bottom. Epicenter distribution and focal solutions of low- to moderate crustal earthquakes illuminate the two NW-SE trending structural belts beneath

  17. Annotated bibliography of the Black Warrior basin area, northern Alabama - northern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1964 records related to the geology of the Black Warrior basin of northern Alabama and northern Mississippi. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; bauxite; iron ores; geologic correlations; earthquakes; fossils; gold deposits; geological surveys; hydrology; and water resources. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (54) are themselves bibliographies.

  18. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  19. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  20. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  1. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  2. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  3. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  4. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  5. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  6. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  7. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  8. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  9. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  10. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  11. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  12. Neotectonics and fluvial geomorphology of the Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T.; El-Baz, F.

    2000-08-01

    Large anticlinal ridges of Jurassic-Tertiary limestone in the northern Sinai Peninsula are part of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt, parts of which have been active intermittently from Late Cretaceous through the present. Recent uplift of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt is supported by quantitative indices of active tectonics including low values of mountain front sinuosity and, by recent seismicity, extending southwest past Cairo into the Fayoum Depression. The northern Sinai Desert has a climate similar to that of the adjacent part of the eastern Sahara. Sand sheets and dune fields cover its northwestern part, which is a depression extending from the Suez Canal to Wadi El-Arish. Numerous dry channels of palaeorivers and streams lead into this depression, where several temporary palaeolakes and flood overbank deposits have been identified. Some of the temporary pluvial palaeolakes developed behind natural dams formed by folds of the Syrian Arc, whereas others filled deeply-eroded fault traces. Migration of sand dunes may have blocked some channels, but the location of the dunes seems to be controlled by Recent uplift of parts of the fold belt, with the dunes residing in synclinal depressions and adjacent to fault scarps. The palaeolakes are correlated more with structures than with active dune fields. Wadi El-Arish abandoned a channel west of its present-day course, perhaps because of recent growth and uplift of the Gebel Halal Fold. This abandonment was synchronous with down-cutting of a gorge through Gebel Halal, which follows conjugate faults formed during uplift of an anticline. The presence of standing water during wetter climates in the past is supported by silt deposits and archaeological evidence of previous human habitation. The newly identified lake margin and fluvial sediments could be important targets for studying early-modern human and Neanderthal activities. In the eastern Sahara, cycles of pluvial periods that date back 320,000 years appear to correspond to

  13. Distribution of atmospheric mercury in northern Southeast Asia and South China Sea during Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsine; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Northern South China Sea (SCS) is adjacent to major atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source regions; however, studies concerning regional atmospheric Hg distribution and cycling are very limited. Accordingly, measurements of atmospheric Hg were conducted in March and April during the 2010 Dongsha Experiment to study its spatial and temporal distribution. Atmospheric Hg was measured at Hengchun and Dongsha Island (Taiwan), Da Nang (Vietnam), Chiang Mai (Thailand) and over the northern SCS. Atmospheric Hg concentrations ranged between 1.54 and 6.83 ng m-3, mostly higher than the Northern Hemisphere background value. Regional wind fields and backward trajectories indicated that the atmospheric Hg concentrations over northern SCS should principally reflect the export of the East Asian Hg emissions by northeast monsoon. However, significantly elevated Hg concentrations were always observed at Da Nang, possibly due to the influence of local Hg emissions. Chiang Mai is located in the intense biomass burning region in northern Thailand. Therefore, atmospheric Hg concentrations at Chiang Mai reflected the influence of regional biomass burning Hg emissions. Two dust storms were encountered at Dongsha Island, one on March 16 and the other on March 21, with atmospheric Hg enhancements. Compared with the 2008 summer values, elevated Hg levels were observed at Dongsha Island in the spring of 2010. Summer air masses were mainly from the deep SCS, representing relatively clean marine air. On the other hand, air masses were from the north in spring, passing eastern China or Taiwan prior to reaching Dongsha Island. Results of this research thus demonstrated the transport of atmospheric Hg from the East Asian continent to northern SCS by regional monsoon activity in spring, but special events, such as biomass burning and dust storms, can also cause enhancements of ambient Hg levels.

  14. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-04-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  15. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  16. High prevalence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Northern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Po-Ren; Tseng, Sung-Pin; Teng, Lee-Jene; Ho, Shen-Wu

    2005-01-01

    Among 55 preserved isolates collected in northern Taiwan from 1999 through 2003, ciprofloxacin resistance (minimum inhibitory concentration, >or=1 microg/mL) was found in 1 (25%) of 4 isolates obtained in 1999-2000 and in 27 (93.1%) of 29 isolates obtained in 2003. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that several clones predominated among the ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates. PMID:15614711

  17. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  18. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  19. Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal wildfire activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Cardiac surgical experience in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514

  1. Simultaneous observations of solar MeV particles in a magnetic cloud and in the earth's northern tail lobe - Implications for the global field line topology of magnetic clouds and for the entry of solar particles into the magnetosphere during cloud passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Richardson, I. G.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Osherovich, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft observations of magnetic fields and flow anisotropies of solar energetic protons and electrons during the passage of an interplanetary magnetic cloud show various particle signature differences at the two spacecraft. These differences are interpretable in terms of the magnetic line topology of the cloud, the connectivity of the cloud field lines to the solar surface, and the interconnection between the magnetic fields of the magnetic clouds and of the earth. These observations are consistent with a magnetic cloud model in which these mesoscale configurations are curved magnetic flux ropes attached at both ends to the sun's surface, extending out to 1 AU.

  2. Climate change signal over Northern Adriatic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampieri, M.; Lionello, P.; Nikulin, G.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we collect the results of several regional climate models from various projects (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES, and others). Temperature, precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, 500hPa geopotential height and wind speed are analyzed for Venetia and the Northern Adriatic region. The agreement among models is analyzed for the control runs and for the scenario simulations, and the dispersion among models is evaluated. The importance of resolutions is addressed as well as the changes of climate extremes in future scenarios.

  3. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  4. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  5. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  6. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  7. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  8. MODELING FLOW PATTERNS IN A SMALL VEGETATED AREA IN THE NORTHERN CHICHUAHUAN DESERT USING QUIC ( QUIC URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandstorms are frequent in the northern Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, an area characterized by open areas lacking vegetation, individual mesquite bushes, and mesquite coppice dunes. Field measurements of sand fluxes and wind velocities over a two year period provided a descri...

  9. Northern Indian California Education Project; An Analysis of Responses by Practicing School Psychologists on a Pre-Questionaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbet, Don; Miles, Marilyn

    School psychologists (13) representing the 6 counties served by the Northern Indian California Education Project (Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act) attended a workshop on January 14, 1972, at Humboldt State College. Also attending were Humboldt State personnel from the fields of education and psychology. The workshop was intended…

  10. Towards Educational Inclusion in a Transforming Society: Some Lessons from Community Relations and Special Needs Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…

  11. The Plant Foliage Projective Coverage Change over the Northern Tibetan Plateau during 1957-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.

    2015-12-01

    Northern Tibetan Plateau is the headwater of the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Mekong River that support billions of the population. Vegetation change will affect the regional ecosystem and water balances through the changes in biomass and evapotranspiration. Dynamic vegetation growth is determined by physiological, morphological, bioclimatic and phenological properties. These properties are affected by climate variables such as air temperature, precipitation, soil temperature and concentration of CO2, etc. Due to climate change, some parts of the northern Tibetan Plateau are under the threat of desertification. Identifying the places of vegetation degradation and the dominant driven climatic factors will help mitigate the climate change impacts on ecosystem and water resources in this region. In this study, the changes of foliage projective coverages (FPCs) of various plant functional types (PFTs) existed in the northern Tibetan Plateau and the responses of FPCs to the four climate variables over 1957-2009 are examined. The dominant factors among the four climate variables are also identified. The Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) is modified and used for the investigation. The modified LPJ-DGVM can better account for soil temperature in the top 0.4-m depth where vegetation root concentrates over the northern Tibetan Plateau. The modified model is evaluated by using monthly and annual soil temperature observed at stations across the region, and the eco-geographic maps that describe plant types and spatial distributions developed from field surveys and satellite images for this region.

  12. Neotectonics of northern Central Europe: the legacy of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Central Europe is regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1000 years. This historic seismicity is clearly concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic inversion phase in the Late Cretaceous. Here we show with numerical simulations that large parts of the observed seismicity in northern Central Europe is most likely an effect of stress changes induced by the decay of the Scandinavian ice sheet after the Weichselian glaciation and the interference with the background stress field related to the ongoing convergence of Africa and Europe. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrate for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust or at least along closely spaced faults like in the Gardelegen area. Such a distribution fits the characteristics of other intraplate seismic zones like the eastern United States and requires a re-evaluation of the seismic hazard potential of northern Central Europe, especially in view of the revived search for nuclear waste repositories and ongoing discussions about CO2 sequestration projects in the area.

  13. Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment in the Northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoncelli, Simona; Pinardi, Nadia; Oddo, Paolo; Mariano, Arthur J.; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Deserti, Marco

    2011-09-01

    A new Coastal Rapid Environmental Assessment (CREA) methodology, based on an operational regional forecasting system and coastal monitoring networks of opportunity, has been developed and successfully applied to the Northern Adriatic Sea. The methodology aims at improving the initial condition estimates by combining operational coarse model fields with coastal observations to improve medium to short range predictability which is required by coastal zone and emergency management. The CREA modeling framework system consists of a high resolution, O(800 m), Adriatic SHELF model (ASHELF) nested into the Adriatic Forecasting System (AFS) at 2.2 km resolution. The CREA observational system is composed of coastal networks sampling the water column temperature and salinity between depths of 5 and 40 m. The initialization technique blends the AFS fields with the available observations using a multi-input, multi-scale optimal interpolation technique and a spin-up period for the high resolution ASHELF model to dynamically adjust initial conditions from the coarser resolution AFS model. The high resolution spin up period has been investigated through a dedicated set of experiments and it was found that a week time is enough to have new energetic features in the model initial condition field estimates to be blended with observations. Five CREA study cases have been analyzed for different months of the year, one per month from May to September 2003, chosen on the basis of the availability of the coastal observations for both model initialization and validation. The CREA 7-days forecasts show skill improvements in the coastal area salinity and temperature profiles, deriving from the blending and the spin-up period in the initialization methodology. The main conclusion is that forecasting in coastal areas by nesting necessitates of the observations to correct the coarse resolution model fields providing informations where parent and child model topographies mismatch. Results

  14. High northern latitude temperature extremes, 1400-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, M. P.; Huybers, P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is often an interest in determining which interval features the most extreme value of a reconstructed climate field, such as the warmest year or decade in a temperature reconstruction. Previous approaches to this type of question have not fully accounted for the spatial and temporal covariance in the climate field when assessing the significance of extreme values. Here we present results from applying BARSAT, a new, Bayesian approach to reconstructing climate fields, to a 600 year multiproxy temperature data set that covers land areas between 45N and 85N. The end result of the analysis is an ensemble of spatially and temporally complete realizations of the temperature field, each of which is consistent with the observations and the estimated values of the parameters that define the assumed spatial and temporal covariance functions. In terms of the spatial average temperature, 1990-1999 was the warmest decade in the 1400-1999 interval in each of 2000 ensemble members, while 1995 was the warmest year in 98% of the ensemble members. A similar analysis at each node of a regular 5 degree grid gives insight into the spatial distribution of warm temperatures, and reveals that 1995 was anomalously warm in Eurasia, whereas 1998 featured extreme warmth in North America. In 70% of the ensemble members, 1601 featured the coldest spatial average, indicating that the eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru in 1600 (with a volcanic explosivity index of 6) had a major cooling impact on the high northern latitudes. Repeating this analysis at each node reveals the varying impacts of major volcanic eruptions on the distribution of extreme cooling. Finally, we use the ensemble to investigate extremes in the time evolution of centennial temperature trends, and find that in more than half the ensemble members, the greatest rate of change in the spatial mean time series was a cooling centered at 1600. The largest rate of centennial scale warming, however, occurred in the 20th Century in

  15. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  16. Assessing the fate of dredged sediments placed in open-water sites, Northern Chesapeake Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halka, Jeffrey; Panageotou, William; Sanford, Lawrence; Yu-Chou, Shenn

    1994-01-01

    An integrated series of field studies and experiments have been carried out on dredged sediments placed in open water sites in Northern Chesapeake Bay. The studies include: (1) examination of the potential for fluidized sediment flow, (2) quantifying the volumetric changes that the sediments undergo during dredging process and subsequent to deposition, (3) estimating parameters for cohesive sediment erosion models from field data on currents and suspended sediment concentrations, and (4) incorporating the erosion model parameters and sediment transport equation into a 3-D hydrodynamic model for the upper Chesapeake Bay to predict transport directions and setting sites of eroded sediments under a variety of seasonal weather and river flow conditions.

  17. Farmer decision making and spatial variables in northern Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Jefferson; Kanter, Rebekah; Yarnasarn, Sanay; Ekasingh, Methi; Jones, Royce

    1994-05-01

    This research has two interrelated objectives. The first is to determine the extent to which a relationship exists between farmer characteristics and farming practices in three villages in northern Thailand. The second is to use standard statistical methods for incorporating spatial variables into the analysis and to assess the effects of these variables on farmer decision making. The data base includes information on the location and size of villages, roads, streams, and fields; a digital elevation model with information on elevation, slope, and aspect; and information keyed to individual fields on crops and cropping methods and the ethnicity, income, and religion of farmers. The map data (517 plots) were entered into a computerized geographic information systems (GIS). Results suggest several hypotheses about the relationships between land use and owner characteristics. More significantly, the study concludes that spatial analysis appears to be most useful when the dependent variable is either continuous or ordinal. The outlook is not quite as optimistic when the dependent variable is a nonordinal categorical variable. Before spatial analysis can be applied regularly to social science data, better computational tools need to be developed.

  18. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2014-12-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2-55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  19. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  20. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  1. Recent earthquakes in northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Revetta, F.A.; Bockus, C.; O'Brian, B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Massena, New York area located along the St. Lawrence River in northern New York has been the site of significant earthquake activity including the largest earthquake in New York (m = 6.0) on September 5, 1944. Historic earthquake data indicates the Cornwall-Massena area is a region of relatively high seismic activity, and the earthquake activity has been persistent for over a 400 year period. During the past year eleven small earthquakes have been recorded by the Potsdam Seismic Network in northern New York. Four of these earthquakes had epicenters located in the Massena-Cornwall area. One epicenter was located along the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone and one epicenter was located n the epicentral region of the October 7, 1984 Goodnow earthquake. Five earthquakes had epicenters located in Ontario and Quebec. These earthquake epicenters lie in a belt of seismicity that extends north-westerly from the northern Adirondacks into the Canadian Shield of western Quebec. Several explanations that have been presented to explain these earthquakes are (1) mafic intrusions (2) unmapped northwest trending faults (3) extension of the New England seamount chain and (4) crustal fractures due to the area passing over a hotspot. Four earthquakes in the Massena area lie very near extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Spring faults into New York and may be related to the faults. Focal mechanism solutions of two earthquakes indicate thrusting along NW striking fault planes. Another possibility is the earthquakes are related to the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. One earthquake is within four kms of the CCMZ and if the zone is extended northward beneath the lower Paleozoics, it passes through the epicenters on the Cornwall-Massena area.

  2. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  3. Strong aftershocks in the northern segment of the Wenchuan earthquake rupture zone and their seismotectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong; Ni, Sidao; Xie, Zujun; Lv, Jian; Ma, Hongsheng; Sommerville, Paul

    2010-11-01

    More than 28, 000 aftershocks have occurred since the 05/12/2008 Wenchuan earthquake, with dozens of them stronger than M 5. Since July, 2008, all the M > 5 earthquakes have occurred only in the northern segment of the rupture zone, suggesting obvious seismicity segmentation. We applied the double difference method to relocate all of the M > 3 aftershocks. After relocation, the aftershocks show a compact zone of seismicity, with a length of about 300 km and average width of 30 km, supporting that the hypothesis that the Beichuan-Yingxiu and Chaping-Linjiaan faults are the faults that ruptured in the earthquake. With the Cut and Paste (CAP) waveform inversion algorithm, we determined the source mechanism and focal depth of all the > M 5 aftershocks in the northern segments. The number of thrust events is close to the number of strike-slip events, but almost all of the events with thrust mechanism are distributed over the northern segment, while the aftershocks with strike-slip mechanism only occurred at the north-easternmost end, contrasting with field observations of a substantial strike-slip component of surface rupture over the northern segment. The events with strike-slip mechanism occurred at depths up to 18 km, consistent with the lack of surface rupture in the north-easternmost section. However, since early August, very shallow events (2 km) with thrust mechanism have occurred, probably releasing the strain energy of the unruptured fault in the north-easternmost section. It seems that the seismic hazard potential of the northern segment is still quite high, and more studies are needed to resolve some of the discrepancy suggested by aftershock patterns and other observations.

  4. Evaluation of the deformation parameters of the northern part of Eg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Monem S.; Radwan, Ali M.; Sharf, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria; Hegazy, Esraa E.; Abou Aly, Nadia; Gomaa, Mahmoud

    2016-06-01

    The northern part of Egypt is a rapidly growing development accompanied by the increased levels of standard living particularly in its urban areas. From tectonic and seismic point of views, the northern part of Egypt is one of the interested regions. It shows an active geologic structure attributed to the tectonic movements of the African and Eurasian plates from one side and the Arabian plate from the other side. From historical point of view and recent instrumental records, the northern part of Egypt is one of the seismo-active regions in Egypt. The investigations of the seismic events and their interpretations had led to evaluate the seismic hazard for disaster mitigation, for the safety of the densely populated regions and the vital projects. In addition to the monitoring of the seismic events, the most powerful technique of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) will be used in determining crustal deformation where a geodetic network covers the northern part of Egypt. Joining the GPS Permanent stations of the northern part of Egypt with the Southern part of Europe will give a clear picture about the recent crustal deformation and the African plate velocity. The results from the data sets are compared and combined in order to determine the main characteristics of the deformation and hazard estimation for specified regions. Final compiled output from the seismological and geodetic analysis will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime of these seismo-active regions. This work will throw lights upon the geodynamical regime and to delineate the crustal stress and strain fields in the study region. This also enables to evaluate the active tectonics and surface deformation with their directions from repeated geodetic observations. The results show that the area under study suffers from continuous seismic activity related to the crustal movements taken place along trends of major faults

  5. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  6. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  7. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  8. The Northern Walker Lane Seismic Refraction Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Smith, S. B.; Thelen, W.; Scott, J. B.; Clark, M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional reference seismic velocity model for the western Great Basin region of Nevada and eastern California. The northern Walker Lane had not been characterized well by previous work. In May 2002 we collected a new crustal refraction profile from Battle Mountain, Nev. across western Nevada, the Reno area, Lake Tahoe, and the northern Sierra to Auburn, Calif. Mine blasts and earthquakes were recorded by 199 Texan instruments (loaned by the PASSCAL Instrument Center) extending across this more than 450-km-long transect. The seismic sources at the eastern end were mining blasts at Barrick's GoldStrike pit. We recorded additional blasts at the Florida Canyon and other mines between Lovelock and Battle Mountain, Nevada. The GoldStrike mine produced several ripple-fired blasts using 10,000-40,000 kg of ANFO each. First arrivals from the larger blasts are obvious to distances exceeding 250 km in the raw records. A M2.4 earthquake near Bridgeport, Calif. also produced pickable P-wave arrivals across at least half the transect, providing fan-shot data. We recorded only during working hours, and so missed an M4 earthquake that occurred at night. Events of M2 occurred during our recording to the west on the San Andreas fault near Pinnacles, Calif.; M3 events occurred near Portola and Mammoth Lakes, Calif. Arrivals from M5 events in the Mariana and Kuril Islands also appear in the records. Time-picks from these earthquakes may be possible after more work on synthetic-time modeling, data filtering, and display. We plan to record blasts at quarries in the western Sierra in future experiments, for a direct refraction reversal. We will compare our time picks against times generated from regional velocity models, to identify potential crustal and upper-mantle velocity anomalies. Such anomalies may be associated with the Battle Mountain heat-flow high, the northern Walker Lane belt, or the northern Sierran block.

  9. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  10. Diagenetic features of Trenton Limestone in northern Indiana: petrographic evidence for Late (Mesogenetic) Dolostone

    SciTech Connect

    Fara, D.R.

    1986-08-01

    Three conventional cores of the entire Trenton section were examined in detail by in-depth visual description, analysis of more than 250 thin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The cores are located in the northern half of Indiana where they span the major dolostone pinch-out that is the trap for the prolific Trenton oil and gas field. The Trenton Limestone is completely dolomitized in northern Indiana. Dolostone abundance decreases to the south where the dolostone is restricted to the upper few feet of the formation. Two major types of dolostone are recognized. The top 5-20 ft of the Trenton cores consists of medium crystalline nonporous xenotopic ferroan dolostone. Mesogenetic dewatering of the overlying Maquoketa shale is the proposed dolomitizing mechanisms for this ferroan dolostone cap. Below the ferroan dolostone cap in northern Indiana is coarsely crystalline dolostone, which consists of thin intercalated subfacies of porous idiotopic and nonporous xenotopic dolostone. This is the dominant dolostone type and is the reservoir in the Trenton field. The coarsely crystalline dolostone postdates the ferroan dolostone cap, chert nodule formation, and initial pressure solution. Therefore, this dolostone is considered to have formed relatively late in the diagenetic history of the Trenton under mesogenetic conditions. In the northernmost core, nearly all of the secondary dolomitic porosity is plugged by poikilotopic gypsum and minor amounts of calcite and celestite. Other diagenetic features observed in Trenton are also discussed, including silicification, ferroan calcite cement, upper Trenton contact formation, hardgrounds, and pressure solution.

  11. Landscape evolution of the Ulan Buh Desert in northern China during the late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fahu; Li, Guoqiang; Zhao, Hui; Jin, Ming; Chen, Xuemei; Fan, Yuxin; Liu, Xiaokang; Wu, Duo; Madsen, David

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of arid environments in northern China was a major environmental change during the Quaternary. Here we present the dating and environmental proxy results from a 35 m long core (A-WL10ZK-1) collected from the Ulan Buh Desert (UBD), along with supplemental data from four other cores. The UBD is one of the main desert dune fields in China and our results indicate the UBD has undergone complex evolution during the late Quaternary. Most of the present UBD was covered by a Jilantai-Hetao Mega-paleolake lasting until ~ 90 ka ago. A sandy desert environment prevailed throughout the UBD during the last glacial period and early Holocene. A wetland environment characterized by the formation of numerous interdunal ponds in the northern UBD occurred at ~ 8-7 ka, although a dune field persisted in the southern UBD. The modern UBD landscape formed after these wetlands dried up. During the last 2000 years, eolian sand from the Badain Jaran Desert has invaded the northern UBD, while farming and overgrazing resulted in the formation of the eastern UBD. We suggest that the formation of UBD landforms is related to the disintegration of the megalake Jilantai-Hetao and to summer monsoon changes during the last glaciation and Holocene.

  12. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  13. Active deformation processes of the Northern Caucasus deduced from the GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Mironov, Alexey; Rogozhin, Eugeny; Steblov, Grigory; Gabsatarov, Yury

    2015-04-01

    The Northern Caucasus, as a part of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt, is a zone of complex tectonics associated with the interaction of the two major tectonic plates, Arabian and Eurasian. The first GPS study of the contemporary geodynamics of the Caucasus mountain system were launched in the early 1990s in the framework of the Russia-US joint project. Since 2005 observations of the modern tectonic motion of the Northern Caucasus are carried out using the continuous GPS network. This network encompasses the territory of three Northern Caucasian Republics of the Russian Federation: Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and North Ossetia. In the Ossetian part of the Northern Caucasus the network of GPS survey-mode sites has been deployed as well. The GPS velocities confirm weak general compression of the Northern Caucasus with at the rate of about 1-2 mm/year. This horizontal motion at the boundary of the Northern Caucasus with respect to the Eurasian plate causes the higher seismic and tectonic activity of this transition zone. This result confirms that the source of deformation of the Northern Caucasus is the sub-meridional drift of the Arabian plate towards the adjacent boundary of the Eastern European part of the Eurasian lithospheric plate. The concept of such convergence implies that the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Himalayan mobile belt is under compression, the layers of sedimentary and volcanic rocks are folded, the basement blocks are subject to shifts in various directions, and the upper crust layers are ruptured by reverse faults and thrusts. Weak deviation of observed velocities from the pattern corresponding to homogeneous compression can also be revealed, and numerical modeling of deformations of major regional tectonic structures, such as the Main Caucasus Ridge, can explain this. The deformation tensor deduced from the velocity field also exhibits the sub-meridional direction of the major compressional axes which coincides with the direction of

  14. Analysis of Suitability for Development of New Mining Field in Northern Part of Kosovo Lignite Basin - Sibovc / Analiza Możliwości Udostępnienia Nowego Obszaru Wybierania W Północnej Części Zagłębia Węgla Brunatnego Sibovc W Kosowie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cehlár, Michal; Rybár, Radim; Pinka, Ján; Haxhiu, Lorik; Beer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the possibility of development a new lignite deposit in northern Kosovo lignite basin - Sibovc. Analysis of the initial state briefly evaluates Kosovo energy sector, geomorphological conditions and quality of lignite from Sibovc deposit. With using Dataminesoft it was created geological model and approximate calculation of lignite reserves in the deposit. The data obtained from Dataminesoft were used as starting points of the financial analysis of project. The result of the analysis is exactly describe the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of deposit Sibovc compared to other deposits in the area and creating of geological model with productive horizons deposit of lignite. Based on these data lignite deposit Sibovc was classified, according to the classification of deposits the UN, as economical. W pracy tej omówiono możliwości udostępnienia nowego obszaru wybierania złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w północnej części zagłębia węgla brunatnego Sibovc w Kosowie. W analizie stanu początkowego krótko scharakteryzowano sektor energetyczny Kosowa, warunki geo-morfologiczne oraz parametry jakościowe węgla brunatnego z zagłębia Sibovc. Przy pomocy pakietu Dataminesoft stworzono model geologiczny i przeprowadzono przybliżone obliczenia zasobów węgla brunatnego w złożu. Dane uzyskane przy zastosowaniu pakietu Dataminesoft zostały następnie wykorzystane jako dane wejściowe do analizy finansowej przedsięwzięcia. Na podstawie wyników analizy uzyskuje się jakościową i ilościową charakterystykę złoża w odniesieniu do pozostałych złóż w regionie. Opracowano model geologiczny ze szczegółowym wskazaniem poziomów wybierania lignitu. W oparciu o te dane dokonano klasyfikacji złoża węgla brunatnego (lignitu) w Sibovc zgodnie z międzynarodowymi zasadami klasyfikacji wykazując, że złoże będzie ekonomiczne.

  15. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam J.; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  16. Potential of environmental DNA to evaluate Northern pike (Esox lucius) eradication efforts: An experimental test and case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunker, Kristine J.; Sepulveda, Adam; Massengill, Robert L.; Olsen, Jeffrey B.; Russ, Ora L.; Wenburg, John K.; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  17. Potential of Environmental DNA to Evaluate Northern Pike (Esox lucius) Eradication Efforts: An Experimental Test and Case Study.

    PubMed

    Dunker, Kristine J; Sepulveda, Adam J; Massengill, Robert L; Olsen, Jeffrey B; Russ, Ora L; Wenburg, John K; Antonovich, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Determining the success of invasive species eradication efforts is challenging because populations at very low abundance are difficult to detect. Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has recently emerged as a powerful tool for detecting rare aquatic animals; however, detectable fragments of DNA can persist over time despite absence of the targeted taxa and can therefore complicate eDNA sampling after an eradication event. This complication is a large concern for fish eradication efforts in lakes since killed fish can sink to the bottom and slowly decay. DNA released from these carcasses may remain detectable for long periods. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of eDNA sampling to detect invasive Northern pike (Esox lucius) following piscicide eradication efforts in southcentral Alaskan lakes. We used field observations and experiments to test the sensitivity of our Northern pike eDNA assay and to evaluate the persistence of detectable DNA emitted from Northern pike carcasses. We then used eDNA sampling and traditional sampling (i.e., gillnets) to test for presence of Northern pike in four lakes subjected to a piscicide-treatment designed to eradicate this species. We found that our assay could detect an abundant, free-roaming population of Northern pike and could also detect low-densities of Northern pike held in cages. For these caged Northern pike, probability of detection decreased with distance from the cage. We then stocked three lakes with Northern pike carcasses and collected eDNA samples 7, 35 and 70 days post-stocking. We detected DNA at 7 and 35 days, but not at 70 days. Finally, we collected eDNA samples ~ 230 days after four lakes were subjected to piscicide-treatments and detected Northern pike DNA in 3 of 179 samples, with a single detection at each of three lakes, though we did not catch any Northern pike in gillnets. Taken together, we found that eDNA can help to inform eradication efforts if used in conjunction with multiple lines of inquiry and sampling

  18. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  19. Environmental Education in Northern Ireland: Concern and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the current status of environmental education in primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland, identifying issues and concerns, and summarizing recent developments that address these concerns. (DC)

  20. MAGNETIC SUBSTRUCTURE IN THE NORTHERN FERMI BUBBLE REVEALED BY POLARIZED MICROWAVE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, David I.; Crocker, Roland M.; Aharonian, Felix A.; Reich, Wolfgang; Ott, Juergen

    2012-03-15

    We report a correspondence between giant, polarized microwave structures emerging north from the Galactic plane near the Galactic center and a number of GeV gamma-ray features, including the eastern edge of the recently discovered northern Fermi Bubble. The polarized microwave features also correspond to structures seen in the all-sky 408 MHz total intensity data, including the Galactic center Spur. The magnetic field structure revealed by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe polarization data at 23 GHz suggests that neither the emission coincident with the Bubble edge nor the Galactic center Spur are likely to be features of the local interstellar medium. On the basis of the observed morphological correspondences, similar inferred spectra, and the similar energetics of all sources, we suggest a direct connection between the Galactic center Spur and the northern Fermi Bubble.

  1. Integrated Approaches and Empirical Models for Investigation of Parasitic Diseases in Northern Wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Polley, Lydden; Jenkins, Emily J.; Kutz, Susan J.; Veitch, Alasdair M.; Elkin, Brett T.

    2008-01-01

    The North is a frontier for exploration of emerging infectious diseases and the large-scale drivers influencing distribution, host associations, and evolution of pathogens among persons, domestic animals, and wildlife. Leading into the International Polar Year 2007–2008, we outline approaches, protocols, and empirical models derived from a decade of integrated research on northern host–parasite systems. Investigations of emerging infectious diseases associated with parasites in northern wildlife involved a network of multidisciplinary collaborators and incorporated geographic surveys, archival collections, historical foundations for diversity, and laboratory and field studies exploring the interface for hosts, parasites, and the environment. In this system, emergence of parasitic disease was linked to geographic expansion, host switching, resurgence due to climate change, and newly recognized parasite species. Such integrative approaches serve as cornerstones for detection, prediction, and potential mitigation of emerging infectious diseases in wildlife and persons in the North and elsewhere under a changing global climate. PMID:18258071

  2. Structure and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment of the northern Gulf of Alaska continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Bruns, T.R.

    1983-01-01

    This report discusses the structure, geologic history, and petroleum potential of the Yakutat segment, the part of the continental margin between Cross Sound and Icy Bay, northern Gulf of Alaska. As part of a program of geological and geophysical investigations of the continental margin in the northern Gulf of Alaska, the US Geological Survey collected multichannel seismic reflection data along about 2000 km of tracklines in the study area during 1975, 1977, and 1978. In addition, dredge samples from the continental slope were acquired during the 1977, 1978, and 1979 field seasons. The first part of this paper presents an interpretation of the seismic reflection and refraction data, including structure contour maps, isopach maps, and interpreted seismic sections; the second part is a discussion of the implications for petroleum potential. The primary area of interest is the continental shelf and slope, but some data from strata at the base of the slope are also included.

  3. Geomorphic Surface Maps of Northern Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, Southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale (1:6000) surficial geology maps of northern Frenchman Flat were developed in 1995 as part of comprehensive site characterization required to operate a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in that area. Seven surficial geology maps provide fundamental data on natural processes and are the platform needed to reconstruct the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat. Reconstruction of the Quaternary history provides an understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. Seven geomorphic surfaces (Units 1 through 7) are recognized, spanning from the early Quaternary to present time.

  4. Trick or treat? Muslim Thangals, psychologisation and pragmatic realism in northern Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Lang, Claudia

    2014-12-01

    Thangals are an endogamous community in Kerala, India, of Yemeni heritage who claim direct descent from the Prophet Muhammad's family. Due to their sacrosanct status, many thangals work as religious healers and thus are part of the informal mental health care system in Northern Kerala. Using the case of one thangal healer as an illustration of the many ritual healers in Kerala who engage the modern discourse of psychology in their practices, I argue that the psychologisation of ritual healing is part of a wider trend: the increasing rationalisation and scientification of traditional medical practices, whereby an increasing number of traditional healers negotiate science, modernity and religion and position their practice within these contested fields. Based on the analysis of this thangal's healing practice in the local context of Northern Kerala, I further argue that in order to understand "ritual" healing, scholars should emphasise pragmatic realism more than doctrinal purity.

  5. Loess ecosystems of northern Alaska: Regional gradient and toposequence at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.A. ); Everett, K.R. )

    1991-12-01

    Loess-dominated ecosystems cover {approx} 14% (11,000 km{sup 2}) of the Arctic Coastal Plain and much of the northern portion of the Arctic Foothills. Knowledge of this poorly known ecosystem is important for sound land-use planning of the expanding developments in the region and for understanding the paleoecological dynamics of eolian systems that once dominated much of northern Alaska. A conceptual alkaline-tundra toposequence includes eight common vegetation types and associated soils and vegetation downwind of the Sagavanirktok River. Properties of loess tundra important for land-use planning include: (1) its high ice content, which contributes to its susceptibility to thermokarst; (2) high salinities, which hamper revegetation efforts; and (3) presence of certain plant species such as Dryas intergrifolia, which are particularly sensitive to disturbance. The loess gradient provides a natural analogue for road dust, and extensive disturbance associated with oil-field development.

  6. A Dwarf Dissolving? - A Kinematic Analysis of Andromeda XXVII and the Northern Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michelle; Rich, R. M.; Chapman, S. C.; Ibata, R.; Irwin, M.; McConnachie, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    We report internal kinematics for an unusual M31 dwarf spheroidal galaxy, And XXVII, which is superposed against the Northern Arc Stream feature, isolated in the PandAS (Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey). In contrast to the coherent, cold velocity fields of most Andromeda dwarf spheroidals, And XXVII has a trimodal velocity distribution spanning 100 km/sec, with a relatively cold central peak at -530 km/sec , and a velocity dispersion of sigma= 8 km/sec. While all of the candidate members are < 2' (or approximately one half light radii, ~600 pc) from the core, the full velocity range is not consistent with a system of luminosity Mv=-7.9. We propose that And XXVII may be in the process of dissolving into the Northern Arc.

  7. Glacial and Quaternary geology of the northern Yellowstone area, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Krause, Teresa R.; Whitlock, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    This field guide focuses on the glacial geology and paleoecology beginning in the Paradise Valley and progressing southward into northern Yellowstone National Park. During the last (Pinedale) glaciation, the northern Yellowstone outlet glacier flowed out of Yellowstone Park and down the Yellowstone River Valley into the Paradise Valley. The field trip will traverse the following Pinedale glacial sequence: (1) deposition of the Eightmile terminal moraines and outwash 16.5 ± 1.4 10Be ka in the Paradise Valley; (2) glacial recession of ~8 km and deposition of the Chico moraines and outwash 16.1 ± 1.7 10Be ka; (3) glacial recession of 45 km to near the northern Yellowstone boundary and moraine deposition during the Deckard Flats readjustment 14.2 ± 1.2 10Be ka; and (4) glacial recession of ~37 km and deposition of the Junction Butte moraines 15.2 ± 1.3 10Be ka (this age is a little too old based on the stratigraphic sequence). Yellowstone's northern range of sagebrush-grasslands and bison, elk, wolf, and bear inhabitants is founded on glacial moraines, sub-glacial till, and outwash deposited during the last glaciation. Floods released from glacially dammed lakes and a landslide-dammed lake punctuate this record. The glacial geologic reconstruction was evaluated by calculation of basal shear stress, and yielded the following values for flow pattern in plan view: strongly converging—1.21 ± 0.12 bars (n = 15); nearly uniform—1.04 ± 0.16 bars (n = 11); and strongly diverging—0.84 ± 0.14 bars (n = 16). Reconstructed mass balance yielded accumulation and ablation each of ~3 km3/yr, with glacial movement near the equilibrium line altitude dominated by basal sliding. Pollen and charcoal records from three lakes in northern Yellowstone provide information on the postglacial vegetation and fire history. Following glacial retreat, sparsely vegetated landscapes were colonized first by spruce parkland and then by closed subalpine forests. Regional fire activity

  8. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the northern Wyoming Powder River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundance of new borehole data from recent coal bed natural gas development in the Powder River Basin was utilized by the U.S. Geological Survey for the most comprehensive evaluation to date of coal resources and reserves in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. It is the second area within the Powder River Basin to be assessed as part of a regional coal assessment program; the first was an evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coal field, adjacent to and south of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. There are no active coal mines in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area at present. However, more than 100 million short tons of coal were produced from the Sheridan coal field between the years 1887 and 2000, which represents most of the coal production within the northwestern part of the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area. A total of 33 coal beds were identified during the present study, 24 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. Given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining, seven of the beds were evaluated for potential reserves. The restrictions included railroads, a Federal interstate highway, urban areas, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as depth, thickness of coal beds, mined-out areas, and areas of burned coal, were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Northern Wyoming Powder River Basin assessment area for all 24 coal beds assessed, with no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 285 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 263 billion short tons (92.3 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is that portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined

  9. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  10. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  11. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  13. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  14. Zinc and lead deposits of northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Edwin T.

    1935-01-01

    Zinc and lead ores occur in the northern counties of Arkansas, from the Arkansas-Oklahoma line on the west to the Coastal Plain, in Lawrence County, on the east, but are concentrated chiefly in Marion, Boone, Newton, Searcy, Sharp, and Lawrence Counties.  Lead ore was reported in the region as early as 1818, and small reduction plants were built in the vicinity of Lead Hill in 1851 or 1852.  The Confederate forces obtained lead from northern Arkansas during the Civil War.  Zinc mining began at a somewhat later date and reached its peak between 1914 and 1917, but since that time mining has been at a low ebb.  The later history of lead mining in the region has closely paralleled that of zinc.  The production from the region since 1907, according to statistics compiled by the United States Geological Survey, has been, in round numbers, 1,900 tons of lead sulphide concentrates, 11,5000 tons of zinc sulphide concentrates, and 51,3000 tons of zinc carbonate and silicate concentrates.

  15. Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Weldon W.

    1964-01-01

    Foraminifera from a Tertiary sequence that crops out on the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., show stratigraphic and ecologic significance. Forty-two species that are important both to correlations and to ecologic interpretations are illustrated and systematically discussed. The Foraminifera indicate that some of the rocks may be as old as early Eocene. The oldest rocks are tentatively referred to the Penutian stage of Mallory. Other parts of the sequence are referred to the Ulatisian and Narizian stages of Mallory, the Refugian stage of Schenck and Kieinpell, and the Zemorrian and Saucesian stages of Kleinpell. Several short periods of shallow, sheltered sea conditions are suggested by the Foraminifera from several parts of the stratigraphic sequence, but Foraminifera from most of the rocks suggest relatively deep, open-sea conditions. With the exception of shallow, warm-water conditions in rocks of probable middle Eocene age, the Foraminifera suggest that cool-to-cold water temperatures, regardless of depth, prevailed during the deposition of most of the rocks of Tertiary age in the northern Olympic Peninsula.

  16. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  17. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  18. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals.

  19. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals. PMID:27463216

  20. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  1. Field Trip.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Bill

    1993-01-01

    Reports the results of a field trip to measure the intensity of electromagnetic fields generated by electronic devices in the home, in cars, at work, outside, and in places people visit during the day. Found that a person gets more intense exposure while working at a computer than by living next to an electrical substation. (MDH)

  2. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E.; Hietala, J.; Wendland, R.D.; Collins, F.

    1992-07-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  3. Ice slurry cooling development and field testing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K.E. ); Hietala, J. ); Wendland, R.D. ); Collins, F. )

    1992-01-01

    A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

  4. Measurements and simulation of forest leaf area index and net primary productivity in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Sun, R; Hu, J; Zhu, Q; Zhou, Y; Li, L; Chen, J M

    2007-11-01

    Large scale process-based modeling is a useful approach to estimate distributions of global net primary productivity (NPP). In this paper, in order to validate an existing NPP model with observed data at site level, field experiments were conducted at three sites in northern China. One site is located in Qilian Mountain in Gansu Province, and the other two sites are in Changbaishan Natural Reserve and Dunhua County in Jilin Province. Detailed field experiments are discussed and field data are used to validate the simulated NPP. Remotely sensed images including Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+, 30 m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, 15m spatial resolution in visible and near infrared bands) are used to derive maps of land cover, leaf area index, and biomass. Based on these maps, field measured data, soil texture and daily meteorological data, NPP of these sites are simulated for year 2001 with the boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS). The NPP in these sites ranges from 80 to 800 gCm(-2)a(-1). The observed NPP agrees well with the modeled NPP. This study suggests that BEPS can be used to estimate NPP in northern China if remotely sensed images of high spatial resolution are available. PMID:17166651

  5. Study of mosquito fauna in rice ecosystems around Hanoi, northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-ya; Van Soai, Nguyen; Van Anh, Dinh Thi; Nguyen, Yen T; Takagi, Masahiro

    2015-02-01

    Species of the Culex vishnui subgroup, Cx. fuscocephala and Cx. gelidus, which are known Japanese encephalitis (JE) vectors, are distributed in rice agroecosystems in Asian countries. Hence, although ecological studies of rice agroecosystems in northern Vietnam are necessary, very few integrated studies of breeding habitats of mosquitoes, including JE vectors, have been conducted. We carried out a field study and investigated the mosquito fauna in six rice production areas in northern Vietnam during the rainy and dry seasons of 2009. Mosquitoes and potential mosquito predators were collected from aquatic habitats by using larval dippers. We collected 1780 Culex individuals (including 254 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus; 113 Cx. vishnui, 58 Cx. vishnui complex, consisting of Cx. vishnui and Cx. pseudovishnui; 12 Cx. gelidus; 1 Cx. bitaeniorhynchus; and 1 Cx. fuscocephala), 148 Anopheles individuals (including 5 An. vagus), 1 Mansonia annulifera, and 1 Mimomyia chamberlaini during the rainy season. During the dry season, we collected 176 Culex individuals (including 33 Cx. vishnui, 24 Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, 8 Cx. vishnui complex, and 1 Cx. gelidus) and 186 Anopheles individuals (including 9 An. tessellatus, 2 An. kochi, and 2 An. barbumbrosus). We found mosquitoes in all aquatic habitats, namely, rice fields, ditches, ponds, wetlands, irrigation canals, and rice nurseries, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui complex were found in all the above six areas. Heteroptera such as Micronecta, Veliidae, and Pleidae were abundant and widely distributed in both the seasons. The abundance of mosquito larvae was higher in the rice fields, ditches, and ponds during the rainy season than during the dry season. Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. vishnui complex, Cx. fuscocephala, and Cx. gelidus were abundant in rice agroecosystems (rice fields, ditches, ponds, and wetlands) in northern Vietnam, and their abundance was high during the rainy season. These findings deepen our understanding of

  6. Magnetic Field of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. C.; Ferguson, B.; Mozzoni, D.; Hood, L.

    2000-07-01

    An internal potential function was created using the averaged MGS vector data released by Mario Acuna for altitudes from 95 to 209 km above the Martian geoid, all longitudes, and latitudes from 87 degrees south to 78 degrees north. Even with some gaps in coverage it is found that a consistent internal potential function can be derived up to spherical harmonic terms of n = 65 using all three components of the data. Weighting the data according to the standard errors given, the model fits to 7-8 nT rms. The energy density spectrum of the harmonics is seen to peak near n = 39 with a value of 7 J/cu km and fall off to less than 0.5 J/cu km below n = 15 and above n = 55. Contour maps of the X (north) component drawn for 100 km altitude show the strongly anomalous region centered at 60 degrees S latitude and 180 degrees longitude, as well as the alternating east-west trends already observed by other groups. Maps of the other components show the anomalous region, but not the east-west trends. The dichotomy is also maintained with much weaker anomalies bounding the northern plains. The results herein as as well as those of others is limited by the sparse low-altitude data coverage as well as the accuracy of the observations in the face of significant spacecraft fields. Work by Connerney and Acuna have mitigated these sources somewhat, but the design of the spacecraft did not lend itself to accurate observations. Recent results reported by David Mitchell of the ER group have shown that the field observations are significantly influenced by the solar wind with the possibility that the present results may only reflect that portion of the internal field visible above 95 km altitude. Depending on the solar wind, the anomaly field may be shielded or distorted to produce spurious results. The spectrum we have obtained so far may only see the stronger portion of the signal with a significant weaker component hidden. Measurements of crustal anomalies versus relative ages of source

  7. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  8. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  9. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  10. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  11. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  12. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  13. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-autonomous region in the north of Australia. It is one of three Territories and six States that constitute the Commonwealth of Australia. The mainland States and Territories all maintain separate education systems, responsible to the Minister for Education in each State or Territory. In the Northern Territory's…

  14. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  15. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  16. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  17. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  18. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  19. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural... appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  20. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural... appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...