Science.gov

Sample records for northern anthracite field

  1. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (<0.063 mm) of bed sediment in mining-affected tributaries and the main stem of Swatara Creek. As a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits, concentrations of suspended solids and total metals in the water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in

  2. Process for separating anthracite coal from impurities

    SciTech Connect

    Stiller, D.W.; Stiller, A.H.

    1985-05-06

    A process is described for separating a first mixture including previously mined anthracite coal, klinker-type cinder ash and other refuse consisting of: a. separating the first mixture to produce a refuse portion and a second mixture consisting of anthracite and klinker-type cinder ash, b. reducing the average particle size in the second mixture to a uniform size, c. subjecting the second mixture to a separating magnetic field to produce a klinker-type cinder ash portion and an anthracite coal portion.

  3. Quality of water in mines in the Western Middle Coal Field, Anthracite Region, east-central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.; Growitz, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of mine water in the 75 sq-mi Western Middle anthracite field, Pennsylvania was determined by sampling discharges and boreholes at 60 abandoned and flooded mines during 1975-78. The Vulcan-Buck Mountain mine, east-northeast of Mahanoy City, contains an estimated 6,100 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of 380 to 460 micromhos and a pH of 4.4 to 4.6 units. Twenty-two mines are in a 15-sq mi area between Mahanoy City and Girardville, all of which closed prior to 1958. Seven of these mines in the Mahanoy Basin may contain 30,000 acre-ft of water. Specific conductance ranges from 630 micromhos in the Tunnel mine to 1,800 micromhos in the Gilberton mine. Fifteen of these mines are in the Shenandoah complex; specific conductance ranges from 240 to 310 micromhos in mines in the eastern end of the complex to 2,400 micromhos in the western end. The specific conductance of water in 25 mines in the Mount Carmel-Shamokin area ranges from 460 to 980 micromhos. The North Franklin mine near Trevorton contains about 4,900 acre-ft of water with a specific conductance of about 1,100 micromhos. (USGS)

  4. Electrolytic oxidation of anthracite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Patton, K.M.; Heard, I.

    1981-01-01

    An anthracite slurry can be oxidized only with difficulty by electrolytic methods in which aqueous electrolytes are used if the slurry is confined to the region of the anode by a porous pot or diaphragm. However, it can be easily oxidized if the anthracite itself is used as the anode. No porous pot or diaphragm is needed. Oxidative consumption of the coal to alkali-soluble compounds is found to proceed preferentially at the edges of the aromatic planes. An oxidation model is proposed in which the chief oxidants are molecular and radical species formed by the electrolytic decomposition of water at the coal surface-electrolyte interface. The oxidation reactions proposed account for the opening of the aromatic rings and the subsequent formation of carboxylic acids. The model also explains the observed anisotropic oxidation and the need for the porous pot or diaphragm used in previous studies of the oxidation of coal slurries. ?? 1981.

  5. Integrated processing of anthracite into sorption materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Nikolaichuk, A.D.; Strelko, V.V.; Tsyba, N.N.; Denisovich, V.A.

    2006-05-15

    The possibility of using anthracite to produce activated carbon in the form of microporous and mesoporous anthracite, a cation exchanger, and composite sorption materials was analyzed and the porometric properties of a variety of sorption materials based on anthracite from the Donets coal basin were studied. A flowsheet for integrated processing of anthracite to give a set of four products was composed.

  6. Anthracite: A promising new target for coalbed methane exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.

    1996-06-01

    Until recently, anthracite was not considered to constitute a viable reservoir for coalbed methane production. However, in 1994 commercial rates of methane were recovered from Permo-Carboniferous anthracites in the southern part of the North China Basin complex, in Henan and Shanxi Provinces, People`s Republic of China. During production tests of limited duration, shallow (approximately 1,200 to 1,600 ft) vertical wells flowed at rates exceeding 250 Mcf plus 200 bbls water per day. The coal in these two areas ranges from semi-anthracite to meta-anthracite, with vitrinite reflectances (R{sub o}) varying from 2.4 to 6.6 percent. In-situ gas contents of cored coals are as high as 1,000 s.c.f./short ton. The produced gas consists of approximately 95 percent methane, with traces of CO{sub 2} and other gases. Aggregate coal thickness in both areas is from 35 to 60 ft; some individual beds range from 10 to 20 ft in thickness. Cores of these anthracites are described as fractured and friable, exhibiting fair to good cleat development. These deposits occur in geologically complex areas within a zone of intersecting major tectonic elements that is characterized by high geothermal gradients. An untested but highly prospective anthracite deposit occurs in the South Wales Coal Basin, United Kingdom. Detailed, innovative research underway at the University of Wales, Cardiff, in this deformed Variscan foreland basin is focused on such topics as thrust-related permeability of anthracite and its potential control over coalbed methane production. The highest rank coal and the highest measured gas contents of cores (more than 850 s.c.f./short ton) in the U.K. are found in the northwestern part of the South Wales coal field.

  7. Reactivities of heat-treated anthracites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulanovskii, M.L.; Men'shikova, S.D.; Zingerman, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Anthracites were selected and grouped from various Donbass mines in order to evaluate the effects of rank, ash and sulphur on reactivity. It was found that the rank of low-ash and low- sulphur anthracite has little effect on reactivity in the normal range of 1200-1600 C. Increased sulphur appreciably increases the chemical activity of heat-treated anthracite. From the point of view of carbon electrode manufacture it is important to find the optimum high-sulphur anthracite.

  8. Use of anthracite in the foundry industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bethray, A.

    1994-12-31

    Anthracite has been used for smelting iron in North America for nearly 200 years and is still used today in cupolas. Environmental and market factors contribute to continued cost increases in foundry coke that will continue in the future. This paper reviews the availability, quality and properties of anthracite and considers some of the differences in operation when using anthracite in place of coke.

  9. Anthracite firing -- Largest steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, P.; Winkin, J.; Changqin, G.

    1998-07-01

    The size and scope of the Hanfeng Power Plant is a large undertaking by any definition. It is progressing very well with good coordination and cooperation of all those involved. Start-up is scheduled for the first unit in the year 2000 with the second unit following by eight months. The boiler island scope covers all equipment and structural steel from the bunkers to the stack. This includes the world's two largest anthracite fired boilers burning a blend of very low volatile Chinese anthracite and lean coal (bituminous). The coal blending is designed to maximize the use of the local anthracite coal. This is done by controlled blending at the entrance to the large FW D12D ball mills. Scaling up from earlier extensive experience with arch fired boilers is reviewed as well as key features of the Hanfeng boilers each of which are capable of generating 563 kg/s of steam at 540.8 C and 175 bar (equivalent to 717 MW of turbine/generator output). The design of the boiler and related equipment for the Hanfeng project has been the subject of in-depth reviews by independent engineers representing the banks to assure reliability of the boiler to support the economic model. It has been shown that FW's extensive experience burning anthracite coals has justified the scaling up of the various components to meet the requirements of the specification. This experience is based on operating similar type anthracite arch fired boilers with fuel blends that are comparable to the coals to be supplied for the Hanfeng project. The materials and equipment for the Hanfeng boiler island are being supplied on a multi-national basis in support of the various requirements of the financing institutions involved. The overall design has been finalized and the detail design is well underway. Most of the large critical components are already in manufacturing.

  10. Laboratory and field evaluation of a flushable oxic limestone drain for treatment of net-acidic drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of dissolution-rate data obtained in the laboratory to indicate the potential quality of effluent from a field-scale oxic limestone drain (OLD) treatment system for neutralization of dilute acidic mine drainage (AMD). Effluent from the Reevesdale Mine South Dip Tunnel, a large source of AMD and base flow to the Wabash Creek and Little Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield of east-central Pennsylvania, is representative of AMD with low concentrations but high loadings of dissolved Fe, Al and other metals because of a high flow rate. In January 2003, rapid neutralization of the AMD from the Reevesdale Mine was achieved in laboratory tests of its reaction rate with crushed limestone in closed, collapsible containers (Cubitainers). The tests showed that net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with retention times greater than 3 h and that effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for Fe(OH)3-coated and uncoated limestone. On the basis of the laboratory results, a flushable OLD containing 1450 metric tons of high-purity calcitic limestone followed by two 0.7-m deep wetlands were constructed at the Reevesdale Mine. During the first year of operation, monthly data at the inflow, outflow and intermediate points within the treatment system were collected (April 2006-2007). The inflow to the treatment system ranged from 6.8 to 27.4 L/s, with median pH of 4.7, net acidity of 9.1 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of 1.0, 1.9 and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The corresponding effluent from the OLD had computed void-volume retention times of 4.5-18 h, with median pH of 6.6, net acidity of -93.2 mg/L CaCO3, and concentrations of dissolved Al, Fe and Mn of <0.1, 0.08 and 0.52 mg/L, respectively. The wetlands below the OLD were effective for retaining metal-rich solids flushed at monthly or more frequent intervals from the OLD, but otherwise had little effect on the effluent quality

  11. Anthracite culm fired fluidized-bed boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Lentz, E.C.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes a fluidised-bed boiler that has been designed by FluiDyne Engineering Corp. for the combustion of anthracite culm, a material containing about 40% ash and consisting of coal particles embedded in mineral matter. There are some 900 million tons of anthracite culm in northeast Pennsylvania within easy reach of many large metropolitan areas. It is estimated that the material can be used economically within a distance of 200 miles.

  12. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  13. Giant gas field of northern West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, J.D.; Hart, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The 66 fields discovered since the 1960s in the northern West Siberian basin contain at least 22 trillion m/sup 3/ (777 tcf) of proved gas, almost one-third of the world's reserves. Half of these fields are giants (> 85 billion m/sup 3/ or 3000 bcf of reserves). These include the largest and second-largest gas fields in the world-Urengoy (8.099 trillion m/sup 3/ or 286 tcf of gas) and Yamburg (4.81 trillion m/sup 3/ or 170 tcf of gas)-as well as most of the other ten largest gas fields in the world. The West Siberian basin occupies a 3.4-million km/sup 2/ (1.31-million mi/sup 2/) arctic lowland immediately east of the Ural Mountains, extending north under the Kara Sea. It is a composite basin, with Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin fill on top of a Paleozoic basin that overlies a crystalline Archean-Proterozoic framework. The productive zones in the northern basin are principally in the Neocomian section (at an average depth of 2800m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 2800 m or 9200 ft) and the Cenomanian section (at an average depth of 1100 m or 3600 ft). The former contains reservoirs with gas, condensate, and oil; the latter contains two-thirds of the region's gas. Gas in Cenomanian reservoirs is almost pure methane. Hydrocarbons in Neocomian reservoirs were generated by thermal maturation of sapropelic organic matter contained principally in the Tithonian Bazhenov shale. Methane in the Cenomanian section appears to be a combination of thermogenic gas from the Bazhenov Suite (or deeper) and biogenic gas generated in the Cenomanian section itself, although workers disagree over how much gas came from each source. Continental glaciation during the Pleistocene may have been important in concentrating the methane in Cenomanian reservoirs.

  14. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  15. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  16. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  17. 30 CFR 716.5 - Anthracite coal mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite coal mines. 716.5 Section 716.5... PROGRAM REGULATIONS SPECIAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 716.5 Anthracite coal mines. (a) Permittees of anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations in those States where the mines are regulated...

  18. Porosity and sorption properties of activated carbons prepared from anthracite by steam-air activation

    SciTech Connect

    Sych, N.V.; Kartel, N.T.; Tsyba, N.N.; Strelko, V.V.; Nikolaichuk, A.D.; Mironyuk, T.I.

    2006-04-15

    Fundamental aspects of the steam-air activation of anthracite from Donets coal fields were studied. The effect of the flow rate of moistened air on the development of a porous structure and the sorption properties of the adsorbents obtained were examined.

  19. Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandel, Babita

    Geomagnetic Field Response at Southern and Northern Hemisphere Babita Chandel, Shailendra Saini, Sneha Yadav,S.K.Vijay and A.K.Gwal Space Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal-462026, India ABSTRACT: This paper represents the geomagnetic field response at Southern Hemisphere (MAITRI) and Northern Hemisphere (TROMSO). The Indian Antarctic Station MAITRI is located at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210) where as TROMSO is at geomagnetic Long. (66.030, 53.210). We studied the behaviour of geomagnetic field with respect to geomagnetic storms at both the stations TROMSO and MAITRI. It was observed that at Southern Hemisphere there is more variation in winter as compared to the summer season, where as in Northern Hemisphere the variations are more in summer as compared to winter. As in the Northern hemisphere the magnetospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in summer and in Southern hemisphere the magentospheric plasma is strongly turbulized in winter.

  20. Maximizing the existing potential of new foreign markets for anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, L.W.; Ahn, Y.K.; Hong, S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The major purposes of this report were to: (1) conduct an in-depth survey of both the technical and marketing problems in the United States Anthracite Industry (predominately in Northeastern Pennsylvania); and (2) make recommendations in areas of technical R and D needs that will enhance the United States export of anthracite to foreign markets (especially Korea). The report identifies various anthracite culm drying and other coal utilization concepts; recommends several anthracite utilization configurations which appear to be the most suitable to the Korean market and a sensitivity analysis on these configurations; and identifies several solutions to resolve some of the problems which were identified relative to: (a) reducing the price of exporting anthracite; (b) the producers quality control activities which relate to meeting the Korean specifications and generally improving the understanding on the contract terms that relate to the encouragement of long term commitments of anthracite by Korea. 33 refs., 23 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  2. Anthracite coal supply for the 1981-1982 winter. [USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This report focuses on some of the problems affecting the anthracite industry and consumers in the northeastern States, State and industry actions since the 1980-81 shortage, and the outlook for the winter of 1981-82. It also includes information on anthracite exports to foreign countries and the Department of Defense (DOD) facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal research and development efforts to use anthracite in industrial boilers, and the actions the State of Pennsylvania has taken to encourage the use of anthracite in municipal buildings.

  3. Objective styles in northern field science.

    PubMed

    Kochan, Jeff

    2015-08-01

    Social studies of science have often treated natural field sites as extensions of the laboratory. But this overlooks the unique specificities of field sites. While lab sites are usually private spaces with carefully controlled borders, field sites are more typically public spaces with fluid boundaries and diverse inhabitants. Field scientists must therefore often adapt their work to the demands and interests of local agents. I propose to address the difference between lab and field in sociological terms, as a difference in style. A field style treats epistemic alterity as a resource rather than an obstacle for objective knowledge production. A sociological stylistics of the field should thus explain how objective science can co-exist with radical conceptual difference. I discuss examples from the Canadian North, focussing on collaborations between state wildlife biologists and managers, on the one hand, and local Aboriginal Elders and hunters, on the other. I argue that a sociological stylistics of the field can help us to better understand how radically diverse agents may collaborate across cultures in the successful production of reliable natural knowledge.

  4. Properties of metal-anthracite contacts at high flow densities

    SciTech Connect

    Okorochkov, A.I.; Pavlinov, A.B.; Polyl'nyi, V.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement of the volt-ampere characteristics of metal-anthracite contacts in the pulsating mode and under isothermal conditions showed a loss of linearity of potential distribution in the contact regions in the anthracite, possibly due to the injection of free charge carriers from these contacts.

  5. Properties of metal-anthracite contacts at high flow densities

    SciTech Connect

    Okorochkov, A.I.; Pavlinov, A.B.; Posyl'nyi, V.Ya.

    1983-01-01

    The volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) of metal-anthracite contacts have been measured under isothermal conditions in the pulsed regime. A deviation from linearity of the distribution of potential in the regions of anthracite adjacent to the contacts has been detected which can be explained by the injection of free charge carriers from the contacts.

  6. Coal: Pennsylvania anthracite 1978. Energy data report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.

    1980-10-01

    Production of Pennsylvania Anthracite in 1978 decreased 14.1 percent or 824 thousand short tons from the 1977 figure of 5861 thousand short tons to 5037 thousand short tons. Buckwheat No. 1 and smaller sizes accounted for 3768 thousand short tons or 75 percent of production. Pea and larger sizes accounted for 1259 thousand short tons or 25 percent of production. Average price per ton (f.o.b. preparation plant) increased 1.1 percent from the 1977 figure of $34.86 to $35.25. Productivity declined 6.6 percent from 6.97 to 6.51 short tons per miner per day. Domestic distribution of anthracite in 1978 totaled 3895 thousand short tons or 77.3 percent of production. Of this amount, 1597 thousand short tons or 41 percent went to residential and commercial consumers, 1064 thousand short tons or 27.3 percent went to electric utilities, 748 thousand short tons or 19.2 percent went to other industrial users, 476 thousand short tons or 12.2 percent went to the iron and steel industry, and 10 thousand short tons or 0.3 percent was consumed at mining operations. US exports of anthracite in 1978 totaled 1142 thousand short tons or 22.7 percent of production. Exports to Canada were 405 thousand short tons, to South Korea - 331 thousand short tons, and to US military forces in West Germany - 276 thousand short tons. The Canadian, Korean, and German exports accounted for 1012 thousand short tons or 88.6 percent of all exports in 1978.

  7. Polarization of anthracite electrodes in electrolyte solutions

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Lopanov; E.V. Blaido; O.V. Smirnova

    2007-10-15

    The regularities of the polarization of anthractie electrodes for the liberation of hydrogen from electrolyte (potassium chloride and hydrogen chloride) solutions were found, and electrode processes occurring at the surface of coals in the Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} redox system were studied. It was found that the deviations of standard electrode potentials from the equilibrium values of redox systems depend on the exchange current densities of electrochemical processes occurring at the surface of coal matter. Low transfer coefficients (0.04-0.051) for the discharge reaction of hydrogen ions on anthracites indicate that the reaction occurs under conditions close to those of an activationless process.

  8. Anthracite coal supply for the 1981-1982 winter

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, J.D.

    1981-09-18

    This report contains a letter addressed to the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources in which findings on the potential for anthracite to become an effective component in meeting US energy needs are presented. Some of the problems facing the anthracite industry and consumers in the northeastern states, state and industry actions since the 1980 shortage, and the outlook for the winter of 1982 are addressed. Information was obtained on anthracite exports to foreign countries and to the DOD facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Development efforts to use anthracite in industrial boilers and the actions that the state of Pennsylvania has taken to encourage the use of anthracite in municipal buildings are also discussed. (DMC)

  9. Novel approach to the production of graphite from anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Atria, J.V.; Zeng, S.; Rusinko, F. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Currently the carbon/graphite industry uses petroleum coke as the main filler constituent in the manufacture of graphite. Anthracite has been successfully used as fillers for amorphous carbon electrodes, but has not been used in the production of graphite electrodes because of its non-graphitizable structure. In the present project, a unique approach to make graphite from anthracite, focused on modifying anthracite`s precursor structure by adding a hydrogen-donating substance, has been conducted. This approach is based on two major hypotheses. First, a supply of donatable or transferable hydrogen is needed for the hydrogen-deficient anthracite structure to disrupt crosslink formation between aromatic structures within the coal. Secondly, an aromatic liquid medium is needed to help prevent electronic interactions between aromatic structures and provide the fluidity necessary for aromatic realignment into the graphite structure. Several hydrogen donors were investigated. 9,10-Dihydroanthracene showed the best ability to donate hydrogen to anthracite and also formed a highly anisotropic anthracene coke in the process. Phenanthrene was selected as the aromatic liquid medium. Both anthracene and phenanthrene have been found to he highly graphitizable. Although hydrogen was successfully donated to the anthracite, the hydrogen donation is believed to have only occurred at the surface and did not affect the internal structure of the coal. Because of the dependence of graphitizability on pore structure and the resistance of the internal coal structure to hydrogen donation, six anthracites were studied to determine their pore characteristics. Three of the anthracites, representing a variety of pore characteristics, were then selected to investigate the hydrogenation and subsequent graphitization of the anthracites treated with dihydroanthracene.

  10. Fine Anthracite Coal Washing Using Spirals

    SciTech Connect

    R.P. Killmeyer; P.H. Zandhuis; M.V. Ciocco; W. Weldon; T. West; D. Petrunak

    2001-05-31

    The spiral performed well in cleaning the coarse 8 x 16 mesh size fraction, as demonstrated by the Ep ranging from 0.091 to 0.177. This is in line with typical spiral performance. In addition, the presence of the coarser size fraction did not significantly affect spiral performance on the typical 16 x 100 mesh fraction, in which the Ep ranged from 0.144 to 0.250. Changes in solids concentration and flow rate did not show a clear correlation with spiral performance. However, for difficult-to-clean coals with high near-gravity material, such as this anthracite, a single-stage spiral cleaning such a wide size fraction may not be able to achieve the clean coal ash and yield specifications required. In the first place, while the performance of the spiral on the coarse 8 x 16 mesh fraction is good with regard to Ep, the cutpoints (SG50s) are high (1.87 to 1.92), which may result in a clean coal with a higher-than-desired ash content. And second, the combination of the spiral's higher overall cutpoint (1.80) with the high near-gravity anthracite results in significant misplaced material that increases the clean coal ash error. In a case such as this, one solution may be to reclean the clean coal and middlings from the first-stage spiral in a second stage spiral.

  11. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  12. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  13. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  14. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  15. 30 CFR 820.11 - Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance standards: Anthracite mines in... STANDARDS-ANTHRACITE MINES IN PENNSYLVANIA § 820.11 Performance standards: Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania. Anthracite mines in Pennsylvania, as specified in section 529 of the Act, shall comply with its...

  16. Physical property data on coarse anthracite waste. Report of investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, B.M.; Atkins, L.A.

    1983-07-01

    Since 1974, a large amount of data has been developed concerning the physical properties and stability characteristics of waste generated by the mining and preparation of bituminous coal. However, very little information has been developed on the properties and characteristics of anthracite waste. During this Bureau of Mines research project, coarse anthracite breaker refuse from five sites in eastern Pennsylvania was sampled and the physical properties, which indicate stability characteristics, were determined in the laboratory. Stability analyses were conducted on six theoretical anthracite waste embankments. These analyses show the effects on minimum safety factors of geometry, phreatic surface level, and physical properties.

  17. Standard test method for size of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This method covering screen analysis of anthracite is used to determine the percentage of undersize or oversize in ny given commercial size. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Procedure, in case th coal is wet, air-dryit before screening. Determine the undersize first. For broken, egg, and stove sizes, up-end each piece by hand on the screen, to determine whether in any position it passes through the screen. For nut, pea, buckwheat, and rice sizes, shake the screens gently with a reciprocating horizontal motion, so as to avoid breakage ofthe coal, until practically no more coal will pass through the openings. Screen the coal in such increments as will allow the pieces to be in direct contact with the screen openings after the completion of the shaking of each increment.

  18. Graphene-like structure of activated anthracites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawelek, L.; Woznica, N.; Brodka, A.; Fierro, V.; Celzard, A.; Bulou, A.; Burian, A.

    2012-12-01

    The structure of a series of activated carbons prepared from anthracite by chemical activation has been studied using wide-angle x-ray scattering, molecular dynamics and Raman spectroscopy. The BET surface areas of the investigated samples are in the range 1500-3430 m2 g-1 and the average pore sizes vary from 0.75 to 1.35 nm. The diffraction measurements were carried out to a maximum value of the scattering vector Kmax = 22 Å-1. The obtained diffraction data have been converted to a real space representation in the form of the pair correlation function. The structure of the studied samples consists of one or two graphite-like layers, stacked without spatial correlations. The size of the ordered layer region is approximately 24 Å. The atomic arrangement within an individual layer has been described in terms of paracrystalline ordering, in which lattice distortions are propagated proportionally to the square root of inter-atomic distances. The paracrystalline structure has been simulated by introducing the Stone-Thrower-Wales, mono-vacancy and di-vacancy defects, randomly distributed in the network. These defects lead to the formation of a defected network with the presence of non-hexagonal rings in which distortion of the structure extends outside of a defect region. Computer generated structural models have been relaxed at room temperature using the reactive empirical bond order potential for intra-layer interactions and the Lennard-Jones potential for inter-layer interactions. For such generated models the structure factors and the pair correlation functions were computed. A good agreement between the simulation results and the experimental data in both reciprocal and real space provides evidence for the correctness of the proposed models. The Raman data support the validity of these models. Porosity of the activated anthracites is discussed in relation to their defective structure.

  19. Three-Dimensional X-ray Reflections from Anthracite and Meta-Anthracite.

    PubMed

    Ergun, S; Mentser, M; O'donnell, H J

    1960-11-04

    Careful analysis of x-ray scattering intensities of demineralized metaanthracites and high-rank anthracites formed during the Pennsylvanian geological period has revealed the presence of three-dimensional (hkl) reflections of graphite, demonstrating unequivocally that coals graphitize with metamorphism. Graphitization has been observed also with a coal formed before the Cambrian period, much earlier than most coals. A significant degree of graphitization occurs by coalification when the graphite-like layers attain a size of 25 to 30 angstroms as compared to 100 A or more by the heat treatment of amorphous carbons.

  20. Cumulative impacts of oil fields on northern Alaskan landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, D.A.; Webber, P.J.; Binnian, Emily F.; Everett, K.R.; Lederer, N.D.; Nordstrand, E.A.; Walker, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed further developments on Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain raise questions about cumulative effects on arctic tundra ecosystems of development of multiple large oil fields. Maps of historical changes to the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field show indirect impacts can lag behind planned developments by many years and the total area eventually disturbed can greatly exceed the planned area of construction. For example, in the wettest parts of the oil field (flat thaw-lake plains), flooding and thermokarst covered more than twice the area directly affected by roads and other construction activities. Protecting critical wildlife habitat is the central issue for cumulative impact analysis in northern Alaska. Comprehensive landscape planning with the use of geographic information system technology and detailed geobotanical maps can help identify and protect areas of high wildlife use.

  1. Coalcracker culture. Work and values in Pennsylvania anthracite, 1835-1935

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, H.W.

    2003-07-01

    This book traces the evolution of a distinct regional culture in the anthracite coalfields of Pennsylvania. It begins by establishing the region's industrial and social context, before tracing the development of anthracite deep mining. Finally, the values fostered by the work of deep mining anthracite are examined.

  2. Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, B.M.; Vaniman, D.T.; Baldridge, W.S.; Shafiqullah, M.

    1988-06-10

    Volcanic centers previously mapped as the 20 Ma El Rechuelos Rhyolite in the northern Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico, include three distinct episodes of rhyolitic volcanism. An early (7.5 Ma) extrusive dome of flow-banded biotite rhyolite and an intermediate (5.8 Ma) rhyolite, possibly a volcanic neck, correspond in age to rhyolites of the Keres Group in the southern Jemez volcanic field. Three other extrusive domes of aphyric, pumiceous rhyolite and obsidian comprise a late volcanic episode, dated at 2.0 Ma. We retain the name El Rechuelos Rhyolite only for these late centers. Another center, farther north than the others but previously mapped with the El Rechuelos Rhyolite, is a dacite pumice ring whose age (5.2 Ma), petrography, major- and trace-element chemistry, and Sr initial ratio all suggest it should be included with rocks of the Tschicoma Formation. Nd and Sr isotopic ratios of the Neogene rhyolites of the northern Jemez volcanic field suggest that these rhyolites were not produced by partial melting of either upper or lower crust. Rather, they may have been generated from a mantle-derived mafic magma, such as the nearby Lobato Basalt, by fractional crystallization with concomitant assimilation of small amounts (<6%) of lower crust. If the El Rechuelos is derived from a lower crust magma chamber, as seems likely, then it is not related to the bandelier magma system, even though it is part of a continuum of rhyolite volcanism ranging from 3.6 Ma to 130,000 years ago that includes the Bandelier and precursor rhyolitic units. copyright American Geophysical Union 1988

  3. Advanced burner technology for low volatile coal and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Tigges, K.D.; Streffing, M.; Lisauskas, R.; Ake, T.

    1997-12-31

    Today China is one of the countries with the highest coal production. Approximately three quarters of the produced coal is high-volatile and medium-volatile hard coal and only about 20% is anthracite. However the actual portion of the anthracite used in power plants is even lower. The reason for this is not due to the low amount available, but to the difficulty of ensuring stable and reliable ignition and combustion of anthracite. Up to now, the so-called Downshot firing system has been used to fire difficult anthracite coals. The experience gained with this type of firing system is, however, far from satisfactory. The numerous difficulties in the plants of all manufactures have shown that attempts should be made to develop efficient burners to be able to use the simple, service-proved and reliable opposed-burner system. Deutsche Babcock started this work in the early 1980`s and developed a second generation low-NOx burner -- the DS burner -- which is also well suited for the combustion of anthracite. The development is based on state-of-the-art advanced computer simulation and full-scale combustion tests on a wide range of coals. Performance has been evaluated on coals with volatile matter content ranging from 50% down to as low as 5%. DS burners are characterized by extremely reliable and stable ignition which allows operation at low part loads even when firing difficult coal. The excellent flame stability of this burner is the reason why the complex Downshot firing system with its numerous disadvantages is no longer necessary and opposed burner system may be applied even for firing anthracite. The paper describes the development of the burner for difficult coals and explains the full scale combustion tests, the laboratory tests of the ignitability and compares these results with the computer simulation of the DS burner flame.

  4. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  5. The dissolution of an anthracite coal with perchloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, G.E.; Hyatt, A.G.; McGowan, C.W.

    1996-10-01

    Lignite coal, bituminous coal and several oil shales have previously been dissolved using perchloric acid of varying boiling point and subsequent oxidizing ability. These organic deposits generally dissolved between 150 and 160{degrees}C. This indicated that the aliphatic ether oxygen bond was being broken during the dissolution process. This dissolution process was performed on an anthracite coal because of the coal`s low oxygen content. The anthracite coal dissolved between 180 and 190{degrees}C making it similar to high-vol bituminous coal from New Zealand. Earlier work has indicated that carbon-carbon double bonds are being attacked during the dissolution process at the higher temperatures.

  6. 100 MW anthracite culm CFB small power producer

    SciTech Connect

    McKenzie, R. ); Wilhelm, B. . Power Systems Group)

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design aspects of the St. Nicholas Cogeneration Project. The project is an anthracite culm-fired 80 MWe qualifying cogeneration facility. The project is privately financed, owned, and to be operated to produce process steam for commercial use along with cogenerating electricity for sale to the local utility. This paper highlights the details of the power sales agreement with Pennsylvania Power and Light Company, the development of the project for third-party financing, and the design considerations for fueling the facility with anthracite culm.

  7. Identification and mapping of coal refuse banks and other targets in the anthracite region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, F. Y.; Thompson, D. N.; Lachowski, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 MSS data covering parts of Pennsylvania's southern and eastern middle anthracite coal fields were studied to determine how well accumulations of coal refuse could be identified and mapped by computer analysis and processing. Spectral signatures of coal refuse targets were similar to water, but had higher reflectances in all channels. Relative reflectances were in the order 4 5 or = 6 7. Although no underflight photography was at hand to judge mapping success, correlation was made, with 1:24,000 scale U.S.G.S. maps dated 1947 and 1948. Coal refuse targets correlated well with existing maps.

  8. Inventory of federally-funded projects and programs related to anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    This report is a compilation of descriptions of federal projects and programs that are concerned in some way with anthracite. It is the first inventory of its type to be prepared. Among the projects and programs described are those completed in the latter half of 1979, those that are currently active, and others that will start soon. Of the 43 projects described, 8 involve research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) of technologies aimed at enhancing the use of anthracite or anthracite mining waste; 6 address environmental problems associated with anthracite mining or use; 9 provide information on the anthracite industry; 16 involve studies related to anthracite; and 4 are miscellaneous projects and programs. These projects and programs represent federal government expenditures of $27.1 million, excluding current military purchases of anthracite for use in European bases of $33.6 million, and US Bureau of Mines mined land demonstration and reclamation projects of $38.3 million.

  9. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  10. Anthracite firing design for central stations: Ignition and emissions aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Mallol, J.A.; Kukoski, A.E.; Winkin, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The most successful technology for firing pulverized anthracite coals in central station steam generators has accumulated more than 12,000 MWe of ordered capacity worldwide, over half of which is already operational. These units burn coals with less than 14% volatile matter. A recent contract is the 2,100 MWe Yangcheng Power Plant, which will fire a southeast Shanxi anthracite having only 5% volatile matter. Foster Wheeler`s technology ensures self-ignition by integrating, in a double-arch fired, water-wall furnace: (1) partial refractory coverage of the walls, (2) venting of cold primary (coal transport) air, (3) hot gas entrainment at the beginning of the jet-flame. Fuel systems applied to anthracite coals will be reviewed, including the one for the ongoing Hanfeng project in Hebei, which consists of two 660 MWe arch-fired units. Alternative means to improve ignition will also be presented. In addition, emissions from anthracites are characterized, including the effect of an over-fire air design suitable for arch-fired furnaces.

  11. 30 CFR 75.381 - Escapeways; anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Escapeways; anthracite mines. 75.381 Section 75.381 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.381 Escapeways;...

  12. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  13. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  14. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  15. 30 CFR 75.404 - Exemption of anthracite mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of anthracite mines. 75.404 Section 75.404 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Combustible Materials and Rock...

  16. Assessment of new sources performance standards (NSPS) for anthracite-fired industrial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Environmental Research and Technology, Inc. and Berger Associates, under separate contracts with the US Department of Energy, were requested to estimate the impact of various levels of industrial boiler new sources performance standards (NSPS) on potential future markets for anthracite use in industrial boilers and to analyze the impact of changes in anthracite use on the air quality, environment, and economics of the NE Pennsylvania anthracite region. The combined contractors' analyses presented here review the properties of anthracite as a fuel, primarily in industrial markets, as well as present use and trends for future use. This report focuses on the anticipated effect of an exemption for anthracite from the industrial boiler sulfur dioxide NSPS, currently under development by the Environmental Protection Agency. At present, on a national basis industrial bolers are not a major market for anthracite. In 1973, only 1.26 percent of the coal burned in major industrial boilers was anthracite. However, the market for anthracite is a highly regional one; more than half of the anthracite consumed in industrial boilers between 1973 and 1978 was in Pennsylvania. The major constraints to future use of anthracite are its cost relative to substitute fuels and feedstocks and its technical limitations which can be overcome in part by purchasing larger, more expensive, boilers. An exemption for anthracite from sulfur removal requirements in the upcoming NSPS for industrial boilers would make the more expensive but cleaner anthracite competitive with bituminous coal. This analysis estimates the 1995 annual anthracite consumption by industrial boilers. The best case estimate is 2.7 million tons; the worst case is 11,000 tons. Socio-economic factors related to the use of anthracite in Northeastern Pennsylvania are considered.

  17. Cooperation and conflict: field experiments in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    The idea that cohesive groups, in which individuals help each other, have a competitive advantage over groups composed of selfish individuals has been widely suggested as an explanation for the evolution of cooperation in humans. Recent theoretical models propose the coevolution of parochial altruism and intergroup conflict, when in-group altruism and out-group hostility contribute to the group's success in these conflicts. However, the few empirical attempts to test this hypothesis do not use natural groups and conflate measures of in-group and unbiased cooperative behaviour. We conducted field experiments based on naturalistic measures of cooperation (school/charity donations and lost letters' returns) with two religious groups with an on-going history of conflict—Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland. Conflict was associated with reduced donations to out-group schools and the return of out-group letters, but we found no evidence that it influences in-group cooperation. Rather, socio-economic status was the major determinant of cooperative behaviour. Our study presents a challenge to dominant perspectives on the origins of human cooperation, and has implications for initiatives aiming to promote conflict resolution and social cohesion. PMID:25143042

  18. Maximizing the existing potential of new foreign markets for anthracite: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Ziolkowski, L.W.; Ahn, Y.K.; Hong, S.P.

    1988-09-01

    The major purposes of this report were to: (1) conduct an in-depth survey of both the technical and marketing problems in the United States Anthracite Industry (predominately in Northeastern Pennsylvania); and (2) make recommendations in areas of technical R and D needs that will enhance the United States export of anthracite to foreign markets (especially Korea). Furthermore, the report identifies various anthracite culm drying and other coal utilization concepts; recommends several anthracite utilization configurations which appear to be the most suitable to the Korean market and a sensitivity analysis on these configurations; and identifies several solutions to resolve some of the problems which were identified relative to: (a) reducing the price of exporting anthracite; (b) the producers quality control activities which relate to meeting the Korean specifications and generally improving the understanding on the contract terms that relate to the encouragement of long term commitments of anthracite by Korea. 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Influence of gas composition of the modulus of elasticity of gas-impregnated anthracites

    SciTech Connect

    Vinokurova, E.B.; Ketslakh, A.I.

    1986-07-01

    A study of the elastic properties of anthracites under strain and high gas pressure is described. The tests were made on Class I and II anthracites after exposure to helium, nitrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and a mixture of these gases similar in composition to that of natural gas in worked anthracite strata. Each test sample was loaded in air at atmospheric pressure, and then subjected to vacuum treatment and impregnated with gas. Tables show strain on samples in air at atmospheric pressure in helium, nitrogen, methane and gas mixtures, and values of modulus of elasticity for anthracite in various gases. It was shown that impregnation with carbon dioxide under pressure has a destructive influence on the anthracite. The presence of 1.5% of carbon dioxide in a gas is sufficient to cause a reduction in the modulus of elasticity. During the working of a stratum, the consequential change in the gas content also alters the mechanical properties of the anthracite.

  20. Modified anthracites as selective sorbents for platinum metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tikhonova, L.P.; Lyubchik, S.B.; Tarasenko, Y.A.; Goncharik, V.P.; Galushko, O.L.; Fonseca, I.

    2006-05-15

    Methods of preliminary modification were used to obtain activated carbons with low ash content (0.2%), developed pi-conjugated electronic system, large surface area, and wide pore size distribution, from exclusively microporous carbons to those of mesoporous type. The adsorption of compounds of platinum-group metals on activated anthracite from single-component (as regards the platinum metal: Pd, Pt, or Rh) and multicomponent (Pd, Pt) solutions containing compounds of concomitant metals was studied.

  1. Computer simulation of nonstationary thermal fields in design and operation of northern oil and gas fields

    SciTech Connect

    Vaganova, N. A.; Filimonov, M. Yu.

    2015-11-30

    A mathematical model, numerical algorithm and program code for simulation and long-term forecasting of changes in permafrost as a result of operation of a multiple well pad of northern oil and gas field are presented. In the model the most significant climatic and physical factors are taken into account such as solar radiation, determined by specific geographical location, heterogeneous structure of frozen soil, thermal stabilization of soil, possible insulation of the objects, seasonal fluctuations in air temperature, and freezing and thawing of the upper soil layer. Results of computing are presented.

  2. Ignition temperatures of a high-ash Portuguese anthracite: Comparison with a low-ash Pennsylvania anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Seixas, J.P.S.; Essenhigh, R.H.

    1986-11-01

    In this note the authors report values of ignition temperatures of a high-ash Portuguese anthracite. In this method, small samples of sieve-sized particles are floated into heated air at a very dilute concentration, and the lowest air temperature (T/sub i,g/) at which the particles will just ignite is determined. The characteristic of the coal used in these experiments that is of particular significance, in this extension of the still-sparse data-base of ignition temperatures, is the very high ash. The proximate and ultimate analyses are given in Table 1. At nearly 50% ash, this far exceeds anything previously reported. However, as they show below, the values obtained for the ignition temperatures are reasonably comparable to those reported elsewhere for a Pennsylvania anthracite.

  3. Effect of Natural Mineral Inclusions on the Graphitizability of a Pennsylavania Anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Pappano, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Four Pennsylvania anthracites of varied carbon content and mineral matter levels were selected from active mines and heat-treated to increasing temperatures. Carbides formed at ~2200 C and then decomposed at ~2500 C. This carbide formation and decomposition process aided in the global graphitization mechanism of the anthracites, and was the sole graphitization mechanism for at least one of the anthracite samples. The most highly graphitizing anthracite was demineralized and then heat treated to typical graphitization temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the heat treated de-mineralized sample showed that the (112) peak, which is indicate of three dimensional ordering, previously observed in the native heat-treated anthracite were no longer present. The demineralized anthracite was re-mineralized by adding four types of minerals back to the demineralized sample. The re-mineralized sample was then heat treated and was then found to exhibit the (112) in XRD. The absence of the (112) XRD peak after removal of minerals and heat- treatment, followed by re-appearance of the peaks after re-mineralization and heat treatment strongly suggests that the anthracite was only graphitizable if mineral matter was present. Mineral matter associated with anthracite must have some beneficiary role in the global graphitization mechanism, and may explain why some anthracites are more graphitizable than others.

  4. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bonding for anthracite operations in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION... REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.70 Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania. (a) All of the provisions...

  5. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bonding for anthracite operations in..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION... REGULATORY PROGRAMS § 800.70 Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania. (a) All of the provisions...

  6. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  7. The thermal transformations of pitch and its compositions with thermo-anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Belkina, T.V.; Ulanovskii, M.L.; Krysin, V.P.

    1983-01-01

    The derivatographic method was used to examine the nature of thermal treatment of pitch in a mixture with heat-treated anthracite. The basic effect of anthracite on the thermal conversion of pitch was established, as well as the stages of mass loss and the processes that limit such losses. (9 refs.)

  8. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  9. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  10. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION... Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. (a) This section applies to any person...

  11. Change in the composition of anthracite on storage and in the tissues of the organism

    SciTech Connect

    Kukharenko, T.A.; Lutsenko, L.A.; Mel'nikova, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged storage in the open air oxidizes anthracite and appreciably reduces its carbon content. Peaks appear in the infra-red spectrum typical of oxygen-containing groups. A slight reduction in the H/C ratio, despite a high-level general background being maintained, suggests that there are no changes in the basic molecular structure. In contact with the human organism, on the other hand, anthracite dust undergoes marked changes in its organic substance and a reduction in the ash yield. There is reason to suppose that, in contrast to bituminous coal, the oxidative hydrolytic decomposition of anthracite in the organism is accompanied by reaction or sorption of tissue protein. The spectrogram of an anthracite sample shows absorption peaks in the infra-red region which are typical of aromatic, aliphatic and alicyclic structures and indicate that this anthracite falls in the 'higher reduced' category. (8 refs.)

  12. Evaluation of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. The study consisted of two major activities: (1) fundamental slurry formulation experiments leading to the production and combustion characteristics investigation of suitable, anthracite slurries, and (2) analytical evaluations of the potential of anthracite slurry as a boiler fuel for new industrial and utility boiler application and for retrofit application of an industrial oil-fired boiler. The study results have shown that anthracite can be readily processed into a coal-water slurry with coal loading 70 wt % coal and 30% water plus chemical additives. Slurry viscosity, handling, and storage characteristics are similar to the bituminous coal-water slurries that are under active commercial development. Commercial anthracite-water slurry processing cost is projected to be only slightly higher than for bituminous coal-water slurry. Combustion testing in a small, industrial, water-tube boiler has shown that stable combustion of anthracite-water slurry can be achieved with high carbon conversion. The results also indicate that oxygen enrichment and secondary fuel firing can compensate for the low volatile content of the anthracite to achieve good combustion. Under the conditions assumed, anthracite-water slurry was not an economical fuel retrofit option for an existing oil-fired, industrial boiler. Contributing significantly to the economic results were the requirement for secondary fuel and oxygen to achieve good anthracite slurry combustion in the oil-designed boiler. Minimizing or eliminating the secondary fuel and oxygen requirements through a continued burner/boiler development program or more radical boiler modification to fire low-volatile fuel would greatly improve conversion economics and likely make anthracite-water slurry a candidate for industrial boiler fuel retrofit. 10 refs., 22 figs., 38 tabs.

  13. Experimental Study of High-Temperature Fracture Propagation in Anthracite and Destruction of Mudstone from Coalfield Using High-Resolution Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yang; Lu, Jun-Hui; Wang, Cai-Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The coalfield fire is determined by fractures of coal and rock that provide tunnel for gases and heat exchange. To study fracture propagation at high temperatures, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to scan anthracite and mudstone samples collected from the Qinshui coalfield, Shanxi Province, northern China. The samples were scanned at 100 °C intervals as they were subjected to temperatures of up to 500 °C. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed by the CT software to analyze changes in the fractures and pores in the samples. The experimental results show that fracturing of anthracite began at 200 °C. The generation rate of fractures in the coal samples increases slowly below 300 °C, but above 300 °C there is a sharp increase in fracture development. This indicates that the thermal fracturing temperature threshold for anthracite is 300 °C. During the experiment, it was found that preexisting fractures, voids, and regenerative fractures formed around the hard portions of anthracite particles or along the weak boundaries between particles. Some regenerative fractures developed along the fabric of the relatively crystalline particles within the particle and terminate at the edge of the particle or where the fracture encounters a harder portion of coal. Some fractures even expanded enough to be transformed into voids as temperatures rose. In the mudstone, the porosity changed suddenly at 300 °C. This indicated that there was a void generated at 200 °C, but the void expanded when the temperature was increased. However, changes in the void were not obvious from 200 to 300 °C.

  14. Co-Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel with Anthracites in a CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Jae-Sung

    Combustion of Refuse derived fuel (RDF) is considered as a priority solution to energy recovery from municipal solid waste (MSW). The co-combustion characteristics of anthracite coals with RDF were determined in the commercial scale Tonghae CFB Power Plant. As the feeding ratio of the RDF to the anthracites increased to 5%, temperature and pressure were not changed in comparison with firing only anthracites. The amount of the required air was reduced due to high O2 content in RDF relative to the anthracites. The emissions of NOx, SOx, HCl and Dioxin were also measured. According to higher mixing ratio of the RDF to the anthracites, SOx, NOx emissions slightly decreased and HCl emissions increased, because RDF has relatively smaller S, N and higher CI than the anthracites. Heavy metals of the fly ash and bottom ash and the dioxin emissions were far below Korean maximum permissible concentration level at incinerator. The results showed that it is of great use and technically possible to co-combustion of RDF with the anthracites by 5% in the form of fuel recovery and energy production in commercial scale CFB boiler.

  15. Combustion characteristics of blended coal of bituminous and anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Shon, E.K.; Choi, S.I.; Lee, S.H.; Hyun, J.S.; Park, C.S.

    1997-12-31

    Blending coals as a means of meeting air emission standards and controlling coal quality is receiving increased attention as both the demand for and the cost of suitable fuels increases. In some countries, the objectives of blending coals are to reduce SO{sub 2} emission, to decrease slagging and fouling problems, to control coal quality, and to reduce the cost of fuels. Comprehensive research on ignition, burnout and slagging characteristics of 2 kinds of Korean anthracite coal (Dongwon, Jangsung) and 1 imported bituminous coal (Ulan) and their blended coals with different blended ratios have been performed with thermogravimetry analysis technique, a drop-tube furnace and a P/C test furnace. The optimum blended ratios have been determined by means of a case by case experiment of 10%, 20% and 30% blending ratio, which provides an engineering basis for the design and operation of power station using the blended coal.

  16. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER... this subchapter shall apply to bonding and insuring anthracite surface coal mining and...

  17. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER... this subchapter shall apply to bonding and insuring anthracite surface coal mining and...

  18. 30 CFR 800.70 - Bonding for anthracite operations in Pennsylvania.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BONDING AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS BOND AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS UNDER... this subchapter shall apply to bonding and insuring anthracite surface coal mining and...

  19. Influence of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure during heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Fialkov, A.S.; Abramov, A.V.; Chuparova, L.D.; Kirilin, N.S.; Semenov, M.V.; Suslina, V.I.; Yurkovskii, I.M.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of the dispersity of anthracite on the rearrangement of its structure and its absorption capacity with respect to a binder has been investigated. It has been shown that a composition based on anthracite with a high degree of ordering of the structure can be obtained if the specific surface of the powder is not less than 14 m/sup 2//g but not more than 20 m/sup 2//g.

  20. Burning anthracite at B and W downshot unit and burner upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, J.

    1998-12-31

    Low volatile matter (VM) coals have difficulty on ignition, flame stability and burnout. A conventional utility boiler can`t successfully utilize such coals. The applications of enhancing ignition steps, proper burner type and its arrangement plus staging combustion as well as a suitable furnace configuration, along or in combination, may burn such low VM coals with high efficiency. B&W downshot units in Shang An Power Plant (S-Plant) in China applies a downshot firing with a W-shape flame plus primary air exchange burner (PAX) and staging combustion in a combination which achieved a great success in burning the design coal. The design coal is a blended coal (25% Yangquan (YQ) anthracite and 75% Shuyang lean) resulting a 13.95% VMdmf ranking as a semi-anthracite per ASTM-D338. In 1995, all 20 burner registers of Unit 1 had been upgraded. S-Plant and B and W decided to conduct a high anthracite blending coal (75% anthracite) combustion tests. The unit had demonstrated a great fuel flexibility. Based on the achievements, the all burner and staging ports of Unit 2 has been upgraded in 1997. In order to further demonstrate the great enhancing ignition feature, B and W had entrusted Chinese TPRI to conduct 100% YQ anthracite burn tests in May 1998. These tests reveal that with 100% anthracite firing, the ignition was fast and on time; the flame and combustion were very stable. Three days (58 continuous hours) 100% anthracite firing was carried out with the load range from the full (350 MW) to half (170--175 MW). The minimum load of 170--175 MW (48--50% MCR) without oil support was easy to maintain. Due to the plant policy, they don`t allow further reduction of the minimum load lower than 50% MCR. These tests have greatly demonstrated the capability of these units burning 100% anthracite.

  1. Gasification reactivity and kinetics of typical Chinese anthracite chars with steam and CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Linxian Zhang; Jiejie Huang; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

    2006-05-15

    The gasification reactivities of six typical Chinese anthracite chars with steam and CO{sub 2} at 0.02-0.1 MPa and 920-1050{sup o}C were investigated by using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The reactivities of anthracite chars during steam gasification were found to have a good correlation to the coal volatile matter contents. The higher the coal volatile matter content, the higher the reactivity. The difference in reactivities of anthracite chars during CO{sub 2} gasification seems to be more dependent on the catalytic effect of inherent minerals in anthracite. The results show that the greater the alkali index, the higher the reactivity. The reactivities of demineralized anthracite chars vary very little compared with those the undemineralized chars at higher temperatures, whereas the reactivities of demineralized chars from Jincheng and Rujigou are lower than those of undemineralized ones and the reactivities of demineralized chars from Yangquan, Hunan, Guangdong, and Longyan are higher than those of undemineralized chars at lower temperatures. The homogeneous model and shrinking core model were examined as ways to interpret the experimental data. The experimental results could be well-described by the shrinking core model for anthracite chars during steam and CO{sub 2} gasification. Comparison of the reactivities for anthracite chars during steam and CO{sub 2} gasification shows that the reactivities of anthracite chars during steam gasification are far higher than those during CO{sub 2} gasification. The reactivities of the former are about 10 times higher than those of the latter, and this ratio is far greater than that of the lignite and bituminous coal. The mechanism leading to this difference is discussed. 33 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  2. Effect of natural mineral inclusions on the graphitizability of a Pennsylvania anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Peter J. Pappano; Harold H. Schobert

    2009-01-15

    A Pennsylvania anthracite was heat-treated to temperatures in excess of 2000{sup o}C. Carbides formed at 2200{sup o}C and then decomposed at 2500{sup o}C. This process aided in the graphitization of the anthracite. The carbide formation-decomposition reactions were the sole graphitization mechanism for this anthracite. This was shown by demineralizing (to remove the natural mineral inclusions) and then heat-treating the sample to 2600{sup o}C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the heat-treated demineralized sample showed that the (112) peak, which is indicative of three-dimensional ordering and was previously observed in the native heat-treated anthracite, was no longer present. The demineralized anthracite was remineralized by individually adding four types of minerals (rutile, quartz, calcite, and hematite) to demineralized samples. Each of the remineralized samples was heat-treated and found to exhibit the (112) peak again. The absence of the (112) XRD peak after removal of minerals and heat treatment followed by its reappearance after remineralization and heat treatment strongly suggests that the anthracite was only graphitizable if mineral matter was present. 37 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Manifestation of Strong Coupling Between Microwave Photons and Spins in the epr Spectrum of Anthracite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedaruk, R.; Adashkevich, S. V.

    2014-07-01

    The change of the anthracite EPR signal shape that was caused by increasing the sample size was observed by continuous-wave EPR with automatic frequency control locked to the measuring cavity. For large samples (>10 mm3), hysteresis (a difference in the resonant magnetic flux densities when the magnetic field was scanned upwards or downwards) and a bistability (a sharp amplitude change) were observed. A two-peak spectrum for a strongly coupled system formed by an electron-spin ensemble and the cavity microwave field was found by changing the frequency of the microwave oscillator during recording of the EPR signals. The difference in the frequencies of these peaks (Rabi splitting) was a measure of the coupling strength between the spins and the microwave field and increased with increasing sample size. The simultaneous increase of the hysteresis and bistability of the EPR signals provided evidence that these peculiarities were caused by the Rabi splitting. Use of the Rabi splitting to determine the number of electron spins in a sample was proposed.

  4. Water quality of large discharges from mines in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, 99 of the 102 coal mines in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that discharged 1.0 cubic foot per second or more when water-quality samples were collected in 1975 were revisited. Water was not discharging from 15 of these 99 mines in 1991. Discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, sulfate, iron, manganese, alkalinity, and acidity were measured in water samples collected at 84 mines to assess changes in water quality from 1975 to 1991. The pH increased in water samples of 64 of the 81 mines. However, acidity was essentially unchanged. Concentrations of iron decreased in water discharge samples from 57 of 82 mines, manganese concentrations decreased in samples from 23 of 26 mines, and sulfate concentrations decreased in samples from 62 of 77 mines. The median change in sulfate was a decrease of 139 milligrams per liter. Alkalinity increased in water discharge samples from 43 mines, remained the same at 22 mines, and decreased at 14 mines. In 1975, the samples were collected during high base flow in the spring; in 1991, samples were collected during lower-than-normal base flow in the fall. This may have affected the comparison. Many mine discharges have elevated concentrations of aluminum, calcium, cobalt, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, strontium, zinc, and sulfate.

  5. A review of the use of anthracite in electric arc furnace steelmaking

    SciTech Connect

    Rozelle, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    The applications of anthracite in Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) steelmaking, include the adjustment of hot metal carbon content, the generation of foamy slags, and its use as a support fuel in the EAF to reduce power consumption per tonne of product. Incentives to use support fuel in EAF steelmaking include the reduction of electric power consumption without reducing plant output. As such, the concept can reduce steelmaking costs and can serve as a basis for maximizing an EAF operation`s demand side management program. The use of carbon and oxygen additions to the EAF can cause significant release of energy within the furnace. This energy can offset a portion of the electrical energy required by the system for production of steel. Reduced consumption of electricity per tonne of hot metal is the result Electrode consumption and tap to tap times can also be reduced. significant interest in the use of anthracite as EAF support fuel, as well as the other applications of anthracite in EAF steelmaking, have combined to establish the EAF steelmaking trade as a significant market sector for anthracite. This discussion is a review of key anthracite properties and production considerations, and their interplay with the requirements of the EAF process.

  6. Reconnaissance of mine drainage in the coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Growitz, D.J.; Reed, L.A.; Beard, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Anthracite has been extensively mined in four areas of eastern Pennsylvania. Almost all underground mining in the four areas, the Northern, Eastern Middle, Western Middle, and Southern Fields, has been discontinued and many mines are abandoned and flooded. Precipitation on much of the 408 square miles of coal fields infiltrates to the underground mine complexes, and is discharged as mine drainage from tunnels, mine entrances, and boreholes. Mine drainage was measured and sampled at 251 sites that had a total discharge of 918 cubic feet per second, a total sulfate load of 1,470 tons per day, and a total iron discharge of 79 tons per day. The largest sulfate yield was 5.4 tons per day per square mile from the Western Middle Field. The yields from the Northern, Eastern Middle, and Southern Fields were 4.6, 3.6, and 1.4 tons per day per square mile, respectively.

  7. [Book review] Lichens of the north woods: a field guide to 111 northern species, by Joe Walewski

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.

    2007-01-01

    Review of: LICHENS OF THE NORTH WOODS, A FIELD GUIDE TO 111 NORTHERN SPECIES. Joe Walewski. 2007. North Woods Naturalist Series, Kollath & Stensaas Publishing, Duluth, Minnesota. 152 pp, softcover. ISBN: 0-9673793-50. $18.95.

  8. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification. PMID:26086702

  9. Effects of Varying Particle Sizes and Different Types of LDH-Modified Anthracite in Simulated Test Columns for Phosphorous Removal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Chen, Qiaozhen; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Ruan, Chongying

    2015-06-16

    A comparative study was carried out for the removal of phosphorus in simulated unplanted vertical-flow constructed wetlands with different layered double hydroxide (LDHs) coated anthracite substrates. Three particle sizes of anthracites were selected and modified separately with nine kinds of LDH coating. The simulated substrates test columns loaded with the original and modified anthracites were constructed to treat the contaminated water. For the medium and large particle size modified anthracite substrates, the purification effects of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate were improved by various degrees, and the purification effect of the medium particle size anthracite is better than that of the large size one. The medium size anthracite modified by ZnCo-LDHs had optimal performance with average removal efficiencies of total phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus and phosphate reaching 95%, 95% and 98%, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity on ZnCo-LDHs and ZnAl-LDHs modified medium sizes anthracites were 65.79 (mg/kg) and 48.78 (mg/kg), respectively. In comparison, the small size anthracite is not suitable for LDHs modification.

  10. Optimization of anthracite calcination process in a vertical electric arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Perron, J.; Bouvette, J.F.; Dupuis, M.

    1996-10-01

    Anthracite is used for cathode block manufacturing must be calcined prior to its use to eliminate volatile matter and reduce its electrical resistivity. Anthracite calcination in vertical electric arc furnaces is widely used in the industry. It is well known that this technology leads to a radial temperature gradient in the furnace which results in non-homogeneous calcined anthracite properties. Also, operation experience has shown that production of calcination furnaces can be difficult to stabilize if process changes occur, which may lead to variable quality of the calcined material. To optimize the calcination process, an improved control strategy and a mathematical model of Elkem-type electric arc furnace were developed. Using these, it was successfully demonstrated that temperature gradient in the furnace can be reduced and that furnace productivity can be substantially increased.

  11. Combustion-Supporting Effect of Common Carbonous Solid Waste on Anthracites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianliang; Ren, Shan; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhou, Yun; Meng, Fanyi; Su, Buxin

    2012-08-01

    In order to study the combustion characteristics of anthracite with additives, the influence of common carbonous solid waste (CSW) on anthracite is studied by thermogravimetry. The results show that appropriate CSW additives mixed with pulverized coal (PC) at PZH Steel can promote the combustion of PC and increase the burning ratio of anthracite greatly. The greater the additive content, the higher the burning ratio at the same conditions. The dynamics models show that the particle size of CSW additives, oxygen concentration, and the diffusion coefficient of oxygen are all very influential for their combustion characteristics. The heat of CSW combustion is absorbed by coal powder, and it consists of part of the coal powder accumulated heat. Then, accumulated heat is higher than dissipation heat ahead of time, so CSW can support combustion of coal powder effectively.

  12. Thermogravimetric investigation on co-combustion characteristics of tobacco residue and high-ash anthracite coal.

    PubMed

    Li, X G; Lv, Y; Ma, B G; Jian, S W; Tan, H B

    2011-10-01

    The thermal behavior of high-ash anthracite coal, tobacco residue and their blends during combustion processes was investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (20 K min(-1), ranging from ambient temperature to 1273 K). Effects of the mixed proportion between coal and tobacco residue on the combustion process, ignition and burnout characteristics were also studied. The results indicated that the combustion of tobacco residue was controlled by the emission of volatile matter; the regions were more complex for tobacco residue (four peaks) than for coal (two peaks). Also, the blends had integrative thermal profiles that reflected both tobacco residue and coal. The incorporation of tobacco residue could improve the combustion characteristics of high-ash anthracite coal, especially the ignition and burnout characteristics comparing with the separate burning of tobacco residue and coal. It was feasible to use the co-combustion of tobacco residue and high-ash anthracite coal as fuel.

  13. High Yield Synthesis of Aspect Ratio Controlled Graphenic Materials from Anthracite Coal in Supercritical Fluids.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Suchithra Padmajan; Henry, Lucile; Yesilbag Tonga, Gulen; Huang, Kai; Das, Riddha; Giroire, Baptiste; Marre, Samuel; Rotello, Vincent M; Penicaud, Alain; Poulin, Philippe; Aymonier, Cyril

    2016-05-24

    This paper rationalizes the green and scalable synthesis of graphenic materials of different aspect ratios using anthracite coal as a single source material under different supercritical environments. Single layer, monodisperse graphene oxide quantum dots (GQDs) are obtained at high yield (55 wt %) from anthracite coal in supercritical water. The obtained GQDs are ∼3 nm in lateral size and display a high fluorescence quantum yield of 28%. They show high cell viability and are readily used for imaging cancer cells. In an analogous experiment, high aspect ratio graphenic materials with ribbon-like morphology (GRs) are synthesized from the same source material in supercritical ethanol at a yield of 6.4 wt %. A thin film of GRs with 68% transparency shows a surface resistance of 9.3 kΩ/sq. This is apparently the demonstration of anthracite coal as a source for electrically conductive graphenic materials.

  14. Combustion of anthracite-bituminous coal blends in a spreader stoker boiler at Holston Army Ammunition Plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, J.A.; Davidson, J.E.; Hartsock, D.K.

    1988-11-01

    A test program was conducted at the Holston Army Ammunition Plant near Kingsport, TN to evaluate the combustion of an anthracite-bituminous coal blend in a spreader stoker boiler designed for bituminous coal only. The test program was structured to evaluate different percentages of anthracite and bituminous in the blend at different operating loads on the boiler. Blends of 15, 22, 30, and 42% anthracite were combusted at loads of 62.5, 50, and 37.5% of the maximum continuous rating (MCR) boiler capacity. Stack testing and ash sampling were performed to monitor combustion performance, in addition to visually inspecting the ash bed. The testing disclosed no technical reasons why anthracite-bituminous blending could not be performed on a long-term basis to meet targeted Army anthracite consumption tonnages.

  15. Reservoir development in Brahaney northwest and Patricia fields, northern Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzullo, L.J.

    1990-02-01

    Porous pay zones in the Silurian-Devonian section of the northern Midland basin, Texas, vary stratigraphically, as well as structurally, with their locations beneath the pre-Woodford unconformity. These variations are related to at least two major periods of widespread pre-Woodford tectonism and erosion. A major unconformable surface, present at the top of the Lower Silurian Fusselman formation, was later modified by tectonism and erosion immediately preceding deposition of the Woodford Shale. In places where the Fusselman subcrops beneath the Woodford, its capacity for reservoir development is dependent upon the severity of geologic events that affected the formation during the two major tectonic/erosional events. Where the Wristen and Thirtyone formations subcrop, their reservoir capacity depends upon the extent of structuring and subsequent erosion immediately prior to Woodford deposition. Two pre-Woodford oil fields in the northern Midland basin illustrate geologic complexity that bears on the successful application of subsurface mapping in defining potential pay zones. Brahaney Northwest field in Yoakum County is productive from fractured, coarse crystalline Silurian-Devonian dolomites on subtle, fault-bounded structures. These structures, defined seismically on the base of the Woodford, do not reveal the more complex structural and stratigraphic variations within the reservoir itself. Patricia field in Dawson County is productive from Fusselman carbonates where upper Fusselman structural and topographic relief coincides with post-Woodford faulting and low-relief anticlinal closure as defined at the base of the Woodford.

  16. Improved Constraints on the Eruptive History of Northern Harrat Rahat Volcanic Field, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelten, M. E.; Downs, D. T.; Calvert, A. T.; Sherrod, D. R.; Hassan, K. H.; Muquyyim, F. A.; Ashur, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Harrat Rahat is a large (~20,000 km2) alkalic volcanic field located in central western Saudi Arabia. A variety of eruptive products ranging from alkali basalt to trachyte have erupted at Harrat Rahat over the past ~10 m.y., with the most recent eruptions occurring at 641 CE (uncertain) and 1256 CE in the northern part of the volcanic field. Despite the field's young age and its close proximity to two major city centers, the eruptive history of Harrat Rahat remains poorly constrained. Previous researchers grouped the volcanic strata of northern Harrat Rahat into seven subunits based on limited K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating, and on the degree of erosion displayed by the eruptive products. The youngest eruptive products (subunits Qm7 - Qm4) are thought to be ≤600 ka, whereas the older lavas (Qm3 - Qm1) are thought to be >600 ka. However, due to the sparse geochronologic control on the ages of the eruptive units, it remains unclear if the currently defined subunits accurately reflect the age distribution of lavas in northern Harrat Rahat. Additionally, the temporal relation between basaltic magmatism and the more evolved eruptive products has yet to be examined. To better constrain the eruptive history of Harrat Rahat we measured >50 new 40Ar/39Ar eruption ages for Qm1 through Qm5 lavas in northern Harrat Rahat. These new 40Ar/39Ar ages suggest that the majority of volcanism in the region occurred ≤400 ka and is significantly younger than previously thought, indicating that the magmatic system at Harrat Rahat has been more active over the past 400 kyr then previously recognized. Additionally, these new age data suggest that nearly all trachytic magmatism occurred <125 ka and was preceded by a pulse of more mafic magmatism. It is likely the magmatic system at Harrat Rahat reached an evolved state late in the history of the volcanic field due to increased and/or prolonged input of basaltic magmas into the crust.

  17. Chemical oxidation of anthracite with hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heard, I.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solutions of 30% H2O2 ranging from pH = 0 to pH = 11.5 have been used to oxidize anthracite at room temperature. The inorganic impurities, primarily pyrite, catalysed the oxidation and reduction of H2O2 (the Fenton reaction) to form the hydroxyl radical; the oxidation of the organic matter was minimal and was observed only in strong acidic solutions (pH < 1.5). After acid demineralization, samples of the same anthracite underwent a significant enhancement of oxidation in both acid and alkaline solutions (pH = 0.4-11.5). As all the iron had been removed from the surface and the reactions were completed in a much shorter time, the oxidation mechanism must have been of a different nature than that for the untreated anthracite. A qualitative model based on the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 by activated carbon sites in the coal surface is used to explain the oxidation of the demineralized anthracite. ?? 1984.

  18. Co-carbonization of two anthracites with a fat coal or two pitches

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, J.; Wang, Z.Z.

    2006-04-15

    The blends of two anthracite powders (YQ and JC) with a fat coal (C4) or a petroleum pitch (PP) or a coal tar pitch (CTP) in different proportions were co-carbonized at 3{sup o}C/min up to 1000{sup o}C in an experimental 1 kg coke oven. Coke yield, coke particulate size, coke micro-strength and coke cracking strength were measured respectively. Coke optical textures were watched under a microscope. The results show that as anthracite proportion increases, coke yields of all blends improve; > 0.8 mm lump coke yields of blends with CTP or PP decline slightly, blends with C4 drop heavily; coke microstrengths do not change sharply, and coke cracking strength of blends with C4 or PP decrease more than blends with CTP. C4 produces fine-grained mosaics, and two anthracites are mainly fusinite and fragments, PP is coarse-grained mosaics, and CTP is chiefly flow or domain textures. Independent optical textures were observed in cokes. There exist evident borders between the two contact optical textures which were produced by different components, and a few phenomena that domain or flow textures penetrating into fusinite appeared in the blends. It seems that CTP is the best adhesives for blending with anthracites for producing high quality cokes.

  19. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.11 Section 785.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  20. 30 CFR 785.11 - Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Anthracite surface coal mining and reclamation operations. 785.11 Section 785.11 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  1. Binding waste anthracite fines with Si-containing materials as an alternative fuel for foundry cupola furnaces.

    PubMed

    Huang, He; Fox, John T; Cannon, Fred S; Komarneni, Sridhar; Kulik, Joseph; Furness, Jim

    2011-04-01

    An alternative fuel to replace foundry coke in cupolas was developed from waste anthracite fines. Waste anthracite fines were briquetted with Si-containing materials and treated in carbothermal (combination of heat and carbon) conditions that simulated the cupola preheat zone to form silicon carbide nanowires (SCNWs). SCNWs can provide hot crushing strengths, which are important in cupola operations. Lab-scale experiments confirmed that the redox level of the Si-source significantly affected the formation of SiC. With zerovalent silicon, SCNWs were formed within the anthracite pellets. Although amorphous Si (+4) plus anthracite formed SiC, these conditions did not transform the SiC into nanowires. Moreover, under the test conditions, SiC was not formed between crystallized Si (+4) and anthracite. In a full-scale demonstration, bricks made from anthracite fines and zerovalent silicon successfully replaced a part of the foundry coke in a full-scale cupola. In addition to saving in fuel cost, replacing coke by waste anthracite fines can reduce energy consumption and CO2 and other pollution associated with conventional coking.

  2. A northern hemisphere geomagnetic field model for the last 14ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Carrasco, Fco Javier; Osete, Maria Luisa; Miquel Torta, Joan; de Santis, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    In this work, we propose a first regional geomagnetic field model for the Northern Hemisphere based on archaeomagnetic and lava flow data. The regional model, called scha.dif.14k, allows us to analyse the low degree of the geomagnetic field secular variation for the last 14000 years: from 12000 BC to 1900 AD. The inversion process of the declination, inclination and intensity palaeomagnetic data was carried out iteratively, using the spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA) up to degree K = 4 in space and penalized cubic B-spline in time with a knot point of 100 years for the whole time interval. Three starting models have been tested: a) A constant axial dipole field, b) a time-dependent axial dipole field and c) a time-dependent inclined dipole field. The last two starting models were estimated by using directly the archaeomagnetic data. These starting models have been perturbed in order to obtain a regional model with a higher spatial and temporal variability. We have compared the model with the recent published palaeosecular variation curves and with the global model for the Holocene: CALS10K.1b. Our model fits reasonably well the different palaeosecular variation curves and improves the prediction of the CALS10K.1b global model.

  3. Technological improvements in the field-based monitoring of glaciers in the Huasco basin, Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisternas, Sebastián; Uribe, José; Carrión, Daniela; Rivera, Andrés; Corripio, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Difficulties with the terrain, weather conditions and accessibility makes high altitude field-based glacier monitoring (>4000 m.a.s.l) particularly challenging. Due to this field measurements are often incomplete and temporally limited when available. Given the importance of temporal analyses when monitoring glacierised environments (especially those that are directly influenced by human activities such as mining) the development and improvement of field-based monitoring techniques is thus essential. Here a series of field technologies are presented that are intended to improve the monitoring of glaciers in the Pascua Lama mining project, Northern Chile (29º18'S , 70º03'W). Efforts focus on monitoring changes in the energy balance and the spatial distribution of albedo variation over glacier surfaces. Technological innovations are described in the use of: (1) meteorological networks (automatic weather stations) - improved for better transmission in unfavourable weather conditions through the use of high frequency portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; (2) Non-metric fixed camera systems - improved to allow continuous monitoring of glacier albedo variations by using high frequency transmission over the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) band and low power servers based on ARM architecture. The implementation of these technologies has so far successfully improved data acquisition were applied and offers a robust alternative to the traditional field-based glacier monitoring methods used previously.

  4. Northern elephant seal field bioacoustics and aerial auditory masked hearing thresholds in three pinnipeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southall, Brandon Lee

    This dissertation comprises four interrelated studies on acoustic communication (including both signal production and signal reception) in pinnipeds, primarily northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris). Field measurements of vocalization parameters were obtained in elephant seal breeding rookeries. Additionally, auditory masking experiments were conducted with individuals representing three pinniped species, including a northern elephant seal. This study quantified how aerial noise masks aerial hearing and provided preliminary data on auditory frequency filtering. All of these studies were conducted in air for a variety of practical and theoretical reasons. Some governmental, media, and research organizations have recently become concerned with the impacts of underwater anthropogenic noise on aquatic animals. However, little consideration has been given to the dual pressures imposed by aerial and underwater noise on amphibious marine mammals such as the pinnipeds. This dissertation sought to provide some basic data bearing on this matter by investigating aerial signals and aerial masked hearing. Data were obtained on aerial vocalization source levels, signal directivity patterns, natural aerial ambient noise, signal propagation properties, multi-modal aspects of signaling, motivation-specific signal variability, aerial critical masking ratios, and auditory filter bandwidths. The results indicate that different signal components may be more readily detectable in variable noise conditions, frequency resolution likely affects detection ranges, developmental and motivational factors affect signal parameters, and that some pinnipeds apparently detect signals over masking noise relatively well both in air and water. Using the northern elephant seal as a representative model, a model for quantifying constraints on vocal communication was developed to provide first-order predictions about detection ranges for signals in variable noise conditions.

  5. Geological history and petroleum system of the Mittelplate oil field, Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassmann, S.; Cramer, B.; Delisle, G.; Messner, J.; Winsemann, J.

    2005-12-01

    The geological history of Germany’s largest and most productive petroleum accumulation, the Mittelplate oil field in Schleswig-Holstein (Northern Germany), is reconstructed by simulating the structural and thermal evolution along a 2D cross-section. The Mittelplate field is located at the western flank of the Büsum salt dome at the transition from the Schleswig-Holstein mainland to the German North Sea Sector. Organic geochemical data confirm the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale to be the predominant oil source rock in the Schleswig-Holstein area. The studied section is characterized by salt walls and salt domes built up by Permian evaporites. Reconstruction of the structural and thermal evolution of the Mittelplate field by means of basin modelling reveals the dominating influence of salt dynamics on the entire petroleum system: The development of secondary rim-synclines during salt rise provided accommodation space for the deposition of the Posidonia Shale as well as the deltaic Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones. The rise of the nearby Oldenswort salt wall controlled the timing of maturation and petroleum generation during Cenozoic times. Hydrocarbon migration from the Posidonia Shale into the reservoirs occurred up-dip from the deeper subsiding rim-syncline into the structural trap with the Middle Jurassic reservoir sandstones pinching out at the flank of the Büsum salt dome. Along the modelled 2D section the field’s recent temperature field and its complex reservoir architecture are reconstructed.

  6. Geology and coastal hazards in the northern Monterey Bay, California: field trip guidebook, November 4, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this field trip is to explore the relationships between local geology, coastal hazards, and human influences in the northern Monterey Bay, which is a tectonically active high wave energy coastal environment. Seacliffs, shore platforms, pocket beaches and a headland/embayment morphology characterize this rocky coastline. Many studies of the onshore and offshore geology and geophysics, the local wave climate, and the effects of large storm events and earthquakes on the coastline have been conducted in this region (see Related Reading section). This field trip summarizes many of the findings of these research investigations, and also considers the relationship between the rates and styles of seacliff erosion and the variations in the local geology. The field trip stops allow the participant to examine seacliff sites of different geological lithologies, geographic orientations, and varying protection from wave attack, and consider how these variables affect not only the rate or magnitude of seacliff retreat but also the styles of retreat. In general the two primary forcing factors in the retreat of seacliffs are marine and terrestrial processes. At the various field trip stops, the relative importance of these processes in shaping the coastline at that particular location will be explored. Where beaches have developed, whether naturally or by emplacement of man-made structures, field trip stops are designed to look at the occurrence of the beaches (why they exist where they do) and to understand the response of the beaches to large storm events. Finally, this trip focuses on the various coastline protection structures that have been built in the area, and their effectiveness in protecting development on the beaches or at the tops of the seacliffs. The first stop of the trip is the Long Marine Lab facility where the seacliffs are composed of the most resistant geological unit in the area, the Miocene Santa Cruz Mudstone. This stop also includes discussion

  7. Field evaluation of commercial repellent formulations against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Waterson, D G E; Beebe, N W; Cooper, R D

    2005-12-01

    Field trials comparing commercially available repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-piperidinecarboxylate acid, 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-methylpropylester) and deet (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia, were conducted. Three repellents were compared: Autan Repel containing 9.3% picaridin, RID containing 10% deet, and Bushman Ultra containing 80% deet in a gel. The predominant mosquito species collected were Culex annulirostris Skuse (63.2%), Ochlerotatus normanensis (Taylor) (19.6%), and Anopheles meraukensis Venhuis (8.6%). Autan Repel provided >95% protection against all mosquitoes for 2 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. Against Cx. annulirostris, Autan Repel provided >95% protection for 5 h, RID for 7 h, and Bushman for >8 h. The study showed that both deet formulations provided significantly better protection against mosquitoes than picaridin (Autan Repel). All 3 repellents provided good protection against Cx. annulirostris, an important vector of arboviruses in Australia.

  8. Science teachers as metascientists: an inductive-deductive dialectic immersion in northern alpine field ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Elshof, Leo

    2004-12-01

    Efforts to promote more realistic conceptions about science are often limited by teachers' inexperience in this domain. In this paper, we describe an 'inductive-deductive, dialectic immersion' approach towards assisting teachers in developing more realistic conceptions about science -- along with corresponding revised perspectives about science teaching. Three secondary teachers of science with minimal science research experience engaged in a case study of science in action -- specifically, in an episode of northern alpine ecological field research. Qualitative data analyzed by constant comparative methods suggested that these teachers shifted along a modernist through postmodernist continuum -- as indicated by increased support for a more Naturalist epistemology of science, a more Antirealist ontology of science, and corresponding priorities towards science teaching and learning. Results suggest that teachers of science can develop postmodern views about science and science teaching if given opportunities to induce and deduce propositions about science in realistic cases of science in action.

  9. Field evidences for a Mesozoic palaeo-relief through the northern Tianshan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumiaux, Charles; Chen, Ke; Augier, Romain; Chen, Yan; Wang, Qingchen

    2010-05-01

    The modern Tianshan mountain belt, located in Central Asia, offers a natural laboratory to study orogenic processes linked with convergent geodynamical settings. Most of the previous studies either focused on the Paleozoic evolution of the range - subductions, arc accretions and continental collision - or on its Cenozoic intra-continental evolution linked with the India-Asia collision. At first order, the finite structure of this range obviously displays a remarkable uprising of Paleozoic "basement" rocks - as a crustal-scale ‘pop-up' - surrounded by two Cenozoic foreland basins. The present-day topography of the Tianshan is traditionally related to the latest intra-continental reactivation of the range. In contrast, the present field study of the northern Tianshan brings new and clear evidences for the existence of a significant relief, in this area, during Mesozoic times. The investigation zone is about 250 km long, from Wusu to Urumqi, along the northern flank of the Tianshan where the rivers deeply incised the topography. In such valleys, lithologies and structural relationships between Paleozoic basement rocks, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary series are particularly well exposed along several sections. Jurassic series are mostly characterized by coal-bearing, coarse-grained continental deposits. Within intra-mountain basins, sedimentary breccias, with clasts of Carboniferous basement rocks, have been locally found at the base of the series. This argues for the presence of a rather proximal palaeo-relief of basement rocks along the range front and the occurrence of proximal intra-mountain basins, during the Jurassic. Moreover, while a major thrust is mostly evoked between Jurassic deposits and the Paleozoic units, some of the studied sections show that the Triassic to Jurassic sedimentary series can be followed from the basin to the range. In these cases, the unconformity of the Mesozoic series on top of the Carboniferous basement has been locally clearly

  10. Structure and flow-induced variability of the subtidal salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monismith, Stephen G.; Kimmerer, W.; Burau, J.R.; Stacey, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    The structure of the salinity field in northern San Francisco Bay and how it is affected by freshwater flow are discussed. Two datasets are examined: the first is 23 years of daily salinity data taken by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation along the axis of northern San Francisco Bay: the second is a set of salinity transects taken by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1988 and 1993. Central to this paper is a measure of salinity intrusion. X2: the distance from the Golden Gate Bridge to where the bottom salinity is 2 psu. Using X2 to scale distance, the authors find that for most flow conditions, the mean salinity distribution of the estuary is nearly self-similar with a salinity gradient in the center 70% of the region between the Golden Gate and X2 that is proportional to X2-1. Analysis of covariability of Q and X2 showed a characteristics timescale of adjustment of the salinity field of approximately 2 weeks. The steady-state response deduced from the X2 time series implies that X2 is proportional to riverflow to the 1/7 power. This relation, which differs from the standard 1/3 power dependence that is derived theoretically assuming constant exchange coefficients, shows that the upstream salt flux associated with gravitational circulation is more sensitive to the longitudinal salinity gradient than theory supposes. This is attributed to the strengthening of stratification caused by the stronger longitudinal salinity gradient that accompanies larger river flows.

  11. Neogene carbonate exploration play concepts for Northern New Guinea: New iteration from field work and seismic stratigraphy along the Northern New Guinea Fault Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Pigott, J.D.; Geiger, C. )

    1994-07-01

    Recent field reconnaissance, petrography, nanno and foraminifera age determinations, and seismic stratigraphy of the Sepik and Piore subbasins of northern New Guinea reveal the existence of an extensive, tectonically unstable, Miocene-Pliocene carbonate shelf system. These findings represent the first recorded evidence of northern Papuan limestones coeval in age to those of the hydrocarbon productive Salawati Basin of Irian Jaya. Moreover, these observations also demonstrate the significance of episodic activities of the northern New Guinea fault zone upon the changes in carbonate sedimentation and diagenesis. During the Neogene, algal biosparites to foraminiferal biomicrites defined the clean portion of a mixed clastic-carbonate shelf system of the northern New Guinea basin, which began at the central New Guinea cordillera and deepened northward. This shelf was interrupted by coral-coralline algal boundstone fringing- to patch-reef buildups with associated skeletal grainstones. Clean carbonates were spatially and temporally restricted to basement blocks, which episodically underwent uplift while terrigenous dilutes carbonates were more common in adjacently subsiding basement block bathymetric lows. These tectonic expressions were caused by the spatially transient nature of constraining bends of the evolving north New Guinea faults. As shown by seismic stratigraphy, by the late Miocene to the early Pliocene the uplift of the Bewani-Torricelli Mountains sagittally divided the shelf of the northern New Guinea basin into the Ramu-Sepik and the Piore basins. Continued regional sinistral transpression between the Pacific and the New Guinea leading edge of the Indo-Australian plates led to the reverse tilting of the Piore basin, the shallowing of the former distal shelf with concomitant extensive biolithite development (e.g., on subsiding volcanic islands) eventual uplifting of the Oenake Range, and en echelon faulting of the Bewani-Torricelli Mountains.

  12. Field-aligned currents in Saturn's northern nightside magnetosphere: Evidence for interhemispheric current flow associated with planetary period oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, G. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Provan, G.; Bunce, E. J.; Alexeev, I. I.; Belenkaya, E. S.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Coates, A. J.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the magnetic perturbations associated with field-aligned currents observed on 34 Cassini passes over the premidnight northern auroral region during 2008. These are found to be significantly modulated not only by the northern planetary-period oscillation (PPO) system, similar to the southern currents by the southern PPO system found previously, but also by the southern PPO system as well, thus providing the first clear evidence of PPO-related interhemispheric current flow. The principal field-aligned currents of the two PPO systems are found to be co-located in northern ionospheric colatitude, together with the currents of the PPO-independent (subcorotation) system, located between the vicinity of the open-closed field boundary and field lines mapping to ~9 Saturn radius (Rs) in the equatorial plane. All three systems are of comparable magnitude, ~3 MA in each PPO half-cycle. Smaller PPO-related field-aligned currents of opposite polarity also flow in the interior region, mapping between ~6 and ~9 Rs in the equatorial plane, carrying a current of ~ ±2 MA per half-cycle, which significantly reduce the oscillation amplitudes in the interior region. Within this interior region the amplitudes of the northern and southern oscillations are found to fall continuously with distance along the field lines from the corresponding hemisphere, thus showing the presence of cross-field currents, with the southern oscillations being dominant in the south, and modestly lower in amplitude than the northern oscillations in the north. As in previous studies, no oscillations related to the opposite hemisphere are found on open field lines in either hemisphere.

  13. Field evaluation of repellent formulations containing deet and picaridin against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Frances, S P; Waterson, D G E; Beebe, N W; Cooper, R D

    2004-05-01

    Field efficacy of repellent formulations containing picaridin (1-methyl-propyl 2-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperidinecarboxylate) or deet (N,N,-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) against mosquitoes in Northern Territory, Australia, was evaluated. The following repellent treatments were evaluated: 19.2% picaridin (Autan Repel Army 20), a solution of 20% deet in ethanol, and 35% deet in a gel (Australian Defense Force [ADF]). The predominant mosquito species were Culex annulirostris Skuse (57.8%), Anopheles merankensis Venhuis (15.4%), and Anopheles bancroftii Giles (13.2%). The protection provided by repellents against Anopheles spp. was relatively poor, with 19.2% picaridin and ADF deet providing >95% protection for only 1 h, whereas 20% deet provided <95% protection at 1 h after repellent application. In contrast, the repellents provided good protection against Cx. annulirostris, with 19.2% picaridin providing >95% protection for 5 h and both deet formulations providing >95% protection for 7 h when collections ceased. This study provides additional field data showing tolerance of Anopheles spp. for repellents. The response of field populations of Cx. annulirostris, an important vector of arboviruses in Australia, to repellents containing deet and picaridin is reported for the first time.

  14. A climatic trigger for the giant Troll pockmark field in the northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik H.; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik; Linge, Henriette; Lauritzen, Stein-Erik; Haflidason, Haflidi; Hammer, Øyvind; Planke, Sverre; Tjelta, Tor Inge

    2017-04-01

    Pockmarks are seafloor craters usually formed during methane release on continental margins. However, the mechanisms behind their formation and dynamics remain elusive. Here we report detailed investigations on one of the World's largest pockmark fields located in the Troll region in the northern North Sea. Seafloor investigations show that >7000 pockmarks are present in a ∼600 km2 area. A similar density of pockmarks is likely present over a 15,000 km2 region outside our study area. Based on extensive monitoring, coring, geophysical and geochemical analyses, no indications of active gas seepage were found. Still, geochemical data from carbonate blocks collected from these pockmarks indicate a methanogenic origin linked to gas hydrate dissociation and past fluid venting at the seafloor. We have dated the carbonates using the U-Th method in order to constrain the pockmark formation. The carbonates gave an isochron age of 9.59 ± 1.38 ka, i.e. belonging to the initial Holocene. Moreover, radiocarbon dating of microfossils in the sediments inside the pockmarks is consistent with the ages derived from the carbonates. Based on pressure and temperature modelling, we show that the last deglaciation could have triggered dissociation of gas hydrates present in the region of the northern part of the Norwegian Channel, causing degassing of 0.26 MtCH4/km2 at the seafloor. Our results stress the importance of external climatic forcing of the dynamics of the seafloor, and the role of the rapid warming following the Younger Dryas in pacing the marine gas hydrate reservoir.

  15. Alteration mineral mapping for iron prospecting using ETM+ data, Tonkolili iron field, northern Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansaray, Lamin R.; Liu, Lei; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Zhimin

    2013-10-01

    The Tonkolili iron field in northern Sierra Leone has the largest known iron ore deposit in Africa. It occurs in a greenstone belt in an Achaean granitic basement. This study focused mainly on mapping areas with iron-oxide and hydroxyl bearing minerals, and identifying potential areas for haematite mineralization and banded iron formations (BIFs) in Tonkolili. The predominant mineral assemblage at the surface (laterite duricrust) of this iron field is haematitegoethite- limonite ±magnetite. The mineralization occurs in quartzitic banded ironstones, layered amphibolites, granites, schists and hornblendites. In this study, Crosta techniques were applied on Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data to enhance areas with alteration minerals and target potential areas of haematite and BIF units in the Tonkolili iron field. Synthetic analysis shows that alteration zones mapped herein are consistent with the already discovered magnetite BIFs in Tonkolili. Based on the overlaps of the simplified geological map and the remote sensing-based alteration mineral maps obtained in this study, three new haematite prospects were inferred within, and one new haematite prospect was inferred outside the tenement boundary of the Tonkolili exploration license. As the primary iron mineral in Tonkolili is magnetite, the study concludes that, these haematite prospects could also be underlain by magnetite BIFs. This study also concludes that, the application of Crosta techniques on ETM+ data is effective not only in mapping iron-oxide and hydroxyl alterations but can also provide a basis for inferring areas of potential iron resources in Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs), such as those in the Tonkolili field.

  16. Early Pottery Making in Northern Coastal Peru. Part II: Field Firing Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, I.; Goldstein, D.; Sosa, J.; Wagner, U.

    2003-09-01

    We present data from three seasons of experimental field work designed to recreate ancient Andean coastal ceramic firing techniques. Based on the recent discovery of two different archaeological ceramic production sites in the La Leche river valley of northern coastal Peru, the opportunity arose to apply Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods to reconstruct ancient firing procedures. Two sets of firings took place in 1993 and 1997 in Batán Grande using a partially restored Formative kiln from about 800 BC, local hardwood and cow dung as fuel. A third experiment followed in 2000 after the discovery of a Middle Sicán ceramics workshop in use between ca. AD 950 and 1050 at Huaca Sialupe, where an exact replica of an ancient kiln was built from local clay, and fired with local wood and cow dung. Additionally, inverted urns found at Huaca Sialupe were tested for their potential use as furnaces for metal working. Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to compare the physical and chemical state of specimens produced in the field experiments with ancient ceramics and with specimens produced in controlled laboratory experiments.

  17. High-performance super capacitors based on activated anthracite with controlled porosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang-Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2015-02-01

    Mongolian anthracite is chemically activated using potassium hydroxide as an activation agent to make activated carbon materials. Prior to the chemical activation, the chemical agent is introduced by two different methods as follows, (1) simple physical mixing, (2) impregnation. The physical properties such as specific surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and adsorption energy distribution are measured to assess them as carbon electrode materials for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC). The surface functional groups and morphology are also characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses respectively. The electrochemical results for the activated carbon electrodes in 3 M sulfuric acid electrolyte solution indicate that the activated Mongolian anthracite has relatively large specific capacitances in the range of 120-238 F g-1 and very high electrochemical stability, as they keep more than 98% of initial capacitances until 1000 charge/discharge cycles.

  18. Electric conductivity and aggregation of anthracite and graphite particles in concretes

    SciTech Connect

    E.A. Fanina; A.N. Lopanov

    2009-02-15

    A statistical model of the electric conductivity of a heterogeneous system based on coal and a binding agent is presented. In this system, a conductive phase appears because of particle aggregation. The model was tested in the systems of anthracite and graphite in cement stone. The consistency between the experimental and calculated electric conductivities with a correlation coefficient higher than 0.9 was found on a linear interpolation of model parameters. It was found that the presence of a surfactant (cetylpyridinium chloride) and a high-molecular-weight compound (polyvinyl acetate) changed the number of particles in anthracite and graphite aggregates to affect the specific conductivity of the heterogeneous system. 9 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Experimental study on combustion characteristics and NOX emissions of pulverized anthracite preheated by circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Lu, Qing-Gang

    2011-08-01

    A 30 kW bench-scale rig of pulverized anthracite combustion preheated by a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) was developed. The CFB riser has a diameter of 90 mm and a height of 1,500 mm. The down-fired combustion chamber (DFCC) has a diameter of 260 mm and a height of 3,000 mm. Combustion experiments were carried out using pulverized anthracite with 6.74% volatile content. This low volatile coal is difficult to ignite and burn out. Therefore, it requires longer burnout time and higher combustion temperature, which results in larger NOX emissions. In the current study, important factors that influence the combustion characteristics and NOX emissions were investigated such as excess air ratio, air ratio in the reducing zone, and fuel residence time in the reducing zone. Pulverized anthracite can be quickly preheated up to 800°C in CFB when the primary air is 24% of theoretical air for combustion, and the temperature profile is uniform in DFCC. The combustion efficiency is 94.2%, which is competitive with other anthracite combustion technologies. When the excess air ratio ranges from 1.26 to 1.67, the coal-N conversion ratio is less than 32% and the NOX emission concentration is less than 371 mg/m3 (@6% O2). When the air ratio in the reducing zone is 0.12, the NOX concentration is 221 mg/m3 (@6% O2), and the coal-N conversion ratio is 21%, which is much lower than that of other boilers.

  20. Study on CO₂ gasification properties and kinetics of biomass chars and anthracite char.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangwei; Zhang, Jianliang; Hou, Xinmei; Shao, Jiugang; Geng, Weiwei

    2015-02-01

    The CO2 gasification properties and kinetics of three biomass chars (WS-char, RL-char and PS-char) and anthracite char (AC-char) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis method. Three nth-order representative gas-solid reaction models, random pore model (RPM), volume reaction model (VM) and unreacted core model (URCM) were employed to describe the reactive behavior of chars. Results show that gasification reactivity order of different chars from high to low was WS-char, PS-char, RL-char and AC-char. In addition, the chemical components as well as physical structures of four chars were systematically tested. It was found that gasification properties of char were determined by carbonaceous structure. It was concluded from kinetics analysis that RPM model was the best model for describing the reactivities of biomass chars and VM was the model that best fitted the gasification process of anthracite char. The activation energies obtained for the biomass and anthracite char samples lie in the range of 236.4-284.9 kJ/mol.

  1. Ground-penetrating radar reveals ice thickness and undisturbed englacial layers at Kilimanjaro's Northern Ice Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Sold, Leo; Hardy, Douglas R.; Schwikowski, Margit; Klenk, Patrick; Fischer, Andrea; Sirguey, Pascal; Cullen, Nicolas J.; Potocki, Mariusz; Hoffmann, Helene; Mayewski, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Although its Holocene glacier history is still subject to debate, the ongoing iconic decline of Kilimanjaro's largest remaining ice body, the Northern Ice Field (NIF), has been documented extensively based on surface and photogrammetric measurements. The study presented here adds, for the first time, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data at centre frequencies of 100 and 200 MHz to investigate bed topography, ice thickness and internal stratigraphy at NIF. The direct comparison of the GPR signal to the visible glacier stratigraphy at NIF's vertical walls is used to validate ice thickness and reveals that the major internal reflections seen by GPR can be associated with dust layers. Internal reflections can be traced consistently within our 200 MHz profiles, indicating an uninterrupted, spatially coherent internal layering within NIF's central flat area. We show that, at least for the upper 30 m, it is possible to follow isochrone layers between two former NIF ice core drilling sites and a sampling site on NIF's vertical wall. As a result, these isochrone layers provide constraints for future attempts at linking age-depth information obtained from multiple locations at NIF. The GPR profiles reveal an ice thickness ranging between (6.1 ± 0.5) and (53.5 ± 1.0) m. Combining these data with a very high resolution digital elevation model we spatially extrapolate ice thickness and give an estimate of the total ice volume remaining at NIF's southern portion as (12.0 ± 0.3) × 106 m3.

  2. Assessing local instrument reliability and validity: a field-based example from northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Bass, Judith; Borisova, Ivelina; Neugebauer, Richard; Speelman, Liesbeth; Onyango, Grace; Bolton, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents an approach for evaluating the reliability and validity of mental health measures in non-Western field settings. We describe this approach using the example of our development of the Acholi psychosocial assessment instrument (APAI), which is designed to assess depression-like (two tam, par and kumu), anxiety-like (ma lwor) and conduct problems (kwo maraco) among war-affected adolescents in northern Uganda. To examine the criterion validity of this measure in the absence of a traditional gold standard, we derived local syndrome terms from qualitative data and used self reports of these syndromes by indigenous people as a reference point for determining caseness. Reliability was examined using standard test-retest and inter-rater methods. Each of the subscale scores for the depression-like syndromes exhibited strong internal reliability ranging from alpha = 0.84-0.87. Internal reliability was good for anxiety (0.70), conduct problems (0.83), and the pro-social attitudes and behaviors (0.70) subscales. Combined inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability were good for most subscales except for the conduct problem scale and prosocial scales. The pattern of significant mean differences in the corresponding APAI problem scale score between self-reported cases vs. noncases on local syndrome terms was confirmed in the data for all of the three depression-like syndromes, but not for the anxiety-like syndrome ma lwor or the conduct problem kwo maraco.

  3. Polio field census and vaccination of underserved populations--northern Nigeria, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    2013-08-23

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly declared completion of polio eradication a public health emergency. However, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission remains endemic in three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). In Nigeria, the National Stop Transmission of Polio (N-STOP) program, under the umbrella of the Nigerian Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (FELTP), has been developed to implement innovative strategies that address the remaining polio eradication challenges in Nigeria. One N-STOP initiative focuses on locating and vaccinating children aged<5 years in remote nomadic, scattered, and border populations in northern Nigeria, where low polio vaccination coverage likely contributes to ongoing WPV transmission. During August 2012-April 2013, N-STOP conducted field outreach activities that enumerated 40,212 remote settlements, including 4,613 (11.5%) settlements never visited by vaccination teams during previous polio supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). Enumeration resulted in documentation of 906,201 children aged<5 years residing in these settlements, including 53,738 (5.9%) who had never received polio vaccination, and in detection of 211 unreported cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) with onset of illness in the 6 months before enumeration. Sustaining access to underserved populations in remote settlements in future SIAs will increase overall population immunity and should decrease WPV transmission. By providing a flexible and capable workforce consisting of Nigerian citizens, N-STOP is able to support evaluation and implementation of innovative polio eradication strategies in Nigeria while building local public health capacity with a potential to address other public health problems following the eradication of polio from Nigeria.

  4. Structural evolution of the Abu Gharadig field area, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Gazzar, A. M.; Moustafa, A. R.; Bentham, P.

    2016-12-01

    Discovered in 1969, the Abu Gharadig (AG) Field was the first large hydrocarbon discovery in the Abu Gharadig Basin of the Western Desert of Egypt. Oil production began in 1973, with gas brought into production in 1975. The field produces mainly from upper Cretaceous clastic reservoirs. The AG Basin is an E-W trending intracratonic rift basin, about 330 km long and 50-75 km wide. It was initially formed as a large half graben basin during the Jurassic time in response to Tethyan rifting and continued to subside throughout the Cretaceous time. The half graben was subsequently inverted during the Late Cretaceous as part of the Syrian Arc deformation which affected northern Egypt. The Mid-Basin Arch, the AG Anticline, and the Mubarak High are three NE-SW oriented main inversion anticlines located within the AG Basin and are controlled by inversion of pre-existing Jurassic rift faults. The AG Anticline has an overall NE-SW orientation with a gentle plunge towards the NE and SW. It is locally bounded by two NE-SW-trending inverted faults on the southwest and northeast, accounting for the asymmetry of the anticline. Reverse offset of Cretaceous horizons is obvious at these inverted faults. Fault propagation folding is developed above the tips of the inverted faults at the Late Cretaceous Abu Roash and Khoman Formations. Based on thickness changes and stratigraphic relationships, inversion started during the Santonian time and continued into the Campanian-Maastrichtian. Inversion continued during deposition of the Paleocene-Middle Eocene Apollonia Formation and the Late Eocene-Oligocene Dabaa Formation.

  5. On-going post-glacial reverse faulting in Scandinavia, field evidence from Finnmark, northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, C.; Gabrielsen, R. H.; Cloetingh, S.

    2003-04-01

    Deglaciation in Scandinavia was followed by a dramatic seismic burst as evidenced by the numerous post-glacial fault scarps documented in Lapland. The post-glacial faults usually show reverse slip and trend NE-SW. This climax of earthquake activity is believed to have been triggered by the sudden removal of the glacial load and Scandinavia is considered tectonically quiet present-day. Roberts (1991, 2000) observed in Finnmark, northern Norway, various boreholes offset by reverse faults with few cm of displacement. It was unclear if these reverse faults represented active faulting or stress-relief features. Following Roberts, a field work campaign was conducted in July 2002. The purpose was to examine boreholes along road-sections and in quarries of Finnmark. About 20 drill-hole reverse offsets ranging from a few mm up to 14 cm were measured in western and central Finnmark. The azimuth of the associated slip vectors was found to be consistent towards the E-SE. In the Ifjord area, central Finnmark, some of the fault planes offsetting boreholes show continuous mud-smears of ~10 cm long. In the same area, additional observations include two reverse faults with 2 cm of offset each. The first one disrupts a wall road worked out in 1986. The second reverse fault disrupts a natural scarp presumably of glacial origin. In direct connection with these observations numerous rock blocks are seen to disrupt the ground surface. The most impressive ones are more than 1 m high. The blocks are bounded by pre-existing fractures and cleavage and appear to be displaced to the SE as well. These "standing-stones" are interpreted as small-scale tectonic push-ups. Field observations argue for active reverse faulting in Finnmark. The documented fault motions agree with a regional NW-SE compression induced by the North Atlantic ridge-push.

  6. Field evaluations of the efficacy of Distance Plus on invasive ant species in northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Webb, Garry A; Hoffmann, Benjamin D

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of Distance Plus Ant Bait, containing the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen, was tested in the field against two invasive ant species in northern Australia: African big-headed ant (Pheidole megacephala (F.)) and yellow crazy ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes (Fr. Smith)). Results were also gained for a third pest species, Singapore ant (Monomorium destructor (Jerdon)), from one trial focused primarily on P. megacephala. Five studies were conducted throughout northern Australia, each with different protocols, but common to all was the broad-scale dispersal of Distance Plus, coupled with long-term monitoring of ant population levels. Additionally, a laboratory trial was conducted to assess if there was a direct toxic effect by the bait on A. gracilipes workers, and ant community data were collected at some sites in the A. gracilipes trial to assess nontarget impacts and subsequent ecological recovery. All three species were greatly affected by the treatments. The abundance of P. megacephala declined dramatically in all trials, and by the final assessment for each study, very few ants remained, with those remaining being attributable to edge effects from neighboring untreated properties. At both sites that it occurred, M. destructor was initially at least codominant with P. megacephala, but by the final assessment, only three M. destructor individuals were present at one lure at one site, and only a single individual at the other site. Abundance of A. gracilipes fell, on average, to 31% of control levels by 91 d and then slowly recovered, with subsequent treatments only providing slightly greater control. No direct toxic effect on workers was found in the laboratory trial, indicating that population declines of A. gracilipes were typical bait-related declines resulting from reduced worker replacement. Nontarget impacts of the bait could not be distinguished from the negative competitive impacts ofA. gracilipes, but there was a noticeable absence of some key

  7. The Northern Plains MSATT Meeting, and a call for a field-oriented successor to MSATT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kargel, J. S.

    1993-01-01

    The workshop was devoted to a review of our knowledge of the Martian northern plains and presentation of recent ideas pertaining to the geologic and climatic evolution of this interesting region. The meeting was held in Fairbanks to allow easy access to Mars-like terrains in central and northern Alaska. There is no place on Earth that is a close analog of the Martian northern plains, but parts of Alaska come reasonably close in some respects, so we may expect that some of the processes occurring there are similar to processes that have occurred on Mars.

  8. Anthracite coal shortages. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and Mineral Resources of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of this hearing is to make a candid assessment of the feasibility of using anthracite coal instead of heating oil in homes, particularly in the Northeast, and of the potential contribution of anthracite coal to the residential market. (DLC)

  9. Comparison of quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite for adsorptive removal of phosphorus from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Cheng; Jia, Liyue; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Kirumba, George

    2014-02-01

    The choice of substrates with high phosphorus adsorption capacity is vital for sustainable phosphorus removal from waste water in constructed wetlands. In this study, four substrates were used: quartz sand, anthracite, shale and biological ceramsite. These substrate samples were characterized by Xray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy studies for their mineral components (chemical components) and surface characteristics. The dynamic experimental results revealed the following ranking order for total phosphorus (TP) removal efficiency: anthracite > biological ceramsite > shale > quartz sand. The adsorptive removal capacities for TP using anthracite, biological ceramsite, shale and quartz sand were 85.87, 81.44, 59.65, and 55.98 mg/kg, respectively. Phosphorus desorption was also studied to analyze the substrates' adsorption efficiency in wastewater treatment as well as the substrates' ability to be reused for treatment. It was noted that the removal performance for the different forms of phosphorus was dependent on the nature of the substrate and the adsorption mechanism. A comparative analysis showed that the removal of particulate phosphorus was much easier using shale. Whereas anthracite had the highest soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) adsorptive capacity, biological ceramsite had the highest dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) removal capacity. Phosphorus removal by shale and biological ceramsite was mainly through chemical adsorption, precipitation or biological adsorption. On the other hand, phosphorus removal through physical adsorption (electrostatic attraction or ion exchange) was dominant in anthracite and quartz sand.

  10. Free phase gas processes in a northern peatland inferred from autonomous field-scale resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, Neil; Slater, Lee; Comas, Xavier; Reeve, Andrew S.; Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Yu, Zhongjie

    2016-04-01

    The mechanisms that control free phase gas (FPG) dynamics within peatlands, and therefore estimates of past, present, and future gas fluxes to the atmosphere remain unclear. Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is capable of autonomously collecting three-dimensional data on the centimeter to tens of meter scale and thus provides a unique opportunity to observe FPG dynamics in situ. We collected 127 3-D ERI data sets as well as water level, soil temperature, atmospheric pressure, and limited methane flux data at a site in a northern peatland over the period July-August 2013 to improve the understanding of mechanisms controlling gas releases at a hitherto uncaptured field scale. Our results show the ability of ERI to image the spatial distribution of gas accumulation and infer dynamics of gas migration through the peat column at high (i.e., hourly) temporal resolution. Furthermore, the method provides insights into the role of certain mechanisms previously associated with the triggering of FPG releases such as drops in atmospheric pressure. During these events, buoyancy-driven gas release primarily occurs in shallow peat as proposed by the "shallow peat model." Releases from the deeper peat are impeded by confining layers, and we observed a large loss of FPG in deep peat that may likely represent a rupture event, where accumulated FPG escaped the confining layer as suggested by the "deep peat model." Negative linear correlations between water table elevation and resistivity result from hydrostatic pressure regulating bubble volume, although these variations did not appear to trigger FPG transfer or release.

  11. Seismic network detection capability within the natural gas fields in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Northern German basin is a tectonic region of relatively low seismic activity with only singular and weak tectonic events. However, during the last decades seismicity raised in the vicinity of the natural gas fields. Due to the spatial vicinity of the epicenters to the operated gas fields and their appearance starting after the beginning of extraction they are ranked as induced events. The epicenters of these events extend 50 km NS and 400 km EW from the border to the Netherlands in the West to Altmark region in the East. Altogether, 63 events with ML 0.5 to 4.5 were detected between 1977 and 2015. Many of them were felt by parts of the inhabitants up to 15 km from the epicenter whereas the strongest one, the magnitude 4.5 event close to the village of Rotenburg on 20th October 2004, was even felt in Hamburg as far as 65 km from the epicenter. Several new installed surface and borehole stations have recently improved the monitoring capabilities in the region. The station network design and number of station varied significantly during the last years and only a few seismic stations were operational over the entire period. This variability was not taken into account for the assessment of the seismicity like the b-value and completeness. For some of the areas it is still difficult to detect and analyze events with magnitude below 2 due to bad noise conditions invoked by the thick sediments as well as to the relatively large area to be covered. Up to now, it is not clear whether the small number of fore- and aftershocks is an inherent characteristic of the induced events and thereby different from tectonic earthquake sequences or only the effect of the non appropriate seismic surveillance during the last decades. Seismicity in a low magnitude range could not be detected in some of the areas but should exist if the Gutenberg-Richter relation is valid. The detection capability can be one of the reasons and is now estimated for the main active areas as a function of

  12. [Coating modification of anthracite substrates in vertical-flow constructed wetlands by LDHs synthesized from different metal compounds and the nitrogen removal efficiencies].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiang-Ling; Guo, Lu; Chen, Jun-Jie; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Xu, Lu; Chen, Qiao-Zhen; Wang, Xiao-Xiao

    2014-08-01

    As one kind of vertical-flow constructed wetlands substrates, anthracite was selected in this experiment. LDHs (layered double hydroxides) were synthesized in alkaline conditions by co-precipitation of different kinds of metal compounds, such as CaCl2, ZnCl2, MgCl2, FeCl3, AlCl3, CoCl3. The synthesized LDHs were in-situ coated onto the surface of anthracite substrate to achieve the aim of modification. Simulated test columns were constructed to study the nitrogen removal efficiency of the urban sewage using the original anthracite substrates and 9 kinds of modified anthracite substrates. The results showed that: LDHs synthesized by all the 9 different kinds of methods could effectively modify the anthracite substrate by in-situ coating. With Mg2+ involved in the synthesis of modified substrates, good TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies were observed. The modified anthracite substrates coated with MgCo-LDHs had the optimal performance with average TN and ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies of higher than 80% and 85%, respectively. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by the modified anthracite substrates coated by LDHs reacted with Mg2+ and Fe3+ were also high. The ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies by modified anthracite substrates coated with CaFe-LDHs and MgFe-LDHs were higher than 85%.

  13. CFB combustion of high-ash Ukrainian anthracite -- Pilot testing and design implications

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Fuller, T.A.; Maryamchik, M.; Perna, M.A.; Maystrenko, A.Yu.

    1997-12-31

    High-ash anthracite is the most important indigenous fuel used for power generation in Ukraine. The power plant upgrade program, developed jointly by US Department of Energy (DOE) and Ukrainian Ministry of Energy, anticipates applying the CFB technology for efficient and environmentally clean utilization of this hard-to-burn fuel. Testing of high-ash anthracite sponsored by DOE was conducted at CFB test facilities at the Division of High Temperature Energy Conversion (DHTEC) of Ukrainian Academy of Science in Kiev and at the Babcock and Wilcox Research Center in Alliance, Ohio, USA (ARC). Testing at DHTEC included kinetic studies and combustion tests on a small-scale (100 mm diameter) CFB combustor. The rest results were used to select the fuel sizing and limestone type for pilot testing at ARC and to evaluate the effects of operating parameters on fuel combustion. Testing at the ARC 2.5 MW{sub t} CFB pilot facility (700 x 700 mm cross section, 23 m high) provided combustion and emission performance data applicable for designing of commercial-scale CFB boilers. Stable combustion without supplemental fuel and with the unburned carbon loss of less than 3% was achieved over a 55 to 100% load range. About 90% of sulfur was removed by adding limestone at a Ca/S ratio of 1.85; nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions were below 340 mg/Nm{sup 3} and 260 mg/Nm{sup 3}, respectively. The CFB boiler design recommendations for high-ash anthracite, developed based on the test results, are described in the paper.

  14. Effect of air-staging on anthracite combustion and NOx formation

    SciTech Connect

    Weidong Fan; Zhengchun Lin; Youyi Li; Jinguo Kuang; Mingchuan Zhang

    2009-01-15

    Experiments were carried out in a multipath air inlet one-dimensional furnace to assess NOx emission characteristics of the staged combustion of anthracite coal. These experiments allowed us to study the impact of pulverized coal fineness and burnout air position on emission under both deep and shallow air-staged combustion conditions. We also studied the impact of char-nitrogen release on both the burning-out process of the pulverized coal and the corresponding carbon content in fly ash. We found that air-staged combustion affects a pronounced reduction in NOx emissions from the combustion of anthracite coal. The more the air is staged, the more NOx emission is reduced. In shallow air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.85), the fineness of the pulverized coal strongly influences emissions, and finer coals result in lower emissions. Meanwhile, the burnout air position has only a weak effect. In the deep air-staged combustion (f{sub M} = 0.6), the effect of coal fineness is smaller, and the burnout air position has a stronger effect. When the primary combustion air is stable, NOx emissions increase with increasing burnout air. This proves that, in the burnout zone, coal char is responsible for the discharge of fuel-nitrogen that is oxidized to NOx. The measurement of secondary air staging in a burnout zone can help inhibit the oxidization of NO caused by nitrogen release. Air-staged combustion has little effect on the burnout of anthracite coal, which proves to be suitable for air-staged combustion. 31 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ice volume assessment of the Northern Ice Field of Kilimanjaro: the photogrammetry strikes back

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirguey, P. J.; Cullen, N. J.; Moelg, T.; Kaser, G.

    2013-12-01

    Glaciers in tropical regions have retreated drastically since the mid and second half of the 19th century, with glaciers on Africa's highest mountain, Kilimanjaro, being no exception to this trend. The demise of glaciers on Kibo has been documented for about 130 years based on multiple mapping techniques ranging from ground based photogrammetry to satellite imaging. In this context, a consistent time series of glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro over the last century was recently compiled that permitted the areal rate of retreat of ice over the last decade to be characterized. However, while margin and areal retreat of Kilimanjaro glaciers have been measured on numerous occasions, assessments of ice volume and thinning rate have received far less attention. This study reports on the creation of a 1-m resolution Digital Surface Model (DSM) of Kilimanjaro via photogrammetry of GeoEye-1 imagery. Twenty Ground Control Points (GCP) surveyed between 20 and 26 September 2012 were used to triangulate four GeoEye panchromatic stereo pairs (50cm resolution) acquired between 20 September and 23 October 2012. Multi-ray processing of multiple combinations of image overlaps permitted a dense point cloud to be produced that supported the creation of the very high resolution DSM. The model was assessed independently by means of a leave-one-out cross validation protocol, yielding a RMS error of 0.45, 0.67, and 1.19m on x, y, and z, respectively. A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of the Northern Ice Field (NIF) could be produced that allowed the total volume of the ice remnants to be estimated. Finally, the new DSM was compared with the SRTM DEM of February 2000. The difference between both surfaces permitted the volume lost by the NIF over 12.7 years to be estimated, as well as spatial pattern of the thinning to be revealed. The new DSM revealed an unprecedented amount of detail of the NIF that split earlier into the remnants of the Credner glacier (C) to the North and that of Drygalsky and

  16. Enhanced Oxidative Reactivity for Anthracite Coal via a Reactive Ball Milling Pretreatment Step

    SciTech Connect

    Angela D. Lueking; Apurba Sakti; Dania Alvarez-Fonseca; Nichole Wonderling

    2009-09-15

    Reactive ball milling in a cyclohexene solvent significantly increases the oxidative reactivity of an anthracite coal, due to the combined effects of particle size reduction, metal introduction, introduction of volatile matter, and changes in carbon structure. Metals introduced during milling can be easily removed via a subsequent demineralization process, and the increased reactivity is retained. Solvent addition alters the morphological changes that occur during pyrolysis and leads to a char with significantly increased reactivity. When the solvent is omitted, similar effects are seen for the milled product, but a significant fraction of the char is resistant to oxidation. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Improvement of stability and efficiency of combustion for low rank anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, G.; Qiu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Sun, X.

    1994-12-31

    A new kind of burner, bluff-body with cavity burner, which is based on the bluff-body burner is developed in this paper. The three dimension mean velocity and turbulent characteristics have been measured in the burner`s recirculation zone by using three dimension laser dynamics analysis. For a low rank anthracite, combustion test shows this burner is better than bluff-body in ignition and flame stability. 50 MW(220T/H) boiler operation show that the temperature in the flame zone is high, combustion is very stable and the efficiency is increased when this burner is used.

  18. Late Permian age of ammonium-bearing illite in Pennsylvania anthracites: Temporal constraints on coalification in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J. )

    1996-01-01

    K/Ar dating of authigenic NH4-bearing illite in coal from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yields apparent ages of 253-236 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.). The oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) is a minimum age for the thermal event associated with anthracite formation and illite authigenesis. This date is probably within [approx]10 m.y. of the time at which coal-bearing rocks experienced peak temperatures, which suggests an age range of 265-255 Ma for this event. Age dates for authigenic NH[sub 4]-bearing illite reflect the approximate age of late-stage coalification (formation of anthracite-rank coal) because this mineral formed only during late-stage coalification (T=200-275[degrees]C) from a kaolinite (potassium-free) precursor, and the K/Ar data suggest that NH[sub 4] does not significantly influence the closure temperature of illite. K/Ar dates, in conjunction with paleomagnetic and vitrinite reflectance data, constrain the thermal pulse and deformation associated with the Alleghanian orogenic episode to a time period of 25-35 m.y., beginning in Early Permian time ([approx]285 Ma) after coal deposition, and concluding by Late Permian time ([approx]260-250 Ma). Syn- and post-folding secondary chemical remanent magnetizations constrain Alleghanian folding in the Central Appalachians to Late Permian time, which coincides with the postulated time range of 265-255 Ma for NH[sub 4]-bearing illite authigenesis and anthracite formation derived from the K/Ar data. The similar time range for anthracite formation and Alleghanian folding is consistent with vitrinite reflectance data that suggests anthracite formation was a syn-folding thermal event.

  19. Late Permian age of ammonium-bearing illite in Pennsylvania anthracites: Temporal constraints on coalification in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    K/Ar dating of authigenic NH4-bearing illite in coal from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yields apparent ages of 253-236 Ma ({+-}8 m.y.). The oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ({+-}8 m.y.) is a minimum age for the thermal event associated with anthracite formation and illite authigenesis. This date is probably within {approx}10 m.y. of the time at which coal-bearing rocks experienced peak temperatures, which suggests an age range of 265-255 Ma for this event. Age dates for authigenic NH{sub 4}-bearing illite reflect the approximate age of late-stage coalification (formation of anthracite-rank coal) because this mineral formed only during late-stage coalification (T=200-275{degrees}C) from a kaolinite (potassium-free) precursor, and the K/Ar data suggest that NH{sub 4} does not significantly influence the closure temperature of illite. K/Ar dates, in conjunction with paleomagnetic and vitrinite reflectance data, constrain the thermal pulse and deformation associated with the Alleghanian orogenic episode to a time period of 25-35 m.y., beginning in Early Permian time ({approx}285 Ma) after coal deposition, and concluding by Late Permian time ({approx}260-250 Ma). Syn- and post-folding secondary chemical remanent magnetizations constrain Alleghanian folding in the Central Appalachians to Late Permian time, which coincides with the postulated time range of 265-255 Ma for NH{sub 4}-bearing illite authigenesis and anthracite formation derived from the K/Ar data. The similar time range for anthracite formation and Alleghanian folding is consistent with vitrinite reflectance data that suggests anthracite formation was a syn-folding thermal event.

  20. Potential for increased use of anthracite by electric utilities: implications of the exemption from the EPA new source performance standards for power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The prospect for expanded utility use of anthracite by the year 2000 appears promising. It has been generally considered that anthracite can meet the ambient SO/sub 2/ standard of 1.2 lbs. SO/sub 2/ per million Btu without the use of scrubbers. In that event, the results of the engineering economic analysis show that an anthracite-based electric generating unit can be competitive with a comparable bituminous coal-fired unit. The logical competitive utility market area for anthracite is the Northeastern United States and the Middle Atlantic States because of the proximity of these areas to the anthracite region. Transport costs would be lower for anthracite (versus western Pennsylvania bituminous coal) to destinations in the areas of states immediately north, east and southeast of the eastern Pennsylvania anthracite region - upstate New York, New Jersey and Delaware, in particular. The analyses of the impact of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) exemption, and of future base load plant expansions, indicates that the potential additional utility use of anthracite over the next two decades is within a range of 1.5 to 15 million tons per year. One means of enhancing the competitive posture of anthracite versus bituminous, the analysis concludes, could be a more intense examination of anthracite resources to determine the best locations of large quantities of low sulfur recoverable reserves. Similarly, a more detailed investigation of a stockpile program would be warranted to determine its feasibility as a means of providing reserve potential, primarily during initial expansion, to allay supply reliability concerns.

  1. Ever-shifting ground: work and labor relations in the anthracite coal industry, 1968-1903

    SciTech Connect

    Blatz, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This dissertation traces the work experience of the mine workers of the anthracite coal industry of northeastern Pennsylvania from the final three decades of the nineteenth century, during which several attempts to unionize the mines failed, to the industry-wide anthracite strikes of 1900 and 1902, which brought to a successful conclusion the United Mine Workers' drive for unionization. The correspondence of corporate executives shows that a pervasive philosophy of antiunionism characterized management's approach to labor relations. During the nonunion era, the state, rather than any labor organization, served as the most effective counterpoise to corporate power through its enactment of an extensive code of mining regulation. Nevertheless, mine workers still confronted a perilous workplace which, along with chronic underemployment and an utterly unsystematized congeries of work rules, combined to create a work experience fraught with insecurity. The United Mine Workers proposed an industry-wide contract as the means to solve these problems, and effective organization as the prod to force the corporations to negotiate such a contract. However, the union succeeded in its organizing only in the wake of numerous wildcat strikes protesting the many manifestations of the paternalistic, individualized style of labor relations which had always characterized the industry.

  2. Effect of Rabi splitting on the low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance signal of anthracite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedaruk, Ryhor; Strzelczyk, Roman; Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Markevich, Siarhei A.; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria Aldona

    2017-01-01

    Specific distortions of the EPR signal of bulk anthracite are observed at low temperatures. They are accompanied by variations in the microwave oscillator frequency and are explained by the manifestation of the Rabi splitting due to the strong coupling between electron spins and the cavity, combined with the use of an automatic frequency-control (AFC) system. EPR signals are recorded at negligible saturation in the temperature range of 4-300 K with use of the AFC system to keep the oscillator frequency locked to the resonant frequency of the TM110 cylinder cavity loaded with the sample. For the sample with a mass of 3.6 mg the line distortions are observed below 50 K and increase with temperature lowering. The oscillator frequency variations are used to estimate the coupling strength as well as the number of spins in the sample. It is shown that the spin-cavity coupling strength is inversely proportional to temperature and can be used for the absolute determination of the number of spins in a sample. Our results indicate that at low temperatures even 1016 spins of the anthracite sample, with a mass of about 0.5 mg, can distort the EPR line.

  3. Predation by northern pikeminnow on juvenile salmonids in The Dalles Dam tailrace: field, laboratory, and habitat modeling studies (FY2000)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James H.; Barfoot, Craig A.; Sheer, Mindi B.

    2001-01-01

    Predation by resident fish is known to be a substantial cause of juvenile salmonid mortality, especially in dam tailraces and outfall locations. Conditions in The Dalles Dam tailrace are unique compared to other projects on the Columbia or Snake rivers, having a complex basin with a series of downriver islands where predators are known to reside. In May-June of 1999, northern pikeminnow and smallmouth bass were sampled in the tailrace of The Dalles Dam during periods immediately following the release of PIT-tagged juvenile salmonids for survival studies. Over twice as many smallmouth bass (N = 101) were collected as northern pikeminnow (N = 40), but none of the predators had PIT tags within their gut. A laboratory study was conducted to estimate the time required for PIT tags in juvenile salmonids to be evacuated from the gut of northern pikeminnow after consuming a tagged preyfish. Evacuation rate was sensitive to temperature, with median evacuation time being 21 h at 18 oC and 30 h at 14 oC. These results suggest that field studies to estimate predator population sizes, feeding rates, or predation on specific release groups would require considerably more effort than we allocated during 1999.

  4. 77 FR 27108 - Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Order of Suspension of Trading; In the Matter of Anthracite Capital, Inc., Auto Data Network Inc., Avenue Group, Inc., Ckrush, Inc., Clickable Enterprises, Inc., and DCI USA, Inc. May 4, 2012 It appears to the Securities and...

  5. 2-D Fourier transform analysis of the gravitational field of Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Mohamed A.; Santos, Fernando M.; Farzamian, Mohammad; El-Kenawy, Abeer

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula has fascinated the consideration of many geophysical studies as it is influenced by major tectonic events. Those are (1) the Mesozoic to Early Cenozoic tectonically active opening of Tethys, (2) the Late Cretaceous to Early Tertiary (Laramide) Syrian arc system, due to closing of the Tethys (3) the Oligo-Miocene Gulf of Suez rifted basin, and (4) the Late Miocene to Recent transform Dead Sea-Gulf of Aqaba rift. Moreover, the shear zones inside Sinai have affected intensely the structure development of the northern Sinai area. 2-D fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis has been applied to transfer the data from space domain to frequency domain, in which basic gradients and derived gradients have been estimated. The frequency domain operations resulted in frequency filtering, first and second degree xyz gradients, horizontal, total (analytical signal) and tilt gradients, maximum horizontal gradient amplitude (total horizontal derivative), and theta map. As a result, the basic and derived gradient maps have succeeded to outline the major structure elements of Northern Sinai Peninsula. Comparisons with some well known surface structures showed a large degree of matching.

  6. The effect of molten caustic leaching on a structure of anthracite

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.H.; Shon, E.K.; Park, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Korean anthracite and imported bituminous coal were treated according to the molten caustic leaching (MCL) process and the changes in their organic structure and combustion characteristics sere investigated. This investigation was conducted through functional group analysis, vitrinite reflectance measurements, maceral and TGA analysis. Results of analysis showed that the highly reactive aliphatic hydrocarbons linked with aromatic rings decreased and the vitrinite reflectance increased after treatment. These are changes observed when carbonization occurred. However, the results of observation of maceral surfaces showed that the surface of the organic groups were severely collapsed and the anisotropy, which should increase with carbonization, decreased. It was found that the changes in the combustion temperature and the reactivity after treatment with MCL were attributed to the physical changes on the surface of organic groups rather than to the chemical changes such as break down in the organic groups.

  7. Rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power plant in Ukraine with introduction of coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.; Killmeyer, R.; Schimmoller, B.; Gollakota, S.

    1996-12-31

    A study is being carried out jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the Ukrainian Ministry of Power and Electrification for rehabilitation of an anthracite-burning power station in the Donbass region of eastern Ukraine. The power station, named Luganskaya GRES, is laboring under deteriorating coal quality (the ash level is ranging towards 40% compared to the design value of 18%) and the physical plant is in need of repair. Approaches under consideration for the rehabilitation include upgrading the existing 200-MW{sub e} (gross) wall-fired boilers, repowering with circulating fluidized bed combustors, and the use of coal preparation. Coal washability tests conducted as part of the study indicate the coal is amenable to washing. The paper describes approaches to coal preparation being considered that provide design value coal for wall-fired boilers while minimizing rejection of Btus and generation of solid waste.

  8. Indication of meta-anthracite by magnetotellurics in the Köszeg-Rechnitz Penninic window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Attila; Ádám, Antal; Prácser, Ernő

    2013-04-01

    In the Eastern end of the Eastern Alps - at the Austrian-Hungarian border - there are Pennninic Nappes among them the Köszeg-Rechnitz tectonic window having complicated metamorphic history from the Jurassic time. The organic material of the Penninic Ocean transformed to meta-anthracite. Its amount in the calc-phyllite has been estimated by the geochemists to 0.2 percent. Magnetotelluric soundings have been carried out to determine: - the resistivity decrease due to the above amount of conductive material, - the different EM distortions in E and B polarization caused by the conductor near and far from it, - the asthenospheric depth in the area of the tectonic window stepping out from the shallow asthenosphere of the Pannonian Basin, - looking for relation between geoelectric and seismic crustal structures.

  9. Water-gas dynamics and coastal land subsidence over Chioggia Mare field, northern Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teatini, Pietro; Baú, Domenico; Gambolati, Giuseppe

    2000-09-01

    A major development programme comprising 15 gas fields of the northern Adriatic Sea has recently been submitted to the Ministry of the Environment, VIA Committee for the assessment of the environmental impact, by ENI-Agip, the Italian national oil company. One of the largest reservoirs is Chioggia Mare, located about 10 km offshore of the Venetian littoral, with a burial depth of 1000-1400 m. The planned gas production from this field is expected to impact the shoreline stability with a potential threat to the city of Venice, 25 km northwest of the center of Chioggia Mare. To evaluate the risk of anthropogenic land subsidence due to gas withdrawal, a numerical model was developed that predicts the compaction of both the gas-bearing formations and the lateral/bottom aquifer (water drive) during a 13-year producing and a 12-year post-production period, and the transference of the deep compaction to the ground surface. To address the uncertainty of a few important hydromechanical parameters, several scenarios are simulated and the most pessimistic predictions obtained. The modeling results show that at most 1 cm of land subsidence over 25 years may be expected at the city of Chioggia, whereas Venice is not subject to settlement. If aquifer drawdown is mediated by water injection, land subsidence is arrested 5 km offshore, with the Chioggia littoral zone experiencing a rebound of 0.6-0.7 cm. Résumé. Un important programme de développement portant sur 15 gisements de gaz du nord de l'Adriatique a été récemment soumis au Comité VIA pour l'évaluation de l'impact sur l'environnement du Ministère de l'Environnement, par la société ENI-Agip, la compagnie nationale pétrolière italienne. L'un des plus importants réservoirs est celui de Chioggia Mare, situé à environ 10 km au large du littoral vénitien, à une profondeur de 1000 à 1400 m. La production de gaz prévue pour ce gisement laisse envisager un impact sur la stabilité du trait de côte, avec une

  10. Estimating biodiversity impacts without field surveys: A case study in northern Borneo.

    PubMed

    Kitzes, Justin; Shirley, Rebekah

    2016-02-01

    In many regions of the world, biodiversity surveys are not routinely conducted prior to activities that lead to land conversion, such as development projects. Here we use top-down methods based on global range maps and bottom-up methods based on macroecological scaling laws to illuminate the otherwise hidden biodiversity impacts of three large hydroelectric dams in the state of Sarawak in northern Borneo. Our retrospective impact assessment finds that the three reservoirs inundate habitat for 331 species of birds (3 million individuals) and 164 species of mammals (110 million individuals). A minimum of 2100 species of trees (900 million individuals) and 17 700 species of arthropods (34 billion individuals) are estimated to be affected by the dams. No extinctions of bird, mammal, or tree species are expected due to habitat loss following reservoir inundation, while 4-7 arthropod species extinctions are predicted. These assessment methods are applicable to any data-limited system undergoing land-use change.

  11. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility in diamagnetic limestones reveals deflection of the strain field near the Dead Sea Fault, northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, R.; Levi, T.; Marco, S.; Weinberger, R.

    2015-08-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, we measured the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Fault (DSF) in northern Israel. Through integrated magnetic and geochemical methods we found that the rocks are almost pure calcite rocks and therefore the magnetic fabric is primarily controlled by preferred crystallographic orientation (PCO) with the minimum principal AMS axes (k3) parallel to calcite c-axes. We applied a separation procedure in several samples with high Fe content in order to calculate the AMS anisotropy parameters and compare them to pure diamagnetic rocks. AARM, thermo-susceptibility curves and IRM were used to characterize the magnetic phases. We found that for Fe content below 500 ppm the AMS is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase and showed that differences in the degree of anisotropy P' up to 3% (P' = 1.005 to 1.023) and in anisotropy difference Δk (up to ~ 0.25 × 10- 6 SI) in diamagnetic rocks are related to differences of strain magnitudes. The spatial distribution of the magnetic fabrics indicates ~ N-S maximum shortening parallel to the strike of the Hula Western Border fault (HWBF), one of the main strands of the DSF in northern Israel. The anisotropy parameters suggest that the strain magnitudes increase eastward with the proximity to the HWBF. These results suggest that the strain field near the HWBF is locally deflected as a consequence of the DSF activity. In light of the "fault weakness" model and geological setting of the study area, we suggest that the area accommodates dominant transtension during the Pleistocene. The present study demonstrates the useful application of AMS measurements in "iron-free" limestones as recorders of the strain field near plate boundaries.

  13. Geological probability calculation of new gas discoveries in wider area of Ivana and Ika Gas Fields, Northern Adriatic, Croatia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomislav, Malvić; Josipa, Velić; Režić, Mate

    2016-09-01

    There are eleven reservoirs in Ivana Gas Field and they are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones, developed in dominant clays and marls depositional sequences. Ika Gas Field is the only field in Adriatic with gas accumulated in carbonate rocks, which are the deepest reservoir of the total four reservoirs. A carbonate reservoir is defined with tectonical and erosional unconformity, which is placed between Mesozoic and Pliocene rocks. The three younger Ika reservoirs are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones that are laminated into clays and marls. The goal of our study was to assess the `Probability Of Success' (POS) of finding new gas accumulations within the marginal area of those two fields, either in the form of Mesozoic rocks or Pleistocene deposits. The assessment was successfully completed using the Microsoft Excel POS table for the analyzed areas in the Croatian part of the Po Depression, namely, Northern Adriatic. The methodology was derived and adapted from a similar POS calculation, which was originally used to calculate the geological probability of hydrocarbon discoveries in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS).

  14. Late Permian age of NH[sub 4]-bearing illite in anthracite from eastern Pennsylvania. Temporal limits on coalification in the central Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, E.J.; Altaner, S.P. ); Aronson, J.L. ); Clauer, N. )

    1994-06-01

    Authigenic NH[sub 4]-bearing illites in coal fractures from the Anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania yield individual K/Ar dates of 236-253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) and a composite isochron of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.). Rh/Sr data for the same samples indicate an isochron of 260 Ma ([+-]44 m.y.), consistent with the more precise K/Ar data. The age of NH[sub 4]-bearing illite authigenesis should reflect the time at which coal attained anthracite rank, because mineralogical and geochemical evidence indicates that NH[sub 4]-bearing illite formed exclusively during anthracite formation (T = 200-275[degree]C) from organically derived nitrogen and a kaolinite precursor. Similar Late Permian K/Ar dates for both NH[sub 4]-rich illite and K-illite in anthracite fractures and lack of correlation between percent NH[sub 4] substitution in illite and the K/Ar date suggest that NH[sub 4] does not influence significantly the closure temperature of illite and, thus, that NH[sub 4]-rich illite can be used for dating the time of authigenesis. Given the uncertainties in closure temperatures for illite as well as the maximum temperatures for anthracite formation, we consider the oldest K/Ar date of 253 Ma ([+-]8 m.y.) to be a minimum age for NH[sub 4]-illite authigenesis and anthracite formation. 33 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Historical ecology of the northern Adriatic Sea: Field methods and coring device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselmair, Alexandra; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Tomasovych, Adam; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2014-05-01

    For an ongoing study on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic Sea, the objective was to retrieve a high number of sediment cores at seven sampling stations spread across the entire basin. One set of cores is intended for sediment analyses including radiometric Pb-sediment-dating, grain size, TOC, TAC and heavy metal analyses. The other set of cores delivered enough shelly remains of endo- or epibenthic hard part producers (e.g. molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms) to enable the reconstruction of death assemblages in core layers from top to bottom. The down-core changes of such assemblages record ecological shifts in a marine environment that has endured strong human impacts over several centuries. A 1.5 m-long core could, according to the available sedimentation data for the area, cover up to 2000 or even more years of ecological history. The coring method had to meet the following requirements: a) deliver 1.5-m-long cores from different sediment settings (mud to sand, reflecting a wide range of benthic habitats in the northern Adriatic); b) enable quick and easy deployment to ensure that multiple cores can be taken at the individual sampling stations within a short time; c) be relatively affordable and allow handling by the researchers themselves, potentially using a small vessel in order to further contain the operating costs. Two types of UWITEC™ piston corers were used to meet these requirements. A model with 90 mm of diameter (samples for sediment analysis) and another one with 160 mm, specifically designed to obtain the large amount of material needed for shell analysis, successfully delivered a total of 54 cores. The device consists of a stabilizing tripod and the interchangeable coring cylinders. It is equipped with a so-called hammer action that makes it possible, at least for the smaller cylinder, to penetrate even harder sediments. A closing mechanism of the corer retains the sediment in the cylinder upon extraction; it works either

  16. Interannual variability in Saharan dust over the North Atlantic Ocean and its relation to meteorological fields during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamae, K.; Shiotani, M.

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we focus on interannual variability in Saharan dust transport over the North Atlantic Ocean during northern winter using the Aerosol Index data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). Since the TOMS observations provide a long-term global record, they are useful for considering interannual variations of the Saharan dust in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). We calculated correlation coefficients between the NAO Index and the TOMS AI averaged over the northern winter season. Using the correlation map, we defined three regions: Region 1 is in positive correlation over the North Atlantic Ocean, Region 2 is in insignificant correlation over the west Sahara, and Region 3 is in negative correlation over the east Sahara. Focusing on Region 1, we considered the relationship between the regional mean TOMS AI time series and certain meteorological parameters. We used sea level pressure and wind speed fields to represent the synoptic circulation, and virtual temperature and lifting condensation level (LCL) to represent the mixed layer condition. When the TOMS AI in Region 1 is large, the easterly winds over the west Sahara are stronger than usual compared to the NAO, and the virtual temperature is higher than average over the ocean. As a result, the LCL is higher near 20°W-0° and is lower than average over the desert. When dust outflow events are observed over the North Atlantic Ocean, strong winds with a high pressure blow in the west Sahara, and dust containing warm air parcels is carried by these strong winds to ocean through areas near the coast (20°N-30°N, 15°W-10°W) from the west Sahara. We summarized the features of meteorological fields during dust outflow events.

  17. Evaluation of co-cokes from bituminous coal with vacuum resid or decant oil, and evaluation of anthracites, as precursors to graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyathi, Mhlwazi S.

    2011-12-01

    Graphite is utilized as a neutron moderator and structural component in some nuclear reactor designs. During the reactor operaction the structure of graphite is damaged by collision with fast neutrons. Graphite's resistance to this damage determines its lifetime in the reactor. On neutron irradiation, isotropic or near-isotropic graphite experiences less structural damage than anisotropic graphite. The degree of anisotropy in a graphite artifact is dependent on the structure of its precursor coke. Currently, there exist concerns over a short supply of traditional precursor coke, primarily due to a steadily increasing price of petroleum. The main goal of this study was to study the anisotropic and isotropic properties of graphitized co-cokes and anthracites as a way of investigating the possibility of synthesizing isotropic or near-isotropic graphite from co-cokes and anthracites. Demonstrating the ability to form isotropic or near-isotropic graphite would mean that co-cokes and anthracites have a potential use as filler material in the synthesis of nuclear graphite. The approach used to control the co-coke structure was to vary the reaction conditions. Co-cokes were produced by coking 4:1 blends of vacuum resid/coal and decant oil/coal at temperatures of 465 and 500 °C for reaction times of 12 and 18 hours under autogenous pressure. Co-cokes obtained were calcined at 1420 °C and graphitized at 3000 °C for 24 hours. Optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, temperature-programmed oxidation and Raman spectroscopy were used to characterize the products. It was found that higher reaction temperature (500 °C) or shorter reaction time (12 hours) leads to an increase in co-coke structural disorder and an increase in the amount of mosaic carbon at the expense of textural components that are necessary for the formation of anisotropic structure, namely, domains and flow domains. Characterization of graphitized co-cokes showed that the quality, as expressed by the degree of

  18. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of the organic oxygen content in anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Dong, Lei; Dou, Haipeng; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2008-04-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to measure the organic oxygen content in pulverized anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions. Special spectral processing including the optimal O(I) emission-line selection by comparing the spectral correlation coefficients with the N(I) line, internal normalization with the N(I) line, and temperature correction are proposed and employed to satisfy the multi-line analysis method and yield the most accurate quantitative results. The calibration method for determining the organic oxygen content of coal is presented, with an accuracy of 1.15-1.37% and an average relative error of 19.39% being evaluated through an experiment performed on six anthracite coal samples. The relative measurement error distribution has also been studied.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of the organic oxygen content in anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L.; Dong, L.; Dou, H.P.; Yin, W.B.; Jia, S.T.

    2008-04-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy has been used to measure the organic oxygen content in pulverized anthracite coal under atmospheric conditions. Special spectral processing including the optimal O(I) emission-line selection by comparing the spectral correlation coefficients with the N(I) line, internal normalization with the N(I) line, and temperature correction are proposed and employed to satisfy the multi-line analysis method and yield the most accurate quantitative results. The calibration method for determining the organic oxygen content of coal is presented, with an accuracy of 1.15-1.37% and an average relative error of 19.39% being evaluated through an experiment performed on six anthracite coal samples. The relative measurement error distribution has also been studied.

  20. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative impor- tance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and deter- mined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selec- tion (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were lit- tle used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irri- gated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should

  1. The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field: petrological diversity and implications for magmatic evolution of mafic volcanic centers from the northern Puna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maro, Guadalupe; Caffe, Pablo J.

    2016-07-01

    The Cerro Bitiche Andesitic Field (CBAF) is one of the two largest mafic volcanic fields in northern Puna (22-24° S) and is spatially and temporally associated with ignimbrites erupted from some central Andean Altiplano-Puna Volcanic Complex calderas. The CBAF comprises seven scoria cones and widespread high-K calcalkaline lava flows that cover an area of 200 km2. Although all erupted rocks have a relatively narrow chemical range (56-62 % SiO2, 3-6 % MgO), there is a broad diversity of mineral compositions and textures. The least evolved lavas (˜58-61 % SiO2) are high-Mg andesites with scarce (<10 %) microphenocrysts of either olivine or orthopyroxene. The small compositional range and low phenocryst content indicate evolution controlled by low percentages (<10 %) of fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene of magmas similar to the least evolved rocks from the field, accompanied by assimilation during rapid ascent through the crust. Evolved andesites (˜62 wt% SiO2), on the other hand, are porphyritic rocks with plagioclase + orthopyroxene + biotite and ubiquitous phenocryst disequilibrium textures. These magmas were likely stored in crustal reservoirs, where they experienced convection caused by mafic magma underplating, magma mixing, and/or assimilation. Trace element and mineral compositions of CBAF lavas provide evidence for complex evolution of distinct magma batches.

  2. Evidence for the correlation of the upper part of the Llewellyn Formation (Pennsylvania Anthracite region), with the Monongahela Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, J.R.; Wnuk, C.; Edmunds, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    A plant fossil assemblage from the roof shale of the No. 25 anthracite bed in Pennsylvania indicates that the upper part of the Llewellyn Formation is much younger than the lower part of the Allegheny Group or Conemaugh Group correlation that was indicated by Read and Mamay (1960). These results confirm the conclusions of Fontaine and White (1880), White (1900), and Darrah (1969) who suggested that the highest coals of the Llewellyn Formation could be equivalent to the Monongahela Group.

  3. Factors affecting farmers' behaviour in pesticide use: Insights from a field study in northern China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liangxin; Niu, Haipeng; Yang, Xiaomei; Qin, Wei; Bento, Célia P M; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative understanding of farmers' behaviour in pesticide use is critical to enhance sustainability of chemical pest control and protect farmers' health and the environment. However, reports on the levels of knowledge and awareness of farmers and the practices of pesticide use are often insufficient. Here, we conducted a comprehensive analysis on the effects of knowledge and awareness of farmers as well as the influence of the associated stakeholders (i.e. pesticide retailers and the government) on farmers' behaviour in pesticide use by using a detailed survey of 307 agricultural households (79 grain farms, 65 fruit farms, 53 vegetable farms and 110 mixed-crop farms) in the Wei River basin in northern China. Eight protective behaviours (PBs) were exhibited by farmers. Careful and safe storage of pesticides, changing clothes or showering after applying pesticides, and reading instructions of the container labels before application were the most frequent PBs. Vegetable and fruit farmers had higher levels of education and knowledge than grain farmers, but the former were less willing to reduce pesticide use because of fear of low profits and lack of trust in the government and pesticide retailers. The PBs of farmers were strongly affected by the perception of the consequences of their behaviour (standardised path coefficient, SPC=0.42) and the level of farmers' knowledge (SPC=0.33). Pesticide retailers and the government had a moderate and weak influence, respectively, on farmers' PBs, suggesting a large gap of trust among farmers, pesticide retailers, and the government. Training and supervising retailers, educating farmers, and improving information transparency across farmers, pesticide retailers and the staff of the Agricultural Extension and Technology Service are recommended for bridging the gap of trust between farmers and the associated stakeholders as well as for promoting the use of PBs among farmers.

  4. Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr. ); Ahn, Y.K. ); Angelo, J.F. )

    1990-01-01

    Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. The safety and economics of high ash anthracite fired mixing with petroleum-coke in pulverized coal-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Li, F.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum-coke was fired only in CFB because of its content of high S and low volatile matter. It will bring environmental and flame stability problems if petroleum-coke is fired in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. Low rank anthracite is fired in many pulverized coal-fired furnaces without flame stability problems. Here the authors blend high ash anthracite with petroleum-coke as the fuel for a pulverized coal-fired furnace to decrease the ash content in the fuel. Experimental results had shown that in mixing with petroleum-coke, the combustion behavior of the blended fuel was improved and ash deposition characteristic would not change compared with high ash anthracite. Using coal/petroleum-coke as the fuel for furnace can bring great benefits for the environment and furnace. But S content in blended fuel must be controlled under the regulation of S content in coal and the volatile content should not decrease too low for the coal-fired furnace design to avoid the environmental and flame stability problems.

  6. Field trip overview: habitat loss and plant invasions in northern Utah's Basin and Range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An all-day field trip was conducted on May 19, 2010, as part of the 16th Wildland Shrub Symposium program. The tour consisted of Tour A and Tour B, which visited Utah's west desert shrublands in Park Valley (Tour A), and Bear River Mountains montane shrublands and Hardware Ranch Wildlife Management...

  7. Arguments for Integration in the Field of Education in Northern Michigan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardslee, Lois

    2004-01-01

    As a Native American with advanced college training in the field of education in northwest lower Michigan, the author has increasingly encountered denial on the part of educational professionals in the region as a response to statistics on race. During 2002, she spent nine months reviewing and renewing her statistical sources for use in nonfiction…

  8. Surface Measurements of dust/local aerosol properties over Northern China during 2008 China-US joined dust field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Huang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the detailed characteristics and underlying mechanisms of aerosol physical and optical parameters over China Loess Plateau and its potential impacts on the regional/global climate. In order to characterize the emission, transport, and removal of atmospheric pollutants emitted from East Asia, the 2008 China-US joined field campaign are conducted from late April to May 2008 focused specifically on the Asian direct measurements of dust and pollution transport, following the plume from the Northern China which from the Taklamakan desert and Gobi desert to the Eastern Pacific and into North America. Such measurements are crucial to understanding how the dust and the pollution plume (including black carbon) are modified as their age. Three sites involved this campaign, including one permanent site (Semi-Arid Climate & Environment Observatory of Lanzhou University (SACOL)) (located in Yuzhong, 35.95N/104.1E), one SACOL's Mobile Facility (SMF) (deployed in Jintai, 37.57N/104.23E) and the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurements(ARM) Ancillary Facility (AAF mobile laboratories, SMART-COMMIT) (deployed in Zhangye, 39.08N/100.27E). Results indicate that the dust plumes are transported from the surface to a long distance from their sources have a significant influence on the air quality in the study area. The meteorological analysis indicates that these polluted layers are not from local sources during dust plume and this large-scale transport of dust and pollutants remains a major uncertainty in quantifying the global effect of emissions from Northern China.

  9. Buffer strip effect on terbuthylazine, desethyl-terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor runoff from maize fields in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Marco; Vidotto, Francesco; Piano, Serenella; Negre, Michèle; Ferrero, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of a 6 m wide vegetative buffer strip for reducing runoff of S-metolachlor, terbuthylazine and desethyl-terbuthylazine was studied in 2007-2008 in Northern Italy. Two cultivated fields, with and without the buffer strip, were compared. Residues of the chemicals were investigated in runoff water collected after runoff events and their dissipation in the soil was studied. The highest concentration of the chemicals in water occurred in samples collected from the unbuffered field at the first runoff events. Losses of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor in runoff waters were particularly high in 2007 (2.6% and 0.9% of the amount applied, respectively). Soil half-life of terbuthylazine and S-metolachlor ranged between 12.1 and 8.9 days and 16 and 7 days, respectively. The presence of desethyl-terbuthylazine was related to parent compound degradation. The buffer strip allowed an important reduction of chemical content in water (> 90%), in particular during the first runoff events.

  10. Variation of char structure during anthracite pyrolysis catalyzed by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and its influence on char combustion reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Xuzhong Gong; Zhancheng Guo; Zhi Wang

    2009-09-15

    Effects of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the pyrolysis reactivity of demineralized anthracite were investigated by a thermo-gravimetric analyzer, indicating that pyrolysis reactivity of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite was higher than that of raw demineralized anthracite when temperature is over 500{sup o}C. Chars were prepared from the two coal samples in muffle with heating progress, and their structures were analyzed using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and Raman. FTIR results showed that absorption peaks of functional groups on the surface of char from catalytic pyrolysis at 700{sup o}C were more than that of char from noncatalytic pyrolysis. Raman results demonstrated values of (I{sub D3} + I{sub D4})/IG of chars from catalytic pyrolysis and noncatalytic pyrolysis were 4.76 and 3.86, respectively, indicating that ordering of the char was decreased by Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. XRD analysis revealed that diffraction angle of the 002 peak did not shift; however, L{sub a} and L{sub c} decreased, indicating degree of graphitization for microcrystalline structure of char from catalytic pyrolysis was decreased. The results of FTIR, XRD, and Raman of the char showed that catalytic pyrolysis improved the formation of free radicals, while hindered polymerization and forming of basic structure units. Finally, combustion reactivity of the three chars, including char of raw demineralized anthracite (char-A), char of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite (char-B), and char of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded demineralized anthracite washed by HCl (char-C), was investigated using TG and indicated that their active order was char-B > char-C > char-A. The results corroborated that Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} changed structure of anthracite char and improved combustion reactivity.

  11. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  12. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  13. Highly porous activated carbons prepared from carbon rich Mongolian anthracite by direct NaOH activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byamba-Ochir, Narandalai; Shim, Wang Geun; Balathanigaimani, M. S.; Moon, Hee

    2016-08-01

    Highly porous activated carbons (ACs) were prepared from Mongolian raw anthracite (MRA) using sodium hydroxide as an activation agent by varying the mass ratio (powdered MRA/NaOH) as well as the mixing method of chemical agent and powdered MRA. The specific BET surface area and total pore volume of the prepared MRA-based activated carbons (MACs) are in the range of 816-2063 m2/g and of 0.55-1.61 cm3/g, respectively. The pore size distribution of MACs show that most of the pores are in the range from large micropores to small mesopores and their distribution can be controlled by the mass ratio and mixing method of the activating agent. As expected from the intrinsic property of the MRA, the highly graphitic surface morphology of prepared carbons was confirmed from Raman spectra and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. Furthermore the FTIR and XPS results reveal that the preparation of MACs with hydrophobic in nature is highly possible by controlling the mixing conditions of activating agent and powdered MRA. Based on all the results, it is suggested that the prepared MACs could be used for many specific applications, requiring high surface area, optimal pore size distribution, proper surface hydrophobicity as well as strong physical strength.

  14. Size effects in the conduction electron spin resonance of anthracite and higher anthraxolite.

    PubMed

    Tadyszak, Krzysztof; Strzelczyk, Roman; Coy, Emerson; Maćkowiak, Mariusz; Augustyniak-Jabłokow, Maria A

    2016-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of conduction electrons, i.e. Conduction Electron Spin Resonance (CESR), is a powerful tool for studies of carbon samples. Conductive samples cause additional effects in CESR spectra that influence the shape and intensity of the signals. In cases where conduction electrons play a dominant role, whilst the influence of localized paramagnetic centres is small or negligible, the effects because of the spins on conduction electrons will dominate the spectra. It has been shown that for some ratios of the bulk sample sizes (d) to the skin depth (δ), which depend on the electrical conductivity, additional size effects become visible in the line asymmetry parameter A/|B|, which is the ratio of the maximum to the absolute, minimum value of the resonance signal. To study these effects the electrical direct current-conductivity and CESR measurements are carried out for two amorphous bulk coal samples of anthracite and a higher anthraxolite. The observed effects are described and discussed in terms of the Dyson theory. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Field Analogues of Shallow-water Hydrocarbon Seepages in the Pleistocene Argille Azzurre Formation: the Chimneys Field of Enza River, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Capozzi, R.; Dinelli, E.; Negri, A.; Montagna, P.; Picotti, V.; Scarponi, D.; Taviani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The geologically young Northern Apennines contain various natural seeps documenting a variability of reservoirs and fluids in terms of origin, age and evolution. Hydrocarbon and saline water seepages are controlled by the structures of the chain and the foredeep. In the geological record, the witness of these natural seepages are represented by authigenic carbonates. Their isotopic content allows to understand the carbon source and the processes of carbonate precipitation. The better known regional examples of Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDAC) and chemoherm build-ups, clustered in the Upper Miocene and Lower-Upper Pliocene successions, are formed in deep water (> 300 m) sediments. Occurrences in shallow water (shelf) settings have never been reported. Our case study describes the palisade chimneys field, recently exposed along the Enza riverbanks in the Northern Apennines in the Argille Azzurre Formation (blue mudstones) of Pleistocene age. The paleontological content (mainly bivalves) documents that this unit was deposited in an open marine muddy shelfal setting, in a bathymetric range of about 50-70 m, with local anoxic condition, documented by benthic foraminifer assemblages. The succession is biostratigraphically dated at the Early Pleistocene (Calabrian, nannoplancton zone MNN19e). A number of subvertical, metric-high columnar chimneys, ranging in diameter from 10 to 35 cm, in association with discontinuous planar carbonate concretions, intervening along the bedding planes, outcrop within the mudstones. Such concretions are clearly formed by the moderate cementation of the hosting pelitic sediments. The tubular concretions show central conduits running along the whole length, locally filled by sediments. The grain size within the concretions is homogeneous, both in the chimneys and planar concretions and irrespective of the bedding planes, suggesting a process of transport and homogenization prior to the cementation. Within the Enza river succession

  16. Field aging of insecticides after repeated application to a northern Thailand ultisol.

    PubMed

    Ciglasch, H; Busche, J; Amelung, W; Totrakool, S; Kaupenjohann, M

    2008-10-22

    Field aging immobilizes pollutants and reduces their toxicity, but it also boosts their accumulation and holds the risk of future release. We investigated the aging of six insecticides (water solubilities: 0.33 mg L (-1)-completely miscible) applied five times (10-day intervals) to a tropical fruit orchard under natural weather conditions. After sequential extractions of soil samples with 0.01 M CaCl 2, methanol (MeOH), and acetone/ethylacetate/water (AEW), a conventional ( K OC(app) = [ c(MeOH) + c(AEW)]/ c(CaCl 2), normalized to soil organic carbon) and a newly introduced distribution ratio (MAR = MeOH/AEW ratio; c(MeOH)/ c(AEW)) were calculated. Field half-lives of the insecticides correlated with K OC(app) but not with MAR, which might reflect that dissipation was significantly affected by abiotic processes. The extent of aging was related to hydrophobicity of the compounds and most pronounced for endosulfan (3-fold increase in K OC(app) within 84 days). For dimethoate, this increase was even steeper (5- to 10-fold within 10 days), which was, however, mostly caused by dissipation from labile pools rather than by aging. The K OC(app) of chlorpyrifos remained constant, but a significant decrease in MAR ( r = -0.78) revealed that sorption strength increased nevertheless. Results for malathion were ambiguous. Within the time frame of our study, neither K OC(app) nor MAR gave evidence for the aging of mevinphos. The different dynamics of K OC(app) and MAR for the six insecticides studied indicate that different aging mechanisms or rates, or both control the fate of the individual insecticides, which can potentially be revealed by sequential exctraction procedures.

  17. Distribution and origin of groundwater methane in the Wattenberg oil and gas field of northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Li, Huishu; Carlson, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns over potential environmental contamination associated with oil and gas well drilling and fracturing in the Wattenberg field in northeast Colorado are increasing. One of the issues of concern is the migration of oil, gas, or produced water to a groundwater aquifer resulting in contamination of drinking water. Since methane is the major component of natural gas and it can be dissolved and transported with groundwater, stray gas in aquifers has elicited attention. The initial step toward understanding the environmental impacts of oil and gas activities, such as well drilling and fracturing, is to determine the occurrence, where it is and where it came from. In this study, groundwater methane data that has been collected in response to a relatively new regulation in Colorado is analyzed. Dissolved methane was detected in 78% of groundwater wells with an average concentration of 4.0 mg/L and a range of 0-37.1 mg/L. Greater than 95% of the methane found in groundwater wells was classified as having a microbial origin, and there was minimal overlap between the C and H isotopic characterization of the produced gas and dissolved methane measured in the aquifer. Neither density of oil/gas wells nor distance to oil/gas wells had a significant impact on methane concentration suggesting other important factors were influencing methane generation and distribution. Thermogenic methane was detected in two aquifer wells indicating a potential contamination pathway from the producing formation, but microbial-origin gas was by far the predominant source of dissolved methane in the Wattenberg field.

  18. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    England. Reynolds, C.M., P. Bhunia, and B.A. Koenen. 1997. Soil Remediation demonstration Project: Biodegradation of Heavy Fuel Oils . Special Report...TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESTCP Cost and Performance Report: Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native...1011, “Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern

  19. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer 2012 Field Season in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and U.S. Atlantic Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarke, A. D.; Lobecker, E.; Malik, M.; VerPlanck, N.

    2012-12-01

    The NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer, jointly operated by the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research and the NOAA Office of Marine and Aviation Operations, is America's only federally managed ship dedicated solely to ocean exploration. The 2012 field season was spent exploring the northern Gulf of Mexico and the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf break and slope. In the Gulf of Mexico, mapping and remotely operated vehicle operations focused on the salt domes and canyons offshore Mississippi and Louisiana, and characterized several of the hundreds of seeps that were detected in the water column backscatter data collected with the ship's Kongsberg EM 302 multibeam sonar (30 kHz) during the 2011 field season. A team of NOAA and non-NOAA partners identified priority frontier areas along the continental shelf and slope between North Carolina and Cape Cod, mapping numerous canyons selected for focused mapping exploration in partnership with the North East Fisheries Science Center, the Mid-Atlantic Regional Council on the Ocean (a state level partnership between various states including NY, NJ, DE, MD, and VA), Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) and Virginia Sea Grant. The 2012 mapping efforts built on data collected during the 2011 field season. Okeanos Explorer data were leveraged by NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow to conduct towed camera operations to ground truth multibeam backscatter data for deepwater coral habitat assessment. The Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs offshore North Carolina were a third focus of exploration operations. Seven 900 meter high cold seeps were discovered in the diapir province. Exploration incorporated WHOI's Sentry autonomous underwater vehicle and its full suite of mapping and oceanographic sensors were used to characterize six seep sites. All data collected by Okeanos Explorer are available via the NOAA public archives with metadata records within 60 to 90 days of the end of each cruise.

  20. Independent component analysis of geoelectric field data in the northern Nagano, Japan.

    PubMed

    Orihara, Yoshiaki; Kamogawa, Masashi; Nagao, Toshiyasu; Uyeda, Seiya

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous anomalous change of geoelectric field was observed on January 17, 1999 at three far-distant stations in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. Eleven days after the anomalous change, an earthquake swarm with a M4.8 main shock started at a location within the triangle formed by the three stations. This change was rectangular in shape like the VAN-type anomalous change in Greece. The anomaly could be detected because it occurred at midnight when the noise level was low. In fact, there were a few M4-class earthquakes in the area for which no preceding anomalous electric changes were observed, perhaps because the changes occurred during the noisy daytime. In this paper, we examine if it is possible to extract the signal with the size of the anomalous change on January 17, 1999 from the noisy daytime data by Independent Component Analysis. For this purpose, a simulated noise was embedded in the real daytime data which were highly influenced by not only artificial noise but also by geomagnetic disturbances and rainfall. Even when the influence of geomagnetic disturbance or rainfall was large, the anomalous change was clearly recognized at least at two stations in all cases.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Northern XMM-XXL field AGN catalog (Menzel+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, M.-L.; Merloni, A.; Georgakakis, A.; Salvato, M.; Aubourg, E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brusa, M.; Buchner, J.; Dwelly, T.; Nandra, K.; Paris, I.; Petitjean, P.; Schwope, A.

    2016-10-01

    The XMM-Newton XXL survey (XMM-XXL, PI Pierre) is a medium-depth (10ks per pointing) X-ray survey that covers a total area of 50deg2 split into two fields equal in size. In this paper, we focus on the equatorial sub-region of the XMM-XXL (XMM-XXL north), which overlaps with the SDSS-DR8 imaging survey (Aihara et al., 2011ApJS..193...29A). The XMM-XXL north observations were distributed around the area of the original 11deg2 XMM-LSS survey (Clerc et al., 2014MNRAS.444.2723C) and therefore build upon and extend that sample. The X-ray data used in this paper are primarily from the XMM-XXL and XMM-LSS surveys. We also include however, any additional XMM-Newton pointings that are contiguous to the area covered by those programmes, such as the XMM-Newton observations of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS; Ueda et al., 2008, Cat. J/ApJS/179/124) (1 data file).

  2. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  3. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  4. Organic tissues, graphite, and hydrocarbons in host rocks of the Rum Jungle Uranium Field, northern Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, C.B.; Robbins, E.I.; Bone, Y.

    1990-01-01

    The Rum Jungle Uranium field consists of at least six early Proterozoic deposits that have been mined either for uranium and/or the associated base and precious metals. Organic matter in the host rocks of the Whites Formation and Coomalie Dolomite is now predominantly graphite, consistent with the metamorphic history of these rocks. For nine samples, the mean total organic carbon content is high (3.9 wt%) and ranged from 0.33 to 10.44 wt%. Palynological extracts from the host rocks include black, filamentous, stellate (Eoastrion-like), and spherical morphotypes, which are typical of early Proterozoic microbiota. The colour, abundance, and shapes of these morphotypes reflect the thermal history, organic richness, and probable lacustrine biofacies of the host rocks. Routine analysis of rock thin sections and of palynological residues shows that mineral grains in some of the host rocks are coated with graphitized organic matter. The grain coating is presumed to result from ultimate thermal degradation of a petroleum phase that existed prior to metamorphism. Hydrocarbons are, however, still present in fluid inclusions within carbonates of the Coomalie Dolomite and lower Whites Formation. The fluid inclusions fluoresce dull orange in blue-light excitation and their hydrocarbon content is confirmed by gas chromatography of whole-rock extracts. Preliminary analysis of the oil suggests that it is migrated, and because it has escaped graphitization through metamorphism it is probably not of early Proterozoic age. The presence of live oil is consistent with fluid inclusion data that suggest subsequent, low-temperature brine migration through the rocks. The present observations support earlier suggestions that organic matter in the host formations trapped uranium to form protore. Subsequent fluid migrations probably brought additional uranium and other metals to these formations, and the organic matter provided a reducing environment for entrapment. ?? 1990.

  5. Phosphorus removal by laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems using anthracite, steel slag and related blends as substrate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junmei; He, Feng; Xu, Dong; Wang, Rong; Zhang, Xiangling; Xiao, Enrong; Wu, Zhenbin

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed to investigate the phosphorus (P) removal of a series of laboratory-scale unvegetated vertical-flow constructed wetland systems using anthracite, steel slag and related blends as substrate in treatment of low concentration domestic sewage. The long-term performance of P removal was firstly studied by using single substrate of anthracite or steel slag, and three systems applying various combined substrates were investigated when the average P loading rate varied between 0.9 and 1.5 g TP/m2 x d. The results demonstrated that both anthracite and steel slag systems were highly effective in removing total P (CTP, 77.17 +/- 23.34% and 90.26 +/- 4.48%) and soluble reactive P (SRP, 92.14 +/- 12.56% and 96.20 +/- 2.58%). The system filled with anthracite, vermiculite and steel slag from the top down removed 82.45 +/- 9.52% and 87.83 +/- 8.58% of TP and SRP, respectively. However, other combined substrate systems showed comparative low and fluctuant P removal. The effluent pH was maintained at 7-9, which met environmental requirements of China. Therefore, anthracite provides a long-term high efficiency of P removal and may be a promising substrate from the standpoint of the effluent pH, and the arrangement of combined substrate has a prominent effect on P removal.

  6. Field Evidence of Colonisation by Holm Oak, at the Northern Margin of Its Distribution Range, during the Anthropocene Period

    PubMed Central

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Porté, Annabel J.

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880–2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change. PMID:24260391

  7. Field evidence of colonisation by Holm Oak, at the northern margin of its distribution range, during the Anthropocene period.

    PubMed

    Delzon, Sylvain; Urli, Morgane; Samalens, Jean-Charles; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Lischke, Heike; Sin, Fabrice; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Porté, Annabel J

    2013-01-01

    A major unknown in the context of current climate change is the extent to which populations of slowly migrating species, such as trees, will track shifting climates. Niche modelling generally predicts substantial northward shifts of suitable habitats. There is therefore an urgent need for field-based forest observations to corroborate these extensive model simulations. We used forest inventory data providing presence/absence information from just over a century (1880-2010) for a Mediterranean species (Quercus ilex) in forests located at the northern edge of its distribution. The main goals of the study were (i) to investigate whether this species has actually spread into new areas during the Anthropocene period and (ii) to provide a direct estimation of tree migration rate. We show that Q. ilex has colonised substantial new areas over the last century. However, the maximum rate of colonisation by this species (22 to 57 m/year) was much slower than predicted by the models and necessary to follow changes in habitat suitability since 1880. Our results suggest that the rates of tree dispersion and establishment may also be too low to track shifts in bioclimatic envelopes in the future. The inclusion of contemporary, rather than historical, migration rates into models should improve our understanding of the response of species to climate change.

  8. Classification of small agricultural fields using combined Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery: case study of northern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnojević, Vladimir; Lugonja, Predrag; Brkljač, Branko; Brunet, Borislav

    2014-01-01

    A pixel-based cropland classification study based on the fusion of data from satellite images with different resolutions is presented. It is based on a time series of multispectral images acquired at different resolutions by different imaging instruments, Landsat-8 and RapidEye. The proposed data fusion method capabilities are explored with the aim of overcoming the shortcomings of different instruments in the particular cropland classification scenario characterized by the very small size of crop fields over the chosen agricultural region situated in the plains of Vojvodina in northern Serbia. This paper proposes a data fusion method that is successfully utilized in combination with arobust random forest classifier in improving the overall classification performance, as well as in enabling application of satellite imagery with a coarser spatial resolution in the given specific cropland classification task. The developed method effectively exploits available data and provides an improvement over the existing pixel-based classification approaches through the combination of different data sources. Another contribution of this paper is the employment of crowdsourcing in the process of reference data collection via dedicated smartphone application.

  9. Statistical properties of the surface velocity field in the northern Gulf of Mexico sampled by GLAD drifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariano, A. J.; Ryan, E. H.; Huntley, H. S.; Laurindo, L. C.; Coelho, E.; Griffa, A.; Özgökmen, T. M.; Berta, M.; Bogucki, D.; Chen, S. S.; Curcic, M.; Drouin, K. L.; Gough, M.; Haus, B. K.; Haza, A. C.; Hogan, P.; Iskandarani, M.; Jacobs, G.; Kirwan, A. D.; Laxague, N.; Lipphardt, B.; Magaldi, M. G.; Novelli, G.; Reniers, A.; Restrepo, J. M.; Smith, C.; Valle-Levinson, A.; Wei, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Grand LAgrangian Deployment (GLAD) used multiscale sampling and GPS technology to observe time series of drifter positions with initial drifter separation of O(100 m) to O(10 km), and nominal 5 min sampling, during the summer and fall of 2012 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Histograms of the velocity field and its statistical parameters are non-Gaussian; most are multimodal. The dominant periods for the surface velocity field are 1-2 days due to inertial oscillations, tides, and the sea breeze; 5-6 days due to wind forcing and submesoscale eddies; 9-10 days and two weeks or longer periods due to wind forcing and mesoscale variability, including the period of eddy rotation. The temporal e-folding scales of a fitted drifter velocity autocorrelation function are bimodal with time scales, 0.25-0.50 days and 0.9-1.4 days, and are the same order as the temporal e-folding scales of observed winds from nearby moored National Data Buoy Center stations. The Lagrangian integral time scales increase from coastal values of 8 h to offshore values of approximately 2 days with peak values of 3-4 days. The velocity variance is large, O>(1>) m2/s2, the surface velocity statistics are more anisotropic, and increased dispersion is observed at flow bifurcations. Horizontal diffusivity estimates are O>(103>) m2/s in coastal regions with weaker flow to O>(105>) m2/s in flow bifurcations, a strong jet, and during the passage of Hurricane Isaac. The Gulf of Mexico surface velocity statistics sampled by the GLAD drifters are a strong function of the feature sampled, topography, and wind forcing.

  10. Geochemistry of stream-sediment samples from the Santa Renia Fields and Beaver Peak quadrangles, northern Carlin Trend, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theodore, Ted G.; Kotlyar, Boris B.; Berger, Vladimir I.; Moring, Barry C.; Singer, Donald A.; Edstrom, Sven A.

    1999-01-01

    A broad west-to-east increase of many metal concentrations has been found in stream sediments during a reconnaissance investigation conducted in conjunction with geologic studies in the Santa Renia Fields and Beaver Peak 7–1/2 minute quadrangles near the northern end of the Carlin trend of gold deposits in the Tuscarora Mountains. This regional increase in metal concentrations coincides with a dramatic change in landform wherein high concentrations of metals in stream sediments appear to correlate directly with areas of high elevations and steep slopes in the Beaver Peak quadrangle. Robust erosion combined with high flow rates in streams from these higher elevations are envisaged to have contributed significantly to increased metal concentrations in the stream sediments by an enhanced presence of minerals with high specific gravities and a correspondingly diminished presence of minerals with low specific gravities. Minerals with low specific gravities probably have been preferentially flushed down stream because of high transporting capacities for sediment by streams in the Beaver Peak quadrangle. In addition, the Carlin trend, a generally northwest-alignment of gold deposits in the Santa Renia Fields quadrangle, is well outlined by arsenic concentrations that include a maximum of approximately 54 parts per million. Further, a weakly developed distal-to-proximal metal zonation towards these gold deposits appears to be defined respectively in plots showing distributions of thallium, arsenic, antimony, and zinc. A broad area of high metal concentrations—including sharply elevated abundances of Ag, As, Au, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, P, Sb, Sc, Te, V, and especially Zn—near the southeast corner of the Beaver Peak quadrangle primarily could be the result of stratiform mineralized rocks in the Ordovician Vinini Formation or Devonian Slaven Chert, or the result of a subsequent Mesozoic or Tertiary epigenetic overprint.

  11. The Cenozoic stress/deformation field of the Donets coal basin and Northern Azov region and its probable sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, M.; Korchemagin, V.; Kolesnichenko, A.

    2009-04-01

    Studies of structure, development and dynamics of formation of the little-investigated Cenozoic (Alpine) deformations of the Donets Herzinic intraplate orogen (Donets Coal Basin, or Donbass) and Northern Azov region, which were accompanied by mass mesotectonic measurement, revealed traces of two independent Cenozoic orogenies: the Laramic one of the Early Alpine (Latest Cretaceous — Paleocene), and the Recent one of the Late Alpine (Neogene — Quaternary). The orogenies differ in area of manifestation and peculiarities of stress/deformation field. The first orogeny in its pure state developed only in the western Donbass and adjacent relic part of the Dnieper-Donets aulacogene where gentle folds of the Mesozoic strata of the WNW - ESE strike were formed. The folds (so-called Izyum-Kramatorsk structural unit) are sharply overprinted by the Eocene beds and confined to salt diapirs gradually uplifting from the Devonian. According the mesotectonic data, in the post-Cretaceous time they however developed under slight transversal compression with some horizontal shear. The Laramic movements occurred also to the east where they together with the Recent ones participated in formation of the Severodonetskij and Persianovskij border reverse faults of the Donbass. However, as a whole the Recent orogeny developed independently and far to the east of the Laramic one. The Donets-North Azov neotectonic swell which appeared at that time occupies not only the eastern Donets intraplate orogen arised from the Dnieper-Donets aulacogene but strongly crosses the southern aulacogene border extending far into the Ukrainian shield. The different areas of the Laramic and Recent orogenic movements in the Donbass suggest that they raised from different sources. The eastern distribution of the Late Alpine deformation and its more intense manifestation (the well noticeable neotectonic uplift as well as the extension outside the aulacogene and the activization of the Ukrainian shield basement

  12. Advancement of 10 t/h fluidized bed boiler burning Fujian anthracite with extremely low volatile[ity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C.; Duan, Y.; Chen, X.; Wu, X.; Wu, S.; Wang, W.; Huang, C.

    1999-07-01

    The anthracite in Fujian Province, China with extremely low volatile content about 2--4% is very difficult to burn in grate firing boilers, and operation conditions are very poor, such as steam output well below the nominal capacity and very low burning-out rate. Burning Fujian anthracite in specially designed bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) boilers with capacities between 4 T/H and 20 T/H are still unsatisfactory. In order to increase boiler output and utilize local coal more efficiently, a 10 T/H BFB boiler burning Fujian anthracite was retrofitted with several special techniques, in terms of underbed feeding of recycling fly ash, vortexing secondary air injection, continuous bottom ash removal and adding immersed tube surface. The boiler performances before and after the retrofitting were measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that steam output of the boiler is boosted from 7--8 T/H to more than 14 T/H, unburned carbon content (UBC) in ash from the convective banks drops from 31.39% to 3.89%, UBC in ash from the multicyclone drops from 38.87% to 22.19%, and UBC in fly ash drops from 35.3% to 18.07%. The boiler thermal efficiency increases from 67.27% to 82.93%. Boiler operation becomes more stable. Particulate emission is substantially lessened because of separation by the vortexing secondary air. The retrofitting was completely successful. The technique used and experiences obtained in the retrofitting can be widely applied in industrial BFB boilers.

  13. Prehistoric Agriculture and Soil Fertility on Lava Flows in Northern Arizona, USA: Results from the San Francisco Volcanic Field REU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadman, E.; Anderson, K. C.

    2013-12-01

    The San Francisco Volcanic Field in northern Arizona is home to ~600 cinder cones, the youngest of which is Sunset Crater (erupted ~AD 1100). This study documents trends in available phosphate and nitrate content with time, testing whether lowered soil pH from the addition of Sunset cinders increased soil fertility and became a factor in Anasazi agricultural success. Soil fertility is examined both before and after Sunset's eruption in soils of different ages that have developed from eolian deposition on top of lava flows. An increase in phosphate and nitrate levels following acidification would suggest that the presence of Sunset cinders brought the soils to the optimal pH for mobilization of these nutrients. The combined effects of the cinder layer retaining nutrients and water, wetter climates, and increases in phosphate and nitrate (both limiting nutrients for plant growth), would have contributed to Anasazi agricultural success after Sunset's eruption. Samples for this study were taken from eolian-derived soils of different ages atop lava flows in the San Francisco Volcanic Field. OSL data from these soils on Strawberry and SP Craters' lava flows yielded age estimates of ~12.3 ka (Strawberry) and ~32.7 ka (SP), on which a soil chronosequence was based. Results from the chronosequence supported these OSL ages, indicating that soils on the SP flow are older than those on the Strawberry flow. Field descriptions, Harden Development Indices, particle size analysis, and nutrient content analysis were used for this aspect of the project. An experimental acid wash method will be used to simulate the addition of Sunset's acidic cinders, and will yield data for phosphate and nitrate content after Sunset erupted. Preliminary results indicate that phosphate and nitrate accumulate in upper, eolian-derived horizons (Av, Bw) and in more deeply buried carbonate horizons (Bk). Higher concentrations of phosphate and nitrate were found in older (SP) soils than younger

  14. Stress field variations in the Swiss Alps and the northern Alpine foreland derived from inversion of fault plane solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastrup, U.; Zoback, M.L.; Deichmann, N.; Evans, Kenneth F.; Giardini, D.; Michael, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    This study is devoted to a systematic analysis of the state of stress of the central European Alps and northern Alpine foreland in Switzerland based on focal mechanisms of 138 earthquakes with magnitudes between 1 and 5. The most robust feature of the results is that the azimuth of the minimum compressive stress, S3, is generally well constrained for all data subsets and always lies in the NE quadrant. However, within this quadrant, the orientation of S3 changes systematically both along the structural strike of the Alpine chain and across it. The variation in stress along the mountain belt from NE to SW involves a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of S3 and is most clear in the foreland, where it amounts to 45??-50??. This pattern of rotation is compatible with the disturbance to the stress field expected from the indentation of the Adriatic Block into the central European Plate, possibly together with buoyancy forces arising from the strongly arcuate structure of the Moho to the immediate west of our study area. Across the Alps, the variation in azimuth of S3 is defined by a progressive, counterclockwise rotation of about 45?? from the foreland in the north across the Helvetic domain to the Penninic nappes in the south and is accompanied by a change from a slight predominance of strike-slip mechanisms in the foreland to a strong predominance of normal faulting in the high parts of the Alps. The observed rotation can be explained by the perturbation of the large-scale regional stress by a local uniaxial deviatoric tension with a magnitude similar to that of the regional differential stress and with an orientation perpendicular to the strike of the Alpine belt. The tensile nature and orientation of this stress is consistent with the "spreading" stress expected from lateral density changes due to a crustal root beneath the Alps. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Field-mapping and petrographic analysis of volcanoes surrounding the Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site, northern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, S. M.; Zimmer, B.; Liutkus, C.; Carmichael, S. K.; McGinnis, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Lake Natron Homo sapiens footprint site is located in northern Tanzania along the East African Rift escarpment. The site is positioned south of Lake Natron within an ephemeral channel of the Engare Sero River. The hominid footprints are preserved in a tuff, which originated from one of the volcanic centers surrounding the site. Two large volcanoes in the surrounding region, including the active carbonatite producing Oldoinyo L’engai and the now extinct Kerimasi are possible sources. This area also contains over 30 smaller tuff cones and tuff rings that have been poorly mapped and not analyzed in detail. The site is significant as it is the oldest modern human trackway in East Africa and one of the largest collections of hominid footprints in the world. Determining the source of the footprinted volcanic ash requires detailed field mapping, and both petrographic and geochemical analyses. Extensive field-mapping of the region revealed multiple regional beds that stratigraphically overlay the footprinted layer. Age dating as well as geochemical analysis is being conducted to relate these beds to the footprinted layer. Field-mapping showed that the footprinted tuff is over 35 cm thick, suggesting a large, sustained eruption. The bulk of the tuff cones examined in the field visibly varied in composition to the footprinted tuff and, based on proximity to the footprint site, are too small to produce the requisite volume of ash. Field analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal the most similar mineral assemblages to the footprinted layer, and the large volcano provides a source substantial enough to create a thick ash bed 10 km north of the summit. Preliminary research reveals that the footprinted tuff is a phonolite, characterized by silica depletion and the presence of sanidine, augite, and annite with interstitial calcite. XRD analysis of samples collected from Oldoinyo L’engai reveal a nepheline-rich phonolite with zeolites (ie. phillipsite

  16. Style of Plate Spreading Derived from the 2008-2014 Velocity Field Across the Northern Volcanic Zone of Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, V.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hreinsdottir, S.; Ofeigsson, B.; Sturkell, E.; Einarsson, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ) of Iceland is a subaerial part of the divergent boundary between the North-American and Eurasian Plates. At this latitude, the full spreading between the plates is accommodated by the NVZ. We derived the plate boundary velocity field from GPS campaign and continuous measurements between 2008 and 2014, a time period free of any magma intrusion. Average velocities were estimated in the ITRF08 reference frame. The overall extension is consistent with 18 mm/yr in the 104°N direction spreading, in accordance with the MORVEL2010 plate motion model. We find that a 40km-wide band along the plate boundary accommodates about 75% of the full plate velocities. Within this zone, the average strain rate is approximately 0.35 μstrain/yr. The deformation field and the strain rate are, however, much affected by other sources of deformations in the NVZ. These include magmatic sources at the most active volcanic centers, glacial rebound near the ice-caps and geothermal power-plant water extraction. Magmatic sources include a shallow magma chamber deflation under Askja caldera, as well as under Þeistareykir and eventual deep magma inflation north of Krafla volcano. Vatnajökull ice cap melting causes large uplift and outward displacements in the southern part of the NVZ. The two geothermal power-plants near Krafla are inducing local deflations. Our GPS velocities show a 35° change in the direction of the plate boundary axis north of Askja volcano that we infer to be linked to the geometric arrangement of volcanic systems within the NVZ.We use a simple arctangent model to describe the plate spreading to provide constraints on the location and the locking depth of the spreading axis. For that purpose we divided the area in short overlapping segments having the same amount of GPS points along the plate spreading direction and inverted for the location of the center of the spreading axis and locking depth. With this simple model we can account for most

  17. Optical parameters as a tool to study the microstructural evolution of carbonized anthracites during high-temperature treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Ana B. Garcia

    2007-09-15

    The graphitization process of two different carbonized anthracites in the temperature interval of 2000-2800 C was studied by using the optical properties of the materials prepared. These optical properties are defined by the main axes and parameters of the reflectance-indicating surface (RIS) and the anisotropy indexes (BW and oil bireflectance ratio). Two temperature segments, with the second one being a plateau, were found to occur in the evolution of the structural organization (textural anisotropy) of the materials. The variation with the temperature of the structural order of the materials as determined from X-ray diffraction and Raman crystalline parameters followed a similar tendency, thus confirming the validity of the optical properties as another indicator of the textural and structural changes occurring during anthracite high-temperature treatment. Moreover, as shown by the optical microscopic observation of the materials, crystalline aggregates, microspheres, and flake microstructures, which were previously detected in natural graphites, were developed from the dense and massive particles, with their proportion being higher in those materials with a larger degree of textural anisotropy and/or structural order. 29 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Detailed Observations and Sampling of the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal Field (GR-14) on the Northern Gorda Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClain, J. S.; Zierenberg, R.; Clague, D. A.; Von Damm, K. L.; Davis, A.; Goffredi, S.; Mayer, N.; Orphan, V.; Olsen, E.; Ross, S. L.

    2001-12-01

    During the summer of 2000, on a research cruise of the MBARI research ship, Western Flyer, we deployed the ROV Tiburon for a series of dives at the Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site on the northern Gorda Ridge. The Sea Cliff site is near the top of a terrace on the west facing rift valley wall (fault), about 300 meters above, and 3 km east of the ridge axis. The 1996 Gorda Ridge eruption occurred on axis in the region west and south of the vent site. The vents were first predicted on the basis of water column anomalies and seafloor structure, and the field was discovered in 1988 during dives of the Sea Cliff submersible. In 2000, we made 4 dives at the site and collected a suite of rock and vent fluid samples. The high temperature water vents from as many as 10 individual chimneys. Measured vent temperatures at several of the chimneys fall in a narrow range of around 304\\deg C. The chimneys are arrayed along two low ridges that are oriented roughly perpendicular to the strike of the rift valley. Venting fluids have low salinity indicating subsurface phase separation. The waters are isotopically enriched (\\delta 18O = 1.9%), suggesting extensive water-rock interaction. The chimneys themselves are primarily anhydrite and a pale green Mg-rich clay with minor amounts of amorphous silica, pyrrhotite, wurtzite, and isocubanite. The chimneys are delicate and are surrounded by aprons (5 -10 m) of collapsed chimney material. As a result, no macro fauna were observed colonizing the high temperature vents. Silica-rich hydrothermal crust and talus cover the fault slope. A broad region of diffuse venting surrounds the active chimneys and locally supports a rich biological community that includes blue ciliate mats near the vents, that give way to tube worm fields and low tube worm mounds formed on massive barite. The Sea Cliff Hydrothermal site is unusual in that it lies off axis and above the rift valley floor. Faulting must play a role in its location and perhaps geometry, and the

  19. Geology of the Right Stepover region between the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, northern San Francisco Bay region: a contribution to Northern California Geological Society Field Trip Guide, June 6-8, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    This Open file report was written as part of a two-day field trip on June 7 and 8, 2003, conducted for the Northern California Geological Society. The first day of this field trip (June 7) was led by McLaughlin and Sarna-Wojcicki in the area of the right- step between the Rodgers Creek- Healdsburg fault zone and the Maacama fault. The second day of the trip (June 8), was led by David Wagner of the California Geological Survey and students having recently completed MS theses at San Jose State University (James Allen) and San Francisco State University (Carrie Randolph-Loar), as well as a student from San Francisco State University whose MS thesis was in progress in June 2003 (Eric Ford). The second day covered the Rodgers Creek fault zone and related faults of the Petaluma Valley area (the Tolay and Petaluma Valley fault zones).

  20. Channel response to tectonic forcing: field analysis of stream morphology and hydrology in the Mendocino triple junction region, northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Noah P.; Whipple, Kelin X.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2003-07-01

    An empirical calibration of the shear stress model for bedrock incision is presented, using field and hydrologic data from a series of small, coastal drainage basins near the Mendocino triple junction in northern California. Previous work comparing basins from the high uplift zone (HUZ, uplift rates around 4 mm/year) to ones in the low uplift zone (LUZ, ˜0.5 mm/year) indicates that the HUZ channels are about twice as steep for a given drainage area. This observation suggests that incision processes are more effective in the HUZ. It motivates a detailed field study of channel morphology in the differing tectonic settings to test whether various factors that are hypothesized to influence incision rates (discharge, channel width, lithology, sediment load) change in response to uplift or otherwise differ between the HUZ and LUZ. Analysis of regional stream gaging data for mean annual discharge and individual floods yields a linear relationship between discharge and drainage area. Increased orographic precipitation in the HUZ accounts for about a twofold increase in discharge in this area, corresponding to an assumed increase in the erosional efficiency of the streams. Field measurements of channel width indicate a power-law relationship between width and drainage area with an exponent of ˜0.4 and no significant change in width between the uplift rate zones, although interpretation is hampered by a difference in land use between the zones. The HUZ channel width dataset reveals a scaling break interpreted to be the transition between colluvial- and fluvial-dominated incision processes. Assessments of lithologic resistance using a Schmidt hammer and joint surveys show that the rocks of the study area should be fairly similar in their susceptibility to erosion. The HUZ channels generally have more exposed bedrock than those in the LUZ, which is consistent with protection by sediment cover inhibiting incision in the LUZ. However, this difference is likely the result of a

  1. Comparative evaluation of four registered acaricides for field control of northern fowl mites on caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hall, R D; Vandepopuliere, J M; English, L M; Jaynes, W; Lyons, J J; Doisy, K E; Foehse, M C

    1980-11-01

    Carbaryl and tetrachlorvinphos provided longer lasting control of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), than did coumaphos or malathion when the materials were applied to caged laying hens as aqueous sprays. The average duration of residual control was ca. 5 weeks for carbaryl, 4.3 weeks for tetrachlorvinphos, 3.5 weeks for coumaphos, and 2 weeks for malathion. No presumptive evidence of northern fowl mite resistance to carbaryl or tetrachlorvinphos was encountered. In contrast, malathion often failed to produce satisfactory control, and difficulty with adequate dispersion of coumaphos wettable powder was noted.

  2. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  3. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  4. Optimization of regimes for the feed of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust for burning in a TPP-210A boiler

    SciTech Connect

    L.V. Golyshev; G.A. Dovgoteles

    2007-05-15

    Results are presented for regime adjustment of feed systems for a TPP-210A boiler for the burning of highly concentrated culm-anthracite coal dust. As compared with nonoptimal regimes, optimal regimes of high-concentration-feed systems improve the economy of the boiler by 1.7% on average.

  5. Bentonite and anthracite in alginate-based controlled release formulations to reduce leaching of chloridazon and metribuzin in a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Flores Céspedes, F; Pérez García, S; Villafranca Sánchez, M; Fernández Pérez, M

    2013-08-01

    The leaching of herbicides through soil can be minimized using controlled release formulations (CRFs). In this research, bentonite and anthracite have been used as modifying agents in alginate-based CRFs prepared with chloridazon and metribuzin. These CRFs have been evaluated in a calcareous soil. The Kf and Koc values obtained from sorption experiments in soil have demonstrated a high leaching potential for both herbicides, mainly for metribuzin. Release kinetics in soil have showed that the control of release rate of chloridazon and metribuzin was possible by using bentonite and anthracite in CRFs, being this effect greater when we use anthracite as modifying sorbent. Using an empirical equation, the time taken for 50% of the active ingredient to be released (T50(soil)) was calculated. T50 values ranged between 2.88 d for metribuzin-bentonite alginate-based granules and 14.37 d for chloridazon-anthracite alginate-based granules, being the release rate higher in metribuzin CRFs than in those prepared with chloridazon, which has lower water solubility. Besides, a linear correlation between T50 values in water and soil was obtained. Mobility experiments carried out in a calcareous soil have shown that the use of CRFs reduces the presence of herbicides in the leachate compared to technical products, mainly for chloridazon. We found that one could design a right profile in the release rate of active ingredients from CRFs in each agro-environmental situation, and thus prevent the environmental pollution derived from the use of chloridazon and metribuzin.

  6. Microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of nano iron oxide/iron-coated activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber, and silica, with arsenic adsorption studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion synthesis of iron oxide/iron coated carbons such as activated carbon, anthracite, cellulose fiber and silica is described. The reactions were carried out in alumina crucibles using a Panasonic kitchen microwave with inverter technology, and the reaction process was com...

  7. Extensive FE-SEM/EDS, HR-TEM/EDS and ToF-SIMS studies of micron- to nano-particles in anthracite fly ash.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Joana; DaBoit, Kátia; Flores, Deolinda; Kronbauer, Marcio A; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-05-01

    The generation of anthropogenic carbonaceous matter and mixed crystalline/amorphous mineral ultrafine/nano-particles in the 1 to 100 nm size range by worldwide coal power plants represents serious environmental problems due to their potential hazards. Coal fly ash (CFA) that resulted from anthracite combustion in a Portuguese thermal power plant was studied in this work. The physico-chemical characterization of ultrafine/nano-particles present in the CFA samples and their interaction with environment are the aim of this study. The methodologies applied for this work were field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (HR-TEM/EDS) and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Some hazardous volatile elements, C, N, S and Hg contents were also determined in the studied samples. Generally, the CFA samples comprise carbonaceous, glassy and metallic solid spheres with some containing mixed amorphous/crystalline phases. The EDS analysis coupled with the FE-SEM and HR-TEM observations of the fly ash particles with 100 to 0.1 nm demonstrates that these materials contain a small but significant proportion of encapsulated HVEs. In addition, the presence of abundant multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and amorphous carbon particles, both containing hazardous volatile elements (HVEs), was also evidenced by the FE-SEM/EDS and HR-TEM/EDS analysis. A wide range of organic and inorganic compounds was determined by chemical maps obtained in ToF-SIMS analysis.

  8. Hg and Se capture and fly ash carbons from combustion of complex pulverized feed blends mainly of anthracitic coal rank in Spanish power plants

    SciTech Connect

    I. Surez-Ruiz; J.C. Hower; G.A. Thomas

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the petrology and chemistry of fly ashes produced in a Spanish power plant from the combustion of complex pulverized feed blends made up of anthracitic/meta-anthracitic coals, petroleum, and natural coke are investigated. It was found that the behavior of fly ash carbons derived from anthracitic coals follows relatively similar patterns to those established for the carbons from the combustion of bituminous coals. Fly ashes were sampled in eight hoppers from two electrostatic precipitator (ESP) rows. The characterization of the raw ashes and their five sieved fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) showed that glassy material, quartz, oxides, and spinels in different proportions are the main inorganic components. As for the organic fraction, the dominant fly ash carbons are anisotropic carbons, mainly unburned carbons derived from anthracitic vitrinite. The concentration of Se and Hg increased in ashes of the second ESP row, this increase being related to the higher proportion of anisotropic unburned carbons, particularly those largely derived from anthracitic vitrinite in the cooler ashes of the ESP (second row) and also related to the decrease in the flue gas temperature. This suggests that the flue gas temperature plays a major role in the concentration of mercury for similar ratios of unburned carbons. It was also found that Hg is highly concentrated in the medium-coarser fractions of the fly ashes ({gt} 45 {mu}m), there being a positive relationship between the amount of these carbons, which are apparently little modified during the combustion process, in the medium-coarse fractions of the ashes and the Hg retention. According to the results obtained, further research on this type of fly ash could be highly productive. 28 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. The impact of episodic coal mine drainage pollution on benthic macroinvertebrates in streams in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Maccausland, A; McTammany, M E

    2007-09-01

    Episodic coal mine drainage, caused by fluctuations in mine discharges relative to stream flow, has devastating effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. Seven stream reaches in the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania were identified as chronically, episodically or not impaired by mine drainage, and sampled seasonally for 1 year to determine the effect of episodic mine drainage on macroinvertebrates. Specific conductance fluctuated seasonally in episodic sites; it was lower in winter when discharge increased and higher in summer when discharges decreased and mine drainage made up a larger proportion of stream flow. Although we hypothesized that episodic streams would have higher macroinvertebrate richness than chronic streams, comparisons showed no differences in richness between treatments. Episodic pollution may result from undersized or poorly maintained passive treatment systems; therefore, intensive macroinvertebrate monitoring may be needed to identify streams being affected by episodic mine drainage because macroinvertebrate richness may be sensitive to water quality fluctuations.

  10. Demineralisation of semi-anthracite char with molten salts/HCl. Effects on the porous texture and reactivity in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro-Domínguez, M.; Higes-Rolando, F. J.; Rojas-Cervantes, M. L.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

    2006-06-01

    The effects of chemical heat treatments of a semi-anthracite char (AC) on textural properties and reactivity in air of the material are investigated. The starting char was first treated with a mixture of LiCl/KCl or LiCl/KCl/CaO at 743, 873 or 1173 K and the products obtained were then washed thoroughly with distilled water. A small fraction of these samples were treated with 10 -3 M HCl solution. Valuable information on textural modifications produced in the material was derived from the adsorption isotherms for CO 2 at 273 K. The reactivity tests were carried out at 808, 823 and 823 K. The microporosity developed and the reactivity in air increased in the partially demineralised products. The former effect was stronger for the LiCl/KCl/CaO-treated samples and the latter for a larger number of the LiCl/KCl-treated samples.

  11. Removal of microcystin-LR from spiked water using either activated carbon or anthracite as filter material.

    PubMed

    Drogui, Patrick; Daghrir, Rimeh; Simard, Marie-Christine; Sauvageau, Christine; Blais, Jean François

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of cyanobacterial toxins (blue-green algae) in drinking water sources is a big concern for human health. Removal of microcystin-LR (MC-LR) from drinking water was evaluated at the laboratory pilot scale using either granular activated carbon (GAC) or powdered activated carbon (PAC) and compared with the treatment using anthracite as filter material. Virgin GAC was more effective at removing MC-LR (initial concentration ranging from 9 to 47 microg L(-1)) to reach the World Health Organization recommended level (1.0 microg L(-1)). When the GAC filter was colonized by bacteria, the filter became less effective at removing MC-LR owing to competitive reactions occurring between protein adsorption (released by bacteria) and MC-LR adsorption. Using PAC, the concentration of MC-LR decreased from 22 to 3 microg L(-1) (removal of 86% of MC-LR) by the addition of 100 mg PAC L(-1).

  12. Enhanced removal of sulfonamide antibiotics by KOH-activated anthracite coal: Batch and fixed-bed studies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Linzi; Ai, Jing; Fu, Heyun; Chen, Wei; Zheng, Shourong; Xu, Zhaoyi; Zhu, Dongqiang

    2016-04-01

    The presence of sulfonamide antibiotics in aquatic environments poses potential risks to human health and ecosystems. In the present study, a highly porous activated carbon was prepared by KOH activation of an anthracite coal (Anth-KOH), and its adsorption properties toward two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine) and three smaller-sized monoaromatics (phenol, 4-nitrophenol and 1,3-dinitrobenzene) were examined in both batch and fixed-bed adsorption experiments to probe the interplay between adsorbate molecular size and adsorbent pore structure. A commercial powder microporous activated carbon (PAC) and a commercial mesoporous carbon (CMK-3) possessing distinct pore properties were included as comparative adsorbents. Among the three adsorbents Anth-KOH exhibited the largest adsorption capacities for all test adsorbates (especially the two sulfonamides) in both batch mode and fixed-bed mode. After being normalized by the adsorbent surface area, the batch adsorption isotherms of sulfonamides on PAC and Anth-KOH were displaced upward relative to the isotherms on CMK-3, likely due to the micropore-filling effect facilitated by the microporosity of adsorbents. In the fixed-bed mode, the surface area-normalized adsorption capacities of Anth-KOH for sulfonamides were close to that of CMK-3, and higher than that of PAC. The irregular, closed micropores of PAC might impede the diffusion of the relatively large-sized sulfonamide molecules and in turn led to lowered fixed-bed adsorption capacities. The overall superior adsorption of sulfonamides on Anth-KOH can be attributed to its large specific surface area (2514 m(2)/g), high pore volume (1.23 cm(3)/g) and large micropore sizes (centered at 2.0 nm). These findings imply that KOH-activated anthracite coal is a promising adsorbent for the removal of sulfonamide antibiotics from aqueous solution.

  13. Reliability of biomass burning estimates from savanna fires: Biomass burning in northern Australia during the 1999 Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Edwards, Andrew C.; Cook, Garry D.

    2003-02-01

    This paper estimates the two-daily extent of savanna burning and consumption of fine (grass and litter) fuels from an extensive 230,000 km2 region of northern Australia during August-September 1999 encompassing the Australian continental component of the Biomass Burning and Lightning Experiment B (BIBLE B) campaign [, 2002]. The extent of burning for the study region was derived from fire scar mapping of imagery from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) satellite. The mapping was calibrated and verified with reference to one Landsat scene and associated aerial transect validation data. Fine fuel loads were estimated using published fuel accumulation relationships for major regional fuel types. It is estimated that more than 43,000 km2 was burnt during the 25 day study period, with about 19 Mt of fine (grass and litter) fuels. This paper examines assumptions and errors associated with these estimates. It is estimated from uncalibrated fire mapping derived from AVHRR imagery that 417,500 km2 of the northern Australian savanna was burnt in 1999, of which 136,405 km2, or 30%, occurred in the Northern Territory study region. Using generalized fuel accumulation equations, such biomass burning consumed an estimated 212.3 Mt of fine fuels, but no data are available for consumption of coarse fuels. This figure exceeds a recent estimate, based on fine fuels only, for the combined Australian savanna and temperate grassland biomass burning over the period 1990-1999 but is lower than past estimates derived from classification approaches. We conclude that (1) fire maps derived from coarse-resolution optical imagery can be applied relatively reliably to estimate the extent of savanna fires, generally with 70-80% confidence using the approach adopted here, over the major burning period in northern Australia and (2) substantial further field assessment and associated modeling of fuel accumulation

  14. Northern cardiometeopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasnulin, V I; Sevost'yanova, E V; Hasnulina, A V

    2001-04-01

    Our research in high latitudes has allowed the identification of a special class of deadaptive disorders, northern cardiometeopathies, which integrates cardiovascular functional violations connected to biologically significant modifications of meteorological, geomagnetic, electrical, gravitational, rhythmological and other geo-ecological factors of the North. Cardiac and cerebral disorder complexes, and also some psychoemotional modifications manifest cardiometeopathies. Cardiometeopathies can occur with developing of pathology, and in such a case they can be selected in the independent form of deadaptive disease. At the same time, cardiometeopathies in case where cardiovascular pathology already exists could cause complications and become a particular risk factor for the development of injuries and myocardial heart attack. The most important mechanism of cardiometeopathies' formation is the organism's reaction to modifications of the Earth's electromagnetic field, based on internal electromagnetic fields' (first of all pulsing field of heart) dependence on the magnitude and directness of modification of the external electromagnetic fields. The analysis of the high degree of dependence of the blood circulation effiency during geomagnetic perturbations in the North of the modification of electromagnetic heart activity allows us to speak of the discovery of an earlier unknown electromagnetic blood pump.

  15. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  16. Late Holocene lava flow morphotypes of northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for the description of continental lava fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H.; Németh, K.; Moufti, M. R.; Lindsay, J. M.; El-Masry, N.; Cronin, S. J.; Qaddah, A.; Smith, I. E. M.

    2014-04-01

    A "lava morphotype" refers to the recognizable and distinctive characteristics of the surface morphology of a lava flow after solidification, used in a similar way to a sedimentary facies. This classification method is explored on an example volcanic field in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, where copious lava outpourings may represent an important transition between monogenetic and flood basalt fields. Here, young and well-preserved mafic lava fields display a wide range of surface morphologies. We focussed on four post-4500 yrs. BP lava flow fields in northern Harrat Rahat (<10 Ma) and propose a framework for describing systematic changes in morphotypes down-flow. The morphotypes give insight into intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of emplacement, rheology and dominant flow behavior, as well as the occurrence and character of other lava structures. The Harrat Rahat lava flow fields studied extend up to 23 km from the source, and vary between 1-2 m and 12 m in thickness. Areas of the lava flow fields are between ˜32 and ˜61 km2, with individual flow field volumes estimated between ˜0.085 and ˜0.29 km3. They exhibit Shelly-, Slabby-, and Rubbly-pahoehoe, Platy-, Cauliflower-, and Rubbly-a'a, and Blocky morphotypes. Morphotypes reflect the intrinsic parameters of: composition, temperature, crystallinity and volatile-content/vesicularity; along with external influences, such as: emission mechanism, effusion rate, topography and slope control of flow velocity. One morphotype can transition to another in individual flow-units or lobes and they may dominate zones. Not all morphotypes were found in a single lava flow field. Pahoehoe morphotypes are related to the simple mechanical disaggregation of the crust, whereas a'a morphotypes are related to the transitional emergence and subsequent transitional disappearance of clinker. Blocky morphotypes result from fracturing and auto-brecciation. A'a morphotypes (i.e. platy-, cauliflower-, rubbly-a'a) dominate the lava flow

  17. Orgin and significance of geochemical variability among oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, P.A.; Imbus, S.W.; McKeever, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    Geochemical data placed in geological context is key to understanding the processes controlling the variability of oils and gas-condensates in the Tiger Shoal Field, northern Gulf of Mexico. Thermal maturity at generation and phase partitioning are the principal processes accounting for variability in the bulk and molecular properties of the oils and gas-condensates. Quantification of the extent that these processes altered the oils and gas-condensates between fault blocks and among individual sands permits: (1) documentation of the most effective migration conduits, (2) inference of deeper or shallower pay zones, (3) and assessment of vertical and lateral fluid connectivity. Calibration of bulk to molecular properties will permit rapid assessment of the type and extent of alteration using basic parameters such as API gravity and gas oil ratio (GOR). Upon mass balancing with initial reserves data, a detailed risking scheme for remaining prospects within the field can be formulated.

  18. Evolution of the Latir volcanic field, Northern New Mexico, and its relation to the Rio Grande Rift, as indicated by potassium-argon and fission track dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipman, Peter W.; Mehnert, Harald H.; Naeser, Charles W.

    1986-05-01

    Remnants of the Latir volcanic field and cogenetic plutonic rocks are exceptionally exposed along the east margin of the present-day Rio Grande rift by topographic and structural relief in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of northern New Mexico. Evolution of the magmatic system associated with the Latir field, which culminated in eruption of a regional ash flow sheet (the Amalia Tuff) and collapse of the Questa caldera 26 m.y. ago, has been documented by 74 new potassium-argon (K-Ar) and fission track (F-T) ages. The bulk of the precaldera volcanism, ash flow eruptions and caldera formation, and initial crystallization of the associated shallow granitic batholith took place between 28 and 25 Ma; economically important molybdenum mineralization is related to smaller granitic intrusions along the south margin of the Questa caldera at about 23 Ma. Interpretation of the radiogenic ages within this relatively restricted time span is complicated by widespread thermal resetting of earlier parts of the igneous sequence by later intrusions. Many samples yielded discordant ages for different mineral phases. Thermal blocking temperatures decrease in the order: K-Ar sanidine > K-Ar biotite > F-T zircon ≫ F-T apatite. The F-T results are especially useful indicators of cooling and uplift rates. Upper portions of the subvolcanic batholith, that underlay the Questa caldera, cooled to about 100°C within about a million years of emplacement; uplift of the batholith increases to the south along this segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Activity in the Latir volcanic field was concurrent with southwest directed extension along the early Rio Grande rift zone in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. The geometry of this early rifting is compatible with interpretation as back arc extension related to a subduction system dipping gently beneath the cordilleran region of the American plate. The Latir field lies at the southern end of a southward migrating Tertiary magmatic

  19. Evaluation of the field dissipation of fungicides and insecticides used on fruit bearing trees in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Passarella, Iride; Elia, Irene; Guarino, Barbara; Bourlot, Giancarlo; Nègre, Michèle

    2009-02-01

    The dissipation of the fungicides captan, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, dithianon, and tebuconazole and of the insecticides chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and malathion was studied, following a single treatment of different cultivars of pears, apples, and peaches. The study was conducted in northern Italy, over two successive growing seasons (2004 and 2005). The treatments were performed by the farmers involved, in line with their usual practice. At various time intervals from treatment to harvest, representative samples of fruit were collected and analyzed for pesticide residues. In some cases, concentrations lower than the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were found immediately after treatment. In all trials a rapid decline in pesticide concentrations was observed leading to residues at harvest greatly below the MRLs.

  20. Composition and stability of bacterial communities associated with granular activated carbon and anthracite filters in a pilot scale municipal drinking water treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Shirey, T B; Thacker, R W; Olson, J B

    2012-06-01

    Granular activated carbon (GAC) is an alternative filter substrate for municipal water treatment as it provides a high surface area suitable for microbial colonization. The resulting microbial growth promotes biodegradation of organic materials and other contaminants from influent waters. Here, the community structure of the bacteria associated with three GAC and two anthracite filters was examined over 12 months to monitor changes in community composition. Nearly complete 16S rRNA genes were polymerase chain reaction amplified for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. The identity of commonly occurring peaks was determined through the construction of five representative 16S rRNA clone libraries. Based on sequence analysis, the bacterial communities associated with both anthracite and GAC filters appear to be composed of environmentally derived bacteria, with no known human pathogens. Analysis of similarity tests revealed that significant differences in bacterial community structure occurred over time, with filter substrate playing an important role in determining community composition. GAC filters exhibited the greatest degree of bacterial community variability over the sampling period, while anthracite filters showed a lower degree of variability and less change in community composition. Thus, GAC may be a suitable biologically active filter substrate for the treatment of municipal drinking water.

  1. Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Wang, Yafen; Ruan, Congying

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the application of anthracite particles of different sizes and coated with nine kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) varying in MII-MIII cations, as alternative substrates in the simulated vertical-flow constructed wetland columns. Effects of LDHs-coating and particle size of modified anthracites were examined to evaluate their abilities in removing oxygen demand and nitrogen from sewage wastewater. Results showed that LDHs modification effectively enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. The removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) , ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were best improved by 28.5%, 11.9% and 4.1% for the medium particle size (1-3 mm), followed by 9.2%, 5.5% and 13.6% for the large size (3-5 mm), respectively. Only TN removal was improved up to 16.6% for the small particle size (0.5-1 mm). Nitrate tended to accumulate and fluctuate greatly across all the treatments, probably due to the dominancy of aerobic condition in the vertical-flow columns. Overall, MgFe-LDHs was selected as the best-modified coating for anthracite. The results suggested LDHs modification would be one of the promising strategies to provide new-types of highly efficient and lasting wetland substrates.

  2. Distribution and characteristic of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria by comparative analysis of wastewater treatment plants and agriculture fields in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered biological process which has been arousing global attention because of its potential in minimizing greenhouse gases emissions. In this study, molecular biological techniques and potential n-damo activity batch experiments were conducted to investigate the presence and diversity of M. oxyfera bacteria in paddy field, corn field, and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sites in northern China, as well as lab-scale n-damo enrichment culture. N-damo enrichment culture showed the highest abundance of M. oxyfera bacteria, and positive correlation was observed between potential n-damo rate and abundance of M. oxyfera bacteria. Both paddy field and corn field sites were believed to be better inoculum than WWTP for the enrichment of M. oxyfera bacteria due to their higher abundance and the diversity of M. oxyfera bacteria. Comparative analysis revealed that long biomass retention time, low NH\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${}_{4}^{+}$\\end{document}4+ and high NO\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}${}_{2}^{-}$\\end{document}2− content were suitable for the growth of M. oxyfera bacteria. PMID:27994974

  3. Distribution and characteristic of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation bacteria by comparative analysis of wastewater treatment plants and agriculture fields in northern China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen; Ma, Ru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (n-damo) is a recently discovered biological process which has been arousing global attention because of its potential in minimizing greenhouse gases emissions. In this study, molecular biological techniques and potential n-damo activity batch experiments were conducted to investigate the presence and diversity of M. oxyfera bacteria in paddy field, corn field, and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) sites in northern China, as well as lab-scale n-damo enrichment culture. N-damo enrichment culture showed the highest abundance of M. oxyfera bacteria, and positive correlation was observed between potential n-damo rate and abundance of M. oxyfera bacteria. Both paddy field and corn field sites were believed to be better inoculum than WWTP for the enrichment of M. oxyfera bacteria due to their higher abundance and the diversity of M. oxyfera bacteria. Comparative analysis revealed that long biomass retention time, low NH[Formula: see text] and high NO[Formula: see text] content were suitable for the growth of M. oxyfera bacteria.

  4. Analysis of the average poly-cyclic aromatic unit in a meta-anthracite coal using conventional x-ray powder diffraction and intensity separation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wertz, D.L.; Bissell, M.

    1994-12-31

    X-ray characterizations of coals and coal products have occurred for many years. Hirsch and Cartz measured the diffraction from several coals over the reciprocal space region from s = 0.12 {angstrom}{sup -1} to 7.5 {angstrom}{sup -1} where s = (4{pi}/{lambda}) sin{Theta}. In these studies, a 9 cm powder camera was used to study the high angle region, and a transmission type focusing camera equipped with a LiF monochromator was used for the low angle measurements. They reported that the height of the graphene peak measured for each coal is proportional to the % carbon in the coals. Hirsch also suggested that the ontyberem anthracite has a lamellar diameter of ca. 16 {angstrom} corresponding to an aromatic lamellae of ca. C{sub 87}. For coals with lower carbon content, Hirsch proposed much smaller lamellae; C{sub 19} for a coal with 80% carbon, and C{sub 24} for a coal with 89% carbon. The subject coal for this study is a meta-anthracite which was derived from the Portsmouth, RI mine. The Narragansett Basin contains anthracite and meta-anthracite coals of Pennsylvanian Age. The Basin was a techtonically active non-marine coal-forming basin which has been impacted by several tectonic events. Because of the importance placed by coal scientists no correctly characterizing the nature of the micro-level structural cluster(s) in coals and because of improvements in both x-ray experimentation capabilities and computing power, we have measured the x-ray diffraction and scattering produced from irradiation of this meta-anthracite coal which contains about 94% aromatic carbon. The goal of our study is to determine the intra-planar, and where possible, inter-planar structural details of coals. To accomplish this goal we have utilized the methods normally used for the molecular analysis of non-crystalline condensed phases such as liquids, solutions, and amorphous solids. Reported herein are the results obtained from the high angle x-ray analysis of this coal.

  5. Free-swimming northern elephant seals have low field metabolic rates that are sensitive to an increased cost of transport.

    PubMed

    Maresh, Jennifer L; Simmons, Samantha E; Crocker, Daniel E; McDonald, Birgitte I; Williams, Terrie M; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-05-01

    Widely ranging marine predators often adopt stereotyped, energy-saving behaviours to minimize the energetic cost of transport while maximizing energy gain. Environmental and anthropogenic disturbances can disrupt energy balance by prompting avoidance behaviours that increase transport costs, thereby decreasing foraging efficiency. We examined the ability of 12 free-ranging, juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) to mitigate the effects of experimentally increased transport costs by modifying their behaviour and/or energy use in a compensatory manner. Under normal locomotion, elephant seals had low energy requirements (106.5±28.2 kJ kg(-1) day(-1)), approaching or even falling below predictions of basal requirements. Seals responded to a small increase in locomotion costs by spending more time resting between dives (149±44 s) compared with matched control treatments (102±11 s; P<0.01). Despite incurred costs, most other dive and transit behaviours were conserved across treatments, including fixed, rhythmic swimming gaits. Because of this, and because each flipper stroke had a predictable effect on total costs (P<0.001), total energy expenditure was strongly correlated with time spent at sea under both treatments (P<0.0001). These results suggest that transiting elephant seals have a limited capacity to modify their locomotory behaviour without increasing their transport costs. Based on this, we conclude that elephant seals and other ocean predators occupying similar niches may be particularly sensitive to increased transport costs incurred when avoiding unanticipated disturbances.

  6. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Antonio S.; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation—charity and school donations—sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism. PMID:26640449

  7. Preparing the Field for Feasibility Testing of a Parenting Intervention for War-Affected Mothers in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Wieling, Elizabeth; Mehus, Christopher; Yumbul, Cigdem; Möllerherm, Julia; Ertl, Verena; Laura, Achan; Forgatch, Marion; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-10-26

    In this article, we discuss the successful implementation of an adapted evidence-based parenting intervention for families affected by two decades of war in Northern Uganda. The adaptation and adoption of such interventions to support mental health and family functioning is widely endorsed by prevention scientists and considered a priority in global mental health. The preparation and early adoption phases of engaging with a highly vulnerable community affected by war trauma are documented in this paper along with a discussion of the steps taken to adapt a parenting intervention for cultural and contextual fit. This study is a component of an overall program of research aimed at reducing the long-term negative effects of war on parenting practices and childhood outcomes, which have considerable implications for preventing mental, neurological, and substance-use disorders. The processes described here cover a 4-year period culminating in the implementation of the nine-session Enhancing Family Connection intervention piloted with a group of 14 mothers. The lessons in cultural adaptation have been valuable and the feasibility results promising for further testing the intervention.

  8. Inter-Group Conflict and Cooperation: Field Experiments Before, During and After Sectarian Riots in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Silva, Antonio S; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The idea that cooperative groups out-compete less cooperative groups has been proposed as a theoretical possibility for the evolution of cooperation through cultural group selection. Previous studies have found an association between increased cooperation and exposure to inter-group violence, but most have not been able to identify the specific target of cooperation and are based on correlational data making it difficult to establish causality. In this study we test the hypothesis that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism (i.e., in-group altruism and out-group hostility) by using longitudinal data of a real-world measure of cooperation-charity and school donations-sampled before, during and after violent sectarian riots between Catholics and Protestants in Belfast, Northern Ireland. We find that conflict is associated with reductions in all types of cooperation, with reduced donations to a neutral charity, and both in-group and out-group primary schools. After the conflict, both in-group and out-group donations increased again. In this context we find no evidence that inter-group conflict promotes parochial altruism.

  9. Essential oils as potential adulticides against two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaiyasit, Dana; Choochote, Wej; Rattanachanpichai, Eumporn; Chaithong, Udom; Chaiwong, Prasong; Jitpakdi, Atchariya; Tippawangkosol, Pongsri; Riyong, Doungrat; Pitasawat, Benjawan

    2006-11-01

    Essential oils derived from five plant species, celery (Apium graveolens), caraway (Carum carvi), zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria), long pepper (Piper longum), and Chinese star anise (Illicium verum), were subjected to investigation of adulticidal activity against mosquito vectors. Two populations of Aedes aegypti, the laboratory and natural field strains, collected in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand were tested in pyrethroid-susceptibility bioassays. The results revealed that the natural field strain of A. aegypti was resistant to permethrin, with mortality rates ranging from 51 to 66%. A mild susceptibility, with mortality rates ranging from 82 to 88%, was observed in the natural field strain of A. aegypti exposed to lambdacyhalothrin, which suggested that this strain was tolerant and might be resistant to this insecticide. However, laboratory-reared A. aegypti exposed to discriminating dosages of permethrin and lambdacyhalothrin induced 100% mortality in all cases, thus indicating complete susceptibility of this strain to these insecticides. The adulticidal activity determined by topical application revealed that all five essential oils exerted a promising adulticidal efficacy against both laboratory and natural field strains of A. aegypti. Although the laboratory strain was slightly more susceptible to these essential oils than the natural field strain, no statistically significant difference was observed. Moreover, comparison of the adulticidal activity indicated that the performance of these essential oils against the two strains of A. aegypti was similar. The highest potential was established from caraway, followed by zedoary, celery, long pepper, and Chinese star anise, with an LC(50) in the laboratory strain of 5.44, 5.94, 5.96, 6.21, and 8.52 microg/mg female, respectively, and 5.54, 6.02, 6.14, 6.35, and 8.83 microg/mg female, respectively, in the field strain. These promising essential oils are, therefore, an alternative in developing and producing

  10. Late Holocene lava flow morphotypes of the northern Harrat Rahat, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: implications for the description of continental lava fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murcia, H. F.; Nemeth, K.; Moufti, R.; Lindsay, J. M.; El-Masry, N.; Cronin, S. J.; Qaddah, A.; Smith, I. E.

    2013-12-01

    Lava morphotype refers to the surface morphology of a lava flow after solidification. In Saudi Arabia, young and well-preserved mafic lava fields (Harrats) display a wide range of these morphotypes. This study examines those exhibited by four of the post-4500 yrs. BP lava fields in the northern Harrat Rahat (<10 Ma) and describes these lava fields from general characteristics to detailed lava structures. This study also discusses the relationship between rheology and morphotypes, and proposes a preliminary correlation with whole-rock chemical composition. The Harrat Rahat lava fields include one or more lobes that may extend over 20 km from the source, with thicknesses varying between 1-2 m up to 12 m. Each lava flow episode covered areas between ~32 and ~61 km2, with individual volumes estimated between ~0.085 and ~0.29 km3. The whole-rock chemical compositions of these lavas lie between 44.3 to 48.4% SiO2, 9.01-4.28% MgO and 3.13-6.19% NaO+K2O. Seven different morphotypes with several lava structures are documented: Shelly, Slabby, Rubbly-pahoehoe, Platy, Cauliflower, Rubbly-a'a, and Blocky. These may be related to the shear strain and/or apparent viscosity of the lava flows formed from typical pahoehoe (pure or Hawaiian-pahoehoe, or sheet-pahoehoe). The well-preserved lava fields in Harrat Rahat allow the development of a more expanded classification scheme than has been traditionally applied. In addition to the whole-rock composition, these morphotypes may be indicators of other properties such as vesicularity, crystallization, effusion mechanism, as well as significant along-flow variations in topography and lava thickness and temperature that modify the rheology. The linearity of transitions between morphotypes observed in the lava fields suggest that real time forecasting of the evolution of lava flows might be possible.

  11. Sequence stratigraphic setting of turbidite-related petroleum fields, Green Canyon and Ewing Bank lease areas, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Weimer, P.; Pulham, A.J.

    1996-08-01

    The Green Canyon (GC) and Ewing Bank (EW) OCS lease areas have 17 discoveries/fields, primarily from bathyal turbidite systems. Salt has played a significant role in the formation of the intraslope basins that the turbidite systems were deposited in, by influencing the flows of turbidities throughout the basin, in the subsequent trap formation, and, in some cases, as a seal. Nearly every field/discovery is associated with a seismic amplitude anomaly. Fields generally have multiple pay zones, with up to 22 in GC 184 (Jolliet). To date, eight of the fields are producing: EB 826, EB 873 (Lobster), GC 6 (Kodiak), GC 18, GC 53/54 (Marquette), GC 65/110 (Bullwinkle), GC 184 (Jolliet), and GC 205 (Vancouver). Other fields expected to be developed are GC 72/116 (Popeye), GC 254 (Allegheny), GC 200/244 (Olivella), GC and GC 166 (Bison). Other discoveries that were produced and then abandoned include GC 19, and GC29. Producing reservoir facies are highly variable across the area. Turbidite reservoir geometries in Pliocene sands (>1.6 Ma) consist of sheets and amalgamated sheet sands. Pleistocene sands are characterized primarily from channel-levee systems and related deposits. These sands tend to more compartmentalized with separate oil/water or gas/water contacts. Most reservoir sands occur within 100 ft overlying a sequence boundary, indicating the eustatic control on the timing of reservoir sand deposition.

  12. A study on methane and nitrous oxide emissions characteristics from anthracite circulating fluidized bed power plant in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH₄ and N₂O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH₄ emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N₂O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come.

  13. A Study on Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions Characteristics from Anthracite Circulating Fluidized Bed Power Plant in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Jinsu; Lee, Jeongwoo; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2012-01-01

    In order to tackle climate change effectively, the greenhouse gas emissions produced in Korea should be assessed precisely. To do so, the nation needs to accumulate country-specific data reflecting the specific circumstances surrounding Korea's emissions. This paper analyzed element contents of domestic anthracite, calorific value, and concentration of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the exhaust gases from circulating fluidized bed plant. The findings showed the concentration of CH4 and N2O in the flue gas to be 1.85 and 3.25 ppm, respectively, and emission factors were 0.486 and 2.198 kg/TJ, respectively. The CH4 emission factor in this paper was 52% lower than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. The N2O emission factor was estimated to be 46% higher than default emission factor presented by the IPCC. This discrepancy can be attributable to the different methods and conditions of combustion because the default emission factors suggested by IPCC take only fuel characteristics into consideration without combustion technologies. Therefore, Korea needs to facilitate research on a legion of fuel and energy consumption facilities to develop country-specific emission factors so that the nation can have a competitive edge in the international climate change convention in the years to come. PMID:22666126

  14. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Williams, K. K.; Bussey, B.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar surface, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future, landed, scientific or engineering operations on the Moon. GPR can yield insight into the physical properties, clast-size distribution, and layering of the subsurface, granting a unique view of the processes affecting an area over geologic time. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate these capabilities at sites at which geologic processes, settings, and/or materials are similar to those that may be encountered on the moon, especially lava flows, impact-crater ejecta, and layered materials with varying properties. We present results from transects obtained at Barringer Meteor Crater, SP Volcano cinder cone, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, all in northern Arizona. Transects were taken at several sites on the ejecta of Meteor Crater, all within a crater radius (~400 m) of the crater rim. Those taken across ejecta lobes or mounds reveal the subsurface contact of the ejecta upper surface and overlying, embaying sediments deposited by later alluvial, colluvial, and/or aeolian processes. Existing mine shafts and pits on the south side of the crater provide cross sections of the subsurface against which we compare adjacent GPR transects. The ‘actual’ number, size, and depth of clasts in the top 1-2 m of the subsurface are estimated from photos of the exposed cross sections. In GPR radargrams, reflections attributed to blocks in the top 2-5 m of the subsurface are counted, and their depth distribution noted. Taking GPR measurements along a transect at two frequencies (200 and 400 MHz) and to various depths, we obtain the ratio of the actual number of blocks in the subsurface to the number detectable with GPR, as well as an assessment of how GPR detections in ejecta decline with depth and depend on antenna

  15. Detection of hydrocarbon microseepage in a rain forest environment (Jurua Gas field, northern Brazil) using Landsat MSS data

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, F.P.; Cunha, F.M.B. )

    1990-05-01

    The Jurua gas field is the first important hydrocarbon accumulation found in the jungle-covered Solimoes basin. The tectonic framework in this area is characterized by a right-lateral transpressional zone (Jurua structural trend). Hydrocarbon traps are anticlines developed along the upthrown block of a reverse fault. The prospective 2,200-m-thick Paleozoic section is unconformably covered by a 2,800-m-thick pile of Mesozoic and Cenozoic continental sediments. Anomalous concentrations of hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}-C{sub 4}) in soil samples are concordantly aligned with the trace of the reverse fault crossing the gas field, indicating that this feature acted as a conduit for hydrocarbon microseepage. Gas-producing wells are located over a tabular watershed which coincides with the northeast-southwest Jurua structural trend. An unsupervised classification of Landsat MSS data over the gas field area reveals that one spectral class of vegetation is aligned with the Jurua structural trend. Field checking shows that the vegetation near the gas-producing well 1-JR-1-AM is not as dense as the forest outside the limits of the Jurua gas field. Two geologic factors may account for the vegetation anomaly over the gas field. (1) The northeast-southwest tabular watershed corresponds to a Pleistocene erosional surface associated with weathering products such as bauxite and laterite. The resulting soil is impermeable and low in nutrients. (2) The spectral behavior of vegetation may represent the response of plants to long-term anaerobic soil conditions brought about by gas leakage from the Paleozoic reservoir.

  16. Dissolved organic carbon in peat porewater increases with warming: a field manipulation experiment in a northern temperate bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, E. S.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Kratz, C. J.; Hribljan, J. A.; Johnson, C. P.; Pypker, T. G.; Chimner, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Studies conducted across northern Europe and North America have shown increases in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in lake and stream water in recent decades. While there is little consensus as to the exact mechanisms for the increases in DOC, hypotheses converge on such climate change factors as warming, increased precipitation variability, and changes in atmospheric deposition, and their effects on catchment processes. In this study, we tested the effects of warming on peat porewater composition by actively warming a peatland with infrared lamps mounted 1.24 m above the peat surface for two years. Mean growing season peat temperatures in the warmed plots (n=5) were 1.9 ± 0.4 °C warmer than the control plots at 5 cm depth (t statistic = 5.03, p = 0.007). Mean porewater DOC concentrations measured throughout the growing season were 15% higher in the warmed plots (73.9 ± 3.6 mg L-1) than in the control plots (64.1 ± 2.9 mg L-1) at 25 cm (t statistic = 3.50, p = 0.01). While total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentrations were not affected by the warming, changes in dissolved organic N followed the trends in DOC. DOC from the warmed plots decayed nearly twice as fast as control plot DOC in 2 month laboratory incubations, and had a higher relative abundance of low molecular weight organic matter associated with cellulose and aminosugars (as determined by ultra high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry). Complementary research of ecosystem C cycling at the site also showed warming increased net primary production, and together with preliminary analysis of changes in extracellular enzymes suggest that at least part of the increased DOC concentrations observed with warming was derived from microbial/plant interactions in the rhizosphere.

  17. Field evaluation of alphacypermethrin in indoor residual spraying for leishmaniasis control in an endemic area, northern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Morocco, the main strategies of leishmaniasis vector control are based on environmental modifications. Use of local residual indoor spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is often envisaged. The need to evaluate this control method is essential. The current study was conducted to determine the efficacy of an alphacypermethrin IRS program against leishmaniasis vectors in an endemic area in the north of Morocco. Methods The survey was conducted in four neighbouring localities in three different districts in northern Morocco: Ait Chaib and Aichoun in Sefrou district, Bouassem (Boulmane) and Lmrouj (Taounate). Indoor residual spraying with alphacypermethrin at a dose of 30 mg/m2 was used in Ait Chaib and Lmrouj localities during 2010, 2011 and 2012, while localities of Aichoun and Bouassem were taken as control. In the four studied areas, sand flies were collected bimonthly from April to November in 2011 and 2012, using sticky traps, to determine their abundance and feeding pattern. Alphacypermethrin IRS were evaluated for their residual effect using the WHO cone bioassay test. Leishmaniasis incidence was estimated by passive and active case detection in each study area. Results Significant reductions in leishmaniasis incidence and in gravidity rate were observed when comparing sprayed and unsprayed localities. The residual activity of alphacypermethrin at the concentration used lasted 10 weeks after spraying. However, the abundance of sand flies was not significantly affected by alphacypermethrin IRS. Conclusion This study indicated that IRS has a significant impact on leishmaniasis transmission; therefore it could be recommended as an effective tool for leishmaniasis control in areas with high leishmaniasis transmission. PMID:24330760

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of bulk snow properties in northern boreal and tundra environments based on extensive field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, Henna-Reetta; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Kontu, Anna; Derksen, Chris; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-08-01

    An extensive in situ data set of snow depth, snow water equivalent (SWE), and snow density collected in support of the European Space Agency (ESA) SnowSAR-2 airborne campaigns in northern Finland during the winter of 2011-2012 is presented (ESA Earth Observation Campaigns data 2000-2016). The suitability of the in situ measurement protocol to provide an accurate reference for the simultaneous airborne SAR (synthetic aperture radar) data products over different land cover types was analysed in the context of spatial scale, sample spacing, and uncertainty. The analysis was executed by applying autocorrelation analysis and root mean square difference (RMSD) error estimations. The results showed overall higher variability for all the three bulk snow parameters over tundra, open bogs and lakes (due to wind processes); however, snow depth tended to vary over shorter distances in forests (due to snow-vegetation interactions). Sample spacing/sample size had a statistically significant effect on the mean snow depth over all land cover types. Analysis executed for 50, 100, and 200 m transects revealed that in most cases less than five samples were adequate to describe the snow depth mean with RMSD < 5 %, but for land cover with high overall variability an indication of increased sample size of 1.5-3 times larger was gained depending on the scale and the desired maximum RMSD. Errors for most of the land cover types reached ˜ 10 % if only three measurements were considered. The collected measurements, which are available via the ESA website upon registration, compose an exceptionally large manually collected snow data set in Scandinavian taiga and tundra environments. This information represents a valuable contribution to the snow research community and can be applied to various snow studies.

  19. Seismicity in the vicinity of the natural gas fields of Völkersen und Söhlingen (Northern Germany) - looking for imperceptible seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plenefisch, Thomas; Gestermann, Nicolai; Ceranna, Lars; Wegler, Ulrich; Vasterling, Margarete; Bischoff, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Northern Germany is a region of relatively low seismic activity with only some rare and singular tectonic events. However, during the last decades seismic events consistently occurred in the vicinity of the natural gas fields in Northern Germany. Due to their spatial vicinity and their temporal appearance just starting after the beginning of extraction they are ranked as induced events. Altogether, 35 events in the magnitude range 1.9 to 4.5 could have been detected in the time span between 1976 and 2013. Most of them were felt by parts of the inhabitants whereas the strongest one, the magnitude 4.5 event close to the village of Rotenburg on 20th October 2004, has even been felt in Hamburg 65 km away from the epicenter near Rotenburg. During the last years the majority of events took place in the vicinity of the two natural gas fields Völkersen and Söhlingen. Several new installed surface and borehole stations have recently improved the monitoring capabilities in the region. However, it is still difficult to detect and analyze events with magnitude below 2 due to bad noise-conditions invoked by the thick sediments as well as to the relatively large area to be covered. Up to now, it is not clear whether the small number of fore- and aftershocks is an inherent characteristic of the induced events and thereby different from tectonic earthquake sequences or only the effect of the non appropriate seismic surveillance during the last decades. Here, we present several approaches to retrieve weak events for the region of the Völkersen natural gas field and discuss their implications. Thereto, detection algorithms are applied on the basis of cross-correlation techniques and similarities of already recorded and identified waveforms of stronger events. Moreover array techniques are applied to the recordings of a small cluster of temporary stations that are installed in the middle of 2012 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. In the same way the Gorleben seismic network

  20. Evaluation of two commercial field test kits used for screening of groundwater for arsenic in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sankararamakrishnan, Nalini; Chauhan, Divya; Nickson, R T; Tripathi, R M; Iyengar, L

    2008-08-15

    In this study two relatively new arsenic field kits, namely Wagtech Digital Arsenator (WFTK) and Chem-In Corp field test kit (CFTK) for arsenic were evaluated. The response of the two field test kits to known standards (Both As(III) and As(V)) is detailed. In addition around 157 arsenic-contaminated field samples obtained from various locations of Ballia and Kanpur districts, U.P., India were tested using the two kits and the results were compared with the laboratory-based colorimetric method (silver diethyldithiocarbamate method, SDDC). The concentration of arsenic in the 157 samples ranged from 0 to 468 microg l(-1). WFTK is seen to be suitable for measuring arsenic concentration <5-100 microg l(-1) using the digital meter. CFTK was not able to detect As(V) and its usage is cautioned in Uttar Pradesh where As(V) is seen to occur in appreciable concentrations. The Pearson's correlation between the silver diethyldithiocarbamate method and WFTK was found to be 0.87 and for the corresponding correlation with CFTK was 0.41 in the concentration range used in this study. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients comparing the WFTK and CFTK to laboratory measurements in the concentration range of 0-100 microg l(-1) were 0.95 (p<0.001) and 0.64 (p<0.001) respectively.

  1. Old problems on a new playing field: Helminth zoonoses transmitted among dogs, wildlife, and people in a changing northern climate.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Emily J; Schurer, Janna M; Gesy, Karen M

    2011-11-24

    Although surveillance is limited, indigenous residents at latitudes ranging from 53 to 73°N in Canada appear to have a higher occurrence of infection with some zoonotic parasites than the general population. Conversely, they are relatively naïve to other zoonotic parasites that have previously been unable to establish at northern latitudes. For those parasites that circulate among dogs, wildlife, and people, potential risk factors in the North include limited availability of veterinary services, presence of free-roaming dog populations, and consumption of locally harvested fish and wildlife. These regions are also experiencing some of the greatest impacts of climate change in North America, including increased temperature, precipitation, and frequency and severity of extreme weather. We review the current taxonomy, genetic diversity, host and geographic distributions, epidemiology and risk factors for 3 genera of helminths (Diphyllobothrium spp., Echinococcus spp., and Toxocara sp.) in Canada's North in order to identify climate-sensitive aspects of their ecology. Free-living stages of parasitic zoonoses endemic in the Arctic (such as Diphyllobothrium dendriticum, the cervid strain of Echinococcus granulosus, and Arctic strains of Echinococcus multilocularis) will experience trade-offs between enhanced survival under wetter conditions and increased mortality under warmer conditions. Climate change might also lead to the introduction and establishment in the Arctic of parasitic zoonoses previously restricted to the sub-Arctic, such as Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and the prairie strain of E. multilocularis. Molecular techniques applied in broad geographic surveys are needed to address critical knowledge gaps in the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and public health significance of zoonotic helminths already in the circumpolar North, and to determine the current barriers to range expansion of temperate-adapted parasites into the North. Dogs

  2. Evolution of silicic magma in the upper crust: the mid-Tertiary Latir volcanic field and its cogenetic granitic batholith, northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Structural and topographic relief along the eastern margin of the Rio Grande rift, northern New Mexico, provides a remarkable cross-section through the 26-Ma Questa caldera and cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the Latir field. Exposed levels increase in depth from mid-Tertiary depositional surfaces in northern parts of the igneous complex to plutonic rocks originally at 3-5 km depths in the S. Erosional remnants of an ash-flow sheet of weakly peralkaline rhyolite (Amalia Tuff) and andesitic to dactitic precursor lavas, disrupted by rift-related faults, are preserved as far as 45 km beyond their sources at the Questa caldera. Broadly comagmatic 26 Ma batholithic granitic rocks, exposed over an area of 20 by 35 km, range from mesozonal granodiorite to epizonal porphyritic granite and aplite; shallower and more silicic phases are mostly within the caldera. Compositionally and texturally distinct granites defined resurgent intrusions within the caldera and discontinuous ring dikes along its margins: a batholithic mass of granodiorite extends 20 km S of the caldera and locally grades vertically to granite below its flat-lying roof. A negative Bouguer gravity anomaly (15-20 mgal), which encloses exposed granitic rocks and coincides with boundaries of the Questa caldera, defined boundaries of the shallow batholith, emplaced low in the volcanic sequence and in underlying Precambrian rocks. Paleomagnetic pole positions indicate that successively crystallised granitic plutons cooled through Curie temperatures during the time of caldera formation, initial regional extension, and rotational tilting of the volcanic rocks. Isotopic ages for most intrusions are indistinguishable from the volcanic rocks. These relations indicate that the batholithic complex broadly represents the source magma for the volcanic rocks, into which the Questa caldera collapsed, and that the magma was largely liquid during regional tectonic disruption. -from Author

  3. Magnetic Fabric Investigations of the Sapinero Mesa and Fish Canyon Tuffs, Northern Part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, C.; Martin, M.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Exposures of two laterally extensive ignimbrites in the northern part of the Southern Rocky Mountain Volcanic Field (SRMVF) allow examination of the emplacement mechanisms of these pyroclastic deposits as a function of deposition on irregular preexisting topography using magnetic fabric techniques. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff (28.19 × 0.03 Ma) was erupted from the San Juan/Uncompahgre Caldera Complex and the Fish Canyon tuff (ca. 28.02 × 0.16 Ma) was erupted from the La Garita caldera. These ignimbrites are major components of the SRMVF and were emplaced on highly irregular paleotopography. The Sapinero Mesa Tuff was emplaced directly on the late Eocene West Elk Breccia near and west of the Blue Mesa reservoir and directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south of the Blue Mesa reservoir. The Fish Canyon Tuff was emplaced directly on Precambrian crystalline rocks south and southwest of Gunnison. Our study of these two ignimbrites is concentrated in the northern part of the SRMVF and examines how these deposits were emplaced on different topographic features. To date, a total of 16 sites in the Fish Canyon and Sapinero Mesa tuffs have been collected and analyzed for determination of magnetic fabrics through measurements of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). These samples are currently being analyzed for measurements of anisotropy of anhysteretic remanent magnetization (AARM). Initial analyses indicate transport directions that generally coincide with the inferred regional north-northwest transport direction. Additional sampling includes a greater spatial extent and a more focused method of collection with an emphasis on localities chosen with careful consideration of relationships to paleotopographic features present during emplacement of the ignimbrites. Specifically, we have selected linear features of varying scales with strikes that vary significantly from the regional, inferred transport directions. Our work provides a means to compare regional inferred

  4. Risk of hematological malignancies associated with magnetic fields exposure from power lines: a case-control study in two municipalities of northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Some epidemiologic studies have suggested an association between electromagnetic field exposure induced by high voltage power lines and childhood leukemia, but null results have also been yielded and the possibility of bias due to unmeasured confounders has been suggested. Methods We studied this relation in the Modena and Reggio Emilia municipalities of northern Italy, identifying the corridors along high voltage power lines with calculated magnetic field intensity in the 0.1-<0.2, 0.2-<0.4, and ≥ 0.4 microTesla ranges. We identified 64 cases of newly-diagnosed hematological malignancies in children aged <14 within these municipalities from 1986 to 2007, and we sampled four matched controls for each case, collecting information on historical residence and parental socioeconomic status of these subjects. Results Relative risk of leukemia associated with antecedent residence in the area with exposure ≥ 0.1 microTesla was 3.2 (6.7 adjusting for socioeconomic status), but this estimate was statistically very unstable, its 95% confidence interval being 0.4-23.4, and no indication of a dose-response relation emerged. Relative risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 5.3 (95% confidence interval 0.7-43.5), while there was no increased risk for the other hematological malignancies. Conclusions Though the number of exposed children in this study was too low to allow firm conclusions, results were more suggestive of an excess risk of leukemia among exposed children than of a null relation. PMID:20353586

  5. Lithofacies and palynostratigraphy of some Cretaceous and Paleocene rocks, Surghar and Salt Range coal fields, northern Pakistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warwick, Peter D.; Javed, Shahid; Mashhadi, S. Tahir A.; Shakoor, Tariq; Khan, Asrar M.; Khan, A. Latif

    1995-01-01

    high concentrations of the environmentally sensitive element selenium (average 13.4 ppm (parts per million)), compared to concentrations from United States coals of similar rank. The Makarwal coal bed represents a paleopeat that formed during changing relative ground-water base levels. Relatively low base levels were associated with periods of slow clastic deposition and lateritic paleosol development, followed by relatively high base levels that coincided with increased runoff, marine flooding, and clastic sedimentation that buried the paleopeat of the Makarwal. These environments formed along the northwestern margin of the Indian subcontinent as it drifted northward through equatorial latitudes in the Tethys Sea. The Makarwal coal bed is thin or absent in the northern part of the range where the Lumshiwal and Hangu Formations are the thinnest. Such rapid lateral changes (over about 25 km) in formation thickness and the apparent change in relative ground-water base level indicate that tectonically induced subsidence rates varied across the Surghar Range and influenced the deposition of the rocks that compose the two formations.

  6. Ground Penetrating Radar and Magnetic Investigations of Phreatomagmatic Tephra Rings in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Northern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A. M.; Kruse, S.; Macorps, E.; Charbonnier, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be a valuable geophysical tool for studying near-surface volcanic stratigraphy in areas where outcrops do not exist. Likewise, high resolution ground-based magnetic surveys have the potential to reveal significant features not exposed at the surface, especially in the case of small-volume basaltic volcanoes. Here we present the results of geophysical studies to investigate the eruptive history of deposits surrounding phreatomagmatic eruption sites, and why some may become magnetized. Magnetic surveys undertaken at basaltic phreatomagmatic sites suggest that some tuff rings carry no discernable magnetic signature, while others reveal slight to significant magnetic anomalies. Material deposited in the tephra ring could become magnetized through Thermal Remanent Magnetization - emplacement of magnetically susceptible material above 560° C. In this case tephra layers would need to be deposited in sufficient thickness to retain high temperatures long enough for the magnetic material to orient itself to the magnetic field. To test this hypothesis we examine GPR data collected at Rattlesnake Maar in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, Arizona, and we will collect GPR data at two other tephra rings in the same volcanic field. The first site, Sugarloaf Mountain, is an active quarry with excellent exposures of tephra ring stratigraphy. Although this site is rhyolitic in composition and not suitable for magnetic study, it is an excellent site to determine how well GPR reflectors correlate with actual stratigraphy. The second site, an un-named phreatomagmatic ring nearby, will then be studied by GPR and walking magnetic survey. GPR reflectors will be compared to depositional patterns defined in previous studies and correlated with magnetic survey results to determine if a correlation can be made - little to no magnetization where only thin units are recorded by GPR, and positive magnetization where thick units are recorded.

  7. The Oldest Known Caldera Associated with the Yellowstone Hotspot: New Geologic Mapping, Geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology for the Northern McDermitt Volcanic Field, Northern Nevada and Southeastern Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, T. R.; Mahood, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    McDermitt Volcanic Field (MVF) of Nevada and Oregon is one of three major caldera centers associated with Mid-Miocene Steens/Columbia River flood basalts. Pioneering geologic mapping of MVF by Rytuba and McKee (1984) and subsequent work established four main ignimbrites within the field. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages (FCT=28.02 Ma) are 16.41±0.02 (±2σ) Ma for Tuff of Oregon Canyon, 16.35±0.04 Ma for Tuff of Trout Creek Mountains, 16.30±0.04 Ma for Tuff of Long Ridge, and 15.56±0.08 Ma for Tuff of Whitehorse Creek. We have mapped two previously unrecognized overlapping calderas that we interpret as sources for Tuff of Oregon Canyon and Tuff of Trout Creek. These ~20-km diameter calderas lie north of the well-known McDermitt Caldera; a smaller 7-km caldera that formed on eruption of the Tuff of Whitehorse Creek is nested within them. Argon ages and geochemistry of alkali rhyolite lava domes in the northern MVF define two populations: ~16.6-16.3 Ma associated with the newly recognized calderas, and ~15.5-15.3 Ma outlining the margins of the younger Whitehorse Caldera. Consistent with both ignimbrites erupting from the same evolving magma system, the high-silica alkali rhyolite Tuff of Oregon Canyon lies on compositional trends defined by the Tuff of Trout Creek, which is zoned from a moderately crystal-rich high-silica alkali rhyolite to a strongly porphyritic low-silica alkali rhyolite. They both are distinguished from the Tuff of Long Ridge from McDermitt Caldera by their higher Zr/Rb, and relatively high FeO* concentrations distinguish all MVF ignimbrites from ignimbrites from the nearby High Rock Caldera Complex, where the oldest caldera formed on eruption of the Idaho Canyon Tuff at 16.38±0.02 Ma (Coble and Mahood, in review). The Tuff of Trout Creek rests conformably on the Tuff of Oregon Canyon west and southwest of the calderas, where they overlie a thick stack of Steens Basalt lavas. To the east and southeast the two ignimbrites are separated by as much as

  8. Extensive Analysis of GmFTL and GmCOL Expression in Northern Soybean Cultivars in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jinlong; Lu, Mingyang; Chen, Fulu; Liu, Linpo; Xi, Zhang-Ying; Bachmair, Andreas; Chen, Qingshan; Fu, Yong-Fu

    2015-01-01

    The FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene is a highly conserved florigen gene among flowering plants. Soybean genome encodes six homologs of FT, which display flowering activity in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, their contributions to flowering time in different soybean cultivars, especially in field conditions, are unclear. We employed six soybean cultivars with different maturities to extensively investigate expression patterns of GmFTLs (Glycine max FT-like) and GmCOLs (Glycine max CO-like) in the field conditions. The results show that GmFTL3 is an FT homolog with the highest transcript abundance in soybean, but other GmFTLs may also contribute to flower induction with different extents, because they have more or less similar expression patterns in developmental-, leaf-, and circadian-specific modes. And four GmCOL genes (GmCOL1/2/5/13) may confer to the expression of GmFTL genes. Artificial manipulation of GmFTL expression by transgenic strategy (overexpression and RNAi) results in a distinct change in soybean flowering time, indicating that GmFTLs not only impact on the control of flowering time, but have potential applications in the manipulation of photoperiodic adaptation in soybean. Additionally, transgenic plants show that GmFTLs play a role in formation of the first flowers and in vegetative growth. PMID:26371882

  9. Statistics of MLT wind field values derived from 11 years of common volume specular meteor observations in northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge Luis; Stober, Gunter; Laskar, Fazlul; Hall, Chris M.; Tsutsumi, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally mean values of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere winds over the radar volume are obtained using monostatic specular meteor radars. Such observing volume consist of a few hundreds of kilometers in radius. Moreover the differences between measured radial velocities and the expected radial velocities from the measured mean winds are used to derive properties of gravity wave momentum fluxes. Recently, Stober and Chau [2015] have proposed to use a multi-static approach to retrieve horizontally resolved wind fields, where most of the radar volume is observed from different viewing angles. Similar results could be obtained if measurements from close-by monostatic systems are combined. In this work we present the results of the derived wind fields from combining specular meteor radar data between 2004 and 2015 from the Trømso (19.22oW, 69.58oN) and Andenes (16.04oW, 69.27oN) radar systems. Among the directly estimated values are the mean winds and the horizontal and vertical gradients of the zonal and meridional winds. Combining the horizontal gradients, the horizontal divergence, relative vorticity, shear and deformation are derived. The seasonal and annual variability of these parameters are presented and discussed, as well as the planetary wave, tidal, and gravity wave information embedded in these new parameters.

  10. Modifications to the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum by Hedgerows - Observations from a field site in Northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, Victoria; Pattison, Ian

    2016-04-01

    UK farming practices have changed significantly over the past 100 years. This is evident in arable fields, where the use of larger machinery has led to the removal of hedgerows. In the River Skell catchment, in Yorkshire, UK this has led to a doubling in field size since 1892. The national-wide change is responsible for longer slope lengths, increased runoff velocities and greater potential for connectivity, which may be responsible for an increase in flood risk at the catchment scale. However there is a lack of physical evidence to support this theory. Hedgerows are a widespread, man-made boundary feature in the rural UK landscape. They play an important ecological role in providing shelter, changing the local climate, reducing erosion and have a strong influence on local soil properties. Their impact on hydrology has not been widely studied but it is hypothesised that their presence could alter soil moisture levels and the soil structure, therefore affecting runoff. This paper presents observations of a hedgerow on the Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Continuum, through 15 months field monitoring conducted in the River Skell catchment. Firstly, to assess soil moisture levels TDR probes were installed at different depths and distances from the hedgerow. To assess the soil quality and therefore its infiltration capacity, soil cores were collected to determine soil horizons and root density. Also, laboratory tests were undertaken to determine the soil type and the porosity. Secondly, to assess the physical impact of the hedgerow plant on the partitioning of rainfall, gauges were installed to capture the spatial distribution of rainfall, along a transect perpendicular to the hedgerow, as well as stemflow. Throughfall gauges were also installed within the hedgerow and leaf area index calculated. Thirdly, to assess the impact of the hedgerow on the micro-climate, temperature sensors and four leaf wetness sensors were installed to determine evapotranspiration and interception

  11. Potential Field, Geoelectrical and Reflection Seismic Investigations for Massive Sulphide Exploration in the Skellefte Mining District, Northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Saman; Dehghannejad, Mahdieh; García Juanatey, María de los Ángeles; Bauer, Tobias E.; Weihed, Pär; Elming, Sten-Åke

    2016-12-01

    Multi-scale geophysical studies were conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD) in order to delineate the geometry of the upper crust (down to maximum 4.5 km depth) for prospecting volcanic massive sulphide (VMS) mineralization. These geophysical investigations include potential field, resistivity/induced polarization (IP), reflection seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data which were collected between 2009 and 2010. The interpretations were divided in two scales: (i) shallow ( 1.5 km) and (ii) deep ( 4.5 km). Physical properties of the rocks, including density, magnetic susceptibility, resistivity and chargeability, were also used to improve interpretations. The study result delineates the geometry of the upper crust in the CSD and new models were suggested based on new and joint geophysical interpretation which can benefit VMS prospecting in the area. The result also indicates that a strongly conductive zone detected by resistivity/IP data may have been missed using other geophysical data.

  12. Low-molecular weight hydrocarbons in vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruse, Anna M.; Seewald, Jeffrey S.

    2010-11-01

    Despite its location on sediment-free basalt, vent fluids from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) contain chemical species that indicate fluids have interacted with sediments during circulation. We report on the distribution and isotopic abundances of organic compounds ( C1- C3 alkanes and alkenes, benzene and toluene) in fluids collected from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) in July, 2000, to understand the processes that regulate their abundances and characterize fluid sources. Aqueous organic compounds are derived from the thermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter and subsequently undergo further oxidation reactions during fluid flow. Fluid:sediment mass ratios calculated using ΣNH 4 concentrations indicate that the sediments are distal to the MEF, resulting in a common reservoir of fluids for all of the vents. Following the generation from sediment alteration, aqueous organic compounds undergo secondary alteration reactions via a stepwise oxidation reaction mechanism. Alkane distributions and isotopic compositions indicate that organic compounds in MEF fluids have undergone a greater extent of alteration as compared to Middle Valley fluids, either due to differences in subsurface redox conditions or the residence time of fluids at subsurface conditions. The distributions of the aromatic compounds benzene and toluene are qualitatively consistent with the subsurface conditions indicated by equilibration of aqueous alkanes and alkanes. However, benzene and toluene do not achieve chemical equilibrium in the subsurface. Methane and CO 2 also do not equilibrate chemically or isotopically at reaction zone temperatures, a likely result of an insufficient reaction time after addition of CO 2 from magmatic sources during upflow. The organic geochemistry supports the assumption that the sediments with which MEF fluids interact has the same composition as sediments present in Middle Valley itself, and highlight differences in subsurface reaction zone conditions and fluid

  13. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  14. Intermediate composition magma production in an intracontinental setting: Unusual andesites and dacites of the mid-Miocene Santa Rosa-Calico volcanic field, Northern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brueseke, Matthew E.; Hart, William K.

    2009-11-01

    The mid-Miocene Santa Rosa-Calico volcanic field (SC) of northern Nevada provides an outstanding example of the role open-system magmatic processes play in producing calc-alkaline and tholeiitic andesite-dacite magmas in an intracontinental setting. SC volcanism commenced at ˜ 16.7 Ma and is associated with the initial manifestations of the Yellowstone hotspot, the Columbia River-Steens flood basalt event(s), and the formation of the Northern Nevada rift. Locally a diverse package of magmatic products ranging from tholeiitic basalt to high-Si rhyolite was produced during an ˜ 2 myr duration. Within this package are the products of at least four distinct intermediate composition magmatic systems that may represent as much as 40% of the SC volcanic pile. These help differentiate the SC from contemporaneous Oregon Plateau volcanic fields (e.g. McDermitt, Lake Owyhee, Northwest Nevada) that are dominated by bimodal basalt-rhyolite assemblages. All SC intermediate units are characterized by textural and mineralogic complexities including xenoliths and xenocrysts of local crust and crystal clots of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene ± oxide. SC intermediate units are dominantly tholeiitic, but include lava flows with transitional to calc-alkaline affinities. Relative to locally erupted Steens Basalt, SC intermediate lava flows have similar elemental enrichments and depletions, but dissimilar Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. These isotopic differences, coupled with the abundant disequilibrium features and variable incompatible element ratios, indicate that open system magmatic processes played a major role in the genesis of the intermediate units. SC silicic magmas were produced primarily via upper crustal melting of chemically and isotopically heterogeneous Cretaceous granitoid. Interaction between fractionating mafic Steens flood basalt magmas and the more evolved crustal melts ± assimilation of local upper crust provides a general template for the

  15. In Situ Nitrogen Mineralization, Nitrification, and Ammonia Volatilization in Maize Field Fertilized with Urea in Huanghuaihai Region of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuelin; Wang, Qun; Xu, Jun; Gilliam, Frank S.; Tremblay, Nicolas; Li, Chaohai

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization potentially affects soil N mineralization and leaching, and can enhance NH3 volatilization, thus impacting crop production. A fertilizer experiment with five levels of N addition (0, 79, 147, 215 and 375 kg N ha-1) was performed in 2009 and 2010 in a maize field in Huanghuaihai region, China, where > 300 kg N ha-1 has been routinely applied to soil during maize growth period of 120 days. Responses of net N mineralization, inorganic N flux (0–10cm), NH3 volatilization, and maize yield to N fertilization were measured. During the growth period, net N mineralization and nitrification varied seasonally, with higher rates occurring in August and coinciding with the R1 stage of maize growth. Soil NO3−-N contributed to more than 60% of inorganic N flux during maize growth. Cumulative NH3 volatilization increased with N additions, with total NH3 volatilization during maize growth accounting for about 4% of added N. Relative to the control, mean maize yield in the fertilizer treatments increased by 17% and 20% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. However, grain yield, aboveground biomass, and plant N accumulation did not increase with added N at levels > 215 kg N ha-1. These results suggest that the current N rate of 300 kg N ha-1 is not only excessive, but also reduces fertilizer efficacy and may contribute to environmental problems such as global warming and eutrophication of ground water and streams. PMID:25635864

  16. Fault geometry and mechanics of marly carbonate multilayers: An integrated field and laboratory study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgetti, C.; Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Barchi, M. R.; Tesei, T.

    2016-12-01

    Sealing layers are often represented by sedimentary sequences characterized by alternating strong and weak lithologies. When involved in faulting processes, these mechanically heterogeneous multilayers develop complex fault geometries. Here we investigate fault initiation and evolution within a mechanical multilayer by integrating field observations and rock deformation experiments. Faults initiate with a staircase trajectory that partially reflects the mechanical properties of the involved lithologies, as suggested by our deformation experiments. However, some faults initiating at low angles in calcite-rich layers (θi = 5°-20°) and at high angles in clay-rich layers (θi = 45°-86°) indicate the important role of structural inheritance at the onset of faulting. With increasing displacement, faults develop well-organized fault cores characterized by a marly, foliated matrix embedding fragments of limestone. The angles of fault reactivation, which concentrate between 30° and 60°, are consistent with the low friction coefficient measured during our experiments on marls (μs = 0.39), indicating that clay minerals exert a main control on fault mechanics. Moreover, our integrated analysis suggests that fracturing and faulting are the main mechanisms allowing fluid circulation within the low-permeability multilayer, and that its sealing integrity can be compromised only by the activity of larger faults cutting across its entire thickness.

  17. Dissolved Carbon Species in Diffuse and Focused Flow Hydrothermal Vents at the Main Endeavour Field, Northern Juan de Fuca Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foustoukos, D. I.; Seyfried, W. E.; Ding, K.; Pester, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    The magmatic and tectonic event of 1999 had a significant impact on the chemical composition of vent fluids issuing from the Main Endeavour Field (MEF), Juan de Fuca Ridge. Here, we report dissolved concentrations of H2, CO2, CO and C1-C3 alkanes measured in low and high-temperature hydrothermal fluids collected in August 2005 during an RV Atlantis/DSV Alvin expedition at MEF. In comparison with time series data, temperatures of the 2005 vent fluids were slightly lower than those recorded in the aftermaths of the tectonic event of 1999. The possible cooling of the hydrothermal subseafloor reaction zone is consistent with the observed increase in dissolved Cl to pre-1999 values. Converging compositional trends to pre-1999 conditions are also suggested for dissolved CO2 concentrations (~20 mmol/kg) in Puffer, Sully, Bastille and S&M vent fluids. In these focused flow and high-temperature vent fluids, dissolved CO2 is in thermodynamic equilibrium with CO(aq). The systematics of organic species in diffuse flow fluids, however, appears to be closely related to processes occurring within the near-seafloor environment. For example, excess CO(aq) observed in the diffuse flow fluids at Easter Island is attributed to sluggish CO- CO2(aq) equilibria at low temperatures, suggesting hydrothermal circulation of short-residence times. Short-lived hydrothermal circulation is further supported by the nearly identical C1/(C2+C3) ratios between focused and diffuse flow fluids. Furthermore, alkane distribution in the MEF diffuse flow fluids suggests direct mixing between seawater and hydrothermal fluid with minimal biological inputs, in contrast with the greater effect of microbial methanogenesis proposed in other ridge-crest hydrothermal environments. Thus, the coupling of CO2(aq)-CO(aq) redox equilibrium with dissolved carbon species in low- temperature vent fluids could provide a better understanding of the effect of subsurface microbial communities upon the composition of mid

  18. Carbon sequestration strategies for crop- and grasslands evaluated in long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger

    2013-04-01

    Improved management of grass- and croplands is a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of N fertilization, organic amendments and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks by analyzing data from long-term field experiments in Nordic countries. Increasing net primary production was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by about 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. We also quantified the effect of organic amendments on soil carbon stocks. Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely from about 15% for above-ground crop residues to about 90% for composted household waste. We also emphasize that increased soil carbon stocks not always lead to carbon sequestration of atmospheric CO2 and discuss misunderstandings related to mitigation options earlier proposed for carbon sequestration such as organic farming, manure application, residue handling or application of biochar. Finally, the consequences of different land use and management are discussed, taking into account two critical boundaries - the limited area of agricultural land on Earth and requirements to produce sufficient food, fibres and energy for a growing population.

  19. A high-resolution model of the external and induced magnetic field at the Earth's surface in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, R. M.; Freeman, M. P.; Wild, J. A.; Gjerloev, J. W.

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method of producing high-resolution models of the Earth's combined external and induced magnetic field using the method of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) applied to the SuperMAG archive of ground-based magnetometer data. EOFs partition the variance of a system into independent modes, allowing us to extract the spatiotemporal patterns of greatest dynamical importance without applying the a priori assumptions of other methods (such as spherical harmonic analysis, parameterized averaging, or multivariate regression). We develop an approach based on that of Beckers and Rixen (2003) and use the EOF modes to infill missing data in a self-consistent manner. Applying our method to a north polar case study spanning February 2001 (chosen for its proximity to solar maximum and good data coverage), we demonstrate that 41.7% and 9.4% of variance is explained by the leading two modes, respectively, describing the temporal variations of the disturbance polar types 2 and 1 (DP2 and DP1) patterns. A further 14.1% of variance is explained by four modes that describe separate aspects of the motion of the DP1 and DP2 systems. Thus, collectively over 65% of variance is described by the leading six modes and is attributable to DP1 and DP2. This attribution is based on inspection of the spatial morphology of the modes and analysis of the temporal variation of the mode amplitudes with respect to solar wind measures and substorm occurrence. This study is primarily a demonstration of the technique and a prelude to a model spanning the full solar cycle.

  20. Origin of metaluminous and alkaline volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, northern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.M.; Lipman, P.W.

    1988-01-01

    Volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field evolved in an open system by crystal fractionation, magma mixing, and crustal assimilation. Early high-SiO2 rhyolites (28.5 Ma) fractionated from intermediate compositionmagmas that did not reach the surface. Most precaldera lavas have intermediate-compositions, from olivine basaltic-andesite (53% SiO2) to quartz latite (67% SiO2). The precaldera intermediate-composition lavas have anomalously high Ni and MgO contents and reversely zoned hornblende and augite phenocrysts, indicating mixing between primitive basalts and fractionated magmas. Isotopic data indicate that all of the intermediate-composition rocks studied contain large crustal components, although xenocrysts are found only in one unit. Inception of alkaline magmatism (alkalic dacite to high-SiO2 peralkaline rhyolite) correlates with, initiation of regional extension approximately 26 Ma ago. The Questa caldera formed 26.5 Ma ago upon eruption of the >500 km3 high-SiO2 peralkaline Amalia Tuff. Phenocryst compositions preserved in the cogenetic peralkaline granite suggest that the Amalia Tuff magma initially formed from a trace element-enriched, high-alkali metaluminous magma; isotopic data suggest that the parental magmas contain a large crustal component. Degassing of water- and halogen-rich alkali basalts may have provided sufficient volatile transport of alkalis and other elements into the overlying silicic magma chamber to drive the Amalia Tuff magma to peralkaline compositions. Trace element variations within the Amalia Tuff itself may be explained solely by 75% crystal fractionation of the observed phenocrysts. Crystal settling, however, is inconsistent with mineralogical variations in the tuff, and crystallization is thought to have occurred at a level below that tapped by the eruption. Spatially associated Miocene (15-11 Ma) lavas did not assimilate large amounts of crust or mix with primitive basaltic magmas. Both mixing and crustal assimilation processes

  1. Field evaluation of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical repellent, against mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tuetun, B; Choochote, W; Pongpaibul, Y; Junkum, A; Kanjanapothi, D; Chaithong, U; Jitpakdi, A; Riyong, D; Wannasan, A; Pitasawat, B

    2009-02-01

    The potential of G10, a celery (Apium graveolens)-based topical product, as a repellent against natural mosquito populations was evaluated in comparison to commercial (Insect Block 28) and standard (25% DEET) repellents in Chiang Mai province, northern Thailand. These repellent products afforded encouragingly excellent personal protection against a broad range of mosquito species belonging to various genera, including Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia. No mosquito bite was observed on the volunteers treated with G10 and Insect Block 28 throughout the field study, whereas two species, i.e., six A. barbirostris and two A. subalbatus, came to bite or land on 25% DEET-treated volunteers. Thus, it can be concluded that while G10 and Insect Block 28 exhibited similarly powerful repellent activities with complete (100%) protection, 25% DEET was effective in minimizing bites with 99.68% protection. G10 formula was also studied for physical properties and biological stability after being kept under two conditions; a heating and cooling cycle, and varying temperature and time storage. Most samples of stored G10 not only demonstrated a similarity in appearance and physical properties, but also provided comparable repellency to that of the fresh preparation. These findings encourage commercial development of G10 formula as an alternative to conventional synthetic repellents.

  2. Tectonic inversion and magmatism in the Lautaro Basin, northern Chile, Central Andes: A comparative approach from field data and analog models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Fernando; Bonini, Marco; Montanari, Domenico; Corti, Giacomo

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a series of analog models addressing the relationships between tectonic inversion and magmatism, taking the Lautaro Basin in northern Chile (27-28° S), Central Andes as a natural case. The experiments consisted of extension and orthogonal shortening of sand-silicone models to reproduce the tectonic inversion of a previous extensional system synchronous with the emplacement of analog magma. We analyzed how the variation in the rate of magma intrusion, shortening, and syn-compressive sedimentation may affect the final configuration of an inverted system, and the results were compared with field observations. Our results showed that (i) folding of syn-rift deposits and increased steepness of the master faults accommodate the shortening of the extensional system, (ii) magmatic intrusions condition the final geometries (top view and cross-section) of inverted normal faults in the models and in the Lautaro Basin, (iii) magma tends to migrate preferentially along the inverted faults, and accumulates beneath the faults and in the core of the inversion anticlines, (iv) the syn-inversion magmatism may indicate the migration pathways, which favor major lubrication and slip on the structures during their reactivation.

  3. Unusual 5 m E region field-aligned irregularities observed from Northern Germany during the magnetic storm of 17 March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Jorge L.; St.-Maurice, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-01

    Coherent E region echoes were observed during the 17 March 2015 storm at midlatitudes by multistatic wide field of view radars operating in northern Germany. Two of the stations operated in a monostatic configuration, while one link was set in bistatic mode. Interferometry made it feasible to locate the targets. While the radars were built to measure mesospheric winds from specular meteor echoes, the storm was so intense that it allowed them to observe auroral E region echoes for more than 4 h. All stations detected numerous examples of narrow spectra with slow (≈180 m/s) and fast (up to 1600 m/s) Doppler velocities. The target speeds were much faster than the Doppler velocities for the slow narrow echoes (more than 800 m/s versus 180 m/s) but comparable to the observed Doppler shift for the 1500 m/s narrow fast types. The narrow types came from localized horizontal structures 50 to 80 km wide in range. The fast narrow types came from the upper part of the altitudes associated with Farley-Buneman waves. The slow narrow structures were typically from altitudes lower than 100 km. Unexpectedly, the great majority of the echoes associated with more ordinary ion acoustic turbulence had a positive Doppler shift and came from the east. A companion paper uses these new observations to reevaluate the origin of the narrow echoes and of the asymmetry in the counts. Irrespective of the generation mechanisms, our observations indicate that a combination of unusually large electric field and strong precipitation is needed to produce the unusual echoes.

  4. Assessment of Temporal and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and its implications on soil water content predictions for a maize field in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feki, Mouna; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ceppi, Alessandro; Mancini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Use of hydrological models to simulate water movement from soil surface to groundwater requires intensive, time consuming and expensive soil related parameters collection, such as, water retention curve (WRC) parameters and hydraulic conductivity (K).Typically, soils to be characterized, , exhibit large variations in space and time as well during the cropping cycle, due to biological processes and agricultural management practices : tillage , irrigation , fertilization and harvest. Soil properties are subjected to diverse physical and chemical changes that leads to a non-stability in term of water and chemical movements within the soil as well to the groundwater. The aim of this study is to assess the variability of soil hydraulic properties dynamics over a cropping cycle. The study site is a surface irrigated Maize field (typical in this area) located in Secugnago (45°13'31.70'' N, 9°36'26.82 E), in Northern Italy-Lombardy region. The field belongs to the Consortium Muzza Bassa Lodigiana, within which meteorological data together with soil moisture were monitored during the cropping season of 2015 . To investigate soil properties variations, both measurements in the field and laboratory tests on both undisturbed and disturbed collected samples were performed. Soil samples were taken from different locations within the study area and at different depths( 0cm , 20cm and 40cm) as well at different growth stages of the plant ,after irrigation events or tillage and as well after harvest. During three measuring campaigns, for each soil samples several parameters were monitored (Organic matter , bulk density) together with soil-water related parameters (Soil water retention curve parameters , saturated hydraulic conductivity). Soil water retention curves parameters were measured following the evaporative method, using the Hyprop (Hydraulic Property Analyzer; UMS Munich, 2010). Parameters were assessed using Hyprop-fit software, by fitting data to Brooks and Corey and

  5. Flood variability over 1871-2012 in Northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree-rings and on geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Caya, Daniel; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2015-04-01

    For the next couple of decades, the impacts of climate change on hydrological extremes are likely to be masked by climate natural variability. Thus, a better understanding and quantification of natural climate variability on hydrological extremes would be helpful for short-term adaptation. However, studying natural variability requires long instrumental records, which are inexistant in remote regions such as Northern Québec. Different methods have been proposed to extend observed hydroclimatic time-series, based on other data sources such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in Northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of spring flood series (Boucher et al., 2011) and of annual and seasonal mean flow series (Nicault et al., 2014), for the last 150 years. Here, we apply a different reconstruction method on the same catchment, using historical reanalysis of geopotential height fields, to compare the flood series obtained and study the observed flood variability over the 1871-2012 period. The applied method, named ANATEM (Kuentz et al., 2013), aims firstly at producing climatic time series (temperature and precipitation) which are then used as inputs to one or several hydrological model previously calibrated in order to obtain streamflow time series. The climatic reconstruction is based on the analog method, using the link between atmospheric pressure situations and local climatic variables and thus requires (i) a geopotential height field reanalysis (here the NOAA reanalysis, available over the 1871-2012 period (Compo et al., 2011)), and (ii) the available observed temperature and precipitation time series (here available over the 1960-2012 period). The hypothesis of the analog method is that two different days having similar atmospheric circulations are expected to produce similar temperature and precipitation patterns. Using this hypothesis, the method

  6. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  7. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  8. Ambient air/near-field measurements of methane and Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from a natural gas facility in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Bonsang, Bernard; Baisnee, Dominique; Vogel, Félix; Yver Kwok, Camille; Ars, Sébastien; Finlayson, Andrew; Innocenti, Fabrizio; Robinson, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Since the 1970's, the natural gas consumption saw a rapid growth in large urban centers, thus becoming an important energy resource to meet continuous needs of factories and inhabitants. Nevertheless, it can be a substantial source of methane (CH4) and pollutants in urban areas. For instance, we have determined that about 20% of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in downtown Paris are originating from this emission source (Baudic, Gros et al., in preparation). Within the framework of the "Fugitive Methane Emissions" (FuME) project (Climate-KIC, EIT); 2-weeks gas measurements were conducted at a gas compressor station in Northern Europe. Continuous ambient air measurements of methane and VOCs concentrations were performed using a cavity ring-down spectrometer (model G2201, Picarro Inc., Santa Clara, USA) and two portable GC-FID (Chromatotec, Saint-Antoine, France), respectively. On-site near-field samplings were also carried out at the source of two pipelines using stainless steel flasks (later analyzed with a laboratory GC-FID). The objective of this study aims to use VOCs as additional tracers in order to better characterize the fugitive methane emissions in a complex environment, which can be affected by several urban sources (road-traffic, others industries, etc.). Moreover, these measurements have allowed determining the chemical composition of this specific source. Our results revealed that the variability of methane and some VOCs was (rather) well correlated, especially for alkanes (ethane, propane, etc.). An analysis of selected events with strong concentrations enhancement was performed using ambient air measurements; thus allowing the preliminary identification of different emission sources. In addition, some flasks were also sampled in Paris to determine the local natural gas composition. A comparison between both was then performed. Preliminary results from these experiments will be presented here.

  9. Streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in northern Québec: comparison of hydrological reconstructions based on tree rings and geopotential height field reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigode, Pierre; Brissette, François; Nicault, Antoine; Perreault, Luc; Kuentz, Anna; Mathevet, Thibault; Gailhard, Joël

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decades, different methods have been used by hydrologists to extend observed hydro-climatic time series, based on other data sources, such as tree rings or sedimentological datasets. For example, tree ring multi-proxies have been studied for the Caniapiscau Reservoir in northern Québec (Canada), leading to the reconstruction of flow time series for the last 150 years. In this paper, we applied a new hydro-climatic reconstruction method on the Caniapiscau Reservoir and compare the obtained streamflow time series against time series derived from dendrohydrology by other authors on the same catchment and study the natural streamflow variability over the 1881-2011 period in that region. This new reconstruction is based not on natural proxies but on a historical reanalysis of global geopotential height fields, and aims firstly to produce daily climatic time series, which are then used as inputs to a rainfall-runoff model in order to obtain daily streamflow time series. The performances of the hydro-climatic reconstruction were quantified over the observed period, and showed good performances, in terms of both monthly regimes and interannual variability. The streamflow reconstructions were then compared to two different reconstructions performed on the same catchment by using tree ring data series, one being focused on mean annual flows and the other on spring floods. In terms of mean annual flows, the interannual variability in the reconstructed flows was similar (except for the 1930-1940 decade), with noteworthy changes seen in wetter and drier years. For spring floods, the reconstructed interannual variabilities were quite similar for the 1955-2011 period, but strongly different between 1880 and 1940. The results emphasize the need to apply different reconstruction methods on the same catchments. Indeed, comparisons such as those above highlight potential differences between available reconstructions and, finally, allow a retrospective analysis of the

  10. The study of a potential CO2 repository: Integrating laboratory and field geophysical experiments to characterize the upper Muschelkalk aquifer (northern Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B.; Zappone, A. S.; Misra, S.; Diamond, L.

    2011-12-01

    The upper Muschelkalk saline aquifer consists of partly dolomitized to completely dolomitized carbonate rocks of mid Triassic age (~230 Ma). This aquifer is present throughout the Swiss Molasse Basin (SMB), north of the Alps. A regional appraisal of the SMB indicates that this Formation is a potential host aquifer for sequestered CO2. However, the spatial distribution and heterogeneity of the porosity, permeability and other relevant physical and mechanical properties of the upper Muschelkalk are still poorly known. The uncertainty in this knowledge stems mainly from the weakly developed oil and gas exploration industry in Switzerland. We use an integrated approach to better constrain the aquifer physical properties, which couples field scale geophysical surveys (borehole logging and seismic reflection profiles) with laboratory analytical data. Here we focus on a set of boreholes from northern Switzerland, where geophysical data and drill core useable for laboratory measurements are available. Two sub-units comprise the upper Muschelkalk Formation. The stratigraphically higher part is a fossiliferous dolomite (>90 vol% CaMg(CO3)2; Trigodonusdolomit). The underlying unit, is composed of micritic calcite and dolomite layers interbedded with fossil-rich layers (Hauptmuschelkalk). Although both units are part of the aquifer formation, they appear to have distinctly different physical properties. The transition from Trigodonusdolomit to the Hauptmuschelkalk is marked by an increase in the sonic velocity, density and acoustic impedance. The magnitude of increase in sonic velocity can be up to 500 m/s, accompanied by an increase in acoustic impedance from 8500 to 15500 (m/s*g/cm3), but varies between the different boreholes. Poisson's ratio, determined from a single borehole, show sharp decrease at the transition. The origin of the changes in the geophysical data is likely reflecting differences in porosity and mineral composition in the Trigodonusdolomit and

  11. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and <0.2 mg/L, respectively). In 2001, the laboratory aeration experiment demonstrated rapid oxidation of ferrous iron (Fe 2+) without supplemental alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent

  12. High northern geomagnetic field behavior and new constraints on the Gilsá event: Paleomagnetic and 40Ar/39Ar results of ∼0.5-3.1 Ma basalts from Jökuldalur, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Døssing, Arne; Muxworthy, Adrian R.; Supakulopas, Radchagrit; Riishuus, Morten S.; Mac Niocaill, Conall

    2016-12-01

    Recent paleomagnetic results of extrusive rocks from high southern latitudes (>60°S) and high northern latitudes (>60°N) have been suggested to reflect a hemispheric asymmetry of the geomagnetic field on time-scales of 105 to 106 yrs, with higher and more stable fields in the north. This interpretation, however, is based on only a few modern-standard paleodirectional data sets and on high northern stable field paleointensity data of rocks that are mainly younger than 100 kyr. The sparsity of modern-standard data questions the validity (and age range) of this potential geomagnetic asymmetry. In 2013 and 2014, we sampled basaltic lava flows in Jökuldalur, north-eastern Iceland, to obtain high-standard paleodirectional and paleointensity data at relatively high-northern latitudes (65.2°N). On average, we sampled >15 cores per site at 51 sites of predominantly Matuyama age. Complete demagnetization was carried out on all samples using AF or thermal demagnetization. We present 45 distinct paleomagnetic directions based on overall N > 10 ChRMs per site and α 95 < 3.5 °. We obtain a mean direction of D = 355.7 °, I = 76.3 °, and α 95 = 3.2 for N = 45 sites that is not significantly different from a GAD field. The resulting 45 VGPs distribute around the North Pole, and the global mean paleomagnetic pole (λ bar = 87.8 °, ϕ bar = 224.3 °) is coincident with the North Pole within the α95 confidence limit. We calculate a VGP dispersion S B (Mat) = 20.523.3/17.8 and an average inclination anomaly ΔI = - 0.91 ° 2.94/-4.88 for our 38 Matuyama age data. The dispersion SB overall supports the interpretation of a dependence of SB on latitude during the Matuyama, while the negligible ΔI suggests little deviation from a GAD field. Based on relatively strict cut-off criteria we also present six new field strength estimates from the time interval ∼1.2-1.83 Ma, thus filling a large data gap of the high-northern stable field behavior. We obtain a median VADM of 57 ± 3

  13. Constraints on the seismic properties of the mantle beneath the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (Northern Pannonian Basin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebesz, Rita; Liptai, Nora; Kovacs, Istvan; Patko, Levente; Pinter, Zsanett; Falus, Gyorgy; Graczer, Zoltan; Szanyi, Gyongyver; Wesztergom, Viktor; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-05-01

    In the Carpathian Pannonian Region (CPR) Plio-Pleistocene alkali basalts have sampled the upper mantle at five known occurrences, bringing upper mantle xenoliths to the surface. One of these is the Nógrád-Gömör Volcanic Field (NGVF), which is located in the northern part of the Pannonian Basin. For this study, 25 representative lherzolite and wehrlite xenoliths were selected from the central and southern parts of the NGVF. These xenoliths sample a small volume (~4000 km3) of the upper mantle from a depth of about 35-50 km. Xenoliths collected from the southern part of NGVF originate from shallower depth (35-40 km) than those from the central part (40-50 km) [1]. Crystal preferred orientations (CPO) of the minerals were measured by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Two distinct orientation types (A-Type, D-Type) based on the distribution and alignment of crystallographic axes were recognized, which show some correlation not only with the macroscopic texture, but also with olivine J-factors that indicate the strength of the xenolith fabric [2]. The seismic properties, i.e. seismic anisotropy and velocities, of these 25 mantle xenoliths were calculated based on the CPO and volume fractions of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene. It was found that P wave and fast split shear wave polarization direction is always close to the density maximum of the a-axis of olivine. Seismic anisotropy is higher for stronger CPO. Maximum P wave azimuthal anisotropy ranges are 4.5%-6.9% and 5.3%-11.9%, for the southern and the central area respectively. Maximum S wave polarization anisotropy ranges are 2.92%-5.31% and 3.97%-7.46%for the southern area and the central area respectively. The anisotropy that would be measured by SKS, Rayleigh and Love waves for end-member orientations of the lineation and foliation could be predicted based on the already calculated seismic properties of the xenoliths [3]. The calculated anisotropy is compared to the results of S receiver function

  14. Independent steam-electric power plants in the Anthracite region, NE Pennsylvania: Site geology, coal-refuse bank utilization, and environmental benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Inners, J.D.; Edmunds, W.E.; Laregina, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    The Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 created economic incentives that resulted in the proliferation of small independent, coal-refuse burning, steam-electric stations in Pennsylvania during the 1980`s and 1990`s. Eight such plants, ranging from 18 to 83 MW in net power output, have been operating for several years within the Anthracite region of northeastern Pennsylvania, and a ninth (having a net output of 108 MW) has recently come on line in the Lehigh Valley just to the south. All of these plants utilize circulating fluidized-bed combustion boilers in which finely crushed limestone is burned along with pulverized coal-refuse fuel. Seven are cogeneration plants that sell process steam commercially. Heat value of the pulverized coal-refuse used in the boilers ranges from 2,810 to 7,000 BTU/lb; higher values indicate washing of the fuel to remove some non-combustible material. Past episodes of bank-processing for fine coal, in addition to historic changes in coal-preparation and mining methods, give the refuse banks a complex stratigraphy in which beds vary greatly in thickness and quality. Detailed sampling and study of historic air photos are necessary to evaluate the economic potential of each individual bank. Environmental benefits of the Anthracite region`s independent power plants include: (1) removal of many black, barren piles of colliery refuse which contribute to acid-pollution and siltation of streams and (2) reclamation of strip-mined lands through disposal, compaction and grading of the alkaline ash generated by the fluidized-bed boilers.

  15. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  16. Initial results from the Volcanic Risk in Saudi Arabia project: Microearthquakes in the northern Harrat Rahat monogenetic volcanic field, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenedi, C. L.; Alvarez, M. G.; Abdelwahed, M. F.; Aboud, E.; Lindsay, J. M.; Mokhtar, T. A.; Moufti, M. R.

    2012-12-01

    An 8-station borehole seismic research array is recording microearthquake data in northern Harrat Rahat. This recently active monogenetic volcanic field lies southeast of the Islamic holy city of Madinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The VORiSA seismographs are operated in collaboration between King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah and the Institute of Earth Science and Engineering, University of Auckland, in New Zealand. The goal of the VORiSA project is to evaluate the seismic and volcanic hazard around Madinah. To this end, we will evaluate the local earthquake activity including the extent to which local earthquakes are tectonic or volcanic. We also will use seismicity to understand the subsurface structure. The analytical goals of the seismic research array are the following: (1) Calculate a new seismic velocity model, (2) Map subsurface structures using seismic tomography, and (3) Explore for fracture zones using shear wave splitting analysis. As compared to seismographs installed on the surface, borehole seismometers detect smaller and more numerous microearthquake signals. The sensitivity and location of the borehole sensors in the VORiSA array are designed to detect these weak signals. The array has a total aperture of 17 km with station spacing at 5 - 10 km. The seismometers are housed in IESE model S21g-2.0, two Hz, 3-component borehole sondes. Sensor depths range from 107 - 121 m. The data acquisition system at each stand-alone station consists of a Reftek 130-01, 6-channel, 24 bit data logger which records at 250 samples per second. The power source is a deep cycle battery with solar recharge. Local temperatures reach extremes of 0° to 50°C, so the battery and recorder are contained in a specially designed underground vault. The vault also provides security in the remote and sparsely populated volcanic field. Recording began on 31 March 2012. An average of one earthquake every three days suggests that currently this is not a highly seismic area. However

  17. Field Demonstration of Rhizosphere-Enhanced Treatment of Organics-Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    M., C.R. Woolard, J. F. Braddock, and C. M. Reynolds. 1997. Enhancement and inhibition of soil petroleum biodegradation through the use of...Rhizosphere- Enhanced Treatment of Organics- Contaminated Soils on Native American Lands with Application to Northern FUD Sites November 2004 Report...rhizosphere- enhanced bioremediation of petroleum, oils , and lubricants (POL) at three cold sites in Alaska. The demonstrations evaluated the use of

  18. Results from expert tests of the TP-100A boiler at the Lugansk thermal power station during the combustion of lean coal and anthracite culm with addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Malygin, V. I.; Yazykov, Yu. V.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Results from expert tests of separated combustion of Grade T and Grade ASh anthracite culm in the TP-100A boiler No. 15 at the Lugansk thermal power station carried out with and without addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid are presented. The possibility of extending the boiler load adjustment range and excluding the use of natural gas for supporting the flame at minimal loads is considered.

  19. Structure and evolution of the northern Barents-Kara Sea continental margin from integrated analysis of potential fields, bathymetry and sparse seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, A.; Faleide, J. I.; Glebovsky, V. Yu.; Mjelde, R.

    2012-01-01

    The northern Barents-Kara Sea continental margin is a poorly investigated area because of a permanent ice cover hampering seismic exploration. The available geological and geophysical data show that the magma-poor margin developed in response to early Cenozoic break-up and subsequent opening of the Arctic Eurasia Basin. In this study, a series of crustal-scale geotransects illustrating the architecture of the continental margin are constructed using sparse seismic reflection profiles and a gravity inversion method incorporating a thermal model of rifting. The continental side of the northern Barents Sea margin is underlain by Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic deep sedimentary basins separated from the oceanic side by the marginal uplift. A bathymetry analysis complements low-resolution seismic data to predict the sedimentary depocenters beyond the shelf break. These depocenters are associated with troughs, perpendicular to the shelf edge. The depocenter in front of the St. Anna Trough may contain a sedimentary section more than 4 km thick. The gravity correction for the effect of sedimentary cover was added to the inversion. This correction used an exponential density-depth function. The inversion supports a narrow and steep continent-ocean transition (COT; ca. 100 km). The conjugate Lomonosov Ridge margin is modelled using the same technique. Palaeoreconstructions were made to predict the break-up setting. The northern Barents Sea-Lomonosov Ridge rift system can be described as an initially narrow symmetric rift. A transitional zone of extreme thinning is assumed between the oldest spreading magnetic anomaly and the stretched continental crust. The free-air gravity anomaly in the western part of the margin can be predicted by the upwelling divergent flow model implying the exhumation of the lower crust and the continental upper mantle within the COT. It is suggested that an episode of shear or oblique extension before breakup is required to explain the observed narrow

  20. Vertical Distribution and Columnar Optical Properties of Springtime Biomass-Burning Aerosols over Northern Indochina during the 7-SEAS/BASELInE field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, N. H.; Wang, S. H.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tsay, S. C.; Giles, D. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Janjai, S.; Anh, N. X.; Hsiao, T. C.; Chen, W. N.; Lin, T. H.; Buntoung, S.; Chantara, S.; Wiriya, W.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the aerosol optical properties and vertical distributions in major biomass-burning emission area of northern Indochina were investigated using ground-based remote sensing (i.e., four Sun-sky radiometers and one lidar) during the Seven South East Asian Studies/Biomass-burning Aerosols & Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles & Interactions Experiment conducted during spring 2014. Despite the high spatial variability of the aerosol optical depth (AOD; which at 500 nm ranged from 0.75 to 1.37 depending on the site), the temporal variation of the daily AOD demonstrated a consistent pattern among the observed sites, suggesting the presence of widespread smoke haze over the region. Smoke particles were characterized as small (Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.72 and fine mode fraction of 0.96), strongly absorbing (single-scattering albedo at 440 nm of 0.88), mixture of black and brown carbon particles (absorption Ångström exponent at 440-870 nm of 1.5) suspended within the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Smoke plumes driven by the PBL dynamics in the mountainous region reached as high as 5 km above sea level; these plumes subsequently spread out by westerly winds over northern Vietnam, southern China, and the neighboring South China Sea. Moreover, the analysis of diurnal variability of aerosol loading and optical properties as well as vertical profile in relation to PBL development, fire intensity, and aerosol mixing showed that various sites exhibited different variability based on meteorological conditions, fuel type, site elevation, and proximity to biomass-burning sources. These local factors influence the aerosol characteristics in the region and distinguish northern Indochina smoke from other biomass-burning regions in the world.

  1. Identification of new NE-trending deep-seated faults and tectonic pattern updating in northern Tunisia (Mogodos-Bizerte region), insights from field and seismic reflection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essid, El Mabrouk; Kadri, Ali; Inoubli, Mohamed Hedi; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    The northern Tunisia is occupied by the Tellian domain constituent the eastern end of the Maghrebides, Alpine fold-thrust belt. Study area includes partially the Tellian domain (Mogodos belt) and its foreland (Bizerte region). Most of this region outcrops consist of Numidian thrust sheet flysch attributed to the lower Oligocene-Burdigalian. In the study area, the major fault systems are still subject of discussion. The Numidian nappe structure, the distribution of basalt and Triassic outcrops within and at the front of this Tellian domain deserve more explanation. In this work we intend to update the structural scheme and the tectonic evolution of the northern Tunisia, taking into account salt tectonics and magmatism. The updated tectonic evolution will be integrated in the geodynamic framework of the Central Mediterranean. For this purpose, we have analyzed morphologic, seismic and structural data. The compilation of the results has allowed the identification of new regional NE-trending faults dipping towards the NW: the Bled el Aouana-Bizerte, the Sejnane-Ras Enjla and the Oued el Harka faults. They correspond to the reactivation of deep-seated normal faults splaying on the Triassic evaporites. This fault system constitutes the main component of the northern Tunisia structural scheme and has influenced its tectonic evolution marked by the main following stages. The Tellian thrust-sheets were immobilized at the uppermost Langhian. During the major Tortonian NW-trending compressive phase, these faults were reactivated with reverse kinematics and controlled the distribution of the post-nappes Neogene continental deposits. At the early Pleistocene, a compressive NNW-trending event has reactivated again these faults with sinistral-reverse movements and deformed the post-nappes Neogene series. Late Quaternary to Actual, the tectonic regime continues to be compressive with a NNW-trending maximum horizontal stress.

  2. Lithospheric structure and geodynamic evolution of the northern Molucca Sea area constrained by 3-D gravity field inversion of a combined sea-surface and satellite gravity dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiwijayanti, C.; Tiberi, C.; Diament, M.; Deplus, C.; Mikhailov, V.; Louat, R.; Tikhotsky, S.; Gvishiani, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Molucca Sea extending from northeastern Indonesia to southern Philippines islands, is a zone of oceanic basin closure between two opposite-facing subduction zones. This convergence results in the collision of two subduction zones, which style evolves from the southern to the northern parts of the Molucca Sea. In order to provide new insights into the present-day lithospheric structures in the Molucca Sea area, we inverted satellite and sea-surface gravity data into an iterative scheme including a priori seismological data. The seismological data were collected from two networks of Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS). These data allowed us to locate local seismic events and to build 3D tomographic images. We relate these results to the different stages of collision. The gravity data consists of combined sea-surface and satellite derived gravity. We used Kolmogorov-Wiener optimal (mean-square) filter to extract the gravity signal associated with lithospheric structures, then analyzed it to determine main regional features of lithospheric structure. For this purpose we employed a selection of Euler solutions based on a new clustering technique. To identify the geometry and nature of lithospheric structures, we also performed a 3-D gravity inversion for the northern Molucca Sea data, introducing our tomographic model as an independent constraint. The combination of both methods permits us to obtain a coherent image of the lithospheric structure. The results of this study illustrate the heterogeneity of lithospheric units in the northern Molucca Sea, which results from the collision between the Sangihe margin and lithospheric fragments from the Phillipine plate such as the Snellius plateau or the Halmahera volcanic arc. Three phenomena can explain the observed lithospheric structure: 1) the rupture of the Molucca Sea plate, accompanied by the appearance at the surface of slices of oceanic crust, favoring the development of suture zones as the collision evolves, 2) the

  3. Lateral extrusion of the northern Tibetan Plateau interpreted from seismic images, potential field data, and structural analysis of the eastern Kunlun fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao; Gao, Rui; Dong, Shuwen; Wang, Haiyan; Guo, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    The extrusion model suggests that the India-Eurasia collision triggered lateral escape of the Tibetan Plateau via strike-slip faults from south to north. However, questions remain as to how the collision resulted in the different geological settings of northern Tibet. The area between the Haiyuan fault and the eastern Kunlun fault is ideal for investigating whether major strike-slip faults contributed to lateral extrusion of the plateau. This study uses a deep seismic profile spanning a 257 km transect, along with regional geologic, gravity, and magnetic data. Examining our results integrated with those of previous studies, we propose that the block between the Elashan and Riyueshan faults extruded southward under the background of a large-scale eastward extrusion of the Tibetan Plateau. According to regional tectonic events, the north-dipping intracrustal seismic reflectors that appear beneath the Western Qinling orogen are the remnants of the Indosinian Mianlue suture zone. The subduction of the Mianlue Ocean led to the underthrusting of South China beneath the Qinling orogen, similar to the process that occurred in the Western Kunlun Range and central Alps. As a result, the Moho was duplicated beneath the Western Qinling orogen. Southward extrusion resulted in the offset of the eastern Kunlun fault from the Diebu-Bailongjiang fault, which transferred part of the Western Qinling orogen to the Ruo'ergai basin and pulled the Ruo'ergai basin as well. Based on interpretations of structures and other evident features, we develop a kinematic model to specifically explain how the northern Tibetan Plateau between the Elashan and Riyueshan faults, located between the Haiyuan and Kunlun faults, accommodates southwesterly compression.

  4. Palynological evidence of the replacement of the hygrophilous forest by field vegetation during the last 7,000 years B.P. in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Barth, Ortrud M; Martin, Louis; Silva, Cleverson G; Turcq, Bruno J

    2011-09-01

    Historians claim that European colonizers of the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State found vast herbaceous fields when arrived in this region. Hypotheses about the origin of these fields include forest burning by the Goitacás indians and periodical floods by the Paraíba do Sul River and the lagoon system. The palynologycal analysis of two lake cores obtained in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes revealed opening episodes of hygrophilous forest and the establishment of field vegetation, recorded at ca. 6,500 and ca. 4,000 (14)C yr BP. The partial replacement of forest by field vegetation in the first episode was probably caused by floods of the lower areas during the development of the Holocene lagoon phase. During the second episode, successions of vegetational patterns occurred due to lowering of the sea level. Drying and enlarging of the coastal plain have allowed its colonization by herbs and heliophyte plants. The palynological analysis does not provide any evidence that sustains the theories of use of fire and agricultural activities by indigenous groups during these periods.

  5. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic fields in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay are temporally and spatially associated with the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and the transition from subduction and associated arc volcanism to a slab window tectonic environment. Our geochemical analyses from the Sonoma volcanic field highlight the geochemical diversity of these volcanic rocks, allowing us to clearly distinguish these volcanic rocks from those of the roughly coeval ancestral Cascades magmatic arc to the west, and also to compare rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field to rocks from other slab window settings.

  6. Field-Based Evaluation of Two Herbaceous Plant Community Composition Sampling Methods for Long-Term Monitoring in Northern Great Plains National Parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Symstad, Amy J.; Wienk, Cody L.; Thorstenson, Andy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Great Plains Inventory & Monitoring (I&M) Network (Network) of the National Park Service (NPS) consists of 13 NPS units in North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, and eastern Wyoming. The Network is in the planning phase of a long-term program to monitor the health of park ecosystems. Plant community composition is one of the 'Vital Signs,' or indicators, that will be monitored as part of this program for three main reasons. First, plant community composition is information-rich; a single sampling protocol can provide information on the diversity of native and non-native species, the abundance of individual dominant species, and the abundance of groups of plants. Second, plant community composition is of specific management concern. The abundance and diversity of exotic plants, both absolute and relative to native species, is one of the greatest management concerns in almost all Network parks (Symstad 2004). Finally, plant community composition reflects the effects of a variety of current or anticipated stressors on ecosystem health in the Network parks including invasive exotic plants, large ungulate grazing, lack of fire in a fire-adapted system, chemical exotic plant control, nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, and climate change. Before the Network begins its Vital Signs monitoring, a detailed plan describing specific protocols used for each of the Vital Signs must go through rigorous development and review. The pilot study on which we report here is one of the components of this protocol development. The goal of the work we report on here was to determine a specific method to use for monitoring plant community composition of the herb layer (< 2 m tall).

  7. Relationship between textural properties, fly ash carbons, and Hg capture in fly ashes derived from the combustion of anthracitic pulverized feed blends

    SciTech Connect

    Isabel Surez-Ruiz; Jose B. Parra

    2007-08-15

    In this work, the textural properties of a series of whole anthracitic-derived fly ashes sampled in eight hoppers from the electrostatic precipitators and their sized fractions (from {gt}150 to {lt}25 {mu}m) are investigated. Data from N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms at 77 K, helium density, and mercury porosimetry have contributed to establish a relationship between the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas, VTOT, porosity, carbon content (the type of fly ash carbons), and Hg retention in these fly ashes. The unburned carbons in these ashes are macroporous materials, and they are different from the carbons in fly ashes from classes C and F (the latter derived from the combustion of bituminous coals) and show different textural properties. These ashes represent the end member of the fly ash classes C and F with respect to certain textural properties. Although the BET surface area and VTOT values for the studied samples are the lowest reported, they increase with the increase in carbon content, anisotropic carbon content, and particle size of the ashes. Thus, a positive relationship between all these parameters and Hg capture by the coarser ash fractions was found. The finest fraction of carbons ({lt}25 {mu}m) represented an exception. Although it makes a significant contribution to the total carbon of the whole fly ashes and shows relatively higher surface areas and VTOT values, its Hg concentration was found to be the lowest. This suggests that the type of unburned carbons in the finest fraction and/or other adsorption mechanisms may play a role in Hg concentration. Because the textural properties of anisotropic carbons depend on their subtype and on their origin, the need for its differentiation has been evidenced. 54 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Carbon sequestration in croplands is mainly driven by management leading to increased net primary production - evidence from long-term field experiments in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kätterer, Thomas; Bolinder, Martin Anders; Börjesson, Gunnar; Kirchmann, Holger; Poeplau, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable intensification of agriculture in regions with high production potential is a prerequisite for providing services for an increasing human population, not only food, animal feed, fiber and biofuel but also to promote biodiversity and the beauty of landscapes. We investigated the effect of different management practices on soil fertility and carbon sequestration in long-term experiments, mainly from Northern Europe. In addition, a meta-analysis on the effect of catch crops was conducted. Improved management of croplands was found to be a win-win strategy resulting in both increased soil fertility and carbon sequestration. We quantified the effect of different management practices such as N fertilization, organic amendments, catch crops and ley-arable rotations versus continuous annual cropping systems on soil carbon stocks. Increasing net primary productivity (NPP) was found to be the main driver for higher soil carbon storage. Mineral N fertilization increased soil carbon stocks by 1-2 kg C ha-1 for each kg of N applied to cropland. Ley-arable rotations, being a combination of annual and perennial crops, are expected to have C stocks intermediate between those of continuous grass- and croplands. A summary of data from 15 long-term sites showed that on average 0.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.3 to 1.1; median 0.4 Mg ha-1 yr-1) more carbon was retained in soils in ley-arable compared to exclusively annual systems, depending on species composition, management, soil depth and the duration of the studies. The annual C accumulation rate for catch crops determined in the meta-analysis was well within that range (0.32±0.08 Mg C ha-1 yr-1). Retention factors calculated for straw, manure, sawdust, peat, sewage sludge and composted household waste varied widely in a decadal time scale. Retention of root and rhizodeposit carbon was higher than for above-ground crop residues. We conclude that NPP is the major driver for C sequestration and emphasize that increased soil

  9. Digital Geology from field to 3D modelling and Google Earth virtual environment: methods and goals from the Furlo Gorge (Northern Apennines - Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara

    2014-05-01

    A new map of the Furlo Gorge was surveyed and elaborated in a digital way. In every step of work we used digital tools as mobile GIS and 3D modelling software. Phase 1st Starting in the lab, planning the field project development, base cartography, forms and data base were designed in the way we thought was the best for collecting and store data in order of producing a digital n­-dimensional map. Bedding attitudes, outcrops sketches and description, stratigraphic logs, structural features and other informations were collected and organised in a structured database using rugged tablet PC, GPS receiver, digital cameras and later also an Android smartphone with some survey apps in-­house developed. A new mobile GIS (BeeGIS) was developed starting from an open source GIS (uDig): a number of tools like GPS connection, pen drawing annotations, geonotes, fieldbook, photo synchronization and geotagging were originally designed. Phase 2nd After some month of digital field work, all the informations were elaborated for drawing a geologic map in GIS environment. For that we use both commercial (ArcGIS) and open source (gvSig, QGIS, uDig) without big technical problems. Phase 3rd When we get to the step of building a 3D model (using 3DMove), passing trough the assisted drawing of cross-­sections (2DMove), we discovered a number of problems in the interpretation of geological structures (thrusts, normal faults) and more in the interpretation of stratigraphic thickness and boundaries and their relationships with topography. Phase 4th Before an "on­-armchair" redrawing of map, we decide to go back to the field and check directly what was wrong. Two main vantages came from this: (1) the mistakes we found could be reinterpreted and corrected directly in the field having all digital tools we need; (2) previous interpretations could be stored in GIS layers keeping memory of the previous work (also mistakes). Phase 5th A 3D model built with 3D Move is already almost self

  10. Flooded area and plant zonation in isolated wetlands in well fields in the Northern Tampa Bay Region, Florida, following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haag, Kim H.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2012-01-01

    WAP scores and weighted average scores for wetland vegetation were generally consistent with the results of the flooded area analysis. The WAP scores and weighted average scores were higher overall and did not decline with time at four wetlands in well fields (W-33, W-56, Starkey N, and Starkey 108) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates. These four wetlands also had increases in the extent and duration of the flooded area during the post-reduction period. Scores for trees were more consistent than scores for shrubs and groundcover. WAP scores remained relatively low or generally declined at five well-field wetlands (Q-1, W-17, W-41, Starkey D, and Starkey E) during the years following reductions in groundwater-withdrawal rates, and weighted average scores either declined over time or remained low. These five wetlands either did not have an increase in the extent and duration of the flooded area, or if there was an increase, it was small.

  11. Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) of Carbonate Rocks as a Proxy for the Strain Field near the Dead Sea Transform in Northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issachar, Ran; Levi, Tsafrir; Weinberger, Ram; Marco, Shmuel

    2014-05-01

    To exploit the potential of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) axes (k1, k2, k3) and magnitudes as a tool to estimate the strain field around major faults, the AMS of calcite-bearing diamagnetic rocks that crop out next to the Dead Sea Transform (DST) were measured. The low-field bulk-susceptibility of Bar-Kokhba limestone formation is -10.67±1.69 [µSI], very close to the value of a single calcite crystal. Thermomagnetic curves show temperature independent and reversible behavior. Chemical composition analysis indicates minor amounts of Fe contents <300 ppm. Results of XRD diffraction and petrofabric study of thin-sections and SEM images indicate that the Bar-Kokhba rocks are calcite mono-mineralic rocks. The magnetic fabrics are solely controlled by the alignment of c-axes of almost pure calcite crystals and help to assess the direction of the maximum shortening prevailing post-deposition and during the tectonic evolution of the DST. In one studied site, high Fe contents <6000 ppm were found, which are associated with young morphological processes of chemical alteration. In this site, thermomagnetic curves indicate temperature dependency and irreversibility. IRM curves show saturation around 200 mT, evidence of ferro/ferimagnetic minerals. AARM measurements reveal isotropic fabric which suggesting that the ferro/ferimagnetic minerals are contributing no anisotropy to the AMS. The AMS of the diamagnetic fabric is masked by a paramagnetic fabric of Fe-bearing minerals. Using liner correlation between Fe content and bulk susceptibility we applied a novel tensor subtraction method and successfully isolated the diamagnetic fabric from the total AMS. The paramagnetic fabric has characteristics of sedimentary fabrics, while that of the diamagnetic fabric has tectonic characteristics. The isolation process indicates that the AMS of carbonate rocks is mostly controlled by the diamagnetic phase, where the Fe content is below 500 ppm. Differences in the degree of

  12. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity reduction of the polluted urban river after ecological restoration: a field-scale study of Jialu River in northern China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Zhang, Rui; Qin, Long; Zhu, Haixiao; Huang, Yu; Xue, Yingang; An, Shuqing; Xie, Xianchuan; Li, Aimin

    2017-01-13

    To further treat the reclaimed municipal wastewater and rehabilitate the aquatic ecosystem of polluted urban rivers, an 18.5-km field-scale ecological restoration project was constructed along Jialu River, a polluted urban river which receives only reclaimed municipal wastewater from Zhengzhou City without natural upland water dilution. This study investigated the potential efficiency of water quality improvement, as well as genotoxicity and cytotoxicity reduction along the ecological restoration project of this polluted urban river. Results showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) of the reclaimed municipal effluent were reduced by more than 45 and 70%, respectively, meeting the Chinese surface water environmental quality standard level IV, while the total phosphorus and metal concentrations had no significant reduction along the restoration project, and Pb concentrations in all river water samples exceeded permissible limit in drinking water set by WHO (2006) and China (GB5749-2006). The in vitro SOS/umu assay showed 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide equivalent (4-NQO-EQ) values of reclaimed municipal wastewater of 0.69 ± 0.05 μg/L in April and 0.68 ± 0.06 μg/L in December, respectively, indicating the presence of genotoxic compounds. The results of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and hepatic cell apoptosis in zebrafish after a chorionic long-term (21 days) in vivo exposure also demonstrated that the reclaimed municipal wastewater caused significant DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity. After the ecological purification of 18.5-km field-scale restoration project, the genotoxicity assessed by in vitro assay was negligible, while the DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity in exposed fish were still significantly elevated. The mechanisms of DNA oxidative damage and cytotoxicity caused by the reclaimed municipal wastewater need further study.

  13. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    the evolution of the basin. Furthermore, results demonstrate that integration of accurate photo-geological maps produced through API and geological field mapping, can contribute to: (i) characterize the tectono-stratigraphic architecture and the geomorphological evolution of continental basins, (ii) help mineral reserves investigation, (iii) provide new input for active tectonic studies, (iv) produce new geological maps in other continental and marine basins, where field data are hard to collect.

  14. Geochemistry and diagenesis of stratabound calcite cement layers within the Rannoch Formation of the Brent Group, Murchison Field, North Viking Graben (northern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosser, D. J.; Daws, J. A.; Fallick, A. E.; Williams, B. P. J.

    1993-11-01

    Up to four calcite-cemented horizons (doggers) form impermeable barriers to fluid flow within the Middle Jurassic Rannoch Formation and are correlatable across the Murchison Field. Calcite precipitated during early diagenesis, within high porosity/permeability sandstones at the top of coarsening (shoaling) upward shoreface cycles. Calcite δ 13C and δ 18O compositions range from -4.1 to -13.4‰ PDB, and -6.6 to -16.7‰ PDB, respectively. Sr concentrations of up to 1334 ppm are consistent with marine carbonate sources (probably shell fragments), but no viable intraformational carbonate source has been identified in the Murchison Field area. Initial 87Sr/ 86Sr compositions (0.71109-0.71266) are higher than Middle Jurassic seawater (0.7073), and consistent with precipitation from modified porewaters containing significant proportions of continentally derived "meteoric" fluids enriched in 87Sr as a result of basement weathering, or percolation through hinterland soils/unconsolidated detritus. An internal source of 87Sr is not considered viable in view of the high proportion (up to 25‰ clastic constituents) of unaltered detrital alkali feldspar and mica within the Rannoch Formation. Geochemical and isotope data indicate correlations between increasing δ 18O composition and increasing iron and magnesium content within calcite. Calcium concentrations decrease with increasing δ 18O for calcites. Geochemical data trends can be interpreted differently in terms of either "static" or "evolving" δ 18O porewater models. Static δ 18O porewater models using Jurassic/Early Cretaceous "meteoric" water ( δ 18O = -6‰; SMOW) predict cement precipitation temperatures of 17-77°C. However, δ 13C compositions are more depleted than those typical of carbon derived from shell debris, and correlation between decreasing δ 18O and decreasing δ 13C suggests modification of a meteoric-derived porewater system during burial via contribution of low δ 13C carbon derived from a deep

  15. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  16. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. The questa magmatic system: Petrologic, chemical and isotopic variations in cogenetic volcanic and plutonic rocks of the latir volcanic field and associated intrusives, northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    Field, chemical and isotopic data demonstrate that nearly all igneous rocks at Questa resulted from interactions between mantle-derived parental magmas and the crust. Strontium, neodymium and lead isotope ratios of early andesites to rhyolites (28 to 26 Ma) indicate that these magmas assimilated > 25% lower crust. Injection of basaltic magmas extensively modified the strontium and neodymium but not the lead isotope compositions of the lower crust. Eruption of comendite magmas and the peralkaline Amalia Tuff 26 Ma is correlated with inception of regional extension. Lead isotope ratios identify different sources for the metaluminous granites and the peralkaline rocks. 26 Ma metaluminous granite to granodiorite intrusions have chemical and isotopic compositions to those of the precaldera intermediate-composition rocks, and are interpreted as representing the solidified equivalents of the precaldera magmatic episode. However, both conventional and ion-microprobe isotopic data prohibit significant assimilation of crustal rocks at the level of exposure, suggesting that the plutons were emplaced a relatively crystal-rich mushes which did not have sufficient heat to assimilate country rocks. This suggest that in some cases plutonic rocks are better than volcanic rocks in representing the isotopic compositions of their source regions, because the assimilation potential of crystal-rich magmas is significantly less than that of largely liquid magmas.

  19. Quantitative Interpretation of Arctic Tundra Attributes Using Remote Sensing: Leveraging Field Data, Modern- and Legacy Landsat Data, and Commercial Imagery in Northern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V., Jr.; Macander, M. J.; Nelson, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    Integrated analysis of ground-based vegetation data and remote sensing supports vegetation mapping, landscape-change detection, wildlife habitat assessment, and tracking of phenological events such as green-up and senescence. The life-cycles of tundra plants occur within a highly compressed seasonal window, making the quantitative assessment of vegetation and landscape attributes from ≤30m resolution remotely-sensed imagery, such as above-ground biomass, % shrub cover, and % surface water, a difficult task when applied across large study domains. To support mapping of vegetation and landscape attributes across ~100,000 km2 of Alaska's North Slope, we obtained ground data for tundra vegetation using a point-intercept sampling approach across a network of 107 field plots spanning gradients of bioclimate, landscape position (upland, lowland, riverine), and geomorphic setting (foothills, coastal plain). At each plot, vegetation data were collected along three 50-m linear transects, compatible with 30-m Landsat imagery. We summarized live vegetation, litter, and non-vegetated surfaces using three terms: top cover (uppermost "hit"), percent cover (total areal cover along transect), and hit density (all "hits" at a point). We then evaluated a suite of data models (e.g., General Additive Models, classification tree, clustering) and data-mining approaches (e.g., neural networks, random forest) using midsummer Landsat TM/ETM+ acquisitions since 1985, and OLI acquisitions for 2013-2014. The large size, frequent cloudiness, and interannual variability of the study area necessitated the compositing of a multitude of Landsat scenes. A median NDVI compositing technique was used to select Landsat observations from cloud- and shadow-free pixels that met day-of-year and year constraints. This technique produced seamless, phenologically consistent composites that are largely free of artifacts and suitable for regional-scale analysis. Ground-based training data and an archive of

  20. Field testing and adaptation of a methodology to measure "in-stream" values in the Tongue River, northern Great Plains (NGP) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Gore, James A.; Silverman, Arnold J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive, multi-component in-stream flow methodology was developed and field tested in the Tongue River in southeastern Montana. The methodology incorporates a sensitivity for the flow requirements of a wide variety of in-stream uses, and the flexibility to adjust flows to accommodate seasonal and sub-seasonal changes in the flow requirements for different areas. In addition, the methodology provides the means to accurately determine the magnitude of the water requirement for each in-stream use. The methodology can be a powerful water management tool in that it provides the flexibility and accuracy necessary in water use negotiations and evaluation of trade-offs. In contrast to most traditional methodologies, in-stream flow requirements were determined by additive independent methodologies developed for: 1) fisheries, including spawning, rearing, and food production; 2) sediment transport; 3) the mitigation of adverse impacts of ice; and 4) evapotranspiration losses. Since each flow requirement varied in important throughout the year, the consideration of a single in-stream use as a basis for a flow recommendation is inadequate. The study shows that the base flow requirement for spawning shovelnose sturgeon was 13.0 m3/sec. During the same period of the year, the flow required to initiate the scour of sediment from pools is 18.0 m3/sec, with increased scour efficiency occurring at flows between 20.0 and 25.0 m3/sec. An over-winter flow of 2.83 m3/sec. would result in the loss of approximately 80% of the riffle areas to encroachment by surface ice. At the base flow for insect production, approximately 60% of the riffle area is lost to ice. Serious damage to the channel could be incurred from ice jams during the spring break-up period. A flow of 12.0 m3/sec. is recommended to alleviate this problem. Extensive ice jams would be expected at the base rearing and food production levels. The base rearing flow may be profoundly influenced by the loss of streamflow

  1. Field guide to sedimentary structures in the Navajo and Entrada sandstones in southern Utah and northern Arizona: Chapter in Field-trip guidebook, 100th annual meeting, The Geological Society of America, Phoenix, Arizona, October 26-29, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rubin, David M.; Hunter, Ralph E.

    1987-01-01

    This field-trip guide describes the common sedimentary structures that occur in eolian sands. The outcrops that are described occur in the Navajo and Entiaia Sandstones between the areas of Page, Arizona and St. George, Utah (figure I), but the sedimentary structures of these two sandstones are typical of most eolian deposits. The main part of the guide discusses the geologic setting and the origin of the various structures, and the road log discusses which structures are best displayed at selected outcrops.

  2. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  3. Northern Trust Mines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  4. Plant betterment for an anthracite-burning utility in Ukraine: Coal preparation as part of a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.; Freeman, M.C.; Gollakota, S.V.

    1997-12-31

    Workers at the Energy Departments of the US and Ukraine have cooperatively devised a strategy for upgrading performance of a 200 MWe wet bottom pulverized coal boiler in eastern Ukraine at the Lugansk GRES power station. The plant currently burns poor quality anthracite (30% ash versus 18% ash design coal, as-received basis) and is in need of maintenance. Oil or gas support fuel in the amount of 30% (calorific basis) is required to stabilize the flame and supplement the calorific value of the coal feed. No NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} controls are used at present, and unburned carbon content in the fly ash is high. An experimental program was carried out at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to estimate the improvement in plant performance that could be expected if the unit is supplied with design coal and is refurbished. High ash Ukrainian anthracite was cleaned to design specifications. Raw and cleaned coal were fed to a 490 MJ/h coal feed combustion unit at a number of conditions of support fuel use and ingress air leakage designed to simulate current and improved operations at the power plant. The results indicate the improvement in performance and reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be expected as a result of the planned upgrade and conversion to use of cleaned coal. A detailed engineering and financial analysis indicates that plant rehabilitation combined with the use of cleaned schtib reduces not only pollutant emissions but also cost of electricity (COE). Additional benefits include increased plant life and capacity, and reduced supplementary fuel consumption.

  5. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  6. Petroleum resource potential GIS of northern Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinshouer, Douglas W.; Klett, Timothy R.; Ulmishek, Gregory F.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Wahl, Ronald R.; Hill, Ronald J.; Pribil, Michael J.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; King, J. David; Agena, Warren F.; Taylor, David J.; Amirzada, Abdulla; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Mutteh, Abdul-Salam; Haidari, Ghulam Naqshband; Wardak, Moeengul Gullabudeen

    2006-01-01

    The CD-ROM contains an ESRI ArcReader format GIS project presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the petroleum assessment. Geologic, structural, field, well, political, and other GIS layers covering Afghanistan, Northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas, along with associated geochemical and other data tables pertinent to a petroleum assessment are included. The purpose of this GIS is to provide the basic data layers and tables required to support the petroleum assessment, data for further exploration and development, and an index of known data.

  7. Definition and kinematics of the northern of the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block and the Lesser Antilles forearc based on an updated and improved GPS velocity field and revised block models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Stafford-Glenn, M.; Calais, E.

    2011-12-01

    The presence of small tectonic blocks the Greater Antilles, for example the Puerto Rico-Virgin Islands block (PRVI), which may be translating, rotating, and possibly internally deforming, has been proposed and some cases well-documented by several workers. In addition, the existence of a Lesser Antilles forearc has been proposed based on interplate earthquake slip vectors (Lopez et al. 2006). Manaker et al. (2008) used sparse GPS and earthquake slip data from the northeastern Caribbean to construct a DEFNODE block and fault model to constrain interseismic fault coupling among the microplates in the northeastern Caribbean. They concluded that the Enriquillo fault in Haiti could produce a Mw7.2, if the entire accumulated elastic strain was released in one event. On January 12, 2010, the strain was released in a Mw7.0 earthquake that left Port-au-Prince in rubble. The interseismic GPS velocity field has been updated for Hispanolia (Calais et al, 2010); in addition, new data have been collected in the northern Lesser Antilles (NLA) in 2009 as well as throughout the PRVI block in 2007 and 2011, and the existing GPS time series updated and transformed into ITRF05 (IGS05). GPS data from the NLA are consistent with a NLA forearc sliver that moves differently from the Caribbean and North American plates as originally proposed by Lopez et al. (2006). The forearc does not, however, continue as single tectonic entity across the Anegada Passage as previously suggested. Here we report revised DEFNODE models using both the original geometry and constraints of Manaker et al. (2008) with an updated GPS data set as well as new models that explicitly include a forearc block. The models may be used to explicitly define the rotation parameters of the block as well as the coupling along block bounding faults. The original model geometry (without a forearc sliver) yields a higher reduced chi-squared (2.57 vs. 2.01), when additional the GPS velocities from NLA are used to condition the

  8. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  9. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  10. Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    22 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a typical view of the martian northern plains. Thousands of square kilometers of the northern middle and polar latitudes of Mars look similar to the scene in this image. In late spring and in summer, dust devils crisscross the northern plains, leaving a variety of dark streaks. The streaks do not survive from year to year, indicating their ephemeral nature. The circular features in this image, including the prominent bright circular feature near the bottom, are the locations of buried meteor impact craters. This image is located near 58.1oN, 207.6oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  11. A revision of the Axylus group of Agraeciini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae) and of some other species formerly included in Nicsara or Anthracites Revision of the Indo-Australian Conocephalinae, Part 3.

    PubMed

    Ingrisch, Sigfrid

    2015-11-23

    Axylus group is used to include the five genera Axylus Stål, 1877, Anthracites Redtenbacher, 1891 sensu stricto, Eucoptaspis Willemse, 1966, Eulobaspis gen. nov., and Heminicsara Karny, 1912. It is mainly based on a combination of the characters shape of pronotum, spiniform meso- and metasternal lobes, and similar basic ground plans of the male cerci, titillators and female subgenital plates. The five genera together with two superficially similar genera Euanthracites gen. nov. and Sulasara gen. nov. are fully revised. Papuacites gen. nov. is proposed for two New Guinean species formerly included in Anthracites. Nicsara Walker, 1869 is restricted to Australian species; Spinisternum Willemse, 1942 is synonymised with Heminicsara Karny, 1912; Odontocoryphus Karny, 1907 based on two nymphs is synonymised with Macroxiphus Pictet, 1888; Pseudoliara Karny, 1907 described after one nymph is regarded incertae sedis. 40 new combination of species are proposed: Axylus bimaculatus (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., A. inferior (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. inflatus (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. loboensis (De Haan, 1842) comb. nov., A. minutus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., A. nigrifrons (Brunner, 1898) comb. nov., A. philippinus (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., A, taylori (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., and A. thoracicus (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov. (all from Nicsara); Euanthracites apoensis (Hebard, 1922) comb. nov., E. femoralis (Dohrn, 1905) comb. nov., E. rufus (Ingrisch, 1998) comb. nov., and E. tibialis (Karny, 1931) comb. nov. (from Anthracites); Eucoptaspis inexpectatus (Willemse, 1953) comb. nov. (from Gonatacanthus Karny, 1907); Eulobaspis dehaani (Karny, 1920) comb. nov., E. emarginata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. moluccana (Redtenbacher, 1891) comb. nov., E. personata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. quadrimaculata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., E. rotundata (Karny, 1926) comb. nov., and E. strigatipes (Bolivar, 1898) comb. nov. (from Nicsara); Eulobaspis lobaspoides (Karny, 1907) comb. nov

  12. Temperature field around a laser-heated coal particle

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, B.; Liu, Y.H.; Zhou, Y.B.; Liu, Z.H.; Zheng, C.G.

    1997-12-31

    Holography was used to measure the temperature field around a laser heated coal particle. A man-made coal particle (with the size of 5mm in diameter and 5mm in length) was ignited by a laser beam (with the maximum power of 15W). And then the temperature distribution around the particle was obtained from the holograph which was developed by the authors. A bituminous coal, an anthracite and a sub-bituminous coal were used. It was interesting to find that there exists a zone near the particle surface where the temperature is higher than that at the surface for the bituminous coal during the combustion of the coal although the phenomenon was not found for the other coals. A mathematical model taking into account the laser induced energy was developed to calculate the temperature field around the particle. The predicted results were compared with the experimental ones.

  13. Northern Arizona University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, Michael F.; Saltonstall, Margot; Bickel, Sarah; Brandel, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Northern Arizona University (NAU) is a public university nestled below the San Francisco Peaks in Flagstaff, Arizona. It enrolls more than 21,000 undergraduate and graduate students at its main campus in Flagstaff, through its 35 statewide sites, and via online program offerings. Within the university organizational system, Student Affairs has a…

  14. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Dermatophytosis in northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nweze, E I; Eke, I

    2016-03-01

    Infections caused by dermatophytes are a global problem and a major public health burden in the world today. In Africa, especially in the northern geographical zone, dermatophytic infections are being reported at an alarming rate. This is mostly because of some local but unique cultural practices, socioeconomic and environmental conditions, lack of reliable diagnostic personnel and facilities and ineffective treatment. Interestingly, the pathogen spectrum and the clinical manifestation are most times different from what is seen in other continents. Several epidemiological studies have been performed on the incidence and aetiology of dermatophytoses in northern Africa. However, there is currently no review article with up-to-date information on the relevant findings reported so far in this region. This information is necessary for clinicians who treat dermatophytic infections all over the world since agents of dermatophytes are no longer restricted because of the rapid mobility of humans from one part of the world to another. Moreover, the epidemiology of dermatophytoses is known to change over time, thus requiring the update of information from time to time. A review of relevant studies published on dermatophytoses in northern Africa is presented. This covers all of old Sudan, Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia and Morocco.

  16. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  17. Preliminary vitrinite reflectance study of the post-Acadian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formation, northern Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Malinconico, M.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Vitrinite reflectance was measured on plant fossils from the Devonian Mapleton and Trout Valley Formations in northern Maine in order to assess the degree and possible history of thermal maturation of these post-Acadian intermontane basin deposits, generally considered to be unmetamorphosed. The Middle Devonian Mapleton Formation, west of Presque Isle, lies within the prehnite-pumpellyite terrane of northeastern Aroostook County in which the degree of metamorphism increases from west to east. Vitrinite reflectance from the quarry'' plant fossil locality has a reflectance of 1.4%, which is slightly higher than the death line'' of oil and indicates a maximum paleotemperature of ca. 120--150 C. If not due to burial alone, this very low grade metamorphism may be due to (1) intrusion of nearby teschenite dikes or (2) the Maritime Disturbance of the Pennsylvanian. Based on conodont alteration indices and vitrinite and graptolite reflectance, the degree of thermal maturation of pre-Acadian Ordovician to Lower Devonian formations decreases rapidly several kilometers west of the prehnite-analcime isograd; the lowest rank rocks, in a northeast-trending ban from Square Lake to Mud Lake have paleotemperatures in the range of 60--90 C, the birth line'' of oil. In the post- orogenic Lower Devonian Trout Valley Formation immediately north of Mt. Katahdin, two samples about seven kilometers apart have anthracite grade reflectances of 3.0% and 8.2% respectively. Both localities are near andesite sills. Importantly, the smooth nongranular non-coked texture of these samples suggests that all or part of the Trout Valley Formation had been heated by an unidentified thermal event to temperatures above the coking range of coal before being subjected to later very local contact metamorphism by dikes and sills.

  18. Mitigating Radicalism in Northern Nigeria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    radicalization in northern Nigeria. u Active engagement of youth and communities in peacebuilding programs that facilitate interactions among individuals...leaders, sustained development investments in marginalized communities , promotion of values of inclusivity to mitigate the spread of extremist ideology...claiming to have repelled Boko Haram, the militants return, regroup, and seek revenge. As a result, social and economic activities in the northern

  19. Report on Ontario's Northern Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Ontario's funding formula fails to recognize the unique needs of northern school boards, which cover immense geographic areas, have many small schools, and enroll a high proportion of Aboriginal students. This report examines school size, enrollment, and staffing in northern Ontario schools, drawing on 2002-03 tracking reports of provincial…

  20. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  1. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  2. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  3. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  4. Relief history and denudation evolution of the northern Tibet margin: Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He dating and implications for far-field effect of rising plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei; Feng, Huile; Shi, Wenbei; Zhang, Weibin; Wu, Lin; Yang, Liekun; Wang, Yinzhi; Zhang, Zhigang; Zhu, Rixiang

    2016-04-01

    How does the rising Tibetan Plateau affect its peripheral region? The current understanding of the mechanism of orogenic plateau development is incomplete and thus no consensus yet exists in this regard. However, our new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He dataset presented in this study may shed some light on this issue. 40Ar/39Ar dating, on two vertical transects from the massif between Nuomuhong and Golmud, indicates that the Eastern Kunlun Range was built-up and exhumated during the later Triassic initially, and a minimum overburden of 11.7-14.0 km has been eroded since 220 Ma. (U-Th)/He age-elevation relationships (AERs) indicate a rapid exhumation event at 40 Ma following a long period of slow exhumation phase from late Mesozoic to early Eocene time. In this study, two scenarios - one assuming a single stage and the other assuming multiple stages of evolution history - are modeled. Modeling of a multiple stage scenario is reasonable and is able to reflect the "actual" situation, which reveals the entire denudation and relief history of the northern Tibet from late Mesozoic to the present time. After prolonged denudation before 50 Ma, a low topography ( 0.17 times the relief of the present) developed by 50 Ma with an erosion rate of 0.013-0.013+ 0.025 mm/yr. The highest relief ( 1.82 times the relief of the present) of the Cenozoic time came into being at 40 Ma with an erosion rate of 0.052 ± 0.025 mm/yr, which was possibly a result of the collision between India and Eurasia. Subsequently, the relief steadily decreased to the present level due to continued denudation. This suggests that deformation propagation from the continued convergence boundary between India and Eurasia was insignificant after the construction of the highest relief. This observation is broadly consistent with published accounts on the stratigraphic, cooling, and faulting histories of the northern Tibet margin.

  5. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  6. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  7. WIND VELOCITIES AND SAND FLUXES IN MESQUITE DUNE-LANDS IN THE NORTHERN CHIHUAHUAN DESERT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN FIELD MEASUREMENTS AND THE QUIC (QUICK URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX) MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The poster shows comparisons of wind velocities and sand fluxes between field measurements and a computer model, called QUIC (Quick Urban & Industrial Complex). The comparisons were made for a small desert region in New Mexico.

  8. Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book “Recent Trends in Soil Science and Agronomy Research in the Northern Great Plains of North America” summarizes published research in soil science and agronomy from various field experiments conducted in the soil-climatic/agro-ecological regions of the Northern Great Plains of North America....

  9. 8. Another environmental view, from the northern bridge approach looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Another environmental view, from the northern bridge approach looking south along 74th Place, through the roadbed. Grain fields which have been harvested can be seen in the background. The bridge's characteristic profile and balustrade are prominent. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sam Y S; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Mayo, Sherry C; Wang, Yu Dan; Wang, Hai Peng

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials.

  11. A synchrotron-based local computed tomography combined with data-constrained modelling approach for quantitative analysis of anthracite coal microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen Hao; Yang, Sam Y. S.; Xiao, Ti Qiao; Mayo, Sherry C.; Wang, Yu Dan; Wang, Hai Peng

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying three-dimensional spatial distributions of pores and material compositions in samples is a key materials characterization challenge, particularly in samples where compositions are distributed across a range of length scales, and where such compositions have similar X-ray absorption properties, such as in coal. Consequently, obtaining detailed information within sub-regions of a multi-length-scale sample by conventional approaches may not provide the resolution and level of detail one might desire. Herein, an approach for quantitative high-definition determination of material compositions from X-ray local computed tomography combined with a data-constrained modelling method is proposed. The approach is capable of dramatically improving the spatial resolution and enabling finer details within a region of interest of a sample larger than the field of view to be revealed than by using conventional techniques. A coal sample containing distributions of porosity and several mineral compositions is employed to demonstrate the approach. The optimal experimental parameters are pre-analyzed. The quantitative results demonstrated that the approach can reveal significantly finer details of compositional distributions in the sample region of interest. The elevated spatial resolution is crucial for coal-bed methane reservoir evaluation and understanding the transformation of the minerals during coal processing. The method is generic and can be applied for three-dimensional compositional characterization of other materials. PMID:24763649

  12. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  14. Turbulent times in the northern polar ionosphere?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, Robert; Astin, Ivan; Mitchell, Cathryn; Alfonsi, Lucilla; Pedersen, Todd; Skone, Susan

    2010-04-01

    A model is presented of the growth rate of turbulently generated irregularities in the electron concentration of northern polar cap plasma patches. The turbulence is generated by the short-term fluctuations in the electric field imposed on the polar cap ionosphere by electric field mapping from the magnetosphere. The model uses an ionospheric imaging algorithm to specify the state of the ionosphere throughout. The growth rates are used to estimate mean amplitudes for the irregularities, and these mean amplitudes are compared with observations of the scintillation indices S4 and σ$\\phi$ by calculating the linear correlation coefficients between them. The scintillation data are recorded by GPS L1 band receivers stationed at high northern latitudes. A total of 13 days are analyzed, covering four separate magnetic storm periods. These results are compared with those from a similar model of the gradient drift instability (GDI) growth rate. Overall, the results show better correlation between the GDI process and the scintillation indices than for the turbulence process and the scintillation indices. Two storms, however, show approximately equally good correlations for both processes, indicating that there might be times when the turbulence process of irregularity formation on plasma patches may be the controlling one.

  15. The interaction of a magnetic cloud with the Earth - Ionospheric convection in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres for a wide range of quasi-steady interplanetary magnetic field conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, M. P.; Farrugia, C. J.; Burlaga, L. F.; Hairston, M. R.; Greenspan, M. E.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    Observations are presented of the ionospheric convection in cross sections of the polar cap and auroral zone as part of the study of the interaction of the Earth's magnetosphere with the magnetic cloud of January 13-15, 1988. For strongly northward IMF, the convection in the Southern Hemisphere is characterized by a two-cell convection pattern comfined to high latitudes with sunward flow over the pole. The strength of the flows is comparable to that later seen under southward IMF. Superimposed on this convection pattern there are clear dawn-dusk asymmetries associated with a one-cell convection component whose sense depends on the polarity of the magnetic cloud's large east-west magnetic field component. When the cloud's magnetic field turns southward, the convection is characterized by a two-cell pattern extending to lower latitude with antisunward flow over the pole. There is no evident interhemispheric difference in the structure and strength of the convection. Superimposed dawn-dusk asymmetries in the flow patterns are observed which are only in part attributable to the east-west component of the magnetic field.

  16. Family Medicine/Northern Medical Services Involvement in Northern Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, James

    1988-01-01

    To address the problems of recruitment and retention of family physicians in various remote locations in northern Saskatchewan, the University of Saskatchewan became involved through Northern Medical Services, a division of the Department of Family Medicine. The University's involvement consists of the provision of resident family-physician services, visiting consultant services, family-practise resident training, research, and a consulting role of the Medical Health Officer. This paper reviews the context in which this program was created, its role in health care in the area, and its involvement with the communities in health promotion and research. PMID:21253032

  17. Factors favouring large organic production in the northern Adriatic: towards the northern Adriatic empirical ecological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, R.; Supić, N.; Precali, R.

    2015-06-01

    Influenced by one of the largest Mediterranean rivers, Po, the northern Adriatic production is highly variable seasonally and interannually. The changes are especially pronounced between winters and seemingly reflect on total Adriatic bioproduction of certain species (anchovy). We analysed the long-term changes in the phytoplankton production at the transect in the region, as derived from monthly oceanographic cruises, in relation to concomitant geostrophic currents distribution in the area and in the Po River discharge rates in days preceding the cruises. In winter and early spring the phyto-abundances depended on existing circulation fields, in summer and autumn they were related to 1-15 days earlier Po River discharge rates and on concomitant circulation fields, while in late spring phyto-abundances increased 1-3 days after high Po River discharge rates regardless of circulation fields. During the entire year the phyto-abundances were dependant on forcing of the previous 1-12 months of surface fluxes and/or Po River rates. Large February blooms are, as well as February circulation patterns, precondited by low evaporation rates in previous November. From 1990 to 2004 a shift towards large winter bioproduction induced by circulation changes appeared. Performed investigations represent the preliminary actions in building of an empirical ecological model of the northern Adriatic which can be used in the sustainable economy of the region, however also in validation of the numerical ecological model of the region, which is currently being developed.

  18. Planetary period oscillations in Saturn's magnetosphere: Coalescence and reversal of northern and southern periods in late northern spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provan, G.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Lamy, L.; Bunce, E. J.; Hunt, G. J.; Zarka, P.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2016-10-01

    We investigate planetary period oscillations (PPOs) in Saturn's magnetosphere using Cassini magnetic field and Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) data over the interval from late 2012 to the end of 2015, beginning 3 years after vernal equinox and ending 1.5 years before northern solstice. Previous studies have shown that the northern and southern PPO periods converged across equinox from southern summer values 10.8 h for the southern system and 10.6 h for the northern system and near coalesced 1 year after equinox, before separating again with the southern period 10.69 h remaining longer than the northern 10.64 h. We show that these conditions ended in mid-2013 when the two periods coalesced at 10.66 h and remained so until mid-2014, increasing together to longer periods 10.70 h. During coalescence the two systems were locked near magnetic antiphase with SKR modulations in phase, a condition in which the effects of the generating rotating twin vortex flows in the two ionospheres reinforce each other via hemisphere-to-hemisphere coupling. The magnetic-SKR relative phasing indicates the dominance of postdawn SKR sources in both hemispheres, as was generally the case during the study interval. In mid-2014 the two periods separated again, the northern increasing to 10.78 h by the end of 2015, similar to the southern period during southern summer, while the southern period remained fixed near 10.70 h, well above the northern period during southern summer. Despite this difference, this behavior resulted in the first enduring reversal of the two periods, northern longer than southern, during the Cassini era.

  19. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  20. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  1. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  2. Gaspé Belt subsurface geometry in the northern Québec Appalachians as revealed by an integrated geophysical and geological study: 2 — Seismic interpretation and potential field modelling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    Geological information, seismic reflection profiles and potential field data are used to study the geometry of the Middle Paleozoic Gaspé Belt (eastern Canada) that has been interpreted in various ways in the past. On the western edge of the Gaspé Belt, in the Matapédia area, growth strata are imaged on seismic profiles and testify of normal (or transtensional) motion during the period spanning the Silurian (and possibly Late Ordovician) to earliest Devonian along several faults, including the Shickshock-Sud Fault. In this area, Acadian deformation during the Middle to Late Devonian is associated with relatively modest shortening (less than 20%) accommodated by broad open folds, steeply-dipping neo-formed faults and inversion of previously formed faults. Neo-formed faults cut the entire Middle Paleozoic succession and offset the Ordovician Taconian unconformity suggesting that no sedimentary interval acted as an efficient décollement level. Toward the SE, the Sainte-Florence Fault divides rock assemblages with different paleogeographic settings and structural styles. Increase in tectonic complexity and amount of shortening to the south of the fault is interpreted as resulting of a vise effect between two basement blocks.

  3. First oilfields of the Central and Northern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. ); Martin, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Only 25 years ago the areas now termed the Central and Northern North Sea were the true frontier exploration basins. Stratigraphy and structure were essentially unknown, except inferences drawn from the Mesozoic outcrops of Britain and Denmark. At that time the majority of small British onshore oil fields were reservoired in Paleozoic strata. In the Central North Sea, oil was first discovered in Paleocene deep-water sandstone and Upper Cretaceous chalk reservoirs. The first commercial reserves were proven with the discovery of the Ekofisk field (Upper Cretaceous) in 1969 and Forties field (Paleocene) in 1970, both now classed as giants. Subsequently stratigraphically deeper reservoirs were established, including Jurassic sandstones (Piper field) and Permian carbonates and sandstones (Auk and Argyll fields). Diversity of trap type and reservoir age is now a hallmark of the Central North Sea basin. In the Northern North Sea, the first exploration well in 1971 on the Brent field structure, a true wildcat whose nearest UK well control was 320 mi to the south, found oil in Middle Jurassic deltaic sandstones. A spate of discoveries on similar tilted fault blocks with Middle Jurassic and underlying Triassic alluvial-fluvial sandstone targets followed. Later, Upper Jurassic deep-water sandstones became established as a further significant reservoir with the Brae field and Magnus field discoveries. Original seismic data, well prognoses, and structure maps tell the story of these early discoveries. Public response in Norway and the UK to the emergence of the North Sea oil province on their doorstep will be reviewed.

  4. Primary Science in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990 the science curriculum in Northern Ireland has gone through three major changes. In the beginning, fifteen attainment targets were introduced to an unsuspecting and largely unprepared teaching population: these were eventually reduced to five in 1993 and then to the present two in 1996. Unlike in England, technology has never stood as…

  5. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account…

  6. Motivating Learners in Northern Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Sharon

    2003-01-01

    A teacher at a northern Ontario adult Native literacy program describes how she cultivates student motivation. The teacher-student relationship is the most influential factor for motivating students. By focusing on cultural awareness, cultural teaching practices, and a sense of community, teachers can help students be successful. Program…

  7. Northern Border Pipeline Company NPDES Permit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030791, the Northern Border Pipeline Company is authorized to discharge from locations along the Northern Border Gas Transmission Pipeline located within the exterior boundaries of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana.

  8. Hydrocarbon Induced Seismicity in Northern Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dost, B.; Spetzler, J.; Kraaijpoel, D.; Caccavale, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Netherlands has been regarded aseismic until the first earthquakes started in 1986, after more than 25 years of gas production from the one of the largest on-shore gas-fields in the World, the Groningen field, and accompanying smaller gas fields. Due to the shallow sources, at approximately 3 km depth, even small magnitude events cause considerable damage to buildings in the region. Since the largest recorded event in the Groningen field in 2012 with ML= 3,6, more than 30.000 damage claims were received by the mining company. Since 1995 a seismic monitoring network is operational in the region, consisting of 8 200m deep boreholes with 4 levels of 3C 4,5 Hz geophones. The network was designed for a location threshold of ML=1,5 over a 40x 80 km region. Average station separation was 20 km. At the end of 2014, 245 events have been recorded with ML ≥ 1,5, out of a total of 1100. Since 2003 a new mining law is in place in the Netherlands, which requires for each gas field in production a seismic risk analysis. Initially, due to the small number of events for specific fields, a general hazard (PSHA) was calculated for all gas-fields and a maximum magnitude was estimated at ML = 3,9. Since 2003 an increase in the activity rate is observed for the Groningen field, leading to the development of new models and a re-assessment of parameters like the maximum magnitude. More recently these models are extended to seismic risk, where also the fragility of the regional buildings is taken into account. Understanding the earthquake process is essential in taking mitigation measures. Continued research is focused on reducing the uncertainties in the hazard and risk models and is accompanied by an upgrade of the monitoring network. In 2014 a new dense network was designed to monitor the Groningen gas field in this region (30*40 km) with an average separation of 4 km. This allows an improved location threshold (M>0,5) and location accuracy (50-100m). A detailed P- and S

  9. Imaging Lithospheric-scale Structure Beneath Northern Altiplano in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Wagner, L. S.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Long, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    The northern Altiplano plateau of southern Peru and northern Bolivia is one of the highest topographic features on the Earth, flanked by Western and Eastern Cordillera along its margin. It has strongly influenced the local and far field lithospheric deformation since the early Miocene (Masek et al., 1994). Previous studies have emphasized the importance of both the crust and upper mantle in the evolution of Altiplano plateau (McQuarrie et al., 2005). Early tomographic and receiver function studies, south of 16° S, show significant variations in the crust and upper mantle properties in both perpendicular and along strike direction of the Altiplano plateau (Dorbath et. al., 1993; Myers et al., 1998; Beck and Zandt, 2002). In order to investigate the nature of subsurface lithospheric structure below the northern Altiplano, between 15-18° S, we have determined three-dimensional seismic tomography models for Vp and Vs using P and S-wave travel time data from two recently deployed local seismic networks of CAUGHT and PULSE. We also used data from 8 stations from the PERUSE network (PERU Subduction Experiment). Our preliminary tomographic models show a complex variation in the upper mantle velocity structure with depth, northwest and southeast of lake Titicaca. We see the following trend, at ~85 km depth, northwest of lake Titicaca: low Vp and Vs beneath the Western Cordillera, high Vs beneath the Altiplano and low Vp and Vs beneath the Eastern Cordillera. This low velocity anomaly, beneath Eastern Cordillera, seems to coincide with Kimsachata, a Holocene volcano in southern Peru. At depth greater than ~85 km: we find high velocity anomaly beneath the Western Cordillera and low Vs beneath the Altiplano. This high velocity anomaly, beneath Western Cordillera, coincides with the well-located Wadati-Benioff zone seismicity and perhaps represents the subducting Nazca slab. On the southeast of lake Titicaca, in northern Bolivia, we see a consistently high velocity anomaly

  10. 21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW OF NORTHERN BRANCH OF HIGHLINE CANAL, SECTION 1, T1S-R3E, SHOWING NON-PROJECT LAND, STILL DESERT, IN FOREGROUND AND CULTIVATED FIELDS OF THE SALT RIVER PROJECT BELOW THE CANAL, LOOKING NORTH. A SMALL PORTION OF NON-IRRIGABLE LAND BELOW THE CANAL IS SHOWN AT LEFT, March 1990 - Highline Canal & Pumping Station, South side of Salt River between Tempe, Phoenix & Mesa, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  12. Geologic map of the northern plains of Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Skinner, James A.; Hare, Trent M.

    2005-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars cover nearly a third of the planet and constitute the planet's broadest region of lowlands. Apparently formed early in Mars' history, the northern lowlands served as a repository both for sediments shed from the adjacent ancient highlands and for volcanic flows and deposits from sources within and near the lowlands. Geomorphic evidence for extensive tectonic deformation and reworking of surface materials through release of volatiles occurs throughout the northern plains. In the polar region, Planum Boreum contains evidence for the accumulation of ice and dust, and surrounding dune fields suggest widespread aeolian transport and erosion. The most recent regional- and global-scale maps describing the geology of the northern plains are largely based on Viking Orbiter image data (Dial, 1984; Witbeck and Underwood, 1984; Scott and Tanaka, 1986; Greeley and Guest, 1987; Tanaka and Scott, 1987; Tanaka and others, 1992a; Rotto and Tanaka, 1995; Crumpler and others, 2001; McGill, 2002). These maps reveal highland, plains, volcanic, and polar units based on morphologic character, albedo, and relative ages using local stratigraphic relations and crater counts. This geologic map of the northern plains is the first published map that covers a significant part of Mars using topography and image data from both the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions. The new data provide a fresh perspective on the geology of the region that reveals many previously unrecognizable units, features, and temporal relations. In addition, we adapted and instituted terrestrial mapping methods and stratigraphic conventions that we think result in a clearer and more objective map. We focus on mapping with the intent of reconstructing the history of geologic activity within the northern plains, including deposition, volcanism, erosion, tectonism, impact cratering, and other processes with the aid of comprehensive crater-density determinations. Mapped areas include all

  13. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  14. Northern Forest DroughtNet: A New Framework to Understand Impacts of Precipitation Change on the Northern Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbjornsen, H.; Rustad, L.; Templer, P. H.; Jennings, K.; Phillips, R.; Smith, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent trends and projections for future change for the U.S. northern forests suggest that the region's climate is becoming warmer, wetter, and, ironically, drier, with more precipitation occurring as large events, separated by longer periods with no precipitation. However, to date, precipitation manipulation experiments conducted in forest ecosystems represent only ~5% of all such experiments worldwide, and our understanding of how the mesic-adapted northern forest will respond to greater frequency and intensity of drought in the future is especially poor. Several important challenges have hampered previous research efforts to conduct forest drought experiments and draw robust conclusions, including difficulties in reducing water uptake by deep and lateral tree roots, logistical and financial constraints to establishing and maintaining large-scale field experiments, and the lack of standardized approaches for determining the appropriate precipitation manipulation treatment (e.g., amount and timing of throughfall displacement), designing and constructing the throughfall displacement infrastructure, identifying key response variables, and collecting and analyzing the field data. The overarching goal of this project is to establish a regional research coordination network - Northern Forest DroughtNet - to investigate the impacts of changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation on the hydrology, biogeochemistry, and carbon (C) cycling dynamics of northern temperate forests. Specific objectives include the development of a standard prototype for conducting precipitation manipulation studies in forest ecosystems (in collaboration with the international DroughtNet-RCN) and the implementation of this prototype drought experiment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Here, we present the advances made thus far towards achieving the objectives of Northern Forest DroughtNet, plans for future work, and an invitation to the larger scientific community interested

  15. Reappraisal of the relationship between the northern Nevada rift and Miocene extension in the northern Basin and Range Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Nevada rift is a prominent mafic dike swarm and magnetic anomaly in north-central Nevada inferred to record the Middle Miocene (16.5-15.0 Ma) extension direction in the northern Basin and Range province in the western United States. From the 245°-250° rift direction, Basin and Range extension is inferred to have shifted 45° clockwise to a modern direction of 290°-300° during the late Miocene. The region surrounding the northern Nevada rift was actively extending while the rift formed, and these domains are all characterized by extension oriented 280°-300°. This direction is distinctly different from the rift direction and nearly identical to the modern Basin and Range direction. Although the rate, structural style, and distribution of Basin and Range extension appear to have undergone a significant change in the late Miocene (ca. 10 Ma), the overall spreading direction does not. Middle Miocene extension was directed perpendicular to the axis of the thickest crust formed during Mesozoic shortening and this orientation may reflect gravitational collapse of this thick crust. Orientation of northern Nevada rift dikes may reflect a short-lived regional stress field related to the onset of Yellowstone hotspot volcanism.

  16. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  17. Rattlesnake Bites in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Alfred N.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 59 cases of rattlesnake bites at two major northern California hospitals, no deaths occurred, no amputations or fasciotomies were required and only one patient had tissue necrosis requiring a graft. Because patients are being seen in major medical facilities earlier, envenomation is encountered in earlier stages. Less specific national standards of treatment, therefore, should receive less emphasis than treatment based on the virulence of the snakes in the particular geographic region. Initial doses of antivenin given intravenously should be based on the degree of envenomation, with additional titration done for worsening symptoms. PMID:6636730

  18. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  19. Regional metallogenic structure based on aeromagnetic data in northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiao-San; Lu, Min-Jie

    2016-12-01

    Chile is a very important country that forms part of the Andean metallogenic belts. The Atacama and Domeyko fault systems in northern Chile control the tectonic-magmatic activities that migrate eastward and the types of mineral resources. In this paper, we processed and interpreted aeromagnetic data from northern Chile using reduction to pole, upward field continuation, the second derivative calculation in the vertical direction, inclination angle calculation, and analytical signal amplitude analysis. We revealed the locations and planar distribution characteristics of the regional deep faults along the NNE and NS directions. Furthermore, we observed that the major reasons for the formation of the tectonic-magmatic rocks belts were the nearly parallel deep faults distributed from west to east and multiple magmatic activities along these faults. We ascertained the locations of volcanic mechanisms and the relationships between them using these regional deep faults. We deduced the spatial distributions of the basic-intermediate, basic, and acidic igneous rocks, intrusive rocks, and sedimentary sequences. We showed the linear positive magnetic anomalies and magnetic anomaly gradient zones by slowly varying the background, negative magnetic anomaly field, which indicated the presence of strong magmatic activities in these regional deep faults; it also revealed the favorable areas of copper and polymetallic mineralization. This study provides some basic information for further research on the geology, structural characteristics, and mineral resource prospecting in northern Chile.

  20. Characterization of Northern California petroleum by stable carbon isotopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Magoon, Leslie B.; Stanley, Richard G.; McLaughlin, Robert J.; Warden, Augusta

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize natural occurrences of petroleum at the surface and in the subsurface within northern California in order to define and map petroleum systems for U.S. Geological Survey energy resource assessments. Furthermore, the chemical characterization and mapping of natural petroleum occurrences could also be used to discriminate natural occurrences from accidental oil spills during the activities of extraction or transportation of petroleum. Samples include petroleum from exploratory well tests, producing fields, natural seeps, and oil-stained rocks, and condensates from gas wells. Most of the sample localities are in northern California but a few samples from central and southern California are included for comparison (table 1). Even though other analyses were performed, only stable carbon isotope (δ13C) data are presented here for brevity and because δ13C values are one of the most discriminating characteristics of California petroleum.

  1. Preliminary digital map of cryptocrystalline occurrences in northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer, Lorre A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose was to identify potential cryptocrystalline material sources for tools used by indigenous people of the northern Nevada portion of the Great Basin. Cryptocrystalline occurrence data combed from the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS, 1995) were combined with sites described in Nevada rockhound guides and entered into a geographic information system (GIS). The map area encompasses northern Nevada (fig.1). This open-file report describes the methods used to convert cryptocrystalline occurrence data into a digital format, documents the file structures, and explains how to download the digital files from the U.S. Geological Survey's World Wide Web site. Uses of the spatial dataset include, but are not limited to, natural and cultural resource management, interdisciplinary activities, recreational rockhounding, and gold exploration. It is important to note that the accuracy of the spatial data varies widely, and for some purposes, field checks are advised.

  2. Asymmetric auroral intensities in the Earth's Northern and Southern hemispheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laundal, K. M.; Østgaard, N.

    2009-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that the aurora borealis (Northern Hemisphere) and aurora australis (Southern Hemisphere) are mirror images of each other because the charged particles causing the aurora follow the magnetic field lines connecting the two hemispheres. The particles are believed to be evenly distributed between the two hemispheres, from the source region in the equatorial plane of the magnetosphere. Although it has been shown that similar auroral features in the opposite hemispheres can be displaced tens of degree in longitude and that seasonal effects can cause differences in global intensity, the overall auroral patterns were still similar. Here we report observations that clearly contradict the common assumption about symmetric aurora: intense spots are seen at dawn in the Northern summer Hemisphere, and at dusk in the Southern winter Hemisphere. The asymmetry is interpreted in terms of inter-hemispheric currents related to seasons, which have been predicted but hitherto had not been seen.

  3. Atmospheric Blocking in the Northern Hemisphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, John Lewis

    Blocking is generally understood as the obstruction on a large scale of the normal west - to - east motion of mid-latitude pressure systems. It is a persistent phenomenon lasting from one to several weeks and the resulting prolonged weather regimes may have serious economic and social consequences. The recent Northern Hemisphere winters, starting with 1976 -77, featured unusually large circulation anomalies, many of which can be directly related to prolonged episodes of large scale blocking. The intent of this study is to investigate the statistics and certain diagnostics of blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. The first of the three primary objectives is to present and interpret the spatial and temporal distribution of blocking during the past 33 years. We develop objective identification criteria, adaptable to machine processing methods, by relating the blocking anticyclone to its associated positive anomaly of 5-day mean 500MB height. Anomalies meeting the criteria are called 'blocking signatures.' We present the seasonal frequency of occurrence of these signatures by longitude and by area. The results are in good agreement with published studies for the oceans, but they also reveal a high frequency of blocking signatures over the Northeastern Canadian Archipelago. This result, dubbed the 'Baffin Island Paradox' is further investigated and rationalized. A catalogue has been prepared which identifies the date, centre location and magnitude of every blocking signature which occurred from January 1, 1946 to December 31, 1978. A supplementary Catalogue identifies sequences of these signatures corresponding to actual blocking episodes. The second objective is to investigate whether regions with high incidence of blocking, in either the developing or the mature stage, features non-Gaussian distributions of 5-day mean geopotential. During winter, fields of significantly low kurtosis are found in certain mid-latitude regions where the genesis and amplification of

  4. Habitat use and movement patterns of Northern Pintails during spring in northern Japan: the importance of agricultural lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaguchi, Noriyuki M.; Hupp, Jerry W.; Flint, Paul L.; Pearce, John M.; Shigeta, Yusuke; Shimada, Tetsuo; Hiraoka, Emiko N.; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2012-01-01

    From 2006 to 2009, we marked 198 Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) with satellite transmitters on their wintering areas in Japan to study their migration routes and habitat use in spring staging areas. We hypothesized that the distribution of pintails during spring staging was influenced by patterns of land use and expected that the most frequently used areas would have more agricultural habitat than lesser-used areas. We obtained 3031 daily locations from 163 migrant pintails marked with satellite transmitters and identified 524 stopover sites. Based on a fixed kernel home range analysis of stopover utilization distribution (UD), core staging areas (areas within the 50% UD) were identified in northern Honshu and western Hokkaido, and were used by 71% of marked pintails. Core staging areas had a greater proportion of rice fields than peripheral (51–95% UD) and rarely used (outside the 95% UD) staging areas. Stopover sites also contained more rice fields and other agricultural land than were available at regional scales, indicating that pintails selected rice and other agricultural habitats at regional and local scales. Pintails remained at spring staging areas an average of 51 d. Prolonged staging in agricultural habitats of northern Japan was likely necessary for pintails to prepare for transoceanic migration to Arctic nesting areas in eastern Russia.

  5. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  6. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  7. Northern Desegregation: A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danns, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Studies on northern desegregation have focused on political strategies, the role of the courts, the responsibility of the federal government (HEW), and barriers to northern desegregation. Some have conducted individual case studies and comparative studies, and others have examined a number of cities. This article examines the way school…

  8. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  9. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  10. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  11. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  12. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  13. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  14. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology.

  15. Electrical Fatalities in Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, James

    2009-01-01

    A review of autopsy reports in cases of electrocution in Northern Ireland revealed that there were 50 accidental electrocutions and 9 suicidal electrocutions over a 22 year period (1982 – 2003). No cases of homicidal electrocution were detected in this jurisdiction. Analysis of the cohort of accidental electrocutions showed that there was a clear skew towards young and middle-aged male adults with deaths occurring more frequently in the summer months. Almost 60% of individuals were engaged in occupational tasks when they were accidentally electrocuted. High and low voltage-related deaths occurred with similar frequency and electrical appliances were found to be responsible for approximately one third of accidental electrocutions. The potential hazards of electricity must continue to be stressed in public safety campaigns if these relatively uncommon but tragic deaths are to be prevented. PMID:19252729

  16. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-05

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia.

  17. Genetics Show Current Decline and Pleistocene Expansion in Northern Spotted Owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Funk, W. Chris; Forsman, Eric D.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is one of the most controversial threatened subspecies ever listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Because of concern for persistence of the subspecies, logging on Federal lands in the U.S. Pacific Northwest was dramatically reduced under the Northwest Forest Plan in 1994. Despite protection of its remaining forest habitat, recent field studies show continued demographic declines of northern spotted owls. One potential threat to northern spotted owls that has not yet been shown is loss of genetic variation from population bottlenecks that can increase inbreeding depression and decrease adaptive potential. Here, we show recent genetic bottlenecks in northern spotted owls using a large genetic dataset (352 individuals from across the subspecies' range and 11 microsatellite loci). The signature of bottlenecks was strongest in Washington State, in agreement with field data. Interestingly, we also found a genetic signature of Pleistocene expansion in the same study areas where recent bottlenecks were shown. Our results provide independent evidence that northern spotted owls have recently declined, and suggest that loss of genetic variation is an emerging threat to the subspecies' persistence. Reduced effective population size (Ne), shown here in addition to field evidence for demographic decline, highlights the increasing vulnerability of this bird to extinction.

  18. Extrusional Tectonics at Plate Corner: an Example in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Lee, J. C.; Li, Z.; Yeh, C. H.; Lee, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    In northern Taiwan, contraction, transcurrent shearing, block rotation and extension are four essential tectonic deformation mechanisms involved in the progressive deformation of this arcuate collision mountain belt. The neotectonic evolution of the Taiwan mountain belt is mainly controlled not only by the oblique convergence between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate but also the corner shape of the plate boundary. Based on field observations and analyses, and taking geophysical data (mostly GPS) and experimental modelling into account, we interpret the curved belt of northern Taiwan as a result of of contractional deformation (with compression, thrust-sheet stacking & folding, back thrust duplex & back folding) that induced vertical extrusion, combined with increasing transcurrent & rotational deformation (with transcurrent faulting, bookshelf-type strike-slip faulting and block rotation) that induced transcurrent/rotational extrusion and extension deformation which in turn induced extensional extrusion. As a consequence, a special type of extrusional folds was formed in association with contractional, transcurrent & rotational and extensional extrusions subsequently. The extrusional tectonics in northern Taiwan reflect a single, albeit complicated, regional pattern of deformation. The crescent-shaped mountain belt of Northeastern Taiwan develops in response to oblique indentation by an asymmetric wedge indenter and opening of the Okinawa trough at plate corner.

  19. Extrusional Tectonics over Plate Corner: an Example in Northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chia-Yu; Lee, Jian-Cheng; Li, Zhinuo; Lee, Ching-An; Yeh, Chia-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In northern Taiwan, contraction, transcurrent shearing, block rotation and extension are four essential tectonic deformation mechanisms involved in the progressive deformation of this arcuate collision mountain belt. The neotectonic evolution of the Taiwan mountain belt is mainly controlled not only by the oblique convergence between the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate but also the corner shape of the plate boundary. Based on field observations and analyses, and taking geophysical data (mostly GPS) and experimental modelling into account, we interpret the curved belt of northern Taiwan as a result of of contractional deformation (with compression, thrust-sheet stacking & folding, back thrust duplex & back folding) that induced vertical extrusion, combined with increasing transcurrent & rotational deformation (with transcurrent faulting, bookshelf-type strike-slip faulting and block rotation) that induced transcurrent/rotational extrusion and extension deformation which in turn induced extensional extrusion. As a consequence, a special type of extrusional folds was formed in association with contractional, transcurrent & rotational and extensional extrusions subsequently. The extrusional tectonics in northern Taiwan reflect a single, albeit complicated, regional pattern of deformation. The crescent-shaped mountain belt of Northeastern Taiwan develops in response to oblique indentation by an asymmetric wedge indenter, retreat of Ryukyu trench and opening of the Okinawa trough.

  20. Game over! Wildlife collapse in northern Central African Republic.

    PubMed

    Bouché, Philippe; Nzapa Mbeti Mange, Roland; Tankalet, Floride; Zowoya, Florent; Lejeune, Philippe; Vermeulen, Cédric

    2012-11-01

    The wildlife populations of northern Central African Republic (CAR) have long suffered intense uncontrolled hunting. Socio-political turmoil in northern CAR that started in 2002 resulted in a rebellion in 2006. An aerial sample count was carried out in northern CAR after the ceasefire to assess the impact of this troubled period on wildlife. The survey was flown at the end of the dry season in February-March 2010. It covered a landscape complex of 95,000 km² comprising national parks, hunting reserves and community hunting areas. Comparison with earlier surveys revealed a dramatic decline of wildlife: the numbers of large mammals fell by 94% in 30 years, probably due to poaching, loss of habitat and diseases brought by illegal movements of cattle. Elephant (Loxodonta africana), Reduncinae and topi (Damaliscus lunatus) populations showed the greatest decline (each over 90%). Other species declined by 70-80% during the same period. The future of wildlife in this area is dark without a strong commitment to provide adequate funding and quickly implement of determined field management. Reinforced cooperation with neighbouring Chad and Sudan is required since they are facing similar problems.

  1. Coal stratigraphy of northern and central Powder River basin

    SciTech Connect

    McLellan, M.W.; Biewick, L.H.; Molina, C.L.; Pierce, F.W.

    1986-08-01

    Reconstructed stratigraphic frameworks contribute to understanding depositional and structural history of Paleocene rocks in the Powder River basin. By correlating Fort Union Formation coal beds from Foster Creek, Montana, 100 mi southward to near Gillette, Wyoming, they reconstructed the framework from Terret up through Anderson coal beds, about 1700 ft of stratigraphic section. This framework comprises intersecting stratigraphic sections showing distribution of thick coal beds and sandstones across the study area. Coal beds from Terret up through Knobloch are thickest in northern Powder River basin. Stratigraphically above in the Cache through Wall section, the coal beds are thickest farther south in Moorhead and northern Spotted Horse coalfields. Otter through Anderson coal beds are thickest still farther south in central Powder River basin. Principal coal beds had been mapped in individual local coal fields and identified by local names. They have correlated the coal beds and connected these stratigraphic sections (framework) with stratigraphic frameworks from the southern Powder River basin to provide an integrated picture of coal deposition. Large coal swamps existed in Fort Union time, first in northern Powder River basin and successively farther southward. Basin margins were tectonically active during the Paleocene. Clastic sedimentation resulting from this tectonism may have created conditions controlling peat deposition. Intermittently, peat deposition was interrupted across large areas by a great influx of clastic sediments. At other times, peat deposits were cut by narrow channels as drainage systems changed course.

  2. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  3. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  4. Holocene Geomagnetic Change in the Northern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, J. S.; Channell, J. E.; Mazaud, A.; Xuan, C.; Strano, S. E.; Olafsdottir, S.; Jennings, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution and well-dated paleomagnetic records constrain the geomagnetism of the Holocene North Atlantic. These records comprise ultra-high resolution sediment records from lakes (Haukadalsvatn, Iceland) and from continental margins (MD99-2269, N Iceland shelf; MD99-2322, E. Greenland), and from high accumulating (>50 cm/kyr) deep-sea sediments from the Eirik Drift, Labrador Sea (IODP Site U1305). Similarities among these directional paleomagnetic secular variation (PSV) records from very different environments imply that the records provide robust reconstructions of the paleo-geomagnetic field. Assuming that the age of magnetization is best defined by PSV in the highest sedimentation rate (>200 cm /kyr) records, allows us to place northern North Atlantic PSV and relative paleointensity (RPI) into a regional context. Northern North Atlantic PSV and RPI are more consistent with European than North American records, and the evolution of virtual geomagnetic poles (VGP) are temporally and longitudinally similar too global reconstructions, though with much larger latitudinal variations. The largest deviation from a geocentric axial dipole, in contrast to the usual assumption, is observed during times of highest field intensities in the North Atlantic and globally, while the highest rates of VGP change are associated with North Atlantic field intensity lows. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that PSV results from temporal oscillations of flux concentrations (lobes) at a few recurrent locations.

  5. The northern light. From mythology to space research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, A.; Egeland, A.

    Contents: The northern light in folklore and mythology. The northern light in Norse literature. The northern light - a source of inspiration. Accounts of northern lights in Scandinavia - from the Viking era to the Renaissance. The northern light in Scandinavia during the eighteenth century. Scientific auroral experiments beginning in the nineteenth century. Norwegian auroral pioneers in the dawn of our century. The northern lights as weather signs - and the auroral sound. Northern lights and geomagnetic disturbances - their influence on daily life. Auroral research as a tool to study the upper atmosphere and near space. The first systematic observations of the northern light in Norway. Summary and concluding remarks.

  6. The northern Walker Lane refraction experiment: Pn arrivals and the northern Sierra Nevada root

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, John N.; Thelen, Weston; Smith, Shane B.; Scott, James B.; Clark, Matthew; Pullammanappallil, Satish

    2004-09-01

    In May 2002, we collected a new crustal refraction profile from Battle Mountain, Nevada across western Nevada, the Reno area, Lake Tahoe, and the northern Sierra Nevada Mountains to Auburn, CA. Mine blasts and earthquakes were recorded by 199 Texan instruments extending across this more than 450-km-long transect. The use of large mine blasts and the ultra-portable Texan recorders kept the field costs of this profile to less than US$10,000. The seismic sources at the eastern end were mining blasts at Barrick's GoldStrike mine. The GoldStrike mine produced several ripple-fired blasts using 8000-44,000 kg of ANFO each, a daily occurrence. First arrivals from the larger GoldStrike blasts are obvious to distances of 300 km in the raw records. First arrivals from a quarry blast west of the survey near Watsonville, CA, located by the Northern California Seismic Network with a magnitude of 2.2, can be picked across the recording array to distances of 600 km. The Watsonville blast provides a western source, nearly reversing the GoldStrike blasts. A small earthquake near Bridgeport, CA. also produced pickable P-wave arrivals across the transect, providing fan-shot data. Arrivals from M5 events in the Mariana and Kuril Islands also appear in the records. This refraction survey observes an unexpectedly deep crustal root under the northern Sierra Nevada range, over 50 km in thickness and possibly centered west of the topographic crest. Pn delays of 4-6 s support this interpretation. At Battle Mountain, Nevada, we observe anomalously thin crust over a limited region perhaps only 150 km wide, with a Moho depth of 19-23 km. Pn crossover distances of less than 80 km support this anomaly, which is surrounded by observations of more normal, 30-km-thick crust. A 10-km-thick and high-velocity lower-crustal "pillow" is an alternative hypothesis, but unlikely due to the lack of volcanics west of Battle Mountain. Large mine and quarry blasts prove very effective crustal refraction sources

  7. Indications of Subsurface Ice: Polygons on the Northern Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Someone's kitchen floor? A stone patio?This picture actually does show a floor--the floor of an old impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. Each 'tile' is somewhat larger than a football field. Polygonal patterns are familiar to Mars geologists because they are also common in arctic and antarctic environments on Earth. Typically, such polygons result from the stresses induced in frozen ground by the freeze-thaw cycles of subsurface ice. This picture was taken by MOC in May 1999 and is illuminated from the lower left.

  8. Rapid collapse of northern Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Rott, H.; Nagler, T.; Skvarca, P.

    1996-02-09

    In January 1995, 4200 square kilometers of the northern Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula, broke away. Radar images from the ERS-1 satellite, complemented by field observations, showed that the two northernmost sections of the ice shelf fractured and disintegrated almost completely within a few days. This breakup followed a period of steady retreat that coincided with a regional trend of atmospheric warming. The observations imply that after an ice shelf retreats beyond a critical limit, it may collapse rapidly as a result of perturbated mass balance. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  10. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  11. CFD modelling of flow field and particle tracking in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Bang, K W; Choi, C S; Lim, H S

    2010-01-01

    The best management practices (BMPs) for control of urban stormwater pollution are evaluated to remove solid particles containing various pollutants. Currently, most storm runoff treatment devices using primary pollutant removal mechanism are applied to storm water since most pollutants in runoff are associated with the solid particulates. A hydrodynamic separator is a storm water treatment device using centrifugal motion which separates solids pollution from runoff. In this study, the velocity flow field and particle tracking of hydrodynamic separator were investigated using anthracite as a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model particle. The Fluent 6.3.26 CFD program was used to predict the solid particles removal efficiency for various parameters such as particle size, surface loading rate, and the ratio of underflow to overflow. The velocity flow field in a hydrodynamic stormwater separator (HDS) has been simulated using CFD RNG κ-ε model. Modeling results for the removal efficiency of HDS were similar with the results obtained from experimental measurements of laboratory scale HDS. These results showed that the simulated velocity field was useful to interpret the behavior of flow in the hydrodynamic separator. The results obtained from particle tracking can be applied to predict the separation efficiency.

  12. Primates and their habitats in northern Colombia with recommendations for future management and research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Norman J.; Struhsaker, Thomas T.; Glander, Kenneth; Chiriví, Hernano

    1976-01-01

    This report covers a survey of forests and wild primates carried out by its authors in northern Colombia during May, July, and August 1974. The results of a 1973 field report on this report by Bernstein et al. (1) are also included.

  13. Trophic Structure Over the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge: The Bathypelagic Zone Really Matters

    EPA Science Inventory

    We present preliminary results and ongoing efforts to characterize the trophic structure and energy flow of the pelagic ecosystems of the northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR), from Iceland to the Azores. This study is one component of the international CoML field project MAR-ECO (ww...

  14. Student Teachers of Technology and Design into Industry: A Northern Ireland Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Ken

    2013-01-01

    This paper, based in Northern Ireland, is a case study of an innovative programme which places year 3 B.Ed. post-primary student teachers of Technology and Design into industry for a five-day period. The industrial placement programme is set in an international context of evolving pre-service field placements and in a local context defined by the…

  15. CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE AND ROLES OF SPANISH-AMERICAN FAMILIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KNOWLTON, CLARK S.

    DATA FOR THIS PAPER WERE OBTAINED FROM EXAMINATION OF AVAILABLE LITERATURE AND FROM FIELD WORK IN SAN MIGUEL AND MORA COUNTIES OF NORTHERN NEW MEXICO. THE EXTENDED PATRIARCHAL FAMILY WAS THE PRIMARY SOCIAL SYSTEM AMONG THE SPANISH AMERICANS, OFTEN CONSISTING OF MEMBERS OF THREE OR FOUR GENERATIONS HEADED BY THE GRANDFATHER. THIS FAMILY COOPERATED…

  16. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  17. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  18. Structure and evolution of the northern Potwar deformed zone, Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Jaswal, T.M.; Lillie, R.J.; Lawrence, R.D.

    1997-02-01

    The northern Potwar deformed zone (NPDZ) is part of the active foreland fold and thrust belt of the Salt Range and Potwar Plateau in northern Pakistan. About 500 km of seismic reflection profiles are integrated with surface geologic and drilling data to examine the deformation style and structure of the NPDZ with particular emphasis on history of deformation of the Dhurnal oil field. The seismic lines suggest that the overall structure of the eastern NPDZ is a duplex structure developed beneath a passive roof thrust. The roof thrust is generated from a tipline in the Miocene Murree Formation, and the sole thrust is initiated from the same Eocambrian evaporate zone that extends 80 km southward beneath the Soan syncline and Salt Range. The Dhurnal oil field structure is a pop-up at the southern margin of the NPDZ, and developed beneath the passive roof thrust. The passive roof thrust crops out just north of Dhurnal on the steep, northern limb of the Soan syncline. An overstep passive roof thrust (Sakhwal fault) is interpreted west of Dhurnal; this fault developed due to southward progression of the deformation front beneath the earlier passive roof thrust. Very gentle basement dip and almost zero topographic slope in the NPDZ suggest that the Eocambrian salt provides effective decoupling at the present position of the NPDZ. The strong deformation in the NPDZ appears to have developed farther north, in an area where the evaporates may be lacking. Since 2 Ma, the NPDZ moved farther south over the evaporates without further deformation, whereas erosion removed any former topographic slope. Restoring a balanced cross section suggests that the minimum shortening across the NPDZ is more than 55 km. Assuming that this shortening occurred between 5.1 and 2 Ma, the shortening rate is about 18 mm/yr.

  19. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  20. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  1. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  2. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  3. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  4. Albian ammonites from northern Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, William James; Fatmi, Ali N.

    2014-03-01

    The occurrence of rich Albian ammonite faunas in what is now northern Pakistan has been known for more than 80 years, but there has been no comprehensive account of the assemblages present. A total of 36 taxa are described below. The middle part of the Lumshiwal Formation yields Upper Aptian ammonites south of the Samana Range. Elsewhere, it yields Douvilleiceras leightonense Casey, 1962, of the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella regularis Zone and the Sonneratia perinflata and S. kitchini Subzones of the Sonneratia chalensis Zone of the northwest European sequence. The top one to two metres of the Lumshiwal yields an abundant fauna of rolled and phosphatised ammonites that includes elements from much of the Albian. Of these, Prolyelliceras gevreyi (Jacob, 1907) first appears in the lower Lower Albian Leymeriella tardefurcata Zone. The commonest ammonite is Douvilleiceras mammillatum (Schlotheim, 1813) sensu lato, which ranges from the perinflata Subzone of the chalensis Zone to the Otohoplites bulliensis Subzone of the O. auritiformis Zone of the Lower Albian. The presence of Lyelliceras pseudolyelli (Parona and Bonarelli, 1897) indicates the uppermost, pseudolyelli Subzone of the auritiformis Zone. The presence of Lyelliceras lyelli (d'Orbigny, 1841) indicates the basal Middle Albian lyelli Subzone of the Hoplites dentatus Zone. There is no evidence for the higher parts of the Middle Albian. Dipoloceras (Rhytidoceras ) sp. indicates the presence of lower Upper Albian, possibly the pricei Zone. There is evidence, in the form of specifically indeterminate Mortoniceras (Mortoniceras) sp., of a level within the inflatum to fallax Zone inteval from a single locality, but no evidence of the succeeding parts of the upper Upper Albian. The base of the Kawagarth Formation that succeeds the Lumshiwal yields lower Upper Albian Mortoniceras (M.) geometricum Spath, 1932 of the Mortoniceras pricei Zone, northwest of Darmasand in the Samana range.

  5. 72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. OVERALL VIEW OF WEAPONS STORAGE AREA IGLOO FIELDS. TAKEN FROM ROOF OF BUILDING 232 (MINE SHOP) LOOKING NORTH. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  6. Checklist, distribution, and a new record of Nepomorphan water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) in northern Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Slimani, Noura; Moulet, Pierre; Chen, Ping-Ping; Nieser, Nico; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Boumaïza, Moncef; Guilbert, Eric

    2015-07-03

    We report on the results of a survey of the Nepomorpha of northern Tunisia, and list twenty-three species belonging to twelve genera and seven families: Nepidae, Ochteridae, Corixidae, Micronectidae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and Pleidae. These records are based on intensive field surveys during the year 2013 and examination of the entomological collections of the National Museum Natural History of Paris. Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758) is recorded for the first time from Tunisia. The occurrence of Sigara (Halicorixa) stagnalis stagnalis (Leach, 1817) in Tunisia is confirmed. A preliminary checklist of the Nepomorpha of Northern Tunisia and updated distribution maps for all species treated are provided for further studies.

  7. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  8. Source characteristics and locations of hectometric radio emissions from the northern Jovian hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, M. J.; Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.

    1993-01-01

    Northern Jovian hectometric (HOM) radio emissions, detected from high Jovian latitudes by the Unified Radio and Plasma Wave experiment on the Ulysses spacecraft, were observed at all Jovian longitudes. This emission was observed to be predominantly right-hand circularly polarized, but some left-hand circular polarization was observed implying the presence of O mode emissions from the northern Jovian hemisphere. Intense HOM emissions, with well-defined directions and polarizations, were often confined to similar longitudinal regions where intense HOM emissions were previously observed at low latitudes. The present analysis confirms that these northern HOM sources lie in the Jovian polar regions on magnetic field lines that pass through the Io plasma torus. The observations may be consistent with emission from either a filled cone beam or a longitudinal distribution of thin hollow cones.

  9. Early human settlements in Northern Africa: paleomagnetic evidence from the Ain Hanech Formation (northeastern Algeria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parés, J. M.; Sahnouni, M.; Van der Made, J.; Pérez-González, A.; Harichane, Z.; Derradji, A.; Medig, M.

    2014-09-01

    The question of the earliest hominid settlements in northern Africa has been under debate for a number of years due to the lack of precise chronologies. Here we present new paleomagnetic data that supports an Olduvai Subchron age for the archaeological sites at Ain Hanech and El-Kherba, in northern Algeria. Our study is based on a 22 m-thick magnetostratigraphy of the Ain Hanech Formation, which includes contextualized Oldowan and Acheulian lithic tools. Characteristic remanent magnetization directions were obtained from both thermal and alternating field demagnetization procedures of specimens from twenty five sampled horizons. Our results reveal the presence of the Olduvai Subchron in the upper part of the stratigraphic section, constraining the age of these important archaeological sites in northern Africa.

  10. February 2003 marine atmospheric conditions and the bora over the northern Adriatic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorman, C.E.; Carniel, S.; Cavaleri, L.; Sclavo, M.; Chiggiato, J.; Doyle, J.; Haack, T.; Pullen, J.; Grbec, B.; Vilibic, I.; Janekovic, I.; Lee, C.; Malacic, V.; Orlic, M.; Paschini, E.; Russo, A.; Signell, R.P.

    2007-01-01

    A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10??C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002-2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was -438 W m-2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  12. A New Strategy to Land Precisely on the Northern Plains of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Yang; Huertas, Andres

    2010-01-01

    During the Phoenix mission landing site selection process, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) images revealed widely spread and dense rock fields in the northern plains. Automatic rock mapping and subsequent statistical analyses showed 30-90% CFA (cumulative fractional area) covered by rocks larger than 1 meter in dense rock fields around craters. Less dense rock fields had 5-30% rock coverage in terrain away from craters. Detectable meter-scale boulders were found nearly everywhere. These rocks present a risk to spacecraft safety during landing. However, they are the most salient topographic features in this region, and can be good landmarks for spacecraft localization during landing. In this paper we present a novel strategy that uses abundance of rocks in northern plains for spacecraft localization. The paper discusses this approach in three sections: a rock-based landmark terrain relative navigation (TRN) algorithm; the TRN algorithm feasibility; and conclusions.

  13. Visual field

    MedlinePlus

    Perimetry; Tangent screen exam; Automated perimetry exam; Goldmann visual field exam; Humphrey visual field exam ... Confrontation visual field exam : This is a quick and basic check of the visual field. The health care provider ...

  14. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  15. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  16. Seepage water of northern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortier, Samuel

    1897-01-01

    The term “seepage water” is used by the irrigators of the West to designate the water which reaches the lowest grounds or the stream channels, swelling the latter by imperceptible degrees and keeping up the flow long after the rains have ceased and the snow has melted. The word “seepage” is applied particularly to the water which begins to appear in spots below irrigation canals and cultivated fields, usually some months or even years after irrigation has been introduced, and which tends to convert the lowlands into marshes and gives rise to springs, which in turn may be employed in watering other fields.The importance of a thorough knowledge of the behavior of seepage water is obvious when consideration is given to the close relationship which exists between the available water supply and the material prosperity of the arid region where irrigation is practiced. This is particularly true of Utah, where every readily available source of supply has long since been utilized and where the rapidly increasing agricultural population necessitates the complete utilization of all fresh waters.

  17. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  18. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  19. Uav Photogrammetry for Mapping and Monitoring of Northern Permafrost Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R. H.; Olthof, I.; Maloley, M.; Fernandes, R.; Prevost, C.; van der Sluijs, J.

    2015-08-01

    Northern environments are changing in response to recent climate warming, resource development, and natural disturbances. The Arctic climate has warmed by 2-3°C since the 1950's, causing a range of cryospheric changes including declines in sea ice extent, snow cover duration, and glacier mass, and warming permafrost. The terrestrial Arctic has also undergone significant temperature-driven changes in the form of increased thermokarst, larger tundra fires, and enhanced shrub growth. Monitoring these changes to inform land managers and decision makers is challenging due to the vast spatial extents involved and difficult access. Environmental monitoring in Canada's North is often based on local-scale measurements derived from aerial reconnaissance and photography, and ecological, hydrologic, and geologic sampling and surveying. Satellite remote sensing can provide a complementary tool for more spatially comprehensive monitoring but at coarser spatial resolutions. Satellite remote sensing has been used to map Arctic landscape changes related to vegetation productivity, lake expansion and drainage, glacier retreat, thermokarst, and wildfire activity. However, a current limitation with existing satellite-based techniques is the measurement gap between field measurements and high resolution satellite imagery. Bridging this gap is important for scaling up field measurements to landscape levels, and validating and calibrating satellite-based analyses. This gap can be filled to a certain extent using helicopter or fixed-wing aerial surveys, but at a cost that is often prohibitive. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology has only recently progressed to the point where it can provide an inexpensive and efficient means of capturing imagery at this middle scale of measurement with detail that is adequate to interpret Arctic vegetation (i.e. 1-5 cm) and coverage that can be directly related to satellite imagery (1-10 km2). Unlike satellite measurements, UAVs permit frequent

  20. Northern pike (Esox lucius) collagen: Extraction, characterization and potential application.

    PubMed

    Kozlowska, J; Sionkowska, A; Skopinska-Wisniewska, J; Piechowicz, K

    2015-11-01

    Acid soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin soluble collagen (PSC) from the scales of northern pike (Esox lucius) were extracted and characterized. It was the first time that this species was used as sources of collagen. FT-IR and amino acid analysis results revealed the presence of collagen. Glycine accounts for one-third of its amino acid residues and specific for collagen amino acid - hydroxyproline - is present in isolated protein. The content of imino acid: proline and hydroxyproline in ASC and PSC was similar (12.5% Pro and 6.5% Hyp). Both ASC and PSC were type I collagen. The denaturation temperature of ASC and PSC were 28.5 and 27°C, respectively. Thin collagen films were obtained by casting of collagen solution onto glass plates. The surface properties of ASC and PSC films were different - the surface of ASC collagen film was more polar and less rough than PSC and we can observe the formation of collagen fibrils after solvent evaporation. ASC films showed much higher tensile properties than PSC. The obtained results suggest that northern pike scales have potential as an alternative source of collagen for use in various fields.

  1. Petrogenesis of the Late Cretaceous northern Alberta kimberlite province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, D. Roy; Heaman, Larry M.; Luth, Robert W.; Creaser, Robert A.

    2004-09-01

    At present, 48 Late Cretaceous (ca. 70-88 Ma) kimberlitic pipes have been discovered in three separate areas of the northern Alberta: the Mountain Lake cluster, the Buffalo Head Hills field and the Birch Mountains field. The regions can be distinguished from one another by their non-archetypal kimberlite signature (Mountain Lake) or, in the case of kimberlite fields, primitive (Buffalo Head Hills) to evolved (Birch Mountains) magmatic signatures. The dominant process of magmatic differentiation is crystal fractionation and accumulation of olivine, which acts as the main criteria to distinguish between primitive and evolved Group I-type kimberlite fields in the northern Alberta. This is important from the viewpoint of diamond exploration because the majority (about 80%) of the more primitive Buffalo Head Hills kimberlites are diamondiferous, whereas the more evolved Birch Mountains pipes are barren of diamonds for the most part. Petrographically, the Buffalo Head Hills samples are distinct from the Birch Mountains samples in that they contain less carbonate, have a smaller modal abundance of late-stage minerals such as phlogopite and ilmenite, and have a higher amount of fresh, coarse macrocrystal (>0.5 mm) olivine. Consequently, samples from the Buffalo Head Hills have the highest values of MgO, Cr and Ni, and have chemistries similar to those of primitive hypabyssal kimberlite in the Northwest Territories. Based on whole-rock isotopic data, the Buffalo Head Hills K6 kimberlite has 87Sr/ 86Sr and ɛNd values similar to those of South African Group I kimberlites, whereas the Birch Mountains Legend and Phoenix kimberlites have similar ɛNd values (between 0 and +1.9), but distinctly higher 87Sr/ 86Sr values (0.7051-0.7063). The lack of whole-rock geochemical overlap between kimberlite and the freshest, least contaminated Mountain Lake South pipe rocks reflects significant mineralogical differences and Mountain Lake is similar geochemically to olivine alkali basalt

  2. Exploring Earth's Magnetism and Northern lights in High School Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, M.; Peticolas, L.

    2008-05-01

    Present studies are being conducted as a part of the outreach project entitled Geomagnetic Event Observation Network by Students (GEONS) to share excitement of the THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macro scale Interactions during Substorm) mission launched during February, 2007. The goal of this mission is to investigate the causality of events that lead to the explosive release of energy (derived from the Sun) stored in the Earth's magnetic field. The visible manifestation of the energy release is Aurora Borealis observed in the Northern hemisphere of the Earth. Inherent to understanding the root-cause of formation of spectacular aurora is the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. To achieve this ambitious objective in a high school classroom, students conducted activities using the magnetic field of bar magnets, electromagnets, electromagnetic induction, and Lenz's Law. Following the fundamental understanding of these concepts, students acquired the necessary vocabulary and explored the various components of the interaction between the Earth's magnetic field and the solar wind charged particles. They were also familiarized with the general format in which THEMIS spacecraft data is displayed. In this presentation, we will address student's misconceptions, their struggle to make connections before they can appreciate "Big Idea" in terms of its components. Discussion will highlight the relationship between student understanding of new ideas and how these ideas connect with their prior knowledge.

  3. The Divorced Chicana of Northern New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Mary Lou; Casaus, Luis

    County demographic records and the voluntary responses of 80 Chicanas to a questionnaire and a self-concept examination were analyzed to identify the patterns, problems, and dynamics in the lives of divorced Northern New Mexico Chicanas. The women, half of whom were divorced and most of whom were Roman Catholics, were from urban Bernalillo County…

  4. United Kingdom (Northern Ireland): Health system review.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Ciaran; McGregor, Pat; Merkur, Sherry

    2012-01-01

    The political context within which Northern Irelands integrated health and social care system operates has changed since the establishment of a devolved administration (the Northern Ireland Assembly, set up in 1998 but suspended between 2002 and 2007). A locally elected Health Minister now leads the publicly financed system and has considerable power to set policy and, in principle, to determine the operation of other health and social care bodies. The system underwent major reform following the passing of the Health and Social Care (Reform) Act (Northern Ireland) in 2009. The reform maintained the quasi purchaser provider split already in place but reduced the number and increased the size of many of the bodies involved in purchasing (known locally as commissioning) and delivering services. Government policy has generally placed greater emphasis on consultation and cooperation among health and social care bodies (including the department, commissioners and care providers) than on competition. The small size of the population (1.8 million) and Northern Irelands geographical isolation from the rest of the United Kingdom provide a rationale for eschewing a more competitive model. Without competition, effective control over the system requires information and transparency to ensure provider challenge, and a body outside the system to hold it to account. The restoration of the locally elected Assembly in 2007 has created such a body, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will exercise accountability.

  5. Equality in Higher Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    The higher education sector in Northern Ireland has been fully involved in the public policies designed to enhance equality. Starting with measures designed to secure greater employment between Catholics and Protestants, known as fair employment, the policies are now designed to promote equality of opportunity across nine designated groups…

  6. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  7. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  8. Religion, Education and Conflict in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, L. Philip

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article is to re-evaluate and reaffirm the contribution of the churches and of Christianity to the realization in Northern Ireland schools of legitimate and progressive educational values such as the cultivation of tolerance, moral integrity and civic virtue. Implicit in this is a critique of educational initiatives that seek to…

  9. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  10. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music…

  11. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  12. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  13. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  14. Seasonal prevailing surface winds in Northern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tošić, Ivana; Gavrilov, Milivoj B.; Marković, Slobodan B.; Ruman, Albert; Putniković, Suzana

    2017-02-01

    Seasonal prevailing surface winds are analyzed in the territory of Northern Serbia, using observational data from 12 meteorological stations over several decades. In accordance with the general definition of prevailing wind, two special definitions of this term are used. The seasonal wind roses in 16 directions at each station are analyzed. This study shows that the prevailing winds in Northern Serbia have northwestern and southeastern directions. Circulation weather types over Serbia are presented in order to determine the connections between the synoptic circulations and prevailing surface winds. Three controlling pressure centers, i.e., the Mediterranean cyclone, Siberian high, and the Azores anticyclone, appear as the most important large-scale factors that influence the creation of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia. Beside the synoptic cause of the prevailing winds, it is noted that the orography of the eastern Balkans has a major influence on the winds from the second quadrant. It was found that the frequencies of circulation weather types are in agreement with those of the prevailing winds over Northern Serbia.

  15. Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of natural gas, composed mainly of methane, can occur in arctic sedimentary basins in the form of gas hydrates under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Gas hydrates are solids, composed of rigid cages of water molecules that trap molecules of gas. These substances are regarded as a potential unconventional source of natural gas because of their enormous gas-storage capacity. Most published gas hydrate resource estimates are highly simplified and based on limited geological data. The gas hydrate resource assessment for northern Alaska presented in this paper is based on a "play analysis" scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation and preservation of gas hydrates are individually evaluated and risked for each hydrate play. This resource assessment identified two gas hydrate plays; the in-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of northern Alaska are estimated to range from 6.7 to 66.8 trillion cubic metres of gas (236 to 2,357 trillion cubic feet of gas), at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels respectively. The mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic metres of gas (590 trillion cubic feet of gas). If this assessment is valid, the amount of natural gas stored as gas hydrates in northern Alaska could be almost seven times larger then the estimated total remaining recoverable conventional natural gas resources in the entire United States.

  16. Racism and Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Eamonn

    2007-01-01

    Racist attitudes towards, and attacks on, the minority ethnic populations in Northern Ireland (NI) have increased dramatically over the last number of years. Despite the increased media attention regarding racist attacks, the fallacy that racism is not a major problem in NI is an enduring one. However, there is a growing recognition that minority…

  17. Northern Russian "People" Games for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasil'nikov, Valeriy P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that people games and contests have always occupied a special place in the traditional physical training of the native people in northern Russia. This article is prepared on the basis of materials obtained as a result of expeditions conducted from 1990 through 1993 into Siberia's "Khanty-Mansyyski" and…

  18. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  19. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, 1957) PIER III DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  2. 47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  3. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  4. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  5. Northern Saudi Arabia as seen from STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Great numbers of circular, center-pivot irrigation plots appear in this west-looking view of northern Saudi Arabia (center to lower left). The entire country between the shifting sands of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea (light colors center and right) and the almost soilless Nejd Plateau (left) has been darkened by thousands of these agricultural fields. The Nejd Plateau is a mass of dark rocks, some volcanic, in northwest Saudi Arabia. The sweep of the Ad Dahna Sand Sea is one of the major features of Saudi Arabia (center and right) as seen from the orbiter. The dunes follow the trend of regional winds (northwesterly in the center of the view) which circulates around the Nejd plateau. The north end of the Red Sea can be seen top left with the Sinai Peninsula and Mediterranean are just visible center top. Iraq is under clouds top right.

  6. The Northern Appalachian Anomaly: A modern asthenospheric upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William; Skryzalin, Peter; Levin, Vadim; Harper, Thomas; Darbyshire, Fiona; Dong, Ted

    2016-10-01

    The Northern Appalachian Anomaly (NAA) is an intense, laterally localized (400 km diameter) low-velocity anomaly centered in the asthenosphere beneath southern New England. Its maximum shear velocity contrast, at 200 km depth, is about 10%, and its compressional-to-shear velocity perturbation ratio is about unity, values compatible with it being a modern thermal anomaly. Although centered close to the track of the Great Meteor hot spot, it is not elongated parallel to it and does not crosscut the cratonic margin. In contrast to previous explanations, we argue that the NAA's spatial association with the hot spot track is coincidental and that it is caused by small-scale upwelling associated with an eddy in the asthenospheric flow field at the continental margin. That the NAA is just one of several low-velocity features along the eastern margin of North America suggests that this process may be globally ubiquitous.

  7. Northern Forest Ecosystem Dynamics Using Coupled Models and Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranson, K. J.; Sun, G.; Knox, R. G.; Levine, E. R.; Weishampel, J. F.; Fifer, S. T.

    1999-01-01

    Forest ecosystem dynamics modeling, remote sensing data analysis, and a geographical information system (GIS) were used together to determine the possible growth and development of a northern forest in Maine, USA. Field measurements and airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data were used to produce maps of forest cover type and above ground biomass. These forest attribute maps, along with a conventional soils map, were used to identify the initial conditions for forest ecosystem model simulations. Using this information along with ecosystem model results enabled the development of predictive maps of forest development. The results obtained were consistent with observed forest conditions and expected successional trajectories. The study demonstrated that ecosystem models might be used in a spatial context when parameterized and used with georeferenced data sets.

  8. Rank Ordovician wildcats staked in northern Mississippi counties

    SciTech Connect

    Petzet, G.A.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reports that Ordovician Knox dolomite is the objective at two rank wildcats in northern Mississippi. The wells appear to be the first modern drilling to Ordovician in the area, about 400 miles southeast of prolific Cambro-Ordovician Arbuckle gas production discovered in late 1987 in Wilburton field, Latimer County, Okla. The author discusses how an oil company plans a 12,500 ft Knox test at 1 Lay, in 27-25n-2e, in central Tallahatchie County, Miss., about 80 miles south of Memphis. This paper also reports on plans to drill 1 Jenkins 8-1, in 8-19n-15e, to 10,800 ft or Ordovician.

  9. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  10. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  11. The Holocene Geoarchaeology of the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Spencer, Neal; Welsby, Derek; Dalton, Matthew; Hay, Sophie; Hardy, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Invited Paper Forty years ago Colin Renfrew declared that "every archaeological problem starts as a problem in geoarchaeology" (Renfrew, 1976 p. 2). With this assertion in mind, this paper draws upon the findings from field research in two sectors of the Nile Valley of Northern Sudan dedicated to the exploration of human-environment interactions during the middle and late Holocene. This part of the Nile corridor contains a rich cultural record and an exceptionally well preserved Holocene fluvial archive. A distinctive feature of these records is the variety of evidence for interaction between desert and river over a range of spatial and temporal scales. This interaction presented both challenges and opportunities for its ancient inhabitants. This paper will present evidence for large-scale landscape changes driven by shifts in global climate. It will also show how we have integrated the archaeological and geological records in the Northern Dongola Reach and at Amara West - where long-term field projects led by archaeologists from the British Museum have recognised the importance of a sustained commitment to interdisciplinary research to achieve a fully integrated geoarchaeological approach across a range of scales. The former project is a large-scale landscape survey with multiple sites across an 80 km reach of the Nile whilst the latter has a strong focus on a single New Kingdom town site and changes in its environmental setting. By combining multiple archaeological and geological datasets - and pioneering the use of OSL dating and strontium isotope analysis in the Desert Nile - we have developed a new understanding of human responses to Holocene climate and landscape change in this region. Renfrew, C. (1976) Archaeology and the earth sciences. In: D.A. Davidson and M.I. Shackley (eds) Geoarchaeology: Earth Science and the Past, Duckworth, London, 1-5.

  12. Detailed study of the Mare Crisium northern magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seul-Min; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Jin, Ho; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Lee, Jung-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Low-altitude Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer data for Mare Crisium show two magnetic anomalies near its inner northern and southern edges. Because these features are located inside a basin, they were likely formed by slow cooling of the basin's melt, or the partially melted mantle, instead of by any impact-related shock magnetization process. Therefore, they are important for assessing the nature of the ancient dynamo field that produced them. In this study we confine our attention to the simpler northern anomaly (CNA) and use low-altitude (˜22 km) LP data to model its source body as a dipole and magnetized disks of different radii. We infer that the source is likely located ˜20-30 km from the surface and horizontally localized within a small region (<1° or <˜30 km radius). The surface field intensity calculated from the best fit dipole is in good agreement with that obtained from LP Electron Reflectometer data. Our magnetization directions are substantially different from two previous studies, largely due to using lower altitude data to perform our inversions. We also find a surprising sensitivity to small changes in source body latitude (˜1°). The magnetic paleopoles implied by our best fit models are distant from previous estimates by up to ˜50° of great circle arc and are substantially distant from the Moon's present rotation axis. Our results demonstrate how multiple altitude data sets must be used when estimating paleopoles and other properties of even the simplest of the Moon's magnetic anomalies.

  13. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  14. A new thermal model for Northern and Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolk, Ward; Beekman, Fred; Kaban, Mikhail; Tesauro, Magdala; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2010-05-01

    Central and Northern Asia is a key natural laboratory for the study of active intra-continental deformation in response to the ongoing far-field collision of India and Eurasia. The induced tectonic processes strongly depend on the thermo-mechanical and compositional (density and thickness) structure of the lithosphere. Density heterogeneities within the crust and upper mantle are important factors in the control of the dynamics of Earth deformation at shallow and deep levels. The main aim of this research project is to construct new high-resolution 3D models of the compositional, thermal and rheological structure of the intra-continental lithosphere of the study area. The 3D models will be constructed by combining and jointly analysing satellite gravity data with terrestrial data (seismic velocity distributions, seismic tomography, GPS derived surface deformations, heat flow measurements and terrestrial gravity). Here we present a first new 3D thermal and lithospheric thickness model for Central and Northern Asia. This new thermal model is constructed using an improved version of the methodology presented by Goes et al (2000) and Tesauro et al (2009), and is based on a recent seismic tomographic model of Central Asia (Koulakov, personal communication) and a global Moho model. We also present a new estimate for the lithospheric thickness in the study area, based on the analysis of the spatial distribution of the 1100, 1200, and 1300C isotherms. The new higher resolution models show significant lateral variations in thermal structure across the study area, in particular across main structural boundaries. Central Asia is characterized by more heterogeneous thermal structure of the lithosphere compared to the adjacent cratonic areas in Northern and Western Asia. The observed thermal heterogeneity of Central Asia will result in an anomalous thermo-mechanical structure of the continental lithosphere, which in turn may control the development of the contemporary

  15. Neotectonics and fluvial geomorphology of the Northern Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, T.; El-Baz, F.

    2000-08-01

    Large anticlinal ridges of Jurassic-Tertiary limestone in the northern Sinai Peninsula are part of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt, parts of which have been active intermittently from Late Cretaceous through the present. Recent uplift of the Syrian Arc Fold Belt is supported by quantitative indices of active tectonics including low values of mountain front sinuosity and, by recent seismicity, extending southwest past Cairo into the Fayoum Depression. The northern Sinai Desert has a climate similar to that of the adjacent part of the eastern Sahara. Sand sheets and dune fields cover its northwestern part, which is a depression extending from the Suez Canal to Wadi El-Arish. Numerous dry channels of palaeorivers and streams lead into this depression, where several temporary palaeolakes and flood overbank deposits have been identified. Some of the temporary pluvial palaeolakes developed behind natural dams formed by folds of the Syrian Arc, whereas others filled deeply-eroded fault traces. Migration of sand dunes may have blocked some channels, but the location of the dunes seems to be controlled by Recent uplift of parts of the fold belt, with the dunes residing in synclinal depressions and adjacent to fault scarps. The palaeolakes are correlated more with structures than with active dune fields. Wadi El-Arish abandoned a channel west of its present-day course, perhaps because of recent growth and uplift of the Gebel Halal Fold. This abandonment was synchronous with down-cutting of a gorge through Gebel Halal, which follows conjugate faults formed during uplift of an anticline. The presence of standing water during wetter climates in the past is supported by silt deposits and archaeological evidence of previous human habitation. The newly identified lake margin and fluvial sediments could be important targets for studying early-modern human and Neanderthal activities. In the eastern Sahara, cycles of pluvial periods that date back 320,000 years appear to correspond to

  16. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  17. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  18. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  19. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  20. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  1. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  2. Canada: Native Land Rights and Northern Development. IWGIA Document 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Peter A.

    Presenting the critical elements for a new and meaningful relationship between the Inuit and the emerging industrial society of Northern Canada, this publication includes: (1) Canada as a Nation State and Northern Development; (2) Northern Development and Institutions in Decision-Making; (3) The Northwest Territories and Yukon Territory as…

  3. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE). The project Winter in Northern Europe (MAP/WINE): Introduction and outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    The project Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) of the international Middle Atmosphere Program (MAP) comprised a multinational study of the structure, dynamics and composition of the middle atmosphere in winter at high latitudes. Coordinated field measurements were performed during the winter 1983 to 1984 by a large number of ground-based, air-borne, rocket-borne and satellite-borne instruments. Many of the individual experiments were performed in the European sector of the high latitude and polar atmosphere. Studies of the stratosphere, were, in addition, expanded to hemispheric scales by the use of data obtained from remotely sensing satellites. Beyond its direct scientific results, which are reviewed, MAP/WINE has stimulated quite a number of follow-on experiments and projects which address the aeronomy of the middle atmosphere at high and polar latitudes.

  4. Observations of Mercury's Northern Cusp Region with MESSENGER's Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, R. M.; Johnson, C. L.; Anderson, B. J.; Korth, H.; Slavin, J. A.; Purucker, M. E.; Solomon, S. C.

    2011-12-01

    We have identified Mercury's northern cusp region from orbital observations with the Magnetometer on the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft. The cusp is identified from the dayside depression in the total magnetic field after removing the field predicted by a paraboloid magnetospheric model from the data. The model includes long-wavelength fields due to the internal dipole, the magnetopause, and the magnetotail, parameterized by a dipole moment of 195 nT-RM3 (where RM is Mercury's radius), offset northward from the planetary center by 484 km and aligned with the planet's spin axis, a paraboloidal magnetopause with a subsolar standoff distance of 1.4 RM, a distance to the inner edge of the tail current sheet of 1.43 RM, a tail current sheet half-width of 0.1 RM, and tail lobe field of 100 nT. We have confirmed that the cusp identification is robust with respect to changes in the parameters in the baseline magnetospheric model. An increase in the high-frequency (1-10 Hz) variability of the magnetic field is also observed on each pass at these times. A superposed epoch analysis, in which individual profiles are aligned in time on their respective cusp midpoints and stacked, indicates that on average the latitudinal extent of the cusp region is 11°, centered on 71.2° N. Cusp observations extend in local time from 7.1 hr to 17.1 hr. The minimum southerly latitude of the cusp observed to date is 56.5° N, and the maximum is 83.1° N. The general location and dimensions of the high-latitude cusp region are in agreement with those indicated by observations with MESSENGER'S Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer. To date, no clear correlation is observed between the cusp traversal time or the magnitude of the magnetic field depression and the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction, solar wind density, or solar wind velocity. However, the largest-amplitude magnetic field depressions associated with the cusp are observed

  5. Distribution of atmospheric mercury in northern Southeast Asia and South China Sea during Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Guey-Rong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Lee, Chung-Te; Wang, Jia-Lin; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chi, Kai Hsine; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Northern South China Sea (SCS) is adjacent to major atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission source regions; however, studies concerning regional atmospheric Hg distribution and cycling are very limited. Accordingly, measurements of atmospheric Hg were conducted in March and April during the 2010 Dongsha Experiment to study its spatial and temporal distribution. Atmospheric Hg was measured at Hengchun and Dongsha Island (Taiwan), Da Nang (Vietnam), Chiang Mai (Thailand) and over the northern SCS. Atmospheric Hg concentrations ranged between 1.54 and 6.83 ng m-3, mostly higher than the Northern Hemisphere background value. Regional wind fields and backward trajectories indicated that the atmospheric Hg concentrations over northern SCS should principally reflect the export of the East Asian Hg emissions by northeast monsoon. However, significantly elevated Hg concentrations were always observed at Da Nang, possibly due to the influence of local Hg emissions. Chiang Mai is located in the intense biomass burning region in northern Thailand. Therefore, atmospheric Hg concentrations at Chiang Mai reflected the influence of regional biomass burning Hg emissions. Two dust storms were encountered at Dongsha Island, one on March 16 and the other on March 21, with atmospheric Hg enhancements. Compared with the 2008 summer values, elevated Hg levels were observed at Dongsha Island in the spring of 2010. Summer air masses were mainly from the deep SCS, representing relatively clean marine air. On the other hand, air masses were from the north in spring, passing eastern China or Taiwan prior to reaching Dongsha Island. Results of this research thus demonstrated the transport of atmospheric Hg from the East Asian continent to northern SCS by regional monsoon activity in spring, but special events, such as biomass burning and dust storms, can also cause enhancements of ambient Hg levels.

  6. Preliminary Analysis of AVIRIS Data for Tectonostratigraphic Assessment of Northern Guerrero

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Harold R.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique

    1996-01-01

    The tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of North American Plate in Mexico is still in debate. Recent explanations assert Laramide age (Campanian-Eocene) accretion of far-traveled oceanic terranes (Campa and Coney, 1983; Sedlock et al. 1993). In 1989, we began an effort to bring new data to this debate through field mapping, incorporating Lansat Thematic Mapper and digital elevation data, along a 30km by 250km, east-west geologic transect on northern Guerrero State.

  7. Northern Milky Way carbon stars - New candidates, JHK photometry, and radial velocities

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, V.M.; Cook, K.H.; Olszewski, E.W.; Schechter, P.L.; Aaronson, M. Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ Mount Wilson and Las Campanas Observatories, Pasadena, CA MIT, Cambridge, MA )

    1990-08-01

    Data are presented for low-latitude northern Milky Way carbon stars. Coordinates and cross identifications are given for carbon stars in nine fields thought to be unusually transparent. Of these, 142 are confirmed new discoveries. Five hundred thirty-eight JHK photometric observations are reported for 480 stars. Six hundred twenty velocity measurements are presented for 424 stars. Improved coordinates are given for many previously discovered stars. Averaged JHK photometry and velocities are summarized for a sample of 400 stars. 25 refs.

  8. Greening of arid cities by residual water reuse: a multidisciplinary project in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis Cáceres; Delatorre, Jose; De la Riva, Fernando; Monardes, Vinka

    2003-06-01

    This paper describes a project in northern Chile aimed to promote the development of appropriate green areas and gardens for arid regions under prevalent conditions of shortage of water and high salt content in soil and water. Field studies were conducted to test the suitability of selected salt-tolerant native and introduced plants for ornamental use. Plant growth, water and soil quality, marine spray, climate, wastewater treatment and irrigation operating problems were the subject of specific studies and discussion.

  9. Correlation of surface sensible heat flux in the arid region of northwestern China with the northern boundary of the East Asian summer monsoon and Chinese summer precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Dongliang

    2011-10-01

    Northwestern (NW) China is the typical arid region of central Asia, and its surface sensible heat (SSH) anomaly significantly affects the Chinese climate and the atmospheric circulation of East Asia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the SSH flux in the NW arid region of China and the northern boundary of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and Chinese summer rainfall using a climatic diagnosis analysis method. Then the causes of formation were analyzed from the changes of the transfer of water vapor, geopotential height field, and the upper- and lower-level atmospheric circulation fields, and so on. It is found that during years of unusually weak (strong) SSH flux, the northern boundary of the EASM shifts northward (southward) than in normal years. There is an interplay between the SSH in the NW arid region of China and the precipitation in the northern boundary zone of the EASM: In the early stage of the monsoon, the SSH inhibits the latter precipitation, and during the peak of the monsoon, the precipitation suppresses the SSH. The teleconnection wave train structure of the geopotential height field at 500 hPa and the upper- lower-level atmospheric circulation fields above the Eurasian continent exhibit profound changes when summer SSH fluxes are unusually weak and strong. These changes are accompanied by significant alterations to the vertical velocity field and the water vapor field above northern China. The combination of these changes thereby contributes to the unusually southward shift of the northern boundary of the EASM.

  10. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation.

  11. Hydrologic data for northern Bucks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; McManus, B.C.; Rowland-Lesitsky, C. J.; Sloto, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected in northern Bucks County, Pa., as part of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Bridgeton, Buckingham, Nockamixon, Plumstead, Solebury, Springfield, Tinicum, and Wrightstown Townships and New Hope Borough. Hydrologic data on ground water and surface water were collected to provide basic information on the quality and quantity of water resources in northern Bucks County. Ground-water data include descriptions of 1,357 wells and water levels for 28 observation wells measured during 1990-93. Ground-water-quality analyses for 117 wells include physical properties and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, selected metals and other trace constituents, radon, and volatile organic compounds. Surface-water data include chemical analyses of water samples collected at sites on Beaver Creek, Crooks Creek, Geddes Run, Little Tinicum Creek, Paunnacussing Creek, Pidcock Creek, Rapp Creek, Smithtown Creek, and Tinicum Creek.

  12. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  13. Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal wildfire activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q.; Richmond, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the final report of Project 24 of the International Geological Correlation Programme. The publication is drawn from the contributions of leading individual scientist as well as from scientific research teams. It reflects the present state of knowledge of the Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere and their correlation in space and time, as well as providing a unique summary of climatic change.

  15. The Northern Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus alascanus).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    facilitate enlightened management of this eagle. 3 _!tz ’.~ ~ - [ GERAL BIOLOGY Description. As is the case of most birds of prey, the female northern bald...adult birds of the same sex. Yet the average weight of juveniles was less than adults, indi- cating the greater dimensions of juveniles are attributable...male was still living in 1967 at the age of 34 years (Han- cock, 1973). While birds of prey may live to considerable age in captivity, they seldom

  16. Back-trajectory Analyses of Water Vapor in Northern Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Y.; Asanuma, J.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of precipitation sources is indispensable for prediction of extreme events as droughts and flood [Dirmeyer and Brubaker, 1999]. In this paper, the transport pathways of water vapor that precipitates in northern Mongolia were identified using back-trajectory analyses in order to find out factors causing such events in arid/semi-arid area. First, a back-trajectory model of atmospheric water vapor was developed. An air parcel is placed on an isentropic plane over the target site at each time of precipitation. Then, back trajectories was calculated with a kinematic method following the implicit technique [Merrill et al., 1986; Merrill, 1989]. Each of the air parcels was tagged with the precipitation time and the altitude, and then tracked back in time for 5 days on the isentropic surface. Japanese 25-year Reanalysis/JMA Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS) of Japan Meteorological Agency [Onogi et al., 2007] was used for 3D field of meteorological variables for the calculation. As a validation, the model was compared with two others, namely, Meteorological Data Explorer of the Center for Global Environmental Reserch (METEX/CGER) [Zeng et al., 2003], and the trajectory model of the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) [Tomikawa and Sato, 2005]. The comparison found that model results are fairly robust within 5 days from the computational start, i.e., the end of the trajectory, regardless of different datasets and different schemes employed in these models. Then, the back-trajectory model was applied to the observed precipitation at the target site, a surface station in northern Mongolia called Kherlenbayan-Ulaan(KBU), where highly accurate and temporarily dense precipitation measurements are available. Back trajectory lines were calculated for each of the observed precipitation during the warm season of the years 2003 to 2009, on the isentropic surfaces of 300K, 310K and 320K where the highest value of water vapor is observed. The results show

  17. Simultaneous observations of solar MeV particles in a magnetic cloud and in the earth's northern tail lobe - Implications for the global field line topology of magnetic clouds and for the entry of solar particles into the magnetosphere during cloud passage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrugia, C. J.; Richardson, I. G.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Osherovich, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    Simultaneous ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft observations of magnetic fields and flow anisotropies of solar energetic protons and electrons during the passage of an interplanetary magnetic cloud show various particle signature differences at the two spacecraft. These differences are interpretable in terms of the magnetic line topology of the cloud, the connectivity of the cloud field lines to the solar surface, and the interconnection between the magnetic fields of the magnetic clouds and of the earth. These observations are consistent with a magnetic cloud model in which these mesoscale configurations are curved magnetic flux ropes attached at both ends to the sun's surface, extending out to 1 AU.

  18. MODELING FLOW PATTERNS IN A SMALL VEGETATED AREA IN THE NORTHERN CHICHUAHUAN DESERT USING QUIC ( QUIC URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL COMPLEX )

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sandstorms are frequent in the northern Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, an area characterized by open areas lacking vegetation, individual mesquite bushes, and mesquite coppice dunes. Field measurements of sand fluxes and wind velocities over a two year period provided a descri...

  19. Northern Indian California Education Project; An Analysis of Responses by Practicing School Psychologists on a Pre-Questionaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbet, Don; Miles, Marilyn

    School psychologists (13) representing the 6 counties served by the Northern Indian California Education Project (Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act) attended a workshop on January 14, 1972, at Humboldt State College. Also attending were Humboldt State personnel from the fields of education and psychology. The workshop was intended…

  20. Towards Educational Inclusion in a Transforming Society: Some Lessons from Community Relations and Special Needs Education in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…

  1. Molecular identification and pathogenic behavior of Albugo sp., a potential bioherbicide of perennial pepperweed in northern Nevada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial pepperweed (PPW, Lepidium latifolium) is a cruciferous plant native to Eurasia that is a noxious weed in the western USA. In northern Nevada, PPW plants in the field are commonly infected with white rust fungus (Albugo sp.), exhibiting white pustules on the leaves and stems of mature plan...

  2. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  3. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  4. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  5. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio.

  6. Neotectonics of northern Central Europe: the legacy of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Steffen, H.; Wu, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Northern Central Europe is regarded as aseismic, however, several historic earthquakes with intensities of up to VII occurred in this region during the last 1000 years. This historic seismicity is clearly concentrated along major reverse faults that formerly played an important role during a tectonic inversion phase in the Late Cretaceous. Here we show with numerical simulations that large parts of the observed seismicity in northern Central Europe is most likely an effect of stress changes induced by the decay of the Scandinavian ice sheet after the Weichselian glaciation and the interference with the background stress field related to the ongoing convergence of Africa and Europe. Many of the historic earthquakes concentrate for a certain time along one fault and there is even evidence for distinct earthquake clusters in northern Central Europe e.g. along the Osning Thrust or at least along closely spaced faults like in the Gardelegen area. Such a distribution fits the characteristics of other intraplate seismic zones like the eastern United States and requires a re-evaluation of the seismic hazard potential of northern Central Europe, especially in view of the revived search for nuclear waste repositories and ongoing discussions about CO2 sequestration projects in the area.

  7. Observations of multiharmonic ion cyclotron waves due to inverse ion cyclotron damping in the northern magnetospheric cusp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slapak, R.; Gunell, H.; Hamrin, M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study of inverse ion cyclotron damping taking place in the northern terrestrial magnetospheric cusp, exciting waves at the ion cyclotron frequency and its harmonics. The ion cyclotron waves are primarily seen as peaks in the magnetic-field spectral densities. The corresponding peaks in the electric-field spectral densities are not as profound, suggesting a background electric field noise or other processes of wave generation causing the electric spectral densities to smoothen out more compared to the magnetic counterpart. The required condition for inverse ion cyclotron damping is a velocity shear in the magnetic field-aligned ion bulk flow, and this condition is often naturally met for magnetosheath influx in the northern magnetospheric cusp, just as in the presented case. We note that some ion cyclotron wave activity is present in a few similar shear events in the southern cusp, which indicates that other mechanisms generating ion cyclotron waves may also be present during such conditions.

  8. Normal faulting in the northern Shanxi Grabens, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, Tim; Walker, Richard; Parsons, Barry; Wang, Weitao; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Sherlock, Sarah

    2014-05-01

    The Ordos Plateau forms a piece of non-deforming continental lithosphere in northeastern China. Despite being thousands of kilometres from the nearest plate boundary, numerous devastating earthquakes have been recorded around the margins of the plateau over the past 2000 years. Continental deformation in this part of Asia is believed to be caused by the ongoing collision of India with Eurasia; India is currently moving northwards at 40 mm/a. The rate of deformation around the Ordos Plateau, however, is significantly less; typical slip rates for faults bordering the plateau are of the order of 1 mm/a. This deformation is nonetheless important because the adjacent North China Plain is one of the most densely populated regions on Earth. The combined population of Beijing, Hebei and Shanxi Provinces is in excess of 125 million people-all potentially at risk from future earthquakes. Assessing the seismic hazard is clearly of vital societal importance. The plateau is surrounded by extensional rift systems on all sides, except for the Liupanshan in the southwestern corner, where thrust faulting is dominant. The Hetao Graben lies to the north of the plateau, the Yinchuan Graben to the west, the Weihe Graben to the south and the Shanxi Grabens to the east, where they form an S-shaped series of en-echelon basins some 1200 km long. The northern portion of the Shanxi Grabens is characterised by east-northeast striking normal faults and asymmetric half-grabens with footwall blocks tilted to the south-southeast. GPS measurements in this region are sparse, but the existing data suggests a rate of extension across the northern Shanxi grabens of anywhere between 0 mm/a and 4 mm/a. We have used optically stimulated luminescence dating of sedimentary quartz grains and Ar-Ar dating of basaltic lavas to determine ages for features which have been offset by the faulting. Combined with scarp heights and field measurements of fault dip, this data suggest a total extension rate across the

  9. Tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes from satellite images analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Backé, G.; Hervouët, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The northern part of the Venezuelan (or Merida) Andes is a complex area comprising a Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary sequence that recorded two main stages of deformation: (1) the uplifting of the Carribean belt in the Cretaceous-Eocene (Carribean stage), which is superimposed by (2) the building of the Venezuelan Andes since the Miocene (Andean stage). The study area is located at the junction between the Merida Andes and the Caribbean belt, and constitutes a key zone to understand the transition between these two orogens. Our aim is to implement the structural mapping in order to propose a new model of deformation at regional scale. The methodology is based on analysis of Landsat TM, SPOT, radarsat and DEM images, and is complemented by geological studies in the field. Integration of this complementary data set into a GIS enables a new understanding of the tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes during the Neogene-Quaternary. We focused on three main areas where the structures are clearly exposed. In the Mene Grande area, our structural analysis allows to precise the geometry and timing of deformations. The Cerro la Galera anticline is a fault bend fold propagating to the SW that developped along the Burro Negro fault during the Eocene-Oligocene and then eroded. The Cerro La Luna (or Cerro Misoa) is a pop-up structure that developped later during the Andean stage. In the Jirajara area, we have evidenced a releasing-bend basin at left-stepping offset of the Valera fault. To the east, this basin is surrounded by the relief of the Serrania de Jirajara which gravitationally collapses towards the lowland of the basin. In the Sierra de Barragua area, we mapped the left-lateral strike-slip Rio Diquiva fault 25 km east of the Valera fault. This fault is a major structure bounding two distincts areas of sedimentation during the Eocene. The synthesis of these observations shows that the northern Venezuelan Andes consist in a mosaic of independent crustal blocks

  10. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. [Salmonella in free living snakes of Northern Germany (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wuthe, H H; Rohde, R; Aleksić, S; Schubert, C; Wuthe, S

    1979-04-01

    Fourty-nine adders (Vipera berus L.) and thirty-one grass-snakes (Nitrix natrix L.) from northern Germany were investigated by cloacal swabs. The samples were usually taken in the field and preenriched in peptone water and further-on processed in three steps of tetrathionate. After each step of enrichment the material was transfered to salmonella shigella agar and fuchsine lactose agar (acc. to Endo). Salmonella screening was done by inoculation of lactose positive and lactose negative colonies into lysine iron agar (acc. to Edwards and Fife). Salmonella excretion was found in 59% of the adders and in 68% of the grass-snakes. Some specimens excreted several Salmonella species. 22 different species resp. variants were detected, of which 19 species belonged to subgenus III (Arizona). Subgenus I occured infrequently and was represented by S. duesseldorf, S. heidelberg and S. sunnycove. Three new triphasic variants S. III 17:Z10: e, n, x, z15: z56, S. III 38: (k): z35:z56 and S. III 50:z10:z:z56 of species already known and four so far unknown species S. III (6), 14: 1,v:z (Ar. 7a, 7c:23-31), S. III 21:1,v:z57 (Ar. 22:23-40a,40c), S. III 43:1,v:z56 (Ar. 21:23-38) and S. III 28:z10:z57 (Ar. 35:27-40a,40c) were discovered. The present results suggest that adders and grass-snakes in northern Germany represent autonomous reservoirs of salmonellae. There exist only few relations between the Salmonella species in these kinds of snakes and other European snakes.

  12. Seasonal circulation assessments of the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Alosairi, Y; Pokavanich, T

    2017-03-15

    Due to the continuous human activities linked to economic expansion in the Arabian Gulf area (also known as Persian Gulf), various activities have had an adverse impact on the coastal environment. Furthermore, reduction of precipitation and river flows has resulted in alterations to the hydro-environment regime at various levels. The current study uses a detailed numerical model that was validated with recent field measurements to determine the comprehensive seasonal circulations of the Northern Arabian/Persian Gulf (NAG). The seasons were studied individually using a three-dimensional setup and by considering the baroclinic effects and meteorological forcing. It was found that the NAG exhibits distinctive circulation characteristics each season. In winter, a dense water mass that forms near Kuwait flows toward the southeast near-bed, whereas relatively weak Indian Ocean Surface Waters (IOSW) flow along the Iranian coast and, to a lesser extent, oppose these currents. In spring, the southeast near bed circulations are weaker, while the IOSW is in highest conditions reaching the northern latitudes of the Gulf without being significantly diluted. In summer, a thermocline develops, particularly at the main axis of the NAG, and increases the chances of upwelling. The surface water during this season is significantly controlled by wind. Most distinctive, a non-uniform flow is evident at the offshore regions along the Arabian coast due to strong density gradients. In the fall, the circulations are relatively weaker compared to other seasons; however, cyclonic features are evident at the southeast of the estuary. Well-known counter clockwise circulations NAG are evident throughout the season, but at various strengths; summer is the most active season, while fall is the least active season. In a similar manner, the along shore current varied spatially and temporally throughout the seasons.

  13. Movements of a polar bear from northern Alaska to northern Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Using satellite telemetry, we monitored the movements of an adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as she traveled from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast to northern Greenland. She is the first polar bear known to depart the Beaufort Sea region for an extended period, and the first polar bear known to move between Alaska and Greenland. This bear traveled for four months across the polar basin and came within 2 degrees of the North Pole. During the first year following her capture, she traveled 5256 km. Evidence to suggest her use of maternity dens in northern Alaska and in northern Greenland demonstrates the potential for genetic exchange between two widely separate populations of polar bears. The long life spans of polar bears and the rarity of their long-range movements means the significance of interpopulation movement can be assessed after long-term monitoring of individuals.

  14. High northern latitude temperature extremes, 1400-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingley, M. P.; Huybers, P.; Hughen, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    There is often an interest in determining which interval features the most extreme value of a reconstructed climate field, such as the warmest year or decade in a temperature reconstruction. Previous approaches to this type of question have not fully accounted for the spatial and temporal covariance in the climate field when assessing the significance of extreme values. Here we present results from applying BARSAT, a new, Bayesian approach to reconstructing climate fields, to a 600 year multiproxy temperature data set that covers land areas between 45N and 85N. The end result of the analysis is an ensemble of spatially and temporally complete realizations of the temperature field, each of which is consistent with the observations and the estimated values of the parameters that define the assumed spatial and temporal covariance functions. In terms of the spatial average temperature, 1990-1999 was the warmest decade in the 1400-1999 interval in each of 2000 ensemble members, while 1995 was the warmest year in 98% of the ensemble members. A similar analysis at each node of a regular 5 degree grid gives insight into the spatial distribution of warm temperatures, and reveals that 1995 was anomalously warm in Eurasia, whereas 1998 featured extreme warmth in North America. In 70% of the ensemble members, 1601 featured the coldest spatial average, indicating that the eruption of Huaynaputina in Peru in 1600 (with a volcanic explosivity index of 6) had a major cooling impact on the high northern latitudes. Repeating this analysis at each node reveals the varying impacts of major volcanic eruptions on the distribution of extreme cooling. Finally, we use the ensemble to investigate extremes in the time evolution of centennial temperature trends, and find that in more than half the ensemble members, the greatest rate of change in the spatial mean time series was a cooling centered at 1600. The largest rate of centennial scale warming, however, occurred in the 20th Century in

  15. The central and northern Appalachian Basin-a frontier region for coalbed methane development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Appalachian basin is the world's second largest coalbed-methane (CBM) producing basin. It has nearly 4000 wells with 1996 annual production at 147.8 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Cumulative CBM production is close to 0.9 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). The Black Warrior Basin of Alabama in the southern Appalachian basin (including a very minor amount from the Cahaba coal field) accounts for about 75% of this annual production and about 75% of the wells, and the remainder comes from the central and northern Appalachian basin. The Southwest Virginia coal field accounts for about 95% of the production from the central and northern parts of the Appalachian basin. Production data and trends imply that several of the Appalachian basin states, except for Alabama and Virginia, are in their infancy with respect to CBM development. Total in-place CBM resources in the central and northern Appalachian basin have been variously estimated at 66 to 76 trillion cubic feet (Tcf), of which an estimated 14.55 Tcf (~ 20%) is technically recoverable according to a 1995 U.S. Geological Survey assessment. For comparison in the Black Warrior basin of the 20 Tcf in-place CBM resources, 2.30 Tcf (~ 12%) is technically recoverable. Because close to 0.9 Tcf of CBM has already been produced from the Black Warrior basin and the proved reserves are about 0.8 Tcf for 1996 [Energy Information Administration (EIA), 1997]. U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Reserves, 1996 Annual Report. U.S. Department of Energy DOE/EIA-0216(96), 145 pp.], these data imply that the central and northern Appalachian basin could become increasingly important in the Appalachian basin CBM picture as CBM resources are depleted in the southern Appalachian basin (Black Warrior Basin and Cahaba Coal Field). CBM development in the Appalachian states could decrease the eastern U.S.A.'s dependence on coal for electricity. CBM is expected to provide over the next few decades a virtually untapped source of

  16. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India

    PubMed Central

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I.; Kamal, Mohammad A.; Bhattacharya, P.S.; Rana, D.

    2014-01-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2–55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. PMID:25473373

  17. Genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellite in Northern India.

    PubMed

    Sohrab, Sayed Sartaj; Azhar, Esam I; Kamal, Mohammad A; Bhattacharya, P S; Rana, D

    2014-12-01

    Cotton is an important crop and its production is affected by various disease pathogens. Monopartite begomovirus associated betasatellites cause Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) in Northern India. In order to access the occurrence and genetic variability of Cotton leaf curl betasatellites, an extensive field survey was conducted in states of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana. We selected the betasatellite sequence for analysis as they are reported as important for disease severity and sequence variability. Based on the field observations, the disease incidence ranged from 30% to 80% during the survey. Full genome and DNA β were amplified from various samples while no amplicon was obtained in some samples. The nucleotide sequence homology ranged from 90.0% to 98.7% with Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV), 55.2-55.5% with Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus, 55.8% with Okra leaf curl virus and 51.70% with Tomato leaf curl virus isolates. The lowest similarity (47.8%) was found in CLCuV-Sudan isolate. Phylogenetic analysis showed that analyzed isolates formed a close cluster with various CLCuV isolates reported earlier. The analysis results show sequence variation in Cotton leaf curl betasatellite which could be the result of recombination. The results obtained by genome amplification and sequence variability indicate that some new variants are circulating and causing leaf curl disease in Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.

  18. Has Northern Hemisphere Heat Flow Been Underestimated?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosnold, W. D.; Majorowicz, J.; Safanda, J.; Szewczyk, J.

    2005-05-01

    We present three lines of evidence to suggest the hypothesis that heat flow in the northern hemisphere may have been underestimated by 15 to 60 percent in shallow wells due to a large post-glacial warming signal. First, temperature vs. depth (T-z) measurements in parts of Europe and North America show a systematic increase in heat flow with depth. This phenomenon is best recognized in analyses of deep (greater than 2km) boreholes in non-tectonic regions with normal to low background heat flow. In Europe, the increase in heat flow with depth has been observed by analysis of more than 1500 deep boreholes located throughout the Fennoscandian Shield, East European Platform, Danish Basin, Germany, Czech Republic, and Poland. There are significantly fewer deep boreholes in North America, but the increase in heat flow with depth appears in a suite of 759 sites in the IHFC Global Heat Flow Database for the region east of the Rocky Mountains and north of latitude 40 N. Second, surface heat flow values in southern hemisphere shields average approximately 50 mWm-2, but surface heat flow values in northern hemisphere shields average 33 mWm-2. Unless crustal radioactivity or mantle heat flow or both factors are greater in southern hemisphere continents, there is no reason for the northern and southern shield areas having similar ages to have different heat flow values. Third, two recently published surface heat flow maps show anomalously low heat flow in the Canadian Shield in a pattern that is coincident with the Wisconsinan ice sheet. The coincidence of low heat flow and ice accumulation has no geophysical basis, thus the coincidence may suggest the existence of a transient signal caused by a warming event. Recent studies of heat flow in North America indicate that in several sites, the ice base temperature was close to the pressure melting point. We hypothesize that there may have been cold ice-free periods during the Pleistocene that would account for the apparent colder

  19. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  20. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.