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Sample records for northern chilean coast

  1. Changes in the advection of Antarctic Intermediate Water to the northern Chilean coast during the last 970 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Méndez, G.; Hebbeln, D.; Mohtadi, M.; Lamy, F.; De Pol-Holz, R.; Reyes-Macaya, D.; Freudenthal, T.

    2013-12-01

    Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) is a key player in global-scale oceanic overturning processes and an important conduit for heat, fresh water, and carbon transport. The AAIW past variability is poorly understood mainly due to the lack of sedimentary archives at intermediate water depths. We present records of benthic stable isotopes from sediments retrieved with the seafloor drill rig MARUM-MeBo at 956 m water depth off northern Chile (GeoB15016, 27°29.48'S, 71°07.58'W) that extend back to 970 ka. The sediments at this site are presently deposited at the boundary between AAIW and Pacific Deep Water (PDW). For previous peak interglacials, our results reveal similar benthic δ13C values at site GeoB15016 and of a newly generated stack of benthic δ13C from various deep Pacific cores representing the "average PDW." This suggests, unlike today, the absence of AAIW at the site and the presence of nearly pure PDW. In contrast, more positive δ13C values at site GeoB15016 compared to the stack imply a considerable AAIW contribution during cold phases of interglacials and especially during glacials. Besides, we used three short sediment cores to reconstruct benthic δ13C values from the AAIW core during the last glacial and found a δ13C signature similar to today's. Assuming that this was the case also for the past 970 kyr, we demonstrate that sea level changes and latitudinal migrations of the AAIW formation site can only account for about 50% of the full range of past δ13C increases at site GeoB15016 during cold periods. Other processes that could explain the remaining of the positive δ13C anomalies are increases in glacial AAIW production and/or deeper convection of the AAIW with respect to preceding interglacials.

  2. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  3. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  4. A new species of Aeneator Finlay, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Buccinidae) from northern Chile, with comments on the genus and a key to the Chilean species

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Aeneator Finlay, 1926 is described from off the coast of Caldera (27°S), northern Chile. Aeneator martae sp. n. has a small, broad, stout, angulated shell with more prominent axial ribs and a more obviously keeled periphery than all previously named Chilean species. Comparisons are provided with all other South American named species of Aeneator. PMID:23653495

  5. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord.

    PubMed

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael; Cámara, Beatriz

    2017-02-09

    Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium.

  6. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. H-KF8, a Marine Actinobacterium Isolated from a Northern Chilean Patagonian Fjord

    PubMed Central

    Undabarrena, Agustina; Ugalde, Juan Antonio; Castro-Nallar, Eduardo; Seeger, Michael

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 is a fjord-derived marine actinobacterium capable of producing antimicrobial activity. Streptomyces sp. H-KF8 was isolated from sediments of the Comau fjord, located in the northern Chilean Patagonia. Here, we report the 7.7-Mb genome assembly, which represents the first genome of a Chilean marine actinobacterium. PMID:28183776

  7. Comparison of Tsunami height Distributions of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean Earthquakes on the Coasts of the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Imai, K.

    2010-12-01

    The tsunami of the Chilean Earthquake (Mw8.8) of February 27, 2010 was detected also on the coasts of the Japanese Islands about 23 hours after the occurrence of the main shock. It caused no human damage. There was slight house damage manly in Miyagi prefecture, south part of Sanriku coast; six and fifty one houses were flooded above and below the floor, respectively. It caused remarkable fishery loss of 75 Million US$ mainly due to breaking of cultivation rafts. The tsunami of the 1960 Chilean Earthquake(Mw9.5) also hit the Japanese coasts more severely. It caused more immense damage than the 2010 tsunami; 142 people were killed, 1,581 houses were entirely destroyed, and 1,256 houses were swept away. Most of damage occurred in the districts of Sanriku coast, where inundation heights exceeded six meters at several points. We made field survey along the Japanese coast, visited offices of fishermen’s cooperatives at over 300 fishery ports, gathered eyewitnesses counts, and obtained information of the inundation limit, arrival time, and building and fishery damage. On the basis of the information of inundation, we measured tsunami heights. We obtained data of tsunami height at more than two hundred points (Tsuji et al., 2010). The distributions of the two tsunamis of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean earthquakes on the coasts along the Japanese Islands are shown as Fig. 1. The maximum height of 2.2 meters was recorded at Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture. The heights of the 2010 tsunami were generally one third of those of the 1960 tsunami. An eminent peak appears at Sanriku coast commonly for both tsunamis. In addition smaller peaks also appear commonly at the coasts of the east part of Hokkaido, near the top of Boso peninsula, near the top of Izu Peninsula, the east coast of Kii Peninsula, Tokushima prefecture, eastern part of Shikoku, and near the Cape Ashizuri in western part of Shikoku. Fig. 1 Trace height distributions of the tsunamis of the 1960(red) and the 2010

  8. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  9. Spectral analysis of Chilean tsunami (February 27, 2010) records on the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivelskaya, Tatiana; Shevchenko, George; Korolyov, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    event, we identified as "normal" and selected for analysis of the background signal; the period from 00:00 of February 28 to 24:00 of March 1h ("tsunami period") was chosen for analysis of tsunami-caused oscillations. Two well-expressed peaks with periods about 60 and 45 min were found in the spectra of tsunami records obtained at the Severo-Kurilsk and Vodopadnaya stations. One well-expressed peak with period about 45 min was found in the spectra of tsunami-caused oscillations in the Nikolskoe and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The same peak in the spectra at different stations (Hanasaki, Korsakov and so on also) is probably connected with tsunami source features. The peak with period 60 min is probably connected with shelf resonant effect in the area adjacent to Paramushir Island and southeastern coast of Kamchatka peninsula. There are some peaks in the high frequency band in the spectra of different stations. These peaks are induced by the local topography resonant effects probably. Low-frequency oscillations with period about 4.8 hours we found in the tsunami records at Korsakov and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. These oscillations are connected with resonant modes of large-size Aniva Bay and Avachinskaya Guba Bay. The same oscillations in these bays were caused by Great Chilian tsunami (May, 1960) too. Similar spectra of both Chilean tsunamis were obtained at Hanasaki and some other stations.

  10. Heavy metals in bivalve mussels and their habitats from different sites along the Chilean Coast

    SciTech Connect

    De Gregori, I.; Pinochet, H.; Delgado, D. ); Gras, N.; Munoz, L. )

    1994-02-01

    It is well known that heavy metals have a great ecological significance due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour playing a prominent role in marine ecosystems. They occur in all compartments in the marine environment with a tendency to accumulate in organism from different trophic levels of the marine webs. Along this pathway, toxic trace metals become a potential hazard for man and mammals. Coastal and estuarine zones are more vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution with toxic metals and it must be kept in mind that these zones have high seafood production. Chile is in a favourable position to develop fishing activities since it has approximately 4.500 km. of coastline bordering the South Pacific Ocean. The seawater is rich in nutrients and new aquaculture projects have been developed during the last year. However, these seafoods, like other marine organisms, are susceptible to being contaminated by trace metals, produced especially by the mining and industrial processing of ores and metals (i.e., Cu, Mo). This activity is well known as an important source of heavy metals, due to the enormous quantities of waste products, some of which were formerly released directly to the marine environment. Actually there are many aspects demanding better and more detailed knowledge on the occurrence, inventory, of the Chilean marine ecosystem. For these reasons we are developing a programme for monitoring some heavy metals in marine samples. The development of analytical quality control procedures and the analysis of toxic trace elements in fresh and canned mussels were recently published. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the Cadmium, Copper and Zinc contents in water, sediment and mollusc samples collected from different geographical areas located along the coast of Chile. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Genetically distinct coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Sasaki, Takeshi; Emerson, J J; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua I; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Iwata, Masamitsu; Abe, Yoshitaka; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    Since the sensational discovery of a living coelacanth off the east coast of South Africa, the geographic distribution of viable coelacanth populations has been a subject of debate. In the past, the coelacanths off the African mainland were thought to be strays from the Comoros because most coelacanths captured were caught in the waters surrounding the Comoros archipelagos. However, in recent years, a large number of coelacanths were captured off the coast of Tanzania, including nine living specimens observed in a remotely operated vehicles survey. Thus, it is possible that there is a reproducing population inhabiting waters off the Tanzania coast. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 21 Tanzanian and 2 Comoran coelacanths and analyzed these sequences together with two additional full mitochondrial genomes and 47 d-loop sequences from the literature. We found that the coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast is genetically differentiated from those of the southern Tanzania coast and the Comoros, whereas no significant genetic differentiation occurs between the latter two localities. The differentiation between the northern and southern Tanzanian coast populations is consistent with the hypothesis that the existence of northward-flowing ocean current along the Tanzanian coast may reduce or prevent gene flow from the northern to the southern population. Finally, we estimated that the population localized to the southern Tanzanian coast and the Comoros diverged from other coelacanths at least 200,000 y ago. These results indicate that the coelacanths off the northern Tanzania coast are not strays but a genetically distinct group. Our study provides important information for the conservation of this threatened "living fossil."

  12. Late Holocene environmental changes recorded in the sediments of Lago Thompson, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Nuttin, Laurence; Bertrand, Sébastien; Borgniet, Geoffrey; Schmidt, Sabine; Araneda, Alberto; Torrejon, Fernando; Urrutia, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the sedimentary record of Lago Thompson, a small lake (area 1.1 km2, watershed ~8 km2) located at an elevation of 750 masl in Northern Chilean Patagonia (45.38 °S, 71.47°W). At Present, the climate conditions around the lake are relatively dry, with annual precipitation averaging 500 mm. The goal of this study is to evaluate the natural climate variability over the Last Millennium in Northern Chilean Patagonia and its impact on the environment. The coring site was selected after a bathymetric survey using an echo-sounder. Several short cores were retrieved in 2008 using an Uwitec gravity corer: the length of the cores ranges between 124 and 132 cm. The preliminary age model is based on 4 AMS radiocarbon ages measured on bulk sediment and organic macro-remains. The radiocarbon ages demonstrate that the sediment cores cover the last 850 to 950 years. This sediment record, which is characterized by accumulation rates ranging between 1 and 3 mm/yr, can therefore be studied at decennial to centennial resolution. To reconstruct past changes in climate and the environment, we conducted a multiproxy study combining sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses (LOI 105, 550 and 950°C, biogenic silica content, magnetic susceptibility, tephrostratigraphy, bulk organic geochemistry, bulk mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, and inorganic geochemistry by ITRAX core scanner and ICP-AES). Visual descriptions and X-ray radiographies demonstrate that the sediment record is relatively undisturbed. The sediment is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey material. The lower part of the core (below 75 cm) is finely laminated whereas the upper part is more homogeneous. Magnetic susceptibility values highlight two tephra layers that represent explosive eruptions of volcanoes from the southern volcanic zone of Chile (Hudson, Cay, or Macá volcanoes). The biogenic silica content of the sediment retrieved in Lago Thompson is high (40 to 80%), and probably

  13. New Chilean iron meteorites: Medium octahedrites from Northern Chile are unique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, John T.; Canut de Bon, Claudio

    1998-03-01

    We report data on three new irons from Northern Chile, and propose names. All are unnamed irons from the meteorite collection at the Universidad de La Serena. For two the provenance is unknown, for the third the presumed discovery site is in the countryside east of Iquique. The three have been analyzed by neutron-activation analysis and their structures examined with a binocular microscope. La Serena is a complete 663 g iron, a new member of group IIICD; it is not paired with any other iron. Elqui has a mass of 260 g; two faces are fractures, possibly produced by human actions, but fusion crust appears to be present on some of the remaining surface. It is a hexahedrite and a member of group IIAB. but its composition differs from that of all other Chilean hexahedrites. The third iron, Pozo Almonte, is a medium octahedrite member of group IIIAB, one of the most common meteorite groups. To find out whether it is paired, we assembled a full set of IIIAB irons from Northern Chile. Our compositional data show that Pozo Almonte is not paired with any other IIIAB iron, and that there are no pairings within the full set with the possible exception of Joel's Iron and Sierra Sandon, which differ only in their contents of Ir, 0.39 and 0.34 mg/g, respectively. However, Buchwald's (1975) structural observations rule out this possible pairing. We find appreciable differences in Cu, As and Au between the previously paired IIIAB irons Chanaral and Ilimaes, and conclude that these should not be paired.

  14. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern pintail (gulf coast wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.; Kantrud, Harold A.

    1986-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluating wintering habitat quality for northern pintail (Anas acuta) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The model is scaled to produce an index between unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  16. The last millenia sedimentary record of Lake Esponja, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Araneda, Alberto; Alvarez, Denisse; Perfetti-Bolaño, Alessandra; Billy, Isabelle; Martinez, Philippe; Schmidt, Sabine; Urrutia, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the climate and environmental variability of Northern Chilean Patagonia during the Last Millennia, using a multi-proxy analysis of a sediment core from Lago Esponja (45°09'S, 72°08'W). The lake is located in the region of Aysen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, in NW Patagonia. The study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records. The longest core (150 cm long) was collected in 2014 at 40 m depth. The sediment, which is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey silt, was analyzed for sedimentology (grain size, magnetic susceptibility organic matter and biogenic silica content), mineralogy (X-ray diffraction) and geochemistry (elemental and isotopic analyses of C and N, XRF core-scaner at 1 mm resolution). The radiocarbon ages, measured on 3 macro-remains, demonstrate that the core covers the last 6.700 years. The sedimentation rate ranges between 0.1 mm/yr in the lower section (100-150 cm) and 0.4 mm/yr in the upper meter. Visual descriptions and Scopix radiographies show that the sediment record is finely laminated except a massive decimetric coarser and darker layer corresponding to a tephra (estimated age 700AD±50). Magnetic susceptibility (confirmed by scopix radiographies) highlights the presence of 8 additional millimetric tephra layers. The biogenic silica content of the sediment is low (mean 5%). Diatom assemblage is dominated by benthic and acidophilous species, with high saprobic values. None marked changes were observed regarding the dynamic of the lake. The high organic matter content (mean 15%) and its high C/N ratio (12.7) throughout the core indicate inputs of allochtonous and terrestrial organic matter. Such parameters present high sediment variability also marked by changes in the chemical composition. The laminations reflect changes in the allochtonous sedimentary inputs, with high terrestrial inputs during wetter conditions in relation with the Westerlies. The sedimentary records of Lago Esponja will be compared

  17. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  18. Crustal Structure of the Northern Chilean Forearc from Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to being an excellent venue for investigating the tectonics of the Andean margin, northern Chile is of particular interest to seismologists because of its potential for an imminent megathrust earthquake. Such events often trigger destructive seismic activity in the populated forearc, as demonstrated for example in the aftermath of the 2010 Maule event. To investigate the nature of deformation in the forearc, we generated high resolution images of the subsurface from Rayleigh wave dispersion curves derived from cross correlation of ambient noise. The ambient noise data were recorded over a period of three years by 60 stations from three different networks of broad band stations. Because of the proximity of the stations to the Pacific Ocean, we estimated the bias in the estimated Green's functions caused by the asymmetry of the noise distribution using a technique based on that described by Yao and van der Hilst (2009). Our results suggest that this bias can be as large as 5% for some station pairs. The unbiased times are then used to refine phase velocity maps, from which we derived transit times to generate a 3D image of shear wavespeed (Vs) from the surface to about 50 km depth. To first order, low-Vs anomalies correlate well with the geometry of the Atacama Bench Structure (western foreland basin) where leaching processes are related to large incisions in the Atacama Desert (north of 19ºS). In addition, high Vs anomalies correlate with the locations of fossil magmatic arcs developed as trench-parallel belts from the coast to the Altiplano. For example, high Vs correlates with the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc along the coast, the Paleocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the central depression, and the Eocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the Frontal Cordillera. A continuous seismic anomaly of low-Vs, located between 15 - 25 km depth, may be evidence of a weak and/or hydrated zone within the lower continental crust, related to slab-linked upper plate

  19. Recent advances in the characterization of hair of mummies from the Chilean Andean coast.

    PubMed

    Fresnais, M; Richardin, P; Gimat, A; Sepúlveda, M; Leize-Wagner, E; Charrié, A

    2015-04-01

    Two pre-Hispanic mummies from the Andean coast, belonging to a corpus of 16 mummies from the San Miguel de Azapa (Arica, Chile), were radiocarbon dated and analyzed in order to replace them in their historical context and to study the conservation state of the hair fibers and the heavy metal presence. The radiocarbon dating placed both mummies in the Formative period (1700 years BC to 500 years AD). Global and elemental analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. These combined techniques enabled to prove the good global conservation state of the mummies' hair and to detect iron, lead, bromide and also arsenic in some cases, in significant amounts inside the hair fibers. Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy seemed to prove the good conservation state of the hair surface at a structural level that is why the conservation of hair proteins at a molecular level will be investigated by a proteomics approach in future work.

  20. Ecological Implications of Extreme Events: Footprints of the 2010 Earthquake along the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Duarte, Cristian; Campos, Cesar; Sanchez, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering ecological effects of major catastrophic events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, storms and fires, requires rapid interdisciplinary efforts often hampered by a lack of pre-event data. Using results of intertidal surveys conducted shortly before and immediately after Chile's 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake along the entire rupture zone (ca. 34–38°S), we provide the first quantification of earthquake and tsunami effects on sandy beach ecosystems. Our study incorporated anthropogenic coastal development as a key design factor. Ecological responses of beach ecosystems were strongly affected by the magnitude of land-level change. Subsidence along the northern rupture segment combined with tsunami-associated disturbance and drowned beaches. In contrast, along the co-seismically uplifted southern rupture, beaches widened and flattened increasing habitat availability. Post-event changes in abundance and distribution of mobile intertidal invertebrates were not uniform, varying with land-level change, tsunami height and coastal development. On beaches where subsidence occurred, intertidal zones and their associated species disappeared. On some beaches, uplift of rocky sub-tidal substrate eliminated low intertidal sand beach habitat for ecologically important species. On others, unexpected interactions of uplift with man-made coastal armouring included restoration of upper and mid-intertidal habitat seaward of armouring followed by rapid colonization of mobile crustaceans typical of these zones formerly excluded by constraints imposed by the armouring structures. Responses of coastal ecosystems to major earthquakes appear to vary strongly with land-level change, the mobility of the biota and shore type. Our results show that interactions of extreme events with human-altered shorelines can produce surprising ecological outcomes, and suggest these complex responses to landscape alteration can leave lasting footprints in coastal ecosystems. PMID:22567101

  1. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  2. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  3. 50 CFR 226.210 - Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Central California Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). 226.210... Coast Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Southern Oregon/Northern California Coasts Coho...

  4. 77 FR 476 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan Southern Oregon/Northern California Coast Coho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Plan Southern Oregon/ Northern California Coast Coho Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit AGENCY... Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU). NMFS is soliciting review and... Fisheries Service, 1655 Heindon Road, Arcata, CA 95521, Attn: Recovery Coordinator/SONCC Coho Salmon...

  5. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Coastal and Open-Ocean Records of the Great Chilean Tsunamis of 2010, 2014 and 2015 off the Coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Oleg; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.

    2016-12-01

    The three great earthquakes off the coast of Chile on 27 February 2010 (Maule, M w 8.8), 1 April 2014 (Iquique, M w 8.2) and 16 September 2015 (Illapel, M w 8.3) generated major transoceanic tsunamis that spread throughout the Pacific Ocean and were measured by numerous coastal tide gauges and open-ocean DART stations. Statistical and spectral analyses of the tsunami waves from the events recorded on the Pacific coast of Mexico enabled us to estimate parameters of the waves along the coast and to compare statistical features of the events. We also identified three coastal "hot spots" (sites having maximum tsunami risk): Puerto Angel, Puerto Madero and Manzanillo. Based on the joint spectral analyses of the tsunamis and background noise, we have developed a method for using coastal observations to determine the underlying spectrum of tsunami waves in the deep ocean. The "reconstructed" open-ocean tsunami spectra are in close agreement with the actual tsunami spectra evaluated from direct analysis of the DART records offshore of Mexico. We have further used the spectral estimates to parameterize the energy of the three Chilean tsunamis based on the total open-ocean tsunami energy and frequency content of the individual events.

  7. Holocene climate and climate variability of the northern Gulf of Mexico and adjacent northern Gulf Coast: A review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.

    2008-01-01

    Marine records from the northern Gulf of Mexico indicate that significant multidecadal- and century-scale variability was common during the Holocene. Mean annual sea-surface temperature (SST) during the last 1,400 years may have varied by 3°C, and excursions to cold SST coincide with reductions in solar output. Broad trends in Holocene terrestrial climate and environmental change along the eastern portion of the northern Gulf Coast are evident from existing pollen records, but the high-frequency details of climate variability are not well known. Continuous and well-dated records of climate change and climate variability in the western portion of the northern Gulf Coast are essentially lacking.Information on Holocene floods, droughts, and storm frequency along the northern Gulf Coast is limited. Records of floods may be preserved in continental shelf sediments, but establishing continuity and chronologies for sedimentary sequences on the shelf presents challenges due to sediment remobilization and redeposition during storms. Studies of past storm deposits in coastal lakes and marshes show promise for constructing records of past storm frequency. A recent summary of sea-level history of the northern Gulf Coast indicates sea level was higher than modern sea level several times during the last few thousand years.

  8. Haze Formation on the Northern Coast of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levit, V.; Santos, D. M. B.; Fedorova, N.

    2010-07-01

    Two types of haze formation on the northern coast of Brazil were investigated. Comparisons of the thermodynamic and synoptic processes for haze associated with rain (HR) and without one (H) were elaborated. The hourly surface data at the Maceio International Airport were used for HR and H identification. Thermodynamic processes were studied by temperature and humidity vertical profiles, elaborated by two methods: 1) NCEP reanalysis data for Maceio and 2) Air Parcels Trajectories of the HYSPLIT model at the 10 pattern levels. Vertical profile forecast, using the HYSPLIT model, was elaborated with 12, 24, 36 and 48h antecedence. High humidity of the superficial layer (up to 925hPa) and humidity advections were confirmed by the both models and this layer was forecasted up to 48h antecedence. Weak ascendance motions at the superficial and high layers and subsidence in the middle layers have provoked a superficial humidity accumulation for H days. More intensive ascendance motions in all atmospheres with thin subsidence motion layer nearly 700hPa were observed for HR days. Synoptic situations before and during HR and H events were analyzed using different products of NCEP reanalysis, of high resolution (10km) ETA model results and infrared satellite images. Weak wave disturbance in the trade winds field was accompanied by the H phenomena. HR was observed in the intensive trough at the low levels. HR was associated with one type of the synoptic scale systems and H events with other type at the middle levels. The models also presented different results for each system. Different trough types were observed by both models for H days. An influence of the cyclonic circulation, which was identified only in the middle levels, was registered by NCEP data and was confirmed by satellite images for HR days. On the other hand, ETA model shows a High above the event region. Air currents intensive confluence between High and trough at the high levels was identified by the both models

  9. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  10. Pervasive cracking of the northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera: New evidence for forearc extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, John P.; Hoke, Gregory D.; Allmendinger, Richard W.; González, Gabriel; Isacks, Bryan L.; Carrizo, Daniel A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite convergence across the strongly coupled seismogenic interface between the South American and Nazca plates, the dominant neotectonic signature in the forearc of northern Chile is arc-normal extension. We have used 1 m resolution IKONOS satellite imagery to map nearly 37,000 cracks over an area of 500 km2 near the Salar Grande (21°S). These features, which are best preserved in a ubiquitous gypcrete surface layer, have both nontectonic and tectonic origins. However, their strong preferred orientation perpendicular to the plate convergence vector suggests that the majority owe their formation to approximate east-west extension associated with plate boundary processes such as interseismic loading, coseismic and postseismic strain, and long-term instability resulting from subduction erosion. Similar structures were formed during or shortly after the 1995 Mw = 8.0 earthquake near the city of Antofagasta, south of Salar Grande, and in conjunction with the 2001 Mw = 8.2 8.4 Arequipa, Peru, event. Cracks such as these may form in other forearcs but remain largely unexposed because of vegetative cover or marked fluvial erosion—factors that are absent in northern Chile as a result of its hyperarid climate.

  11. Heavy metals in northern Chilean rivers: spatial variation and temporal trends.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Jaime; Vergara, Pablo M; Rodríguez, José A; Valenzuela, Alejandra M

    2010-09-15

    Rivers of central-northern Chile are exposed to pollution from different sources, including mining activities, natural orogenic process, volcanic activity, and geology. In order to determine the contribution of mining to river pollution, the spatio-temporal dynamics of chemical species dissolved in 12 rivers of central-northern Chile was assessed. Of all the rivers studied, the Elqui showed the highest historical mean concentrations of As, Cu and Pb. The Aconcagua had the highest concentration of Hg and a large Cr concentration, while the Rapel showed elevated concentrations of Cu and Mo. The Elqui and the Aconcagua were clustered as distinct groups by a cluster analysis based on two independent principal components. Hierarchical Bayesian models showed annual trends but no seasonal effects in heavy metal concentrations. As and Cu in the Elqui had positive annual slopes. Sulphate concentration exceeded 100 mg L(-1) in nine rivers, and in seven of them it had positive annual slopes. Our findings suggest that mining pollution is the main process contributing to this increasing annual trend in As, Cu and SO(4)(2-). Therefore, in order to improve the water quality of these rivers it is necessary to identify the main sources of heavy metals associated with mining activities.

  12. Late Cenozoic Deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chilean Forearc, 18- 25°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; González, G.; Loveless, J. P.; Carrizo, D.

    2004-12-01

    Overlying the only part of the South American continental crust that is in direct contact with the subducting Nazca Plate, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru should provide the most complete geological record of the coupling between the two plates. This record of coupling is exquisitely preserved in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This preservation is both one of the major advantages and major challenges of working in this region: On the positive side, exposure of geomorphic surfaces is complete and unencumbered by erosion or vegetation, and brittle saline soils preserve subtle deformation features that would quickly be obliterated in more humid environments. On the negative side, ancient geomorphic features are just as fresh as Recent one and the lack of organic material precludes radiocarbon dating, a traditional tool of paleoseismology. During the last several years, we have concentrated on documenting three fundamental characteristics of late Cenozoic forearc deformation: (1) NS shortening on reverse faults striking at a high angle to, and dextral-reverse faults striking oblique to, the continental margin; (2) N-striking normal faults of the forearc and their reactivation, locally, as reverse faults; and (3) extensive suites of tension cracks. Reverse faults striking at a high angle to the margin are present between 19 and 21.5°S, straddling the topographic symmetry plane that marks the axis of the Bolivian orocline. Limited dating of tuffs and surfaces shows that these structures have been active for at least the last 6 Ma. At least 5 of these structures -- Atajaña, Pisagua, Iquique north and south, and Barranco Alto -- cut the Pleistocene marine terraces of the coastal platform, producing 20 to 50 m of vertical offset. A forearc crustal earthquake just south of Pisagua in March 2007 demonstrates that margin parallel shortening continues to the present and that permanent deformation occurs during the interseismic part of the plate

  13. Late Cenozoic Deformation of the Coastal Cordillera, Northern Chilean Forearc, 18- 25°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; González, G.; Loveless, J. P.; Carrizo, D.

    2007-12-01

    Overlying the only part of the South American continental crust that is in direct contact with the subducting Nazca Plate, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile and southern Peru should provide the most complete geological record of the coupling between the two plates. This record of coupling is exquisitely preserved in the hyperarid Atacama Desert. This preservation is both one of the major advantages and major challenges of working in this region: On the positive side, exposure of geomorphic surfaces is complete and unencumbered by erosion or vegetation, and brittle saline soils preserve subtle deformation features that would quickly be obliterated in more humid environments. On the negative side, ancient geomorphic features are just as fresh as Recent one and the lack of organic material precludes radiocarbon dating, a traditional tool of paleoseismology. During the last several years, we have concentrated on documenting three fundamental characteristics of late Cenozoic forearc deformation: (1) NS shortening on reverse faults striking at a high angle to, and dextral-reverse faults striking oblique to, the continental margin; (2) N-striking normal faults of the forearc and their reactivation, locally, as reverse faults; and (3) extensive suites of tension cracks. Reverse faults striking at a high angle to the margin are present between 19 and 21.5°S, straddling the topographic symmetry plane that marks the axis of the Bolivian orocline. Limited dating of tuffs and surfaces shows that these structures have been active for at least the last 6 Ma. At least 5 of these structures -- Atajaña, Pisagua, Iquique north and south, and Barranco Alto -- cut the Pleistocene marine terraces of the coastal platform, producing 20 to 50 m of vertical offset. A forearc crustal earthquake just south of Pisagua in March 2007 demonstrates that margin parallel shortening continues to the present and that permanent deformation occurs during the interseismic part of the plate

  14. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  15. Lack of adult novel northern lineages of invasive green crab Carcinus maenas along much of the northern US Atlantic coast

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Larissa M.; Nivison, Camilla L.; Ambrose, William G.; Dobbin, Rebecca; Locke, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Introduced over 200 yr ago to the east coast of North America, Carcinus maenas now ranges from New York to Newfoundland. In the 1980s, a secondary invasion of European lineages, termed northern haplotypes, occurred in Nova Scotia. Young-of-the-year sampled in 2007 revealed that northern haplotypes were present in low frequencies at several northwestern Atlantic sites as far south as New York; a model predicted an increase in their range and frequency over time. We collected samples in 2013 and 2014 to determine the haplotypes of adult crabs from New York to Nova Scotia. Six haplotypes, encompassing previously identified northern and southern haplotypes, 1 novel southern haplotype, and 1 Scandinavian haplotype, were identified in 275 crabs sampled at 11 sites. Northern haplotypes were only found in Nova Scotia, Beals Island (Maine), and Mount Desert Island (Maine) at a frequency of 60, 8, and 24%, respectively; remaining sites were predominantly composed of a previously identified southern haplotype. Northern haplotypes are limited in adult crabs to Mount Desert Island and north, indicating that the southern haplotype is selectively favored at some point during their life history, recruitment of northern larvae is limited south of Mount Desert Island, or entire year-classes post-2007 were lost. Our results do not support the predictions of an increase in the range and frequency of northern haplotypes, at least among adults, and indicate that a more complete knowledge of factors affecting C. maenas life stages is necessary to understand the current distribution of haplotypes. PMID:28127110

  16. Lack of adult novel northern lineages of invasive green crab Carcinus maenas along much of the northern US Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Williams, Larissa M; Nivison, Camilla L; Ambrose, William G; Dobbin, Rebecca; Locke, William L

    2015-01-01

    Introduced over 200 yr ago to the east coast of North America, Carcinus maenas now ranges from New York to Newfoundland. In the 1980s, a secondary invasion of European lineages, termed northern haplotypes, occurred in Nova Scotia. Young-of-the-year sampled in 2007 revealed that northern haplotypes were present in low frequencies at several northwestern Atlantic sites as far south as New York; a model predicted an increase in their range and frequency over time. We collected samples in 2013 and 2014 to determine the haplotypes of adult crabs from New York to Nova Scotia. Six haplotypes, encompassing previously identified northern and southern haplotypes, 1 novel southern haplotype, and 1 Scandinavian haplotype, were identified in 275 crabs sampled at 11 sites. Northern haplotypes were only found in Nova Scotia, Beals Island (Maine), and Mount Desert Island (Maine) at a frequency of 60, 8, and 24%, respectively; remaining sites were predominantly composed of a previously identified southern haplotype. Northern haplotypes are limited in adult crabs to Mount Desert Island and north, indicating that the southern haplotype is selectively favored at some point during their life history, recruitment of northern larvae is limited south of Mount Desert Island, or entire year-classes post-2007 were lost. Our results do not support the predictions of an increase in the range and frequency of northern haplotypes, at least among adults, and indicate that a more complete knowledge of factors affecting C. maenas life stages is necessary to understand the current distribution of haplotypes.

  17. Biodiversity and Distribution of Horseshoe Crabs in Northern Coast of Java and Southern Coast of Madura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mashar, A.; Butet, NA; Juliandi, B.; Qonita, Y.; Hakim, AA; Wardiatno, Y.

    2017-01-01

    Horseshoe crab is an important component of macro-benthos communities in the fine sand or mud substrate in coastal waters, both in the tropical and temperate region. This primitive animal consists of four species in the world, and three species can be found di Asian region, including Indonesia, namely Tachypleus tridentatus, T. gigas, and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. Scientific information about species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in Indonesia is limited, also about morphometric characters. This study aims to determine the morphometric characters and species distribution of three Asian horseshoe crab in north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island. This study was conducted on July-August 2016. The total number of three Asian horseshoe crab obtained in this study was 260 individuals, distributed along north coast of Java and south coast of Madura Island, respectively 176 individuals of C. rotundicauda, 35 individuals of T. tridentatus, and 49 individuals of T. gigas. Tachypleus gigas has the largest size and widest class interval among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Morphometric characters is differences among three Asian horseshoe crab species. Carapace width and telson length were not significantly different among sampling locations only in T. tridentatus.

  18. Earthquake-induced subsidence and burial of late holocene archaeological sites, northern Oregon coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, R.; Grant, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Fire hearths associated with prehistoric Native American occupation lie within the youngest buried lowland soil of the estuaries along the Salmon and Nehalem rivers on the northern Oregon coast. This buried soil is the result of sudden subsidence induced by a great earthquake about 300 years ago along the Cascadia subduction zone, which extends offshore along the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver Island to northern California. The earthquake 300 years ago was the latest in a series of subsidence events along the Cascadia subduction zone over the last several thousand years. Over the long term, subsidence and burial of prehistoric settlements as a result of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes have almost certainly been an important factor contributing to the limited time depth of the archaeological record along this section of the North Pacific Coast. Copyright ?? by the Society for American Archaeology.

  19. Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Alexander; Walther, Bruno A; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lee, Yao-Chang

    2016-10-15

    Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in the world's oceans, and studies have shown macroplastic and microplastic pollution of beaches in several East Asian countries. However, to our knowledge, no study of microplastic pollution has been conducted in Taiwan yet. Therefore, we collected sand samples from four beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan in 2015 and extracted microplastic particles using a saturated NaCl solution. Microplastic particles were identified using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. We recovered 4 to 532 particles from eight 0.0125m(3) samples, with a total of 1097 particles weighing 0.771g. A negative trend between the size of the particles and their numbers was documented. We thus established that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous along Taiwan's northern coast. Future research should more comprehensively sample beaches around the entirety of Taiwan's coast, and special emphasis should be placed on identifying different sources and movements of microplastic.

  20. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  1. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation.

  2. Geochemical characterization of soils of the eastern coast of the Northern Sakhalin Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharikova, E. A.

    2017-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) were determined in soils of the eastern coast of the Northern Sakhalin Lowland. The total contents of HMs and their distribution in the studied soils differed from those in the world soils. Thus, barium and mercury concentrations exceeded clarke values for the world soils. The reserves of mobile forms of microelements were found to be low. Significant biogenic accumulation in organic soil horizons in the process of soil formation was found for copper, arsenic, and barium.

  3. Habitat suitability index models: northern pintail (Gulf Coast wintering). [Anas acuta

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, R.J.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1986-07-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a model for evaluatin wintering habitat quality for northern pintail (Anas acuta) along the Gulf of Mexico coast. The model is scaled to produce an index between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1.0 (optimal habitat). Habitat suitability index models are designed for use with the Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Guidelines for model application and techniques for measuring model variables are provided.

  4. Residence time and movements of postbreeding shorebirds on the northern coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Audrey R.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, A.N.; Kendall, S.J.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little is known about shorebird movements across the coast of northern Alaska, yet postbreeding shorebirds use this coastline extensively prior to fall migration. We deployed 346 radio transmitters on 153 breeding and 193 postbreeding shorebirds of five species from 2005 to 2007.We examined two hypotheses regarding postbreeding shorebirds' movements: (1) whether such movements reflect ultimate routes of southbound migration and (2) whether migration strategy (length of flights) or timing of molt in relation to migration (molt occurring in breeding or winter range) are more influential in determining postbreeding shorebirds' behavior. Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) moved east, consistent with the direction of their ultimate migration, but patterns of other species' movements did not reflect ultimate migration direction. Timing of postnuptial molt appeared to have more influence over residence time and movements than did migration strategy. Postcapture residence time for the Semipalmated Sandpiper was less than for the Western Sandpiper (C. mauri) and significantly less than for Dunlin (C. alpina), and the Semipalmated Sandpiper's movements between were quicker and more frequent than those of the Dunlin. We expected to see the opposite patterns if migration strategy were more influential. Our data shed light on how different shorebird species use the northern Alaska coast after breeding: most species are likely to be stopping over at postbreeding areas, whereas the Dunlin and some Western Sandpipers may be staging. We suggest the coast of northern Alaska be viewed as an interconnected network of postbreeding sites that serve multiple populations of breeding shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  5. Geochemistry of surface sediments from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia (44-47°S): Spatial variability and implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad A.; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    The Patagonian fjords have a clear potential to provide high-resolution sedimentary and geochemical records of past climate and environmental change in the Southern Andes. To improve our ability to interpret these proxy records, we investigated the processes that control fjord sediment inorganic geochemistry through a geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological analysis of surface sediment samples from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia. A simple Terrestrial Index based on measurements of salinity and Fraction of Terrestrial Carbon was used to estimate the terrestrial input/river discharge at each site. Our results demonstrate that, under the cold climate conditions of Patagonia, chemical weathering is weak and the inorganic geochemical composition of the fjord sediments is primarily controlled by hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting, i.e., the intensity of river discharge. Our results suggest that the distribution of Fe, Ti and Zr in surface sediments is controlled by their association with heavy and/or coarse minerals, whereas Al is independent of hydrodynamic processes. The elemental ratios Fe/Al, Ti/Al and Zr/Al are therefore well suited for estimating changes in the energy of terrestrial sediment supply into the fjords through time. Zr/Al is particularly sensitive in proximal environments, while Fe/Al is most useful in the outer fjords and on the continental margin. In the most proximal environments, however, Fe/Al is inversely related to hydrodynamic conditions. Caution should therefore be exercised when interpreting Fe/Al ratios in terms of past river discharge. The application of these proxies to long sediment cores from Quitralco fjord and Golfo Elefantes validates our interpretations. Our results also emphasize the need to measure Al-based elemental ratios at high precision, which can be achieved using simultaneous acquisition ICP-AES technology. This study therefore constitutes a strong basis for the interpretation of sedimentary records from the

  6. Spring migration and summer destinations of Northern Pintails from the coast of Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Battaglia, D.S.; Golightly, R.T.; Perry, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine pathways, timing, and destinations during migration in spring, we attached satellite-monitored transmitters (platform transmitting terminals) to 10 northern pintails (Anas acuta) during February 2001, at Point Mugu, Ventura County, California. This is a wintering area on the southern coast of California. We obtained locations from five adult males and three adult females every 3rd day through August. Average date of departure from the wintering area was 15 March (SE 3 days). We documented extended stopovers of ???30 days for several northern pintails that could have accommodated nesting attempts (San Joaquin Valley, southwestern Montana, southern Alberta, north-central Nevada) or post-nesting molt (eastern Oregon, south-central Saskatchewan, northern Alaska, central Alberta). Wintering northern pintails from the southern coast of California used a wide range of routes, nesting areas, and schedules during migration in spring, which was consistent with the larger, wintering population in the Central Valley of California. Therefore, conservation of habitat that is targeted at stopover, nesting, and molting areas will benefit survival and management of both wintering populations.

  7. Spring migration and summer destinations of northern pintails from the coast of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Battaglia, Daniel S.; Golightly, Richard T.; Perry, William M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine pathways, timing, and destinations during migration in spring, we attached satellite-monitored transmitters (platform transmitting terminals) to 10 northern pintails (Anas acuta) during February 2001, at Point Mugu, Ventura County, California. This is a wintering area on the southern coast of California. We obtained locations from five adult males and three adult females every 3rd day through August. Average date of departure from the wintering area was 15 March (SE = 3 days). We documented extended stopovers of ≥30 days for several northern pintails that could have accommodated nesting attempts (San Joaquin Valley, southwestern Montana, southern Alberta, north-central Nevada) or post-nesting molt (eastern Oregon, south-central Saskatchewan, northern Alaska, central Alberta). Wintering northern pintails from the southern coast of California used a wide range of routes, nesting areas, and schedules during migration in spring, which was consistent with the larger, wintering population in the Central Valley of California. Therefore, conservation of habitat that is targeted at stopover, nesting, and molting areas will benefit survival and management of both wintering populations.

  8. State of stress and crustal fluid migration related to west-dipping structures in the slab-forearc system in the northern Chilean subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, P.; Kummerow, J.; Wigger, P.; Shapiro, S.; Asch, G.

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies in the forearc of the northern Chilean subduction zone have identified important tectonic features in the upper crust. As a result of these works, the West Fissure Fault System (WFFS) has recently been imaged using microseismic events. The WFFS is the westward-dipping, sharp lower boundary of the northern Chilean forearc and is geometrically opposed to subduction of the Nazca plate. The present article builds on this previous work and is novel in that it characterizes this structure's stress distribution using focal mechanisms and stress tensor analysis. The results of the stress tensor analysis show that the state of stress in the WFFS is related to its strike-slip tectonic context and likely represents a manifestation of local forces associated with the highest areas in the Andes. Two seismic clusters have also been identified; these clusters may be associated with a blind branch of the WFFS. We studied these clusters in order to determine their sources and possible connection with fluid migration across the upper plate. We observed that the two clusters differ from one another in some regards. The central cluster has characteristics consistent with an earthquake swarm with two clearly identifiable phases. Conversely, the SW cluster has a clear main shock associated with it, and it can be separated into two subclusters (A and A΄). In contrast, similarities among the two clusters suggest that the clusters may have a common origin. The b-values for both clusters are characteristic of tectonic plate boundaries. The spatial spreading, which is approximately confined to one plane, reflects progressive growth of the main fracture underlying the swarm and subcluster A. We also find that earthquakes themselves trigger aftershocks near the borders of their rupture areas. In addition, the spatio-temporal migration of hypocentres, as well as their spatial correlation with areas that are interpreted to be fluid migration zones, suggest that there is a close

  9. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  10. Structural and lithologic study of northern California Coast Range and Sacramento Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator); Steele, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Photgeologic examination of repetitive multispectral ERTS-1 imagery of Northern California has disclosed several systems of linear features which may be important for the interpretation of the structural history of California. They are separated from an orthogonal system of linears in the Klamath Mts. by a set of discontinuous southeast-trending linear features (the Mendocino system) which is traceable from the Pacific Coast, at Cape Mendocino, into the eastern foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Within the Sierra Nevada, the Mendocino system separates the north-trending Sierran system from a set of linears characteristic of the Modoc Plateau. With minor exception, little overlap exists among the systems which suggests a decipherable chronology and evolutionary history for the region. The San Andres system of linears appears to truncate or co-exist with most of the other systems in the northern Coast Ranges. The Mendocino system truncates the Klamath, Sierran, and Modoc systems. The Sierran system may represent fundamental and long-persisting pre-late Paleozoic zones of crustal weakness which have been reactivated from time to time. The Mendocino system was possibly developed in early Mesozoic and is important to the structural framework of Northern California.

  11. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  12. Heavy metals in surface sediments from nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghong; Shang, Jingmin; Pan, Ling; Wang, Zhongliang

    2014-05-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals in river water and sediment were investigated in nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay, Northern China. Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in combination with metal concentration analysis and correlation analysis, were used to identify the possible sources of the metals and the pollution pattern in nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay. The environmental risks of metals, evaluated by sediment quality guidelines and background values, revealed Hg contamination in the estuaries. However, levels of Cd in estuarine sediments were low, and they were less than those levels in river sediments, partly due to the high mobility and dilution of river or seawater. Cd did not contribute to sediment deposits in estuaries. High organic matter from effluents from large municipal sewage treatment plants was predominantly responsible for restricting Hg mobility from the river to Bohai Bay.

  13. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  14. Post-Eocene movement on the Coast Range thrust, northern Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, V. )

    1990-05-01

    Subsurface structure mapping with more than 600 wells and 200 miles of seismic data in a portion of the northern Sacramento basin and surface geologic mapping in the Rumsey Hills area to the west indicates that Upper Cretaceous strata along the western edge of the basin are doubled in thickness along thrust faults. These east-dipping detachments are part of the Coast Range thrust fault system. Eocene strata crop out in the fault zone and indicate that considerable post-Eocene movement occurred. Cretaceous movement on these faults can be surmised but not proven from reconstructions. Similarly, analysis from five subsurface structure maps to the east shows that deformation there also is post-Eocene; only minor Upper Cretaceous deformation can be discerned. Underthrusting of Franciscan accretionary rocks best accounts for the development of these faults and a western high along the basin margin.

  15. Description of extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Steven G.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gelfencaum, Guy

    2010-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the origins of extreme-wave deposits and to help assess the potential risk of future overwash events, a field mapping survey was conducted in November 2006 on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Deposits were mapped and analyzed to help develop a systematic sedimentological approach to distinguish the type of extreme-wave event (tsunamis or storms) or combination of events that formed and modified the deposits over time. Extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire between Boka Onima and Boka Olivia have formed sand sheets, poly-modal ridge complexes, and boulder fields on a Pleistocene limestone platform 3?8 meters above sea level. The deposits exhibit characteristics that are consistent with both large storm and tsunami processes that often overlap one another. Sand sheets occur as low-relief features underlying and incorporated with boulder field deposits. The seaward edge of ridge complexes are deposited up to 70 m from the shoreline and can extend over 200 m inland. Over 600 clasts were measured in fields and range in size from coarse gravel to fine block, weigh up to 165 metric tons, and are placed over 280 m from the shoreline. Our analyses indicate that the deposits may have been produced by a combination of hurricane and tsunami events spanning 10s to 1000s of years. Comparing the different deposit morphologies between study sites highlights the importance of shoreline orientation to the distribution of extreme-wave deposits onshore. However, further investigation is required to fully understand the processes that have produced and modified these deposits over time.

  16. Description of extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watt, S. G.; Jaffe, B. E.; Morton, R. A.; Richmond, B. M.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Coastal; Marine Geology Program

    2010-12-01

    To develop a better understanding of the origins of extreme-wave deposits and to help assess the potential risk of future overwash events, a field mapping survey was conducted in November 2006 on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Deposits were mapped and analyzed to help develop a systematic sedimentological approach to distinguish the type of extreme-wave event (tsunamis or storms) or combination of events that formed and modified the deposits over time. Extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire between Boka Onima and Boka Olivia have formed sand sheets, ridge complexes composed of polymodal clasts, and boulder fields on a Pleistocene limestone platform that is roughly 3-6 meters above sea level. The deposits exhibit characteristics that are consistent with both large storm and tsunami processes that often overlap one another. Sand sheets occur as low-relief features underlying and incorporated with boulder field deposits. The seaward edge of ridge complexes are deposited up to 70 m from the shoreline and can extend over 200 m inland. Over 600 clasts were measured in fields and range in size from coarse gravel to fine block, weigh up to 165 metric tons, and are placed over 280 m from the shoreline. Our analyses indicate that the deposits may have been produced by a combination of hurricane and tsunami events spanning 10s’ to 1000s’ of years. Comparing the different deposit morphologies between study sites highlights the importance of shoreline orientation to the distribution of extreme-wave deposits onshore. However, further investigation is required to fully understand the processes that have produced and modified these deposits over time.

  17. Passive Fog Water Measurements Along the Northern California Coast During the Summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, D.; Torregrosa, A.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Eljenholm, C. M.; Coffey, E. M.; Hernandez, C.; Mairs, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a part of the UC Santa Cruz, Moss Landing Marine Lab, and California State University Monterey Bay multi-year effort to track the cycling of methyl mercury compounds through fog deposition, researchers have deployed 1.00 m2 standard passive fog collectors based on the Schemenauer design at 13 locations throughout Northern California during the summer of 2014. These devices consist of a 1.00 m2 mesh that collects tiny fog water droplets that coalesce, fall into a trough and whose volume is recorded by a tipping bucket rain gauge at 15-minute intervals. These data provide an estimate of the fog density and a quantitative measurement of the amount of liquid water available from each fog event. Several of these sites were deployed in conjunction with active strand collectors based on Colorado State University's Caltech Active Strand Cloudwater Collector (CASCC) design which are used to collect clean water samples for the detection of mercury. This presentation will highlight the spatial and temporal variability observed within the data sets during this first summer (2014) of active collection. Of particular and significant note is the variability of the fog in relationship to distance from the coast as well as the latitudinal variability. We note that the observations coupled with accompanying meteorological measurements can potentially help to provide estimates of the potential flux of moisture available from fog events to ecosystem processes during the otherwise dry season along the California coast.

  18. Concordant paleolatitudes from ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Williams, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from two ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges: from Mount Diablo in the San Francisco Bay area and from Potter Valley, north of Clear Lake. The ophiolite exposed at Mount Diablo is part of the late Middle to Late Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, and that exposed near Potter Valley is Late Jurassic to perhaps Early Cretaceous in age and occurs within the Franciscan assemblage. Data from the sheeted-dike complex at Mount Diablo show these rocks to be strongly overprinted, probably following uplift and erosion of the ophiolite. Samples whose primary remanent magnetization seems to be recovered yield a mean paleomagnetic pole at 30.7??N, 159.5??E with ??95 = 5.6??. A comparison of this pole with the Jurassic apparent polar wander path for North America indicates that the ophiolite has rotated 45?? ?? 7?? counterclockwise relative to the craton and has not been latitudinally displaced. The diabase and pillow basalt in Potter Valley have not been strongly overprinted and data from those rocks yield a paleomagnetic pole at 79.0??N, 61.5??E with ??95 = 6.4??. This result indicates that the ophiolite at Potter Valley has rotated approximately 29?? ?? 8?? clockwise, and has undergone little or no latitudinal displacement. Because of the predominantly northeastward transport of oceanic plates converging with the western margin of North America since middle Mesozoic time, the absence of appreciable northward displacement of either ophiolite fragment indicates that both formed close to the continental margin. ?? 1991.

  19. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  20. Land Surface Data Assimilation and the Northern Gulf Coast Land/Sea Breeze

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapenta, William M.; Blackwell, Keith; Suggs, Ron; McNider, Richard T.; Jedlovec, Gary; Kimball, Sytske; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A technique has been developed for assimilating GOES-derived skin temperature tendencies and insolation into the surface energy budget equation of a mesoscale model so that the simulated rate of temperature change closely agrees with the satellite observations. A critical assumption of the technique is that the availability of moisture (either from the soil or vegetation) is the least known term in the model's surface energy budget. Therefore, the simulated latent heat flux, which is a function of surface moisture availability, is adjusted based upon differences between the modeled and satellite observed skin temperature tendencies. An advantage of this technique is that satellite temperature tendencies are assimilated in an energetically consistent manner that avoids energy imbalances and surface stability problems that arise from direct assimilation of surface shelter temperatures. The fact that the rate of change of the satellite skin temperature is used rather than the absolute temperature means that sensor calibration is not as critical. The sea/land breeze is a well-documented mesoscale circulation that affects many coastal areas of the world including the northern Gulf Coast of the United States. The focus of this paper is to examine how the satellite assimilation technique impacts the simulation of a sea breeze circulation observed along the Mississippi/Alabama coast in the spring of 2001. The technique is implemented within the PSU/NCAR MM5 V3-4 and applied on a 4-km domain for this particular application. It is recognized that a 4-km grid spacing is too coarse to explicitly resolve the detailed, mesoscale structure of sea breezes. Nevertheless, the model can forecast certain characteristics of the observed sea breeze including a thermally direct circulation that results from differential low-level heating across the land-sea interface. Our intent is to determine the sensitivity of the circulation to the differential land surface forcing produced via the

  1. Chronic erosion in Wissant Bay coast, northern France - Causes and trials of management projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, M.; Anthony, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Gris Nez to the southwest and Cape Blanc Nez to the northeast limit's Wissant Bay. This extreme northern coast of France, facing the Dover Strait, is one of the most rapidly eroding sector of coast in France. Shoreline retreat has exceeded 250 m in the last fifty years in the central and western parts of the bay, while the eastern sector of the bay is now a zone of accretion, after being a sand-starved zone in the past, when the western sector was either stable or in accretion. The reasons for these changes are still not clear. They seem to involve interactions between a nearshore sand bank and the activity of current gyres related to the projecting headland of Cape Gris Nez, beach rotation processes and human activities, notably past aggregate extraction from the nearshore sand bank which acted hitherto as both a dissipater of incident storm wave energy and as a coastal sand source. The aim of this paper to contribute to the understanding of these long-term changes and investigate the mechanisms of this mildly embayed coast evolution. To this end, 10-years of topographic profile data throughout the bay were analysed and confronted with offshore wave data. This analysis complements a previous analytical effort that determined gross rates of annual shoreline retreat by time slices of several decades from the careful interpretation of long series of ortho-rectified aerial photographs. The overall data suggest chronic sand bleeding from the western sector of the beach and longshore transport to the east, within a framework of what appears to be an ongoing beach rotation process within a dominant longshore sediment transport cell between the headland of Cape Gris Nez and the bold chalk cliffs of Cape Blanc Nez. Retreat of the beach-dune barrier in the western sector of Wissant Bay poses a threat in the coming years as there is a likelihood of storm breaching of the narrow dune barrier. Face to this critical situation, a proper management strategy involving a good

  2. Tsunami scenarios and hazard assessment along the northern coast of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Calais, E.; Hébert, H.; Roy, C.; Okal, E.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here, we investigate the impact of three possible earthquake scenarios, consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 min between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative maps of run-up heights that can be transferred, with added factors of safety, into practical implementation for tsunami preparedness

  3. Sea/land breeze climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtenjak, M. Telišman; Grisogono, B.

    2007-11-01

    Climatological characteristics along the northern Croatian Adriatic coast have been examined for nine meteorological stations for the summertime sea/land breeze circulation. The stations considered are Pula-airport, Opatija, Rijeka, Senj, Malinska, Rijeka-airport, Mali Lošinj, Rab and Zadar. The hourly surface measurements at each station from June to September for the period 1991 2004 as well as the radiosoundings in Zadar (from 2002 to 2004) were used for the analysis. A dataset with the sea/land breeze days was formed according to the several criteria. The mean daily maxima of both air and sea surface temperatures were more influenced by the large scale disturbances toward north (e.g. in Rijeka or Opatija) compared to the values for e.g. Zadar. Furthermore, the influence of the large scale disturbances diminished toward the south concerning the sea land temperature difference only at the stations placed at Rijeka Bay and Velebit channel. The strongest sea breeze was found at Pula-airport and the most frequent ones at Opatija and Zadar. At Senj the rarest, the weakest and the shortest sea breeze was observed. The climatological records of wind speed and air-sea temperature difference (Δ T) showed for Opatija, Malinska and Zadar that the maximum measured wind speed is around 4.5 °C confirming the nonlinear relationship between the sea breeze speeds and the Δ T during the day. At most stations, the clockwise rotation of the hodographs prevails which is typical for the Northern hemisphere due to Coriolis force, with the exception at Senj and Malinska. While the hodographs for Pula, Rijeka-airport and Mali Lošinj display a later onset of the prevailing sea breeze because of the interaction among several sea breeze circulations, the results for Opatija, Zadar and Senj show considerably distorted hodographs because of the nearby channeling of the air flow.

  4. Human response to Holocene warming on the Cantabrian Coast (northern Spain): an unexpected outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín-Arroyo, Ana B.

    2013-12-01

    Subsistence was characterized during the Pleistocene to Holocene transition on the Cantabrian Coast (northern Spain) by a progressive diet widening, with a greater exploitation of marine environments and a more intense consumption of low-ranked species. This trend was also accompanied by a general and noticeable decrease in the amount of ungulates that were recovered from a set of archaeological sites clearly dominated by shells. The causes behind this change in the economic practice of the last hunter-gatherer groups are still being debated. There are currently two opposing views on the matter, with some scholars defending the role of demographic pressure as the main driving force, while other researchers invoke the importance of the environment in the food procurement preferences that were adopted. Due to their overwhelming abundance, the debate has been mainly focused on marine resources, whereas the comparatively less-represented macromammal assemblages have been poorly interpreted. However, it is precisely this scarcity that makes them so remarkable. Here, a new interpretation of the available data is presented, with a special focus on the identification of overhunting evidence and on the comparative productivity of each type of resource. Altogether, the demographic hypothesis seems to be more coherent with the existing facts.

  5. Kinematics of earthflows in the Northern California Coast Ranges using satellite interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handwerger, Alexander L.; Roering, Joshua J.; Schmidt, David A.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2015-10-01

    Slow-moving landslides exhibit persistent downslope motion with variations in velocity driven by transient stress perturbations along the sliding surface. Here, we use satellite InSAR and high-resolution topographic data to identify 50 slow-moving landslides in the Northern California Coast Ranges, and monitor their seasonal kinematics over 4 years. These landslides have similar mechanical properties and are subject to the same external forcings, which allows us to explore geometrical controls on kinematics. To overcome errors associated with large deformation gradients we incorporate a deformation model in the InSAR processing that enables us to generate deformation time series. We test our novel methodology using a synthetic deformation time series, confirming our ability to resolve seasonal velocity patterns. Time series analysis of four representative landslides reveals that seasonal velocity changes are characterized by comparatively rapid acceleration and gradual deceleration. Each slide displays distinct kinematic zones with different mean velocities, although velocity changes appear to occur synchronously along the landslide body over seasonal timescales. Because these deformation patterns are sensitive to subsurface geometry, we employ a commonly used non-Newtonian viscous flow law to infer slide thickness and find that these slides likely exhibit a highly variable thickness and an irregular (i.e. rough and non-planar) basal sliding surface. Our results suggest that slide geometry controls long-term motion, but does not strongly regulate their response to seasonal stress perturbations.

  6. Isotope refinement of late Holocene climatic oscillations in the northern coast of Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, Mamadou; Gaye, Jean P.; Trimborn, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Paleoclimatic changes in the northern coast of Senegal are investigated on a peat core of 350 cm long spanning the past 3500 yrs extracted from the site of Mboro (15.07°N, 16.53°W). This deposit corresponds with a local stage, the Tafolian (4000 BP to 2000 BP) whose paleoclimatic trends, essentially defined by sedimentological methods, were previously considered to be dominated by drought. The δ13C profile obtained from 70 successive peat samples shows climate oscillations between wet and dry periods. A wet period appears around 3200 BP. A shorter but equally wet one occurs around 1000 BP. These two humid phases are separated by a rather arid period that occurs around 2000 BP as shown by an exceptional rise in δ13C values. This dry phase as well as a second one evidenced around 800 BP coincided with increases of dull-quartz abundance; originating from wind-reworking of surrounding dune sand. After 850 BP, the carbon isotope record suggests a progressive return to more humid conditions. Our carbon isotope trends shed new light on past monsoon rainfall oscillations over Sahelian areas during the Tafolian.

  7. Structural and lithologic study of Northern Coast Range and Sacramento Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of the data received has disclosed two potentially important northwest-trending systems of linear features within the Northern California Coast Ranges. A third system, which trends northeast, can be traced with great uncertainty across the alluviated part of the Sacramento Valley and into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. These linear features may represent fault systems or zones of shearing. Of interest, although not yet verified, is the observation that some of the mercury concentrations and some of the geothermally active areas of California may be located at the intersection of the Central and the Valley Systems. One, perhaps two, stratigraphic unconformities within the Late Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were detected during preliminary examination of the imagery; however, more analysis is necessary in order to verify this preliminary interpretation. A heretofore unrecognized, large circular depression, about 15 km in diameter, was detected within the alluviated part of the Sacramento Valley. The depression is adjacent to a large laccolithic intrusion and may be geologically related to it. Changes in the photogeologic characteristics of this feature will continue to be monitored.

  8. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  9. Genetic structure of Mugil cephalus L. populations from the northern coast of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Magdy, Mahmoud; Eshak, Mariam Gergis; Rashed, Mohamed Abdel-Salam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The gray mullet, Mugil cephalus, has been farmed in semi-intensive ponds with tilapia and carps in Egypt for years. The current study used the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (F-AFLP) technique to search for genetic differences between the populations of M. cephalus in the northern region of Egypt and to detect the gene flow between sampled locations and the homogeneity within M. cephalus genetic pool in Egypt. Materials and Methods: To fulfill the study objectives 60 (15/location) samples were collected from four northern coast governorates of Egypt (Alexandria “sea,” Kafr El-Sheikh “farm,” Damietta “farm” and Port Said “sea”). Three replicates of bulked DNA (5 samples/replicate) for each location were successfully amplified using the standard AFLP protocol using fluorescent primers. DNA polymorphism, genetic diversity, and population structure were assessed while positive outlier loci were successfully detected among the sampled locations. Based on the geographical distribution of sampling sites, the gene flow, the genetic differentiation, and correlations to sampling locations were estimated. Results: A total of 1890 polymorphic bands were scored for all locations, where 765, 1054, 673, and 751 polymorphic bands were scored between samples from Alexandria, Kafr El-Sheikh, Damietta and Port Said, respectively. The effective number of alleles (ne) for all bulked samples combined together was 1.42. The expected heterozygosity under Hardy–Weinberg assumption (He) for all bulked samples combined together was 0.28. Bulked samples from Damietta yielded the lowest ne (1.35) and the lowest He (0.23) when inbreeding coefficient (FIS) = 1. Bulked samples from Kafr El-Sheikh scored the highest ne (1.55) and the highest He (0.37). Bulked samples from Alexandria scored 1.40 for ne and 0.26 for He, while bulked samples from Port Said scored 1.39 for ne and 0.26 for He. The observed bulked samples formed three sub-population groups

  10. Tsunami Scenarios and Hazard Assessment along the Northern Coast of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here we investigate the impact that three possible earthquake scenarios, all consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, would have on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios follow the conclusions of the 2013 IOC Meeting of Experts (IOC Workshop Report No. 255) and simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated, coastal city of Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 minutes between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative

  11. Combination of Multisatellite Altimetry and Tide Gauge Data for Determining Vertical Crustal Movements along Northern Mediterranean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, F.; Vigo, M. I.; García-García, D.; Sánchez-Reales, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Sea level variations (SLV) can be measured by tide gauges (TG) at the coast and by altimeters onboard satellites. The former measures the SLV relative to the coast, whereas altimetry provides the SLV with respect to a geocentric reference frame. The differences between SLV measurements from these two techniques can be used as an indirect assessment of vertical crustal motions at the TG sites. In this study, we exploit this idea, analyzing differences between sea level signals as measured by altimetric missions (TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1) and by 47 TG stations along northern Mediterranean coasts for the period 1993-2007. This allows us to estimate the vertical land motion along these coasts at the TG sites in this time window. For those sites where the TG is co-located or has a nearby global positioning system (GPS) station, these estimates are compared with the vertical rates derived from GPS measurements. Our results on vertical ground motion along the Mediterranean coast provide a useful source of data for studying, contrasting, and constraining tectonic models for the region.

  12. Local and Regional Scale Impacts of Arctic Shipping Emissions Off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelle, L.; Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Raut, J. C.; Jalkanen, J. P.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.

    2014-12-01

    Decreased sea ice extent due to warming has already resulted in the use of new shipping routes through the Arctic. Marine traffic is a source of air pollutants, including NOx, SO2, and aerosols, and is predicted to be an increasingly significant source of Arctic pollution in the future. Currently there are large uncertainties in both global and Arctic shipping emissions, leading to uncertainties in diagnosing current and future impacts of marine traffic on Arctic air quality and climate. This study focuses on the local scale, examining chemical/aerosol transformations occurring in individual ship plumes. Measurements of ship pollution in the Arctic taken during the EU ACCESS aircraft campaign (Arctic Climate Change, Economy and Society) in July 2012 are used to quantify the amount of pollution emitted from different ship types. This is combined with regional model (WRF-Chem) simulations to evaluate the impacts of shipping in northern Norway in summer 2012. The model is run at high resolution (2x2 km) combined with STEAMv2 (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model version 2) emissions (1x1 km, 15 minute resolution) produced for shipping activity during the measurement period. WRF-Chem model results are compared with 3 ship plumes sampled during ACCESS. The model shows that both the location and total amount of pollution in individual ship plumes are correctly represented. Given this, the model is used to investigate the regional influence of ship pollution off the coast of Norway on a weekly time scale during July 2012, focusing on ozone photochemistry in ship plumes, the evolution of aerosols, and investigating the fate of black carbon emitted from ships. We compare regional modeling results obtained using 15 minute resolution STEAMv2 emissions with results using weekly averaged emissions, which are more representative of emissions typically used by global models to study the impacts of shipping on air quality and climate.

  13. G and P genotypes of rotavirus circulating among children with diarrhea in the Colombian northern coast.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Delfina; Rodríguez, Juan G; Arzuza, Octavio; Parra, Edgar; Young, Gregorio; Castro, Raimundo; del-Portillo, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    A study on the prevalence of rotavirus G and P genotypes was carried out based on 253 stool specimens obtained from children living in the Colombia northern coast region who were less than 3-years-old and who suffered from acute diarrhea. A previous study had detected the presence of rotavirus A in 90 (36.5%) of the 246 samples tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and these strains were investigated in the present study. Of these, 50 strains yielded an RNA electropherotype, most of which (80.0%) had long profiles and 20.0% of which had short profiles. Genotyping of 84 positive samples indicated that 67.9% of the strains could be typed. G1 (57.9%), was the most predominant VP7 genotype, followed by G3 (21.1%), G9 (15.8%) and G2 (5.3%). Among the VP4 genotypes, P[4] (49.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by P[6] 36.4% and P[8] (14.5%). Neither G4 nor G8 nor P[9] types were detected. The most common G-P combinations were G3 P[4] (8.8%) and G9 P[6] (7.0%), followed by G1 P[4] and G1 P[8] (5.3% each). All G1 P[8] strains showed long RNA profiles, whereas G3 P[4] and G9 P[6] displayed both long and short patterns. Mixed infections involved 21.0% of strains. There was a marked diversity among strains collected, and novel strains, including G9, as well as other atypical combinations of G and P genotypes, such as G9 P[6] and G3 P[4], were found.

  14. Dyke Monitorin by the Means of Persistent Scattering Interferometry at the Coast of Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M.; Marzahn, P.; Ludwig, R.

    2016-06-01

    40 percent of the world's population are presently living in coastal areas or along the main rivers. Taking into account that the vulnerability of these areas is increasing due to sea-level rise and coastal hazards such as storm surges or extreme rainfall events accompanied with floods, the importance of safety structures such as dykes is increasing as well. Hence, a spatial distributed dyke monitoring should be part of a sustainable adaptation strategy. Due to increasing amount of SAR-data from various satellites with high spatial and temporal coverage, the means of SAR-interferometry could be an essential tool to ensure this kind of required monitoring. Given this prospect, Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) will be a very suitable monitoring technique for dyke structures to identify dyke movement with the accuracy of few millimetres. This procedure focuses on pixels that show a stable scattering behaviour in a sequence of multiple SAR-scenes. In opposition to ground-measurements, the spatial coverage of this technique provides comparable results for different parts of the dyke; furthermore weak segments with particular high movements could be identified in advance. This could prevent future dyke crevasses and help to reduce risks in high-populated areas. This paper attempts to describe the potential of the PSI technique for a spatial distributed dyke monitoring at the coast in northern Germany. 21 ERS-2 scenes and 16 Envisat ASAR scenes were analysed. Those Scenes cover an area of a sea shore dyke including a flood regulation barrage and results point out the potential for this technique to monitor dyke structures. Even though the observed dyke doesn't show any significant deformation rates, the two datasets show the same signal for the whole dyke.

  15. Debris flows on Belding Creek, Salmonberry River basin, northern Oregon Coast Range

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Belding Creek, a tributary of the Salmonberry River, has experienced repeated debris flow episodes. The Salmonberry River flows through Paleocene Tillamook Basalt and is located at longitude 45[degree]43 minutes in the Northern Oregon Coast Range. On January 9, 1990, a debris flow initiated on a first order tributary of Belding Creek during a heavy precipitation event. A month later another debris flow initiated on a different first order stream under similar conditions. Both debris flows traveled for a distance of approximately 2.1 km and poured into the main Belding Creek channel washing out Belding Road which crosses the stream. Numerical data was obtained from the youngest flow deposit. The debris flow material density is 2.5 g/cm[sup 3]. It traveled at an average velocity of 2.9 m/s with a shear strength of 2.5 [times] 10[sup 4] dn/cm[sup 2], a friction angle of 4[degree], and a cohesion value of 1.4 [times] 10[sup 4] dn/cm[sup 3]. Less than 3% of the fine sediments deposited are clay and silt. Deposits from previous, older debris flow events are in and adjacent to the Belding Creek stream channel. Similar processes are evident in other major tributaries of the Salmonberry River, although these other stream channels have not shown recent activity. Each stream in the area that has experienced past debris flows similar to Belding Creek has a landslide feature at the top and follows regional lineation patterns.

  16. Tsunami preparedness at the resort facilities along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands - their actions against the 27 February 2010 Okinawan and Chilean tsunami warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2010-12-01

    The economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) is highly relying on the sea. The sea has both “gentle” side to give people healing and “fierce” side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know the whole nature of the sea, Tsunami is the typical case of the “fierce” side of the sea. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. Early morning (5:31 am Japanese Standard Time = JST) on 27 February 2010, a M6.9 earthquake occurred near the coast of Okinawa Ryukyu Island Japan, and just after that Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued a tsunami warning along the coastal area of Okinawa Prefecture. About one hour later the tsunami warning was cancelled. The CMT solution of this earthquake was found to be strike-slip type with NE-SW P-axis. Therefore this did not induce a tsunami. However, in the afternoon on the same day (JST) a M8.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile and soon after that a tsunami warning issued along the Pacific coastal area including Japan and Ryukyu Islands. Indeed maximum 1m tsunami hit the eastern coast of Okinawa Island on 28th February (Nakamura, 2010, personal communication). The author conducted a survey about the actions against the both tsunami after the 27 February tsunami warming to the major resort hotels along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands. A questionnaire was sent to about 20 hotels and 6 hotels replied to the questionnaire. Most of these hotels reported the regular training against tsunami attack, preparation of a disaster prevention manual, close communication with the local fire station authority, evacuation procedure towards high stories of the hotel building etc. It was “winter season” when the tsunami took place. However, if that were “summer season,” the other problem such as how they make the people

  17. Evolution of potentially eroding events along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; García Codrón, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    The anthropogenic global warming is expected to result in a rise in sea-level, accompanied by changes in extreme climate events, such as the frequency and intensity of storms. Such scenario would result in an acceleration of coastal erosion. The aim of the present study is to assess the temporal evolution of potentially eroding events along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century, and to investigate changes in forcing processes such as the frequency and magnitude of storm surges and high wave events. To characterize the potentially eroding events, the total elevation of the water level was selected, being calculated as the sum of the contributions of the average water level, wave run up and the storm surges. Potentially eroding events were identified and quantified following a two-step procedure. Through the first step the potential flood induced by a given storm was estimated by simulating its effects on a theoretical beach profile (intermediate) using an empirical parameterization for extreme run-up approach. The second step consisted on characterizing the maximum storm surge registered during a storm. Those parameters were calculated from hindcasted data (storm surge, wave heights and period, wind speed and direction), retrieved from the SIMAR-44 database (Puertos del Estado), and validated against actual tide gauge measurements and buoy data (RedMar and RedExt networks). Analyses of total water levels showed a long term increase since 1958, resulting from the increase of mean sea level; conversely, a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of the storm events were deduced from the analysis of meteorological records. Since the impact of the storms on macro- and meso- tidal coast closely depend on the tides, a storm impact index was computed taking into account the storm surge magnitude, the wave heights and time duration during which a predefined threshold was exceeded by the sea level. The results are

  18. About 500-yr interval of huge and widespread paleotsunamis along the Sanriku coast, northern Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, T.; Toda, S.; Tsutsumi, H.; Meghraoui, M.; Ferry, M.; Takada, K.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a massive tsunami and devastated ~1,000-km-long coastal regions from Aomori to Chiba prefectures, northeast Honshu island. Several pioneering papers already investigated the Sendai to Fukushima region, southern 2011 source area. They found a widespread tsunami inundation by the 869 A.D. Jogan tsunami event (e.g., Minoura and Imamura, 2001; Sawai et al., 2008), which lead the estimated size of the Jogan earthquake up to M8.4 (Satake et al., 2008). No geologic evidence and no historical account in further north may have prevented to conclude straightforwardly that the Jogan earthquake was the penultimate event of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Here we focus on the Sariku coast, northern part of the 2011 source, and present our pre-Tohoku-oki studies performed at six locations. To recover paleotsunami deposits, I employed conventional coring technique and newly invented Geoslicer to extract several-meter-deep soil and sediment samples. Evidence for paleotsunami event is generally discernible as a several-to-several-tens-of-centimeter medium-to-coarse sand often including mud clast and shells. Such a tsunami sand layer is also distinct intercalated by peats and humic soils representing interseimic dormant periods. Radiocarbon dates yielded from such organic-rich units bracket the depositional timing of the tsunami sand. Although the time constraints of the tsunami sand units are different from site to site, there are shared time ranges of tsunami inundations. Seven well-preserved paleotsunami horizons were commonly found at five onshore sites during the period between 1,000 and 6,000 y.B.P, which yields 500-700 years of recurrence intervals of extremely large tsunamis. One of the flaws in the onshore surveys however is a deficit of the younger sediments due to surface human perturbations. To overcome the issue, I then chose a site inside a bay where no massive erosion and human modification were expected. A 35-m drilling

  19. RIGED-RA project - Restoration and management of Coastal Dunes in the Northern Adriatic Coast, Ravenna Area - Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice M. S.; Greggio, Nicolas; Sistilli, Flavia; Fabbri, Stefano; Scarelli, Frederico; Candiago, Sebastian; Anfossi, Giulia; Lipparini, Carlo A.; Cantelli, Luigi; Antonellini, Marco; Gabbianelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Coastal dunes play an important role in protecting the coastline. Unfortunately, in the last decades dunes have been removed or damaged by human activities. In the Emilia- Romagna region significant residual dune systems are found only along Ravenna and Ferrara coasts. In this context, the RIGED-RA project “Restoration and management of coastal dunes along the Ravenna coast” (2013-2016) has been launched with the aims to identify dynamics, erosion and vulnerability of Northern Adriatic coast and associated residual dunes, and to define intervention strategies for dune protection and restoration. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary approach that integrates the expertise of several researchers and investigates all aspects (biotic and abiotic), which drive the dune-beach system. All datasets were integrated to identify test sites for applying dune restoration. The intervention finished in April 2016; evolution and restoration efficiency will be assessed.

  20. Geographic distribution and environmental control of vertebral count in Ammodytes spp. along the northern Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, J; Yoshinaga, T; Tanaka, C; Ishii, K

    2017-03-01

    To examine species composition and population structures in sand lance (Ammodytidae) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, genetic analysis were carried out for specimens collected in 2014 from Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Ishinomaki Bay, Miyagi, off Soma, Fukushima and Ise-Mikawa Bays, Aichi. The samples consisted of Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian, of which the latter is a recently described species. Neither species exhibited significant genetic differences among localities. Only A. japonicus was found in the most southern locality at Aichi, but it decreased northward to <90% in Miyagi and Fukushima and the two species occurred almost evenly in Iwate suggesting a latitudinal cline in their species composition along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, off Tohoku. The vertebral counts differed between A. japonicus and A. heian with modes of 65 and 63, respectively, but this characteristic did not differ significantly within a locality (Iwate). This suggests that the vertebral counts of Ammodytes spp. in Japanese waters are probably strongly determined by the environment than by a species-specific genetic trait.

  1. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  2. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  3. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  4. Length-weight relationship of eleven species of marine catfishes from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, Noureen; Qamar, Nazia; Rashid, Shahnaz; Panhwar, Sher Khan

    2016-10-01

    This study records length-weight relationships (LWRs) for eleven commercially important marine catfish species of the family Ariidae (sea catfishes) and Plotosidae (eel catfishes) from the northern Arabian Sea coast of Pakistan. The specimens were sampled from December 2014 to November 2015, using bottom trawls with various mesh sizes by commercial vessels. The species were Nemapteryx caelatus, Sciades sona, Arius gagora, Batrachocephalus mino, Netuma thalassina, N. bilineata, Osteogeneiosus militaris, Plicofollis dussumieri, P. tenuispinis, Plotosus limbatus, and P. lineatus. Of the eleven species, two species A. gagora and N. bilineata were recorded for the first time and LWRs for four species A. gagora, N. bilineata, S. sona, and B. mino still have no data in the FishBase database. In addition, new maximum length for each of the three species N. bilineata, O. militaris and B. mino was also found.

  5. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  6. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Flux and Temperature on the Northern British Columbia Coast in support of Marine Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, D. R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fortin, V.; Durnford, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Canada has the longest coastline of any country (>120,000 miles). Canadian response to potential oil spills along its coast is being improved under a high-level federal government strategy, falling under the rubric of the World Class Tanker Safety System (WCTSS). The first component of this strategy focuses on the Kitimat area and its marine approaches on the northern British Columbia (BC) coast. This initiative reflects concerns around both existing ship traffic, and potential increases in tanker traffic associated with the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline. The project includes joint development, between multiple federal departments, of an operational modeling system to predict currents in the coastal ocean. One of Environment Canada's (EC) contributions is the development and implementation of a short-term forecast model of river flows with corresponding stream temperatures. These quantities influence currents in the coastal ocean, which in turn affect oil spill fate and transport. Our platform is based on the Surface Prediction System (SPS), which is essentially a driver for a land surface scheme (LSS) linked to a hydrological routing model, and is related to the earlier MESH platform. LSS's under consideration for use in this mountain rainforest environment are the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), and the Soil and Vegetation Simulator (SVS), which is an evolution of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) model. Runoff and drainage outputs are then routed through the stream network by WATROUTE. The River Basin Model (RBM), a physically-based stream temperature simulator, is also being integrated into SPS to additionally enable water temperature forecasting. The freshwater modelling system will be directly driven by EC's numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.Preliminary results from this ambitious modeling program are presented, along with recommendations for improvements to physical process representation in the various models employed.

  7. An entomological and seroepidemiological study of the vectorial-transmission risk of Chagas disease in the coast of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Reyes, C; Canals, A; Parra, A; Muñoz, X; Rodríguez, K

    2015-12-01

    Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile.

  8. Quaternary Uplift of Coral Terraces from Active Folding and Thrusting Along the Northern Coast of Timor-Leste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, N. L.; Harris, R.; Merritts, D.

    2006-12-01

    Emergent coral terraces along the northern coast of Timor-Leste, reveal differential vertical strain along the strike of the active Banda arc-continent collision complex. The number of major coral terraces in surveyed profiles increases from 2 to 25 along a coastal distance of 150 km from central to eastern Timor-Leste. Comparison of 8 separate terrace profiles with sea level curves predicts vertical displacement rates that increase eastward from <0.3 to 1.0-1.5 mm/year. This pattern is corroborated by U-series age analyses that document non-linear increases in vertical strain eastward with the uplift rates ranging from <.04 to 2.0 mm/year. U-series ages also indicates the occurrence of both erosional (regressional) and depositional terraces. Two profiles, dominated by erosional terraces, have associated local lower depositional terraces. The erosional terraces are more abundant, but yield apparent lower uplift rates in comparison with the depositional terraces. This occurrence questions the validity of uplift rates obtained by age analysis for the errosional terraces and/or aids in the conclusion that differential vertical strain not only exists with distance between profiles but with time for each profile. We associate active uplift with northward movement along retro- wedge thrust faults that are well documented in seismic reflection profiles adjacent to the north coast of Timor- Leste.

  9. Sediment sources and their contribution along northern coast of the South China Sea: Evidence from clay minerals of surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Lu, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Clay minerals of surface sediment samples from nine bays/harbors along northern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) are used for sediment sources and contribution estimation in the study areas. Results reveal that sediments in the study bays/harbors seem to be a mixture of sediments from the Pearl, Hanjiang River and local islands/rivers, but their clay mineral assemblage is distinct from that of Luzon and Taiwan sediments, indicating that sediments are derived mainly from the neighboring sources through riverine input and partly from localized sediments. Due to input of local sediments in the northern SCS, sediments from both east of the Leizhou Peninsula (Area IV) and next to the Pearl River estuary (PRE, Area II) have high smectite percent. Affected by riverine input of the Pearl and Hanjiang Rivers, sediments in west of the PRE (Area III) and east of the PRE (Area I) have high illite (average 47%) and kaolinite (54%) percents, respectively. Sediment contributions of various major sources to the study areas are estimated as the following: (1) the Hanjiang River provide 95% and 84% sediments in Areas I and II, respectively, (2) the Pearl River supply 79% and 29% sediments in Areas III and IV, respectively and (3) local sediments contribute the rest and reach the maximum (˜71%) in Area IV.

  10. Modelling the development of rocky shoreline profiles along the northern coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; Trenhaile, Alan S.; Edwards, Robin J.

    2013-12-01

    A mathematical wave-erosion model is used to simulate postglacial shoreline profiles along the rocky, high energy coast of the north of Ireland. The wave erosion model is driven by a suite of relative sea-level (RSL) curves for the last 16,000 years produced from four glacial rebound models. Multiple runs are performed with different initial shore profiles and rock resistances to investigate shoreline evolution and the significance of inherited morphology on the resultant profile shape. The simulated profiles are then compared with mapped profiles from three areas of the north of Ireland with different lithological and hydrographic properties. Modelled profiles generally replicate the overall mean shoreline gradients observed across the region when rock resistance is relatively high and erosion rates correspondingly low. In these profiles, breaks in mean slope are observed at depths comparable to the RSL minima in several of the RSL scenarios (at c. - 10 m, - 15 m and - 20 m for North Antrim, Derry and Donegal respectively). At Portrush and Portballintrae (Derry), profiles may be influenced by structural controls relating to the underlying basalt surface and the removal of overlying glaciogenic sediments. All RSL scenarios replicate the observed eastward increase in cliff-platform junction height, reflecting the differential glacioisostatic rebound experienced along the coast. However, the precise elevation at which the simulated cliff base occurs is sensitive to the choice of RSL scenario, suggesting that this parameter may prove useful in evaluating glacial rebound model performance. Several of the RSL scenarios generate raised shore platforms or terraces in North Antrim and Derry at heights comparable to raised shoreline features reported in the literature. However, no single curve or combination of parameters is capable of generating the range of platform and terrace features observed in the bathymetric and topographic data. These misfits are consistent with

  11. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (<4.5 ka) coseismic deformation. Here we will present tectonic implicatios from temporal and spatial distribution of marine terraces and wave-cut notches along the northern Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  12. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  13. Fog Events at Maceio Airport on the Northern Coast of Brazil During 2002-2005 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Natalia; Levit, Vladimir; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Silva, Aliton Oliveira; Afonso, Joao M. Sousa; Teodoro, Iedo

    2015-10-01

    There were eight fog events in five years at Maceio international airport on the northern coast of Brazil, and all were analyzed. Fog duration was short and its intensity was weak or moderate. The principal objectives of the study were: (1) analysis of the physical processes of fog formation (synoptic and thermodynamic conditions and processes), (2) PAFOG model testing, and (3) estimation of the effect of vegetation on fog forecast. Cyclonic curvature and divergence of the air current over the ocean at low levels and anticyclonic curvature at high levels were associated with the fog. Weak lifting at low levels was identified by the NCEP/DOE II, ECMWF, and WRF models for all eight events. Sinking at high levels was dominant in the ECMWF and WRF models. Absence of thermal inversion and conditional instability at low levels was identified by the NCEP/DOE II and ECMWF models. According to the WRF model a typical temperature profile during fog comprises three layers: (1) a very thin layer (up to 166 m, 985 hPa) of temperature inversion with very high humidity; (2) a conditional layer of instability from 985-860 hPa; and (3) a dry and stable layer above 860 hPa. Moderate fog with visibility between 200 and 300 m was associated with ocean cooling whereas weak fog was associated with ocean warming. A warm oscillation on the sea surface near the Brazilian northeast was observed for all fog events. It was found there was colder air over the warmer water near the coast. Weak confluence in troughs at low levels contributes to weak lifting at low levels. This current creates conditions resulting in humidity increase. A warmer sea surface contributes to more evaporation and, as a consequence, increases the amount of water vapor in the surrounding air at low levels near the coast. The PAFOG model was used to forecast the fog for three events (i.e., for all cases possible), and was satisfactory for two cases. Satisfactory results for fog duration and intensity were obtained with 9

  14. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  15. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  17. Mineral Controls on Microbial Niche Space in Subsurface Serpentinites of the Coast Range Ophiolite, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Carnevale, D.; Schrenk, M. O.; Twing, K. I.; McCollom, T. M.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    Serpentinites on Earth are excellent candidate environments for the origin of life and continue to serve as an outstanding model system for study of modern selection pressures (such as gradients in temperature, pressure, aqueous geochemistry, oxidation-reduction potential) on microbial communities. Recent coring (August 2011) in the Coast Range Ophiolite near Lower Lake, CA resulted in the establishment of two sets of reference continental serpentinite cores (to 30 and 42 m depth, respectively) and the installation of eight monitoring wells drawing from different depths. Six of these wells plumb serpentinizing waters, with characteristic high pH (up to 12.5), high calcium loads (10-200 ppm), and methane concentrations that are at or near one-atmosphere saturation, while hydrogen levels are orders of magnitude lower than is typically observed in other similar systems. Low hydrogen levels are cryptic; they may reflect consumption by microbial communities or possibly a pressure- or temperature-related solubility response. Two reference wells provide access to quasi-parallel, shallower groundwater flow regimes with near neutral pH values and surface-related major element and organic acid inventories. Many environmental parameters pertinent to microbiological communities active in serpentinites (such as dissolved hydrogen, methane, and other gas concentrations, redox status, ambient pH, and ionic strength) are largely controlled by host rock mineralogy and, thus, the temperature and progress of serpentinization. Since iron partitioning between co-existing minerals in serpentinites is strongly linked to the evolution of hydrogen (McCollom and Bach, 2009), we report here on mineralogy, bulk geochemistry, and selected mineral chemistry data for the serpentinite cores in order to constrain the production of hydrogen, the dominant bioenergetic driving force in this land-based deep biosphere setting. Parallel microbiological analyses of the same drill cores have shown the

  18. Cenozoic structural evolution and tectono-stratigraphic framework of the northern Gulf Coast continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Diegel, F.A.; Karlo, J.F.; Shoup, R.C.; Schuster, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    The Cenozoic structural evolution of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin is controlled by progradation over deforming, largely allochthonous salt structures derived from an underlying autochthonous Jurassic salt. The wide variety of structural styles is due to a combination of (1) original distribution of Jurassic and Mesozoic salt structures, (2) different slope depositional environments during the Cenozoic, and (3) varying degrees of salt withdrawal from allochthonous salt sheets. Tectono-stratigraphic provinces describe regions of contrasting structural styles and ages. Provinces include (1) a contractional foldbelt province, (2) a tabular salt-minibasin-province, (3) a Pliocene-Pleistocene detachment province, (4) a salt dome-minibasin province, (5) an Oligocene-Miocene detachment province, (6) a lower Oligocene Vicksburg detachment province, (7) an upper Eocene detachment province, and (8) the Wilcox growth fault province of Paleocene-Eocene age. Within several tectono-stratigraphic provinces, shale-based detachment systems, dominated by lateral extension, and allochthonous salt-based detachment systems, dominated by subsidence, can be distinguished by geometry, palinspastic reconstructions, and subsidence analysis. Many shale-based detachments are linked downdip to deeper salt-based detachments. Large extensions above detachments are typically balanced by salt withdrawal. Salt-withdrawal minibasins with flanking salt bodies occur as both isolated structural systems and components of salt-based detachment systems. During progradation, progressive salt withdrawal from tabular salt bodies on the slope formed salt-bounded minibasins which, on the shelf, evolved into minibasins bounded by arcuate growth faults and remnant salt bodies. Associated secondary salt bodies above allochthonous salt evolved from pillows, ridges, and massifs to leaning domes and steep-sided stocks.

  19. Spatial and temporal variability in surf zone fish assemblages on the coast of northern New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilber, D. H.; Clarke, D. G.; Burlas, M. H.; Ruben, H.; Will, R. J.

    2003-02-01

    The surf zone fish community along 15 km of northern New Jersey shoreline was sampled every 2 weeks by beach seine in the late summers and early falls of 1995-1999 in conjunction with monitoring of a beach nourishment project. Fifty-seven species representing 30 families were collected during the course of the study. Over 90% of each sampling period's catch was composed of five taxa or less. These taxa included Atlantic and rough silversides, Menidia menidia and Membras martinica, bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix, and bay and striped anchovies, Anchoa mitchilli and Anchoa hepsetus, with the relative contributions of these taxa varying among years. Both bluefish and anchovy abundances varied by an order of magnitude among years. Size-frequency distributions indicate summer-spawned bluefish recruit to the surf zone habitat as two cohorts in August and October, respectively. Fish abundance and richness were greater at substations closest to rock groins. Taxonomic richness declined along with decreasing water temperature in the fall, but was not correlated with turbidity or tide stage (measured as minutes before or after low tide). The extensive sampling effort undertaken in this study, 2190 seine hauls that captured 295 868 fish, was examined in relation to the number and relative proportions of taxa collected. Species accumulation curves and percent similarity calculations were used to investigate the adequacy of a reduced sampling protocol in characterizing the taxonomic composition of the surf zone fish community. Calculations from eight complete sampling periods (84 seine hauls each) indicate that a reduction in sampling effort by one-half would have yielded on average 75% of the total number of species captured with approximately 85% similarity in relative species composition.

  20. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano.

  1. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea.

  2. Holocene hydrological and sea surface temperature changes in the northern coast of the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mong-Sin; Zong, Yongqiang; Mok, Ka-Man; Cheung, Ka-Ming; Xiong, Haixian; Huang, Guangqing

    2017-03-01

    In order to reconstruct the Holocene environmental history of a coastal site in the northern South China Sea, this study analysed the organic carbon isotope ratios (δ13Corg) and alkenone unsaturation ratios (UK‧37) from a 36.5 m-long sediment core drilled at seabed in the mouth region of the Pearl River estuary and generated a coupled hydrological and temperature record. This record reveals changes of monsoon-induced sediment discharge and sea surface temperature of the Holocene in four stages. In Stage I, the site was under fluvial conditions prior to postglacial marine transgression. Stage II saw an increase of sea surface temperature from c. 23.0 °C to 27.0 °C, associated with a strengthened summer monsoon from c. 10,350 to 8900 cal. years BP. This was also a period of rapid sea-level rise and marine transgression, during which the sea inundated the palaeo-incised channel, i.e. the lower part of the T-shape accommodation space created by the rising sea. In these 1500 years, fluvial discharge was strong and concentrated within the channel, and the high sedimentation rate (11.8 mm/year) was very close to the rate of sea-level rise. In the subsequent 2000 years (Stage III) sea level continued to rise and the sea flooded the broad seabed above the palaeo-incised channel, resulted in fluvial discharge spreading thinly across the wide accommodation space and a much reduced sedimentation rate (1.8 mm/year). Sea surface temperature in this stage reached 27.3 °C initially, but dropped sharply to 26.1 °C towards c. 8200 cal. years BP. The final stage covers the last 7000 years, and the site was under a stable sea level. Sedimentation in this stage varied a little, but averaged at 1.8 mm/year. Whilst fluvial discharge and sea surface temperature didn't change much, two short periods of hydrological and temperature change were observed, which are related to the climatic cooling events of c. 4200 cal. years ago and the Little Ice Age.

  3. Geochemistry of tectonically expelled fluids from the northern Coast ranges, Rumsey Hills, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davisson, M.L.; Presser, T.S.; Criss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Tectonic compression has created abnormally high pressure on deep basinal fluids causing their expulsion from areally exposed Upper Cretaceous rock along the eastern margin of the California Coast ranges. The fluids emerge as near-neutral, perennial sodium chloride springs at high elevations with flow rates as high as 10 L per min. Higher spring discharges are more common around the exposure of a west-vergent fault propagation fold axis. Spring waters range from ~1000 to 27,000 mg/L TDS. The least saline water (??18O = -7.5???) closely represents local meteoric water that mixes with saline fluid (??18O = +5.3???) and forms a slope of ~3.5 on a ??D vs. ??18O plot. A Na (125 to 8000 mg/L) vs. Cl (150 to 17,000 mg/L) plot shows a linear dilution trend that extends close to, but below, the values for modern seawater. Calcium (75-3000 mg/L) is considerably enriched relative to seawater and forms a nonlinear trend with chloride. In detail, the "Na deficit," defined by the difference between the measured Na content and the Na concentration on a hypothetical seawater dilution line, is approximately balanced by the Ca excess, similarly defined by the seawater dilution line. This relationship strongly suggests that the fluid is diluted seawater that is being modified by active albitization of plagioclase at different depths. Simultaneous B and 18O enrichment of the fluids, accompanied by deuterium depletion, further suggest that the seawater modification is influenced by clay diagenesis. Bicarbonate and SiO2 concentrations show an inverse correlation with Cl, with most waters being saturated or slightly oversaturated with calcite and quartz at the discharge temperatures. Some freshwater springs with near-meteoric stable isotope values may represent mixing of young groundwater from perched aquifers, but in many cases, the freshwater springs emerge along the same structures and have the same perennial nature as the saline fluids, and expulsion of an older fresh groundwater

  4. Biomonitoring of environmental stress in Pollicipes pollicipes from the northern coast of Portugal: a non-destructive approach using haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2016-04-01

    In the intertidal area, the interactions between anthropogenic contaminants and natural variations (biotic and abiotic factors) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a great need for new assessment procedures to characterize the biological responses occurring in organisms from this extreme environment. Considering the intrinsic inter-individual variations among organisms from a single population, it is important to propose new methods that address this variability, by validating a sampling strategy in target groups of organisms, encompassing seasonal fluctuations. This strategy must however be less invasive than traditional methods, avoiding the mandatory sacrifice of the sampled organisms. By doing so, it is also possible to increase the ecological relevance of obtainable data, and contribute to minimize damage to endangered species. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of seasonal variations in the responses elicited by anthropogenic compounds on a marine crustacean species, by using a biomarker-based approach. According to this purpose, the seasonal variations in key physiological responses (biomarkers) were investigated in the crustacean Pollicipes pollicipes from the Northern coast of Portugal. Biomarkers used for this purpose were the activity of the phase II biotransformation isoenzymes glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the activity of cholinesterases (ChEs), and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). All biomarkers were quantified in distinct tissues (such as cirri, and peduncle) and haemolymph (a non-destructive source of biological samples). The glycogen content in peduncle tissue, and the variation in haemocyte number in haemolymph were also analyzed. Samples were collected monthly, during a year, in Lavadores, located in the proximity of an estuarine area (Douro River). The results showed a seasonal pattern in all tested biomarkers. The results also showed a significant increase in GSTs activities, and in

  5. Mineralogy, chemistry and radioactivity of the heavy minerals in the black sands, along the northern coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Zaid, Samir M.; Moustafa, Mohammed I.; Barakat, Mohammed G.

    2016-11-01

    Three hundreds and six black sand samples have been collected from the beach areas along the northern coast of Egypt, parallel and perpendicular to the shoreline. The mineralogy and chemistry of the economic heavy minerals were studied. The grain size distribution of the studied economic minerals shows a unimodal class that mostly in the very fine sand size. The microscopic investigation indicates that the study area is enriched with six economic heavy minerals. These are ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile and monazite; in addition to leucoxene, arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The studied black sands suggest a reserve of 329, 183, 24, 21, 7, 1 and 14 thousand tons of ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile, monazite and leucoxene, respectively. The spherical magnetite grains are higher in Fe2O3 than those of euhedral shaped grains. Ilmenite grains display sub-rounded to euhedral shapes. The altered ilmenite grains have higher TiO2 and lower Fe2O3 in comparison with the euhedral fresh ones. Garnet occurs as angular (49%), sub-spherical (45%), spherical (5%) and euhedral grains (1%). Garnet grains containing mineral inclusions represent 10% of their concentrate. The euhedral garnet grains have Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca that arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The magnetic zircon fraction obtained from their bulk concentrate is particularly rich in colored grains (70%). Their common colors are red and brown with some malacons. The reddish-brown color of zircon may be due to iron oxide stains. Some magnetic zircon grains are enriched in Hf and REEs contents. Rutile grains are sub-to well rounded (70%), and rich in TiO2. Monazite is enriched in Ce, La, Nd, Th and U. Detectable inclusions of gold, copper, lead, galena, cinnabar, platinum group elements (PGES) and silver are recorded in cassiterite. The radiometric measurements revealed that the black sands of the western zone (4 km2) have high values of specific activity, absorbed

  6. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast.

  7. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.

  8. Summary of hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    The northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas, which includes the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers, supplies most of the water used for industrial, municipal, agricultural, and commercial purposes for an approximately 25,000- square-mile (mi2) area that includes the Beaumont and Houston metropolitan areas. The area has an abundant amount of potable ground water, but withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric-surface declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. This fact sheet summarizes a study done in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD) as a part of the TWDB Ground-Water Availability Modeling (or Model) (GAM) program. The study was designed to develop and test a ground-water-flow model of the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in the GAM area (fig. 1) that waterresource managers can use as a tool to address future groundwater- availability issues.

  9. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  10. Origin, structure and exposure history of a wave-cut platform more than 1 Ma in age at the coast of northern Spain: A multiple cosmogenic nuclide approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Marrón, J.; Hetzel, R.; Niedermann, S.; Menéndez, R.; Marquínez, J.

    2008-01-01

    Along the Asturian coast of northern Spain an uplifted wave-cut platform extends for ˜ 100 km east-west. The steep cliff which bounds the gently seaward-dipping platform to the north increases in height from 30 m in the west to 100 m in the east and reflects the overall eastward increase in platform elevation. The southern edge of the 2-4 km-wide platform runs along the foothills of the Cantabrian Mountains, as constrained by a high-resolution digital elevation model. The marine platform, which was carved into deformed Paleozoic bedrock with abundant quartzite beds, is largely covered by weathered marine and continental sediments. Quartzite samples from flat bedrock outcrops which are currently not covered by sediment or soil yield cosmogenic nuclide concentrations ( 21Ne, 10Be and 26Al) that demonstrate a long and complex exposure history, including periods of burial with partial or complete shielding from cosmic rays. The combination of multiple cosmogenic nuclides yields a minimum age of 1-2 Ma for the platform. Taking into account (i) the horizontal and vertical extent of the platform, (ii) the high resistance to erosion of the quartzitic bedrock, and (iii) published data on the magnitude of past sea level fluctuations, we suggest that the wave-cut platform formed in the Pliocene. Subvertical faults cutting the platform at high angles to the coastline offset the southern edge of the platform by 20 to 40 m and reactivate the pre-existing anisotropy in the Paleozoic bedrock. Uplift and crustal deformation of the coastal region have occurred after platform formation in the Pliocene and may still be active. The slow deformation of the northern edge of the Iberian plate including the Cantabrian Mountains may result from the ongoing slow convergence at an incipient subduction zone extending along the coast of northern Spain.

  11. Metal contents in coastal waters of San Jorge Bay, Antofagasta, northern Chile: a base line for establishing seawater quality guidelines.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Jorge; Román, Domingo; Rivera, Lidia; Avila, Juan; Cortés, Pedro

    2011-12-01

    We measured the concentration of 12 metals in coastal waters of seven sites of San Jorge Bay in Antofagasta (northern Chile), in order to relate the presence of metals with the different uses of San Jorge Bay coastal border, and to evaluate the quality of the bay's bodies of water according to the proposed current Chilean Quality Guide for trace elements in seawater (CONAMA 2003). The results suggest that the coastal water of San Jorge Bay has very good quality according to the proposed regulation mentioned above. However, the distribution of metals such as Cu and Pb along the bay's coast line evidences a notorious effect of the industrial activity, which would involve different behavior patterns for some trace elements in some bodies of water, suggesting that the levels indicated in the environmental guideline of the Chilean legislation do not represent pollution-free environments.

  12. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  13. [Polymorphism of the cytochrome b gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk)].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzeva, V V

    2010-01-01

    Sequencing of 395 bp long fragments of cytochrome b gene occupying the 15396-15790 bp positions of mtDNA, the data on the structure and variability of the studied region in chum salmon from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhtosk) were obtained for the first time. Nine haplotype variants and four protein modifications were obtained. The medial net was built reflecting the variability and phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes in the gene pool of the studied population of the chum salmon from the Ola River. Comparative analysis of the published and original data showed that the Ola chum salmon differs from the Canadian salmon ninth genotypically (in structure of cytochrome b gene) and in the amino acid sequence of the studied site of the enzyme.

  14. Pleistocene uplift, climate and morphological segmentation of the Northern Chile coasts (24°S-32°S): Insights from cosmogenic 10Be dating of paleoshorelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinod, Joseph; Regard, Vincent; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Aguilar, German; Guillaume, Benjamin; Carretier, Sébastien; Cortés-Aranda, Joaquín; Leanni, Laetitia; Hérail, Gérard

    2016-12-01

    We present new cosmogenic (10Be) exposure ages obtained on Pleistocene marine abrasion shore terraces of Northern Chile between 24°S and 32°S in order to evaluate the temporal and spatial variability of uplift rates along the coastal forearc. Both the dispersion of cosmogenic concentrations in samples from the same terrace and data obtained in vertical profiles show that onshore erosion rates, following emergence of paleoshorelines, approached 1 m/Myr. Therefore, minimum ages calculated without considering onshore erosion may be largely underestimated for Middle Pleistocene terraces. The elevation of the last interglacial (MIS-5) paleoshoreline is generally between 25 and 45 m amsl, suggesting that the entire coast of the study area has been uplifting during the Upper Pleistocene at rates approaching 0.3 mm/yr. Available ages for Middle Pleistocene terraces suggest similar uplift rates, except in the Altos de Talinay area where uplift may have been accelerated by the activity of the Puerto Aldea Fault. The maximum elevation of Pleistocene paleoshorelines is generally close to 250 m and there is no higher older Neogene marine sediment, which implies that uplift accelerated during the Pleistocene following a period of coastal stability or subsidence. We observe that the coastal morphology largely depends on the latitudinal climatic variability. North of 26.75°S, the coast is characterized by the presence of a high scarp associated with small and poorly preserved paleoshorelines at its foot. The existence of the coastal scarp in the northern part of the study area is permitted by the hyper-arid climate of the Atacama Desert. This particular morphology may explain why paleoshorelines evidencing coastal uplift are poorly preserved between 26.75°S and 24°S despite Upper Pleistocene uplift rates being comparable with those prevailing in the southern part of the study area.

  15. Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains circulating in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf and its comparison with worldwide distribution of HBV subgenotype D1.

    PubMed

    Pourkarim, Mahmoud Reza; Vergote, Valentijn; Amini-Bavil-Olyaee, Samad; Sharifi, Zohre; Sijmons, Steven; Lemey, Philippe; Maes, Piet; Alavian, Seyed Moayed; Van Ranst, Marc

    2014-05-01

    Iran is a large country that covers the northern coast of the Persian Gulf. Iranian residents of this coastal region interact closely with people from neighboring countries because of historical and cultural relationships, as well as economic activities. In addition, the inhabitants of this border region have experienced several wars, which have affected public health infrastructures. This study characterized for the first time, the evolution of the full-length genome of HBV strains in asymptomatic carrier patients living in this particular region. In addition, this study was compared and complemented by a comprehensive evolutionary analysis of the worldwide geographical distribution of HBV subgenotype D1. Evolutionary analysis demonstrates that patients living in the northern coast of the Persian Gulf are mainly infected with HBV subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2. Specific mutations related to advanced liver disease were found more frequently in these strains compared to other strains isolated from asymptomatic carriers from other regions of Iran. This global comprehensive analysis showed that HBV subgenotype D1 strains have a worldwide distribution and that human mobility and immigration had a large impact on dispersal of HBV subgenotype D1, subtype ayw2 in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran, Syria, and Turkey. In addition to association of subtype ayw2 with subgenotype D1, it was demonstrated that other HBV subtypes like adw2, ayw1, and ayw3 are associated with HBV subgenotype D1 in different regions of the world. This study also revealed a remarkable distribution of subgenotype D1, subtype ayw4 although this particular subtype is associated with subgenotype D4 of HBV in European countries.

  16. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  17. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  18. Occurrence of organochlorines in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Josilene; Taniguchi, Satie; Becker, José Henrique; Werneck, Max Rondon; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2016-11-15

    Organochlorines (OCs), such as pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are persistent, toxic and widely distributed through atmospheric transport and ocean currents. Few studies have been conducted on OCs in sea turtles, especially on the coast of Brazil. Chelonia mydas is the largest hard-shell sea turtle and is found tropical and subtropical regions in all oceans. The aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of OCs in the green sea turtle (C. mydas). Fat, liver, kidney and muscle samples were collected from 27 juveniles found on the beach of the city of Ubatuba on the northern coast of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. OCs were extracted with organic solvents and the extract was purified with concentrated acid. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electron capture detection were used for the identification and quantification of PCBs and pesticides, respectively. No organochlorine pesticides were detected in any of the samples. Concentrations of total PCBs in wet weight were <1.6 to 48.9ng/g in fat tissue, <1.6 to 17.4ng/g in liver tissue and <1.6 to 37.7ng/g in kidney tissue. The low levels found are mainly related to diet, as the green sea turtle is basically herbivorous and lower PCB contamination compared to other regions.

  19. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  20. Coseismic uplift and fault model of marine active faults in 1729 AD revealed by fossilized intertidal sessile organisms along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Oda, M.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Noto Peninsula is located in the backarc region of southwest Japan and is characterized by geomorphologic features formed by active tectonics and glacial eustasy through the Quaternary. Pleistocene marine terraces along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula indicate uplift in the coastal area through the late Quaternary (Ota and Hirakawa, 1979). Recently, an active fault zone on the seafloor off the coast was found and was divided into four segments, Monzen-oki, Saruyama-oki, Wajima-oki, and Suzu-oki, from west to east (Inoue and Okamura, 2010). We investigated vertical displacement along the coast using intertidal sessile organisms at nine sites on the rocky coast. We measured the height of fossilized Pomatoleios kraussii by GPS surveying together with a sea-level change curve, and dated them using the AMS 14C method. The vertical displacements and dates at the sites implied that coastal uplift occurred along 20 km of coastline, corresponding to the Wajima-oki segment zone, and most likely between 1600 and 1800 AD. This is coincident with seismic damage in this area in 1729 AD recorded in historical documents. We constructed a fault model with three rectangular faults in a homogeneous elastic half-space and estimated the optimal net slip and rake by a non-linear inversion method (Matsu'ura and Hasegawa, 1987). The best fit to the estimated vertical displacements is provided by a net slip of 1.8 m with a rake of 90° for the western fault plane and a net slip of 0.6 m with a rake of 90° for the center and the eastern fault planes. The moment magnitude (Mw) calculated from these parameters with a rigidity of 30 GPa is 6.6. We compared the elevation distribution of the former shorelines based on coastal terraces and the 1729 earthquake uplifts. Assuming that the coastal uplift is caused by the cumulative crustal deformation produced by the same size event as the 1729 earthquake, the average recurrence interval of the events is estimated to be 1700 years.

  1. Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The slip distribution and seismic moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean earthquakes were estimated from tsunami and coastal geodetic data. These two earthquakes generated transoceanic tsunamis, and the waveforms were recorded around the Pacific Ocean. In addition, coseismic coastal uplift and subsidence were measured around the source areas. For the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, inversion of the tsunami waveforms recorded at nearby coastal tide gauge and Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) stations combined with coastal geodetic data suggest two asperities: a northern one beneath the coast of Constitucion and a southern one around the Arauco Peninsula. The total fault length is approximately 400 km with seismic moment of 1.7 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The offshore DART tsunami waveforms require fault slips beneath the coasts, but the exact locations are better estimated by coastal geodetic data. The 22 May 1960 earthquake produced very large, ~30 m, slip off Valdivia. Joint inversion of tsunami waveforms, at tide gauge stations in South America, with coastal geodetic and leveling data shows total fault length of ~800 km and seismic moment of 7.2 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.2). The seismic moment estimated from tsunami or joint inversion is similar to previous estimates from geodetic data, but much smaller than the results from seismic data analysis.

  2. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments on the coast of the Iranian province of Khuzestan in the Northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Motallebi, Abbasali; Asgharizadeh, Farid; Eskandari, Gholam Reza; Shafaghi, Bijan

    2008-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Khuzestan province (south west of Iran, neighbor to Iraq and Kuwait) to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Khuzestan, which extends for approximately 400 km is mainly soft areas of mud flats within different ecosystems including river mouth, estuaries, creeps, and small bays. Suspended material from the Iranian rivers including Arvand (Karun), Bahmanshir, Jarrahi, and Zohreh has settled to form these extensive soft areas. Eighty three samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km since Fall 2005 to Winter 2006. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by sea water during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m(2) was considered. All samples were of a muddy nature, and were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The average activity concentration of the radionuclides (226)Ra (30 Bq/Kg), (232)Th (11 Bq/kg), (238)U (18 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (2.6 Bq/kg) along the shore of Khuzestan reaches are much less than the values commonly assigned as the world average. Nevertheless in case of (40)K which is a long lived naturally occurring radionuclide, the result (481 Bq/kg) was higher than the world average which could be due to a large Kuwaiti oil spill and also fallout and deposition of tremendous amount of fly ashes which resulted from ignited Kuwaiti oil fields during the 2nd Persian Gulf war (1990-91). For man-made (137)Cs and naturally occurring (232)Th, the western and eastern parts of Khuzestan shore showed higher concentrations than the middle part (Khooriat or creeps). For the long lived naturally occurring radionuclide (40)K and Gulf war (238)U (anti armor shells), there were no significant

  3. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Isolated from Free-Ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the Central California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Simon J.; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W.; Greig, Denise J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife. PMID:23690933

  4. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mena, Ignacio; Anthony, Simon J; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W; Greig, Denise J; Costa, Daniel P; Lipkin, W Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  5. The Chilean nitrate deposits.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nitrate deposits in the arid Atacama desert of northern Chile consist of saline-cemented surficial material, apparently formed in and near a playa lake that formerly covered the area. Many features of their distribution and chemical composition are unique. The author believes the principal sources of the saline constituents were the volcanic rocks of late Tertiary and Quaternary age in the Andes and that the nitrate is of organic origin. Possible sources of the nitrate, iodate, perchlorate and chromate are discussed. -J.J.Robertson

  6. Chilean medicine under social revolution.

    PubMed

    Medina, E; Cruz-Coke, R

    1976-07-22

    During the last decade Chile has experienced a series of social changes under Christian Socialist (1964-1970), Marxist Socialist (1970-1973) and military (1973-1975) governments. These changes grossly affected the evolution of medicine and public health in Chile. Nevertheless, vital statistics show an overall improvement in health indexes, with a short interruption during the Marxist government. During this period medical standards and the quality of medical services declined when revolutionaries disrupted the organization of traditional socialized Chilean medicine founded 50 years ago. The vital statistics of 1974 suggest an overall recovery, but physical and human resources for health, eroded by revolution and the present acute economic crisis, have not yet begun to improve. Nevertheless, Chilean medicine has reasumed the technical character that should never have been abandoned.

  7. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P < 0.05). Most of the variance was within populations. These findings will be important for more sustainable octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  8. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  9. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  10. [Seasonal variations of community structures phytoplankton in groundwater discharge areas along the Northern Yucatán Peninsula coast].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia Catalina; Liceaga-Correa, Maria de los Angeles; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge Alfredo

    2012-03-01

    The highly touristic Yucatán Peninsula is principally constituted with coastal marine environments. Like other coastal areas, this has been affected by the increase of waste water discharge, hydrological modifications and land use changes in the area. The phytoplankton community structure is one of the main components of coastal ecosystems and the most affected in hydrological processes. In order to follow the seasonal variations, the phytoplankton was characterized to follow the hydrological variability in two sites (Dzilam and Progreso) of the Northern Yucatán Peninsula. For this, cruises were carried out monthly during one year, from April 2004 to March 2005, with two samplings per season (dry, rainy and "nortes"). Hydrological variability was associated with seasonality and directly linked to groundwater discharges in the Dzilam area, and waste water discharges in the Progreso area. The highest nutrient concentrations occurred mainly during the rainy season. The phytoplankton community changes observed throughout the year suggested that the hydrological and chemical variability associated with seasonality and anthropogenic impacts have a strong influence. The substitution of diatoms by dinoflagellates as the dominant group in Progreso was the result of seasonal variability itself, but also could have been caused by eutrophic processes; while in Dzilam, the major presence of diatoms could have been favored by groundwater discharges. The results of this study can be used to understand the linkages between stressors from the anthropogenic activities and coastal water quality and changes.

  11. Forecasting the Chilean Tsunami, February 27 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, K.; Knight, W.; Whitmore, P.

    2010-12-01

    The West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WC/ATWC) is responsible for issuing tsunami warnings, advisories, and watches for the United States and Canadian coastlines. Utilizing well defined criteria related to earthquake magnitude and location an initial alert message is transmitted. The situation is monitored closely and analyzed using forecast models and real-time sea level observations. If a tsunami is detected then a tsunami warning, advisory, or watch is issued. On February 27, 2010 at 06:34:14 UTC, a M8.8 earthquake occurred off the coast of Maule, Chile, initiating a tsunami that propagated throughout the Pacific Ocean. With approximately 13 hours before the tsunami arrived on the US west coast, the WC/ATWC utilized all available forecasting tools to refine predicted tsunami amplitudes and inundation estimates, thereby providing the best possible estimates to emergency managers and the public. The guidance from the tsunami forecast models, used in concurrence with sea-level observations, resulted in a tsunami advisory being issued for the Pacific coastal regions of the United States and Canada, the extent of which was expanded and then decreased as the event evolved. The WC/ATWC used two tsunami forecast models: the Alaska Tsunami Forecast Model (ATFM) and the Short-term Inundation Forecasting for Tsunamis (SIFT) to formulate a solution. Each model provided an initial tsunami forecast based on the earthquake magnitude and location that was subsequently refined over the following hours as Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) observations became available. After the DART data was assimilated into the models, the two forecasts were used in conjunction to publicly issue predicted maximum amplitudes for 77 locations along the US west coast and in Alaska. As the tsunami reached the US coastline, tide gauge observations were used in scaling the forecasted maximum amplitudes from the ATFM, thereby increasing the forecast accuracy

  12. The Relationship between the Health of Coral Reefs to The Damages of Jelateng Sub Watersheds in the Northern Coast of Sekotong, West Nusa Tenggara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaenuri, A.; Saputra, A. N.; Kudiastuti, D. A.; Fajria, I.; AWijayanti, L.; Aryaguna, P. A.

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are unique ecosystem and most of them are found in tropical areas. Remote sensing technology has the ability to present the information about the existence of marine resources, such as coral reefs. Remote sensing technology also provide the spatial information on wider area. This study is aimed to see how significant the effect of watersheds damage toward the condition of coral reefs because of erosion which is occurred in the upstream and sedimentation which is occurred in the downstream of the watershed. Acquisition of the data in this study used remote sensing image Landsat 7 ETM+ and Lansat 8 OLI in multi temporal, the data collection of this study used photo-quadrate technique and taking sample in the field. Spectral analysis and transformation of CTA (Classification Tree Analysis) was used to generate the level of the health of coral reefs. The method of RSI (Red Silt Index) was used to find out the degree of turbidity of the water. Analysis of the changes was done to find out the changes which were occurred on coral reefs based on the changes of turbidity that were occurred between 2000 till 2015. Based on the result, it shows that there is no effect on the changes of turbidity value toward the health condition of coral reefs in the northern coast of Sekotong Sub District 2000 till 2015. This is due to the use of RSI index or turbidity index that cannot be used in the condition of shallow water.

  13. Evidence that the Migration of the Northern Subpopulation of Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) off the West Coast of the United States Is Age-Based

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fish movements has been an important area of study for fisheries ecology and population dynamics for decades. Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax, along the west coast of the United States exhibit a well-defined large-scale seasonal migration. Larger and older fish are found in the northern reaches of their range during summer and contract to southerly offshore areas for spawning during spring. Because of the close correlation between fish size and age it has not yet been determined if movements are size- or age-based. Measuring spatial changes in the age structure conditioned on individual lengths was used to determine the roles of age versus length in the seasonal migration. S. sagax have a pattern of increasing age-at-length with seasonal northward movements and offshore movements for spawning. The pattern of increasing age-at-length with distance from the origin eliminates a solely length-based process of movement and supports age-based movement. Patterns in the size and age when fish first show migratory behaviors, coupled with the patterns observed during the spawning season, support a hypothesis that migratory behaviors are linked to age-based ontogenetic changes associated with maturation. PMID:27851805

  14. Twelve Years of Change in Coastal Upwelling along the Central-Northern Coast of Chile: Spatially Heterogeneous Responses to Climatic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Guillermo; Broitman, Bernardo; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use time-series analyses to characterize the effects of recent climate variability upon the local physical conditions at 11 study sites along the northern-central coast of Chile (29–34°S). Environmental indices show that the 1° Bakun upwelling index in this coastal region has fluctuated in time, starting from a stable period around the 1980's, peaking during the mid 90s, decreasing during the next ten years and increasing at a steep rate since 2010. Upwelling intensity decreased with increasing latitude, showing also a negative correlation with climate patterns (El Niño3 sea surface temperature-SST anomalies and the Multivariate El Niño Index). We hypothesize that the impacts of climate variability on upwelling events seem to be spatially heterogeneous along the region. Non-sheltered locations and, particularly, sites on prominent headlands show an immediate (lag = 0) and negative correlation between local SST, upwelling events and wind stress. We suggest that near-shore thermal conditions are closely coupled to large-scale forcing of upwelling variability and that this influence is modulated through local topographic factors. PMID:24587310

  15. Twelve years of change in coastal upwelling along the central-northern coast of Chile: spatially heterogeneous responses to climatic variability.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Guillermo; Broitman, Bernardo; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use time-series analyses to characterize the effects of recent climate variability upon the local physical conditions at 11 study sites along the northern-central coast of Chile (29-34°S). Environmental indices show that the 1° Bakun upwelling index in this coastal region has fluctuated in time, starting from a stable period around the 1980's, peaking during the mid 90s, decreasing during the next ten years and increasing at a steep rate since 2010. Upwelling intensity decreased with increasing latitude, showing also a negative correlation with climate patterns (El Niño3 sea surface temperature-SST anomalies and the Multivariate El Niño Index). We hypothesize that the impacts of climate variability on upwelling events seem to be spatially heterogeneous along the region. Non-sheltered locations and, particularly, sites on prominent headlands show an immediate (lag = 0) and negative correlation between local SST, upwelling events and wind stress. We suggest that near-shore thermal conditions are closely coupled to large-scale forcing of upwelling variability and that this influence is modulated through local topographic factors.

  16. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  17. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  18. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; McGeorge, Lauren E; Baugh, Keri A; Boyd, Daryle; Mullin, Keith D; Rosel, Patricia E; Sinclair, Carrie; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-09-15

    A number of studies were initiated in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill to understand potential injuries to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that inhabit the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) estuarine waters. As part of these studies, remote biopsy skin and blubber samples were collected from dolphins at six field sites that received varying degrees of oiling: Barataria Bay (BB), Chandeleur Sound West (CSW), Chandeleur Sound East (CSE), Mississippi Sound South (MSS), Mississippi Sound North (MSN), and St. Joseph Bay (SJ). Blubber samples from 108 male dolphins were analyzed for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as high levels of POPs have been previously reported in other southeastern U.S. dolphins and the potential contribution of these compounds to adverse health effects in NGoM dolphins must be considered. Dolphin blubber levels of summed POPs (ΣPOPs) did not differ significantly across sites (F-test, P=0.9119) [μg/g lipid; geometric mean and 95% CI]; CSW [65.9 (51.4-84.6)], SJ [74.1 (53.0-104)], MSN [74.3 (58.7-93.9)], BB [75.3 (56.4-101)], CSE [80.5 (57.8-112)], and MSS [82.5 (65.9-103)]. Overall, POP concentrations were in the lower half of the range compared to previously reported concentrations from other southeastern U.S. sites. Increased dolphin mortalities have been ongoing in the NGoM and have been suggested to be linked with the DWH oil spill. In addition, lung disease, impaired adrenal function, and serum biochemical abnormalities have been reported in dolphins from BB, an area that was heavily oiled. The results of this study suggest that POPs are likely not a primary contributor to the poor health conditions and increased mortality observed in some populations of NGoM dolphins following the DWH oil spill.

  19. Patterns of variation in parasite component communities and infracommunities of a littoral fish species from the northern coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, Vania; González, M Teresa

    2014-03-01

    The structure and similarity of the parasite communities of fish can be evaluated at the component community (CC) and infracommunity (IC) levels. Both hierarchical levels have been used to assess parasite variations in fish at large (biogeographic) scales. However, studies evaluating the consistency between these two hierarchical levels at smaller geographical scales are scarce. In this study, the parasite assemblages of 124 Paralabrax humeralis collected by local fishermen by spear fishing at four sites (El Fierro, EF; P. Angamos, PA; Santa María, ISM; San Jorge, BSJ) in northern Chile were compared to assess the variability (or similarity) of their CCs and ICs at a limited geographical scale using multivariate analysis. At the IC level, discriminant analyses showed that P. humeralis parasite communities varied significantly among sites; 70% of ectoparasite ICs were correctly assigned to each site, but only 55% of helminth parasite ICs were correctly classified. At the CC level, the composition of parasite communities as assessed by correspondence analyses varied significantly between sites. Tagia sp., Neobenedenia sp. and Philometra sp. were associated with BSJ, ISM and PA, respectively; Corynosoma sp. and most digeneans were associated with both ISM and EF. Analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) showed significant variations in the degree of similarity between P. humeralis CCs from different sites, but not between ICs. Variations between CCs from different sites reflect fish population processes (e.g., population age, reproductive segregation) and the particular conditions of their respective habitats, whereas ICs reflect individual host movements. This study demonstrated that, when examined at a limited geographical scale, IC is better than CC at capturing the local pool of parasite assemblages when host populations are spatially segregated. Therefore, in this study, it is demonstrated that at a small geographic scale, CC variations are not reflected by IC, when

  20. Fabric anisotropy induced by primary depositional variations in the silt: clay ratio in two fine-grained slope fan complexes: Texas Gulf Coast and northern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day-Stirrat, Ruarri J.; Dutton, Shirley P.; Milliken, Kitty L.; Loucks, Robert G.; Aplin, Andrew C.; Hillier, Stephen; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    2010-04-01

    High-resolution X-ray texture goniometry (HRXTG) has been used to quantify the alignment (anisotropy) of phyllosilicate minerals in a series of diagenetically altered mudstone samples from the deep subsurface of the Texas Gulf Coast and the northern North Sea. The sampled formations have undergone a simple burial history with no overprint of tectonic deformation that may have influenced the phyllosilicate orientation. Observations have been made in two constrained temperature windows 148-150 °C (North Sea data) and 169-210 °C (Texas Gulf Coast) wherein less than 20% smectite remains in the mixed layer phase illite-smectite. Quantitative X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) shows quartz (which is dominantly detrital) and phyllosilicate content having an inverse relationship. Quantified illite-smectite fabric intensity (phyllosilicate alignments) ranges from low alignment values of 2.42 m.r.d. (multiples of a random distribution) to high alignment values 6.75 m.r.d. and chlorite + kaolinite ranges from 1.80 to 6.46 m.r.d. We propose that the broad range of phyllosilicate fabric intensity observed reflects the range of quartz/phyllosilicate ratios that are the imprint of depositional setting, bedform truncation, and initial grain size. Detrital quartz acts to disrupt fabric intensity by being non-platy, producing areas sheltered from effective stress ('pressure shadows'), and acting as a matrix support. There is no evidence that bioturbation is a significant control on phyllosilicate alignment in these quartz/phyllosilicate mixtures. These findings have important implications for the role of grain-scale alignment on seismic anisotropy in mudstone systems. Fabric intensity in post-diagenetic samples can be predicted from (1) quartz content and (2) total clay content where: y=-7.4x+64.8 x is fabric intensity (in m.r.d.) and y is total (wt.%) quartz a=4.2b+33.7 and a is total (wt.%) clay content and b is fabric intensity (in m.r.d.).

  1. Assessment of trace metals and porphyrins in excreta of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in different locations of the northern coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Celis, José E; Espejo, Winfred; González-Acuña, Daniel; Jara, Solange; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    To add data on trace metal contamination of Humboldt penguins in the South Pacific, levels of trace metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) and porphyrins (copro-, uro-, and proto-) in excreta of Humboldt penguins that inhabit some important nesting sites on the northern coast of Chile were determined. Fresh excreta were collected on Pan de Azúcar Island, Chañaral Island, and Cachagua Island, from December 2011 to January 2012. Concentration of metals was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas porphyrins levels were measured by fluorimetric analysis. Concentrations (dry weight) of Cu (199.67 μg g(-1)), As (7.85 μg g(-1)), and Pb (12.78 μg g(-1)) were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in Cachagua Island. Colonies from Pan de Azúcar Island showed the highest levels of Hg (0.76 μg g(-1)), Cd (47.70 μg g(-1)), and Zn (487.10 μg g(-1)). Samples from Cachagua Island showed the highest (p ≤ 0.05) levels of copro- (2.16 nmol g(-1)), uro- (2.20 nmol g(-1)), and protoporphyrins (2.23 nmol g(-1)). There was a positive correlation between the metals As, Pb, and Cu with uro-, copro-, and protoporphyrins. The results indicated that penguin colonies from Cachagua Island are more exposed to metal contamination than penguin colonies from Pan de Azúcar and Chañaral Islands, thus being more likely to develop certain diseases caused by contamination with metals. Considering biomagnification, the metals detected in the excreta of Humboldt penguins can be a source of contamination from marine environments to terrestrial ecosystems, which could also affect other living organisms.

  2. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  3. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  4. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Texas Water Development Board Ground- Water Availability Modeling program, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and tested a numerical finite-difference (MODFLOW) model to simulate ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2000. The model is intended to be a tool that water-resource managers can use to address future ground-water-availability issues.From land surface downward, the Chicot aquifer, the Evangeline aquifer, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit are the hydrogeologic units of the Gulf Coast aquifer system. Withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric surface (head) declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. In a generalized conceptual model of the aquifer system, water enters the ground-waterflow system in topographically high outcrops of the hydrogeologic units in the northwestern part of the approximately 25,000-square-mile model area. Water that does not discharge to streams flows to intermediate and deep zones of the system southeastward of the outcrop areas where it is discharged by wells and by upward leakage in topographically low areas near the coast. The uppermost parts of the aquifer system, which include outcrop areas, are under water-table conditions. As depth increases in the aquifer system and as interbedded sand and clay accumulate, water-table conditions evolve into confined conditions.The model comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining unit, the assumed no-flow base of the system. Each layer consists of 137 rows and 245 columns of uniformly spaced grid blocks, each block representing 1 square mile

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Texas Water Development Board Ground- Water Availability Modeling program, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and tested a numerical finite-difference (MODFLOW) model to simulate ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2000. The model is intended to be a tool that water-resource managers can use to address future ground-water-availability issues. From land surface downward, the Chicot aquifer, the Evangeline aquifer, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit are the hydrogeologic units of the Gulf Coast aquifer system. Withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric surface (head) declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. In a generalized conceptual model of the aquifer system, water enters the ground-waterflow system in topographically high outcrops of the hydrogeologic units in the northwestern part of the approximately 25,000-square-mile model area. Water that does not discharge to streams flows to intermediate and deep zones of the system southeastward of the outcrop areas where it is discharged by wells and by upward leakage in topographically low areas near the coast. The uppermost parts of the aquifer system, which include outcrop areas, are under water-table conditions. As depth increases in the aquifer system and as interbedded sand and clay accumulate, water-table conditions evolve into confined conditions. The model comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining unit, the assumed no-flow base of the system. Each layer consists of 137 rows and 245 columns of uniformly spaced grid blocks, each block representing 1 square mile

  6. Gas Hydrate Exploration, Mid Chilean Coast; Geochemical-Geophysical Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-27

    Scleractinia - - - - - - - - Nemertinea - - Mollusca Bivalvia + - + - - ++ + - + - + - Aplacophora...Caelorinchus fasciatus and three unknow species) were observed. In addition, fauna inside stones was found ( Mollusca : Leptochiton americanus

  7. Evaluation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence caused by hypothetical withdrawals in the northern part of the Gulf Coast Aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Reece, Brian D.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    During 2003?04 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD), used the previously developed Northern Gulf Coast Ground-Water Availability Modeling (NGC GAM) model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical projected withdrawals on ground-water flow in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence in the NGC GAM model area of Texas. The Gulf Coast aquifer system comprises, from the surface, the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit. Two withdrawal scenarios were simulated. The first scenario comprises historical withdrawals from the aquifer system for 1891?2000 and hypothetical projected withdrawals for 2001?50 compiled by the TWDB (TWDB scenario). The projected withdrawals compiled by the TWDB are based on ground-water demands estimated by regional water planning groups. The second scenario is a ?merge? of the TWDB scenario with an alternate set of projected withdrawals from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston metropolitan area for 1995?2030 provided by the HGCSD (HGCSD scenario). Under the TWDB scenario withdrawals from the entire system are projected to be about the same in 2050 as in 2000. The simulated potentiometric surfaces of the Chicot aquifer for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 show relatively little change in configuration from the simulated 2000 potentiometric surface (maximum water-level depths in southern Harris County 150?200 feet below NGVD 29). The simulated decadal potentiometric surfaces of the Evangeline aquifer show the most change between 2000 and 2010. The area of water levels 250?400 feet below NGVD 29 in western Harris County in 2000 shifts southeastward to southern Harris County, and water levels recover to 200?250 feet below NGVD 29 by 2010. Water levels in southern Harris County recover to 150?200 feet below NGVD 29

  8. A new cecidogenous species of Eugnosta Hübner (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) associated with Baccharis salicifolia (Asteraceae) in the northern Chilean Atacama Desert: Life-history description and phylogenetic inferences.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Héctor A; Pollo, Pietro; Basilio, Daniel S; Gonçalves, Gislene L; Moreira, Gilson R P

    2015-02-20

    Eugnosta Hübner, 1825 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae, Tortricinae, Cochylini, Cochylina) is reported for the first time in Chile. Male and female adults, the pupa, the last-instar larva, and galls of Eugnosta azapaensis Vargas & Moreira, sp. n., are described and illustrated from the Azapa Valley in the northern Atacama Desert. The larvae induce fusiform galls on shoots of the shrub Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers. (Asteraceae). An assessment of phylogenetic relationships of E. azapaensis with two congeneric species based on mitochondrial DNA is provided.

  9. Hydrodynamics of the 1868 and 1877 tsunamis in Southern Peru and Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, S.; Soto-Sandoval, J.; Monardez, P.

    2013-05-01

    The tsunami occurred on 27th February 2010 offshore central Chile due to a mega-thrust earthquake (Mw=8.8), showed a complex hydrodynamic behavior in the near field that is not completely understood and could not be well characterized using linear models (Cox 2011, Fujima 2011). Several floods separated by several minutes that lasted over eight hours, which flowed parallel to the coast were reported. A reasonable physical explication for this phenomena has been published. Due to the distance from the rupture zone to the coast is shorter than a complete tsunami wave, the latter cannot be created then secondary effects are triggered (Monárdez and Salinas, 2011). This was validated using numerical models based on RANS equations and measurements and field observations in the 2010 Chilean tsunami. Due to this knowledge, the 1868 and 1877 last mega-thrust earthquakes in the Southern Peru and Northern Chile are analyzed. This became necessary, since this zone is known as one the major seismic gap in the area. Scenarios with different fault parameters were implemented for the 1868 and 1877 tsunamis and important results were obtained. In both of the tsunamis, several floods were observed and the arrival time and direction of flow propagation were according to historical reports. In the 1868 tsunami, the effects on the Chilean coast are due to secondary effects such as it is described in historical observations, e.g. in Arica port three main floods 40, 120 and 156 minutes after the earthquakes are observed. In the 1877 tsunami secondary effects were present mainly on the Peruvian coast. Finally, a new classification for near and far field tsunami is proposed.

  10. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy, and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acua, H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26??09???S, 70??40???W to 54??56???S, 67??37???W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ??gg-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ??gg-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ??gg-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Ferna??ndez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ??gg-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ??gg-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acuna, H.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26?09'S, 70?40'W to 54?56'S, 67?37'W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ?g g-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ?g g-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ?g g-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Fernandez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ?g g-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ?g g-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds.

  12. Chilean Volcano: June 24-26

    NASA Video Gallery

    This GOES-13 satellite imagery shows the Chilean caldera still emitting a steady stream of ash, three weeks after the initial eruption on June 4, 2011. The cold winter wind from the south carries i...

  13. NASA Provides Assistance to Trapped Chilean Miners

    NASA Video Gallery

    Responding to a request received through the U.S. Department of State from the Chilean minister of health, NASA will provide advice in nutritional and behavioral sciences to assist miners trapped a...

  14. Northwest Coast Indian Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Thomas; Knecht, Elizabeth

    The visual art forms of the Northwest Coast Indian Tribes of Alaska (Haida, Tlingit, and Tsimshian) share common distinctive design elements (formline, ovoid, U-form, and curvilinear shapes) which are referred to as the "Northern Style." Designs represent events or characters taken from the oral tradition of song and legend.…

  15. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  16. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  17. Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two

  18. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica) has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI) and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals) revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL) clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S), substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S) were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian) Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans-oceanic ancestry of

  19. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  20. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  1. Chilean Universities and Institutional Quality Assurance Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Daniel A.; Rojas, Maria J.; López, Boris A.; López, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the university accreditation processes in Chilean universities. The aim is to determine the effects of the different variables, especially the type of institutions (state- and privately owned, with and without state financial support) on the results obtained.…

  2. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  3. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding…

  4. The intertidal polychaete (Annelida) fauna of the Sitakunda coast (Chittagong, Bangladesh), with notes on the Capitellidae, Glyceridae, Lumbrineridae, Nephtyidae, Nereididae and Phyllodocidae of the “Northern Bay of Bengal Ecoregion”

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Alexander I.; Hossain, Md. M. Maruf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Of seven species of polychaetous annelids collected from the intertidal zone of Sitakunda coast, Chittagong, Bangladesh, five were new records for the country. The seven are listed, with brief notes on these, some previously recorded! species and others housed in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. Keys are given to the recorded species of Phyllodocidae, Nereididae, Lumbrineridae, Nephtyidae and Capitellidae of the “Northern Bay of Bengal Ecoregion”, and to the recognised species of Glyceridae from the Bay of Bengal. The worms in this Ecoregion are subject to the outflows of the Irrawaddy, Ganges, Hooghly and Mahanadi Rivers, and many of them are known to be freshwater tolerant. PMID:25061359

  5. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  6. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David

    2013-03-01

    Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes.

  7. Role of resting cysts in Chilean Alexandrium catenella dinoflagellate blooms revisited.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Jorge I; Bolch, Chris; Guzmán, Leonardo; Paredes, Javier; Varela, Daniel; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf M

    2016-05-01

    The detection of sparse Alexandrium catenella-resting cysts in sediments of southern Chilean fjords has cast doubts on their importance in the recurrence of massive toxic dinoflagellate blooms in the region. The role of resting cysts and the existence of different regional Chilean populations was studied by culturing and genetic approaches to define: (1) cyst production; (2) dormancy period; (3) excystment success; (4) offspring viability and (5) strain mating compatibility. This study newly revealed a short cyst dormancy (minimum 69 days), the role of key abiotic factors (in decreasing order salinity, irradiance, temperature and nutrients) controlling cyst germination (max. 60%) and germling growth rates (up to 0.36-0.52div.day(-1)). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) characterization showed significant differences in genetic distances (GD) among A. catenella populations that were primarily determined by the geographical origin of isolates and most likely driven by oceanographic dispersal barriers. A complex heterothallic mating system pointed to variable reproductive compatibility (RCs) among Chilean strains that was high among northern (Los Lagos/North Aysén) and southern populations (Magallanes), but limited among the genetically differentiated central (South Aysén) populations. Field cyst surveys after a massive 2009 bloom event revealed the existence of exceptional high cyst densities in particular areas of the fjords (max. 14.627cystscm(-3)), which contrast with low cyst concentrations (<221.3cystscm(-3)) detected by previous oceanographic campaigns. In conclusion, the present study suggests that A. catenella resting cysts play a more important role in the success of this species in Chilean fjords than previously thought. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that pelagic-benthic processes can maintain year-round low vegetative cell concentrations in the water column, but also can explain the detection of high cysts aggregations after the

  8. Spatial variability and response to anthropogenic pressures of assemblages dominated by a habitat forming seaweed sensitive to pollution (northern coast of Alboran Sea).

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

    2016-04-15

    The Cystoseira ericaefolia group is conformed by three species: C. tamariscifolia, C. mediterranea and C. amentacea. These species are among the most important habitat forming species of the upper sublittoral rocky shores of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic coast. This species group is sensitive to human pressures and therefore is currently suffering important losses. This study aimed to assess the influence of anthropogenic pressures, oceanographic conditions and local spatial variability in assemblages dominated by C. ericaefolia in the Alboran Sea. The results showed the absence of significant effects of anthropogenic pressures or its interactions with environmental conditions in the Cystoseira assemblages. This fact was attributed to the high spatial variability, which is most probably masking the impact of anthropogenic pressures. The results also showed that most of the variability occurred on at local levels. A relevant spatial variability was observed at regional level, suggesting a key role of oceanographic features in these assemblages.

  9. [Chilean's nursing knowledge organization and their tendencies].

    PubMed

    Parra, Sara Mendoza; Klijin, Tatiana Paravic

    2004-01-01

    A Quantitative, descriptive and retrospective research that explored the Chilean Nursing knowledge organization an their tendencies. The universe was composed by scientists reports published in the Chilean nursing journals between 1965 and 2003 (N=214). Data were collected by an instrument based on the CIPE's and Nogueira's classification and cienciometría indications. Statistics measures of central tendency analysis was managed with SPSS. Some of the results obtained were: the more frequent study subject's was the professional nursing and the tendency is to be focused at the mature people's health necessities and their risk of being ill. It was found: little theoretical nursing sustenance at the reports. The "Ciencia y Enfermería" is the journal that exhibits the best scientific quality of alls.

  10. Informed Questions on Chilean Domestic Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    military dictatorship, remains in effect treating desacato (contempt of authority) as a national security crime, carrying a jail term of up to five...of Chilean Justice.”3 Legislation that would eliminate desacato from the state security law, and improve freedom of the press in general, has been...34immoral, cowardly, and corrupt" in a televised debate.6 Is the legislation to eliminate desacato and other limitations on the freedom of expression

  11. Effects of long-term dumping of harbor-dredged material on macrozoobenthos at four disposal sites along the Emilia-Romagna coast (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy).

    PubMed

    Simonini, R; Ansaloni, I; Cavallini, F; Graziosi, F; Iotti, M; Massamba N'siala, G; Mauri, M; Montanari, G; Preti, M; Prevedelli, D

    2005-12-01

    Sediment from harbors of the Emilia-Romagna (Northern Adriatic Sea) were dredged and dumped in four disposal areas characterized by muddy bottoms. The long-term effects of the dumping on macrozoobenthic communities were investigated before and after 6 month, 8 month, 2 years and 4 years. The disposal of dredged material did not influence the granulometry and %TOC in the sediment, and no alterations in the structure of the macrobenthic communities were observed in the four areas. The lack of impact could be ascribed to the environmental characteristics and precautionary measures taken to minimize the effects of the dumping. It appears that: (1) the communities of the dumping areas are well adapted to unstable environments; (2) the sediments were disposed gradually and homogeneously over relatively large areas; Other factors that help to reduce the impact of sediment disposal are the low concentrations of contaminants in dredged materials and the similarity of sediment in the dredged and disposal areas. Off-shore discharge appears a sustainable strategy for the management of uncontaminated dredged sediments from the Northern Adriatic Sea harbors.

  12. Uniparental ancestry markers in Chilean populations

    PubMed Central

    Vieira-Machado, Camilla Dutra; Tostes, Maluah; Alves, Gabrielle; Nazer, Julio; Martinez, Liliana; Wettig, Elisabeth; Pizarro Rivadeneira, Oscar; Diaz Caamaño, Marcela; Larenas Ascui, Jessica; Pavez, Pedro; Dutra, Maria da Graça; Castilla, Eduardo Enrique; Orioli, Ieda Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The presence of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans has led to the development of a multi-ethnic, admixed population in Chile. This study aimed to contribute to the characterization of the uniparental genetic structure of three Chilean regions. Newborns from seven hospitals in Independencia, Providencia, Santiago, Curicó, Cauquenes, Valdívia, and Puerto Montt communes, belonging to the Chilean regions of Santiago, Maule, and Los Lagos, were studied. The presence of Native American mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups and two markers present in the non-recombinant region of the Y chromosome, DYS199 and DYS287, indicative of Native American and African ancestry, respectively, was determined. A high Native American matrilineal contribution and a low Native American and African patrilineal contributions were found in all three studied regions. As previously found in Chilean admixed populations, the Native American matrilineal contribution was lower in Santiago than in the other studied regions. However, there was an unexpectedly higher contribution of Native American ancestry in one of the studied communes in Santiago, probably due to the high rate of immigration from other regions of the country. The population genetic sub-structure we detected in Santiago using few uniparental markers requires further confirmation, owing to possible stratification for autosomal and X-chromosome markers. PMID:27561109

  13. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  14. Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

  15. Chilean women's reflections about womanhood and sexuality during midlife in a Swedish or Chilean context.

    PubMed

    Binfa, Lorena; Robertson, Eva; Ransjö-Arvidson, Anna-Berit

    2009-12-01

    In order to learn about Chilean women's reflections about womanhood and sexuality during midlife, we held focus group discussions (FGDs) with middle-aged Chilean women living in Stockholm, Sweden, or in Santiago, Chile. We used thematic content analysis for the qualitative data. Emerging themes follow; societal expectations on women, perceptions about sexual relationships, and women's social stigmatization. The women had since childhood been strongly influenced by a gender-imbalanced world, which had made them socially, economically, and biologically at higher risk for exploitation during life. More focus should be directed to middle-aged women's life situation and promotion of gender equity in society.

  16. Rupture lengths and temporal history of significant earthquakes on the offshore and north coast segments of the Northern San Andreas Fault based on turbidite stratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfinger, Chris; Morey, Ann E.; Nelson, C. Hans; Gutiérrez-Pastor, Julia; Johnson, Joel E.; Karabanov, Eugene; Chaytor, Jason; Eriksson, Andrew; Shipboard Scientific Party

    2007-02-01

    74 piston, gravity and jumbo Kasten cores were collected from channel and canyon systems draining the northern California continental margin to investigate the record of periodic Holocene turbidites for possible connection to large magnitude earthquakes on the adjacent Northern San Andreas Fault. Poorly known channel systems were mapped with multibeam sonar to define pathways and channel confluences. Cores sampled all major and many minor channel systems extending from Cape Mendocino to just north of Monterey Bay. Sampling both along and across channels was done and particular attention was paid to channel confluences, as these areas afford opportunities to test for synchronous triggering of turbidity currents. While at sea, all cores were scanned using a GEOTEK multisensor core logger (MSCL), which collects high-resolution photography, P-wave velocity, gamma-ray density, and magnetic susceptibility data from the unsplit cores. Lithology was logged visually, and cores were later imaged with X-radiography. We use 14C ages, relative dating tests at channel confluences, and stratigraphic correlation using physical properties to determine whether turbidites deposited in separate channel systems are correlative, implying they were triggered by a common event. These tests can, in most cases, separate earthquake-triggered turbidity currents from other possible sources. The late Holocene turbidite record off northern California passes these tests for synchronous triggering, and can be correlated with multiple proxies from site to site between Noyo Channel and the latitude of San Francisco. Preliminary comparisons of our event ages with existing and in progress work at onshore coastal sites show good correlation, further circumstantial evidence that the offshore record is primarily earthquake generated. During the last ˜ 2800 yr, 15 turbidites are recognized, including the great 1906 earthquake. Their chronology establishes an average repeat time of ˜ 200 yr, similar to

  17. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d’Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d’Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d’Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  18. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  19. Is the southeast Coast Plutonic Complex the consequence of accretion of the insular superterrane Evidence from U-Pb zircon geochronometry in the northern Washington Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, N.W. ); Brown, E.H. )

    1991-07-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronometry of orthogneisses and plutons in the southwestern crystalline core of the North Cascades, coupled with fabric and textural studies of the orthogneisses, plutons, and their metamorphic host rocks, indicates extensive synmetamorphic plutonism at 89-96 Ma. Metamorphic mineral assemblages define a culmination composed of an axial kyanite-sillimanite zone rimmed by lower grade zones. High-grade index minerals are typically syntectonic to posttectonic. Metamorphic fabrics are characterized by an orogen-parallel, northwest-striking, steep foliation that contains a subhorizontal stretching and mineral lineation interpreted to be the product of ductile strike-slip deformation. This fabric is crosscut by 96-92 Ma plutons yet is imprinted on 92-89 Ma orthogneisses, suggesting spatially diachronous fabric development during orogeny. Documentation of the spatial and temporal coincidence of magmatism with the peak of orogeny, together with the kinematic significance of the metamorphic fabric, precludes generation of the metamorphic fabric and plutons in response to thrust loading. The authors suggest that this part of the Coast Plutonic Complex evolved as a transpressional magmatic arc.

  20. The assessment of environmental pollution along the coast of Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea: an integrated biomarker approach in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanping; Wang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Fenglian; Du, Xiuping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Li, Yongfu; Zhou, You

    2013-04-01

    The clam Meretrix meretrix was used as a biomonitor to implement an environmental monitoring program along the coast of Beibu Gulf in October 2011. This program not only analyzed biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione content and lipid peroxidation level in M. meretrix but also adopted a multi-biomarker approach - integrated biomarker response (IBR) to assess the environmental quality in this ecosystem. In addition, the metal (Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content in the surface sediment at the study area were also measured. The results showed that IBR index was able to distinguish a space trend between sampling sites with different degrees of anthropogenic environmental stress. Integrated contamination degree were displayed in the form of star plots and compared to IBR plots. There was a visual consistency between the pollution level and IBR variation. Based on the results, it was proved that the IBR method coupled with chemical analysis was quite useful for the assessment of environmental pollution in the coastal system.

  1. Reexamination of the magnitudes for the 1906 and 1922 Chilean earthquakes using Japanese tsunami amplitudes: Implications for source depth constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvajal, M.; Cisternas, M.; Gubler, A.; Catalán, P. A.; Winckler, P.; Wesson, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Far-field tsunami records from the Japanese tide gauge network allow the reexamination of the moment magnitudes (Mw) for the 1906 and 1922 Chilean earthquakes, which to date rely on limited information mainly from seismological observations alone. Tide gauges along the Japanese coast provide extensive records of tsunamis triggered by six great (Mw >8) Chilean earthquakes with instrumentally determined moment magnitudes. These tsunami records are used to explore the dependence of tsunami amplitudes in Japan on the parent earthquake magnitude of Chilean origin. Using the resulting regression parameters together with tide gauge amplitudes measured in Japan we estimate apparent moment magnitudes of Mw 8.0-8.2 and Mw 8.5-8.6 for the 1906 central and 1922 north-central Chile earthquakes. The large discrepancy of the 1906 magnitude estimated from the tsunami observed in Japan as compared with those previously determined from seismic waves (Ms 8.4) suggests a deeper than average source with reduced tsunami excitation. A deep dislocation along the Chilean megathrust would favor uplift of the coast rather than beneath the sea, giving rise to a smaller tsunami and producing effects consistent with those observed in 1906. The 1922 magnitude inferred from far-field tsunami amplitudes appear to better explain the large extent of damage and the destructive tsunami that were locally observed following the earthquake than the lower seismic magnitudes (Ms 8.3) that were likely affected by the well-known saturation effects. Thus, a repeat of the large 1922 earthquake poses seismic and tsunami hazards in a region identified as a mature seismic gap.

  2. Glacial Retreat in Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The San Quintin Glacier is the largest outflow glacier of the Northern Patagonian Ice Field in southern Chile. Its terminus is a piedmont lobe just short of the Golfo de Penas on the Pacific Ocean and just north of 47oS. Like many glaciers worldwide during the twentieth century, San Quintin appears to be losing mass and possibly retreating. Such a change is evident in these two photographs taken by astronauts only seven years apart. The first was taken by the crew of STS-068 in October1994 and the second by the Increment 4 crew of the International Space Station in February 2002. Even with the reversal of season and different lighting conditions of these two acquisitions, a loss of mass and change of structure, particularly in the lobe, are strikingly evident in these comparative photos. Glaciers are one of the special topics identified as scientific objectives for monitoring with photography from the International Space Station. Astronaut photography is a complimentary source of remote sensing data available for use with other sensor systems being used to monitor and study glaciers (see an ASTER image of the San Quintin Glacier). They also provide strong, visual context information on glacier environments and processes using a familiar medium, the camera. Images STS068-260-73 and ISS004-E-7267 were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  3. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  4. Molecular detection and species identification of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicki, Ana; Fernández, Gonzalo; Astorga, Marcela; Oyarzún, Pablo; Toro, Jorge E.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Martínez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims On the basis of morphological evidence, the species involved in South American Pacific coast harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been traditionally recognized as Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). However, these observations have not been confirmed using evidence based on genomic sequence variability. Our principal objective was to accurately determine the species of Alexandrium involved in local HABs in order to implement a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for its rapid and easy detection on filter-feeding shellfish, such as mussels. Methodology For species-specific determination, the intergenic spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S subunit, ITS2 and the hypervariable genomic regions D1–D5 of the large ribosomal subunit of local strains were sequenced and compared with two data sets of other Alexandrium sequences. Species-specific primers were used to amplify signature sequences within the genomic DNA of the studied species by conventional and real-time PCR. Principal results Phylogenetic analysis determined that the Chilean strain falls into Group I of the tamarensis complex. Our results support the allocation of the Chilean Alexandrium species as a toxic Alexandrium tamarense rather than A. catenella, as currently defined. Once local species were determined to belong to Group I of the tamarensis complex, a highly sensitive and accurate real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect dinoflagellate presence in Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia) samples after being fed (challenged) in vitro with the Chilean Alexandrium strain. The results show that real-time PCR is useful to detect Alexandrium intake in filter-feeding molluscs. Conclusions It has been shown that the classification of local Alexandrium using morphological evidence is not very accurate. Molecular methods enabled the HAB dinoflagellate species of the Chilean coast to be assigned as A. tamarense rather than A. catenella. Real-time PCR analysis based on A. tamarense primers allowed the

  5. Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

    2009-12-01

    Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

  6. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species.

  7. PCR-based prevalence of a fatal reovirus of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) along the northern Atlantic coast of the USA.

    PubMed

    Flowers, E M; Simmonds, K; Messick, G A; Sullivan, L; Schott, E J

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for more information on the relationship between diseases and fluctuations of wild populations of marine animals. In the case of Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1, also known as RLV), there is a lack of baseline information on range, prevalence and outbreaks, from which to develop an understanding of population-level impacts. An RT-qPCR assay was developed that is capable of detecting 10 copies of the CsRV1 genome. In collaboration with state, federal and academic partners, blue crabs were collected from sites throughout the north-eastern United States to assess the northern range of this pathogen. In addition, archived crab samples from the Chesapeake Bay were assessed for CsRV1 by RT-qPCR and histology. PCR-based assessments indicate that CsRV1 was present at all but one site. Prevalence of CsRV1 as assessed by RT-qPCR was highly variable between locations, and CsRV1 prevalence varied between years at a given location. Mean CsRV1 prevalence as assessed by RT-qPCR was >15% each year, and peak prevalence was 79%. The wide geographic range and highly variable prevalence of CsRV1 indicate that more study is needed to understand CsRV1 dynamics and the role the virus plays in blue crab natural mortality.

  8. Molecular and Morphological Evidence Demonstrating Two Species of Helicometrina Linton 1910 (Digenea: Opecoelidae) in Northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Marcelo E; Valdivia, Isabel M; Chavez, Rosa A; Molina, Horacio; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2015-12-01

    The opecoelid Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910 has been reported from numerous marine fishes along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the Americas. Along the Chilean coast, H. nimia is found in fishes belonging to at least 9 families. This surprisingly low host specificity of H. nimia raises question about the correct identification of specimens assigned to this species. Here we evaluate whether H. nimia specimens isolated from sympatric fish species in northern Chile but with different diets and found in different habitats (water column and demersal) are the same species. Our results demonstrate that specimens from the shallow benthic fish Labrisomus philippii (Steindachner) do not correspond to H. nimia but instead belong to a new species of Helicometrina. This species is described and distinguished from H. nimia using morphological descriptions and 2 molecular markers (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene and the V4 region of the SSU rRNA gene). The new species Helicometrina labrisomi (Digenea: Opecoelidae), is found in the intestine of L. philippii (Steindachner, 1866) (Pisces: Labrisomidae), a shallow benthic fish that inhabits the northern coast of Chile. We also studied the related Helicometrina nimia Linton, 1910 from the benthopelagic fishes Paralabrax humeralis (Valenciennes, 1828) and Acanthistius pictus (Tschudi, 1846) (Serranidae). The new species differs from H. nimia by a combination of characters that include ovary shape, number of uterine loops, and position of the genital pore. Our results indicate that morphological characteristics, such as body size, extent of the vitellarium, shape of the testes, and cirrus sac size and extent, traditionally used in the taxonomy of Helicometrina are highly variable. In contrast, meristic and morphological characteristics, such as a lobed ovary, the number of uterine loops, dimensions of the pharynx, and the opening of the genital pore, are highly constant.

  9. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  10. Palynological evidence of the replacement of the hygrophilous forest by field vegetation during the last 7,000 years B.P. in the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Luz, Cynthia F P da; Barth, Ortrud M; Martin, Louis; Silva, Cleverson G; Turcq, Bruno J

    2011-09-01

    Historians claim that European colonizers of the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State found vast herbaceous fields when arrived in this region. Hypotheses about the origin of these fields include forest burning by the Goitacás indians and periodical floods by the Paraíba do Sul River and the lagoon system. The palynologycal analysis of two lake cores obtained in the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes revealed opening episodes of hygrophilous forest and the establishment of field vegetation, recorded at ca. 6,500 and ca. 4,000 (14)C yr BP. The partial replacement of forest by field vegetation in the first episode was probably caused by floods of the lower areas during the development of the Holocene lagoon phase. During the second episode, successions of vegetational patterns occurred due to lowering of the sea level. Drying and enlarging of the coastal plain have allowed its colonization by herbs and heliophyte plants. The palynological analysis does not provide any evidence that sustains the theories of use of fire and agricultural activities by indigenous groups during these periods.

  11. [Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Ribeiro, Andressa Francisca; Marques, Gisela Rita de Alvarenga Monteiro; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Lefèvre, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to identify people's knowledge on dengue and its vector biology, aimed at promoting a communications channel between technical and lay reasoning in order to foster community involvement in dengue and dengue vector control activities. A survey was conducted in an Aedes aegypti-infested area with dengue transmission in São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. One hundred interviews were held, with five open questions on topics related to dengue and vector control. Collective Subject Discourse methodology was used in the analysis. People were not able to properly identify the kinds of accumulated water sources that serve as breeding places for mosquitoes and were unaware of the egg phase in vector development. There was inadequate awareness of vector biology and a need for greater government-community integration. Educational activities should incorporate the study results as insight for improving the social efficiency and efficacy of joint actions to fight dengue and control the mosquito vector.

  12. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Wei, Gangjian; Chen, Tegu; Sun, Weidong; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2011-02-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g⁻¹ in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g⁻¹ in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a⁻¹) from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a⁻¹ from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m⁻³ a⁻¹, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE.

  14. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  15. [Ethics code of the Chilean Biological Society].

    PubMed

    de Etica, C; Valenzuela, C; Cruz-Coke, R; Ureta, T; Bull, R

    1997-01-01

    The Chilean Biological Society has approved an ethics code for researchers, elaborated by its Ethic Committee. The text, with 16 articles, undertakes the main ethical problems that researchers must solve, such as institutional, professional or societal ethics, scientific fraud, breaches in collaborative work, relationships between researchers, participation in juries and committees, ethical breaches in scientific publications, scientific responsibility and punishments. This code declares its respect and valorization of all life forms and adheres to international biomedical ethical codes. It declares that all knowledge, created or obtained by researchers is mankind's heritage.

  16. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  17. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  18. Impact of northern and southern air mass transport on the temporal distribution of atmospheric (210)Po and (210)Pb in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2016-09-01

    Concentration activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 were determined to discuss their distribution and chemical behavior in relation to meteorological parameters especially in air mass transport during monsoon events. Marine aerosol samples were collected between January 2009 and December 2010 at the coastal region of Mersing, which is located in the southern South China Sea and is about 160 km northeast of Johor Bahru, as part of the atmosphere-ocean interaction program in Malaysia. About 47 PM10 samples were collected using the Sierra-Andersen model 1200 PM10 sampler over a 2-year sampling campaign between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples were processed using acid digestion sequential extraction techniques to analyze various fractions such as Fe and Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions. While, (210)Pb and (210)Po activities were measured with the Gross Alpha/Beta Counting System model XLB-5 Tennelec® Series 5 and the Alpha Spectrometry (model Alpha Analyst Spectroscopy system with a silicon-surface barrier detector), respectively. The distribution activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 samples were varied from 162 to 881 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 347 ± 170 μBq/m(3) and from 85 to 1009 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 318 ± 202 μBq/m(3), respectively. The analysis showed that (210)Po activity in our samples lies in a border and higher range than global distribution values due to contributions from external sources injected to the atmosphere. The speciation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in marine aerosol corresponds to transboundary haze; e.g., biomass burning especially forest fires and long-range air mass transport of terrestrial dust has enriched concentrations of particle mass in the local atmosphere. The monsoon seems to play an important role in transporting terrestrial dust from Indo-China and northern Asia especially during the northeast monsoon, as well as biogenic pollutants originating from Sumatra and the southern

  19. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  20. Microsatellite markers reveal strong genetic structure in the endemic Chilean dolphin.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alvarez, María José; Olavarría, Carlos; Moraga, Rodrigo; Baker, C Scott; Hamner, Rebecca M; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic differentiation and speciation processes in marine species with high dispersal capabilities is challenging. The Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia, is the only endemic cetacean of Chile and is found in two different coastal habitats: a northern habitat with exposed coastlines, bays and estuaries from Valparaíso (33°02'S) to Chiloé (42°00'S), and a southern habitat with highly fragmented inshore coastline, channels and fjords between Chiloé and Navarino Island (55°14'S). With the aim of evaluating the potential existence of conservation units for this species, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of the Chilean dolphin along its entire range. We genotyped 21 dinucleotide microsatellites for 53 skin samples collected between 1998 and 2012 (swab: n = 8, biopsy: n = 38, entanglement n = 7). Bayesian clustering and spatial model analyses identified two genetically distinct populations corresponding to the northern and southern habitats. Genetic diversity levels were similar in the two populations (He: 0.42 v/s 0.45 for southern and northern populations, respectively), while effective size population was higher in the southern area (Ne: 101 v/s 39). Genetic differentiation between these two populations was high and significant (FST = 0.15 and RST = 0.19), indicating little or no current gene flow. Because of the absence of evident geographical barriers between the northern and southern populations, we propose that genetic differentiation may reflect ecological adaptation to the different habitat conditions and resource uses. Therefore, the two genetic populations of this endemic and Near Threatened species should be considered as different conservation units with independent management strategies.

  1. Microsatellite Markers Reveal Strong Genetic Structure in the Endemic Chilean Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, María José; Olavarría, Carlos; Moraga, Rodrigo; Baker, C. Scott; Hamner, Rebecca M.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic differentiation and speciation processes in marine species with high dispersal capabilities is challenging. The Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia, is the only endemic cetacean of Chile and is found in two different coastal habitats: a northern habitat with exposed coastlines, bays and estuaries from Valparaíso (33°02′S) to Chiloé (42°00′S), and a southern habitat with highly fragmented inshore coastline, channels and fjords between Chiloé and Navarino Island (55°14′S). With the aim of evaluating the potential existence of conservation units for this species, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of the Chilean dolphin along its entire range. We genotyped 21 dinucleotide microsatellites for 53 skin samples collected between 1998 and 2012 (swab: n = 8, biopsy: n = 38, entanglement n = 7). Bayesian clustering and spatial model analyses identified two genetically distinct populations corresponding to the northern and southern habitats. Genetic diversity levels were similar in the two populations (He: 0.42 v/s 0.45 for southern and northern populations, respectively), while effective size population was higher in the southern area (Ne: 101 v/s 39). Genetic differentiation between these two populations was high and significant (FST = 0.15 and RST = 0.19), indicating little or no current gene flow. Because of the absence of evident geographical barriers between the northern and southern populations, we propose that genetic differentiation may reflect ecological adaptation to the different habitat conditions and resource uses. Therefore, the two genetic populations of this endemic and Near Threatened species should be considered as different conservation units with independent management strategies. PMID:25898340

  2. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K

  3. Mercury content in Chilean fish and estimated intake levels.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Sandra; Fortt, Antonia

    2007-09-01

    The intake of fish products is a major public health concern due to possible methyl mercury exposure, which is especially toxic to the human nervous system. This pilot study (n = 46) was designed to determine mercury concentrations in fish products for national consumption (Chilean jack mackerel, hake, Chilean mussel, tuna) and for export (salmon, Patagonian toothfish, swordfish, southern hake), and to estimate the exposure of the general population. The fish products were collected from markets in Talcahuano, Puerto Montt and Santiago. Samples were analyzed at the National Environmental Center by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Mercury levels in swordfish and one canned tuna sample exceeded levels prescribed by national and international standards. The remaining two export products (Patagonian toothfish, also known as Chilean sea bass, and salmon) complied with international limits, which are more demanding than Chilean regulations. Theoretical estimates of mercury intake varied from 0.08 to 3.8 microg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for high fish consumers, exceeding the provisional tolerable intake for tuna, Chilean seabass, Chilean jack mackerel and swordfish. This group appears to be at the greatest risk from mercury contamination among the Chilean population.

  4. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the San Joaquin valley. Santa Catalina and San Clemente Islands, warmed by the morning sun, are visible through the marine stratus ... bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; San Diego is at ...

  5. Are Chileans exposed to dietary furan?

    PubMed

    Mariotti, María S; Toledo, Carla; Hevia, Karen; Gomez, J Pablo; Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Rosowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar; Pedreschi, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Chilean consumer preferences include foods that may contain considerable amounts of furan, a potential human carcinogen. However, there is no information regarding dietary exposure to furan in Chile. Thus, the objective of this work was to determine the Chilean exposure to dietary furan. To accomplish this objective, the furan concentration of 14 types of commercial foods processed at high temperature were analysed based on a modified headspace-GC/MS (HS-GC/MS) method in which the limits of detection for different food matrices ranged from 0.01 to 0.6 ng g(-1). In addition, a risk assessment was made with exposure estimates based on dietary data from national studies on different age groups (9-month-old babies, school children, adults and elderly people). Of the food items surveyed "American"-type coffee (espresso coffee plus hot water) obtained from automatic coffee machine (936 ng g(-1)) and low moisture starchy products like crisps and "soda"-type crackers showed the highest furan concentrations (259 and 91 ng g(-1), respectively). Furthermore, furan was also found in samples of breakfast cereals (approximately 20 ng g(-1)), jarred fruit baby foods (8.5 ng g(-1)) and orange juice (7.0 ng g(-1)). School children (aged 9-13 years) represented the highest intake of furan (about 500 ng kg(-1)(bw) day(-1)), with margins of exposure of 2479 and 2411, respectively, which points to a possible public health risk.

  6. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  7. Subduction Variability Along the Active Chilean Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichert, C. J.; Barckhausen, U.; Bartsch, H.; Block, M.; Boennemann, C.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Flueh, E. R.; Delisle, G.; Gaedicke, C.; Kopp, H.; Krawczyk, C. M.; Kus, J.; Ladage, S.; Ranero, C.; Schreckenberger, B.; Stoll, J. B.; Urbina, O.; Wiedicke-Hombach, M.

    2002-12-01

    The presence of different subduction modes in the convergence process between the Nazca and South-American plates along the Chilean margin is known from previous investigations. In order to study this variability in detail a comprehensive combined off- and onshore geo-scientific survey (SPOC) was recently conducted between Coquimbo and Valdivia in collaboration between a number of German and Chilean institutions. Major focus was also put on the structure of the sedimentary forearc basins and the distribution of gas hydrates along the slope. SPOC is the successor project to a similar experiment named CINCA that was earlier performed in the far north of Chile between Arica and Taltal. The SPOC results clearly show a change in subduction mode at about 33 deg S where the Juan Fernandez Ridge presently strikes the margin. North of that latitude, structural features such as extensional fracturing of the continental slope, very little or almost no sedimentary trench fill, intensive block faulting of the oceanic crust, a missing accretionary wedge, a very narrow shelf and other facts provide evidence for subduction erosion in that region. South of 33 deg S, we observed significantly steeper frontal slope angles and much less inclination of the oceanic crust toward the trench. In general, the topography of the oceanic crust is relatively smooth with the exception of several seamounts and fracture zones. Moreover, the width of the trench and of the shelf significantly widens toward the south, and pronounced forearc basins developed. Compared to the thick sedimentary trench fill of up to 2 km a very narrow accretionary wedge was encountered. Preliminary mass balancing combined with the assumption that the high present convergence rate occurred also in the past suggests that the bulk of the trench sediments is removed by subduction. Thus, accretionary processes can play only a subordinate or intermittent role. Geological seafloor samples support the assumption that small- to

  8. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  9. 'NASA Helps Chilean Miners' Tops This Week @NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA experts journeyed to Chile to assist the Chilean government on everything from what the trapped miners should eat and drink to how they could best adapt to their cramped, prolonged confinement...

  10. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  11. Chilean children's essentialist reasoning about poverty.

    PubMed

    del Río, María Francisca; Strasser, Katherine

    2011-11-01

    Two studies are reported that examine the hypothesis that children construct representations of poverty based on a theory of causal essentialism. One hundred and twenty Chilean kindergartners, half from low socio-economic status (SES) schools and the other half from high-SES schools, participated in the study. The results showed children's tendency towards an essentialist reasoning about poverty. All children in the study privileged internal features over external ones when deciding who is poor, and also used wealth category as a preferred clue to make inferences about people's attributes. However, only high-SES children's answers were consistent with the belief that poverty is inherited and resistant to growth. Implications of these findings for theory and practice, as well as remaining questions, are addressed.

  12. Microscopic, biochemical, and molecular characteristics of the Chilean Blob and a comparison with the remains of other sea monsters: nothing but whales.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Sidney K; Massey, Steven E; Curtis, Nicholas E; Smith, Gerald N; Olavarría, Carlos; Maugel, Timothy K

    2004-06-01

    We have employed electron microscopic, biochemical, and molecular techniques to clarify the species of origin of the "Chilean Blob," the remains of a large sea creature that beached on the Chilean coast in July 2003. Electron microscopy revealed that the remains are largely composed of an acellular, fibrous network reminiscent of the collagen fiber network in whale blubber. Amino acid analyses of an acid hydrolysate indicated that the fibers are composed of 31% glycine residues and also contain hydroxyproline and hydroxylysine, all diagnostic of collagen. Using primers designed to the mitochondrial gene nad2, an 800-bp product of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was amplified from DNA that had been purified from the carcass. The DNA sequence of the PCR product was 100% identical to nad2 of sperm whale (Physeter catadon). These results unequivocally demonstrate that the Chilean Blob is the almost completely decomposed remains of the blubber layer of a sperm whale. This identification is the same as those we have obtained before from other relics such as the so-called giant octopus of St. Augustine (Florida), the Tasmanian West Coast Monster, two Bermuda Blobs, and the Nantucket Blob. It is clear now that all of these blobs of popular and cryptozoological interest are, in fact, the decomposed remains of large cetaceans.

  13. Mariculture Potential Along the Northern Gulf Coast,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Species on which mariculture experiments have been conducted in Alabama either command a high price for food or bait, represent depressed natural...Alabama’s Claude Peteet Mariculture Center (CPMC). Polyculture experiments with penaeid shrimp and pompano have produced combined weights of 1023 kg/ha

  14. Hurricane Isaac Moving Towards Northern Gulf Coast

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...

  15. Crustal Extensional Faulting Triggered by the 2010 Chilean Earthquake: The Pichilemu Seismic Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Farias, M.; Roecker, S. W.; Carrizo, D.

    2011-12-01

    The MW =8.8 south-central Chilean earthquake occurred on February 27th , 2010 is one of the largest event recorded by modern seismology. Its rupture area, located along the interplate contact between Nazca and South America was about 500 × 140 km2, striking parallel to the coast of South America and extending to about 45 km depth. Somewhat surprisingly, although there have been numerous aftershocks in the rupture zone, none of them has had a magnitude Mw greater than 6.5, except the one observed on January 2nd, 2011, almost one year after the mainshock, located in the southern edge of the rupture zone. The first largest aftershocks, (Mw=6.9 and Mw=7.0), occurred within 15 minutes of each other on 11 March 2010 within the overriding South American plate at the northern tip of the rupture zone near the city of Pichilemu. These events are part of a sequence of normal faulting activated by the Maule earthquake. The purpose of this study is to document the first well-recorded case of forearc faulting due to a subduction megathrust earthquake in the Andean region. We combine evidence from local seismicity, Global Centroid-Moment Tensor (gCMT) focal solutions, and geological-geomorphological observations to provide some context for the 11 March sequence in the framework of the 27 February megathrust. We hypothesize that the megathrust earthquake produced alterations on the stress field, enhancing fluid circulation in the forearc, which finally triggered intraplate faulting in regions of pre-existing crustal weakness. In this study, we focus on the sequence of events associated with the March 11th aftershocks, which we name the Pichilemu seismic sequence, in particular on a swarm of 350 events with M > 4 that occurred within the first 24 hours after the largest aftershocks, and the two largest subsequent events, a Mw=5.9 and a Mw=5.3 that occurred on May 2nd and May 21th, 2010 respectively. The hypocenters located in our final 3D model body-wave velocity model, define a

  16. The impact of Chilean migration on employment in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Cariola Sanz, L

    1989-06-01

    This paper discusses the employment situation of Chilean migrant workers, their impact on labor markets in Patagonia, Argentina, and the government's past and projected responses to this phenomenon. In 1980, Chilean inhabitants of patagonia comprised 11% of the area's population. Chilean migration to patagonia was closely linked to economic activities that began to flourish in the 20th century, such as livestock raising, fruit and vegetable cultivation, and mining for coal and petroleum. No Chilean migrants work in a wide range of sectors. In Patagonia's southern provinces availability and ability to withstand rigorous climate conditions are the main factors which account for the prevalence of Chilean manpower. Chilean migrants do not in general displace local manpower. Legislation and the permeability of the border ensure that most workers enter the country as tourists. Clandestine migration is not an issue. Illegal migrants have provoked negative reactions for several reasons: 1) they comprise a marginal population without formal citizenship; 2) being employed as clandestine workers, they pay no social security, nor do their employers; 3) being illegal, they are obliged to accept lower wages and inferior working conditions which creates unfair competition within labor markets; and 4) as a result of these conditions, xenophobic and endophobic attitudes in relations with Argentine nationalists are reinforced. The government has attempted to solve these problems through various measures. Beginning in 1934, most foreigners entered Argentina with a tourist visa, becoming illegal when they stayed beyond authorized limits. Several measures over the years provided amnesty to illegal migrants. Currently, the law promotes immigration, monitors the admission of foreigners to the country and stipulates their rights and obligations. The law lists 115 articles on immigration promotion and on regulation of the movements of foreigners. Because of the present economic crisis in

  17. INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BATH, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  18. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  19. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  20. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM A, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM A, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  1. INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  2. INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR GUEST BEDROOM, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  3. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  4. INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY HALL, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  5. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM C, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  6. INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  7. INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  8. INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER FAMILY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  9. INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR BUNK ROOM B, LOOKING WEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  10. INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE HALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ENTRANCE HALL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR LIBRARY, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  12. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  13. Gulf Coast Sea Turtle Hatchlings Released at KSC

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first group of hatchlings from endangered sea turtle eggs brought from beaches along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast was released into the Atlantic Ocean off NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida...

  14. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  15. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    CIANELLI, ROSINA; FERRER, LILIAN; MCELMURRY, BEVERLY J.

    2008-01-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV. PMID:18432428

  16. Hypothetical southeast Pacific continent revisited New evidence from the middle Paleozoic basins of northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich

    1993-10-01

    The truncation of orogenic trends at the modern Chilean coast, paleocurrent indicators, and facies distributions indicating the derivation of sediment from sialic sources in the present-day Pacific have suggested to students of the Paleozoic foundation of the Andes that a "south east Pacific continent" may have been located oceanward of the present margin in Paleozoic time. These features are well represented in the middle Paleozoic siliciclastic platform-deeper basin system in northern Chile. Furthermore, the Middle Devonian platform sections contain brachiopods both of Malvinokaffric and Eastern Americas realm affinity. Sedimentological and tectonic features are consistent with the evolution of the basin in a Devonian and early Carboniferous extensional regime, which was succeeded by the inception of subduction by oblique convergence in the late Carboniferous. The extensional regime was possibly governed by the clockwise motion of Laurentia along the proto-Andean margin, as recently proposed by Ian Dalziel; subduction of Pacific oceanic crust then began in the wake of Laurentia moving toward its Permian position in the Pangea supercontinent.

  17. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  18. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  19. Copper Soldiers: Forging New Roles for the Chilean Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Jamás Vencido ” (Always Victorious, Never Defeated) echoes reality.44 As such, the quality of the Chilean army remains “unquestionably the best...signed a text in which they express[ed] a changed, democratic, vision of the democratic breakdown, and on the human rights they had previously

  20. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the Chilean…

  1. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  2. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic condition.…

  3. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  4. Organic pollutant burden of the giant mussels Choromytilus chorus from the south-central Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Toro, Beatriz; Palma-Fleming, Hernán; Navarro, Jorge M

    2004-04-01

    A comparative quantitative analysis was made on the contents of organochlorines (OCh) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in tissues of the giant mussel Choromytilus chorus from three bays in south-central Chile exposed to various degrees of pollutant input. Mussels from the three bays contained levels of OCh near the detection limits of method, with a tendency to be slightly higher in the polluted bay (San Vicente) than in the other bays (Corral and Yaldad). PAH levels and types in Corral and Yaldad were well below of carcinogenicity permitted in mussels for human consumption.

  5. Geographical structuring of Trypanosoma cruzi populations from Chilean Triatoma infestans triatomines and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Venegas, J; Rojas, T; DÍaz, F; Miranda, S; Jercic, M I; González, C; Coñoepán, W; Pichuantes, S; RodrÍguez, J; Gajardo, M; Sánchez, G

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain more information about the population structure of Chilean Trypanosoma cruzi, and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts, we performed the study of T. cruzi samples detected in the midgut content of Triatoma infestans insects from three endemic regions of Chile. The genetic characteristics of these samples were analysed using microsatellite markers and PCR conditions that allow the detection of predominant T. cruzi clones directly in triatomine midgut content. Population genetic analyses using the Fisher’s exact method, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the determination of FST showed that the northern T. cruzi population sample was genetically differentiated from the two southern population counterparts. Further analysis showed that the cause of this genetic differentiation was the asymmetrical distribution of TcIII T. cruzi predominant clones. Considering all triatomines from the three regions, the most frequent predominant lineages were TcIII (38%), followed by TcI (34%) and hybrid (8%). No TcII lineage was observed along the predominant T. cruzi clones. The best phylogenetic reconstruction using the shared allelic genetic distance was concordant with the population genetic analysis and tree topology previously described studying foreign samples. The correlation studies showed that the lineage TcIII from the III region was genetically differentiated from the other two, and this differentiation was correlated with geographical distance including Chilean and mainly Brazilian samples. It will be interesting to investigate whether this geographical structure may be related with different clinical manifestation of Chagas disease. PMID:22325822

  6. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  7. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  8. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-03-17

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography.

  9. Report on the Third Advanced Chilean School of Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gieren, W.; Zoccali, M.; Saviane, I.; Méndez, R.; Pietrzynski, G.

    2007-03-01

    During the second week of January 2007, the third Chilean Advanced School of As-trophysics was held at the Universidad de Concepción, the third-largest university in Chile, on “Insights into Galaxy Evolution from Resolved Stellar Populations”. This school, targeted at Ph.D. students main- ly from Chile and South America, but also open to students from other countries, was organised in the framework of the Chilean FONDAP Center of Astrophysics which includes astronomers of the two largest universities in Santiago and the Universidad de Concepción. The school focused on a field of research which is very well represented in the Center. Addi-tional support was kindly offered by the ALMA Committee, ESO Chile, the Católi-ca and Concepción universities, and the Sociedad Chilena de Astronomía.

  10. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    PubMed

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  11. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  12. Northern Australia

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Tropical Northern Australia     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of tropical northern Australia were acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry ...

  13. Associations between sociocultural pressures to be thin, body distress, and eating disorder symptomatology among Chilean adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Ferrer-García, Marta; Toro, José; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Peñaloza, Claudia; Cuadros-Sosa, Yasna; Gálvez-Madrid, Ma José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between perceived sociocultural pressure to fulfill the thin beauty ideal, body distress, and the presence of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 437 Chilean adolescent girls from Arica, northern Chile, aged 13-18. Results showed significant associations between perceived pressure from social agents to be thin and the presence of disrupted eating attitudes and behavior. The perceived influence of advertising, verbal messages and social situations related to eating and dieting emerged as the strongest predictors of eating disorders symptoms. Influence of advertising was also the strongest predictor of body image distress. Age differences emerged in perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin, with older participants reporting higher sociocultural pressure to fulfill the slender beauty ideal. This paper provides information about body distress and associated disturbances, a phenomenon which has seldom been studied in non-Western countries, but which has important health implications.

  14. Latitudinal Environmental Niches and Riverine Barriers Shaped the Phylogeography of the Central Chilean Endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:25295517

  15. Latitudinal environmental niches and riverine barriers shaped the phylogeography of the Central Chilean endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae).

    PubMed

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary.

  16. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  17. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales.

    PubMed

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-04-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  18. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  19. The Coast Artillery Journal. Volume 57, Number 1, July 1922

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1922-07-01

    marks the first attempt-unpremeditated and impotent though it was-at colonization in the New World. The early forts of America were necessarily built...later, England began searching for the notthwest passage to India, and, that failing, laid claim to and colonized the northern portions of the new...motor transport. The Cristobal Fire Control Project and test of Wilson Target Computer were transferred from the Coast Artillery Board to the Coast

  20. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  1. Chilean Student Movements: Sustained Struggle to Transform a Market-Oriented Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian; Cabalin, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, Chilean society was shaken by sharply critical and powerful student movements: secondary students led the 2006 "Penguin Revolution" and university students led the 2011 "Chilean Winter." This article describes and analyzes these student movements to illustrate how students can be highly relevant…

  2. Historical dimensions of population structure in a continuously distributed marine species: The case of the endemic Chilean dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, M. J.; Olavarría, C.; Moraga, R.; Baker, C. S.; Hamner, R. M.; Poulin, E.

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity of historical and contemporary processes contributes to understanding the genetic structure of continuously distributed marine species with high dispersal capabilities. Cephalorhynchus eutropia, has a continuous coastal distribution with strong genetic differentiation identified by nuclear DNA markers. We explored the historical dimension of this genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations to evaluate phylogeographic structure. Additionally, we conducted mtDNA and microsatellite analyses to detect past and recent demographic changes. The southern population was characterized by lower genetic diversity with a signal of population expansion, likely associated with ice retreat and habitat extension after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In contrast, structure within the northern population was more consistent with stable historical population size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses suggested that during the LGM, C. eutropia persisted in the northern area; while the south was colonized by dispersal ~11,000 years ago followed by population expansion. This study shows that Chilean dolphin population structure is consistent with predictions from the Expansion-Contraction biogeographic model, with a poleward post-glacial shift revealed in current genetic structure. The results also confirm the validity of the population units previously identified, demonstrating their historical origin and highlighting the utility of integrating genetic markers with different temporal scale resolutions. PMID:27759113

  3. Historical dimensions of population structure in a continuously distributed marine species: The case of the endemic Chilean dolphin.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alvarez, M J; Olavarría, C; Moraga, R; Baker, C S; Hamner, R M; Poulin, E

    2016-10-19

    The complementarity of historical and contemporary processes contributes to understanding the genetic structure of continuously distributed marine species with high dispersal capabilities. Cephalorhynchus eutropia, has a continuous coastal distribution with strong genetic differentiation identified by nuclear DNA markers. We explored the historical dimension of this genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations to evaluate phylogeographic structure. Additionally, we conducted mtDNA and microsatellite analyses to detect past and recent demographic changes. The southern population was characterized by lower genetic diversity with a signal of population expansion, likely associated with ice retreat and habitat extension after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In contrast, structure within the northern population was more consistent with stable historical population size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses suggested that during the LGM, C. eutropia persisted in the northern area; while the south was colonized by dispersal ~11,000 years ago followed by population expansion. This study shows that Chilean dolphin population structure is consistent with predictions from the Expansion-Contraction biogeographic model, with a poleward post-glacial shift revealed in current genetic structure. The results also confirm the validity of the population units previously identified, demonstrating their historical origin and highlighting the utility of integrating genetic markers with different temporal scale resolutions.

  4. Holocene sediment accumulation rates in fjords and bays of Chilean Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellner, J. S.; Anderson, J. B.; Milliken, K.; Fernandez, R.; Michalchuk, B.; Boyd, B.

    2007-12-01

    Beginning in 2005 and ending in May of 2007, we completed a series of four research cruises in the fjords and bays of Chilean Patagonia and the Antarctic Peninsula aimed, in part, at determining the style and rate of Holocene sediment accumulation in a range of glacial settings. Our original hypothesis stated that rates of glacial erosion are a function of sliding speed, and are therefore expected to diminish sharply as basal temperatures drop below the melting point. To test this hypothesis, we measured sediment accumulation in tidewater glacier fjords ranging from fast-moving temperate glaciers in Patagonia to slower moving polar glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula. Four fjords were surveyed in Patagonia ranging from San Rafael fjord in the Northern Patagonia ice field to Marinelli fjord in Tierra del Fuego. The cruises to the Antarctic Peninsula included two SHALDRIL legs during which drill cores recovered 108 m and 80 m of Holocene sediment in Maxwell Bay, South Shetland Islands, and the Firth of Tay in the northwestern Weddell Sea, respectively. An additional nine fjords across the northern peninsula were surveyed with kasten and jumbo piston cores. To date, we have completed nearly 100 radiocarbon dates from fossil carbonate material, both shells and foraminifera, extracted from the sediment cores obtained in these fjords. Our initial results highlight the complexity of the controls on sediment yields and the extreme variability in sediment accumulation amongst fjords. While climate may be the first order control on glacier erosion rates and sediment transport to bays and fjords, several other factors must significantly influence these processes and may mask the broader signal. Our ongoing work with this newly acquired comprehensive dataset is examining additional controls including drainage basin size, precipitation gradient, altitude of the glaciers, and glacial substrate.

  5. Microearthquakes and crustal structure off the Makran coast of Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Niazi, M.; Shimamura, H.; Matsu'ura, M.

    1980-05-01

    On the basis of bathymetric an seismic data collected recently off the coast of Makran in the Gulf of Oman, it has been suggested that the folding of the sediments at the northern edge of the abyssal plain is taking place at the present time. The folding is thought to be the consequence of ongoing subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian Lithosphere along the Makran coast. Th model assigns a far more significant role to the Makran coast in shaping the tectonics of the region than has thus far been assumed.

  6. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory.

  7. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  8. Chilean Earthquakes: Aquifer Responses at the Russian Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besedina, Alina; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Gorbunova, Ella; Svintsov, Igor

    2016-04-01

    We studied hydrogeological responses to the passage of seismic waves from the Chilean earthquakes with Ms ≥7.6 at epicentral distances of about 126°. The variation in the levels of confined and unconfined aquifers was analyzed under platform conditions at the Mikhnevo Geophysical Observatory near Moscow, Russia. Synchronous recording of seismic and hydrogeological data enabled us to evaluate the amplitude-frequency response of aquifers. The study shows that medium response to dynamic impact depends on various physical parameters of the aquifers.

  9. INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING SOUTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  10. INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING NORTH. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR INNKEEPER'S QUARTERS/HALL, LOOKING NORTH. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  11. INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  12. INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  13. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  14. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  15. 76 FR 37646 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City...

  16. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  17. Positive discrimination in education: Its justification and a Chilean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo S.

    1994-05-01

    Educational policies in Latin America have centred on two main issues: raising the quality of education, and improving the equity of its distribution. Access to schooling was until recently at the heart of the debate, the degree of justice of the educational systems being measured by their capacity to enrol and retain the population. Attention is now concentrated on the strength of the cultural resources offered by schools and the effectiveness of provision. Learning is the priority of education policy. This article develops the theme of equity, examining the concept and describing a programme which focuses on improving the equity of the Chilean educational system. It is suggested that educational equity should no longer mean equality of access but equality of results. A just system therefore needs to concentrate on raising the quality of schools serving the poorest sectors of society. The Chilean "900 Schools Programme" is an example. Its aim was to raise levels of achievement by improving the learning of poor children from 1st to 4th grade in reading, writing and mathematics. To do so, it improved the school environment, textbooks and methodologies, and offered support to children outside school hours by the work of community monitors.

  18. Chilean university students: knowledge and concern about HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Guzman, Edwin; Cabieses, Báltica; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Araya, Alejandra

    2007-01-01

    According to a 2004 report by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, Chile has an incipient HIV/AIDS epidemic. Regardless of the classification, every year the cumulative incidence of HIV/AIDS increases. Young Chileans have been the most affected group; still, their knowledge, attitudes, and concerns about HIV/AIDS are not known. This study describes Chilean university students' HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, their worry about getting the virus, and the correlation between both variables. A convenience sample of 45 university students responded to an anonymous self-administered questionnaire after orally consenting to participate in this study. Overall, students had good levels of HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, with 77% responding correctly to at least 85% of the questions. Despite this knowledge, almost 56% of students stated that they were not worried about getting HIV/AIDS. The situation was corroborated by a nonsignificant statistical correlation between both variables (p > .05). These results are congruent with literature from other countries and strengthen the need for further research to clarify why university students, the majority of whom are well-educated and engage in behaviors that place them at risk for contracting the virus, do not worry about HIV.

  19. High diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia along the northern coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo), with descriptions of P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. (Bacillariophyceae).

    PubMed

    Teng, Sing Tung; Tan, Suh Nih; Lim, Hong Chang; Dao, Viet Ha; Bates, Stephen S; Leaw, Chui Pin

    2016-12-01

    Forty-eight isolates of Pseudo-nitzschia species were established from the Miri coast of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) and underwent TEM observation and molecular characterization. Ten species were found: P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. fukuyoi, P. kodamae, P. lundholmiae, P. multistriata, P. pungens, P. subfraudulenta, as well as two additional new morphotypes, herein designated as P. bipertita sp. nov. and P. limii sp. nov. This is the first report of P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. kodamae, P. fukuyoi, and P. lundholmiae in coastal waters of Malaysian Borneo. Pseudo-nitzschia bipertita differs from its congeners by the number of sectors that divide the poroids, densities of band striae, and its cingular band structure. Pseudo-nitzschia limii, a pseudo-cryptic species in the P. pseudodelicatissima complex sensu lato, is distinct by having wider proximal and distal mantles, a higher number of striae, and greater poroid height in the striae of the valvocopula. The species were further supported by the phylogenetic reconstructions of the nuclear-encoded large subunit ribosomal gene and the second internal transcribed spacer. Phylogenetically, P. bipertita clustered with its sister taxa (P. subpacifica + P. heimii); P. limii appears as a sister taxon to P. kodamae and P. hasleana in the ITS2 tree. Pairwise comparison of ITS2 transcripts with its closest relatives revealed the presence of both hemi- and compensatory base changes. Toxicity analysis showed detectable levels of domoic acid in P. abrensis, P. batesiana, P. lundholmiae, and P. subfraudulenta, but both new species tested below the detection limit.

  20. Seismic Moment and Slip Distribution of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean Earthquakes as Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.; Fujii, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The 27 February 2010 Chilean earthquake generated tsunami and caused significant damage on the Chilean coast. The tsunami was recorded at many tide gauge stations around the Pacific Ocean, as well as bottom ocean bottom pressure gauges of DART system. We inverted tsunami waveform data, recorded at 11 tide gauges in Chile and Peru and 4 nearby DART stations, to estimate the slip distribution on the fault. When we assume 36 subfaults (12 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 50 km × 50 km), very large slip is located at the most downdip subfaults beneath coast and land. Tsunami waveforms recorded other DART stations also require such deep slips. However, other geodetic and seismic data do not show such deep slips, and tsunami data have limited resolution for such a deep onshore slip. We therefore used coastal uplift and subsidence data at 36 locations reported by Farias et al. (2010). The joint inversion indicates two asperities, one to the north around Constitucion and the other to the south around Arauco peninsula. While the largest slip is still located beneath the coast, the offshore slips generally become larger than the tsunami inversion. The total seismic moment is about 1.8 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8), similar to the value estimated from tsunami waveforms only, and the fault length is 450 km. For the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake, we first made an inversion of tsunami data, recorded at 12 tide gauge stations mostly in South America. When we assume 27 subfaults (9 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 100 km × 50 km), the total seismic moment is 4.6 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.0). Again, the largest slip is estimated at the deepest subfault beneath land near the epicenter, which would produce large coastal uplift where the coastal subsidence was reported by Plafker and Savage (1970). Poor station coverage of tide gauges may limit the resolution of slip distribution particularly at the southern part of the source area. We therefore made a joint

  1. Language Change, Contact, and Koineization in Pacific Coast Athabaskan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Coast Athabaskan (PCA) languages are part of the Athabaskan language family, one of the most geographically widespread in North America. Over a millennium ago Athabaskan-speaking groups migrated into northwestern California and southwestern Oregon from a northern point of origin several hundred miles away, but even after several…

  2. Oceans and Coasts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An overview of EPA’s oceans, coasts, estuaries and beaches programs and the regulatory (permits/rules) and non-regulatory approaches for managing their associated environmental issues, such as water pollution and climate change.

  3. [The Chilean Health Care System: the task ahead].

    PubMed

    Goic, Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    The most important event in Chilean public health in the XXth Century was the creation of the National Health Service (NHS), in 1952. Systematic public policies for the promotion of health, disease prevention, medical care, and rehabilitation were implemented, while a number of more specific programs were introduced, such as those on infant malnutrition, complementary infant feeding, medical control of pregnant women and healthy infants, infant and adult vaccination, and essential sanitation services. In 1981, a parallel private health care system was introduced in the form of medical care financial institutions, which today cover 15% of the population, as contrasted with the public system, which covers about 80%. From 1952 to 2014, public health care policies made possible a remarkable improvement in Chile's health indexes: downward trends in infant mortality rate (from 117.8 to 7.2 x 1,000 live births), maternal mortality (from 276 to 18.5 x 100,000), undernourished children < 5 years old (from 63% to 0.5%); and upward trends in life expectancy at birth (from 50 to 79,8 years), professional hospital care of births (from 35% to 99.8%), access to drinking water (from 52% to 99%), and access to sanitary sewer (from 21% to 98.9%). This went hand in hand with an improvement in economic and social indexes: per capita income at purchasing power parity increased from US$ 3,827 to US$ 20,894 and poverty decreased from 60% to 14.4% of the population. Related indexes such as illiteracy, average schooling, and years of primary school education, were significantly improved as well. Nevertheless, compared with OECD countries, Chile has a relatively low public investment in health (45.7% of total national investment), a deficit in the number of physicians (1.7 x 1,000 inhabitants) and nurses (4.8 x 1,000), in the number of hospital beds (2.1 x 1,000), and in the availability of generic drugs in the market (30%). Chile and the USA are the two OECD countries with the lowest

  4. "How and when Chilean Pharmacology started to be experimental and became a science".

    PubMed

    Bustos, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Noriega, Viviana; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacology in Chile has about 75 years of history and from its beginning until today has grown exponentially. Today, pharmacology is taught in the biomedical careers of the main Chilean universities and research centers in pharmacology are in the north, central and south of Chile. This editorial offers an overview of the main milestones that have led to the consolidation of Chilean pharmacology in Latin America and the world.

  5. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  6. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  7. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  8. Diversity and activity of denitrifiers of chilean arid soil ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility, and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular.

  9. Diversity and Activity of Denitrifiers of Chilean Arid Soil Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Orlando, Julieta; Carú, Margarita; Pommerenke, Bianca; Braker, Gesche

    2012-01-01

    The Chilean sclerophyllous matorral is a Mediterranean semiarid ecosystem affected by erosion, with low soil fertility, and limited by nitrogen. However, limitation of resources is even more severe for desert soils such as from the Atacama Desert, one of the most extreme arid deserts on Earth. Topsoil organic matter, nitrogen and moisture content were significantly higher in the semiarid soil compared to the desert soil. Although the most significant loss of biologically preferred nitrogen from terrestrial ecosystems occurs via denitrification, virtually nothing is known on the activity and composition of denitrifier communities thriving in arid soils. In this study we explored denitrifier communities from two soils with profoundly distinct edaphic factors. While denitrification activity in the desert soil was below detection limit, the semiarid soil sustained denitrification activity. To elucidate the genetic potential of the soils to sustain denitrification processes we performed community analysis of denitrifiers based on nitrite reductase (nirK and nirS) genes as functional marker genes for this physiological group. Presence of nirK-type denitrifiers in both soils was demonstrated but failure to amplify nirS from the desert soil suggests very low abundance of nirS-type denitrifiers shedding light on the lack of denitrification activity. Phylogenetic analysis showed a very low diversity of nirK with only three distinct genotypes in the desert soil which conditions presumably exert a high selection pressure. While nirK diversity was also limited to only few, albeit distinct genotypes, the semiarid matorral soil showed a surprisingly broad genetic variability of the nirS gene. The Chilean matorral is a shrub land plant community which form vegetational patches stabilizing the soil and increasing its nitrogen and carbon content. These islands of fertility may sustain the development and activity of the overall microbial community and of denitrifiers in particular

  10. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent <0.5 h at a depth near the pycnocline (∼10 m) and then swam downward to depths between ∼20 and ∼60 m. After congregating at those depths during night-time, organisms swam upward again toward the pycnocline at sunrise, spent <1 h near the pycnocline and swam downward to their day-time depths (>100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  11. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  12. Indo-European and Asian origins for Chilean and Pacific chickens revealed by mtDNA.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Jaime; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Mobegi, Victor A; Jianlin, Han; Alcalde, Jose A; Matus, Jose T; Hanotte, Olivier; Moran, Chris; Austin, Jeremy J; Ulm, Sean; Anderson, Atholl J; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2008-07-29

    European chickens were introduced into the American continents by the Spanish after their arrival in the 15th century. However, there is ongoing debate as to the presence of pre-Columbian chickens among Amerindians in South America, particularly in relation to Chilean breeds such as the Araucana and Passion Fowl. To understand the origin of these populations, we have generated partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences from 41 native Chilean specimens and compared them with a previously generated database of approximately 1,000 domestic chicken sequences from across the world as well as published Chilean and Polynesian ancient DNA sequences. The modern Chilean sequences cluster closely with haplotypes predominantly distributed among European, Indian subcontinental, and Southeast Asian chickens, consistent with a European genetic origin. A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and the Philippines [corrected] and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.

  13. POSSIBLE TSUNAMI ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF THE UNITED STATES INFERRED FROM INDIAN TRADITIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, Thomas H.; Snavely, Parke D.

    1985-01-01

    There is no direct geologic or historical evidence presently available to confirm that great shallow subduction earthquakes have occurred along the coast of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. However, there are reports describing Indian legends of great sea-level disturbances that may be related to large nearby earthquakes. In this letter, we briefly review the history of exploration and settlement of this region by nonnative people and then discuss legends from Indians in northern Washington and northern California. Refs.

  14. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  15. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  16. Coasts under pressure.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D

    1994-01-01

    In most areas of the world, too many people live or play along the coast. Municipal and industrial wastes pollute coastal waters. Rivers spew erosion sediment and pollutants into these waters. Economic development is often the only management strategy for coastal zones, and economic development has little concern for resource degradation and watershed management. 53 countries have coastal management plans, but few have adequately implemented them. Almost 66% of the world's population lives within 150 km of the coast; by 2025, 75% will live as close to the coast. In the US, the coastal population has grown faster than that of the entire US, so that the population density is now almost 400 persons/sq m compared to 275 persons/sq m in 1960. Urbanization continues in the US coastal zones, where 7 of the 10 US largest cities exist. 94% of China's population lives in the eastern 3rd of the country. The population density along China's coast is more than 600/sq km. In Shanghai, it is more than 2000/sq km. Many people are moving from poorer provinces in the central and western regions to the economic free zones and special economic zones along the coast. At any moment, 30-60 million Chinese are moving. Most everyone in southeastern Asia, the Caribbean, and Latin America live in coastal areas. By 2025, the coastal zone between Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo will be all urbanized This is also occurring on Chile's coast between Valparaiso and Concepcion. The Mediterranean has the most overcrowded coastline in the developed world. Unchecked development could lead to continuous urban sprawl between Spain and Greece. Development pressures have caused a sizable decline in or a collapse of coastal fisheries. In Asia, all waters within 15 km of the coastline have been overfished. Coral reefs and mangrove forests are being destroyed with inadequate resources targeted for their protection.

  17. Analysis of Tsunamigenic Coastal Rock Slope Failures Triggered by the 2007 Earthquake in the Chilean Fjordland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Serey, A.; Hermanns, R. L.; Redfield, T. F.; Oppikofer, T.; Duhart, P.

    2011-12-01

    The fjordland of the Chilean Patagonia is subject to active tectonics, with large magnitude subduction earthquakes, such as the M 9.5 1960 earthquake, and shallow crustal earthquakes along the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ). One of the latter (M 6.2) struck the Aysen Fjord region (45.5 S) on the 21st of April 2007, triggering dozens of landslides in the epicentral area along the fjord coast and surroundings. The largest rock slides and rock avalanches induced a local tsunami that together with debris flows caused ten fatalities and severely damaged several salmon farms, the most important economic activity of the area. Multi-scale studies of the landslides triggered during the Aysen earthquake have been carried out, including landslide mapping and classification, slope stability back-analyses and structural and geomorphological mapping of the largest failures from field surveys and high-resolution digital surface models created from terrestrial laser scanning. The failures included rock slides, rock avalanches, rock-soil slides, soil slides and debris flows. The largest rock avalanche had a volume of over 20 million cubic metres. The landslides affected steep slopes of intrusive rocks of the North Patagonian batholith covered by a thin layer of volcanic soils, which supports a high forest. The results of geotechnical analyses suggest a site effect due to topographic amplification on the generation of the landslides, with peak ground accelerations that may have reached between about 1.0 and 2.0 g for rock avalanches and between 0.6 and 1.0 g for shallow rock-soil slides, depending on the amount of assumed vertical acceleration and the applied method (limit equilibrium and Newmark). Attenuation relationships for shallow crustal seismicity indicate accelerations below 0.5 g for earthquakes of a similar magnitude and epicentral distances. Detailed field structural analyses of the largest rock avalanche in Punta Cola indicate a key role in the failure

  18. Analysis of RCP8.5 Projections of Precipitation and Temperatures in Chilean Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, X.; Lagos Zuniga, M. A.; Vasquez, N. A.; Cepeda, J. A.; Bobadilla, M. P.; Uribe, F.; Silva, V.

    2015-12-01

    In order to explain the uncertainty of future water availability in Chilean basins we study time series of daily precipitation and mean daily temperature projected by global circulation models (GCMs) in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8.5, characterized by increasing greenhouse gas emissions over time is taken for the analysis. Data from four GCMs (MPI-ESM-LR, CSIRO-MK3.6, CMCC-CMS, BCC-CSM1.1) is used and downscaled spatial and temporally to local gages sites using standard statistical procedures. The model selection procedure was based on the preservation of the observed precipitation and temperature regimes for the base line period through the comparison of the average monthly values of the observed and spatial downscaled variables normalized respect to annual values for one of the sites. Base line data is defined for the period 1975-2005 and two future periods are studied: near future stands for 2015-2045 and far ahead future stands for 2045-2075. For the analysis we consider hydrologic year starting on April and ending on March of following year. We analyse the behaviour of daily time series of precipitation and temperature for gages located at -33.5° latitude, -70.5° longitude to -37.7° latitude, -72° longitude. Mean annual precipitation, mean annual temperature, the number of days with precipitation, the number of days with precipitation less or greater than specific values, the mean temperature during rainy days and in extreme events, for each period (base line, near and far ahead future) are determined for each site. Special attention is given to the effect of temperatures on rainy days on the elevation of 0°C isotherm on representative watersheds and to the occurrence of extreme events during the snowmelt period with high elevation of 0°C isotherm. In general, results show a spatial decay of annual precipitation from north to south from base line to future being

  19. Long-term monitoring of heavy metals in Chilean coastal sediments in the eastern South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Chandía, Cristian; Salamanca, Marco

    2012-10-01

    Concentrations of seven metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn) were determined in 256 surface sediment samples, collected between May 2006 and November 2009, from 15 stations at the mouth of the Itata River and its adjacent marine zone (central-southern Chile) as part of an environmental monitoring program. The objectives of the work were to: (i) establish baseline metal concentrations in the sediments of the area and (ii) identify tendencies in the spatial and temporal distribution of the metals in these marine sediments. Concentrations were highest in the north zone of the Itata River mouth (stations E2C, E13C) for all the metals and at the stations farthest offshore from the mouth (E4, E6) for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Ni. The ranges in those concentrations were lower than those reported in other studies performed along the Chilean coast and lower than those observed in most other coastal systems around the world. Based on results of the indices used (geoaccumulation index, enrichment factor), the coastal sediments were not measurably elevated above natural levels.

  20. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  1. Gulf Coast Wetlands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wetlands of the Gulf Coast     ... web of estuarine channels and extensive coastal wetlands that provide important habitat for fisheries. The city of New Orleans ... or below sea level. The city is protected by levees, but the wetlands which also function as a buffer from storm surges have been ...

  2. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  3. Role of Salmonella enterica exposure in Chilean Crohn's disease patients

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Pizarro, Daniela P; Palavecino, Christian E; Espinoza, Abner; Sebastián, Valentina P; Alvarado, Juan C; Ibañez, Patricio; Quintana, Carlos; Díaz, Orlando; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bueno, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between exposure to Salmonella enterica (SE) and Crohn’s disease (CD) and its clinical implications in Chilean patients. METHODS: Ninety-four unrelated Chilean CD patients from CAREI (Active Cohort Registry of Inflammatory Bowel Disease) presenting to a single inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) unit of a University Hospital were prospectively included in this study. A complete clinical evaluation, including smoking history, was performed at the initial visit, and all the important data of clinical evolution of CD were obtained. Blood samples from these CD patients and 88 healthy sex- and age-matched control subjects were analyzed for exposure to SE and for their NOD2/CARD15 gene status using the presence of anti-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide antibodies [immunoglobulin-G type (IgG)] and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. We also evaluated exposure to SE in 90 sex- and age-matched patients without CD, but with known smoking status (30 smokers, 30 non-smokers, and 30 former smokers). RESULTS: CD patients comprised 54 females and 40 males, aged 35.5 ± 15.2 years at diagnosis with a mean follow-up of 9.0 ± 6.8 years. CD was inflammatory in 59 patients (62.7%), stricturing in 24 (25.5%) and penetrating in 15 (15.5%). Thirty cases (31.9%) had lesions in the ileum, 29 (30.8%) had ileocolonic lesions, 32 (34.0%) had colonic lesions and 23 (24.4%) had perianal disease. Sixteen CD patients (17%) were exposed to SE compared to 15 (17%) of 88 healthy control subjects (P = 0.8). Thirty-one CD patients (32.9%) were smokers, and 7 (7.4%) were former smokers at diagnosis. In the group exposed to SE, 10 of 16 patients (62.5%) were active smokers compared to 21 of 78 patients (26.9%) in the unexposed group (P = 0.01). On the other hand, 10 of 31 smoking patients (32%) were exposed to SE compared to 5 of 56 nonsmoking patients (9%), and one of the seven former smokers (14%) (P = 0.01). In the group of 90 patients without CD, but whose

  4. Historical Tsunami Deposits on the Sanriku Coast, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Ishibe, T.; Harada, T.; Murotani, S.

    2013-12-01

    . According to Japanese historical documents, candidates of tsunamis are from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 1933 and 1896 Sanriku earthquakes, the 1793 Miyagi-oki earthquake, the 1763 Aomori-oki earthquake, the 1677 Boso-oki earthquake, and the 1611 Sanriku earthquake. Some trans-Pacific tsunamis such as the 1700 Cascadia and 1960 Chilean tsunamis also caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast and these tsunami deposits may be also preserved.

  5. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  6. [The contribution of Augusto Orrego Luco to Chilean psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Torres, A

    1996-01-01

    Augusto Orrego Luco born in 1848 and dead in 1933 in Valparaiso, was one of the greatest clinicians and researchers of chilean medicine during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Besides being a psychiatrist he contributed to literature, history, politics and medicine. He received his medical degree in 1874 and, apart from being an anatomist, soon became interested in mental illnesses. The title of his thesis was "Mental Hallucinations". He worked in the insane asylum after José Ramón Elguero. Later, in 1891, he was the successor of professor Carlos Sazie at the Hospital for Nervous and Mental Illnesses. Orrego Luco was influenced by french neurology of Jean Martin Charcot and taught a preferentially neurological psychiatry, based on the anatomo-clinical method. His original works were on traumatic hysteria, the mechanism of hypnosis, hysterical hemiplegia, causes of mental hallucinations, syphilitic etiology of Tabes and anatomy of cerebral sulci. In his work about mimical neuroses, he considered and obligation not to discriminate between organic and non-organic patients, because both suffer, he claimed. Presently, Orrego Luco is considered the creator and instigator of the Psychiatry chair, turning it into one of the main medical specialties in Chile.

  7. Revealing latitudinal patterns of mitochondrial DNA diversity in Chileans.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Moreno, Fabián; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Martinón-Torres, Federico; García-Magariños, Manuel; Pantoja-Astudillo, Jaime A; Aguirre-Morales, Eugenia; Bustos, Patricio; Salas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a+195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework.

  8. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  9. Social Representations of Older Adults Among Chilean Elders of Three Cities with Different Historical and Sociodemographic Background.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Sánchez, Hugo; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia; Márquez, Carlos

    2016-06-01

    The study was aimed to explore social representations of older adults among Chilean people aged 70 or more, living in three cities with differences in historical, geographic, and sociodemographic characteristics and to explore the importance of the local context on their shaping. Multiple correspondence analysis was employed to analyze the terms produced through free-word association technique, by 741 people. The two first dimensions explained 62.4 % of the inertia and showed that the contribution of city of residence was several times higher than the average; the contribution of gender and educational level was higher than average as well. The northern city representations were characterized by positive terms, whereas more negative contents were characteristic of the city of the center, and terms without an explicitly positive or negative assessment were associated to the southern city. These findings reinforce the relevance of the local sociocultural context in shaping social representations of old age and stress the importance of considering particular regional features in the design of policies and interventions aimed to recognize and integrate older adults in Chile.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

  11. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  12. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  13. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins.

  14. [Genetic composition of Chilean population: the Pehuenches from Trapa-Trapa].

    PubMed

    Llop, E; Harb, Z; Acuña, M; Moreno, R; Barton, S; Aspillaga, E; Rothhammer, F

    1993-05-01

    This study describes the genetic composition of Pehuenche indians from Trapa-Trapa. The admixture analysis revealed that this group has conserved most of its pre-Columbian gene pool and therefore, is representative of the indians that lived in Southern Chile before the Spanish conquest. A relatively high frequency of a esterase D variant seems to indicate that this is a Chilean aboriginal population marker. The Chilean Pehuenches are genetically similar to their Argentinean relatives, which is not surprising since this last group crossed the Andes Mountains in historic times.

  15. Geographical variation in natural history of the sandy beach isopod Excirolana hirsuticauda Menzies (Cirolanidae) on the Chilean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales-Hoz, L.; Cundy, A. B.; Bahena-Manjarrez, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    Large scale industrial development has taken place in the Coatzacoalcos river estuary, SE Mexico, over the last 32 years, and the area is now regarded as the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A series of sediment cores were taken from the lower Coatzacoalcos river and the estuary, and the concentrations of trace elements (Zn, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, V), major elements (Al, Si, Mn, Fe, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, K, P) and organic matter determined. Heavy metal concentration seems to be largely dependant on proximity to industrial areas, with highest metal concentrations (particularly for Zn, Ni and Cu) found at Teapa, the most heavily industrialized site, and lowest values found at Jicaro, upstream of the main industrial areas. At all of the sites examined, heavy metals either show a relatively uniform distribution with depth, or subsurface maxima, which reflect changes in sediment composition. There is little evidence for significant early-diagenetic remobilization at any of the sites studied. 210Pb and 137Cs data at Teapa indicate that the sediments have accreted rapidly and may be vigorously mixed, and so these sediment cores cannot be used to reliably reconstruct temporal changes in pollutant input.

  16. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Viviani, C A

    2010-07-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical-functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of Chilean students in the Valparaíso region, in order to evaluate the potential mismatch between them. The sample consisted of 195 volunteer students (94 male, 101 female) of the 8th grade, ranging from 12.5 to 14.5 years of age from 3 different schools. Regarding the methodology, 6 anthropometric measures (Stature, Popliteal height, Buttock-popliteal length, Elbow height while sitting, Hip width, Thigh thickness and Subscapular height) were gathered, as well as 8 dimensions from the school furniture. For the evaluation of classroom furniture a match criterion equation was defined. After considering the existing classroom furniture dimensions in each match criterion equation, the anthropometric characteristics of the considered population were compared in order to determine the mismatch between them. Results indicated that seat height, which should be considered as the starting point for the design of classroom furniture, was appropriate for students' popliteal height in only 14% of the 2 out of the 3 schools, and 28% in the third. Seat to desk height was too high and mismatched 99% of the students in one school and 100% in the others. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the classroom's furniture was inadequate in almost all the analyzed cases and subjects. It is possible that the high mismatch percentage found between furniture and students' anthropometry can be associated to the fact that the acquisition and selection of the furniture was made without any ergonomic concern or criteria.

  17. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg.

  18. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  19. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  20. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

    2010-09-28

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  1. Coast Guard SOF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    community/Art%20Program/ex- hibit3/e30012a.htm). 18 JSOU Report 05-7 have prepared the Service with unique skills.” 42 Figure 2 depicts an early direct...including suggestions for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson...FEB 2006 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coast Guard SOF 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  2. 75 FR 35652 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of... enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display safety... will enforce the safety zone for the annual Lights on the Lake Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191 on July...

  3. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of... Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance (Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display). This action is necessary... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zone for the annual Lights on the...

  4. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Independence Day Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Independence...) safety zone. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to ensure the safety of event...-399-7443, e-mail D11-PF-MarineEvents@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard...

  5. Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

  6. Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-13

    NAVFAC Southwest Lora E. Morrow Deputy for Small Business NAVFAC Southwest NAVFAC Southwest Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast August...REPORT DATE 13 AUG 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Industry Forum Navy Gold Coast 5a...S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES NDIA 27th Navy Gold Coast

  7. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  8. Flatfishes of Norwegian coasts and fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Ole Thomas; Eliassen, Jens-Eric; Høines, Åge

    1998-09-01

    Bottom trawl surveys in North Norwegian fjords and coastal areas, on a South Norwegian coastal bank, and along the Russian Kola coast, are used to describe distribution, species composition, individual growth, population structure, and exploitation of plaice ( Pleuronectes platessa), long rough dab ( Hippoglossoides platessoides), witch ( Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), lemon sole ( Microstomus kitt), dab ( Limanda limanda), megrim ( Lepidorhombus whiffiagonis), halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Based on distribution and abundance, individual species have been grouped as northern, southern or intermediate, as shallow or deep, and as associated with fjords or with coastal banks. The four most abundant flatfishes in Norwegian coastal zones, plaice, long rough dab, witch, and lemon sole, were equally or more abundant in the north compared to the south. Specimens of these species were generally larger in the north and mean length at age tended to be lower. Possible nursery areas were indicated for plaice and lemon sole.

  9. Convergent Validity Evidence regarding the Validity of the Chilean Standards-Based Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santelices, Maria Veronica; Taut, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes convergent validity evidence regarding the mandatory, standards-based Chilean national teacher evaluation system (NTES). The study examined whether NTES identifies--and thereby rewards or punishes--the "right" teachers as high- or low-performing. We collected in-depth teaching performance data on a sample of 58…

  10. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  11. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  12. Design of computerized maintenance management system for the chilean naval hospital biomedical engineering department.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisco; Fuentes, Jose; Enderle, John

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to design and implement a computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) to be used at the Chilean Naval Hospital Biomedical Engineering Department. It is designed to meet the specific needs of this military facility and follows the generic clinical engineering maintenance management system suggested by Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI).

  13. Perceived Effects and Uses of the National Teacher Evaluation System in Chilean Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taut, Sandy; Santelices, Maria Veronica; Araya, Carolina; Manzi, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the perceived consequences of the Chilean national teacher evaluation system. We interviewed 57 school leaders in 30 schools across 10 municipalities about effects and uses of the assessment in their schools. Results show that in the large majority of schools our interviewees observe positive effects such as increased teamwork…

  14. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  15. Cutaneous tumour-like lesions due to poxvirus infection in Chilean flamingos.

    PubMed

    Arai, S; Arai, C; Fujimaki, M; Iwamoto, Y; Kawarada, M; Saito, Y; Nomura, Y; Suzuki, T

    1991-05-01

    Cutaneous tumour-like growths were observed on the face and other areas of the body surface of young Chilean flamingos. In the cells of these lesions, avian pox-specific cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed by light microscopy and virus particles were detected under an electron-microscope. It was diagnosed as avian pox.

  16. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  17. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  18. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  19. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  20. Higher Education Policy in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparative Perspectives on the Chilean Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    A Chilean case study of higher education under an authoritarian regime is presented. The study restricts itself to the most prevalent sub-type of the authoritarian regime which is "bureaucratic-authoritarianism" (BA). The BA designation refers to regimes which exert considerable repressive control over societies that have undergone…

  1. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  2. Preparing School Principals in the Chilean Scenario: Lessons from Australia, England and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aravena, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper will be analysed three different educational contexts for preparing school principals such as Australia, England and the United States. This study analyses the professional development of academic leadership in the countries previously mentioned in order to apply the successful aspects to the Chilean education system, a system…

  3. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  4. The CAF Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire in a Sample of Chilean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Leandro Navas; Llorca, Jose Antonio Soriano; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify whether the six-dimension structure of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire is maintained with Chilean students, and to assess its psychometric qualities in this population. Method: One thousand seven hundred sixty-seven students took part in this research, from Central and South Chile; 45.8%…

  5. The Influence of Ethnicity on Warfarin Dosage Requirements in the Chilean Population

    PubMed Central

    Subiabre, Valeska; Palomo, Ivan; Guzmán, Neftalí; Retamales, Eduardo; Henríquez, Hugo; Gonzalez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonists are drugs that are widely prescribed around the world and their use has helped improve the prognosis of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, a high interindividual variability has been observed in dosage requirements to reach the desired anticoagulation range that could be due to environmental and genetic factors. Studies suggest that ethnicity influences coumarin response, supporting the observed differences in dose requirements across various populations. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers have suggested that the Chilean population has a predominantly Amerindian genetic pool. Objective To evaluate the influence of ethnicity, defined by the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups, on the variability in therapeutic response to warfarin in the Chilean population. Methods A total of 191 patients treated with warfarin were included in this study. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome for detecting the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was performed using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The evaluation of warfarin requirements according to each haplogroup was performed by ANOVA with a 95% CI and assuming statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results Based on the presence of an mtDNA haplogroup, 91% of the Chilean population had an Amerindian background. There were no significant differences in warfarin dosage requirements among the different Amerindian haplogroups (P = 0.083). Conclusions The presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup does not influence warfarin dosage requirements in the Chilean population. PMID:25709720

  6. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  7. Fingerspelling and Sign Language as Alternative Codes for Reading and Writing Words for Chilean Deaf Signers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puente, Anibal; Alvarado, Jesus M.; Herrera, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the role of sign language and fingerspelling in the development of the reading and writing skills of deaf children and youth. Twenty-six deaf participants (13 children, 13 adolescents), whose first language was Chilean Sign Language (CHSL), were examined. Their dactylic abilities were evaluated with tasks involving the reading…

  8. Draft Genome of Chilean Honeybee (Apis mellifera) Gut Strain Lactobacillus kunkeei MP2

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Alejandro; Henríquez-Piskulich, Patricia; Sanchez, Carolina; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Moreno-Pino, Mario; Gómez, Marcela; Rodríguez Da Silva, Rafael; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Aldea, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of Lactobacillus kunkeei strain MP2, isolated from a Chilean honeybee gut. The sequenced genome has a total size of 1.58 Mb distributed into 44 contigs and 1,356 protein-coding sequences. PMID:25301653

  9. The Long Journey: Perspectives on the Coordination of Chilean Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, José M.; Leihy, Peodair S.

    2017-01-01

    It is fairly established that Chilean higher education presents a high level of Habermasian "privatism," as long labeled by José Joaquin Brunner, being among the world's most privatized systems in terms of who pays, who is held to benefit directly from its action and who controls it. Less clear, however, is the contribution of public…

  10. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  11. Pathogenicity of a highly exopolysaccharide-producing Halomonas strain causing epizootics in larval cultures of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rodrigo; Miranda, Claudio D; Amaro, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    Mass mortalities of larval cultures of Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus have repeatedly occurred in northern Chile, characterized by larval agglutination and accumulation in the bottom of rearing tanks. The exopolysaccharide slime (EPS) producing CAM2 strain was isolated as the primary organism from moribund larvae in a pathogenic outbreak occurring in a commercial hatchery producing larvae of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus located in Bahía Inglesa, Chile. The CAM2 strain was characterized biochemically and was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA as Halomonas sp. (Accession number DQ885389.1). Healthy 7-day-old scallop larvae cultures were experimentally infected for a 48-h period with an overnight culture of the CAM2 strain at a final concentration of ca. 10(5) cells per milliliter, and the mortality and vital condition of larvae were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe the chronology of the disease. Pathogenic action of the CAM2 strain was clearly evidenced by SEM analysis, showing a high ability to adhere and detach larvae velum cells by using its "slimy" EPS, producing agglutination, loss of motility, and a posterior sinking of scallop larvae. After 48 h, a dense bacterial slime on the shell surface was observed, producing high percentages of larval agglutination (63.28 +/- 7.87%) and mortality (45.03 +/- 4.32%) that were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the unchallenged control cultures, which exhibited only 3.20 +/- 1.40% dead larvae and no larval agglutination. Furthermore, the CAM2 strain exhibited a high ability to adhere to fiberglass pieces of tanks used for scallop larvae rearing (1.64 x 10(5) cells adhered per square millimeters at 24 h postinoculation), making it very difficult to eradicate it from the culture systems. This is the first report of a pathogenic activity on scallop larvae of Halomonas species, and it prompts the necessity of an appraisal on

  12. Investigating active faulting in the south-central Chilean forearc by local seismicity and moment tensor inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietbrock, A.; Bohm, M.; Echtler, H.; Melnick, D.; Bruhn, C.; Bataille, K.

    2004-12-01

    The seismological ISSA experiment is giving a detailed insight into the seismicity distribution of southern Chile, where major earthquakes (M>8) have repeatedly ruptured the surface, involving vertical offsets of several meters. During a nearly 5-month observation period in 1999 and 2000 a temporary seismic network recorded approximately 350 local earthquakes. Two localized areas, North and South of the Arauco peninsula, showed a very high seismic activity in and above the interplate seismic zone of the Nazca-South America convergent margin. We used a double-difference relocation technique to obtain detailed images of the seismicity distribution in these areas. We also determined fault plane solutions to interpret the observed alignment of earthquakes hypocenters. Due to the low signal to noise ratio reliable first motion reading were difficult to achieve, which only very few clear readings. To overcome this problem we used moment tensor inversions to estimate reliable source mechanisms. However, for small magnitude earthquakes (<5) the biggest obstacle is the alignment of synthetic and observed waveforms. Inverting only for the amplitude spectrum, and therefore dropping the information in the phase spectrum can mostly circumvent the alignment problem. The two clusters investigated show high waveform correlation coefficients for most of the earthquakes indicating that possibly changes in fluid pressure can be responsible for triggering the events. After relocation most of the hypocenters in each of the two clusters align on a eastward dipping fault. Source mechanisms obtained indicate thrust faulting, where one of the possible fault planes aligns with the steep eastward dipping fault based on the seismicity distribution. These faults are reaching down to the top of the seismogenic zone and may serve as pathways for ascending fluids released in the subduction process. Active crustal-scale faulting below and active uplift of the coast account for active tectonic

  13. Prevalence Rates of Mental Disorders in Chilean Prisons

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, Adrian P.; Alvarado, Rubén; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Poblete, Catalina; Villagra, Carolina; Kastner, Sinja; Priebe, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Objective High rates of mental disorders have been reported for prison populations worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The present study aimed to establish prevalence rates of mental disorders in Chilean prisoners. Method A nationwide random sample of 1008 prisoners was assessed in 7 penal institutions throughout Chile. Twelve-month prevalence rates were established using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and compared to the prevalence rates previously published for the general population. Results Prevalence rates were 12.2% (95% CI, 10.2-14.1) for any substance use disorder, 8.3% (6.6-10.0) for anxiety disorders, 8.1% (6.5-9.8) for affective disorders, 5.7% (4.4-7.1) for intermittent explosive disorders, 2.2% (1.4-3.2) for ADHD of the adult, and 0.8% (0.3-1.3) for non-affective psychoses. Significantly higher prevalence rates among prisoners as compared to the general population in Chile were seen for major depression (6.1% vs. 3.7% males, Z=2.58, p<0.05) and illicit drug use (3.3% vs. 0.6% males with drug abuse, Z=2.04, p<0.05; 2.6% vs. 0.1% females with drug abuse, Z=5.36, p<0.001; 3.4% vs. 1.1% males with drug dependence, Z=3.70; p<0.001). Dysthymia (6.5% vs. 15.6%, Z=-2.39, p<0.05), simple (3.3% vs. 11.5%, Z=-3.13, p<0.001) and social phobias (3.9% vs. 9.7%, Z=2.38, p<0.05) were significantly less frequent in the female prison population than in the general population. One-year prevalence rates of alcohol abuse (2.3% vs. 3.9%; Z=-2.04; p<0.05) and dependence (2.7% vs. 8.2%; Z=-5.24; p<0.001) were less prevalent in the male prison population than in the general population. Conclusions Service provision for prison populations in Chile should acknowledge high rates of depression and illicit drug use. Overall prevalence rates are lower than reported in other LMICs. Previous research in prison populations in LMICs might have overestimated prevalence rates of mental disorders. PMID:23894415

  14. Aggregate and soil organic carbon dynamics in South Chilean Andisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; Van Cleemput, O.; Oyarzún, C.; Godoy, R.

    2005-06-01

    Extreme sensitivity of soil organic carbon (SOC) to climate and land use change warrants further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the link between aggregate and SOC dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses of a south Chilean Andisol: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). Total carbon content of the 0-10cm soil layer was higher for GRASS (6.7 kg C m-2) than for PINUS (4.3 kg C m-2, while TC content of SGFOR (5.8 kg C m-2) was not significantly different from either one. High extractable oxalate and pyrophosphate Al concentrations (varying from 20.3-24.4 g kg-1, and 3.9-11.1 g kg-1, respectively) were found in all sites. In this study, SOC and aggregate dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOC, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOC fractions, and C mineralization experiments. The results showed that electrostatic sorption between and among amorphous Al components and clay minerals is mainly responsible for the formation of metal-humus-clay complexes and the stabilization of soil aggregates. The process of ligand exchange between SOC and Al would be of minor importance resulting in the absence of aggregate hierarchy in this soil type. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS (respectively 0.495, 0.266 and 0.196 g CO2-Cm-2d-1 for the top soil layer). In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions gave opposite results, showing that the recalcitrance of the SOC decreased in another order: PINUS>SGFOR>GRASS. We deduced that electrostatic sorption processes and physical protection of SOC in soil aggregates were the main processes determining SOC stabilization. As a result, high aggregate carbon concentrations, varying from 148 till 48 g kg-1, were encountered for all land use sites. Al

  15. Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  17. New Seismic and Magmatic Constraints on the Geometry and Timing of Shallowing of the Central Andean Chilean-Pampean Flatslab Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, S. M.; Mulcahy, P.; Chen, C.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2013-05-01

    The shape and evolution of the Central Andean Chilean-Pampean flatslab segment provide modern analogues in numerous studies of flatslab segments of subducting oceanic plates. A revised geometry for the Wadati-Benioff Zone of the Chilean-Pampean flatslab that incorporates 271 well-constrained mantle earthquakes recorded during the 2007-2009 southern Puna seismic experiment (25°-28°S; 70°-65°W) shows that the northern boundary of the flatslab shoals more abruptly southward giving a more symmetric form with a more northerly bend to the flatslab than seen in previous models. The prime evidence for a sharper bend to the north comes from the three distinctive earthquake hypocenter clusters at 110 to 160 km, which form the so-called Pipanaco earthquake nest under the region at 27.5° to 29°S and 68° to 66°W, and whose origins can be attributed to local bending stresses in the subducting plate. This northern bend also passes under the Incapillo Caldera arc volcanic complex near 28°S, which is the southernmost center in the Central Volcanic Zone with post-Pliocene activity until reaching the Tupungato in the Southern Volcanic Zone on the southern side of the flat-slab at 33°S. Support for this northern bend forming largely after near normal subduction of the Juan Fernandez ridge began on the Nazca plate in the middle of the shallowing flatslab at ~10 Ma comes from the ~9-3 Ma Pircas Negras glassy andesites and related lavas at 27° to 28°S, whose chemistry and locations have been suggested to reflect the bending. Further support for the flatslab principally forming at this time comes from the ~45-50 km eastward displacements of the volcanic arcs on both the northern and southern margins of the present flat-slab at ~ 9-3 Ma and the magmatic and deformational history recorded above the area of the flat-slab region. At the same time, the Albarracín region ignimbrites in the central Argentine Precordillera above the main part of the flatslab have recently confirmed

  18. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  19. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  20. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are...

  1. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD),...

  2. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  3. 33 CFR 167.1313 - In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In the Strait of Juan de Fuca... Traffic Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.1313 In the Strait of Juan de Fuca: Northern lanes. In the northern lanes of the Strait of Juan de Fuca, the following...

  4. Northern cardiometeopathies.

    PubMed

    Hasnulin, V I; Sevost'yanova, E V; Hasnulina, A V

    2001-04-01

    Our research in high latitudes has allowed the identification of a special class of deadaptive disorders, northern cardiometeopathies, which integrates cardiovascular functional violations connected to biologically significant modifications of meteorological, geomagnetic, electrical, gravitational, rhythmological and other geo-ecological factors of the North. Cardiac and cerebral disorder complexes, and also some psychoemotional modifications manifest cardiometeopathies. Cardiometeopathies can occur with developing of pathology, and in such a case they can be selected in the independent form of deadaptive disease. At the same time, cardiometeopathies in case where cardiovascular pathology already exists could cause complications and become a particular risk factor for the development of injuries and myocardial heart attack. The most important mechanism of cardiometeopathies' formation is the organism's reaction to modifications of the Earth's electromagnetic field, based on internal electromagnetic fields' (first of all pulsing field of heart) dependence on the magnitude and directness of modification of the external electromagnetic fields. The analysis of the high degree of dependence of the blood circulation effiency during geomagnetic perturbations in the North of the modification of electromagnetic heart activity allows us to speak of the discovery of an earlier unknown electromagnetic blood pump.

  5. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. in northern elephant seals, California.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Gulland, M D Frances; Atwill, E Rob; Lawrence, Judy; Jang, Spencer; Conrad, Patricia A

    2005-12-01

    Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. prevalence and antimicrobial drug sensitivity were determined in northern elephant seals that had not entered the water and seals that were stranded on the California coast. Stranded seals had a higher prevalence of pathogenic bacteria, possibly from terrestrial sources, which were more likely to be resistant.

  6. Holocene Tsunami deposits associated with earthquakes along Pacific coast, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Imaizumi, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kagohara, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Marushima, N.; Omachi, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated Holocene tsumami deposits along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan in order to define the ages and source areas of earthquakes generating large tsunamis. Sediment cores were collected by using geoslicers and hand augers at alluvial lowlands interpreted by aerial photographs, and ages of deposits were dated by radiocarbon methods and tephrochronology. Pacific coast of northeast Japan faces the Japan trench where Pacific plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, so that the coast has repeatedly experienced some large tsunamis following historical interplate earthquakes (the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami, the 1793 Kansei Tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku Tsunami and the 869 Jogan Tsunami). While the southern part along the Pacific coast (from the Sendai Plain to the Joban coastal region) has nearly straight shorelines and well developed coastal lowlands, the northern part (the Sanriku coastal region) has typical ria shorelines and poorly developed coastal lowlands. Multiple sand layers are identified between muddy or peaty sediments in drilled core samples to a depth of 1-5.5 m at several coastal areas, which is located at backlands of beach ridges and natural levees. In the southern part along the Pacific coast, sand layers corresponding to the 869 Jogan Tsunami are identified, and the older sand layers suggest that tsunamis which are as large as the 869 tsunami have occurred at few hundred years intervals over the past 5000 years. On the other hand, in the northern part along the Pacific coast, multiple sand layers which indicate the arrival of large tsunamis are also found at the similar intervals to the southern coast during 6000-2000 years ago, but most of the depositional ages of the sand layers do not coincide with those of the southern coast. We suggest that earthquakes generating large tsunamis along northern and southern Pacific coast of northeast Japan have both occurred at few hundred years intervals during the late Holocene, but in most

  7. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  8. A new alcyonacean octocoral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Cairns, Stephen D; Häussermann, Verena

    2015-02-17

    A new species, Swiftia comauensis, is described from Chile. It occurs in shallow waters from 18 to 59 m in the Patagonian fjord region and seems to be endemic to the northern part of the region. The species is characterized by having straggly colonies with sparse branching and long drooping branches, prominent polyp mounds, and long, thin spindles; the colonies are bright orange with pale yellow polyp mounds. A sharp decline in colony abundance was observed between 2003 and 2013, and in January 2014 a proposal was submitted to the IUCN for the addition of this taxon to the Red List of Threatened Species.

  9. Chilean Men Exposed to the Major Earthquake in 2010.

    PubMed

    Labra, Oscar; Maltais, Danielle; Tremblay, Gilles

    2017-03-01

    The article presents the results of a study involving 18 men, 4 years after one of South America's most powerful natural disasters: An earthquake occurring off the coast of Chile in February 2010. Participants reported having developed new psychological health problems in the months following the catastrophe. The manifestations most frequently reported by participants were the presence of depressive and stress symptoms, as well as sleep disorders. The majority of participants registered scores of 33 and above on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, indicating that they were suffering from posttraumatic stress. Furthermore, although the majority of interviewed men reported having suffered psychological or physical health problems following the disaster, only a small minority had sought help from professional health services. The article develops insights into the men's social interactions and underlines the importance of supporting further research on red health topics, in particular the help-seeking behavior of men following exposure to natural disasters.

  10. The northward march of summer low cloudiness along the California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemesha, Rachel E. S.; Gershunov, Alexander; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Williams, A. Park; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2016-02-01

    A new satellite-derived low cloud retrieval reveals rich spatial texture and coherent space-time propagation in summertime California coastal low cloudiness (CLC). Throughout the region, CLC is greatest during May-September but has considerable monthly variability within this summer season. On average, June is cloudiest along the coast of southern California and northern Baja, Mexico, while July is cloudiest along northern California's coast. Over the course of the summer, the core of peak CLC migrates northward along coastal California, reaching its northernmost extent in late July/early August, then recedes while weakening. The timing and movement of the CLC climatological structure is related to the summer evolution of lower tropospheric stability and both its component parts, sea surface temperature and potential temperature at 700 hPa. The roughly coincident seasonal timing of peak CLC with peak summertime temperatures translates into the strongest heat-modulating capacity of CLC along California's north coast.

  11. Beliefs about children's adjustment in same-sex families: Spanish and Chilean university students.

    PubMed

    Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Monterde-i-Bort, Hector; Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Cardenas-Castro, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of our study is to compare the beliefs of Spanish and Chilean university students about the effects that same-sex parents might have on their children. A total of 491 participants completed the study (208 Spaniards and 283 Chileans). The results indicate a kind of modern and subtle rejection based on hetero-normativity. Furthermore, the results indicated the effects of sex (men have a greater degree of rejection), traditional and sexist opinions linked to a greater rejection of same-sex parents, and the contact variable which inversely correlates with this rejection. The results show that the etiology of homosexual orientation also correlates with rejection of same-sex parents when it is believed that homosexuality is learned or can be changed.

  12. Fingerspelling and sign language as alternative codes for reading and writing words for Chilean deaf signers.

    PubMed

    Puente, Aníbal; Alvarado, Jesús M; Herrera, Valeria

    2006-01-01

    The study examined the role of sign language and fingerspelling in the development of the reading and writing skills of deaf children and youth. Twenty-six deaf participants (13 children, 13 adolescents), whose first language was Chilean Sign Language (CHSL), were examined. Their dactylic abilities were evaluated with tasks involving the reading and writing of dactylic and orthographic codes. The study included three experiments: (a) the identification of Chilean signs and fingerspelled words, (b) the matching of fingerspelled words with commercial logos, and (c) the decoding of fingerspelled words and the mapping of these words onto the writing system. The results provide convergent evidence that the use of fingerspelling and sign language is related to orthographic skills. It is concluded that fingerspelling can facilitate the internal representation of words and serve as a supporting mechanism for reading acquisition.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  14. BTX abatement using Chilean natural zeolite: the role of Brønsted acid sites.

    PubMed

    Alejandro, S; Valdés, H; Manero, M-H; Zaror, C A

    2012-01-01

    In wastewater treatment facilities, air quality is not only affected by conventional unpleasant odour compounds; toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are also found. In this study, the adsorptive capacity of Chilean natural zeolite toward VOC removal was evaluated. Moreover, the influence of zeolite chemical surface properties on VOC elimination was also investigated. Three modified zeolite samples were prepared from a natural Chilean zeolite (53% clinoptilolite, 40% mordenite and 7% quartz). Natural and modified zeolite samples were characterised by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K, elemental analyses and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). Chemical modifications of natural zeolite showed the important role of Brønsted acid sites on the abatement of VOCs. The presence of humidity has a negative effect on zeolite adsorption capacity. Natural zeolites could be an interesting option for benzene, toluene and xylene vapour emission abatement.

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  16. Draft genome sequence of the Chilean isolate Aeromonas salmonicida strain CBA100.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Espinoza, Carolina; Sanhueza, Loreto; Gonzalez, Alex; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence from Aeromonas salmonicida sp. strain CBA100, which was characterized as an antibiotic-resistant bacterium isolated from infected rainbow trout. The total size of the genome is 4,788,109 bp, with a G + C content of 60.55%. Comparison of its open reading frames shows that the closest homologue to one third of the genes of strain CBA100 are found in A. hydrophila. The strain contains several efflux pumps and putative genes that confer resistance to multiclass antibiotics, including macrolide, β-lactamics, florfenicol and quinolones. The antibiogram profile suggests that efflux pumps are the main mechanism of resistance to non-β-lactamic antibiotics. This is the first genome of a Chilean isolate of A. salmonicida, which should shed light on the design of strain-specific vaccines against this pathogen and reduce the use of antibiotics for preventive treatment in Chilean aquaculture.

  17. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-07-14

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  18. Microearthquakes and crustal structure off the Makran Coast of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M.; Shimamura, H.; Matsu'ura, M.

    1980-05-01

    On the basis of bathymetric and seismic data collected recently off the coast of Makran in the Gulf of Oman, it has been suggested that the folding of the sediments at the northern edge of the abyssal plain is taking place at the present time. The folding is thought to be the consequence of ongoing subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian lithosphere along the Makran coast. The model assigns a far more significant role to the Makran coast in shaping the tectonics of the region than has thus far been assumed. In order to examine whether, despite the lack of teleseismically observable seismicity, the suggested deformation is associated with any microearthquake activity or not, a network of high gain seismographs, including three OBS’s, was installed near the western end of the Makran coast in May 1977 and operated for about two weeks. During the observation period no noticeable microearthquake activity associated with the suggested boundary was observed. Nearly 40 of the earthquakes located by the network data are aftershocks of the destructive earthquake which occurred on March 21, 1977, north of Bandar-Abbas, more than 400 km from the OBS’s. From the observed travel times of the three 180 kilogram explosions set off for regional calibration, a 20 km thick two layered oceanic crust was obtained.

  19. Chilean Armed Forces and Their Capacity in the Context of the International Crises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    National Defense University acknowledges the volatility of incidents: They may appear as “threatening to the state, its territories , citizens and...State does not hold any aggressive intentions towards any country in the world; neither has it had territorial claims in the neighboring context. b) The...sovereignty and its territorial integrity. c) The Chilean State has the responsibility to maintain an adequate military capability to assist in the

  20. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  1. First detection and complete genome sequence of Deformed wing virus in Chilean honeybees.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Cifuentes-Muñoz, Nicolás; Rivera, Paulina A; Gutierrez, Matías; Shmaryahu, Amir; Valenzuela, Pablo D T; Engel, Esteban A

    2012-12-01

    Deformed wing virus (DWV) is one of the most common viruses affecting honey bee specimens. Although the presence of DWV has been reported in many countries, there is no data of the current situation in Chile. In this report, we detected the presence of DWV in apiaries from two different locations in central Chile. Furthermore, the genome of a Chilean DWV isolate was completely sequenced. This is the first report of the presence of a honey bee virus in Chile.

  2. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  3. U.S. and Chilean College Students' Reading Practices: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Suhua; Orellana, Pelusa; Capps, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the amounts of time that U.S. and Chilean students spend on conventional academic reading, extracurricular reading, and Facebook and also to report the types of materials they prefer to read. The study surveyed students in the United States (n = 1,265) and Chile (n = 2,076)…

  4. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa.

  5. International Naval Technology Transfer: Lessons Learned from the Spanish and Chilean Shipbuilding Experience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-30

    Transfer: Lessons Learned from the Spanish and Chilean Shipbuilding Experience Larrie Ferreiro Defense Acquisition University Published April 30...PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University ,9820 Belvoir Rd...www.acquisitionresearch.net, at a rate of roughly 140 reports per year. This activity has engaged researchers at over 60 universities and other institutions, greatly

  6. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  7. Mutagenicity and mutagens of the red chili pepper as gallbladder cancer risk factor in Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Terao, Michinori; Okano, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Oyama, Mari; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2011-01-01

    High consumption of red chili pepper has been shown to be a risk factor for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chilean women with gallstones, and included mutagens may be important in this context. We aimed to investigate the mutagenicity and mutagens in Chilean red chili pepper in the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA1537, TA100, and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9 mix). Pure capsaicin was tested for mutagenicity using strain TA98. The presence of aflatoxins was evaluated by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography, and then the concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured by an HPLC system. In strain TA98, the mean numbers of revertant colonies with and without the S9 mix were 2.5- and 2.2-fold higher than those of each negative control, respectively. However, pure capsaicin did not show mutagenic activity in strain TA98. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper was confirmed, and the concentrations of aflatoxins B1 and G1 were 4.4 ng/g and 0.5 ng/g, respectively. Our findings suggest that low-level but protracted exposure to aflatoxins may be associated with the development of GBC in Chilean women who carry gallstones.

  8. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  9. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María

    2016-10-01

    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments.

  10. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-11-12

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader.

  11. Phylogenetics of Puya (Bromeliaceae): Placement, major lineages, and evolution of Chilean species.

    PubMed

    Jabaily, Rachel Schmidt; Sytsma, Kenneth J

    2010-02-01

    Puya (Bromeliaceae), a large genus of terrestrial bromeliads found throughout a range of elevations in the Andes and central Chile, is of great systematic, evolutionary, and biogeographical interest. This first molecular phylogenetic study of Puya and related bromeliads employs matK, trnS-trnG, rps16, and PHYC sequences. Chloroplast DNA, nuclear DNA, and combined DNA data all place Puya closest to subfamily Bromelioideae. Nuclear and combined data support Puya as monophyletic, and the two subgenera are nonmonophyletic. All data indicate that the Chilean species of Puya are early diverging within the genus, consistent with Chilean genera as the first-diverging members of subfamily Bromelioideae. Central Chile is identified as a key region for understanding the biogeographical history of Bromeliaceae, as is true with other South American plant groups. A complicated history involving early chloroplast capture and later secondary hybridization and/or introgression is seen in Chilean lineages. These events help explain the occurrence of sterile inflorescence tips, floral color and shape, and leaf indument. The ecological radiation of Puya appears coincident with the final, recent rise of the Andes and subsequent high-elevation habitat diversification. Additionally, geographical distribution, rather than moisture or elevational adaptations, correlates to species relationships. Evolution of CAM photosynthesis has occurred multiple times.

  12. [Position paper from the Department of Ethics of the Chilean College of Physicians about conscientious objection].

    PubMed

    Salas, Sofía P; Besio, Mauricio; Bórquez Estefó, Gladys; Salinas, Rodrigo A; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Micolich, Constanza; Novoa Sotta, Fernando; Bernier Villarroel, Lioniel; Montt M, Julio; Misseroni Raddatz, Adelio

    2016-03-01

    The Chilean bill that regulates abortion for three cases (Bulletin Nº 9895-11) includes the possibility that health professionals may manifest their conscientious objection (CO) to perform this procedure. Due to the broad impact that the issue of C O had, the Ethics Department of the Chilean College of Physicians considered important to review this concept and its ethical and legal basis, especially in the field of sexual and reproductive health. In the present document, we define the practical limit s of CO, both for the proper fulfillment of the medical profession obligations, and for the due respect and non-discrimination that the professional objector deserves. We analyze the denial of some health institutions to perform abortions if it is legalize d, and we end with recommendations adjusted to the Chilean reality. Specifically, we recognize the right to conscientious objection that all physicians who directly participate in a professional act have. But we a lso recognize that physicians have ineludib le obligations towards their patients, including the obligation to inform about the existence of this service, how to access to it and -as set out in our code of ethics- to ensure that another colleague will continue attending the patient.

  13. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  14. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board.

  15. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  16. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  17. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE... England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  18. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  5. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.104 - South Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false South Coast. 9.104 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “South Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of South Coast viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  8. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  9. Movements of a polar bear from northern Alaska to northern Greenland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durner, George M.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    1995-01-01

    Using satellite telemetry, we monitored the movements of an adult female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as she traveled from the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast to northern Greenland. She is the first polar bear known to depart the Beaufort Sea region for an extended period, and the first polar bear known to move between Alaska and Greenland. This bear traveled for four months across the polar basin and came within 2 degrees of the North Pole. During the first year following her capture, she traveled 5256 km. Evidence to suggest her use of maternity dens in northern Alaska and in northern Greenland demonstrates the potential for genetic exchange between two widely separate populations of polar bears. The long life spans of polar bears and the rarity of their long-range movements means the significance of interpopulation movement can be assessed after long-term monitoring of individuals.

  10. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  11. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2013-2014 Biennial Specifications and... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  12. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the...

  13. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies.

  14. Microbial Activity Response to Solar Radiation across Contrasting Environmental Conditions in Salar de Huasco, Northern Chilean Altiplano

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Klaudia L.; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse M.; Dorador, Cristina; Menschel, Eduardo J.; Molina, Verónica; Remonsellez, Francisco; Hengst, Martha B.; Jeffrey, Wade H.

    2016-01-01

    In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, 3H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation. We sampled during austral spring seven stations categorized as: (a) source stations, with recently emerged groundwater (no-previous solar exposure); (b) stream running water stations; (c) stations connected to source waters but far downstream from source points; and (d) isolated ponds disconnected from ground sources or streams with a longer isolation and solar exposure history. Very high values of 0.25 μE m-2 s-1, 72 W m-2 and 12 W m-2 were measured for PAR, UVA, and UVB incident solar radiation, respectively. The environmental factors measured formed two groups of stations reflected by principal component analyses (near to groundwater sources and isolated systems) where isolated ponds had the highest BSP and microbial abundance (35 microalgae taxa, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, and bacteria) plus higher salinities and PO43- concentrations. BSP short-term response (4 h) to solar radiation was measured by 3H-leucine incorporation under four different solar conditions: full sun, no UVB, PAR, and dark. Microbial communities established in waters with the longest surface exposure (e.g., isolated ponds) had the lowest BSP response to solar radiation treatments, and thus were likely best adapted to solar radiation exposure contrary to ground source waters. These results support our light history (solar exposure) hypothesis where the more isolated the community is from ground water sources, the better adapted it is to solar radiation. We suggest that factors other than solar radiation (e.g., salinity, PO43-, NO3-) are also important in determining microbial productivity in heterogeneous environments such as the Salar de Huasco. PMID:27920763

  15. Microbial Activity Response to Solar Radiation across Contrasting Environmental Conditions in Salar de Huasco, Northern Chilean Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Klaudia L; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse M; Dorador, Cristina; Menschel, Eduardo J; Molina, Verónica; Remonsellez, Francisco; Hengst, Martha B; Jeffrey, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    In high altitude environments, extreme levels of solar radiation and important differences of ionic concentrations over narrow spatial scales may modulate microbial activity. In Salar de Huasco, a high-altitude wetland in the Andean mountains, the high diversity of microbial communities has been characterized and associated with strong environmental variability. Communities that differed in light history and environmental conditions, such as nutrient concentrations and salinity from different spatial locations, were assessed for bacterial secondary production (BSP, (3)H-leucine incorporation) response from short-term exposures to solar radiation. We sampled during austral spring seven stations categorized as: (a) source stations, with recently emerged groundwater (no-previous solar exposure); (b) stream running water stations; (c) stations connected to source waters but far downstream from source points; and (d) isolated ponds disconnected from ground sources or streams with a longer isolation and solar exposure history. Very high values of 0.25 μE m(-2) s(-1), 72 W m(-2) and 12 W m(-2) were measured for PAR, UVA, and UVB incident solar radiation, respectively. The environmental factors measured formed two groups of stations reflected by principal component analyses (near to groundwater sources and isolated systems) where isolated ponds had the highest BSP and microbial abundance (35 microalgae taxa, picoeukaryotes, nanoflagellates, and bacteria) plus higher salinities and PO4(3-) concentrations. BSP short-term response (4 h) to solar radiation was measured by (3)H-leucine incorporation under four different solar conditions: full sun, no UVB, PAR, and dark. Microbial communities established in waters with the longest surface exposure (e.g., isolated ponds) had the lowest BSP response to solar radiation treatments, and thus were likely best adapted to solar radiation exposure contrary to ground source waters. These results support our light history (solar exposure) hypothesis where the more isolated the community is from ground water sources, the better adapted it is to solar radiation. We suggest that factors other than solar radiation (e.g., salinity, PO4(3-), NO3(-)) are also important in determining microbial productivity in heterogeneous environments such as the Salar de Huasco.

  16. The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Hernández, Klaudia; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse Mork; Molina, Verónica

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+ .

  17. Chilean blue whales as a case study to illustrate methods to estimate abundance and evaluate conservation status of rare species.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Hedley, Sharon L; Branch, Trevor A; Bravington, Mark V; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Findlay, Ken P

    2011-06-01

    Often abundance of rare species cannot be estimated with conventional design-based methods, so we illustrate with a population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) a spatial model-based method to estimate abundance. We analyzed data from line-transect surveys of blue whales off the coast of Chile, where the population was hunted to low levels. Field protocols allowed deviation from planned track lines to collect identification photographs and tissue samples for genetic analyses, which resulted in an ad hoc sampling design with increased effort in areas of higher densities. Thus, we used spatial modeling methods to estimate abundance. Spatial models are increasingly being used to analyze data from surveys of marine, aquatic, and terrestrial species, but estimation of uncertainty from such models is often problematic. We developed a new, broadly applicable variance estimator that showed there were likely 303 whales (95% CI 176-625) in the study area. The survey did not span the whales' entire range, so this is a minimum estimate. We estimated current minimum abundance relative to pre-exploitation abundance (i.e., status) with a population dynamics model that incorporated our minimum abundance estimate, likely population growth rates from a meta-analysis of rates of increase in large baleen whales, and two alternative assumptions about historic catches. From this model, we estimated that the population was at a minimum of 9.5% (95% CI 4.9-18.0%) of pre-exploitation levels in 1998 under one catch assumption and 7.2% (CI 3.7-13.7%) of pre-exploitation levels under the other. Thus, although Chilean blue whales are probably still at a small fraction of pre-exploitation abundance, even these minimum abundance estimates demonstrate that their status is better than that of Antarctic blue whales, which are still <1% of pre-exploitation population size. We anticipate our methods will be broadly applicable in aquatic and terrestrial surveys for rarely encountered species

  18. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BC01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl Rationalization Program; Reconsideration... proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl...

  19. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  20. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  1. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  2. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  3. 33 CFR 3.05-15 - Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.05-15 Section 3.05-15 Navigation and Navigable... INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES First Coast Guard District § 3.05-15 Sector Northern New England Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. Sector Northern New England's office...

  4. Oceanographic Conditions Off Northern Chile During the 1996 La Nina and 1997-1998 El Nino: Part1 - Hydrographic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, J.; Thomas, A.; Strub, T.; Carr, M.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile (18(sup o) - 24(sup o)S) betweeen 1996 and 1998 (including 1997-1998 El Nino) is presented using hydrographic measurements acquired on quarterly cruises of the Chilean Fisheries Institute, sea-surface temperature (SST), sea level, and wind speeds from Arica (18.5(sup o)S), Iquique (20.5(sup o)S), and Antofagasta (23.5(sup o)S), and a time series of vertical temperature profiles off Iquique.

  5. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  6. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  7. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. COAST:The Controller's Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duquette, William H.

    1993-01-01

    COAST, the Controller's Assistant, is a semi-automated player of the CBS wargave training simulation. It uses rule-based techniques to maneuver a collection of platoons through a complex infiltration mission in response to a single high-level order from a CBS controller.

  9. Insulin Resistance in Chileans of European and Indigenous Descent: Evidence for an Ethnicity x Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.; Perez-Bravo, Francisco; Ibañes, Luis; Sanzana, Ruth; Hormazabal, Edison; Ulloa, Natalia; Calvo, Carlos; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Gill, Jason M. R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Effects of urbanisation on diabetes risk appear to be greater in indigenous populations worldwide than in populations of European origin, but the reasons are unclear. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine whether the effects of environment (Rural vs. Urban), adiposity, fitness and lifestyle variables on insulin resistance differed between individuals of indigenous Mapuche origin compared to those of European origin in Chile. Methodology/Principal Findings 123 Rural Mapuche, 124 Urban Mapuche, 91 Rural European and 134 Urban European Chilean adults had blood taken for determination of HOMA-estimated insulin resistance (HOMAIR) and underwent assessment of physical activity/sedentary behaviour (using accelerometry), cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary intake and body composition. General linear models were used to determine interactions with ethnicity for key variables. There was a significant “ethnicity x environment” interaction for HOMAIR (Mean±SD; Rural Mapuche: 1.65±2.03, Urban Mapuche: 4.90±3.05, Rural European: 0.82±0.61, Urban European: 1.55±1.34, p(interaction) = 0.0003), such that the effect of urbanisation on HOMAIR was greater in Mapuches than Europeans. In addition, there were significant interactions (all p<0.004) with ethnicity for effects of adiposity, sedentary time and physical activity on HOMAIR, with greater effects seen in Mapuches compared to Europeans, an observation that persisted after adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions/Significance Urbanisation, adiposity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour influence insulin resistance to a greater extent in Chilean Mapuches than Chileans of European descent. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of lifestyle strategies to reduce metabolic risk in different ethnic groups, and for understanding of the mechanisms underpinning human insulin resistance. PMID:21931814

  10. HMGCR rs17671591 SNP Determines Lower Plasma LDL-C after Atorvastatin Therapy in Chilean Individuals.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Alejandro; Fernández, César; Ferrada, Luis; Zambrano, Tomás; Rosales, Alexy; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-04-01

    Lipid-lowering response to statin therapy shows large interindividual variability. At a genome-wide significance level, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PCSK9 and HMGCR have been implicated in this differential response. However, the influence of these variants is uncertain in the Chilean population. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of PCSK9 rs7552841 and HMGCR rs17671591 SNPs as genetic determinants of atorvastatin response in Chilean hypercholesterolaemic individuals. One hundred and one hypercholesterolaemic patients received atorvastatin 10 mg/day for 4 weeks. Plasma lipid profile (TC, HDL-C, LDL-C and TG) was determined before and after statin treatment, and SNPs were identified by allelic discrimination using TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping Assays. Adjusted univariate and multivariate analyses' models were used for statistical analyses, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. From baseline (week 0) to the study end-point (week 4), significant reductions were observed in plasma TC, LDL-C and TG (p < 0.001), while HDL-C levels were increased (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed no association between lipid levels and atorvastatin therapy for the PCSK9 variant. However, the HMGCR rs17671591 T allele contributed to basal HDL-C concentration variability along with a higher increase in this lipid fraction after statin medication. In addition, this allele determined greater plasma LDL-C reductions after therapy with atorvastatin. Our data suggest that the HMGCR rs17671591 polymorphism can constitute a genetic marker of lower plasma LDL-C and enhanced HDL-C concentration after atorvastatin therapy in the Chilean population.

  11. SPOC Experiment: First Results From Seismological Studies Along the Central Chilean Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierer, P. O.; Tilmann, F.; Flueh, E. R.; Kopp, H.; Gossler, J.

    2002-12-01

    The investigations of the RV SONNE cruise SO161 during the SPOC experiment (Subduction Processes Off Chile) concentrated on the area of the central Chilean margin west off Valparaiso. The main goal of this experiment is to investigate the effects of subducting oceanic seafloor relief on the seismicity of this domain. A marine array of 23 ocean bottom hydrophones and seismometers (OBH/S) was deployed for a period of ten weeks to monitor local earthquakes from this part of the Chilean margin where volcanic structures like the aseismic Juan Fernandez Ridge enter the trench. A strong decrease in dip angle of the subducting plate (flat slab) is observed here, resulting in a segmentation of the margin. The flat slab segment correlates with the absence of Quaternary volcanism and a central valley on the South American plate. It is assumed that a connection between the buoyancy of thickened oceanic crust and the occurrence of shallow subduction earthquakes exists. We present preliminary results of hypocenter determinations, founded on about 300 localisable events based on the OBH/S recordings. The distribution of hypocenters shows a considerable seismic activity within the 15 km - 50 km depth range. The special focus on the transitional domain of the slope allowed us to map in detail the seaward termination of the seismogenic zone. In addition, we used seismological land data, recorded from the Central Chilean Network (CCN) and a number of temporary landstations to supplement the marine data set. Comparative and joint hypocenter analysis from both marine and land data, increases the precision of locations and allows an assessment of systematic errors. We can show the need of both, on- and offshore data sets, to determine offshore earthquake locations with high precision. The seismological investigations are in close collaboration with the active seismic studies carried out during the scope of the SPOC experiment.

  12. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Araya, A. X.; Norr, K. F.; Levy, J.A.; Pérez, C.M.; Park, C.G.; Kim, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying both HIV-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) is a major challenge for health care providers globally. Yet little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants’ medical records. Results show that patients’ most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study’s results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology. PMID:22909386

  13. Use of Electronic Versus Print Textbooks by Chilean Dental Students: A National Survey.

    PubMed

    Aravena, Pedro Christian; Schulz, Karen; Parra, Annemarie; Perez-Rojas, Francisco; Rosas, Cristian; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo

    2017-03-01

    Electronic textbooks have become available in recent decades as replacements or alternatives for print versions. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to evaluate the use of electronic versus print textbooks by Chilean dental students. The target population was students from 14 Chilean dental schools. The questionnaire was adapted and translated to Spanish from a previous survey used in a similar study. It consisted of the following variables: preferred type, type used, frequency of use, source, electronic devices used to read, and disposal after use. The use of textbooks was analyzed and compared by gender and course (p≤0.05). The final sample consisted of 3,256 students (21.38±2.5 years of age, 50.8% women). Most of the participants reported using both types of texts, with most (63.9%) preferring print over electronic texts, including significantly more women (p<0.001) and first-year students (p<0.001). Most of the participants (82.8%), more women (p<0.001), and with variations over years of study (p<0.001) reported that they printed out their electronic texts, and 91.8% kept their printed material. Most of the students used electronic books on a daily basis (47.3%) or at least twice a week (30.7%). The main source of electronic textbooks was the Internet (43.8%). A personal computer was the most widely used device for reading electronic texts (95.0%), followed by a cell phone (46.4%) and a tablet (24.5%). Overall, these Chilean dental students preferred print over electronic textbooks, despite having available electronic devices.

  14. Update of the genus Leptochiton (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in Chilean deep waters: three new reports and description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Sirenko, Boris; Sellanes, Javier

    2016-10-04

    We update the list of the bathyal chitons of the genus Leptochiton inhabiting Chilean waters. We report new records of Leptochiton belknapi and L. laurae, the first record of L. sigwartae for the area and the new species L. ibanezi sp. nov. and L. ferreirai sp. nov. With 12 species, including those described herein as new, the highest species richness of Leptochiton is found in Chilean deep waters. Taking into consideration the potential late Paleozoic origin of the genus Leptochiton, we propose that Leptochiton originated in the old Pacific Ocean and migrated to the young Atlantic Ocean. However, the genus has also been considered non-monophyletic.

  15. Volatile profile characterisation of Chilean sparkling wines produced by traditional and Charmat methods via sequential stir bar sorptive extraction.

    PubMed

    Ubeda, C; Callejón, R M; Troncoso, A M; Peña-Neira, A; Morales, M L

    2016-09-15

    The volatile compositions of Charmat and traditional Chilean sparkling wines were studied for the first time. For this purpose, EG-Silicone and PDMS polymeric phases were compared and, afterwards, the most adequate was selected. The best extraction method turned out to be a sequential extraction in the headspace and by immersion using two PDMS twisters. A total of 130 compounds were determined. In traditional Chilean sparkling wines, ethyl esters were significantly higher, while acetic esters and ketones were predominant in the Charmat wines. PCA and LDA confirmed the differences in the volatile profiles between the production methods (traditional vs. Charmat).

  16. Decadal Variability of West Coast Marine Stratus Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, S.; Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Cayan, D. R.; Williams, P.

    2013-12-01

    Low frequency variability of West Coast summertime marine stratus clouds are investigated using six decades of observations at several coastal airport locations. The magnitude and direction of long-term trends in summertime marine stratus occurrence along the California coast depends strongly on the cloud base height threshold used to distinguish low clouds from higher clouds. In this study, marine stratus clouds are defined as having cloud base at or below 1000 meters. Using this threshold, a decreasing trend in marine stratus cloud frequency was found for Southern California during the 1950-2012 period. No significant trends were found in Northern California. When averaged over the summer season, the cloud data reveal that coastal stratus has substantial variation on multi-year time scales with typical changes of 10-15% from year to year and 5-7% from decade to decade. Low stratus cloud cover varies over long distances with coherent anomalies that extend from southern California to Oregon. The most important correlated modes of SST with cloud cover anomalies, via a canonical correlation analysis contains both local and remote SST linkages. The first mode is correlated with the PDO and also to Pacific atmospheric circulation patterns and coastal upwelling. There is also a linkage to sea surface temperature anomalies in the low latitude Pacific, suggesting that tropical-extratropical interactions may be involved in driving West Coast cloud cover.

  17. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  18. Mano a Mano Mujer: An Effective HIV Prevention for Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L.; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally-facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low income Chilean women was examined using a quasi-experimental design. At three months post-intervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes towards people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self-efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. However, they did not have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries. PMID:22420675

  19. [International policies towards sick leave: A referent to analyze the Chilean situation].

    PubMed

    Vergara, Marcos

    2011-04-01

    This is a comparative review of sick leave and wage replacement policies among countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (EOCD), an organism that Chile joined recently. This review also deals with the main transformations applied to the system to improve its effciency and the variables that explain such changes. The Chilean system is analyzed from the perspective of substitution rates, waiting time and protection length. According to these parameters, Chile is located below countries such as Scandinavian countries, that provide a universal protection, and over those countries that provide a focalized protection according to worker's needs.

  20. Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species.

  1. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  2. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  3. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  4. Climatology of Transport and Diffusion Conditions along the United States Atlantic and Gulf Coasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynor, Gilbert S.; Hayes, Janet V.

    1981-08-01

    A study of the atmospheric transport and diffusion climatology of the United States east and Gulf coasts was conducted to aid in planning and site selection for potentially polluting installations. This paper presents selected results from an extensive statistical study. Regular hourly observational data were obtained from 30 coastal stations from Maine to Texas and analyzed in terms of conditions important to emission transport and diffusion. The 30 stations included four pairs with one of each pair at a greater distance from the coast than the other but near the same latitude.For each station, wind directions were classified into eight groups with reference to orientation of the local coastline. For some studies, fewer classes were desirable and these were combined into three groups-onshore, alongshore and offshore. Wind speeds were divided into four classes. A stability class for each observation was computed by a modified Pasquill method. This gave eight classes which were combined into three-unstable, neutral and stable-for some studies. Diffusion ratings ranging from very good to very poor were derived from combinations of wind speed and stability classes. Finally, the joint frequency distributions of wind direction and diffusion rating were calculated for each station. Data were then classified by season, time of day, wind direction, wind speed, stability class and combinations of these variables, and the percent of hours in each subgroup determined.Onshore winds were least frequent along the New England and Mid-Atlantic coasts except from Cape Cod to New York City and along the west coast of Florida. Onshore winds were most frequent along the east coast of Florida and the Texas coast. Poor diffusion conditions occurred most frequently from the Carolinas to the Florida east coast and along the northern Gulf Coast. At all stations, diffusion conditions were better during the day than at night. Among the paired stations, the more inland had a greater frequency

  5. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  6. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  7. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  8. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  9. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  10. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  11. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Tribal Fishery for... rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rights in the area ] covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) request...

  12. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  13. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  14. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to...) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to allow fisheries to access...

  15. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised...

  16. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level...

  17. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection... fisheries operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off West Coast states. This new part 660 included a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  18. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts...

  19. Tilt of mean sea level along the Pacific coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyang; Thompson, Keith R.; Huang, Jianliang; Véronneau, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high-resolution, dynamically based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large-scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large-scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggests that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  20. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  1. Differential stream incision in the Oregon Coast Range

    SciTech Connect

    Personius, S.F. )

    1993-04-01

    Stream incision rates are used to determine rates and styles of late quaternary deformation of the Oregon Coast Range, in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone. Bedrock incision rates were obtained along westward-flowing streams, from the Umpqua river in a central western Oregon to the North Fork Nehalem River in northwestern Oregon. Incision measurements were restricted mostly to nontidal reaches that are more than 20--40 km inland from the coast, to exclude areas affected by eustatic changes in sea level. Most strath ages were determined indirectly by radiocarbon dating of detrital charcoal sampled from alluvium that overlies the straths. A few incision measurements were made on straths that underlie higher, less well preserved terrace remnants. The ages of some of these higher straths were determined by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. These ages are less constrained than those established with radiocarbon dating, but they appear to yield similar rates of incision. The difference in age between the overlying sediments and the age of strath abandonment is unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that sediment mobilization and deposition most likely were concurrent with cutting of the strath. Numerous strath height measurements indicate that rates of incision are fairly uniform along many kilometers of individual Coast Range streams, regardless of the type of bedrock traversed. Such uniform incision rates do not support the landward tilting of the Coast Range as postulated by other studies. However, regional differences in incision apparent in northern Oregon may be explained by differential uplift caused by north-south compression in the overriding North American plate, or by changes in the geometry of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate.

  2. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  3. Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemolamae infection in Peruvian and Chilean llamas and alpacas.

    PubMed

    Tornquist, Susan J; Boeder, Lisa; Rios-Phillips, Carolina; Alarcon, Virgilio

    2010-09-01

    Mycoplasma haemolamae is a hemotropic mycoplasma that affects red blood cells of llamas (Lama glama) and alpacas (Lama pacos). It is variably associated with anemia, and most infections are subclinical. Development of a polymerase chain reaction assay has facilitated detection of this infection in llamas and alpacas in the United States and other countries. Whether the infection occurs in camelids in South America has previously been unknown. The current study documents a 15.8% infection rate among 76 Peruvian llamas, a 19.3% infection rate among Peruvian alpacas at one site, and a 9.26% infection rate in 108 Chilean alpacas from selected herds. All of the camelids tested appeared to be clinically healthy. No gender or species predilection was found. Only 1 positive camelid younger than 18 months was found. Infection is not associated with anemia, and the mean packed cell volume (PCV) in positive Peruvian camelids was slightly higher than the mean PCV in negative Peruvian camelids. In the Chilean alpacas, the positive alpacas had a slightly lower PCV than the negative alpacas, although the mean PCV was not in the anemic range in any of the groups.

  4. Aggregate structure and stability linked to carbon dynamics in a south Chilean Andisol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huygens, D.; Boeckx, P.; van Cleemput, O.; Godoy, R.; Oyarzún, C.

    2005-02-01

    The extreme vulnerability of soil organic carbon to climate and land use change emphasizes the need for further research in different terrestrial ecosystems. We have studied the aggregate stability and carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of three different land uses in a south Chilean Andisols: a second growth Nothofagus obliqua forest (SGFOR), a grassland (GRASS) and a Pinus radiata plantation (PINUS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Al as soil organic matter stabilizing agent in this Andisol. In a case study, we linked differences in carbon dynamics between the three land use treatments to physical protection and recalcitrance of the soil organic matter (SOM). In this study, C aggregate stability and dynamics were studied using size and density fractionation experiments of the SOM, δ13C and total carbon analysis of the different SOM fractions, and mineralization measurements. The results showed that electrostatic attractions between and among Al-oxides and clay minerals are mainly responsible for the stabilization of soil aggregates and the physical protection of the enclosed soil organic carbon. Whole soil C mineralization rate constants were highest for SGFOR and PINUS, followed by GRASS. In contrast, incubation experiments of isolated macro organic matter fractions showed that the recalcitrance of the SOM decreased in another order: PINUS > SGFOR > GRASS. We concluded that physical protection of soil aggregates was the main process determining whole soil C mineralization. Land use changes affected soil organic carbon dynamics in this south Chilean Andisol by altering soil pH and consequently available Al.

  5. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21-2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample.

  6. Synaptic effects of low molecular weight components from Chilean Black Widow spider venom.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Jorge; Romero, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    alpha-Latrotoxin is the principal component of the venom from the euroasiatic Black Widow spider and has been studied for its pharmacological use as a synaptic modulator. Interestingly, smaller molecular weight fractions have been found to be associated with this toxin, but their cellular actions have not been studied in detail. The venom from the Chilean Black Widow spider (Latrodectus mactans) does not produce alpha-latrotoxin, however it does contain several small polypeptides. We have recently demonstrated cellular effects of these peptides at the synaptic level using whole-cell patch clamp techniques. Purified venom from the glands of L. mactans was studied in 12 DIV rat hippocampal neuronal cultures. Venom at a concentration of 10nM was able to decrease neuronal conductance thereby increasing membrane resistance. This effect on the passive properties of the neurons induced a change in action potential kinetics simulating the action of classic potassium channel blockers. These changes produced an increase in spontaneous synaptic activity in rat hippocampal cultures in the presence of the venom in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. These results indicate that venom from Chilean spider L. mactans is capable of increasing cell membrane resistance, prolonging the action potential and generating an increase in synaptic activity demonstrating an interesting pharmacological effect of these low molecular weight fragments.

  7. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  8. Geomicrobial characterization of gas hydrate-bearing sediments along the mid-Chilean margin.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Leila J; Gillevet, Patrick M; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Pohlman, John W; Plummer, Rebecca E; Coffin, Richard B

    2008-07-01

    Bacterial diversity in eight sediment cores from the mid-Chilean margin was studied using length heterogeneity (LH)-PCR, and described in relation to in situ geochemical conditions. DNA from the sulfate-methane transition (SMT) of three cores [one containing methane gas; two proximal to a gas hydrate mound (GHM)] was cloned and sequenced. Clones related to uncultured relatives of Desulfosarcina variabilis were found in all clone libraries and dominated one. Desulfosarcina variabilis related clones were similar to phylotypes observed at the SMT in association with anaerobic methane oxidation in the Eel River basin, Cascadia margin and the Gulf of Mexico. The LH-PCR amplicon associated with D. variabilis clones matched the amplicon that dominated most SMT samples, indicating environmental selection for D. variabilis relatives. Clones related to the Verrucomicrobia dominated the library for the methane gas-containing core. Uncultured Treponema relatives dominated the library for the core obtained on the edge of a GHM. Statistical analysis using geochemical data to describe variance in LH-PCR data revealed that stable carbon isotope ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon are the principal structuring factor on SMT communities. These data suggest that D. variabilis relatives are involved in anaerobic oxidation of methane at the SMT in Chilean margin sediments.

  9. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.

  10. Frequency and Specificity of Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization in Chilean Transfused Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caamaño, José; Musante, Evangelina; Contreras, Margarita; Ulloa, Hernán; Reyes, Carolina; Inaipil, Verónica; Saavedra, Nicolás; Guzmán, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Alloimmunization is an adverse effect of blood transfusions. In Chile, alloimmunization frequency is not established, and for this reason the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in Chilean transfused subjects. Methods Records from 4,716 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. In these patients, antibody screening was carried out prior to cross-matching with a commercially available two-cell panel by the microcolum gel test, and samples with a positive screen were analyzed for the specificity of the alloantibody with a 16-cell identification panel. Results The incidence of RBC alloimmunization in transfused patients was 1.02% (48/4,716) with a higher prevalence in women (40/48). We detected 52 antibodies, the most frequent specificities identified were anti-E (30.8%), anti-K (26.9%), anti-D (7.7%), and anti-Fya (5.8%). The highest incidence of alloantibodies was observed in cancer and gastroenterology patients. Conclusion The data demonstrated a low alloimmunization frequency in Chilean transfused patients, principally associated with antibodies anti-E, anti-K, anti-D, and anti-Fya. PMID:25960709

  11. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. METHODS: Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. RESULTS: Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. CONCLUSION: Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children's development and potential use of marijuana.

  12. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katy M.; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child’s behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children. PMID:21785514

  13. Capsular Serotype and Antibiotic Resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae Isolates in Two Chilean Cities

    PubMed Central

    Inostroza, Jaime; Trucco, Olivia; Prado, Valeria; Vinet, Ana Maria; Retamal, Gloria; Ossa, Gonzalo; Facklam, Richard R.; Sorensen, Ricardo U.

    1998-01-01

    We compared the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the serotypes causing mucosal and invasive diseases, and the antibiotic resistance of these strains in patients admitted to three large hospitals and children attending day care centers in two Chilean cities (Santiago and Temuco). The populations in both cities were similar in ethnic background, socioeconomic status, family size, and access to medical care. Significant differences in nasopharyngeal colonization rates, in serotypes causing infections, and in antibiotic resistance were found between the two cities. In children 0 to 2 years of age, 42% were colonized with S. pneumoniae in Santiago compared to 14% in Temuco. A total of 41 serotypes were identified in both Chilean cities studied. Six serotypes were found only in Santiago; 14 serotypes were found only in Temuco. Antibiotic-resistant serotypes 6A, 6B, 14, 19F, and 23F were detected only in Santiago. We show that important differences in the incidence of nasopharyngeal carriage, infection, and S. pneumoniae serotypes can exist in similar populations in different areas of the same country. Our findings are relevant for prevention strategies, antibiotic usage, and vaccine design. PMID:9521139

  14. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  15. Genetic parameters and trends in the Chilean multibreed dairy cattle population.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Jara, A; Barria, N

    2004-05-01

    Estimates of additive and nonadditive multibreed co-variance components, genetic parameters, and predicted genetic values for first lactation 305-d mature equivalent (ME) milk yield, fat yield, and protein yield were computed using data from a sample of 3316 cows from the Chilean Holstein-other breeds multibreed population. Variances and covariances were estimated by 2-trait REML analyses using a Generalized Expectation-Maximization algorithm applied to multibreed populations. Multiple estimates of additive genetic, nonadditive genetic, and environmental variances from 2-trait analyses were averaged to yield a single variance estimate for each trait and effect. Heritabilities were moderate for all traits in Holstein, other, and Holstein x other crossbred groups. Interbreed interactibilities (ratio of nonadditive genetic to phenotypic variances) were all near zero. Multibreed additive, nonadditive, and total genetic trends were estimated using the complete dataset (56,277 cows). Upward trends between 1990 and 2000 existed for all traits, genetic effects, and breed groups, except for 305-d ME protein yield in 1/4 Holstein, indicating that Chilean dairy producers were successful in choosing progressively better semen and sires from imported and local sources over time.

  16. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  17. Attitudes and knowledge about preventive dental care in Chilean refugees in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, M; Bornstein, R; Martinsson, T

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simplified oral health programme on attitudes to and knowledge of preventive dentistry. The subjects were Chilean refugees and the programme was delivered at one or two sessions in the form of group information/discussion. Because of increasing immigration, Sweden has become a multicultural society. The number of non-Nordic immigrants has doubled in the past decade. The major refugee groups have come from Iran, Chile and Poland. The subjects comprised 193 Chilean refugees: 106 in a single-visit group and 87 in a two-visit group. The oral health programme was completed by 94 and 65 subjects respectively and was evaluated after 6 months. Positive effects were discernible in attitudes to and knowledge of preventive dentistry, particularly with respect to oral hygiene. A key to success may have been group discussion in which the refugees could relate oral health problems to their own ethnic group. This could have an important function in bridging cultural, linguistic and situational barriers. Different forms of outreach programmes for oral health via groups, organisations or authorities in close contact with refugees shortly after arrival in Sweden are proposed. This approach may be particularly effective in a multicultural society and also in the context of the turbulent conditions the newly-arrived refugee experiences.

  18. Modeling influence of tide stages on forecasts of the 2010 Chilean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslu, B. U.; Chamberlin, C.; Walsh, D.; Eble, M. C.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of the 2010 Chilean tsunami is studied using the NOAA high-resolution tsunami forecast model augmented to include modeled tide heights in addition to deep-water tsunami propagation as boundary-condition input. The Chilean tsunami was observed at the Los Angeles tide station at mean low water, Hilo at low, Pago Pago at mid tide and Wake Island near high tide. Because the tsunami arrived at coastal communities at a representative variety of tide stages, 2010 Chile tsunami provides opportunity to study the tsunami impacts at different tide levels to different communities. The current forecast models are computed with a constant tidal stage, and this study evaluates techniques for adding an additional varying predicted tidal component in a forecasting context. Computed wave amplitudes, wave currents and flooding are compared at locations around the Pacific, and the difference in tsunami impact due to tidal stage is studied. This study focuses on how tsunami impacts vary with different tide levels, and helps us understand how the inclusion of tidal components can improve real-time forecast accuracy.

  19. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) in a Chilean population

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) is an instrument designed to assess interoceptive awareness. The aim of this study was to adapt the original MAIA scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties in a Chilean population. The MAIA was administered to 470 adults, aged 18–70 years, 76.6% women and 23.4% men, residents of the provinces of Valparaíso and Concepción, Chile. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale from 32 to 30 items. Confirmatory factor analysis supports a structure of eight interrelated factors (Noticing, Not-Distracting, Not-Worrying, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, Self- Regulation, Body Listening, and Trusting), similar to the original scale (χ2(371) = 659.78, p = 0.0001; CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.056 and SRMR = 0.059). The Spanish version showed appropriate indicators of construct validity and reliability, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.90 for the total scale, and values between 0.40 and 0.86 for the different subscales. Similar to previous studies, low reliability was observed in two of the eight scales (Not-Distracting and Not-Worrying), thus further revision of these subscales is suggested. The Spanish version of MAIA proved to be a valid and reliable tool to investigate interoceptive awareness in the Chilean population. PMID:25717312

  20. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p < .001, GFI = .96, RMSEA = .052, NNFI .93, CFI = .94). Results confirmed the hypothesis formulated. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was higher than .70 for the four scales of the instruments. Results supported the concurrent validity with the MBI. As a whole, the results of these study provided evidence on the adequate psychometric properties of the SBI for the study of burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  1. 76 FR 42762 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Transit Improvements in the Mid-Coast Corridor of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... options to employment, education, medical, and retail centers for corridor residents, commuters, and... employment centers currently anchor both the northern and southern ends of the Mid-Coast Corridor, with.... Increased population and employment will lead to increased travel demand in the corridor. The...

  2. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

  4. Gasification of Gulf Coast Lignites

    SciTech Connect

    Smoller, R.K.

    1983-11-01

    Gulf Coast lignites are examined as a feedstock for a gasification facility making substitute natural gas (SNG). Advantages and disadvantages are explored in the areas of project development factors, gasification technology and physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite. The Texas Gasification Project currently under study at Phillips Coal is used to exemplify these factors. It has been found that the use of Gulf Coast lignite has several natural developmental advantages over fuels from other parts of the U.S. A project is relatively close to markets for all of its products including SNG, carbon dioxide and all by-products. The Gulf Coast has adequate supplies of basic commodities such as water. Most potential gasification plant locations have a good local infrastructure in existence. Labor can be drawn from one or more metropolitan areas within commuting distance. State regulatory agencies interact with energy development projects of all sizes on a regular basis providing a solid working knowledge of energy policies and accepted project development guidelines. Finally, a positive business climate exists at both the state and local levels providing support and encouragement to go forward with projects. The physical and chemical characteristics of the lignite are shown to have a major effect on the operability of the gasification process. Lignite properties examined include moisture content, friability, and ash content.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Chilean version of the Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS.

    PubMed

    Ruston, Francisco Contreras; Moreti, Felipe; Vivero, Martín; Malebran, Celina; Behlau, Mara

    This research aims to accomplish the cross-cultural equivalence of the Chilean version of the VoiSS protocol through its cultural and linguistic adaptation. After the translation of the VoiSS protocol to Chilean Spanish by two bilingual speech therapists and its back translation to English, we compared the items of the original tool with the previous translated version. The existing discrepancies were modified by a consensus committee of five speech therapists and the translated version was entitled Escala de Sintomas Vocales - ESV, with 30 questions and five answers: "Never", "Occasionally", "Sometimes", "Most of the time", "Always". For cross-cultural equivalence, the protocol was applied to 15 individuals with vocal problems. In each question the option of "Not applicable" was added to the answer choices for identification of the questions not comprehended or not appropriate for the target population. Two individuals had difficulty answering two questions, which made it necessary to adapt the translation of only one of them. The modified ESV was applied to three individuals with vocal problems, and there were incomprehensible inappropriate questions for the Chilean culture. The ESV reflects the original English version, both in the number of questions and the limitations of the emotional and physical domains. There is now a cross-cultural equivalence of VoiSS in Chilean Spanish, titled ESV. The validation of the ESV for Chilean Spanish is ongoing. RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo como objetivo realizar la equivalencia cultural de la versión Chilena del protocolo Voice Symptom Scale - VoiSS por medio de su adaptación cultural y lingüística. Después de la traducción del VoiSS para el Español Chileno, por dos fonoaudiólogos bilingües, y de la retro traducción para el inglés, se realizó una comparación de los ítems del instrumento original con la versión traducida, surgiendo discrepancias; tales divergencias fueron resueltas por un comité compuesto por

  6. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl Rationalization... future trawl rationalization program under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP... participants in the Pacific Coast groundfish trawl rationalization program and announcing the databases...

  7. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  8. The rapid identification of lactic acid bacteria present in Chilean winemaking processes using culture-independent analysis.

    PubMed

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Jara, Carla; Romero, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes was developed to identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that are commonly present in winemaking processes (Oenococcus, Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc). This culture-independent approach revealed the presence of Oenococcus in the spontaneous malolactic fermentation in industrial Chilean wines.

  9. Opening a Side-Gate: Engaging the Excluded in Chilean Higher Education through Test-Blind Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic…

  10. Modeling the Impacts of National and Institutional Financial Aid Opportunities on Persistence at an Elite Chilean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Santelices, María Verónica; Avendaño, Ximena Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Much of the recent Chilean educational debate and reform has centered around issues of higher education cost, debt burden, and availability of grants versus loans. This quantitative case study of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile sought to understand the longitudinal contributions of combinations of types of financial aid to persistence of…

  11. Local Coherence in Persuasive Writing: An Exploration of Chilean Students' Metalinguistic Knowledge, Writing Process, and Writing Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concha, Soledad; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on 12th-grade Chilean students' ability to produce locally coherent persuasive texts and on the cognitive basis that underlies this ability. All the participants wrote persuasive texts and answered a test of recognition of incoherent sequences. A subsample wrote another persuasive text while thinking aloud and had a…

  12. Quality of life among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a cross-cultural comparison of Chilean and French families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no study has examined quality of life (QoL) among caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia between a developing and a developed country. The aim of this study was to assess QoL of the caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia in two countries characterized by different social, economic and cultural conditions, namely Chile and France. Methods Data were collected from public mental health outpatient services in Arica (Chile), and in Marseille (France). QoL was measured with the short-form health survey scale - 36 items (SF36). QoL of 41 Chilean caregivers was firstly compared with 245 French caregivers. Univariate and multivariate analyses using linear regression were then performed to determine variables potentially related to QoL scores. Results The caregivers were primarily mothers in the two groups, but Chilean caregivers were younger, and lived more frequently with the individual with schizophrenia than French caregivers. The SF36 scores were globally low in the two groups, especially on the mental QoL scores. Chilean caregivers reported lower physical SF36 scores than French caregivers. In the multivariate analysis, being mother and Chilean caregivers were the most regular features associating to a lower QoL. Conclusion Despite differences between Chile and France, especially in terms of quality and quantity of mental health services and economic supports, caregivers’ QoL levels remain particularly low for both countries. Future support programmes should address the specific needs of caregivers. PMID:22640267

  13. Beyond Mother Education: Maternal Practices as Predictors of Early Literacy Development in Chilean Children from Low-SES Households

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendive, Susana; Lissi, María Rosa; Bakeman, Roger; Reyes, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: To extend findings that are mainly based on North American studies with English speakers, we studied 989 Chilean mothers from households of low socioeconomic status and their prekindergarten children, posing 2 questions: (a) Do mothers' self-reported practices about literacy development predict early literacy outcomes over and…

  14. Increasing Students' Academic Involvement: Chilean Teacher Engagement with Learners in Blended English as a Foreign Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Learning English as a foreign language (EFL), a highly valued skill in the Chilean marketplace, is an arduous and complex personal endeavor requiring high student motivation. Reflecting this challenge is the heightened anxiety among EFL students, whose work has been associated with historically meager results. Blended learning, the fusion of…

  15. Enhancement of Chlorophyll Concentration and Growing Harmful Algal Bloom Along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, Joselyn; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data at different locations, Cal Poly, Goleta, Newport, Santa Monica, and Scripps piers and Monterey, Stearns and Santa Cruz wharfs along the California coast for the period 2008-2015. The sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentrations derived from satellite data are analyzed together with ground observations of nitrogen, phosphorus, domoic acids and harmful algal blooms. The frequency of harmful algal blooms are found to increase in recent years depending upon the enhancement of chlorophyll concentrations and the discharges along the coast and dynamics of the sea surface temperature. The frequency of harmful algal blooms is higher in the northern California compared to southern California. The anthropogenic activities along the coast have increased which are associated with the forest fires and long range transport of dusts from Asia. The aerosol optical depth derived from satellite data during summer months seems to play an important role in the frequency of harmful algal blooms.

  16. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus activity in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Adams, A Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Singh, Amber J; Borland, Erin M; Powers, Ann M; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C; Estrada-Franco, Jose G

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003-2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas.

  17. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  18. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E.; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile. PMID:23211607

  19. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  20. Coasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula

    1974-01-01

    This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)