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Sample records for northern chilean coast

  1. Pollution Levels in Fog at the Chilean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sträter, E.; Klemm, O.; Westbeld, A.

    2010-07-01

    During July and August 2008 fog water was collected for chemical analysis in Patache, at the coast of northern Chile, 60 km south of Iquique (20°49’S, 70°09’W). Advective fog events occur regularly at the cliff in the coastal range at about 800 m above MSL. People collect these types of fog water at some places along the coast with Large Fog Collectors (LFC) for domestic use and for watering field crops. So far, no chemical analysis of fog water was performed in Patache. Pure fogwater samples (38 samples from 8 fog events) were taken by using a passive Scientific Cylindrical Fog Collector. Major ions and trace metals were quantified. The analyses indicate very high ionic concentrations (mean 3500 µeq/l) and very low pH values (mean 3.3). The mean H+-concentration represents 16 % of the total ionic equivalent concentration. Sulfate is the anion exhibiting the highest concentrations. A mean value of 880 µeq/l was found, which accounts for 24 % of the total mean concentration. In contrast to sulfate, nitrate shows only a low percentage of 8.1 %. Further major ions are sodium (20%) and chloride (19 %), which are typical seasalt ions in coastal fog. High correlations between the measured ions suggest a causal link between concentration in the fog samples and the liquid water content (LWC) of the cloud. The higher the liquid water content the lower are the ionic concentrations. Enrichment factors with sodium as reference ion were calculated to identify potential emission sources contributing to the observed pollutant levels. We found that K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Cl- mainly result from seaspray. Sulfate, however, is enriched by a factor of 13. The measured trace elements are highly enriched by factors up to hundreds of thousands (Zn: 50, Ni: 1800, As: 2400, Cd: 3900, Fe: 100000, Cu: 96000, Pb: 250000). A cluster analysis supports the conclusion that sulfate and the trace elements originate from anthropogenic activities. The sulfate cannot primarily originate from

  2. Phylogeography in Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) along Two Biogeographical Provinces in the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    González-Wevar, Claudio A.; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Astorga, Marcela; Cañete, Juan I.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Major geologic and climatic changes during the Quaternary exerted a major role in shaping past and contemporary distribution of genetic diversity and structure of aquatic organisms in southern South America. In fact, the northern glacial limit along the Pacific coast, an area of major environmental changes in terms of topography, currents, and water salinity, represents a major biogeographic transition for marine and freshwater species. We used mitochondrial DNA sequences (D-loop) to investigate the consequences of Quaternary glacial cycles over the pattern of genetic diversity and structure of G. maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) along two biogeographical provinces in the Chilean coast. Extreme levels of genetic diversity and strong phylogeographic structure characterize the species suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography. However, we recognized contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure between main biogeographical areas here analyzed. Along the Intermediate Area (38°–41° S) each estuarine population constitutes a different unit. In contrast, Magellanic populations (43°–53° S) exhibited low levels of genetic differentiation. Contrasting patterns of genetic diversity and structure recorded in the species between the analyzed biogeographic areas are consistent with the marked differences in abiotic factors (i.e., different coastal configurations, Quaternary glacial histories, and oceanographic regimes) and to inherent characteristics of the species (i.e., salt-tolerance, physiology, and reproductive behavior). PMID:26161896

  3. A new species of Aeneator Finlay, 1926 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Buccinidae) from northern Chile, with comments on the genus and a key to the Chilean species

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Juan Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Aeneator Finlay, 1926 is described from off the coast of Caldera (27°S), northern Chile. Aeneator martae sp. n. has a small, broad, stout, angulated shell with more prominent axial ribs and a more obviously keeled periphery than all previously named Chilean species. Comparisons are provided with all other South American named species of Aeneator. PMID:23653495

  4. The 2010 Chilean Tsunami Off the West Coast of Canada and the Northwest Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Thomson, Richard E.; Fine, Isaac V.

    2013-09-01

    The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110-120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6-11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that "rang" for 3-4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340° True to a direction of 15° True for the second train of waves

  5. Comparison of Tsunami height Distributions of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean Earthquakes on the Coasts of the Japanese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Imai, K.

    2010-12-01

    The tsunami of the Chilean Earthquake (Mw8.8) of February 27, 2010 was detected also on the coasts of the Japanese Islands about 23 hours after the occurrence of the main shock. It caused no human damage. There was slight house damage manly in Miyagi prefecture, south part of Sanriku coast; six and fifty one houses were flooded above and below the floor, respectively. It caused remarkable fishery loss of 75 Million US$ mainly due to breaking of cultivation rafts. The tsunami of the 1960 Chilean Earthquake(Mw9.5) also hit the Japanese coasts more severely. It caused more immense damage than the 2010 tsunami; 142 people were killed, 1,581 houses were entirely destroyed, and 1,256 houses were swept away. Most of damage occurred in the districts of Sanriku coast, where inundation heights exceeded six meters at several points. We made field survey along the Japanese coast, visited offices of fishermen’s cooperatives at over 300 fishery ports, gathered eyewitnesses counts, and obtained information of the inundation limit, arrival time, and building and fishery damage. On the basis of the information of inundation, we measured tsunami heights. We obtained data of tsunami height at more than two hundred points (Tsuji et al., 2010). The distributions of the two tsunamis of the 1960 and the 2010 Chilean earthquakes on the coasts along the Japanese Islands are shown as Fig. 1. The maximum height of 2.2 meters was recorded at Kesennuma City, Miyagi Prefecture. The heights of the 2010 tsunami were generally one third of those of the 1960 tsunami. An eminent peak appears at Sanriku coast commonly for both tsunamis. In addition smaller peaks also appear commonly at the coasts of the east part of Hokkaido, near the top of Boso peninsula, near the top of Izu Peninsula, the east coast of Kii Peninsula, Tokushima prefecture, eastern part of Shikoku, and near the Cape Ashizuri in western part of Shikoku. Fig. 1 Trace height distributions of the tsunamis of the 1960(red) and the 2010

  6. Spectral analysis of Chilean tsunami (February 27, 2010) records on the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivelskaya, Tatiana; Shevchenko, George; Korolyov, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    event, we identified as "normal" and selected for analysis of the background signal; the period from 00:00 of February 28 to 24:00 of March 1h ("tsunami period") was chosen for analysis of tsunami-caused oscillations. Two well-expressed peaks with periods about 60 and 45 min were found in the spectra of tsunami records obtained at the Severo-Kurilsk and Vodopadnaya stations. One well-expressed peak with period about 45 min was found in the spectra of tsunami-caused oscillations in the Nikolskoe and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The same peak in the spectra at different stations (Hanasaki, Korsakov and so on also) is probably connected with tsunami source features. The peak with period 60 min is probably connected with shelf resonant effect in the area adjacent to Paramushir Island and southeastern coast of Kamchatka peninsula. There are some peaks in the high frequency band in the spectra of different stations. These peaks are induced by the local topography resonant effects probably. Low-frequency oscillations with period about 4.8 hours we found in the tsunami records at Korsakov and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. These oscillations are connected with resonant modes of large-size Aniva Bay and Avachinskaya Guba Bay. The same oscillations in these bays were caused by Great Chilian tsunami (May, 1960) too. Similar spectra of both Chilean tsunamis were obtained at Hanasaki and some other stations.

  7. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  8. Heavy metals in bivalve mussels and their habitats from different sites along the Chilean Coast

    SciTech Connect

    De Gregori, I.; Pinochet, H.; Delgado, D. ); Gras, N.; Munoz, L. )

    1994-02-01

    It is well known that heavy metals have a great ecological significance due to their toxicity and accumulative behaviour playing a prominent role in marine ecosystems. They occur in all compartments in the marine environment with a tendency to accumulate in organism from different trophic levels of the marine webs. Along this pathway, toxic trace metals become a potential hazard for man and mammals. Coastal and estuarine zones are more vulnerable to anthropogenic pollution with toxic metals and it must be kept in mind that these zones have high seafood production. Chile is in a favourable position to develop fishing activities since it has approximately 4.500 km. of coastline bordering the South Pacific Ocean. The seawater is rich in nutrients and new aquaculture projects have been developed during the last year. However, these seafoods, like other marine organisms, are susceptible to being contaminated by trace metals, produced especially by the mining and industrial processing of ores and metals (i.e., Cu, Mo). This activity is well known as an important source of heavy metals, due to the enormous quantities of waste products, some of which were formerly released directly to the marine environment. Actually there are many aspects demanding better and more detailed knowledge on the occurrence, inventory, of the Chilean marine ecosystem. For these reasons we are developing a programme for monitoring some heavy metals in marine samples. The development of analytical quality control procedures and the analysis of toxic trace elements in fresh and canned mussels were recently published. In this paper, we present the results obtained for the Cadmium, Copper and Zinc contents in water, sediment and mollusc samples collected from different geographical areas located along the coast of Chile. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Genetically distinct coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Masato; Sasaki, Takeshi; Emerson, J J; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mzighani, Semvua I; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Iwata, Masamitsu; Abe, Yoshitaka; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-11-01

    Since the sensational discovery of a living coelacanth off the east coast of South Africa, the geographic distribution of viable coelacanth populations has been a subject of debate. In the past, the coelacanths off the African mainland were thought to be strays from the Comoros because most coelacanths captured were caught in the waters surrounding the Comoros archipelagos. However, in recent years, a large number of coelacanths were captured off the coast of Tanzania, including nine living specimens observed in a remotely operated vehicles survey. Thus, it is possible that there is a reproducing population inhabiting waters off the Tanzania coast. We have sequenced the complete mitochondrial genomes of 21 Tanzanian and 2 Comoran coelacanths and analyzed these sequences together with two additional full mitochondrial genomes and 47 d-loop sequences from the literature. We found that the coelacanth population off the northern Tanzanian coast is genetically differentiated from those of the southern Tanzania coast and the Comoros, whereas no significant genetic differentiation occurs between the latter two localities. The differentiation between the northern and southern Tanzanian coast populations is consistent with the hypothesis that the existence of northward-flowing ocean current along the Tanzanian coast may reduce or prevent gene flow from the northern to the southern population. Finally, we estimated that the population localized to the southern Tanzanian coast and the Comoros diverged from other coelacanths at least 200,000 y ago. These results indicate that the coelacanths off the northern Tanzania coast are not strays but a genetically distinct group. Our study provides important information for the conservation of this threatened "living fossil."

  10. Late Holocene environmental changes recorded in the sediments of Lago Thompson, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Nuttin, Laurence; Bertrand, Sébastien; Borgniet, Geoffrey; Schmidt, Sabine; Araneda, Alberto; Torrejon, Fernando; Urrutia, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the sedimentary record of Lago Thompson, a small lake (area 1.1 km2, watershed ~8 km2) located at an elevation of 750 masl in Northern Chilean Patagonia (45.38 °S, 71.47°W). At Present, the climate conditions around the lake are relatively dry, with annual precipitation averaging 500 mm. The goal of this study is to evaluate the natural climate variability over the Last Millennium in Northern Chilean Patagonia and its impact on the environment. The coring site was selected after a bathymetric survey using an echo-sounder. Several short cores were retrieved in 2008 using an Uwitec gravity corer: the length of the cores ranges between 124 and 132 cm. The preliminary age model is based on 4 AMS radiocarbon ages measured on bulk sediment and organic macro-remains. The radiocarbon ages demonstrate that the sediment cores cover the last 850 to 950 years. This sediment record, which is characterized by accumulation rates ranging between 1 and 3 mm/yr, can therefore be studied at decennial to centennial resolution. To reconstruct past changes in climate and the environment, we conducted a multiproxy study combining sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical analyses (LOI 105, 550 and 950°C, biogenic silica content, magnetic susceptibility, tephrostratigraphy, bulk organic geochemistry, bulk mineralogy by X-ray diffraction, and inorganic geochemistry by ITRAX core scanner and ICP-AES). Visual descriptions and X-ray radiographies demonstrate that the sediment record is relatively undisturbed. The sediment is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey material. The lower part of the core (below 75 cm) is finely laminated whereas the upper part is more homogeneous. Magnetic susceptibility values highlight two tephra layers that represent explosive eruptions of volcanoes from the southern volcanic zone of Chile (Hudson, Cay, or Macá volcanoes). The biogenic silica content of the sediment retrieved in Lago Thompson is high (40 to 80%), and probably

  11. A permanent record of subduction zone earthquake cycle deformation in the northern Chilean forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, J. P.; Allmendinger, R. W.; Pritchard, M. E.; González, G.

    2006-12-01

    Patterns of faulting in the northern Chilean forearc are consistent with modeled stress fields resulting from the subduction zone earthquake cycle. We define positive Coulomb stress change as encouraging normal faulting motion on steeply-dipping planes striking approximately parallel to the plate boundary, as shown by fault kinematic data collected in the field. Simulations show that coastal regions experience positive Coulomb stress changes due to interseismic strain accumulation on the subduction interface. This is compatible with the structural character of the forearc, typified by 100 m-scale scarps constructed by normal faulting. Conversely, the best-constrained models of interplate slip associated with the 1995 Mw 8.0 Antofagasta earthquake indicate that near-surface coastal areas experienced either zero or negative coseismic stress change, implying that subduction zone earthquakes may be capable of driving reverse motion on these structures if the absolute stress level is sufficiently low. Field exposures show minor amounts of reverse reactivation of some normal faults, expressed both through bedrock exposure and scarp morphology. The consistency between deformation fields related to the seismic cycle and permanent strain demonstrated by observable structures argues for the long-term influence of the earthquake cycle on the structural evolution of the forearc. The distribution of normal and reverse faulting as well as open cracks can thus be used to gain insight into the plate boundary processes that drive the evolution of structures. The change in strike and eastward step of the Atacama Fault System around the latitude of the Mejillones Peninsula (23°S) coincides with a change in subduction zone locking depth from ~35 km south of the peninsula to ~50 km to the north as determined through analyses of teleseismic, local seismic, and GPS data. Dense arrays of open cracks in several forearc localities show mean strikes consistent with static extension axes

  12. Paleomagnetic and structural constraints on rotations in the North Chilean coast ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, R.; Chisholm, L.

    1994-10-01

    Paleomagnetic analysis of seventy-six samples from six sites in the Jurassic to Cretaceous plutons (radiometric ages from 157 to 128 Ma) of the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile yielded stable remanent magnetization directions. The plutons record both a normal and a reversed characteristics direction. The mean normal direction has a declination of 3.4° an inclination of -38.5°, and an alpha 95 of 10.5°. The mean reversed direction has a declination of 207.8°, an inclination of 33.8°, and an alpha 95 of 10.8°. Paleopoles calculated from these mean and latitude=63.5° S, longitude=191.9° E respectively. In comparison to an APW path, the reversed pole indicates a clockwise rotation of approximately 28°, similar to other regional results, whereas the normal pole is concordant with the present day magnetic field. These results, in and of themselves, could support oroclinal bending or local block rotations. However arrays of secondary faults to the Atacama fault system in the sampling area show characteristic spacings, orientations, and displacements. Restoration of displacements results in a 31° clockwise rotation of fault blocks; essentially removing the observed paleomagnetic discordance. Thus, structural data confirms the local block rotation model. The existence of clockwise discordant paleomagnetic data within the sinistral (counterclockwise) Atacama Fault zone (AFZ) underscores the ambiguity of using the sense of rotation to infer the sense of motion on the larger shear zone. Age constraints for motions along the AFZ suggest that these rotations were completed in the Early Cretaceous; essentially coeval with magmatic activity within the Coast Ranges, and underscores the magmatic arc, rather than forearc, setting for this tectonic event.

  13. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species. PMID:26245779

  14. Contrasting Genetic Structure and Diversity of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns, 1848) Along the Chilean Coast: Stock Identification for Fishery Management.

    PubMed

    González-Wevar, Claudio; Salinas, Pilar; Hüne, Mathias; Segovia, Nicolás; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Oda, Esteban; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Galaxias maculatus (Pisces: Galaxiidae) commonly known as "puye" has a disjunct distribution along the Southern Hemisphere including landlocked and migratory populations at latitudes over 30°S in South America, Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. Chilean artisanal fishery of G. maculatus has become less important as a resource due to multiple factors including overexploitation, pollution, introduction of predators, and competitors. At the same time, the current conservation status of the species in Chile is still uncertain. Here, we used mtDNA control region sequences (925bp) to investigate main patterns of genetic diversity and structure in populations from 2 biogeographic areas along the Chilean coast. Extremely high levels of genetic diversity characterize the species, suggesting a low amount of influence of the last glacial cycle over its demography compared with other studies in freshwater and marine South American fishes. However, we recognized contrasting genetic patterns between the Intermediate Area (between 30°S and 42°S) and the Magellanic Province (between 42°S and 56°S). On the one hand, over a narrow geographical range (<200 km) each Intermediate Area estuarine population constitutes a different genetic unit. On the other hand, the Magellanic populations of the species exhibited low levels of differentiation in an area extending for more than 500 km. Such differences may be a consequence of different coastal configurations, oceanographic regimes, and Quaternary glacial histories. Finally, our results support the existence of different stock units for G. maculatus and this information should be integrated in future management strategies and aquaculture programs for this species.

  15. The last millenia sedimentary record of Lake Esponja, Northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagel, Nathalie; Araneda, Alberto; Alvarez, Denisse; Perfetti-Bolaño, Alessandra; Billy, Isabelle; Martinez, Philippe; Schmidt, Sabine; Urrutia, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    We evaluate the climate and environmental variability of Northern Chilean Patagonia during the Last Millennia, using a multi-proxy analysis of a sediment core from Lago Esponja (45°09'S, 72°08'W). The lake is located in the region of Aysen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, in NW Patagonia. The study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records. The longest core (150 cm long) was collected in 2014 at 40 m depth. The sediment, which is composed of light brown organic-rich clayey silt, was analyzed for sedimentology (grain size, magnetic susceptibility organic matter and biogenic silica content), mineralogy (X-ray diffraction) and geochemistry (elemental and isotopic analyses of C and N, XRF core-scaner at 1 mm resolution). The radiocarbon ages, measured on 3 macro-remains, demonstrate that the core covers the last 6.700 years. The sedimentation rate ranges between 0.1 mm/yr in the lower section (100-150 cm) and 0.4 mm/yr in the upper meter. Visual descriptions and Scopix radiographies show that the sediment record is finely laminated except a massive decimetric coarser and darker layer corresponding to a tephra (estimated age 700AD±50). Magnetic susceptibility (confirmed by scopix radiographies) highlights the presence of 8 additional millimetric tephra layers. The biogenic silica content of the sediment is low (mean 5%). Diatom assemblage is dominated by benthic and acidophilous species, with high saprobic values. None marked changes were observed regarding the dynamic of the lake. The high organic matter content (mean 15%) and its high C/N ratio (12.7) throughout the core indicate inputs of allochtonous and terrestrial organic matter. Such parameters present high sediment variability also marked by changes in the chemical composition. The laminations reflect changes in the allochtonous sedimentary inputs, with high terrestrial inputs during wetter conditions in relation with the Westerlies. The sedimentary records of Lago Esponja will be compared

  16. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  17. Similascarophis n. gen. n. spp. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae) parasitizing marine fishes off the Chilean coast.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Gabriela; González, María Teresa; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2004-08-01

    Similascarophis (Cystidicolidae) n. gen. is proposed. In the mouth of specimens of this genus, submedial labia are absent and pseudolabia do not have any part projecting toward the central oral opening. These nematodes were obtained from the alimentary tract of 7 marine fish species along the coast of Chile: Bovichthys chilensis Regan, Eleginops maclovinus (Cuvier), Pinguipes chilensis (Valenciennes), Cilus gilberti (Abbott), Cheilodactylus variegatus Valenciennes, Girella laevifrons (Tschudi), and Graus nigra Philippi. Morphology and morphometry are compared between 2 new Similascarophis species: Similascarophis maulensis n. sp. and S. chilensis n. sp., which differ in the presence of sublabia and in the length of the glandular esophagus and left spicule. We also recorded Similascarophis sp. in 2 other host species, which showed some distinct proportional measurements, although these differences were not sufficiently clear to identify them as a new species.

  18. Recent advances in the characterization of hair of mummies from the Chilean Andean coast.

    PubMed

    Fresnais, M; Richardin, P; Gimat, A; Sepúlveda, M; Leize-Wagner, E; Charrié, A

    2015-04-01

    Two pre-Hispanic mummies from the Andean coast, belonging to a corpus of 16 mummies from the San Miguel de Azapa (Arica, Chile), were radiocarbon dated and analyzed in order to replace them in their historical context and to study the conservation state of the hair fibers and the heavy metal presence. The radiocarbon dating placed both mummies in the Formative period (1700 years BC to 500 years AD). Global and elemental analyses were performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. These combined techniques enabled to prove the good global conservation state of the mummies' hair and to detect iron, lead, bromide and also arsenic in some cases, in significant amounts inside the hair fibers. Fourier transformed infra-red spectroscopy seemed to prove the good conservation state of the hair surface at a structural level that is why the conservation of hair proteins at a molecular level will be investigated by a proteomics approach in future work.

  19. Ecological Implications of Extreme Events: Footprints of the 2010 Earthquake along the Chilean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Eduardo; Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Melnick, Daniel; Manzano, Mario; Duarte, Cristian; Campos, Cesar; Sanchez, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Deciphering ecological effects of major catastrophic events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, storms and fires, requires rapid interdisciplinary efforts often hampered by a lack of pre-event data. Using results of intertidal surveys conducted shortly before and immediately after Chile's 2010 Mw 8.8 earthquake along the entire rupture zone (ca. 34–38°S), we provide the first quantification of earthquake and tsunami effects on sandy beach ecosystems. Our study incorporated anthropogenic coastal development as a key design factor. Ecological responses of beach ecosystems were strongly affected by the magnitude of land-level change. Subsidence along the northern rupture segment combined with tsunami-associated disturbance and drowned beaches. In contrast, along the co-seismically uplifted southern rupture, beaches widened and flattened increasing habitat availability. Post-event changes in abundance and distribution of mobile intertidal invertebrates were not uniform, varying with land-level change, tsunami height and coastal development. On beaches where subsidence occurred, intertidal zones and their associated species disappeared. On some beaches, uplift of rocky sub-tidal substrate eliminated low intertidal sand beach habitat for ecologically important species. On others, unexpected interactions of uplift with man-made coastal armouring included restoration of upper and mid-intertidal habitat seaward of armouring followed by rapid colonization of mobile crustaceans typical of these zones formerly excluded by constraints imposed by the armouring structures. Responses of coastal ecosystems to major earthquakes appear to vary strongly with land-level change, the mobility of the biota and shore type. Our results show that interactions of extreme events with human-altered shorelines can produce surprising ecological outcomes, and suggest these complex responses to landscape alteration can leave lasting footprints in coastal ecosystems. PMID:22567101

  20. Crustal Structure of the Northern Chilean Forearc from Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, D.; Carrizo, D.; Roecker, S. W.; Peyrat, S.; Arriaza, R.; Chi, R. K.; Baeza, S.

    2015-12-01

    In addition to being an excellent venue for investigating the tectonics of the Andean margin, northern Chile is of particular interest to seismologists because of its potential for an imminent megathrust earthquake. Such events often trigger destructive seismic activity in the populated forearc, as demonstrated for example in the aftermath of the 2010 Maule event. To investigate the nature of deformation in the forearc, we generated high resolution images of the subsurface from Rayleigh wave dispersion curves derived from cross correlation of ambient noise. The ambient noise data were recorded over a period of three years by 60 stations from three different networks of broad band stations. Because of the proximity of the stations to the Pacific Ocean, we estimated the bias in the estimated Green's functions caused by the asymmetry of the noise distribution using a technique based on that described by Yao and van der Hilst (2009). Our results suggest that this bias can be as large as 5% for some station pairs. The unbiased times are then used to refine phase velocity maps, from which we derived transit times to generate a 3D image of shear wavespeed (Vs) from the surface to about 50 km depth. To first order, low-Vs anomalies correlate well with the geometry of the Atacama Bench Structure (western foreland basin) where leaching processes are related to large incisions in the Atacama Desert (north of 19ºS). In addition, high Vs anomalies correlate with the locations of fossil magmatic arcs developed as trench-parallel belts from the coast to the Altiplano. For example, high Vs correlates with the Jurassic-Cretaceous magmatic arc along the coast, the Paleocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the central depression, and the Eocene-Oligocene magmatic arc in the Frontal Cordillera. A continuous seismic anomaly of low-Vs, located between 15 - 25 km depth, may be evidence of a weak and/or hydrated zone within the lower continental crust, related to slab-linked upper plate

  1. Late Holocene covariability of the southern westerlies and sea surface temperature in northern Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2014-12-01

    The climate of Chilean Patagonia is strongly influenced by the southern westerlies, which control the amount and latitudinal distribution of precipitation in the southern Andes. In austral summer, the Southern Westerly Wind Belt (SWWB) is restricted to the high latitudes. It expands northward in winter, which results in a strong precipitation seasonality between ˜35 and 45°S. Here, we present a new precipitation seasonality proxy record from Quitralco fjord (46°S), where relatively small latitudinal shifts of the SWWB result in large changes in precipitation seasonality. Our 1400 yr record is based on sedimentological and geochemical data obtained on a sediment core collected in front of a small river that drains the Patagonian Andes, which makes this site particularly sensitive to changes in river discharge. Our results indicate Fe/Al and Ti/Al values that are low between 600 and 1200 CE, increasing at 1200-1500 CE, and high between 1500 and 1950 CE. Increasing Fe/Al and Ti/Al values reflect a decrease in mean sediment grain-size from 30 to 20 μm, which is interpreted as a decrease in seasonal floods resulting from an equatorward shift of the SWWB. Our results suggest that, compared to present-day conditions, the SWWB was located in a more poleward position before 1200 CE. It gradually shifted towards the equator in 1200-1500 CE, where it remained in a sustained position until 1950 CE. This pattern is consistent with most precipitation records from central and southern Chile. The comparison of our record with published regional sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions for the late Holocene shows that equatorward shifts of the SWWB are systematically coeval with decreasing SSTs and vice versa, which resembles fluctuations over glacial-interglacial timescales. We argue that the synchronicity between SST and SWWB changes during the last 1400 years represents the response of the SWWB to temperature changes in the Southern Hemisphere.

  2. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  3. Pervasive cracking of the northern Chilean Coastal Cordillera: New evidence for forearc extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, John P.; Hoke, Gregory D.; Allmendinger, Richard W.; González, Gabriel; Isacks, Bryan L.; Carrizo, Daniel A.

    2005-12-01

    Despite convergence across the strongly coupled seismogenic interface between the South American and Nazca plates, the dominant neotectonic signature in the forearc of northern Chile is arc-normal extension. We have used 1 m resolution IKONOS satellite imagery to map nearly 37,000 cracks over an area of 500 km2 near the Salar Grande (21°S). These features, which are best preserved in a ubiquitous gypcrete surface layer, have both nontectonic and tectonic origins. However, their strong preferred orientation perpendicular to the plate convergence vector suggests that the majority owe their formation to approximate east-west extension associated with plate boundary processes such as interseismic loading, coseismic and postseismic strain, and long-term instability resulting from subduction erosion. Similar structures were formed during or shortly after the 1995 Mw = 8.0 earthquake near the city of Antofagasta, south of Salar Grande, and in conjunction with the 2001 Mw = 8.2 8.4 Arequipa, Peru, event. Cracks such as these may form in other forearcs but remain largely unexposed because of vegetative cover or marked fluvial erosion—factors that are absent in northern Chile as a result of its hyperarid climate.

  4. A survey of estuarine submerged aquatic vegetation in the northern Gulf coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.

    2003-01-01

    The status of submerged aquatic vegetation along the northern Gulf of Mexico is of concern because of its role in the ecology and economy of the coast. Recent studies by U.S. Geological Survey scientists help assess the factors that contribute to SAV distribution and health.

  5. Earthquake-induced subsidence and burial of late holocene archaeological sites, northern Oregon coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, R.; Grant, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Fire hearths associated with prehistoric Native American occupation lie within the youngest buried lowland soil of the estuaries along the Salmon and Nehalem rivers on the northern Oregon coast. This buried soil is the result of sudden subsidence induced by a great earthquake about 300 years ago along the Cascadia subduction zone, which extends offshore along the North Pacific Coast from Vancouver Island to northern California. The earthquake 300 years ago was the latest in a series of subsidence events along the Cascadia subduction zone over the last several thousand years. Over the long term, subsidence and burial of prehistoric settlements as a result of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes have almost certainly been an important factor contributing to the limited time depth of the archaeological record along this section of the North Pacific Coast. Copyright ?? by the Society for American Archaeology.

  6. Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Alexander; Walther, Bruno A; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lee, Yao-Chang

    2016-10-15

    Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in the world's oceans, and studies have shown macroplastic and microplastic pollution of beaches in several East Asian countries. However, to our knowledge, no study of microplastic pollution has been conducted in Taiwan yet. Therefore, we collected sand samples from four beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan in 2015 and extracted microplastic particles using a saturated NaCl solution. Microplastic particles were identified using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. We recovered 4 to 532 particles from eight 0.0125m(3) samples, with a total of 1097 particles weighing 0.771g. A negative trend between the size of the particles and their numbers was documented. We thus established that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous along Taiwan's northern coast. Future research should more comprehensively sample beaches around the entirety of Taiwan's coast, and special emphasis should be placed on identifying different sources and movements of microplastic.

  7. Distribution and quantity of microplastic on sandy beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Alexander; Walther, Bruno A; Löwemark, Ludvig; Lee, Yao-Chang

    2016-10-15

    Plastic pollution is now ubiquitous in the world's oceans, and studies have shown macroplastic and microplastic pollution of beaches in several East Asian countries. However, to our knowledge, no study of microplastic pollution has been conducted in Taiwan yet. Therefore, we collected sand samples from four beaches along the northern coast of Taiwan in 2015 and extracted microplastic particles using a saturated NaCl solution. Microplastic particles were identified using synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy. We recovered 4 to 532 particles from eight 0.0125m(3) samples, with a total of 1097 particles weighing 0.771g. A negative trend between the size of the particles and their numbers was documented. We thus established that microplastic pollution was ubiquitous along Taiwan's northern coast. Future research should more comprehensively sample beaches around the entirety of Taiwan's coast, and special emphasis should be placed on identifying different sources and movements of microplastic. PMID:27449830

  8. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl) were Crescentia cujete L. (flu), Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough), Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation), Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq.) Kunth (pruritic ailments), Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites) Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation), Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic) Mentha sativa L. (nervousness), Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites), Origanum vulgare L. (earache), Plantago major L. (inflammation) and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation). The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study presents new

  9. Northern Gulf of Mexico: USGS science contributions to a resilient coast, 2006-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The devastating hurricane season of 2005 challenged U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop a science base for resource managers and policy makers that could provide an understanding of the multiple stressors and influence affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico coast and to rack changes in linked coastal systems. The complexity of the Gulf Coast requires a science strategy for data collection and data reporting that is consistent across regional ecosystems and that can be applied to both short-term and long-term responses to stressors.

  10. Place Identity, Participation, and Emotional Climate in a Rural Community From the Northern Coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Freire, Silvana; Espinosa, Agustín; Rottenbacher, Jan Marc

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in rural communities from the Peruvian northern coast, it is common to find a climate of distrust and pessimism that accompanies the lack of coordinated social action and community participation among residents. This study analyzes the relationships that people develop with regard to the place where they live in, how it associates to the ways they participate in their community and the relationship that these two variables have with the perceived emotional climate, in a rural community from the northern coast of Peru (n = 81). Results indicate that place identity is significantly associated with a high community participation and a climate of trust in the community. Finally, a Path Analysis is performed to analyze comprehensively the relationship between these variables. The results suggest that place identity does have an influence on perceived positive climate in the community, being mediated by the dimensions of community participation. PMID:26472235

  11. Residence time and movements of postbreeding shorebirds on the northern coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Audrey R.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, A.N.; Kendall, S.J.; Nigro, Debora A.

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little is known about shorebird movements across the coast of northern Alaska, yet postbreeding shorebirds use this coastline extensively prior to fall migration. We deployed 346 radio transmitters on 153 breeding and 193 postbreeding shorebirds of five species from 2005 to 2007.We examined two hypotheses regarding postbreeding shorebirds' movements: (1) whether such movements reflect ultimate routes of southbound migration and (2) whether migration strategy (length of flights) or timing of molt in relation to migration (molt occurring in breeding or winter range) are more influential in determining postbreeding shorebirds' behavior. Semipalmated Sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) moved east, consistent with the direction of their ultimate migration, but patterns of other species' movements did not reflect ultimate migration direction. Timing of postnuptial molt appeared to have more influence over residence time and movements than did migration strategy. Postcapture residence time for the Semipalmated Sandpiper was less than for the Western Sandpiper (C. mauri) and significantly less than for Dunlin (C. alpina), and the Semipalmated Sandpiper's movements between were quicker and more frequent than those of the Dunlin. We expected to see the opposite patterns if migration strategy were more influential. Our data shed light on how different shorebird species use the northern Alaska coast after breeding: most species are likely to be stopping over at postbreeding areas, whereas the Dunlin and some Western Sandpipers may be staging. We suggest the coast of northern Alaska be viewed as an interconnected network of postbreeding sites that serve multiple populations of breeding shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  12. Spring migration and summer destinations of northern pintails from the coast of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael R.; Takekawa, John Y.; Battaglia, Daniel S.; Golightly, Richard T.; Perry, William M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine pathways, timing, and destinations during migration in spring, we attached satellite-monitored transmitters (platform transmitting terminals) to 10 northern pintails (Anas acuta) during February 2001, at Point Mugu, Ventura County, California. This is a wintering area on the southern coast of California. We obtained locations from five adult males and three adult females every 3rd day through August. Average date of departure from the wintering area was 15 March (SE = 3 days). We documented extended stopovers of ≥30 days for several northern pintails that could have accommodated nesting attempts (San Joaquin Valley, southwestern Montana, southern Alberta, north-central Nevada) or post-nesting molt (eastern Oregon, south-central Saskatchewan, northern Alaska, central Alberta). Wintering northern pintails from the southern coast of California used a wide range of routes, nesting areas, and schedules during migration in spring, which was consistent with the larger, wintering population in the Central Valley of California. Therefore, conservation of habitat that is targeted at stopover, nesting, and molting areas will benefit survival and management of both wintering populations.

  13. Spring migration and summer destinations of Northern Pintails from the coast of Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Battaglia, D.S.; Golightly, R.T.; Perry, W.M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine pathways, timing, and destinations during migration in spring, we attached satellite-monitored transmitters (platform transmitting terminals) to 10 northern pintails (Anas acuta) during February 2001, at Point Mugu, Ventura County, California. This is a wintering area on the southern coast of California. We obtained locations from five adult males and three adult females every 3rd day through August. Average date of departure from the wintering area was 15 March (SE 3 days). We documented extended stopovers of ???30 days for several northern pintails that could have accommodated nesting attempts (San Joaquin Valley, southwestern Montana, southern Alberta, north-central Nevada) or post-nesting molt (eastern Oregon, south-central Saskatchewan, northern Alaska, central Alberta). Wintering northern pintails from the southern coast of California used a wide range of routes, nesting areas, and schedules during migration in spring, which was consistent with the larger, wintering population in the Central Valley of California. Therefore, conservation of habitat that is targeted at stopover, nesting, and molting areas will benefit survival and management of both wintering populations.

  14. Geochemistry of surface sediments from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia (44-47°S): Spatial variability and implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Sébastien; Hughen, Konrad A.; Sepúlveda, Julio; Pantoja, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    The Patagonian fjords have a clear potential to provide high-resolution sedimentary and geochemical records of past climate and environmental change in the Southern Andes. To improve our ability to interpret these proxy records, we investigated the processes that control fjord sediment inorganic geochemistry through a geochemical, mineralogical and sedimentological analysis of surface sediment samples from the fjords of Northern Chilean Patagonia. A simple Terrestrial Index based on measurements of salinity and Fraction of Terrestrial Carbon was used to estimate the terrestrial input/river discharge at each site. Our results demonstrate that, under the cold climate conditions of Patagonia, chemical weathering is weak and the inorganic geochemical composition of the fjord sediments is primarily controlled by hydrodynamic mineralogical sorting, i.e., the intensity of river discharge. Our results suggest that the distribution of Fe, Ti and Zr in surface sediments is controlled by their association with heavy and/or coarse minerals, whereas Al is independent of hydrodynamic processes. The elemental ratios Fe/Al, Ti/Al and Zr/Al are therefore well suited for estimating changes in the energy of terrestrial sediment supply into the fjords through time. Zr/Al is particularly sensitive in proximal environments, while Fe/Al is most useful in the outer fjords and on the continental margin. In the most proximal environments, however, Fe/Al is inversely related to hydrodynamic conditions. Caution should therefore be exercised when interpreting Fe/Al ratios in terms of past river discharge. The application of these proxies to long sediment cores from Quitralco fjord and Golfo Elefantes validates our interpretations. Our results also emphasize the need to measure Al-based elemental ratios at high precision, which can be achieved using simultaneous acquisition ICP-AES technology. This study therefore constitutes a strong basis for the interpretation of sedimentary records from the

  15. Economic vulnerability to sea-level rise along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The northern Gulf of Mexico coast of the United States has been identified as highly vulnerable to sea-level rise, based on a combination of physical and societal factors. Vulnerability of human populations and infrastructure to projected increases in sea level is a critical area of uncertainty for communities in the extremely low-lying and flat northern gulf coastal zone. A rapidly growing population along some parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline is further increasing the potential societal and economic impacts of projected sea-level rise in the region, where observed relative rise rates range from 0.75 to 9.95 mm per year on the Gulf coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida. A 1-m elevation threshold was chosen as an inclusive designation of the coastal zone vulnerable to relative sea-level rise, because of uncertainty associated with sea-level rise projections. This study applies a Coastal Economic Vulnerability Index (CEVI) to the northern Gulf of Mexico region, which includes both physical and economic factors that contribute to societal risk of impacts from rising sea level. The economic variables incorporated in the CEVI include human population, urban land cover, economic value of key types of infrastructure, and residential and commercial building values. The variables are standardized and combined to produce a quantitative index value for each 1-km coastal segment, highlighting areas where human populations and the built environment are most at risk. This information can be used by coastal managers as they allocate limited resources for ecosystem restoration, beach nourishment, and coastal-protection infrastructure. The study indicates a large amount of variability in index values along the northern Gulf of Mexico coastline, and highlights areas where long-term planning to enhance resiliency is particularly needed.

  16. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  17. Heavy metals in surface sediments from nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guanghong; Shang, Jingmin; Pan, Ling; Wang, Zhongliang

    2014-05-15

    Concentrations of heavy metals in river water and sediment were investigated in nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay, Northern China. Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in combination with metal concentration analysis and correlation analysis, were used to identify the possible sources of the metals and the pollution pattern in nine estuaries along the coast of Bohai Bay. The environmental risks of metals, evaluated by sediment quality guidelines and background values, revealed Hg contamination in the estuaries. However, levels of Cd in estuarine sediments were low, and they were less than those levels in river sediments, partly due to the high mobility and dilution of river or seawater. Cd did not contribute to sediment deposits in estuaries. High organic matter from effluents from large municipal sewage treatment plants was predominantly responsible for restricting Hg mobility from the river to Bohai Bay.

  18. Modeling the Impact of Arctic Shipping Pollution on Air Quality off the Coast of Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.; Law, K.; Marelle, L.; Raut, J.; Jalkanen, J.; Johansson, L.; Roiger, A.; Schlager, H.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Fast, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    As the Arctic is undergoing rapid and potentially irreversible changes, such as the shrinking and thinning of sea-ice cover, the levels of atmospheric pollution are expected to rise dramatically due to the emergence of local pollution sources including shipping. Shipping routes through the Arctic (such as Russia's Northern Sea Route) are already used as an alternative to the traditional global transit shipping routes. In summer 2012, the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society) aircraft campaign focused on studying pollution sources off the coast of northern Norway to quantify emissions from shipping and other anthropogenic pollution sources. To complement these measurements, a regional chemical transport model is used to study the impact of shipping pollution on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. WRF-Chem (The Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry, which simulates gas and aerosols simultaneously with meteorology) is run with real time shipping emissions from STEAM (Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model) for July 2012. The STEAM model calculates gas and aerosol emissions of marine traffic based on the ship type and location provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). Use of real time position, speed, and ship specific information allows for development of emissions with very high spatial (1x1 km) and temporal (30 min) resolution, which are used in the regional model runs. STEAM emissions have been specifically generated for shipping off the coast of Norway during the entire ACCESS campaign period. Simulated ship plumes from high-resolution model runs are compared to aircraft measurements. The regional impact of current summertime shipping is also examined. At present, relatively light ship traffic off the coast of northern Norway results in only a small impact of shipping pollution on regional atmospheric chemistry. The impact of increased future shipping on regional atmospheric chemistry is also assessed.

  19. Findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern California coast, 1984-1990.

    PubMed

    Gerber, J A; Roletto, J; Morgan, L E; Smith, D M; Gage, L J

    1993-07-01

    Personnel at The Marine Mammal Center (The Center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern California (USA) coast from 1984 through 1990, including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi). The primary disease findings in stranded California sea lions were renal disease, renal disease complicated by severe verminous pneumonia, verminous pneumonia, seizures of unknown etiology, and renal disease complicated by severe pneumonia of unknown etiology. Stranded elephant seals included pups, yearlings with dermatological problems, and neonates. Most harbor seals admitted to The Center were underweight and premature pups. Stranded northern fur seals included animals with seizures of unknown etiology and emaciated pups. Stranded Steller sea lions included underweight pups and aged adult females with pneumonia. Two Guadalupe fur seals had hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Incidental findings at the time of stranding among the six species included verminous pneumonia and pneumonia of unknown etiology, renal disease, internal parasitism, ophthalmologic problems, gastrointestinal disorders, otitis externa, and external wounds. PMID:8355344

  20. Human impact on the dynamics of the Russian Northern and Far East Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, V.; Belova, N.; Kuznetsov, D.; Ogorodov, S.

    2009-04-01

    The northern coasts of Russia, which are composed of dispersive deposits, have poor erosion resistance qualities. In natural conditions such coasts may retreat with a rate of 1 to 5 m a year. Under the influence of human activities this rate can double and even triple. Over the last twenty years the human impact on the natural coastal geosystems has noticeably increased due to the latest oil and gas developments on the sea shelf and coasts of the Russian North. A range of facilities - oil custody terminals for drilling and production platforms, submerged pipelines, ports and other industrial features and residential infrastructure - are currently being operated in the coastal and shelf zones. In most of the cases no morphodynamic or lithodynamic features of the coastal zone had been taken into account during the construction or operation of these facilities. This results in a disturbance of the sediment budget in the coastal zone, which triggers active erosion of both the shore itself and the coastal slope beneath. The operated facilities themselves are then threatened as their destruction is possible and often than no new facilities can be constructed in the area. The operating companies have to bear forced nonmanufacturing expenses to protect or move their facilities of oil and gas industry to new areas. We may cite here three instances for Russia where human impact has already brought in negative effects. One of the examples is Varandei coast of the Barents Sea. From 1979 to 2005 a deliberate destruction of the dune chain of the barrier beach by vehicle traffic and a removal of the beach material for construction needs led to a quick intensification of the coastal retreat here. Let's move on to Kharasavei coast further east to the Kara Sea. A large-scale extraction of sediments from the coastal slope has resulted in a depletion of the material on the beaches and triggered a violent thermoabrasion of the coast in 1982-1985 and 2006-2008. Chayvo coast of the Sea

  1. Combining numerical modeling and stable isotope values to quantify groundwater recharge from the Chilean Andes to the Pampa del Tamarugal Basin, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, J. P.; Pollyea, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Atacama Desert of northern Chile is one of the driest regions on Earth and receives less than 5mm of precipitation annually. The Pampa del Tamarugal (PdT) Basin contains the largest aquifer system in the region, yet the mechanisms and timing of aquifer recharge and continental-scale groundwater flux are poorly understood. Although there is little debate that the source of groundwater recharge is the higher elevation regions of the Andean Altiplano to the east of the PdT Basin, there remains much uncertainty surrounding the mechanisms and timing of aquifer recharge and continental-scale groundwater flux. Most recharge models of the PdT focus on surface water runoff and alluvial fan recharge on shorter time scales, but many of these models explicitly neglect deep flow pathways. Previous investigators have combined the thermal aquifer profile and 14C groundwater ages to propose an alternative conceptual model in which cold meteoric water infiltrates deep into the Cordillera before circulating upward into the PdT by thermal convection through fault-controlled migration pathways. Although this conceptual model provides a convincing theoretical argument for deep fluid circulation, it cannot constrain the magnitude of this deep recharge flux. In this work, we revisit deep-flow conceptual model by combining the spatial distribution of hydrogen and oxygen isotope values as groundwater tracers with a non-isothermal model of continental scale groundwater flow through a two-dimensional transect from the Chilean Andes to the PdT Basin. This work provides first-order estimates on the contribution of deep groundwater circulation within the PdT Aquifer, while providing a framework for (1) quantifying boundary conditions for high resolution models of groundwater resources within the PdT Aquifer, (2) assessing the influence of variable future climate scenarios for groundwater availability in the region, and (3) further integrating conservative tracers and numerical models for

  2. Post-Eocene movement on the Coast Range thrust, northern Sacramento Valley, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, V. )

    1990-05-01

    Subsurface structure mapping with more than 600 wells and 200 miles of seismic data in a portion of the northern Sacramento basin and surface geologic mapping in the Rumsey Hills area to the west indicates that Upper Cretaceous strata along the western edge of the basin are doubled in thickness along thrust faults. These east-dipping detachments are part of the Coast Range thrust fault system. Eocene strata crop out in the fault zone and indicate that considerable post-Eocene movement occurred. Cretaceous movement on these faults can be surmised but not proven from reconstructions. Similarly, analysis from five subsurface structure maps to the east shows that deformation there also is post-Eocene; only minor Upper Cretaceous deformation can be discerned. Underthrusting of Franciscan accretionary rocks best accounts for the development of these faults and a western high along the basin margin.

  3. Congenital defects in northern elephant seals stranded along the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Trupkiewicz, J G; Gulland, F M; Lowenstine, L J

    1997-04-01

    Eleven cases of congenital anomalies were identified in 210 (5%) juvenile northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) found stranded along the central California (USA) coast from 1 January 1988 to 31 December 1995. Seven individuals had mild-to-moderate hydrocephalus involving the lateral ventricles bilaterally, or the lateral and third ventricles. Two animals had severe cardiac anomalies: hypoplasia of the right ventricle with overriding aorta, and ventricular septal defect. Other anomalies included single cases of hydronephrosis, focal pulmonary dysplasia, and congenital epidermal angiomatosis. Common intercurrent disease processes were verminous pneumonia and arteritis, verminous enteritis and coliti, and splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis. The more severe anomalies were considered to be the cause of debilitation and stranding. Milder anomalies were found incidentally during routine gross necropsy and histopathologic examination. PMID:9131551

  4. Essential oils from Leptospermums of the Sunshine Coast and Northern Rivers Regions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Around the turn of this century, the oil yield and chemical composition of Australian Leptospermum species was analysed. Since that time, research has been focused on their use as phytomedicines. The oil yield and composition of essential oils from Australian Leptospermum species directly impacts their commercialisation for medicinal use. Results The essential oils from Leptospermum (L.) juniperinum, L. laevigatum, L. liversidgei, L. polygalifolium, L. semibaccatum, L. speciosum, L. trinervium and L. whitei have been examined from specimens in the Sunshine Coast (Queensland) and Northern Rivers (New South Wales) Regions. Both chemotypes of L. liversidgei were observed. However, only chemotype II of L. semibaccatum and chemotype I of L. trinervium were identified. The only subspecies observed of L. polygalifolium was L. polygalifolium wallum. Conclusions L. liversidgei chemotypes I and II have the potential for phytomedical use as antibacterial or anti-inflammatory agents. Chemotype I has the potential for use as an insect repellent and chemotype II may provide antifungal activity. PMID:22559035

  5. Data of heavy metals biosorption onto Sargassum oligocystum collected from the northern coast of Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Delshab, Sedigheh; Kouhgardi, Esmaeil; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2016-09-01

    This data article presents a simple method for providing a biosorbent from Sargassum oligocystum harvested from the northern coast of Persian Gulf, Bushehr, Iran. The characterization data of Sargassum oligocystum biochar (SOB) were analyzed using various instrumental techniques (FTIR and XPS). The kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics data of Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions onto SOB were presented. The maximum biosorption capacity of SOB to uptake Hg(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solution was obtained 60.25, 153.85, and 45.25 mg/g, respectively. The experimental data showed that biochar prepared from Sargassum oligocystum is an efficient and promising biosorbent for the treatment of heavy metals-bearing wastewaters. PMID:27331094

  6. Depositional environment and geochemical response of mangrove sediments from creeks of northern Maharashtra coast, India.

    PubMed

    Volvoikar, Samida P; Nayak, G N

    2013-04-15

    Present study provides results of trace metal distribution in mangrove sediment cores collected from macro-tidal Khonda and Dudh creeks of Northern Maharashtra coast, India. Most of the metals showed significant higher addition in Dudh creek (core DC) as compared to Khonda creek (core KC). However, Khonda creek sediments did show anthropogenic enrichment of Mn, Zn and Ni, while Dudh creek sediments showed anthropogenic enrichment of almost all the studied metals. Large difference in metal concentration between the two creeks was attributed to their proximity to industries. The higher Mn, Zn and Ni content in Khonda creek was mainly attributed to addition from domestic and agricultural wastes. While high deterioration of Dudh creek sediments was the outcome of addition from industrial effluents.

  7. Description of extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, Steven G.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gelfencaum, Guy

    2010-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the origins of extreme-wave deposits and to help assess the potential risk of future overwash events, a field mapping survey was conducted in November 2006 on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Deposits were mapped and analyzed to help develop a systematic sedimentological approach to distinguish the type of extreme-wave event (tsunamis or storms) or combination of events that formed and modified the deposits over time. Extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire between Boka Onima and Boka Olivia have formed sand sheets, poly-modal ridge complexes, and boulder fields on a Pleistocene limestone platform 3?8 meters above sea level. The deposits exhibit characteristics that are consistent with both large storm and tsunami processes that often overlap one another. Sand sheets occur as low-relief features underlying and incorporated with boulder field deposits. The seaward edge of ridge complexes are deposited up to 70 m from the shoreline and can extend over 200 m inland. Over 600 clasts were measured in fields and range in size from coarse gravel to fine block, weigh up to 165 metric tons, and are placed over 280 m from the shoreline. Our analyses indicate that the deposits may have been produced by a combination of hurricane and tsunami events spanning 10s to 1000s of years. Comparing the different deposit morphologies between study sites highlights the importance of shoreline orientation to the distribution of extreme-wave deposits onshore. However, further investigation is required to fully understand the processes that have produced and modified these deposits over time.

  8. Normal and reverse faulting driven by the subduction zone earthquake cycle in the northern Chilean fore arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, John P.; Allmendinger, Richard W.; Pritchard, Matthew E.; GonzáLez, Gabriel

    2010-04-01

    Despite its location in a convergent tectonic setting, the Coastal Cordillera of northern Chile between 21°S and 25°S is dominated by structures demonstrating extension in the direction of plate convergence. In some locations, however, normal faults have been reactivated as reverse faults, complicating the interpretation of long-term strain. In order to place these new observations in a tectonic context, we model stress changes induced on these faults by the subduction earthquake cycle. Our simulations predict that interseismic locking on the plate boundary encourages normal slip on fore-arc faults, which may result from elastic rebound due to interplate earthquakes or from seismic or aseismic motion that takes place within the interseismic period. Conversely, stress generated by strong subduction zone earthquakes, such as the 1995 Mw = 8.1 Antofagasta event, provides a mechanism for the reverse reactivation we document here. Upper plate fault slip in response to the low-magnitude stress changes induced by the subduction earthquake cycle suggests that the absolute level of stress on these faults is very low. Furthermore, seismic hazard analysis for northern Chile requires consideration of not only the plate boundary earthquake cycle but also the cycle on fore-arc faults that may or may not coincide with the interplate pattern. Though the relationships between permanent strain and deformation calculated using elastic models remain unclear, the compatibility of modeled stress fields with the distribution of fore-arc faulting suggests that interseismic strain accumulation and coseismic deformation on the subduction megathrust both play significant roles in shaping structural behavior in the upper plate.

  9. Channel Incision and Sediment Transfer from the Andes to the Coast of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binnie, S. A.; Liermann, A.; Dunai, T.; Dewald, A.; Heinze, S.

    2013-12-01

    Rates of denudation have been implicated in linking tectonic processes with climate in many studies of Earth surface processes. However, it is the transport, or not, of eroded material, not necessarily the rate at which that material is produced which is the critical factor in many models of tectonic-climatic interactions. Here, we use in situ-produced cosmogenic nuclides to constrain the westward transfer of sediment from the Andes Mountains to the Pacific Coast of northern Chile. Fluvial sediments were collected from six large drainage basins between 19°S and 26°S, where they drain into the Pacific. Sample sites were selected in order to compare cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al concentrations in alluvium from basins draining the western Andean flank with concentrations further downstream and where they exit at the coast. A simplistic interpretation of the cosmogenic 10Be concentrations as denudation rates gives results varying between < 5 to >300 m/Myr. Apparent denudation rates increase from south to north and are significantly higher in the north than expected when compared to previously published studies. In addition, we would expect the most rapid rates to occur on the steeper, wetter western Andean flank and for slower denudation to be recorded from the more gentle sloping, hyper-arid/arid regions to the west. However, in the majority of basins sampled the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations imply the opposite, with several-fold higher denudation rates measured at the catchment mouths near the coast in comparison to their mountainous Andean headwaters. A combination of the following explanations is proposed to explain these unusual patterns. Firstly, the high northern denudation rates may be more accurately described as canyon incision rates, rather than basin-averaged denudation rates. On their journey to the coast, the major Andean sourced drainages incise deep canyons through relatively planar deposits of the hyper-arid Atacama Desert. Despite being within the

  10. Exploring Thermal Shear Runaway as a triggering process for Intermediate-Depth Earthquakes: Overview of the Northern Chilean seismic nest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derode, B.; Riquelme, S.; Ruiz, J. A.; Leyton, F.; Campos, J. A.; Delouis, B.

    2014-12-01

    The intermediate depth earthquakes of high moment magnitude (Mw ≥ 8) in Chile have had a relative greater impact in terms of damage, injuries and deaths, than thrust type ones with similar magnitude (e.g. 1939, 1950, 1965, 1997, 2003, and 2005). Some of them have been studied in details, showing paucity of aftershocks, down-dip tensional focal mechanisms, high stress-drop and subhorizontal rupture. At present, their physical mechanism remains unclear because ambient temperatures and pressures are expected to lead to ductile, rather than brittle deformation. We examine source characteristics of more than 100 intraslab intermediate depth earthquakes using local and regional waveforms data obtained from broadband and accelerometers stations of IPOC network in northern Chile. With this high quality database, we estimated the total radiated energy from the energy flux carried by P and S waves integrating this flux in time and space, and evaluated their seismic moment directly from both spectral amplitude and near-field waveform inversion methods. We estimated the three parameters Ea, τa and M0 because their estimates entail no model dependence. Interestingly, the seismic nest studied using near-field re-location and only data from stations close to the source (D<250km) appears to not be homogeneous in terms of depths, displaying unusual seismic gaps along the Wadati-Benioff zone. Moreover, as confirmed by other studies of intermediate-depth earthquakes in subduction zones, very high stress drop ( >> 10MPa) and low radiation efficiency in this seismic nest were found. These unusual seismic parameter values can be interpreted as the expression of the loose of a big quantity of the emitted energy by heating processes during the rupture. Although it remains difficult to conclude about the processes of seismic nucleation, we present here results that seem to support a thermal weakening behavior of the fault zones and the existence of thermal stress processes like thermal

  11. Concordant paleolatitudes from ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, E.A.; Gromme, C.S.; Williams, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data have been obtained from two ophiolite sequences in the northern California Coast Ranges: from Mount Diablo in the San Francisco Bay area and from Potter Valley, north of Clear Lake. The ophiolite exposed at Mount Diablo is part of the late Middle to Late Jurassic Coast Range ophiolite, and that exposed near Potter Valley is Late Jurassic to perhaps Early Cretaceous in age and occurs within the Franciscan assemblage. Data from the sheeted-dike complex at Mount Diablo show these rocks to be strongly overprinted, probably following uplift and erosion of the ophiolite. Samples whose primary remanent magnetization seems to be recovered yield a mean paleomagnetic pole at 30.7??N, 159.5??E with ??95 = 5.6??. A comparison of this pole with the Jurassic apparent polar wander path for North America indicates that the ophiolite has rotated 45?? ?? 7?? counterclockwise relative to the craton and has not been latitudinally displaced. The diabase and pillow basalt in Potter Valley have not been strongly overprinted and data from those rocks yield a paleomagnetic pole at 79.0??N, 61.5??E with ??95 = 6.4??. This result indicates that the ophiolite at Potter Valley has rotated approximately 29?? ?? 8?? clockwise, and has undergone little or no latitudinal displacement. Because of the predominantly northeastward transport of oceanic plates converging with the western margin of North America since middle Mesozoic time, the absence of appreciable northward displacement of either ophiolite fragment indicates that both formed close to the continental margin. ?? 1991.

  12. Observation on internal waves propagation during Land breeze event in Northern Tyrrhenian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martellucci, Riccardo; Pierattini, Alberto; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Melchiorri, Cristiano; Piermattei, Viviana; Ciampa, Francesco; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Internal wave propagation and water column mixing phenomena play an important role in many marine ecosystem coastal process. In Northern Tyrrhenian coast the experimental proposed approach is aimed to identify these type of oscillation in presence of breeze circulation. Along the Tyrrhenian coast summer period climate conditions allow the generations of high frequency land-sea breeze events. This local circulation, land-sea breeze indeed, may generate significant modifications of the sea waters physical parameters. Thay often appear as internal gravity waves especially in presence of stratified water and stable thermocline. Since the whole investigated process evolves on diurnal scale and in the space of a few miles the sampling plan was operated with a series of oceanographic surveys at 40 meters depth with 20 minutes interval one from another between 5 a.m. and 11 a.m. and they were repeted during each summers between 2012 - 2014. Coupled with the acquisition of physical parameters current data were collected with 500 kHz ADCP every 20s, the resolution of vertical profiles of CTD matches the ADCP 1 meter magnitude vertical resolution. in order to investigate the water column layers dynamics behavior, Brunt-Vaisala and Richardson number were computed using the sampled physical parameters. Coastal surveys analysis highlights the presence of temperature oscillation in proximity of the thermocline and bottom layers; these oscillations have been observed during all measure surveys, when the land breeze was over. Indeed the land breeze tends to generate an offshore transport causing bottom layers to lift. At the same time solar radiation heating causes a sink of the surface layers which flatten the layers in proximity of the thermocline. Therefore the oscillations of temperature observed during the oceanographic surveys have to considered as internal waves, as during earlier studies conducted in the Tyrrhenian Sea has been observed.

  13. Chronic erosion in Wissant Bay coast, northern France - Causes and trials of management projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedrati, M.; Anthony, E. J.

    2012-04-01

    Cape Gris Nez to the southwest and Cape Blanc Nez to the northeast limit's Wissant Bay. This extreme northern coast of France, facing the Dover Strait, is one of the most rapidly eroding sector of coast in France. Shoreline retreat has exceeded 250 m in the last fifty years in the central and western parts of the bay, while the eastern sector of the bay is now a zone of accretion, after being a sand-starved zone in the past, when the western sector was either stable or in accretion. The reasons for these changes are still not clear. They seem to involve interactions between a nearshore sand bank and the activity of current gyres related to the projecting headland of Cape Gris Nez, beach rotation processes and human activities, notably past aggregate extraction from the nearshore sand bank which acted hitherto as both a dissipater of incident storm wave energy and as a coastal sand source. The aim of this paper to contribute to the understanding of these long-term changes and investigate the mechanisms of this mildly embayed coast evolution. To this end, 10-years of topographic profile data throughout the bay were analysed and confronted with offshore wave data. This analysis complements a previous analytical effort that determined gross rates of annual shoreline retreat by time slices of several decades from the careful interpretation of long series of ortho-rectified aerial photographs. The overall data suggest chronic sand bleeding from the western sector of the beach and longshore transport to the east, within a framework of what appears to be an ongoing beach rotation process within a dominant longshore sediment transport cell between the headland of Cape Gris Nez and the bold chalk cliffs of Cape Blanc Nez. Retreat of the beach-dune barrier in the western sector of Wissant Bay poses a threat in the coming years as there is a likelihood of storm breaching of the narrow dune barrier. Face to this critical situation, a proper management strategy involving a good

  14. Tsunami scenarios and hazard assessment along the northern coast of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Calais, E.; Hébert, H.; Roy, C.; Okal, E.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here, we investigate the impact of three possible earthquake scenarios, consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 min between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative maps of run-up heights that can be transferred, with added factors of safety, into practical implementation for tsunami preparedness

  15. Structural and lithologic study of Northern Coast Range and Sacramento Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary analysis of the data received has disclosed two potentially important northwest-trending systems of linear features within the Northern California Coast Ranges. A third system, which trends northeast, can be traced with great uncertainty across the alluviated part of the Sacramento Valley and into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. These linear features may represent fault systems or zones of shearing. Of interest, although not yet verified, is the observation that some of the mercury concentrations and some of the geothermally active areas of California may be located at the intersection of the Central and the Valley Systems. One, perhaps two, stratigraphic unconformities within the Late Mesozoic sedimentary rocks were detected during preliminary examination of the imagery; however, more analysis is necessary in order to verify this preliminary interpretation. A heretofore unrecognized, large circular depression, about 15 km in diameter, was detected within the alluviated part of the Sacramento Valley. The depression is adjacent to a large laccolithic intrusion and may be geologically related to it. Changes in the photogeologic characteristics of this feature will continue to be monitored.

  16. Kinematics of earthflows in the Northern California Coast Ranges using satellite interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handwerger, Alexander L.; Roering, Joshua J.; Schmidt, David A.; Rempel, Alan W.

    2015-10-01

    Slow-moving landslides exhibit persistent downslope motion with variations in velocity driven by transient stress perturbations along the sliding surface. Here, we use satellite InSAR and high-resolution topographic data to identify 50 slow-moving landslides in the Northern California Coast Ranges, and monitor their seasonal kinematics over 4 years. These landslides have similar mechanical properties and are subject to the same external forcings, which allows us to explore geometrical controls on kinematics. To overcome errors associated with large deformation gradients we incorporate a deformation model in the InSAR processing that enables us to generate deformation time series. We test our novel methodology using a synthetic deformation time series, confirming our ability to resolve seasonal velocity patterns. Time series analysis of four representative landslides reveals that seasonal velocity changes are characterized by comparatively rapid acceleration and gradual deceleration. Each slide displays distinct kinematic zones with different mean velocities, although velocity changes appear to occur synchronously along the landslide body over seasonal timescales. Because these deformation patterns are sensitive to subsurface geometry, we employ a commonly used non-Newtonian viscous flow law to infer slide thickness and find that these slides likely exhibit a highly variable thickness and an irregular (i.e. rough and non-planar) basal sliding surface. Our results suggest that slide geometry controls long-term motion, but does not strongly regulate their response to seasonal stress perturbations.

  17. Environmental factors as determinants of malaria risk. A descriptive study on the northern coast of Peru.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, J P; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Palacios, A; Hall, A J

    2002-06-01

    We conducted a series of studies on the northern Pacific coast of Peru to determine environmental risk factors for malaria. We report in this paper the results of both a descriptive study of incidence and a prevalence survey of malaria. Both studies showed that the area was at low risk for malaria. The malaria incidence rate was 40/1000 p.a. during the study period, and the prevalence of infection was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.4-1.7) before and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.8-2.2) after the high incidence period. However, the risk of malaria varied according to season, village and even house within a single village. Incidence rates increased from February (2.6/1000 p.a.) to May (12.9/1000 p.a.) and decreased during the second part of the year. Most of the cases were clustered in four villages that constituted only 21% of the total population of the area. Houses where multiple cases were recorded were often located near a source of water. Our observations suggested that environmental factors, and particularly the presence of water for irrigation around villages and houses, played a major role in determining the risk of malaria. These observations were extended through an entomological study and a case-control study, to be published elsewhere.

  18. Genetic structure of Mugil cephalus L. populations from the northern coast of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Magdy, Mahmoud; Eshak, Mariam Gergis; Rashed, Mohamed Abdel-Salam

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The gray mullet, Mugil cephalus, has been farmed in semi-intensive ponds with tilapia and carps in Egypt for years. The current study used the fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (F-AFLP) technique to search for genetic differences between the populations of M. cephalus in the northern region of Egypt and to detect the gene flow between sampled locations and the homogeneity within M. cephalus genetic pool in Egypt. Materials and Methods: To fulfill the study objectives 60 (15/location) samples were collected from four northern coast governorates of Egypt (Alexandria “sea,” Kafr El-Sheikh “farm,” Damietta “farm” and Port Said “sea”). Three replicates of bulked DNA (5 samples/replicate) for each location were successfully amplified using the standard AFLP protocol using fluorescent primers. DNA polymorphism, genetic diversity, and population structure were assessed while positive outlier loci were successfully detected among the sampled locations. Based on the geographical distribution of sampling sites, the gene flow, the genetic differentiation, and correlations to sampling locations were estimated. Results: A total of 1890 polymorphic bands were scored for all locations, where 765, 1054, 673, and 751 polymorphic bands were scored between samples from Alexandria, Kafr El-Sheikh, Damietta and Port Said, respectively. The effective number of alleles (ne) for all bulked samples combined together was 1.42. The expected heterozygosity under Hardy–Weinberg assumption (He) for all bulked samples combined together was 0.28. Bulked samples from Damietta yielded the lowest ne (1.35) and the lowest He (0.23) when inbreeding coefficient (FIS) = 1. Bulked samples from Kafr El-Sheikh scored the highest ne (1.55) and the highest He (0.37). Bulked samples from Alexandria scored 1.40 for ne and 0.26 for He, while bulked samples from Port Said scored 1.39 for ne and 0.26 for He. The observed bulked samples formed three sub-population groups

  19. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion.

  20. Organochlorine compounds in surface sediments from the northern coast of Cyprus, Eastern Mediterranean: Levels, possible sources and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Pazi, I; Gonul, L T; Duman, M

    2016-08-15

    Organochlorines (OCs) were determined in sediments collected from different regions of northern coast of Cyprus. The OCPs and Aroclors had a wide range from 2.78 to 306 and 15 to 325ngg(-1), respectively. The highest level was found at Yedi Dalga site. DDE was the most abundant compound. The ratios of metabolites to parent DDT showed that DDTs were derived mostly from the aged and weathered inputs. Comparing our results with the previous studies showed that POPs in sediments were found to be lower than those in samples for Mediterranean and Black Sea coasts. The SQG implied that, Aroclor1254 exceeded the TEL values, showing that adverse biological effects are expected occasionally at some of the sediment samples. DDTs were dominant and more ecotoxicological concern in the northern Cyprus. Altogether, it may be summarized that DDTs will impose ecologically hazardous impacts in the sedimentary environment at the present. PMID:27234367

  1. Spreading patterns of the invasive Caulerpa cylindracea Sonder along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia).

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2015-06-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea represents the northernmost and thus the coldest biogeographic sector of the Mediterranean Sea. In 2004, the invasive green alga Caulerpa cylindracea was recorded for the first time in the northern Adriatic at a site of the west Istrian Coast. Until 2010, additional C. cylindracea mats have only formed up to 7 km northward from the first colonisation site. Subsequently, the alga was also recorded at sites widespread along the entire coast. Both the first 2004 colonisation event and the 2011-2014 colonisation of distant sites occurred during periods of winter seawater temperatures higher than 9 °C. In general, algal spreading was markedly slow. Approximately 10 years after the first record, C. cylindracea has affected less than 1% of the entire west Istrian coastline. The colonisation predominantly occurred in ports and urbanised bays (seaside resorts) suggesting that anthropogenic activities might enhance algal diffusion. PMID:25828676

  2. Tsunami Scenarios and Hazard Assessment along the Northern Coast of Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.

    2015-12-01

    The northeastern Caribbean island arc, which materializes the boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates, is particularly exposed to large earthquakes and tsunamis. The low level of preparedness of a large part of its population and the lack of risk reduction provisions in public policies in many countries of the region put their population and economy at high risk in case of large telluric events. Here we investigate the impact that three possible earthquake scenarios, all consistent with the regional seismotectonic setting, would have on northern Haiti through inundation by tsunami waves. These scenarios follow the conclusions of the 2013 IOC Meeting of Experts (IOC Workshop Report No. 255) and simulate the effect of a M8.0 earthquake on the Septentrional strike-slip fault (possibly similar to the 1842 earthquake), a M8.1 earthquake on the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti, and an earthquake rupturing a large portion of the offshore thrust fault system north of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. We calculate run-up heights along the northern coast of Haiti, in particular in the densely populated, coastal city of Cap Haitien. We find that the rupture of the offshore North Hispaniola thrust fault could result in wave heights up to 10 m with inundation up to 4 km inland, with only 10-15 minutes between ground shaking and the first wave arrivals. The city of Cap Haitien is particularly exposed, with potential flooding of most of the city and its suburbs, including the international airport. We also find that the historical reports available for the 1842 earthquake, when compared to our simulations, favor a rupture of the North Hispaniola thrust fault, although much uncertainty remains. If the 1842 earthquake did not rupture the Septentional fault offshore Haiti, then it is currently capable of at least a Mw7.7 earthquake, significantly larger than previously thought. The simulations presented here provide a basis for developing conservative

  3. Debris flows on Belding Creek, Salmonberry River basin, northern Oregon Coast Range

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, L.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Belding Creek, a tributary of the Salmonberry River, has experienced repeated debris flow episodes. The Salmonberry River flows through Paleocene Tillamook Basalt and is located at longitude 45[degree]43 minutes in the Northern Oregon Coast Range. On January 9, 1990, a debris flow initiated on a first order tributary of Belding Creek during a heavy precipitation event. A month later another debris flow initiated on a different first order stream under similar conditions. Both debris flows traveled for a distance of approximately 2.1 km and poured into the main Belding Creek channel washing out Belding Road which crosses the stream. Numerical data was obtained from the youngest flow deposit. The debris flow material density is 2.5 g/cm[sup 3]. It traveled at an average velocity of 2.9 m/s with a shear strength of 2.5 [times] 10[sup 4] dn/cm[sup 2], a friction angle of 4[degree], and a cohesion value of 1.4 [times] 10[sup 4] dn/cm[sup 3]. Less than 3% of the fine sediments deposited are clay and silt. Deposits from previous, older debris flow events are in and adjacent to the Belding Creek stream channel. Similar processes are evident in other major tributaries of the Salmonberry River, although these other stream channels have not shown recent activity. Each stream in the area that has experienced past debris flows similar to Belding Creek has a landslide feature at the top and follows regional lineation patterns.

  4. Philometrid nematodes (Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia, including three new species.

    PubMed

    Moravec, Frantisek; Diggles, Ben K

    2014-02-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, the following nine species of Philometridae (Nemaoda: Dracunculoidea) are described from female worms parasitizing marine perciform fishes belonging to six families off the northern coast Australia (near Darwin): Philometra australiensis sp. n. from the swimbladder of the king threadfin Polydactylus macrochir (Günther) (Polynemidae); P. epinepheli Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the operculum of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton) (Serranidae); Philometra johnii Moravec et Ali, 2013 from the gonad of the croaker Johnius sp. (Sciaenidae); P. macrochiri sp. n. from the sensory fin of P. macrochir; P. zabidii sp. n. from the ovary of the ninespine batfish Zabidius novemaculatus (McCulloch) (Ephippidae); Philometra sp. 1 and Philometra sp. 2 from the ovary of the Spanish flag snapper Lutjanus carponotatus (Richardson) (Lutjanidae) and the silver grunt Pomadasys argenteus (Forsskål) (Haemulidae), respectively; Philometroides eleutheronemae Moravec et Manoharan, 2013 from the ovary of the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw) (Polynemidae); and Spirophilometra endangae Dewi et Palm, 2013 from the pectoral fins of E. coioides. The new species P. australiensis is characterized mainly by the structure of the cephalic end, 14 minute cephalic papillae, absence of caudal projections and body length of gravid female (67 mm), P. macrochiri by the presence of a conspicuously large anterior oesophageal bulb, 14 very small cephalic papillae and the truncated posterior end of body without any caudal projections, whereas P. zabidii is characterized by the presence of distinct caudal projections, the number (14) and larger size and arrangement of cephalic papillae, a poorly developed anterior oesophageal inflation, the body length (114 mm) and the host family (Ephippidae). All above-mentioned species were recorded from Australian waters for the first time. PMID:24684052

  5. Dyke Monitorin by the Means of Persistent Scattering Interferometry at the Coast of Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, M.; Marzahn, P.; Ludwig, R.

    2016-06-01

    40 percent of the world's population are presently living in coastal areas or along the main rivers. Taking into account that the vulnerability of these areas is increasing due to sea-level rise and coastal hazards such as storm surges or extreme rainfall events accompanied with floods, the importance of safety structures such as dykes is increasing as well. Hence, a spatial distributed dyke monitoring should be part of a sustainable adaptation strategy. Due to increasing amount of SAR-data from various satellites with high spatial and temporal coverage, the means of SAR-interferometry could be an essential tool to ensure this kind of required monitoring. Given this prospect, Persistent Scattering Interferometry (PSI) will be a very suitable monitoring technique for dyke structures to identify dyke movement with the accuracy of few millimetres. This procedure focuses on pixels that show a stable scattering behaviour in a sequence of multiple SAR-scenes. In opposition to ground-measurements, the spatial coverage of this technique provides comparable results for different parts of the dyke; furthermore weak segments with particular high movements could be identified in advance. This could prevent future dyke crevasses and help to reduce risks in high-populated areas. This paper attempts to describe the potential of the PSI technique for a spatial distributed dyke monitoring at the coast in northern Germany. 21 ERS-2 scenes and 16 Envisat ASAR scenes were analysed. Those Scenes cover an area of a sea shore dyke including a flood regulation barrage and results point out the potential for this technique to monitor dyke structures. Even though the observed dyke doesn't show any significant deformation rates, the two datasets show the same signal for the whole dyke.

  6. Tsunami preparedness at the resort facilities along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands - their actions against the 27 February 2010 Okinawan and Chilean tsunami warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2010-12-01

    The economy (including tourism) in tropical and subtropical coastal areas, such as Okinawa Prefecture (Ryukyu) is highly relying on the sea. The sea has both “gentle” side to give people healing and “fierce” side to kill people. If we are going to utilise the sea for marine tourism such as constructing resort facilities on the oceanfront, we should know the whole nature of the sea, Tsunami is the typical case of the “fierce” side of the sea. We have already learned a lesson about this issue from the Sumatra tsunami in 2004. Early morning (5:31 am Japanese Standard Time = JST) on 27 February 2010, a M6.9 earthquake occurred near the coast of Okinawa Ryukyu Island Japan, and just after that Japanese Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued a tsunami warning along the coastal area of Okinawa Prefecture. About one hour later the tsunami warning was cancelled. The CMT solution of this earthquake was found to be strike-slip type with NE-SW P-axis. Therefore this did not induce a tsunami. However, in the afternoon on the same day (JST) a M8.6 earthquake occurred off the coast of Chile and soon after that a tsunami warning issued along the Pacific coastal area including Japan and Ryukyu Islands. Indeed maximum 1m tsunami hit the eastern coast of Okinawa Island on 28th February (Nakamura, 2010, personal communication). The author conducted a survey about the actions against the both tsunami after the 27 February tsunami warming to the major resort hotels along the coast of the Ryukyu Islands. A questionnaire was sent to about 20 hotels and 6 hotels replied to the questionnaire. Most of these hotels reported the regular training against tsunami attack, preparation of a disaster prevention manual, close communication with the local fire station authority, evacuation procedure towards high stories of the hotel building etc. It was “winter season” when the tsunami took place. However, if that were “summer season,” the other problem such as how they make the people

  7. About 500-yr interval of huge and widespread paleotsunamis along the Sanriku coast, northern Honshu, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, T.; Toda, S.; Tsutsumi, H.; Meghraoui, M.; Ferry, M.; Takada, K.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake triggered a massive tsunami and devastated ~1,000-km-long coastal regions from Aomori to Chiba prefectures, northeast Honshu island. Several pioneering papers already investigated the Sendai to Fukushima region, southern 2011 source area. They found a widespread tsunami inundation by the 869 A.D. Jogan tsunami event (e.g., Minoura and Imamura, 2001; Sawai et al., 2008), which lead the estimated size of the Jogan earthquake up to M8.4 (Satake et al., 2008). No geologic evidence and no historical account in further north may have prevented to conclude straightforwardly that the Jogan earthquake was the penultimate event of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. Here we focus on the Sariku coast, northern part of the 2011 source, and present our pre-Tohoku-oki studies performed at six locations. To recover paleotsunami deposits, I employed conventional coring technique and newly invented Geoslicer to extract several-meter-deep soil and sediment samples. Evidence for paleotsunami event is generally discernible as a several-to-several-tens-of-centimeter medium-to-coarse sand often including mud clast and shells. Such a tsunami sand layer is also distinct intercalated by peats and humic soils representing interseimic dormant periods. Radiocarbon dates yielded from such organic-rich units bracket the depositional timing of the tsunami sand. Although the time constraints of the tsunami sand units are different from site to site, there are shared time ranges of tsunami inundations. Seven well-preserved paleotsunami horizons were commonly found at five onshore sites during the period between 1,000 and 6,000 y.B.P, which yields 500-700 years of recurrence intervals of extremely large tsunamis. One of the flaws in the onshore surveys however is a deficit of the younger sediments due to surface human perturbations. To overcome the issue, I then chose a site inside a bay where no massive erosion and human modification were expected. A 35-m drilling

  8. Evolution of potentially eroding events along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasilla Álvarez, D.; García Codrón, J. C.

    2009-09-01

    The anthropogenic global warming is expected to result in a rise in sea-level, accompanied by changes in extreme climate events, such as the frequency and intensity of storms. Such scenario would result in an acceleration of coastal erosion. The aim of the present study is to assess the temporal evolution of potentially eroding events along the northern coast of the Iberian Peninsula during the second half of the 20th century, and to investigate changes in forcing processes such as the frequency and magnitude of storm surges and high wave events. To characterize the potentially eroding events, the total elevation of the water level was selected, being calculated as the sum of the contributions of the average water level, wave run up and the storm surges. Potentially eroding events were identified and quantified following a two-step procedure. Through the first step the potential flood induced by a given storm was estimated by simulating its effects on a theoretical beach profile (intermediate) using an empirical parameterization for extreme run-up approach. The second step consisted on characterizing the maximum storm surge registered during a storm. Those parameters were calculated from hindcasted data (storm surge, wave heights and period, wind speed and direction), retrieved from the SIMAR-44 database (Puertos del Estado), and validated against actual tide gauge measurements and buoy data (RedMar and RedExt networks). Analyses of total water levels showed a long term increase since 1958, resulting from the increase of mean sea level; conversely, a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of the storm events were deduced from the analysis of meteorological records. Since the impact of the storms on macro- and meso- tidal coast closely depend on the tides, a storm impact index was computed taking into account the storm surge magnitude, the wave heights and time duration during which a predefined threshold was exceeded by the sea level. The results are

  9. Homogenization of long instrumental temperature and precipitation series over the Spanish Northern Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigro, J.; Brunet, M.; Aguilar, E.; Stoll, H.; Jimenez, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Spanish-funded research project Rapid Climate Changes in the Iberian Peninsula (IP) Based on Proxy Calibration, Long Term Instrumental Series and High Resolution Analyses of Terrestrial and Marine Records (CALIBRE: ref. CGL2006-13327-C04/CLI) has as main objective to analyse climate dynamics during periods of rapid climate change by means of developing high-resolution paleoclimate proxy records from marine and terrestrial (lakes and caves) deposits over the IP and calibrating them with long-term and high-quality instrumental climate time series. Under CALIBRE, the coordinated project Developing and Enhancing a Climate Instrumental Dataset for Calibrating Climate Proxy Data and Analysing Low-Frequency Climate Variability over the Iberian Peninsula (CLICAL: CGL2006-13327-C04-03/CLI) is devoted to the development of homogenised climate records and sub-regional time series which can be confidently used in the calibration of the lacustrine, marine and speleothem time series generated under CALIBRE. Here we present the procedures followed in order to homogenise a dataset of maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation data on a monthly basis over the Spanish northern coast. The dataset is composed of thirty (twenty) precipitation (temperature) long monthly records. The data are quality controlled following the procedures recommended by Aguilar et al. (2003) and tested for homogeneity and adjusted by following the approach adopted by Brunet et al. (2008). Sub-regional time series of precipitation, maximum and minimum temperatures for the period 1853-2007 have been generated by averaging monthly anomalies and then adding back the base-period mean, according to the method of Jones and Hulme (1996). Also, a method to adjust the variance bias present in regional time series associated over time with varying sample size has been applied (Osborn et al., 1997). The results of this homogenisation exercise and the development of the associated sub-regional time series

  10. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  11. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  12. EFFECTS OF HURRICANE KATRINA ON BENTHIC MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF OF MEXICO COAST

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was initiated in fall 2005 to assess potential effects on benthic fauna and habitat quality in coastal waters of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama following Hurricane Katrina, which struck the coast of Louisiana, between New Orleans and Bioloxi, Mississippi on August 29...

  13. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2010-11-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable southerly winds to relaxed southerlies or even downwelling-favorable northerlies. In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean and transient features.

  14. VOCALS-CUpEx: the Chilean Upwelling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garreaud, R. D.; Rutllant, J. A.; Muñoz, R. C.; Rahn, D. A.; Ramos, M.; Figueroa, D.

    2011-03-01

    The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Regional Experiment (VOCALS-REx) was a major field experiment conducted in spring of 2008 off southern Peru and northern Chile, aimed at better understanding the coupled climate systems of the southeast Pacific. Because of logistical constrains, the coastal area around 30° S was not sampled during VOCALS-REx. This area not only marks the poleward edge of the subtropical stratocumulus cloud regime (thus acting as a source of transient disturbances) but is also one of the most active upwelling centers and source of surface ocean kinetic energy along the Chilean coast. To fill such an observational gap, a small, brief, but highly focused field experiment was conducted in late spring 2009 in the near-shore region around 30° S. The Chilean Upwelling Experiment (CUpEx) was endorsed by VOCALS as a regional component. CUpEx included long-term monitoring, an intensive two-week field campaign and off-shore research flights. Our goal was to obtain an atmospheric/oceanic dataset with enough temporal and spatial coverage to be able to document (a) the mean diurnal cycles of the lower-troposphere and upper-ocean in a region of complex topography and coastline geometry, and (b) the ocean-atmosphere response to the rapid changes in coastal winds from strong, upwelling-favorable equatorward flow (southerly winds) to downwelling-favorable poleward flow (northerly winds). In this paper we describe the measurement platforms and sampling strategy, and provide an observational overview, highlighting some key mean-state and transient features.

  15. Estimating dry deposition and gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances in northern German coast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Mi, Wenying; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of 12 neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were estimated at Büsum located in northern German coast, and their gas/particle partition coefficients were predicted by employing the polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). The gas deposition flux, particle deposition flux and total (gas + particle) flux of the 12 PFASs during sampling periods were 1088 ± 611, 189 ± 75 and 1277 ± 627 pg/(m(2) d), respectively. The gas deposition of PFASs played a key role during deposition to marine ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis showed that wind speed was the most sensitive parameter for gas deposition fluxes. Good agreements (within 1 log unit) were observed between the measured gas/particle partitioning data of PFASs and the predicted partition coefficients using PP-LFERs, indicating the model can reliably predict the gas/particle partitioning behaviors of atmospheric neutral PFASs.

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37-3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126-141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae.

  17. Numerical Modelling of Freshwater Flux and Temperature on the Northern British Columbia Coast in support of Marine Oil Spill Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, D. R.; Fleming, S. W.; Fortin, V.; Durnford, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Canada has the longest coastline of any country (>120,000 miles). Canadian response to potential oil spills along its coast is being improved under a high-level federal government strategy, falling under the rubric of the World Class Tanker Safety System (WCTSS). The first component of this strategy focuses on the Kitimat area and its marine approaches on the northern British Columbia (BC) coast. This initiative reflects concerns around both existing ship traffic, and potential increases in tanker traffic associated with the proposed Northern Gateway pipeline. The project includes joint development, between multiple federal departments, of an operational modeling system to predict currents in the coastal ocean. One of Environment Canada's (EC) contributions is the development and implementation of a short-term forecast model of river flows with corresponding stream temperatures. These quantities influence currents in the coastal ocean, which in turn affect oil spill fate and transport. Our platform is based on the Surface Prediction System (SPS), which is essentially a driver for a land surface scheme (LSS) linked to a hydrological routing model, and is related to the earlier MESH platform. LSS's under consideration for use in this mountain rainforest environment are the Canadian Land Surface Scheme (CLASS), and the Soil and Vegetation Simulator (SVS), which is an evolution of the Interactions Soil-Biosphere-Atmosphere (ISBA) model. Runoff and drainage outputs are then routed through the stream network by WATROUTE. The River Basin Model (RBM), a physically-based stream temperature simulator, is also being integrated into SPS to additionally enable water temperature forecasting. The freshwater modelling system will be directly driven by EC's numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems.Preliminary results from this ambitious modeling program are presented, along with recommendations for improvements to physical process representation in the various models employed.

  18. Convection activity over the Guinean coast and Central Africa during northern spring from synoptic to intra-seasonal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamsu-Tamo, P. H.; Janicot, S.; Monkam, D.; Lenouo, A.

    2014-12-01

    This study proposes an overview of the main synoptic, medium-range and intraseasonal modes of convection and precipitation in northern spring (March-June 1979-2010) over West and Central Africa, and to understand their atmospheric dynamics. It is based on daily National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration outgoing longwave radiation and Cloud Archive User Service Tb convection data, daily TRMM and Global Precipitation Climatology Project rainfall products and daily ERA-Interim reanalysis atmospheric fields. It is first shown that mesoscale convective systems can be modulated in terms of occurrences number and intensity at such time scales. Based on empirical orthogonal function analyses on the 2-90-day filtered data it is shown that the main mode of convective and rainfall variability is located along the Guinean coast with a moderate to weak extension over Central Africa. Corresponding regressed deseasonalised atmospheric fields highlight an eastward propagation of patterns consistent with convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin wave dynamics. Then a singular spectrum analysis combined with a Hierarchical Ascendant Classification enable to define objectively the main spectral bands of variability within the 2-90-day band, and highlight three main bands, 2-8-, 8-22- and 20-90-day. Within these three bands, space-time spectral decomposition is used to identify the relative impacts of convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin, Rossby and inertia-gravity waves, as well as Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) signal. It confirms that eastward propagating signals (convectively coupled equatorial Kelvin wave and MJO) are highly dominant in these convection and precipitation variability modes over the Guinean coast during northern spring. So, while rain-producing individual systems are moving westward, their activity are highly modulated by sub-regional and regional scales envelops moving to the east. This is a burning issue for operational forecasting centers to be able to

  19. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  20. An entomological and seroepidemiological study of the vectorial-transmission risk of Chagas disease in the coast of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Reyes, C; Canals, A; Parra, A; Muñoz, X; Rodríguez, K

    2015-12-01

    Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile.

  1. An entomological and seroepidemiological study of the vectorial-transmission risk of Chagas disease in the coast of northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, C R; Reyes, C; Canals, A; Parra, A; Muñoz, X; Rodríguez, K

    2015-12-01

    Four species of triatomines are known from Chile: Triatoma infestans Klug, Mepraia spinolai Porter, M. gajardoi Frías, Henry & González, and M. parapatrica Frías (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), the last three are endemic. The geographical distribution of M. gajardoi includes the coastal areas in the north of Chile between 18° and 21°S, an area with both a resident workforce and summer-season visitors. A study was developed to assess the risk of vectorial transmission of Chagas disease by M. gajardoi in hut settlements on the coast of the Tarapacá Region, in particular in Caleta San Marcos and Caleta Río Seco. The study comprised fingerstick sampling of 95 persons, venous samples from 29 domestic dogs and capture of 52 triatomines, from both fishing coves. The samples were analysed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. The results show that, of the total number of persons studied, 100% were negative for Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas (Trypanosomatida: Trypanosomatidae) antibodies, 10.34% of canids were positive for the antibody and 5.8% of M. gajardoi were infected to the PCR technique. The presence of this species in areas close to human settlements constitutes a risk to human populations established on the coast of northern Chile. PMID:26208149

  2. Sediment sources and their contribution along northern coast of the South China Sea: Evidence from clay minerals of surface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Yan, Wen; Chen, Zhong; Lu, Jun

    2012-09-01

    Clay minerals of surface sediment samples from nine bays/harbors along northern coast of the South China Sea (SCS) are used for sediment sources and contribution estimation in the study areas. Results reveal that sediments in the study bays/harbors seem to be a mixture of sediments from the Pearl, Hanjiang River and local islands/rivers, but their clay mineral assemblage is distinct from that of Luzon and Taiwan sediments, indicating that sediments are derived mainly from the neighboring sources through riverine input and partly from localized sediments. Due to input of local sediments in the northern SCS, sediments from both east of the Leizhou Peninsula (Area IV) and next to the Pearl River estuary (PRE, Area II) have high smectite percent. Affected by riverine input of the Pearl and Hanjiang Rivers, sediments in west of the PRE (Area III) and east of the PRE (Area I) have high illite (average 47%) and kaolinite (54%) percents, respectively. Sediment contributions of various major sources to the study areas are estimated as the following: (1) the Hanjiang River provide 95% and 84% sediments in Areas I and II, respectively, (2) the Pearl River supply 79% and 29% sediments in Areas III and IV, respectively and (3) local sediments contribute the rest and reach the maximum (˜71%) in Area IV.

  3. Current status and multidecadal biogeographical changes in rocky intertidal algal assemblages: The northern Spanish coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, C.

    2016-03-01

    The biogeographic border between the Eastern and the Atlantic subregions of the Lusitanian Province situated on the west coast of Asturias (N. of Spain) has moved westwards in recent years. A comparative study, consisting in a resurvey of 20 shores sampled in 1977, covering 200 km showed a large-scale change affecting the mid and low eulittoral. Cold-temperate canopy species such as kelps (Laminaria hyperborea, Laminaria. ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides), fucoids (Fucus serratus, Fucus vesiculosus and Himanthalia elongata) and Chondrus crispus have almost disappeared and replaced by warm-temperate species such as Cystoseira baccata, Cystoseira tamariscifolia, Bifurcaria bifurcata and coralline algae (Ellisolandia elongata, Lithophyllum incrustans and Mesophyllum lichenoides). The loss of canopy-species can have consequences for the assemblage, especially in the case of fucoid-dominated assemblages.

  4. Modelling the development of rocky shoreline profiles along the northern coast of Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thébaudeau, Benjamin; Trenhaile, Alan S.; Edwards, Robin J.

    2013-12-01

    A mathematical wave-erosion model is used to simulate postglacial shoreline profiles along the rocky, high energy coast of the north of Ireland. The wave erosion model is driven by a suite of relative sea-level (RSL) curves for the last 16,000 years produced from four glacial rebound models. Multiple runs are performed with different initial shore profiles and rock resistances to investigate shoreline evolution and the significance of inherited morphology on the resultant profile shape. The simulated profiles are then compared with mapped profiles from three areas of the north of Ireland with different lithological and hydrographic properties. Modelled profiles generally replicate the overall mean shoreline gradients observed across the region when rock resistance is relatively high and erosion rates correspondingly low. In these profiles, breaks in mean slope are observed at depths comparable to the RSL minima in several of the RSL scenarios (at c. - 10 m, - 15 m and - 20 m for North Antrim, Derry and Donegal respectively). At Portrush and Portballintrae (Derry), profiles may be influenced by structural controls relating to the underlying basalt surface and the removal of overlying glaciogenic sediments. All RSL scenarios replicate the observed eastward increase in cliff-platform junction height, reflecting the differential glacioisostatic rebound experienced along the coast. However, the precise elevation at which the simulated cliff base occurs is sensitive to the choice of RSL scenario, suggesting that this parameter may prove useful in evaluating glacial rebound model performance. Several of the RSL scenarios generate raised shore platforms or terraces in North Antrim and Derry at heights comparable to raised shoreline features reported in the literature. However, no single curve or combination of parameters is capable of generating the range of platform and terrace features observed in the bathymetric and topographic data. These misfits are consistent with

  5. Preliminary Results of Tectonic Geomorphology Investigation of the Northern Cyprus coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Cengiz; Tüysüz, Okan; Melnick, Daniel; Damla Altınbaş, Cevza; Zeynel Öztürk, Muhammed; Oruç Baykara, Mehmet; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2016-04-01

    Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean region, is a part of subduction zone that defines the plate boundary at the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau. The presence of uplifted marine terraces, wave-cut notches, surface ruptures and tsunami deposits are pieces of evidence of subduction related active deformation in the northern part of the island. To understand timing, mode and rate of deformation, we conducted high-resolution geomorphic mapping of marine terraces and levelling of wave-cut notches by using drone and DGPS. Tsunami boulders and boulder trains reaching up to 5-6 meters were discovered and surface rupture of an earthquake strechting from offshore to onshore was mapped for the first time with this study. Coral fossils were collected from marine terraces and tsunami boulders for age determinations by U-Th and 14C dating techniques, respectively. U-Th dating results indicate 144±12 (2s) ka for the MIS5e terrace at 40 m above sea level and 14C ages show the late Holocene (<4.5 ka) coseismic deformation. Here we will present tectonic implicatios from temporal and spatial distribution of marine terraces and wave-cut notches along the northern Cyprus. This study is supported by the Istanbul Technical University Research Found (Project no: 37548).

  6. Natural versus Urban dunes along the Emilia-Romagna coast, Northern Adriatic (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2014-05-01

    Beach-dune interaction models can be precious tools for land managers and policymakers. However, if the models are inaccurate, land use policies may be designed based on false pretences or assumptions leading to poor land management, long-term erosion and sustainability issues, and increased difficulties in maintaining the dynamic coastal systems. From the literature, it appears that even the most reliable beach-dunes interactions models are not applicable to all coastal systems (Short and Hesp, 1982; Psuty, 1988; Sherman and Bauer, 1993). The study aims to identify the morphological evolution of the Emilia-Romagna coastal dunes according to its natural and "human" characteristics and to classify groups of dunes with similar evolutionary patterns. The coastal area consists essentially of 130 km of low sandy coast, interrupted by vast lagoon areas, harbor jetties and numerous hard coastal defense structures that were built during the first half of the 20th century to protect the Emilia-Romagna coast against erosion. Today about 57% of the littoral is protected by hard defenses, which have modified the morphodynamic characteristics of the beach without inverting the negative coastal evolution's trend. From recent aerial photographs (2011), 62 coastal dunes have been identified and mapped. Furthermore, the dune analysis shows a variability of the "physical characteristics" of coastal-dune systems along the Emilia-Romagna coast. The dune height varies from 1 to 7 meters, the width of the beach and of the active dunes range respectively from 10 to 150 m and from 10 to 65 m. Three main factors may explain the variability of the "physical characteristics": 1- Firstly the frontal dunes may be of different states according to the classification of Hesp (2002) since they correspond to incipient foredunes, well-developed foredunes, blowouts, residual foredunes as well as reactivated relict foredunes, 2- This could also be related to a different orientation of the coastline

  7. Late Holocene Regression of the Northern Peruvian Coast Near Rio Chicama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, M. T.; Goodbred, S. L.; Dillehay, T. D.; Quivira, M. P.

    2008-12-01

    Many Peruvian archaeological sites lie at the interface between an arid coastal desert, a rich marine ecosystem, and some of the tallest mountains in the Western Hemisphere, providing several unique environments within a small geographic area. While the region has supported civilizations since at least 6000BP, it has also been subject to a complex history of environmental impacts evident in the stratigraphy of the surrounding coastal environment. Most notable in the stratigraphy are El Nino flood events, providing the majority of sediment input to the coast, and tsunami events that are occasionally marked in the stratigraphic record. Such evidence for a paleotsunami appears to exist within a sequence of regressive Holocene shoreline deposits. This possible event is characterized by a planar erosional surface, dipping shallowly seaward, truncating the entire sequence of Holocene shorelines. The surface also consists of a lag of gravel that has been subsequently weathered by subaerial exposure to salt and sun. In addition there appears to be residual evidence of a similar, earlier event, most of which has been eroded from the record by the younger event. This entire sequence of shoreface deposits is situated approximately 2m above present mean sea level, and is suspected to be younger than 3000 years (pending radiocarbon dates), suggesting a rapid, recent Holocene regression in this region.

  8. Fog Events at Maceio Airport on the Northern Coast of Brazil During 2002-2005 and 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, Natalia; Levit, Vladimir; de Souza, José Leonaldo; Silva, Aliton Oliveira; Afonso, Joao M. Sousa; Teodoro, Iedo

    2015-10-01

    There were eight fog events in five years at Maceio international airport on the northern coast of Brazil, and all were analyzed. Fog duration was short and its intensity was weak or moderate. The principal objectives of the study were: (1) analysis of the physical processes of fog formation (synoptic and thermodynamic conditions and processes), (2) PAFOG model testing, and (3) estimation of the effect of vegetation on fog forecast. Cyclonic curvature and divergence of the air current over the ocean at low levels and anticyclonic curvature at high levels were associated with the fog. Weak lifting at low levels was identified by the NCEP/DOE II, ECMWF, and WRF models for all eight events. Sinking at high levels was dominant in the ECMWF and WRF models. Absence of thermal inversion and conditional instability at low levels was identified by the NCEP/DOE II and ECMWF models. According to the WRF model a typical temperature profile during fog comprises three layers: (1) a very thin layer (up to 166 m, 985 hPa) of temperature inversion with very high humidity; (2) a conditional layer of instability from 985-860 hPa; and (3) a dry and stable layer above 860 hPa. Moderate fog with visibility between 200 and 300 m was associated with ocean cooling whereas weak fog was associated with ocean warming. A warm oscillation on the sea surface near the Brazilian northeast was observed for all fog events. It was found there was colder air over the warmer water near the coast. Weak confluence in troughs at low levels contributes to weak lifting at low levels. This current creates conditions resulting in humidity increase. A warmer sea surface contributes to more evaporation and, as a consequence, increases the amount of water vapor in the surrounding air at low levels near the coast. The PAFOG model was used to forecast the fog for three events (i.e., for all cases possible), and was satisfactory for two cases. Satisfactory results for fog duration and intensity were obtained with 9

  9. GLORIA mosaic of West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone, northern sector

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, M.A.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Karl, N.H.; Kenyon, N.H.; Masson, D.G.

    1986-05-01

    The GLORIA (Geological Long-Range Inclined Asdic) side-scanning sonar system was used to compile an image-enhanced acoustic mosaic, similar to an aerial photograph, of the sea floor of the West Coast US Exclusive Economic Zone. The mosaic clearly shows the spreading centers, fracture zones, submarine fans and channels, and transform to convergent continental margins north of latitude 39/sup 0/N. The linear basement ridges originally generated at the Gorda and Juan de Fuca spreading centers are abruptly truncated by the Mendocino and Blanco fracture zones, and their subtle to distinct divergence, bending, and offset attests to past changes in spreading rate and propagation of spreading centers. The major Delgada, Astoria, and Nitinat fans are traversed by lengthy channel-levee complexes extending from major canyons on the adjacent continental slope; areally extensive sediment-wave fields occur adjacent to the right side (facing down-channel) of these complexes. Other drainage features appear on the mosaic, and the range of channel sinuosity and continuity indicates fluvial-like processes at work on the sea floor. Submarine canyons on the continental slope are irregularly distributed; their range of maturity and relation to substrate type and geologic structure are manifest as variations in length, width, and relief, by changes in trend, and by the degree of sidewall gullying. Compressional and diapiric ridges characterize the continental slope in areas of plate convergence, whereas along the transform margin south of the Mendocino fracture zone, the slope is relatively smooth and featureless, except where incised by large canyon systems.

  10. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages.

  11. Long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (Croatia) related to eutrophication patterns in the northern Adriatic Sea.

    PubMed

    Iveša, Ljiljana; Djakovac, Tamara; Devescovi, Massimo

    2016-05-15

    An exploration of historical data suggested that eutrophication patterns might drive long-term fluctuations in Cystoseira populations along the west Istrian Coast (northern Adriatic Sea, Croatia). The regimes of northern Italian rivers, which flow approximately 100km west of the study area, mainly modulate the eutrophication levels of the northern Adriatic Sea. A regression of Cystoseira populations from the 1970s through the 1990s corresponded to increased levels of eutrophication in the study area. During the late 1990s, the density of sea urchins, which are efficacious macroalgal predators, decreased, likely due to an intense formation of pelagic mucilage aggregates that resulted in mass mortality episodes of macrozoobenthic species. During the 2000-2013 period, an oligotrophication of the northern Adriatic formed the basis for the recovery of Cystoseira taxa, whose abundances from 2009 to 2013 were similar to those characterising the most flourishing Mediterranean Cystoseira assemblages. PMID:26975612

  12. Cenozoic structural evolution and tectono-stratigraphic framework of the northern Gulf Coast continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Diegel, F.A.; Karlo, J.F.; Shoup, R.C.; Schuster, D.C.

    1996-12-31

    The Cenozoic structural evolution of the northern Gulf of Mexico Basin is controlled by progradation over deforming, largely allochthonous salt structures derived from an underlying autochthonous Jurassic salt. The wide variety of structural styles is due to a combination of (1) original distribution of Jurassic and Mesozoic salt structures, (2) different slope depositional environments during the Cenozoic, and (3) varying degrees of salt withdrawal from allochthonous salt sheets. Tectono-stratigraphic provinces describe regions of contrasting structural styles and ages. Provinces include (1) a contractional foldbelt province, (2) a tabular salt-minibasin-province, (3) a Pliocene-Pleistocene detachment province, (4) a salt dome-minibasin province, (5) an Oligocene-Miocene detachment province, (6) a lower Oligocene Vicksburg detachment province, (7) an upper Eocene detachment province, and (8) the Wilcox growth fault province of Paleocene-Eocene age. Within several tectono-stratigraphic provinces, shale-based detachment systems, dominated by lateral extension, and allochthonous salt-based detachment systems, dominated by subsidence, can be distinguished by geometry, palinspastic reconstructions, and subsidence analysis. Many shale-based detachments are linked downdip to deeper salt-based detachments. Large extensions above detachments are typically balanced by salt withdrawal. Salt-withdrawal minibasins with flanking salt bodies occur as both isolated structural systems and components of salt-based detachment systems. During progradation, progressive salt withdrawal from tabular salt bodies on the slope formed salt-bounded minibasins which, on the shelf, evolved into minibasins bounded by arcuate growth faults and remnant salt bodies. Associated secondary salt bodies above allochthonous salt evolved from pillows, ridges, and massifs to leaning domes and steep-sided stocks.

  13. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine fishes off the northern coast of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P.

    2015-01-01

    Two different gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 were collected from the ovary of marine perciform fishes, the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Sciaenidae) and the John’s snapper Lutjanus johnii (Lutjanidae), from off the northern coast of Australia. Nematodes (males and females) from P. diacanthus represent a new taxon, Philometra protonibeae n. sp., which is mainly characterized by the body length of the males (3.37–3. 90 mm), broad, equally long spicules (length 126–141 μm) and the shape and structure of the gubernaculum with a dorsally lamellate distal tip. The nematodes (only females) from L. johnii may represent an undescribed species, but, because of the absence of conspecific males, they could not be specifically identified. Philometra protonibeae is the fifth nominal gonad-infecting species of this genus recorded from marine fishes in Australian waters and the seventh species of these parasites described from fishes of the family Sciaenidae. PMID:25654578

  14. Estimating dry deposition and gas/particle partition coefficients of neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances in northern German coast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Xie, Zhiyong; Möller, Axel; Mi, Wenying; Wolschke, Hendrik; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2015-07-01

    Dry deposition fluxes of 12 neutral poly-/perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) were estimated at Büsum located in northern German coast, and their gas/particle partition coefficients were predicted by employing the polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs). The gas deposition flux, particle deposition flux and total (gas + particle) flux of the 12 PFASs during sampling periods were 1088 ± 611, 189 ± 75 and 1277 ± 627 pg/(m(2) d), respectively. The gas deposition of PFASs played a key role during deposition to marine ecosystem. Sensitivity analysis showed that wind speed was the most sensitive parameter for gas deposition fluxes. Good agreements (within 1 log unit) were observed between the measured gas/particle partitioning data of PFASs and the predicted partition coefficients using PP-LFERs, indicating the model can reliably predict the gas/particle partitioning behaviors of atmospheric neutral PFASs. PMID:25818091

  15. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  16. Diversity of yeasts associated with the sea surface microlayer and underlying water along the northern coast of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Feng; Lee, Ching-Fu; Lin, Kao-Yung; Liu, Shiu-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Yeast communities inhabiting the sea surface microlayer (SSML) on the northern coast of Taiwan were examined using a cultivation method and compared with those inhabiting the underlying water (UW) at a 50-cm depth. Culturable yeasts were recovered from the SSML and UW samples collected in the morning during 4 field campaigns, and 420 strains were isolated. The 420 isolates were grouped into 43 species using a polyphasic molecular approach, including sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS region. From the SSML samples, 12 genera and 39 species, including 7 new species of Cryptococcus sp. (1), Candida spp. (4), and Rhodotorula spp. (2), were isolated. From the UW samples, 10 genera and 21 species, including one new species of Rhodotorula sp. (1), were isolated. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa was the most abundant species present in the yeast community in SSML (37.6%) and UW (21.6%) samples. Basidiomycetous yeasts (63.6%) and pigmented yeasts (64.5%) comprised the major yeast population. The yeast community in the SSML had a higher species number and abundance than the UW. Moreover, although the majority of yeast community species were from the SSML, individual species distribution in the SSML was unequal.

  17. Shipboard observations of a mesoscale eddy pair in the California Current System off the northern Baja California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Valdes, J.; Torres, H. S.; Wang, D. P.

    2015-12-01

    The transition zone of the California Current System is populated with mesoscale eddies. During October 2009 a high-resolution survey was carried out in the transition zone off the northern Baja California coast to investigate the role of the mesoscale features on the circulation. We found that mesoscale eddies dominated the circulation, an eddy pair in particular. In this study, the water mass characteristics of the anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies are analyzed. The anticyclonic eddy had neither surface thermal expression nor mapped sea surface height anomaly signature. It was a subthermocline eddy. In contrast, the cyclonic eddy had a mapped sea height anomaly signature. The mapping of depth, Conservative Temperature, Absolute Salinity, and oxygen concentration on the 26.6 isopycnal surface revealed that the water mass of the core of the anticyclonic eddy is similar to the water mass of the California Undercurrent (warm, saline and with low oxygen concentration) and the water mass of the core of the cyclonic eddy is similar to the water mass of the California Current (cold, fresh and with high oxygen concentration). Based on shipboard measurements, the kinematics and the dynamics of the eddy pair are also analyzed. The radius of the anticyclonic was 27 km and the radius of the cyclonic was 32 km. The cyclonic eddy was larger than the anticyclonic eddy. The oceanographic vessel bisected both eddies which enabled to analyze cross-sections of potential energy, kinetic energy, relative vorticity, and potential vorticity of each eddy.

  18. Petrogenesis of Franciscan Complex and Coast Range Ophiolite Serpentinites in northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldam, R.; Barnes, J.; Lee, C.; Errico, J. C.; Loewy, S. L.; Cisneros, M.

    2012-12-01

    Franciscan Complex serpentinites have been interpreted as eroded pieces of the overriding Coast Range Ophiolite (CRO), off-scraped pieces of the subducting oceanic plate, and as sedimentary serpentinites (e.g., Wakabayashi, 2004); however, most of these interpretations are based on tectonic models and field relationships. Here we present bulk rock major and trace element geochemistry, pyroxene and spinel geochemistry, and stable isotope data (O, H, Cl) for serpentinite samples with the goal of determining protolith origin and subsequent serpentinizing fluid sources of several metasomatized Franciscan and CRO ultramafic rocks in order to decipher the tectonic setting of serpentinization. We focused on serpentinite bodies found in the Franciscan Complex (west of Cuesta Ridge; south of San Francisco; Tiburon Peninsula; Healdsburg) (n = 12). Three samples from Cuesta Ridge (CRO) were also analyzed for comparison. All samples are >~95% serpentinized and consist of lizardite +/- chrysotile. Relict grains are rarely preserved. Franciscan serpentinites (Tiburon Peninsula, west of Cuesta Ridge) show positive-sloped REE patterns. This depletion in LREE is typical of abyssal peridotites. Relict clinopyroxenes from Tiburon Peninsula have high HREE concentrations, also supporting an abyssal origin. 2 of the 3 samples from the Cuesta Ridge show flat REE patterns; whereas, one is U-shaped. This enrichment in LREE is similar to forearc peridotites. Spinels from Cuesta Ridge have Cr# > 0.60 also implying a forearc setting; whereas, Franciscan localities have typically have lower Cr# (0.21 to 0.51). All samples show remarkable positive Ce and Y anomalies. We speculate that these anomalies may be due to interaction with ferromanganese nodules and crusts (also high in Ce and Y) on the seafloor prior to subduction. Cuesta Ridge samples have δ18O values between +6.0 to +6.6‰. Franciscan serpentinites (except those south of San Francisco) have δ18O values of +5.4 to +7.9‰. These

  19. Geochemistry of tectonically expelled fluids from the northern Coast ranges, Rumsey Hills, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davisson, M.L.; Presser, T.S.; Criss, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Tectonic compression has created abnormally high pressure on deep basinal fluids causing their expulsion from areally exposed Upper Cretaceous rock along the eastern margin of the California Coast ranges. The fluids emerge as near-neutral, perennial sodium chloride springs at high elevations with flow rates as high as 10 L per min. Higher spring discharges are more common around the exposure of a west-vergent fault propagation fold axis. Spring waters range from ~1000 to 27,000 mg/L TDS. The least saline water (??18O = -7.5???) closely represents local meteoric water that mixes with saline fluid (??18O = +5.3???) and forms a slope of ~3.5 on a ??D vs. ??18O plot. A Na (125 to 8000 mg/L) vs. Cl (150 to 17,000 mg/L) plot shows a linear dilution trend that extends close to, but below, the values for modern seawater. Calcium (75-3000 mg/L) is considerably enriched relative to seawater and forms a nonlinear trend with chloride. In detail, the "Na deficit," defined by the difference between the measured Na content and the Na concentration on a hypothetical seawater dilution line, is approximately balanced by the Ca excess, similarly defined by the seawater dilution line. This relationship strongly suggests that the fluid is diluted seawater that is being modified by active albitization of plagioclase at different depths. Simultaneous B and 18O enrichment of the fluids, accompanied by deuterium depletion, further suggest that the seawater modification is influenced by clay diagenesis. Bicarbonate and SiO2 concentrations show an inverse correlation with Cl, with most waters being saturated or slightly oversaturated with calcite and quartz at the discharge temperatures. Some freshwater springs with near-meteoric stable isotope values may represent mixing of young groundwater from perched aquifers, but in many cases, the freshwater springs emerge along the same structures and have the same perennial nature as the saline fluids, and expulsion of an older fresh groundwater

  20. Natural radionuclides tracing in marine surface waters along the northern coast of Oman Sea by combining the radioactivity analysis, oceanic currents and the SWAN model results.

    PubMed

    Zare, Mohammad Reza; Mostajaboddavati, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mahdi; Tari, Marziyeh; Mosayebi, Sanaz; Mortazavi, Mohammad Seddigh

    2015-03-15

    This study aims to establish a managed sampling plan for rapid estimate of natural radio-nuclides diffusion in the northern coast of the Oman Sea. First, the natural radioactivity analysis in 36 high volume surface water samples was carried out using a portable high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Second, the oceanic currents in the northern coast were investigated. Then, the third generation spectral SWAN model was utilized to simulate wave parameters. Direction of natural radioactivity propagation was coupled with the preferable wave vectors and oceanic currents direction that face to any marine pollution, these last two factors will contribute to increase or decrease of pollution in each grid. The results were indicated that the natural radioactivity concentration between the grids 8600 and 8604 is gathered in the grid 8600 and between the grids 8605 and 8608 is propagated toward middle part of Oman Sea.

  1. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano.

  2. Groundwater flow in a closed basin with a saline shallow lake in a volcanic area: Laguna Tuyajto, northern Chilean Altiplano of the Andes.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Christian; Custodio, Emilio; Chong, Guillermo; Lambán, Luis Javier; Riquelme, Rodrigo; Wilke, Hans; Jódar, Jorge; Urrutia, Javier; Urqueta, Harry; Sarmiento, Alvaro; Gamboa, Carolina; Lictevout, Elisabeth

    2016-01-15

    Laguna Tuyajto is a small, shallow saline water lake in the Andean Altiplano of northern Chile. In the eastern side it is fed by springs that discharge groundwater of the nearby volcanic aquifers. The area is arid: rainfall does not exceed 200mm/year in the rainiest parts. The stable isotopic content of spring water shows that the recharge is originated mainly from winter rain, snow melt, and to a lesser extent from some short and intense sporadic rainfall events. Most of the spring water outflowing in the northern side of Laguna Tuyajto is recharged in the Tuyajto volcano. Most of the spring water in the eastern side and groundwater are recharged at higher elevations, in the rims of the nearby endorheic basins of Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas to the East. The presence of tritium in some deep wells in Pampa Colorada and Pampa Las Tecas indicates recent recharge. Gas emission in recent volcanoes increase the sulfate content of atmospheric deposition and this is reflected in local groundwater. The chemical composition and concentration of spring waters are the result of meteoric water evapo-concentration, water-rock interaction, and mainly the dissolution of old and buried evaporitic deposits. Groundwater flow is mostly shallow due to a low permeability ignimbrite layer of regional extent, which also hinders brine spreading below and around the lake. High deep temperatures near the recent Tuyajto volcano explain the high dissolved silica contents and the δ(18)O shift to heavier values found in some of the spring waters. Laguna Tuyajto is a terminal lake where salts cumulate, mostly halite, but some brine transfer to the Salar de Aguas Calientes-3 cannot be excluded. The hydrogeological behavior of Laguna Tuyajto constitutes a model to understand the functioning of many other similar basins in other areas in the Andean Altiplano. PMID:26410705

  3. Biomonitoring of environmental stress in Pollicipes pollicipes from the northern coast of Portugal: a non-destructive approach using haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2016-04-01

    In the intertidal area, the interactions between anthropogenic contaminants and natural variations (biotic and abiotic factors) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a great need for new assessment procedures to characterize the biological responses occurring in organisms from this extreme environment. Considering the intrinsic inter-individual variations among organisms from a single population, it is important to propose new methods that address this variability, by validating a sampling strategy in target groups of organisms, encompassing seasonal fluctuations. This strategy must however be less invasive than traditional methods, avoiding the mandatory sacrifice of the sampled organisms. By doing so, it is also possible to increase the ecological relevance of obtainable data, and contribute to minimize damage to endangered species. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of seasonal variations in the responses elicited by anthropogenic compounds on a marine crustacean species, by using a biomarker-based approach. According to this purpose, the seasonal variations in key physiological responses (biomarkers) were investigated in the crustacean Pollicipes pollicipes from the Northern coast of Portugal. Biomarkers used for this purpose were the activity of the phase II biotransformation isoenzymes glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the activity of cholinesterases (ChEs), and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). All biomarkers were quantified in distinct tissues (such as cirri, and peduncle) and haemolymph (a non-destructive source of biological samples). The glycogen content in peduncle tissue, and the variation in haemocyte number in haemolymph were also analyzed. Samples were collected monthly, during a year, in Lavadores, located in the proximity of an estuarine area (Douro River). The results showed a seasonal pattern in all tested biomarkers. The results also showed a significant increase in GSTs activities, and in

  4. Biomonitoring of environmental stress in Pollicipes pollicipes from the northern coast of Portugal: a non-destructive approach using haemolymph.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Antunes, S C; Nunes, B

    2016-04-01

    In the intertidal area, the interactions between anthropogenic contaminants and natural variations (biotic and abiotic factors) are poorly understood. Consequently, there is a great need for new assessment procedures to characterize the biological responses occurring in organisms from this extreme environment. Considering the intrinsic inter-individual variations among organisms from a single population, it is important to propose new methods that address this variability, by validating a sampling strategy in target groups of organisms, encompassing seasonal fluctuations. This strategy must however be less invasive than traditional methods, avoiding the mandatory sacrifice of the sampled organisms. By doing so, it is also possible to increase the ecological relevance of obtainable data, and contribute to minimize damage to endangered species. The main purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of seasonal variations in the responses elicited by anthropogenic compounds on a marine crustacean species, by using a biomarker-based approach. According to this purpose, the seasonal variations in key physiological responses (biomarkers) were investigated in the crustacean Pollicipes pollicipes from the Northern coast of Portugal. Biomarkers used for this purpose were the activity of the phase II biotransformation isoenzymes glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), the activity of cholinesterases (ChEs), and the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS). All biomarkers were quantified in distinct tissues (such as cirri, and peduncle) and haemolymph (a non-destructive source of biological samples). The glycogen content in peduncle tissue, and the variation in haemocyte number in haemolymph were also analyzed. Samples were collected monthly, during a year, in Lavadores, located in the proximity of an estuarine area (Douro River). The results showed a seasonal pattern in all tested biomarkers. The results also showed a significant increase in GSTs activities, and in

  5. Mineralogy, chemistry and radioactivity of the heavy minerals in the black sands, along the northern coast of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Karim, Abdel-Aal M.; Zaid, Samir M.; Moustafa, Mohammed I.; Barakat, Mohammed G.

    2016-11-01

    Three hundreds and six black sand samples have been collected from the beach areas along the northern coast of Egypt, parallel and perpendicular to the shoreline. The mineralogy and chemistry of the economic heavy minerals were studied. The grain size distribution of the studied economic minerals shows a unimodal class that mostly in the very fine sand size. The microscopic investigation indicates that the study area is enriched with six economic heavy minerals. These are ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile and monazite; in addition to leucoxene, arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The studied black sands suggest a reserve of 329, 183, 24, 21, 7, 1 and 14 thousand tons of ilmenite, magnetite, garnet, zircon, rutile, monazite and leucoxene, respectively. The spherical magnetite grains are higher in Fe2O3 than those of euhedral shaped grains. Ilmenite grains display sub-rounded to euhedral shapes. The altered ilmenite grains have higher TiO2 and lower Fe2O3 in comparison with the euhedral fresh ones. Garnet occurs as angular (49%), sub-spherical (45%), spherical (5%) and euhedral grains (1%). Garnet grains containing mineral inclusions represent 10% of their concentrate. The euhedral garnet grains have Al, Fe, Mn, Mg and Ca that arranged in decreasing order of their abundance. The magnetic zircon fraction obtained from their bulk concentrate is particularly rich in colored grains (70%). Their common colors are red and brown with some malacons. The reddish-brown color of zircon may be due to iron oxide stains. Some magnetic zircon grains are enriched in Hf and REEs contents. Rutile grains are sub-to well rounded (70%), and rich in TiO2. Monazite is enriched in Ce, La, Nd, Th and U. Detectable inclusions of gold, copper, lead, galena, cinnabar, platinum group elements (PGES) and silver are recorded in cassiterite. The radiometric measurements revealed that the black sands of the western zone (4 km2) have high values of specific activity, absorbed

  6. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast. PMID:25796544

  7. Trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (Chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Gustavo R; Tarantino, Taiana B; Barbosa, Isa S; Pires, Thaís T; Rostan, Gonzalo; Goldberg, Daphne W; Pinto, Luis Fernando B; Korn, Maria Graças A; Franke, Carlos Roberto

    2015-05-15

    Concentrations of elements (As, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of Eretmochelys imbricata and Chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile C. mydas were the highest found in Brazil. We also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elements between the two species: Al, Co, Mo, Na and Se in the liver; Al, Cr, Cu, K, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sr and V in the kidneys; and Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and V in the bones. This study represents the first report on the distribution and concentration of trace elements in E. imbricata in the Brazilian coast.

  8. Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    González, Sergio A; Yáñez-Navea, Katherine; Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-06-15

    The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an "Urbanization Index" based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.

  9. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  10. 33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... required to submit marine event applications in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may... Memorial Lobster Boat Races • Event Type: Power Boat Race. • Sponsor: Boothbay Harbor Lobster Boat Race.... 43°50′00″ N, 069°38′20″ W. 6.3Rockland Harbor Lobster Boat Races • Event Type: Power Boat...

  11. 33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... required to submit marine event applications in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may.... 44°23′37″ N, 068°12′00″ W. 44°23′35″ N, 068°12′19″ W. 6.2Charlie Begin Memorial Lobster Boat Races • Event Type: Power Boat Race. • Sponsor: Boothbay Harbor Lobster Boat Race Committee. • Date: A one...

  12. 33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to submit marine event applications in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol.... 44° 23′35″ N068° 12′19″ W. 6.2Charlie Begin Memorial Lobster Boat Races • Event Type: Power Boat Race.• Sponsor: Boothbay Harbor Lobster Boat Race Committee. • Date: A one day event on Saturday during the...

  13. 33 CFR 100.120 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events Held in the Coast Guard Sector Northern New England...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... required to submit marine event applications in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may.... 44°23′37″ N, 068°12′00″ W. 44°23′35″ N, 068°12′19″ W. 6.2Charlie Begin Memorial Lobster Boat Races • Event Type: Power Boat Race. • Sponsor: Boothbay Harbor Lobster Boat Race Committee. • Date: A one...

  14. 33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the... Harbor, ME, in approximate position (NAD 83): 43°57′41.37″ N, 069°12′45″ W. 7.21Tri for a Cure Swim Clinics and Triathlon • Event Type: Swim Event. • Sponsor: Maine Cancer Foundation. • Date: A...

  15. 33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the..., 070°14′29″ W. 43°40′17″ N, 070°13′22″ W. 7.17Tri for a Cure Swim Clinics • Event Type: Swim Event.• Sponsor: Maine Cancer Foundation. • Date: A two day event held on third Sunday and Thursday in July....

  16. 33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays and swim events held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... year in accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the..., 070°14′29″ W. 43°40′17″ N, 070°13′22″ W. 7.17Tri for a Cure Swim Clinics • Event Type: Swim Event.• Sponsor: Maine Cancer Foundation. • Date: A two day event held on third Sunday and Thursday in July....

  17. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters.

  18. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  19. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters. PMID:25921637

  20. HCMM: Soil moisture in relation to geologic structure and lithology, northern California. [Northern Coast Range, Sacramento Valley, and the Modoc Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Heat capacity mapping mission images of about 80,000 sq km in northern California were qualitatively evaluated for usefulness in regional geologic investigations of structure and lithology. The thermal characteristics recorded vary among the several geomorphic provinces and depend chiefly on the topographic expression and vegetation cover. Identification of rock types, or groups of rock types, was most successfully carried out within the semiarid parts of the region; however, extensive features, such as faults, folds and volcanic fields could be delineated. Comparisons of seasonally obtained HCMM images are of limited value except in semiarid regions.

  1. New Cascadia subduction zone tsunami inundation modeling to guide relocation of coastal infrastucture for Indian tribes on the northern Washington coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, T. J.; LeVeque, R. J.; Adams, L. M.; Schelling, J.; Gonzalez, F. I.; Cakir, R.

    2015-12-01

    There have been advances in understanding the potential for great tsunamigenic earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone, motivating an effort to update the assessment of tsunami hazards on the Washington coast. Fine resolution (1/3 arc-second) digital elevation models (DEMs) of the Strait of Juan de Fuca and northern Olympic Peninsula have recently been made available, and coastal Indian tribes (Quinault, Hoh, and Quileute) have made plans to move important infrastructure out of their tsunami hazard zones. We have made numerical simulations of tsunamis incident on the Quinault, Hoh, Quileute, and Makah Reservations and adjacent coast with the GeoClaw numerical model [http://depts.washington.edu/clawpack/geoclaw/] for a local tsunami generated by a 9.1M Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake, designated L1 by Witter and others (DOGAMI Special Paper 43). This scenario is estimated to have `2% probability of nonexceedance in 50 years, which would be comparable to the International Building Code standard for seismic loading on structures of high importance, and provides appropriate guidance to the affected communities for siting of their significant infrastructure.

  2. Black bear (Ursus americanus Pallas) feeding damage across timber harvest edges in northern California coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens[D. Don] Endl.) forests, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.H.; Carnell, K.; McBride, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding damage to trees by black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) was recorded in proximity to timber harvest edges in harvested and old-growth stands of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) in northern California, USA. Bears exhibited distinct preference in their feeding patterns related to stand structure and composition and to distance from the timber-harvest edge. Most damage was recorded within regenerating stands. Regression analysis indicated that density of damaged trees was negatively correlated with distance from timber harvest edges within old-growth stands. A significant negative correlation was also found between the density of trees damaged by bears and habitat diversity (H') as measured by the Shannon diversity index. In addition, bears exhibited preference for pole-size trees (dbh = 10-50 cm) over all other size classes, and coast redwood over other species. In general, damage by bears appeared to act as a natural thinning agent in even-aged stands. No damage was recorded in old-growth stands except in close proximity to the timber-harvest edge where subcanopy recruitment was high.

  3. 33 CFR 165.171 - Safety Zones for fireworks displays held in Coast Guard Sector Northern New England Captain of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...′22″ W. 7.15Tri for a Cure Swim Clinics • Event Type: Swim Event. • Sponsor: Maine Cancer Foundation... accordance with 33 CFR 100.15. (a) The Coast Guard may patrol each event area under the direction of a... 073° 16′39″ W. 44° 41′08″ N 073° 20′58″ W. 44° 41′36″ N 073° 23′01″ W. 8.5Tri for a Cure...

  4. Radioactivity concentrations in sediments on the coast of the Iranian province of Khuzestan in the Northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Pourahmad, Jalal; Motallebi, Abbasali; Asgharizadeh, Farid; Eskandari, Gholam Reza; Shafaghi, Bijan

    2008-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analyses were performed on sediment samples from the coast of Khuzestan province (south west of Iran, neighbor to Iraq and Kuwait) to study the concentration of natural as well as man-made radioactive sources. The coast of Khuzestan, which extends for approximately 400 km is mainly soft areas of mud flats within different ecosystems including river mouth, estuaries, creeps, and small bays. Suspended material from the Iranian rivers including Arvand (Karun), Bahmanshir, Jarrahi, and Zohreh has settled to form these extensive soft areas. Eighty three samples were taken at different points along the coast in undisturbed areas at intervals of about 5 km since Fall 2005 to Winter 2006. Collection was carried out during low-tide, where it was possible to collect sediments from the wet region that was covered by sea water during the high tide. At each of the sample sites, a sampling area of about 1 m(2) was considered. All samples were of a muddy nature, and were left to dry in open air before drying in the oven at 105 degrees C for 2-3 days to remove all water content. The average activity concentration of the radionuclides (226)Ra (30 Bq/Kg), (232)Th (11 Bq/kg), (238)U (18 Bq/kg), and (137)Cs (2.6 Bq/kg) along the shore of Khuzestan reaches are much less than the values commonly assigned as the world average. Nevertheless in case of (40)K which is a long lived naturally occurring radionuclide, the result (481 Bq/kg) was higher than the world average which could be due to a large Kuwaiti oil spill and also fallout and deposition of tremendous amount of fly ashes which resulted from ignited Kuwaiti oil fields during the 2nd Persian Gulf war (1990-91). For man-made (137)Cs and naturally occurring (232)Th, the western and eastern parts of Khuzestan shore showed higher concentrations than the middle part (Khooriat or creeps). For the long lived naturally occurring radionuclide (40)K and Gulf war (238)U (anti armor shells), there were no significant

  5. Coseismic uplift and fault model of marine active faults in 1729 AD revealed by fossilized intertidal sessile organisms along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Oda, M.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Noto Peninsula is located in the backarc region of southwest Japan and is characterized by geomorphologic features formed by active tectonics and glacial eustasy through the Quaternary. Pleistocene marine terraces along the northern coast of the Noto Peninsula indicate uplift in the coastal area through the late Quaternary (Ota and Hirakawa, 1979). Recently, an active fault zone on the seafloor off the coast was found and was divided into four segments, Monzen-oki, Saruyama-oki, Wajima-oki, and Suzu-oki, from west to east (Inoue and Okamura, 2010). We investigated vertical displacement along the coast using intertidal sessile organisms at nine sites on the rocky coast. We measured the height of fossilized Pomatoleios kraussii by GPS surveying together with a sea-level change curve, and dated them using the AMS 14C method. The vertical displacements and dates at the sites implied that coastal uplift occurred along 20 km of coastline, corresponding to the Wajima-oki segment zone, and most likely between 1600 and 1800 AD. This is coincident with seismic damage in this area in 1729 AD recorded in historical documents. We constructed a fault model with three rectangular faults in a homogeneous elastic half-space and estimated the optimal net slip and rake by a non-linear inversion method (Matsu'ura and Hasegawa, 1987). The best fit to the estimated vertical displacements is provided by a net slip of 1.8 m with a rake of 90° for the western fault plane and a net slip of 0.6 m with a rake of 90° for the center and the eastern fault planes. The moment magnitude (Mw) calculated from these parameters with a rigidity of 30 GPa is 6.6. We compared the elevation distribution of the former shorelines based on coastal terraces and the 1729 earthquake uplifts. Assuming that the coastal uplift is caused by the cumulative crustal deformation produced by the same size event as the 1729 earthquake, the average recurrence interval of the events is estimated to be 1700 years.

  6. Selectivity curves of the capture of mangrove crab (Ucides cordatus) on the northern coast of Brazil using bayesian inference.

    PubMed

    Furtado-Junior, I; Abrunhosa, F A; Holanda, F C A F; Tavares, M C S

    2016-06-01

    Fishing selectivity of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus in the north coast of Brazil can be defined as the fisherman's ability to capture and select individuals from a certain size or sex (or a combination of these factors) which suggests an empirical selectivity. Considering this hypothesis, we calculated the selectivity curves for males and females crabs using the logit function of the logistic model in the formulation. The Bayesian inference consisted of obtaining the posterior distribution by applying the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method to software R using the OpenBUGS, BRugs, and R2WinBUGS libraries. The estimated results of width average carapace selection for males and females compared with previous studies reporting the average width of the carapace of sexual maturity allow us to confirm the hypothesis that most mature individuals do not suffer from fishing pressure; thus, ensuring their sustainability. PMID:26934154

  7. Slip Distribution and Seismic Moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean Earthquakes Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms and Coastal Geodetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The slip distribution and seismic moment of the 2010 and 1960 Chilean earthquakes were estimated from tsunami and coastal geodetic data. These two earthquakes generated transoceanic tsunamis, and the waveforms were recorded around the Pacific Ocean. In addition, coseismic coastal uplift and subsidence were measured around the source areas. For the 27 February 2010 Maule earthquake, inversion of the tsunami waveforms recorded at nearby coastal tide gauge and Deep Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis (DART) stations combined with coastal geodetic data suggest two asperities: a northern one beneath the coast of Constitucion and a southern one around the Arauco Peninsula. The total fault length is approximately 400 km with seismic moment of 1.7 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8). The offshore DART tsunami waveforms require fault slips beneath the coasts, but the exact locations are better estimated by coastal geodetic data. The 22 May 1960 earthquake produced very large, ~30 m, slip off Valdivia. Joint inversion of tsunami waveforms, at tide gauge stations in South America, with coastal geodetic and leveling data shows total fault length of ~800 km and seismic moment of 7.2 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.2). The seismic moment estimated from tsunami or joint inversion is similar to previous estimates from geodetic data, but much smaller than the results from seismic data analysis.

  8. Aftershock and induced seismic activity of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the northern part of Tohoku district, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the seismic activity around the northern neighbor of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) with special attention to a potential large aftershock in the area. We obtained a combined data set by adding our manually-picked locations to the catalog locations by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The hypocenter distribution delineates active and inactive bands of seismicity. The band of low seismicity corresponds to a zone of a large seismic slip, indicating that aftershocks occurred in peripheral neighbors of the mainshock asperity. The broad band of active seismicity along the coast corresponds to the zone of a large postseismic slip, suggesting the enhancement of the aftershock activity by the slip. Although the northern neighbor of the mainshock fault is a favored region of increased seismicity, as shown from a Coulomb stress calculation, no significant seismic activity is observed within the potential source area except along the Japan Trench and the SW corner. This implies that the zone of interplate moment release by previous large earthquakes and the subsequent slow slip acted as a barrier to the migration of both the mainshock rupture and aftershock activity. However, an aftershock area in the zone may reflect inhomogeneous moment release by past seismic and aseismic sequences. Induced inland seismicity is quite high in the Akita Prefecture on the Japan Sea side apart more than 100 km from the mainshock fault. There are some active clusters including moderate earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. They are newly formed clusters after the mainshock, while the seismicity of previously active areas decreased significantly. Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the new clusters show the types of strike-slip with consistently NW-SE trending T-axes. The predominant type of focal mechanisms in the Akita area before the mainshock was E-W compressional reverse faulting. Thus the stress field in the area has changed

  9. Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Isolated from Free-Ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the Central California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Simon J.; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W.; Greig, Denise J.; Costa, Daniel P.; Lipkin, W. Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife. PMID:23690933

  10. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mena, Ignacio; Anthony, Simon J; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W; Greig, Denise J; Costa, Daniel P; Lipkin, W Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife. PMID:23690933

  11. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Mena, Ignacio; Anthony, Simon J; Medina, Rafael; Robinson, Patrick W; Greig, Denise J; Costa, Daniel P; Lipkin, W Ian; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo; Boyce, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100) were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40), supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010) in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  12. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-01-01

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P < 0.05). Most of the variance was within populations. These findings will be important for more sustainable octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization. PMID:26634529

  13. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Thom, Ron; Woodruff, Dana; Judd, Chaeli; Ellis, Jean; Swann, Roberta; Johnson, Hoyt, III

    2010-01-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  14. Identification and phylogenetic inferences on stocks of sharks affected by the fishing industry off the Northern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva Rodrigues-Filho, Luis Fernando; da Rocha, Tainá Carreira; do Rêgo, Péricles Sena; Schneider, Horacio; Sampaio, Iracilda; Vallinoto, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    The ongoing decline in abundance and diversity of shark stocks, primarily due to uncontrolled fishery exploitation, is a worldwide problem. An additional problem for the development of conservation and management programmes is the identification of species diversity within a given area, given the morphological similarities among shark species, and the typical disembarkation of processed carcasses which are almost impossible to differentiate. The main aim of the present study was to identify those shark species being exploited off northern Brazil, by using the 12S-16S molecular marker. For this, DNA sequences were obtained from 122 specimens collected on the docks and the fish market in Bragança, in the Brazilian state of Pará. We identified at least 11 species. Three-quarters of the specimens collected were either Carcharhinus porosus or Rhizoprionodon sp, while a notable absence was the daggernose shark, Isogomphodon oxyrhyncus, previously one of the most common species in local catches. The study emphasises the value of molecular techniques for the identification of cryptic shark species, and the potential of the 12S-16S marker as a tool for phylogenetic inferences in a study of elasmobranchs.

  15. Genetic differentiation of Octopus minor (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) off the northern coast of China as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, J M; Sun, G H; Zheng, X D; Ren, L H; Wang, W J; Li, G R; Sun, B C

    2015-12-02

    Octopus minor (Sasaki, 1920) is an economically important cephalopod that is found in the northern coastal waters of China. In this study, we investigated genetic differentiation in fishery populations using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). A total of 150 individuals were collected from five locations: Dalian (DL), Yan-tai (YT), Qingdao (QD), Lianyungang (LY), and Zhoushan (ZS), and 243 reproducible bands were amplified using five AFLP primer combinations. The percentage of polymorphic bands ranged from 53.33 to 76.08%. Nei's genetic identity ranged from 0.9139 to 0.9713, and the genetic distance ranged from 0.0291 to 0.0900. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean, based on the genetic distance. The DL and YT populations originated from one clade, while the QD, LY, and ZS populations originated from another. The results indicate that the O. minor stock consisted of two genetic populations with an overall significantly analogous FST value (0.1088, P < 0.05). Most of the variance was within populations. These findings will be important for more sustainable octopus fisheries, so that this marine resource can be conserved for its long-term utilization.

  16. The Application of Remotely Sensed Data and Models to Benefit Conservation and Restoration Along the Northern Gulf of Mexico Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Thom, R.; Woodruff, D.; Judd, C.; Ellis, J. T.; Swann, R.; Johnson, H., III

    2010-12-01

    New data, tools, and capabilities for decision making are significant needs in the northern Gulf of Mexico and other coastal areas. The goal of this project is to support NASA’s Earth Science Mission Directorate and its Applied Science Program and the Gulf of Mexico Alliance by producing and providing NASA data and products that will benefit decision making by coastal resource managers and other end users in the Gulf region. Data and research products are being developed to assist coastal resource managers adapt and plan for changing conditions by evaluating how climate changes and urban expansion will impact land cover/land use (LCLU), hydrodynamics, water properties, and shallow water habitats; to identify priority areas for conservation and restoration; and to distribute datasets to end-users and facilitating user interaction with models. The proposed host sites for data products are NOAA’s National Coastal Data Development Center Regional Ecosystem Data Management, and Mississippi-Alabama Habitat Database. Tools will be available on the Gulf of Mexico Regional Collaborative website with links to data portals to enable end users to employ models and datasets to develop and evaluate LCLU and climate scenarios of particular interest. These data will benefit the Mobile Bay National Estuary Program in ongoing efforts to protect and restore the Fish River watershed and around Weeks Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The usefulness of data products and tools will be demonstrated at an end-user workshop.

  17. Identification and phylogenetic inferences on stocks of sharks affected by the fishing industry off the Northern coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The ongoing decline in abundance and diversity of shark stocks, primarily due to uncontrolled fishery exploitation, is a worldwide problem. An additional problem for the development of conservation and management programmes is the identification of species diversity within a given area, given the morphological similarities among shark species, and the typical disembarkation of processed carcasses which are almost impossible to differentiate. The main aim of the present study was to identify those shark species being exploited off northern Brazil, by using the 12S-16S molecular marker. For this, DNA sequences were obtained from 122 specimens collected on the docks and the fish market in Bragança, in the Brazilian state of Pará. We identified at least 11 species. Three-quarters of the specimens collected were either Carcharhinus porosus or Rhizoprionodon sp, while a notable absence was the daggernose shark, Isogomphodon oxyrhyncus, previously one of the most common species in local catches. The study emphasises the value of molecular techniques for the identification of cryptic shark species, and the potential of the 12S-16S marker as a tool for phylogenetic inferences in a study of elasmobranchs. PMID:21637699

  18. [The Beca's in Chilean psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Escobar, E

    2000-07-01

    The Chilean psychiatrists, Manuel and Francisco Beca, father and son, who lived at the turn of the XIX century and in the first half of the XX respectively, dedicated their lives to the care of mental patients and to the teaching of psychiatry, contributing in their own way and time to the development of the specialty in Chile. Manuel Beca, a clinician, published the first mental patient statistics and Francisco, an academic, became professor of Psychiatry at the Catholic University. Although they dedicated themselves to different fields in the area of mental health, such as clinical research and teaching, both have outstanding merits to become a part of the historical memory of Chilean psychiatry. PMID:11050844

  19. [Tungiasis affects a chilean turist].

    PubMed

    Vergara M, Cristian; Barthel M, Elizabeth; Labarca M, Eduardo; Neira O, Patricia; Espinoza E, Roberto

    2009-06-01

    Tungiasis is a cutaneous ectoparasitosis caused by the female sand flea Tunga penetrans whose higher prevalence occurs in Sub-Saharan Africa, South América and the Caribbean. We report a case of a 23 year old chilean male who presented dermal lesions suggestive of tungiasis on his return from Brazil. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy, identifying the arthropod and an egg from one of the lesions. The natural history, co-morbidities and treatment options were reviewed. PMID:19621162

  20. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; McGeorge, Lauren E; Baugh, Keri A; Boyd, Daryle; Mullin, Keith D; Rosel, Patricia E; Sinclair, Carrie; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-09-15

    A number of studies were initiated in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill to understand potential injuries to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that inhabit the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) estuarine waters. As part of these studies, remote biopsy skin and blubber samples were collected from dolphins at six field sites that received varying degrees of oiling: Barataria Bay (BB), Chandeleur Sound West (CSW), Chandeleur Sound East (CSE), Mississippi Sound South (MSS), Mississippi Sound North (MSN), and St. Joseph Bay (SJ). Blubber samples from 108 male dolphins were analyzed for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as high levels of POPs have been previously reported in other southeastern U.S. dolphins and the potential contribution of these compounds to adverse health effects in NGoM dolphins must be considered. Dolphin blubber levels of summed POPs (ΣPOPs) did not differ significantly across sites (F-test, P=0.9119) [μg/g lipid; geometric mean and 95% CI]; CSW [65.9 (51.4-84.6)], SJ [74.1 (53.0-104)], MSN [74.3 (58.7-93.9)], BB [75.3 (56.4-101)], CSE [80.5 (57.8-112)], and MSS [82.5 (65.9-103)]. Overall, POP concentrations were in the lower half of the range compared to previously reported concentrations from other southeastern U.S. sites. Increased dolphin mortalities have been ongoing in the NGoM and have been suggested to be linked with the DWH oil spill. In addition, lung disease, impaired adrenal function, and serum biochemical abnormalities have been reported in dolphins from BB, an area that was heavily oiled. The results of this study suggest that POPs are likely not a primary contributor to the poor health conditions and increased mortality observed in some populations of NGoM dolphins following the DWH oil spill.

  1. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in blubber of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the northern Gulf of Mexico coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Brian C; Ylitalo, Gina M; McGeorge, Lauren E; Baugh, Keri A; Boyd, Daryle; Mullin, Keith D; Rosel, Patricia E; Sinclair, Carrie; Wells, Randall S; Zolman, Eric S; Schwacke, Lori H

    2015-09-15

    A number of studies were initiated in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill to understand potential injuries to bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that inhabit the northern Gulf of Mexico (NGoM) estuarine waters. As part of these studies, remote biopsy skin and blubber samples were collected from dolphins at six field sites that received varying degrees of oiling: Barataria Bay (BB), Chandeleur Sound West (CSW), Chandeleur Sound East (CSE), Mississippi Sound South (MSS), Mississippi Sound North (MSN), and St. Joseph Bay (SJ). Blubber samples from 108 male dolphins were analyzed for persistent organic pollutant (POP) concentrations, as high levels of POPs have been previously reported in other southeastern U.S. dolphins and the potential contribution of these compounds to adverse health effects in NGoM dolphins must be considered. Dolphin blubber levels of summed POPs (ΣPOPs) did not differ significantly across sites (F-test, P=0.9119) [μg/g lipid; geometric mean and 95% CI]; CSW [65.9 (51.4-84.6)], SJ [74.1 (53.0-104)], MSN [74.3 (58.7-93.9)], BB [75.3 (56.4-101)], CSE [80.5 (57.8-112)], and MSS [82.5 (65.9-103)]. Overall, POP concentrations were in the lower half of the range compared to previously reported concentrations from other southeastern U.S. sites. Increased dolphin mortalities have been ongoing in the NGoM and have been suggested to be linked with the DWH oil spill. In addition, lung disease, impaired adrenal function, and serum biochemical abnormalities have been reported in dolphins from BB, an area that was heavily oiled. The results of this study suggest that POPs are likely not a primary contributor to the poor health conditions and increased mortality observed in some populations of NGoM dolphins following the DWH oil spill. PMID:25965044

  2. The northern coast of the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian, early Miocene) Molasse Sea in Germany: sediments, foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pippèrr, Martina; Reichenbacher, Bettina; Doppler, Gerhard; Hagmaier, Mischa; Jung, Dietmar

    2016-04-01

    This study provides new data on the litho- and biostratigraphy of the middle Burdigalian (Ottnangian) marine sediments at or close to the former northern coastline of the German Molasse Basin, based on cores from three boreholes (Burgau, Hamlar 2 and Lutzingen) and two outcrops (Haunsheim and Dattenhausen). Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages (90 samples), studies of planktonic foraminifers and ostracods and investigations of lithofacies. The data indicate that the transgressive-regressive marine sediments of the Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) at Burgau and Hamlar 2 can be subdivided into the well-known lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles, with the first cycle being represented by the "OMM-Basisschichten" and Kalkofen Formation and the second by the Baltringen and Steinhöfe Formations. We show for the first time that also the northernmost marginal-marine OMM facies (Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen) can be correlated with the lower and middle Ottnangian sedimentation cycles. Consequently, our results do not support the presence of a previously suggested third sedimentation cycle within the OMM sediments. Our micropaleontological data reveal regionally diverse depositional environments, reflecting different water depths and co-varying environmental variables. Significant differences in abundance, diversity and species composition of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages demonstrate marginal-marine facies for Lutzingen, Haunsheim and Dattenhausen, nearshore facies for Hamlar 2 and shallow marine basin facies for Burgau. The characteristic lower Ottnangian benthic foraminiferal species exhibit restricted ecological tolerances. Hence, the absence or scarcity of these species in nearshore to marginal-marine deposits has no stratigraphic significance. The presence of two sedimentation cycles in the western German Molasse Basin alone may have resulted from the interplay of regional tectonics and basin development that

  3. Habitat characteristics influence macrofaunal communities in coralline turf more than mesoscale coastal upwelling on the coast of Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelaher, Brendan P.; Carlos Castilla, Juan

    2005-04-01

    Rocky shore communities are often influenced by near-shore coastal upwelling. For macrofauna in algal turf, these effects may be caused directly by well-studied bottom-up mechanisms or indirectly via changes in habitat structure provided by algal turf associated high nutrient loads. Here, we investigated possible interactions between upwelling and habitat structure by sampling diverse faunal assemblages in coralline algal turf on seven rocky intertidal shores in northern Chile, ranging from El Cobre [23°17'1″S, 70°31'40″W] to La Lobería [23°03'40″S, 70°33'14″W]. Some of these shores were located adjacent to strong upwelling centers, while others were in areas rarely affected. On each shore, we sampled four (2 × 2 m) sites separated by 15-50 m. In each site, we collected three replicate cores (80 mm in diameter) from which we measured macrofauna greater than 850 μm, biomass of sediment and epiphytes, frond density and average frond length. We used mean water temperature and its variation at 1-1.5 m water depth (below Extreme Low Water Spring, ELWS) to represent local upwelling intensity because long-term data have shown that these variables make excellent indicators for this region. In total, we found 94 macrofaunal taxa in coralline turf, which is almost three times higher than has previously been reported in Chile. Although macrofaunal assemblages varied significantly among shores, there were no patterns to suggest mesoscale variation in upwelling intensity affected either faunal assemblages or local habitat characteristics. In contrast, multivariate and univariate correlations highlighted sediment and frond density as strong determinants of community structure. We therefore conclude that traditionally studied habitat characteristics, such as structural complexity and habitat heterogeneity, have greater influence on faunal assemblages in mat-like habitats on rocky shores than environmental variables associated with mesoscale coastal upwelling.

  4. Genotyping for cytokine polymorphisms in a Northern Ivory Coast population reveals a high frequency of the heterozygote genotypes for the TNF-α-308G/A SNP.

    PubMed

    Santovito, A; Cervella, P; Schleicherova, D; Delpero, M

    2012-08-01

    Cytokine polymorphisms influence the outcomes of parasitic diseases and vary among populations because of their different evolutionary histories and selective pressures imposed by host-pathogen interactions. In this frame, we investigated the frequencies of TNF-α (-308G/A), TGF-β(1) (codon 10C/T, codon 25C/G) and IL-10 (-1082A/G) SNPs in 133 individuals from Ouangolodougou, a rural village in Northern Ivory Coast, where malaria and other parasitic diseases are endemic. The SNPs alleles were determined by ARMS-PCR methodology. Allele frequencies of the SNPs investigated were as follows: IL 10 -1082G = 0.741 and -1082A = 0.259; TGF-β(1) Codon 10 C = 0.835 and T = 0.165; TGF-β(1) Codon 25 G = 0.782 and C = 0.218. For the TNF-α gene, we found high frequencies of the -308A allele (0.305) and heterozygote genotypes (0.594), with a consequent deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The high heterozygosity at the TNF-α locus suggests a possible selective advantage of the heterozygote genomes, associated with intermediate levels of TNF-α expression, against the infectious agents endemic in Western Africa.

  5. Twelve Years of Change in Coastal Upwelling along the Central-Northern Coast of Chile: Spatially Heterogeneous Responses to Climatic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Aravena, Guillermo; Broitman, Bernardo; Stenseth, Nils Christian

    2014-01-01

    We use time-series analyses to characterize the effects of recent climate variability upon the local physical conditions at 11 study sites along the northern-central coast of Chile (29–34°S). Environmental indices show that the 1° Bakun upwelling index in this coastal region has fluctuated in time, starting from a stable period around the 1980's, peaking during the mid 90s, decreasing during the next ten years and increasing at a steep rate since 2010. Upwelling intensity decreased with increasing latitude, showing also a negative correlation with climate patterns (El Niño3 sea surface temperature-SST anomalies and the Multivariate El Niño Index). We hypothesize that the impacts of climate variability on upwelling events seem to be spatially heterogeneous along the region. Non-sheltered locations and, particularly, sites on prominent headlands show an immediate (lag = 0) and negative correlation between local SST, upwelling events and wind stress. We suggest that near-shore thermal conditions are closely coupled to large-scale forcing of upwelling variability and that this influence is modulated through local topographic factors. PMID:24587310

  6. Temporal variations in (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in seawater along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast in northeastern Japan, one year after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Kofuji, Hisaki; Inoue, Mutsuo

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-six seawater samples were collected between May 2011 and March 2012 at 6 sites along the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast, 250-450 km north of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Cesium-134 and (137)Cs concentrations were determined by low-background γ-spectrometry. During May-June 2011, (134)Cs and (137)Cs concentrations in surface waters decreased from 1.0-2.8 to 0.7-1.5 mBq/L and from 2.1-3.9 to 1.9-3.0 mBq/L, respectively. These decreases were due to diffusion and advection in the ocean after atmospheric input of the FDNPP-derived radionuclides. However, in July-August 2011, the concentrations of both radionuclides in the water samples collected on the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast exhibited 30-50-fold increases (∼40 mBq/L for (134)Cs and ∼50 mBq/L for (137)Cs) over concentrations observed at these sampling sites in June 2011 in contrast to the gradual decreases in the concentrations on the Tsugaru Strait side of the Shimokita Peninsula. These results suggest that radiocesium-contaminated waters offshore in the Pacific Ocean were transported to coastal regions along the Pacific side of the Shimokita Peninsula and the northern Sanriku coast by ocean currents.

  7. Horizontal Trends in Larval Fish Diversity and Abundance Along an Ocean-Estuarine Gradient on the Northern KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. A.; Cyrus, D. P.; Beckley, L. E.

    2001-08-01

    The structure of the larval fish assemblages along an ocean-estuarine gradient in the St Lucia region on the northern KwaZulu-Natal coast of South Africa was examined using a combination of univariate, distributional and multivariate techniques. The data was comprised of a full annual set of ichthyoplankton samples taken from three types of environment: nearshore coastal waters, surf zone and within the St Lucia Estuary itself. The mean monthly densities of each species in each environment were used in the species matrix, and the mean monthly values of salinity, temperature and turbidity were used in the physical variables matrix. The mean species diversity and eveness index was significantly higher in the nearshore waters than the surf zone and estuary. The patterns of relative species abundances in each environment (K-dominance curves) showed that the estuarine environment was dominated by a few species in large numbers, the surf zone was intermediate, and the nearshore coast was the most diverse. Classification and multidimensional scaling (MDS) ordination analyses of larval fish densities grouped together into three main clusters based on the three different environments. The species similarity matrix (inverse analysis) clustered into four groups at the 10% similarity level. The MDS analysis of the same matrix showed that the groups separated out more or less according to the type of environment they occur in, and hence the level of estuarine dependence of the various species. Species belonging to each assemblage showed similarities with regards to their reproduction modes and/or preference to a particular physical condition. Some species were restricted to one environment, whilst others were common to two or all three environments. The occurrence of partially estuarine-dependent species in all three environments suggests that ocean-estuarine coupling is an important process for the recruitment success of these species. The ' best fitting ' physical variable

  8. Potential of natural gamma-ray spectrometry for mapping and environmental monitoring of black-sand beach deposits on the northern coast of Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Aboelkhair, Hatem; Zaaeimah, Mostafa

    2013-04-01

    The concentrations and distributions of naturally occurring radioactive materials were studied with the aim of detecting and mapping radioactive anomalies as well as monitoring the environment for black-sand beach deposits in Northern Sinai, Egypt. For this purpose, ground gamma-ray spectrometric surveys were conducted using a portable GS-512 spectrometer, with an NaI (Tl) detector, on an area 77.5 km(2) in surface area located between the cities of Rafah and Elareish on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The results revealed that the black-sand beach deposits could be differentiated according to their total-count (TC) radioactivity into five normally distributed interpreted radiometric lithologic (IRL) units denoted by U1, U2, U3, U4 and U5. The computed characteristic TC radiometric statistics of these five IRL units range from 4.67  to 9.96 Ur for their individual arithmetic means. The computed arithmetic means for the three radioelements K, eU and eTh reach 0.46 %, 2.25 and 6.17 ppm, respectively for the whole study area. Monitoring the environmental effects of radioelement concentrations on the study area showed that the mean natural equivalent radiation dose rate from the terrestrial gamma-radiation of the whole area attains 0.33 mSv y(-1). This average value remains on the safe side and within the maximum permissible safe radiation dose (<1.0 mSv y(-1)) without harm to the individual, except at three scattered points reaching more than these values. Some of the local inhabitants in the region sometimes use black sands as a building material. Consequently, they are not recommended for use as building materials, because the inhabitants will, then, receive a relatively high radioactive dose generated mainly by monazite and zircon minerals, two of the main constituents of black sands.

  9. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  10. Assessment of trace metals and porphyrins in excreta of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in different locations of the northern coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Celis, José E; Espejo, Winfred; González-Acuña, Daniel; Jara, Solange; Barra, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    To add data on trace metal contamination of Humboldt penguins in the South Pacific, levels of trace metals (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cd) and porphyrins (copro-, uro-, and proto-) in excreta of Humboldt penguins that inhabit some important nesting sites on the northern coast of Chile were determined. Fresh excreta were collected on Pan de Azúcar Island, Chañaral Island, and Cachagua Island, from December 2011 to January 2012. Concentration of metals was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas porphyrins levels were measured by fluorimetric analysis. Concentrations (dry weight) of Cu (199.67 μg g(-1)), As (7.85 μg g(-1)), and Pb (12.78 μg g(-1)) were higher (p ≤ 0.05) in Cachagua Island. Colonies from Pan de Azúcar Island showed the highest levels of Hg (0.76 μg g(-1)), Cd (47.70 μg g(-1)), and Zn (487.10 μg g(-1)). Samples from Cachagua Island showed the highest (p ≤ 0.05) levels of copro- (2.16 nmol g(-1)), uro- (2.20 nmol g(-1)), and protoporphyrins (2.23 nmol g(-1)). There was a positive correlation between the metals As, Pb, and Cu with uro-, copro-, and protoporphyrins. The results indicated that penguin colonies from Cachagua Island are more exposed to metal contamination than penguin colonies from Pan de Azúcar and Chañaral Islands, thus being more likely to develop certain diseases caused by contamination with metals. Considering biomagnification, the metals detected in the excreta of Humboldt penguins can be a source of contamination from marine environments to terrestrial ecosystems, which could also affect other living organisms.

  11. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host. PMID:27522363

  12. New tissue-dwelling species of Philometra Costa, 1845 and Philometroides Yamaguti, 1935 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Barton, Diane P

    2016-09-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, three new species of philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from females collected in marine perciform fishes off the northern coast of Australia: Philometra gracilis n. sp. and Philometroides branchiarum n. sp. from tissues behind the gills and gill arches, respectively, of the John's snapper Lutjanus johnii (Bloch) (Lutjanidae), and Philometroides stomachicus n. sp. from the stomach wall of the blackspotted croaker Protonibea diacanthus (Lacépède) (Sciaenidae). Philometra gracilis differs from other congeners described from the Lutjanidae mainly in the presence of large caudal projections, short gravid females (28-42 mm long), the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly far anterior to the level of the nerve-ring, the site in the host and its geographical distribution. Philometroides branchiarum is mainly characterised by the possession of conspicuous, sclerotised oesophageal teeth and very short gravid females (6-8 mm long), whereas P. stomachicus can be differentiated by the body length of gravid females (85-90 mm), the length of the oesophagus (2.67 mm) representing 3% of the body length, the maximum width/body length ratio of gravid females (1:28-32), cuticular bosses densely distributed throughout the body but absent from the oesophageal region, the absence of oesophageal teeth and caudal projections, and the site in the host. The presence of P. gracilis and P. branchiarum in L. johnii and that of P. stomachicus in P. diacanthus confirm the possibility of the coexistence of more philometrid species in different sites within sympatric specimens of one and the same definitive host.

  13. Regional uplift and local tectonic deformation recorded by the Quaternary marine terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1998-06-01

    The setting of a flight of marine terraces along a 65-km-long section of the Ionian coast of northern Calabria is the result of the interaction between interglacial sea levels, regional uplift, and local fault-related elevation changes. Seven terraces with corresponding palaeoshoreline angles at elevations ranging from 12 m to ˜420 m were recognised by aerial photo interpretation and field surveying. The terraces were correlated to the oxygen isotope stages 1, 5a, 5c, 5e, 7, 9, 15, which correspond to the 7, 81, 102, 124, 215, 330 and ˜600 ka highstands of the palaeosea-level curve. The ˜600-ka-long regional ascent of the terraces took place at an average uplift rate of 0.67 mm/yr; this value slightly but progressively increases southward along the coastline. The elevation of the strandlines is related to the activity of tectonic structures. Three cases were analysed, allowing us: (1) to recognise the height anomalies of the terraces on the Sibari plain as the result of cumulated coseismic deformation caused by the normal Castrovillari fault, and on this basis calculate a minimum slip rate and a mean recurrence time for a single event of deformation; (2) to exclude the presence of significant vertical deformations and consequently activity on the easternmost section of the normal Pollino fault; and (3) to hypothesise the presence of an hitherto unknown active fault responsible for the strong vertical displacements of the flight of terraces near the river Avena. Finally, we find the ratio of the rate of regional uplift to the average rates of local tectonic deformation to be 2 to 3 : 1.

  14. Fortuitous Encounters between Seagliders and Adult Female Northern Fur Seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) Coast: Upper Ocean Variability and Links to Top Predator Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Pelland, Noel A.; Sterling, Jeremy T.; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A.; Ream, Rolf R.; Lee, Craig M.; Eriksen, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA) – a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  15. Fortuitous encounters between seagliders and adult female northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) off the Washington (USA) coast: upper ocean variability and links to top predator behavior.

    PubMed

    Pelland, Noel A; Sterling, Jeremy T; Lea, Mary-Anne; Bond, Nicholas A; Ream, Rolf R; Lee, Craig M; Eriksen, Charles C

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral responses by top marine predators to oceanographic features such as eddies, river plumes, storms, and coastal topography suggest that biophysical interactions in these zones affect predators' prey, foraging behaviors, and potentially fitness. However, examining these pathways is challenged by the obstacles inherent in obtaining simultaneous observations of surface and subsurface environmental fields and predator behavior. In this study, migratory movements and, in some cases, diving behavior of 40 adult female northern fur seals (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) were quantified across their range and compared to remotely-sensed environmental data in the Gulf of Alaska and California Current ecosystems, with a particular focus off the coast of Washington State (USA)--a known foraging ground for adult female NFS and where autonomous glider sampling allowed opportunistic comparison of seal behavior to subsurface biophysical measurements. The results show that in these ecosystems, adult female habitat utilization was concentrated near prominent coastal topographic, riverine, or inlet features and within 200 km of the continental shelf break. Seal dive depths, in most ecosystems, were moderated by surface light level (solar or lunar), mirroring known behaviors of diel vertically-migrating prey. However, seal dives differed in the California Current ecosystem due to a shift to more daytime diving concentrated at or below the surface mixed layer base. Seal movement models indicate behavioral responses to season, ecosystem, and surface wind speeds; individuals also responded to mesoscale eddies, jets, and the Columbia River plume. Foraging within small scale surface features is consistent with utilization of the inner coastal transition zone and habitats near coastal capes, which are known eddy and filament generation sites. These results contribute to our knowledge of NFS migratory patterns by demonstrating surface and subsurface behavioral responses to a spatially

  16. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Robinson, James L.

    2004-01-01

    As a part of the Texas Water Development Board Ground- Water Availability Modeling program, the U.S. Geological Survey developed and tested a numerical finite-difference (MODFLOW) model to simulate ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Texas from predevelopment (before 1891) through 2000. The model is intended to be a tool that water-resource managers can use to address future ground-water-availability issues. From land surface downward, the Chicot aquifer, the Evangeline aquifer, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit are the hydrogeologic units of the Gulf Coast aquifer system. Withdrawals of large quantities of ground water have resulted in potentiometric surface (head) declines in the Chicot, Evangeline, and Jasper aquifers and land-surface subsidence (primarily in the Houston area) from depressurization and compaction of clay layers interbedded in the aquifer sediments. In a generalized conceptual model of the aquifer system, water enters the ground-waterflow system in topographically high outcrops of the hydrogeologic units in the northwestern part of the approximately 25,000-square-mile model area. Water that does not discharge to streams flows to intermediate and deep zones of the system southeastward of the outcrop areas where it is discharged by wells and by upward leakage in topographically low areas near the coast. The uppermost parts of the aquifer system, which include outcrop areas, are under water-table conditions. As depth increases in the aquifer system and as interbedded sand and clay accumulate, water-table conditions evolve into confined conditions. The model comprises four layers, one for each of the hydrogeologic units of the aquifer system except the Catahoula confining unit, the assumed no-flow base of the system. Each layer consists of 137 rows and 245 columns of uniformly spaced grid blocks, each block representing 1 square mile

  17. Modeling of a 1960'th Chilean tsunami in Pacific Ocean within nonlinear-dispersive theory of long waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, A.; Korytko, A.; Kostenko, I.; Pelinovsky, E.; Yalciner, A.; Zaytsev, A.

    2009-04-01

    1960 Chilean centered Pacific Ocean tsunami and 2004 North West Sumatra centered Indian Ocean Tsunami are two important tsunamis of long distance propagation and impacts of tsunamis. Recent international studies on the propagation and dispersion effects of Indian Ocean tsunami showed that dispersion is one of the important parameters of numerical solutions of tsunami propagation. May 23, 1960 earthquake with the approximate magnitude 9.0 caused approximately 750km rupture and generated tsunami at offshore Chilean Coast. Tsunami has reached 15-20m height at Chilean coast. The effects of this tsunami were observed not only near Chilean Coast but also in Japan after 22 hours propagation. Chilean tsunami was also felt in Kuril Islands and tsunami height reached to 4.7m near Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island). Houses near the coast, warehouses and mooring facilities have been flooded. In Malokurilsk (Shikotan Island), the height of tsunami reached 4m, flooded the moorings facilities and some buildings, and damaged the bridge on a land. Many vessels became stranded because of broken anchors. Tsunami was also observed on all islands of the Kuril Ridge. The maximal height of rising of water was 4m at Shikotan Islands and 2.2m at on Kunashir Island, 2.5m at Iturup Island, and 1.3-1.5m at Matua Island. Tsunami entered the Sea of Okhotsk. In Magadan the height of rising of water was 2.2 m. the weak tsunami also was observed near Sakhalin Island. The dispersion effect of 1960 Chilean tsunami and its long distance effects on Kuril Ridge have not been studied yet. In this study we developed the numerical model solving the long distance propagation of 1960 Chilean tsunami in Pacific Ocean and the assessment of its far field effects at Kuril Ridge. According to the modeling efforts, we made comparisons between the results of the numerical solutions using dispersive and non-dispersive long wave equations. The dispersion effects of long distance propagation of 1960 Chilean tsunami

  18. Evaluation of ground-water flow and land-surface subsidence caused by hypothetical withdrawals in the northern part of the Gulf Coast Aquifer system, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasmarek, Mark C.; Reece, Brian D.; Houston, Natalie A.

    2005-01-01

    During 2003?04 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) and the Harris-Galveston Coastal Subsidence District (HGCSD), used the previously developed Northern Gulf Coast Ground-Water Availability Modeling (NGC GAM) model to evaluate the effects of hypothetical projected withdrawals on ground-water flow in the northern part of the Gulf Coast aquifer system and land-surface subsidence in the NGC GAM model area of Texas. The Gulf Coast aquifer system comprises, from the surface, the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers, the Burkeville confining unit, the Jasper aquifer, and the Catahoula confining unit. Two withdrawal scenarios were simulated. The first scenario comprises historical withdrawals from the aquifer system for 1891?2000 and hypothetical projected withdrawals for 2001?50 compiled by the TWDB (TWDB scenario). The projected withdrawals compiled by the TWDB are based on ground-water demands estimated by regional water planning groups. The second scenario is a ?merge? of the TWDB scenario with an alternate set of projected withdrawals from the Chicot and Evangeline aquifers in the Houston metropolitan area for 1995?2030 provided by the HGCSD (HGCSD scenario). Under the TWDB scenario withdrawals from the entire system are projected to be about the same in 2050 as in 2000. The simulated potentiometric surfaces of the Chicot aquifer for 2010, 2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050 show relatively little change in configuration from the simulated 2000 potentiometric surface (maximum water-level depths in southern Harris County 150?200 feet below NGVD 29). The simulated decadal potentiometric surfaces of the Evangeline aquifer show the most change between 2000 and 2010. The area of water levels 250?400 feet below NGVD 29 in western Harris County in 2000 shifts southeastward to southern Harris County, and water levels recover to 200?250 feet below NGVD 29 by 2010. Water levels in southern Harris County recover to 150?200 feet below NGVD 29

  19. NASA Provides Assistance to Trapped Chilean Miners

    NASA Video Gallery

    Responding to a request received through the U.S. Department of State from the Chilean minister of health, NASA will provide advice in nutritional and behavioral sciences to assist miners trapped a...

  20. Characterization of Chilean hazel nut sweet cookies.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, M; Biolley, E; Bravo, S; Carrasco, P; Ríos, P

    1993-05-01

    A series of studies were carried out to test the effect of the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour in sweet cookies at the levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%. The proximate chemical analysis of the different flour mixtures showed a regular increase from 7.2 to 12.2%, 14.5% to 18.8% and 1% to 2.2%, respectively, decreasing at the same time with the percentages of water and carbohydrates. Chemical amino acid scores of leucine and threonine in wheat flour improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour. The farinographic evaluation made to the different blends showed several changes occurred with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour to wheat flour. These included increase in water absorption, decrease in dough developing time and weakening of the dough. Sensory characteristics such as appearance, texture, flavor and also acceptability improved with the incorporation of Chilean hazel nut flour into the cookie formulas.

  1. Chilean Volcano: June 24-26

    NASA Video Gallery

    This GOES-13 satellite imagery shows the Chilean caldera still emitting a steady stream of ash, three weeks after the initial eruption on June 4, 2011. The cold winter wind from the south carries i...

  2. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy, and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acua, H.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26??09???S, 70??40???W to 54??56???S, 67??37???W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ??gg-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ??gg-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ??gg-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Ferna??ndez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ??gg-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ??gg-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mercury in feathers from Chilean birds: Influence of location, feeding strategy and taxonomic affiliation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ochoa-Acuna, H.G.; Sepulveda, M.S.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    This study reports baseline concentrations of mercury (Hg) in feathers from different species of birds sampled at various locations off the Chilean coast (Southeastern Pacific). Hg concentrations were evaluated in relation to geographic location, taxonomic affiliation, and feeding strategies. Between January and March of 1995, we collected mature contour feathers from 116 birds belonging to 22 species, mostly seabirds. Birds were collected from 10 different locations (26?09'S, 70?40'W to 54?56'S, 67?37'W). Feather Hg concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 13 ?g g-1 dry weight. We found differences in feather Hg concentrations across taxonomic groups, with highest concentrations in petrels, shearwaters, and albatrosses (Procellaridae), followed by boobies (Sulidae), gulls, terns, skuas (Laridae) and cormorants (Phalacrocoracidae). Ibises and oystercatchers (Threskiornithidae and Charadriidae) had intermediate values, whereas ducks and geese (Anatidae) contained the least amount of Hg. Oceanic species preying on mesopelagic fish (the Procellariformes albatrosses, petrels, and fulmars) had over twice as much Hg (overall average of 3.9 ?g g-1) when compared to the rest of the species sampled (overall average of 1.5 ?g g-1). We did not find higher Hg concentrations in birds inhabiting the more heavily industrialized and urbanized areas of the country (central and northern regions), but in birds inhabiting the remote Juan Fernandez Archipelago. This is not surprising, since all the Procellariformes (the group with highest Hg values in this study) were collected from these islands. Except for Hg in Kermadec petrels (mean of 12 ?g g-1), the range of Hg values reported here (0.11-7.3 ?g g-1) fell below those known to cause adverse health and reproductive effects in birds.

  4. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  5. The role of dunes in contrasting saltwater intrusion in coastal areas; a case study in the southern Po Plain Adriatic coast (Ravenna, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marconi, V.; Antonellini, M.; Balugani, E.; Minchio, A.; Gabbianelli, G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to climate changes and to anthropogenic interventions, saltwater intrusion is affecting the aquifers and the surface water of the Po plain along the Adriatic coast. During the last decade, we recognized in this area a pattern of climate change: precipitations are less frequent and the yearly amount of rain is concentrated in a few strong storm events. This pattern results in an increase of gales strength during the winter, which causes shoreline retreat and an erosion of the coastal dunes. The coastal part of the Po plain consists of a low-lying and mechanically-drained farmland further from the sea and of a narrow belt of dunes and pine forests in the backshore area. The wide sandy beaches are now retreating and the dune system (only a few meters in height) is almoust destroyed, because of tourism development and of disaggregated rivers and shorelines management. A still active dune system is preserved in our study area, a coastal plain included between the Fiumi Uniti and Bevano rivers near the city of Ravenna. As a result of an intensive exploitation of coastal aquifers for agricultural, industrial, and civil uses, both the phreatic aquifer and the surface waters have been contaminated by seawater. Despite its value for the natural ecosystem and the agricultural soil, the phreatic aquifer is not considered of interest by the regional authorities responsible for water management. A detailed hydrogeological survey was performed by our research group during the Summer 2008 within the framework of the CIRCLE-ERANET project WATERKNOW on the effects of climate change on the mediterranean catchments. In this survey 29 auger holes with an average spacing of 350 m where drilled with the objective of determining the top groundwater quality in the coastal aquifer. At the same time, we measured the chemical and physical parameters of the surface waters. The data collected in the field show that a fresh groundwater lens is still present in the aquifer of the backshore

  6. STS-65 Earth observation of Northern Chile and Andes Mtns taken from OV-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows Northern Chile and the Andes Mountains. This color photograph is a panoramic (southern view) that features Chile and the Andes Mountains of South America. The Atacama Desert, one of the driest regions on Earth, is clearly visible along the Chilean coast. In the near left foreground is the Salar de Arizaro. Salar Punta Negra in the center foreground appears to be partially filled with water. On the right side of the view, a coastal plateau rises from the Pacific Ocean and meets the Andes Mountains that appear as a backbone running north to south along the border of Chile and Argentina. In the distant left portion of the view can be seen the hazy Chaco Plains and Pampas.

  7. Contemporary habitat discontinuity and historic glacial ice drive genetic divergence in Chilean kelp

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background South America's western coastline, extending in a near-straight line across some 35 latitudinal degrees, presents an elegant setting for assessing both contemporary and historic influences on cladogenesis in the marine environment. Southern bull-kelp (Durvillaea antarctica) has a broad distribution along much of the Chilean coast. This species represents an ideal model taxon for studies of coastal marine connectivity and of palaeoclimatic effects, as it grows only on exposed rocky coasts and is absent from beaches and ice-affected shores. We expected that, along the central Chilean coast, D. antarctica would show considerable phylogeographic structure as a consequence of the isolating effects of distance and habitat discontinuities. In contrast, we hypothesised that further south - throughout the region affected by the Patagonian Ice Sheet at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) - D. antarctica would show relatively little genetic structure, reflecting postglacial recolonisation. Results Mitochondrial (COI) and chloroplast (rbcL) DNA analyses of D. antarctica from 24 Chilean localities (164 individuals) revealed two deeply divergent (4.5 - 6.1% for COI, 1.4% for rbcL) clades from the centre and south of the country, with contrasting levels and patterns of genetic structure. Among populations from central Chile (32° - 44°S), substantial phylogeographic structure was evident across small spatial scales, and a significant isolation-by-distance effect was observed. Genetic disjunctions in this region appear to correspond to the presence of long beaches. In contrast to the genetic structure found among central Chilean populations, samples from the southern Chilean Patagonian region (49° - 56°S) were genetically homogeneous and identical to a haplotype recently found throughout the subantarctic region. Conclusions Southern (Patagonian) Chile has been recolonised by D. antarctica relatively recently, probably since the LGM. The inferred trans-oceanic ancestry of

  8. Fostering Teaching Quality in Chilean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman Cruzat, Jose Antonio

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explain the strategies that have been carried out by three Chilean universities in order to advance the quality of their teaching. The studied institutions are the Universidad de los Andes, the Universidad de Talca and the Universidad Catolica de Chile. In each of these three cases the analysis included, both the policies…

  9. Examining Text Environments in Elementary Chilean Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana-Garcia, Pelusa; Sailors, Misty

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the social practices related to literacy in classrooms in Chile in order to examine school-based literacy practices. We also examined the constraints and affordances literacy learning offered Chilean students. Through our case study and cross-case analysis, we discovered that although the classrooms contained an…

  10. Forms of Address in Chilean Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Kelley; Michnowicz, Jim

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation examines possible social and linguistic factors that influence forms of address used in Chilean Spanish with various interlocutors. A characteristic of the Spanish of Chile is the use of a variety of forms of address for the second person singular, "tu", "vos", and "usted", with corresponding verb conjugations (Lipski…

  11. Chilean Universities and Institutional Quality Assurance Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Daniel A.; Rojas, Maria J.; López, Boris A.; López, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a quantitative analysis of the university accreditation processes in Chilean universities. The aim is to determine the effects of the different variables, especially the type of institutions (state- and privately owned, with and without state financial support) on the results obtained.…

  12. ICT & Learning in Chilean Schools: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jaime; Salinas, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    By the early nineties a Chilean network on computers and education for public schools had emerged. There were both high expectancies that technology could revolutionize education as well as divergent voices that doubted the real impact of technology on learning. This paper presents an evaluation of the Enlaces network, a national Information and…

  13. The intertidal polychaete (Annelida) fauna of the Sitakunda coast (Chittagong, Bangladesh), with notes on the Capitellidae, Glyceridae, Lumbrineridae, Nephtyidae, Nereididae and Phyllodocidae of the “Northern Bay of Bengal Ecoregion”

    PubMed Central

    Muir, Alexander I.; Hossain, Md. M. Maruf

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Of seven species of polychaetous annelids collected from the intertidal zone of Sitakunda coast, Chittagong, Bangladesh, five were new records for the country. The seven are listed, with brief notes on these, some previously recorded! species and others housed in the collections of the Natural History Museum, London. Keys are given to the recorded species of Phyllodocidae, Nereididae, Lumbrineridae, Nephtyidae and Capitellidae of the “Northern Bay of Bengal Ecoregion”, and to the recognised species of Glyceridae from the Bay of Bengal. The worms in this Ecoregion are subject to the outflows of the Irrawaddy, Ganges, Hooghly and Mahanadi Rivers, and many of them are known to be freshwater tolerant. PMID:25061359

  14. [The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors].

    PubMed

    Reyes, H

    2001-01-01

    On September 29th, 2000, The Chilean Association of Biomedical Journal Editors was founded, sponsored by the "Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT)" (the Governmental Agency promoting and funding scientific research and technological development in Chile) and the "Sociedad Médica de Santiago" (Chilean Society of Internal Medicine). The Association adopted the goals of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) and therefore it will foster "cooperation and communication among Editors of Chilean biomedical journals; to improve editorial standards, to promote professionalism in medical editing through education, self-criticism and self-regulation; and to encourage research on the principles and practice of medical editing". Twenty nine journals covering a closely similar number of different biomedical sciences, medical specialties, veterinary, dentistry and nursing, became Founding Members of the Association. A Governing Board was elected: President: Humberto Reyes, M.D. (Editor, Revista Médica de Chile); Vice-President: Mariano del Sol, M.D. (Editor, Revista Chilena de Anatomía); Secretary: Anna María Prat (CONICYT); Councilors: Manuel Krauskopff, Ph.D. (Editor, Biological Research) and Maritza Rahal, M.D. (Editor, Revista de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello). The Association will organize a Symposium on Biomedical Journal Editing and will spread information stimulating Chilean biomedical journals to become indexed in international databases and in SciELO-Chile, the main Chilean scientific website (www.scielo.cl).

  15. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  16. Organochlorine contaminants in blubber from stranded marine mammals collected from the Northern Oregon and Southern Washington coasts: implications for re-introducing California Condors, Gymnogyps californianus, in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Gundersen, Deke T; Duffield, Deborah A; Randall, Tina; Wintle, Nate; D'Alessandro, Dalin N; Rice, James M; Shepherdson, David

    2013-03-01

    Re-introduction of California Condors into Oregon is currently being considered, but there are concerns about the safety of potential food sources of this species. Condors are opportunistic feeders and a largely available food source for this species will be stranded marine mammal carcasses. We analyzed 37 blubber samples from 7 different marine mammal species collected from the Oregon and Southern Washington coasts for 18 organochlorine (OC) pesticides and 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the most prevalent OC contaminant, making up more than 58 % of the total OC concentration measured. There were no significant differences in OC content between species or sexes. PMID:23275975

  17. Integration of 3 Consecutive Years of Aqueous Geochemistry Monitoring Serpentinization at the Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO), Northern California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Schrenk, M. O.; Kubo, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    In August 2011, a set of 8 groundwater monitoring wells were established in actively serpentinizing ultramafic rocks of the Coast Range Ophiolite near Lower Lake, CA, as a NASA Astrobiology Institute project (Cardace et al., 2013). These wells have enabled repeated sampling and analysis of aqueous geochemistry, which we now present in an integrated model of the progress of serpentinization at this locality. The Coast Range Ophiolite Microbial Observatory (CROMO) plumbs groundwaters percolating through a tectonic mélange of Jurassic-aged oceanic crust, with blocks of metabasalt and metagabbro, variably serpentinized ultramafics, Great Valley Sequence sedimentary rocks including the Jurassic Knoxville formation and the Cretaceous Crack Canyon formation, as well as rocks resulting from silica-carbonate alteration of serpentinites (marginal listvenites). All of these rock units are accessible in the McLaughlin Natural Reserve (administered by the University of California-Davis). In this work, we report on persistent geochemical trends in CROMO waters, which are gas-rich, high pH (11+), Ca2+-OH- type waters, contrast their characteristics with other continental sites of serpentinization and deep sea serpentinizing vent systems, and place the evolution of these waters in a water-rock reaction context based on geochemical modeling.

  18. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  19. Correlation of the Kimmeridgian succession of the Normandy coast, northern France with that of the Dorset-type area, southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallois, Ramues

    2005-02-01

    The Kimmeridgian Stage is represented in the cliffs of the Dorset-type area and those in Normandy by richly fossiliferous marine mudstones and limestones. Taken together, these coastal exposures provide the only complete composite outcrop through this part of the Jurassic in the Sub-boreal Faunal Province. Detailed correlations between the two successions are presented here: these enable the Normandy-coast sections to be more accurately placed than previously within in their regional chronostratigraphical context. The Normandy succession is more completely exposed than that in Dorset, and is situated midway between Dorset and the Sub-Tethyan succession of the Berry region. It therefore offers a better prospect than any English section for inter-province correlation at this stratigraphical level. To cite this article: R. Gallois, C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  20. Bayesian exploration of recent Chilean earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Jiang, Junle; Jolivet, Romain; Simons, Mark; Rivera, Luis; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Liang, Cunren; Agram, Piyush; Owen, Susan; Ortega, Francisco; Minson, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    The South-American subduction zone is an exceptional natural laboratory for investigating the behavior of large faults over the earthquake cycle. It is also a playground to develop novel modeling techniques combining different datasets. Coastal Chile was impacted by two major earthquakes in the last two years: the 2015 M 8.3 Illapel earthquake in central Chile and the 2014 M 8.1 Iquique earthquake that ruptured the central portion of the 1877 seismic gap in northern Chile. To gain better understanding of the distribution of co-seismic slip for those two earthquakes, we derive joint kinematic finite fault models using a combination of static GPS offsets, radar interferograms, tsunami measurements, high-rate GPS waveforms and strong motion data. Our modeling approach follows a Bayesian formulation devoid of a priori smoothing thereby allowing us to maximize spatial resolution of the inferred family of models. The adopted approach also attempts to account for major sources of uncertainty in the Green's functions. The results reveal different rupture behaviors for the 2014 Iquique and 2015 Illapel earthquakes. The 2014 Iquique earthquake involved a sharp slip zone and did not rupture to the trench. The 2015 Illapel earthquake nucleated close to the coast and propagated toward the trench with significant slip apparently reaching the trench or at least very close to the trench. At the inherent resolution of our models, we also present the relationship of co-seismic models to the spatial distribution of foreshocks, aftershocks and fault coupling models.

  1. Seismotectonic segmentation along the Chilean megathrust (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnick, D.; Moreno, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study focuses on understanding seismotectonic segmentation of megathrusts (MT). Recent research suggests elements associated to MT segmentation include: oceanic features, such as seamounts, seismic and aseismic ridges, and fracture zones; thickness and nature of trench sediments; and upper-plate heterogeneities as changes in density, lithology, and presence of splay faults or microplates, features usually manifested in coastline morphology. The 3500-km-long Chilean MT includes all these elements with various amplitudes under fairly constant kinematics and strike. Along the Nazca-South America boundary, the dense GPS network and knowledge of MT geometry allows inverting for the degree of interplate coupling or locking rate. Here we compare locking, historical MT ruptures, and long-term structure. Along-strike changes in locking rate occur at wavelengths of ~100-500 km, and locally correlate with historical ruptures as well as with lower and/or upper plate features, but without a clear systematic pattern. The transition between the 1960 M9.5 and 2010 M8.8 earthquake segments at Arauco (38.5S) has 100 km overlap deduced from land-level changes. Coherent deformation suggest this boundary has been stationary over 4 Myr, and is associated to margin-parallel collision of a forearc microplate along a Paleozoic shear zone. Seismically-active reverse splay faults bound the Peninsula and may absorb coseismic MT slip and stall rupture propagation. To the north, rupture of the 2010 M8.8 event stopped before the prominent J.Fernandez Ridge and its boundary may be associated to the Pichilemu fault, a steep oblique structure that generated a M6.9 aftershock. The change from accretionary to erosive character across this Ridge, from variable thickness of trench sediments, is manifested in narrowing of the coupling zone northwards and a small local decrease in locking rate. This local decrease is coincident with the Maipo orocline axis and a sharp bend in the orogen, which

  2. Phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This MODIS true-color image, acquired March 4, 2002, shows a phytoplankton bloom along the coast of Namibia. Phytoplankton is a microscopic organism that utilizes chlorophyll, which sunlight reflects off of to create this intense blue-green color in the water. Also prominent in this image is the Skeleton Coast Game Park, which runs along Namibia's northern coast and here glows a beautiful coral-orange color.

  3. Paleomagnetism in northern Alaska (and the career of David Symons), from displaced terranes on the west coast of North America to the age dating of base metal ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewchuk, M. T.; Leach, D.; Kelley, K.; Symons, D. T.; Elmore, R. D.; Foucher, J.

    2004-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of barren and mineralized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the Red Dog Zn-Pb deposit in the Brooks Range Mountains of northern Alaska isolated several components. Mineralized and barren rocks with quartz alteration have a steep west-southwesterly magnetization retained by magnetite (N=16, D=247, I=73, k=73). Fluid inclusions indicate that the quartz formed during deep burial and Ar/Ar dating yielded an age of 126 Ma. Heavily mineralized rocks plus mineralized shales lacking quartz replacement have a shallower southwesterly magnetization carried by pyrrhotite (N=11, D=220, I=51, k=28). Geological features and Re/Os dating indicate that the ore formed in the late Paleozoic. A Mississippian igneous sill (344 Ma, Ar/Ar) in the mine has a southwest and shallow magnetization carried by magnetite (1 site). Ultramafic igneous intrusive rocks from Asik Mountain ~100 kms south of Red Dog, have been indirectly dated at about 150 Ma (K/Ar) and have a west-southwesterly magnetization carried by magnetite (N=11, D=255, I=82, k=19). Tectonic models for the Mesozoic origin of northern Alaska can be grouped into three categories: 1) contiguous to ancestral of North America; 2) peri-autochthonous with angular displacements; and, 3) allochthonous terranes accreted to ancestral North America. The combination of geologic, radiometric and paleomagnetic data from Red Dog allows for both testing of the models and paleomagnetic dating of the Red Dog ores. The data can only be collectively explained by Mississippian syngenetic mineralization and pyrrhotite magnetization, Mesozoic northward translation and counterclockwise rotation of a displaced terrane (aka "The Alaskan Terrane Wreck") and, finally, deep burial resulting in remagnetization of some of the ores associated with quartz replacement.

  4. Is the southeast Coast Plutonic Complex the consequence of accretion of the insular superterrane Evidence from U-Pb zircon geochronometry in the northern Washington Cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, N.W. ); Brown, E.H. )

    1991-07-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronometry of orthogneisses and plutons in the southwestern crystalline core of the North Cascades, coupled with fabric and textural studies of the orthogneisses, plutons, and their metamorphic host rocks, indicates extensive synmetamorphic plutonism at 89-96 Ma. Metamorphic mineral assemblages define a culmination composed of an axial kyanite-sillimanite zone rimmed by lower grade zones. High-grade index minerals are typically syntectonic to posttectonic. Metamorphic fabrics are characterized by an orogen-parallel, northwest-striking, steep foliation that contains a subhorizontal stretching and mineral lineation interpreted to be the product of ductile strike-slip deformation. This fabric is crosscut by 96-92 Ma plutons yet is imprinted on 92-89 Ma orthogneisses, suggesting spatially diachronous fabric development during orogeny. Documentation of the spatial and temporal coincidence of magmatism with the peak of orogeny, together with the kinematic significance of the metamorphic fabric, precludes generation of the metamorphic fabric and plutons in response to thrust loading. The authors suggest that this part of the Coast Plutonic Complex evolved as a transpressional magmatic arc.

  5. The assessment of environmental pollution along the coast of Beibu Gulf, northern South China Sea: an integrated biomarker approach in the clam Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanping; Wang, Zhifeng; Cheng, Fenglian; Du, Xiuping; Fu, Wenchao; Wang, Qun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Li, Yongfu; Zhou, You

    2013-04-01

    The clam Meretrix meretrix was used as a biomonitor to implement an environmental monitoring program along the coast of Beibu Gulf in October 2011. This program not only analyzed biomarkers including acetylcholinesterase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, total glutathione content and lipid peroxidation level in M. meretrix but also adopted a multi-biomarker approach - integrated biomarker response (IBR) to assess the environmental quality in this ecosystem. In addition, the metal (Hg, As, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Cr) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content in the surface sediment at the study area were also measured. The results showed that IBR index was able to distinguish a space trend between sampling sites with different degrees of anthropogenic environmental stress. Integrated contamination degree were displayed in the form of star plots and compared to IBR plots. There was a visual consistency between the pollution level and IBR variation. Based on the results, it was proved that the IBR method coupled with chemical analysis was quite useful for the assessment of environmental pollution in the coastal system.

  6. PREFACE: XV Chilean Physics Symposium, 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Moreno, José; Ávila, Ricardo; Cubillos, Karla

    2008-02-01

    The Chilean Physics Symposium is the main gathering of Physics in Chile, and its organization is one of the central activities of the Chilean Physical Society (Sociedad Chilena de Física, SOCHIFI). The Symposium assembles the largest number of Chilean and foreign physicists resident in the country. Recent advances in the various research areas in Physics are presented, by researchers from Universities and national research centres. At the same time this is an occasion for the participation of Physics students from both the pre- and post-graduate programs. The Symposium has gathered continuously every two years, since 1978. The organization of the XV symposium was in charge of the Thermonuclear Plasma Department of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, and it took place on 15-17 November 2006, at La Reina Nuclear Studies Centre, in the city of Santiago, Chile. During this symposium the relation of research in Physics with education and with the productive sector in the country was also analysed. During the Symposium, 121 abstracts were submitted, from 255 authors. All authors were invited to submit articles for publication in the Symposium Proceedings. The articles received were reviewed by the Symposium Scientific Committee and by invited peers. The criteria for review focussed on the demand for a consistent piece of research, and a clear statement of results. Most of the articles received report the work of research groups where advanced students and young investigators are prominent. Thanks to their enthusiasm, 52 articles are presented in this issue. We would like to express our appreciation to their authors. Finally, my personal apology is in order regarding my delay in publishing these proceedings. A sequence of personal and professional highly demanding circumstances have been in the way. I would like to thank Journal of Physics: Conference Series for providing very fast publication of the proceedings, having published them online less than 4 weeks after my

  7. Cadmium bioaccumulation and retention kinetics in the Chilean blue mussel Mytilus chilensis: seawater and food exposure pathways.

    PubMed

    Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Houlbrèque, Fanny; Boisson, Florence; Mulsow, Sandor; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Oberhaënsli, François; Azemard, Sabine; Jeffree, Ross

    2010-09-15

    The Chilean blue mussel (Mytilus chilensis, Hupe 1854) represents the most important bivalve exploited along the Chilean coast and is a major food source for the Chilean population. Unfortunately, local fish and shellfish farming face severe problems as a result of bioaccumulation of toxic trace metals into shellfishes. Blue mussels collected along the Chilean coasts contain levels of Cd above the regulatory limits for human consumption. In this study, we examined the bioaccumulation, depuration and organ distribution of Cd in the M. chilensis, from 109Cd-labelled bulk seawater and from feeding with 109Cd-labelled algae. The uptake of 109Cd via seawater displayed a simple exponential kinetic model suggesting that cadmium activity tends to reach an equilibrium value of 1.838+/-0.175 ng g(-1) (mean+/-asymptotic standard error, p < 0.001) after 78+/-9 days. The depuration rate for 109Cd accumulated via seawater was slow, with only 21% of the total 109Cd accumulated in the whole mussel being eliminated after 52 days. Total elimination of Cd in mussels was adequately described by a double component kinetic model, in which the biological half-life for the long-lived component represents more than 6 months. In contrast, depuration after radiolabelled food uptake was fast, reaching only 20% of retention in 10 days. This knowledge of the long half-life of cadmium accumulated via seawater as well as the non-negligible level of cadmium accumulated into the shells is relevant to the management of Cd levels in this species and the refinement of detoxification processes in order to comply with authorized Cd levels. PMID:20638735

  8. Shallow water heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the Región de Atacama, northern Chile

    PubMed Central

    Valdés, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The coast of northern Chile has been sparsely studied in regards to its invertebrate fauna, with just a few works reviewing the distribution of local mollusks. This work presents a survey of the shallow water heterobranch sea slugs currently occurring around the port of Caldera (27 °S), in the Región de Atacama, northern Chile. Eight species of sea slugs were found in this study: Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi (Marcus, 1959), Baptodoris peruviana (d’Orbigny, 1837), Diaulula variolata (d’Orbigny, 1837), Doris fontainii d’Orbigny, 1837, Onchidella marginata (Couthouy in Gould, 1852), Phidiana lottini (Lesson, 1831), Tyrinna delicata (Abraham, 1877) and the new species Berthella schroedli sp. nov., described herein. All of the species found in the area are endemic to South America, having distributions in the southeastern Pacific and South Atlantic Oceans, from Ancash, Perú to Peninsula Valdés, Argentina, and two of them represent species which are endemic to the Chilean coasts (Aplysiopsis cf. brattstroemi and Berthella schroedli). The finding of a previously undescribed species emphasizes the need of further surveys, particularly in subtidal and deeper waters, in order to improve the knowledge on this neglected fauna in Atacama. PMID:27168975

  9. Language, Identity, Education, and Transmigration: Chilean Adolescents in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kendall; Ganuza, Natalie

    2005-01-01

    This article examines patterns of national, cultural, and linguistic identification among Chilean-Swedish transmigrant adolescents in and around Stockholm, Sweden. Drawing from ethnographic interviews and observations, analysis focuses on adolescents' (a) views on ethnic and national identity; (b) general perceptions of Chileans and Swedes; and…

  10. Some Thoughts on the Evaluation of the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Many papers describe the Chilean voucher system as the "textbook" voucher case. But this is mistaken and has prevented research to undertake the key question of how the particular design of the Chilean voucher system determines the results obtained in Chile. This also prevents discussion of how a voucher system with a different design could lead…

  11. Lithology and late postglacial stratigraphy of bottom sediments in isolated basins of the White Sea coast exemplified by a small lake in the Chupa settlement area (Northern Karelia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korsakova, O. P.; Kolka, V. V.; Tolstobrova, A. N.; Lavrova, N. B.; Tolstobrov, D. S.; Shelekhova, T. S.

    2016-05-01

    The complex lithological, geochemical, geochronological, and micropaleontological (diatoms, spores, pollen) investigations of stratified bottom sediments that constitute facies-variable sedimentary sequences in a small isolated lake located near the upper limit of the sea on the White Sea coast made it possible to define lithostratigraphic units (LSU) forming the complete sedimentary succession in deep parts of isolated basins. It is shown that stratigraphy of heterogeneous sequences is determined by two regional transgressive-regressive cycles in relative sea level fluctuations: alternating late Glacial and Holocene transgressions and regressions. The lower part of a clastogenic clayey-sandy-silty sequence successively composed of freshwater (LSU 1) and brackish-water (LSU 2) sediments of the ice-marginal basins and marine postglacial facies (LSU 3) was formed during the late Glacial glacioeustatic marine transgression. Its upper part formed in different isolated basins at different stages of the Holocene is represented depending on its altimetric position on the coastal slope by costal marine sediments (LSU 4) and facies of the partly isolated inlet (LSU 5). The organogenic sapropelic sequence, which overlies sediments of the marine basin and partly isolated bay, corresponds to lithostratigraphic units represented by Holocene sediments accumulated in the meromictic lake (LSU 6), onshore freshwater basin (LSU 7), and freshwater basin with elevated water mineralization (LSU 8) deposited during maximum development of Holocene transgression and lacustrine sediments (LSU 9) formed in coastal environments during terminal phases of the Holocene. The defined lithostratigraphic units differ from each other in lithological, micropaleontological, and geochemical features reflected in structural and textural properties of their sediments, their composition, inclusions, and composition of paleophytocoenoses and diatom assemblages.

  12. Evaluation of Heterotrophy in in Serpentinite-Associated Waters from the Coast Range Ophiolite, Northern California, USA and the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, T. J.; Arcilla, C. A.; Cardace, D.; Hoehler, T. M.; McCollom, T. M.; Meyer-Dombard, D. R.; Schrenk, M. O.

    2013-12-01

    The deep biosphere in cold, dark sub-seafloor ultramafic rocks (i.e., those rocks rich in Fe and Mg) is stressed by exceedingly high pH, transient, if any, inorganic carbon availability, and little known organic carbon inventories. As a test of heterotrophic carbon use, serpentinite-associated waters (from groundwater sampling wells and associated surface seepages in tectonically uplifted mantle units in ophiolites) were tested for differences with respect to aqueous geochemistry and performance in EcoPlates™ - Biolog Inc. .. This work focuses on two field locations for water sampling: the Coast Range Ophiolite, CA, USA, and the Zambales Ophiolite, Philippines. Characteristics of each sampling site are presented (pH, mineral substrate, Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio, aqueous metal loads, etc.). Complementary EcoPlate™ results [prefabricated 96-well plates, seeded with triplicate experiments for determining microbiological community response to difference organic carbon sources; a triplicate control experiment with just water is built in to the plate also] are also presented. We found that waters from selected California [groundwater wells (7 discrete wells) and related surface seeps (5 hydrologically connected sites)] and Philippines [4 Zambales Ophiolite springs/seepages] sourced in serpentinites were analyzed. EcoPlate™ average well-color development (AWCD), which demonstrates microbial activities averaged per plate (as in Garland and Mills, 1991), differs across sites. Correlations of AWCD with environmental data (such as pH, oxidation-reduction potential or ORP, Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio, and Fe contents) are evaluated. Clarifying the geochemical-biological relationships that bear out in these analyses informs discourse on the energetic limits of life in serpentinizing systems, with relevance to ultramafic-hosted life on continents and in the seabed.

  13. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  14. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  15. Ecological aspects of helminth fauna of Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (aves: Spheniscidae), from the Northern Coast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, G C; Baldassin, P; Gallo, H; Silva, R J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the helminth fauna found in the Magellanic penguin, Spheniscus magellanicus, relating parasite population and community ecological parameters to life aspects of the host species. The study involved 237 specimens of S. magellanicus taken from the northern shore of the state of São Paulo (23° 46' S, 45° 57' W) and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro (23° 02' S, 44° 13' W), Brazil. The following helminth fauna were found: the nematode Contracaecum pelagicum (core species), found in the stomach; the digenetic Cardiocephaloides physalis and the cestode Tetrabothrius lutzi (satellite species), both collected from the initial portion of the small intestine. Comparisons using the Shannon Diversity Index revealed that the parasite community in juvenile penguins is less diverse in the migratory season than the breeding season. Parasitological studies on penguins and other migratory animals provide important information on species during the time in which they remain pelagic and constitute a useful tool for the acquisition of data that is difficult to obtain through other means, thereby favoring the conservation of the species.

  16. PCR-based prevalence of a fatal reovirus of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun) along the northern Atlantic coast of the USA.

    PubMed

    Flowers, E M; Simmonds, K; Messick, G A; Sullivan, L; Schott, E J

    2016-06-01

    There is a need for more information on the relationship between diseases and fluctuations of wild populations of marine animals. In the case of Callinectes sapidus reovirus 1 (CsRV1, also known as RLV), there is a lack of baseline information on range, prevalence and outbreaks, from which to develop an understanding of population-level impacts. An RT-qPCR assay was developed that is capable of detecting 10 copies of the CsRV1 genome. In collaboration with state, federal and academic partners, blue crabs were collected from sites throughout the north-eastern United States to assess the northern range of this pathogen. In addition, archived crab samples from the Chesapeake Bay were assessed for CsRV1 by RT-qPCR and histology. PCR-based assessments indicate that CsRV1 was present at all but one site. Prevalence of CsRV1 as assessed by RT-qPCR was highly variable between locations, and CsRV1 prevalence varied between years at a given location. Mean CsRV1 prevalence as assessed by RT-qPCR was >15% each year, and peak prevalence was 79%. The wide geographic range and highly variable prevalence of CsRV1 indicate that more study is needed to understand CsRV1 dynamics and the role the virus plays in blue crab natural mortality. PMID:26249243

  17. Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

    2009-12-01

    Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

  18. Molecular detection and species identification of Alexandrium (Dinophyceae) causing harmful algal blooms along the Chilean coastline

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicki, Ana; Fernández, Gonzalo; Astorga, Marcela; Oyarzún, Pablo; Toro, Jorge E.; Navarro, Jorge M.; Martínez, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims On the basis of morphological evidence, the species involved in South American Pacific coast harmful algal blooms (HABs) has been traditionally recognized as Alexandrium catenella (Dinophyceae). However, these observations have not been confirmed using evidence based on genomic sequence variability. Our principal objective was to accurately determine the species of Alexandrium involved in local HABs in order to implement a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for its rapid and easy detection on filter-feeding shellfish, such as mussels. Methodology For species-specific determination, the intergenic spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S subunit, ITS2 and the hypervariable genomic regions D1–D5 of the large ribosomal subunit of local strains were sequenced and compared with two data sets of other Alexandrium sequences. Species-specific primers were used to amplify signature sequences within the genomic DNA of the studied species by conventional and real-time PCR. Principal results Phylogenetic analysis determined that the Chilean strain falls into Group I of the tamarensis complex. Our results support the allocation of the Chilean Alexandrium species as a toxic Alexandrium tamarense rather than A. catenella, as currently defined. Once local species were determined to belong to Group I of the tamarensis complex, a highly sensitive and accurate real-time PCR procedure was developed to detect dinoflagellate presence in Mytilus spp. (Bivalvia) samples after being fed (challenged) in vitro with the Chilean Alexandrium strain. The results show that real-time PCR is useful to detect Alexandrium intake in filter-feeding molluscs. Conclusions It has been shown that the classification of local Alexandrium using morphological evidence is not very accurate. Molecular methods enabled the HAB dinoflagellate species of the Chilean coast to be assigned as A. tamarense rather than A. catenella. Real-time PCR analysis based on A. tamarense primers allowed the

  19. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  20. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Yajing; Peng, Z.; Wei, G.; Chen, T.; Sun, W.; He, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Shen, C.-C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g-1 in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g-1 in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a-1 from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a-1 from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m-3 a-1, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Interannual variation of rare earth element abundances in corals from northern coast of the South China Sea and its relation with sea-level change and human activities.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Wei, Gangjian; Chen, Tegu; Sun, Weidong; He, Jianfeng; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2011-02-01

    Here we present interannual rare earth element (REE) records spanning the last two decades of the 20th century in two living Porites corals, collected from Longwan Bay, close to the estuarine zones off Wanquan River of Hainan Island and Hong Kong off the Pearl River Delta of Guangdong Province in the northern South China Sea. The results show that both coral REE contents (0.5-40 ng g⁻¹ in Longwan Bay and 2-250 ng g⁻¹ in Hong Kong for La-Lu) are characterized with a declining trend, which are significantly negative correlated with regional sea-level rise (9.4 mm a⁻¹) from 1981 to 1996 in Longwan Bay, 13.7 mm a⁻¹ from 1991 to 2001 in Hong Kong). The REE features are proposed to be resulted from seawater intrusion into the estuaries in response to contemporary sea-level rise. However, the tendency for the coral Er/Nd time series at Hong Kong site is absent and there is no significant relation between Er/Nd and total REEs as found for the coral at Longwan Bay site. The observations are likely attributed to changes of the water discharge and sediment load of Pearl River, which have been significantly affected by intense human activities, such as the construction of dams/reservoirs and riverbed sediment mining, in past decades. The riverine sediment load/discharge ratio of the Pearl River decreased sharply with a rate of 0.02 kg m⁻³ a⁻¹, which could make significant contribution to the declining trend of coral REE. We propose that coastal corals in Longwan Bay and similar unexplored sites with little influences of river discharge and anthropogenic disruption are ideal candidates to investigate the influence of sea-level change on seawater/coral REE.

  2. [Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lefèvre, Ana Maria Cavalcanti; Ribeiro, Andressa Francisca; Marques, Gisela Rita de Alvarenga Monteiro; Serpa, Lígia Leandro Nunes; Lefèvre, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    This study sought to identify people's knowledge on dengue and its vector biology, aimed at promoting a communications channel between technical and lay reasoning in order to foster community involvement in dengue and dengue vector control activities. A survey was conducted in an Aedes aegypti-infested area with dengue transmission in São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. One hundred interviews were held, with five open questions on topics related to dengue and vector control. Collective Subject Discourse methodology was used in the analysis. People were not able to properly identify the kinds of accumulated water sources that serve as breeding places for mosquitoes and were unaware of the egg phase in vector development. There was inadequate awareness of vector biology and a need for greater government-community integration. Educational activities should incorporate the study results as insight for improving the social efficiency and efficacy of joint actions to fight dengue and control the mosquito vector.

  3. Climate dynamics along the arid northern coast of Chile: The 1997-1998 Dinámica del Clima de la Región de Antofagasta (DICLIMA) experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutllant, José A.; Fuenzalida, Humberto; Aceituno, Patricio

    2003-09-01

    The DICLIMA field experiment was designed to test and quantify the hypothesis of an afternoon enhancement of the coastal subsidence in the extremely arid northern Chile because of solar heating over the west slope of the Andes. Ten-day campaigns near Antofagasta (23°S) were carried out in January 1997, July 1997, and January 1998. Significant diurnal cycles in temperature, mixing ratio, and wind from about 1000 to 4000 m above sea level were observed. This layer was decoupled from the marine boundary layer circulation below by the subsidence inversion when its base was under the average height of the coastal mountain range. The solar heating cycle over the Andes and associated circulation resulted in a mean afternoon zonal divergence above the subsidence inversion base of about 30 × 10-6 s-1, exceeding by a factor of 5 typical subtropical west coast divergences. The corresponding early morning convergence was particularly intense during the austral winter experiment. In spite of the very strong El Niño conditions that prevailed during the July 1997 and January 1998 experiments, the overwhelming control that radiation exerts on the daily cycles of the atmospheric circulation over the west slope of the Andes seems to guarantee the general validity of the results.

  4. Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59% and 131.95 ± 92.64%, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment.

  5. Brain cholinesterase reactivation as a marker of exposure to anticholinesterase pesticides: a case study in a population of yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis (Naumann, 1840) along the northern coast of Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santos, Cátia S A; Monteiro, Marta S; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Between late 2010 to early 2011, an increased mortality in gulls was observed along the northern coast of Portugal, with individuals exhibiting neurologic disorders consistent with an eventual anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning event. To clarify if this mortality was related to organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate (CB) poisoning, chemical and spontaneous cholinesterase (ChE) reactivation was tested in the brain of the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis). Initial brain ChE activity in L. michahellis was 40.92 ± 5.23 U/mg of protein (average ± SE). Following chemical and spontaneous reactivation, ChE activity increased in average 70.38 ± 48.59% and 131.95 ± 92.64%, respectively. ChE reactivation was found to decrease at increasing concentrations of the oxime pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride and dilution factor, underscoring the importance of first optimizing the assay conditions prior to its use on bird species. These results suggest that birds analysed could have been exposed to OP and CB pesticide compounds and that in most cases CB exposure appeared to be the main cause of birds poisoning. These results are an important contribution to environmental monitoring as it demonstrates the suitability of L. michaellis as sentinel species of OP and CB pesticides within an urban environment. PMID:26564198

  6. Application of a hydrodynamic and sediment transport model for guidance of response efforts related to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Northern Gulf of Mexico along the coast of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plant, Nathaniel G.; Long, Joseph W.; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Thompson, David M.; Raabe, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists have provided a model-based assessment of transport and deposition of residual Deepwater Horizon oil along the shoreline within the northern Gulf of Mexico in the form of mixtures of sand and weathered oil, known as surface residual balls (SRBs). The results of this USGS research, in combination with results from other components of the overall study, will inform operational decisionmaking. The results will provide guidance for response activities and data collection needs during future oil spills. In May 2012 the U.S. Coast Guard, acting as the Deepwater Horizon Federal on-scene coordinator, chartered an operational science advisory team to provide a science-based review of data collected and to conduct additional directed studies and sampling. The goal was to characterize typical shoreline profiles and morphology in the northern Gulf of Mexico to identify likely sources of residual oil and to evaluate mechanisms whereby reoiling phenomena may be occurring (for example, burial and exhumation and alongshore transport). A steering committee cochaired by British Petroleum Corporation (BP) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is overseeing the project and includes State on-scene coordinators from four States (Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, and Mississippi), trustees of the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI), and representatives from the U.S. Coast Guard. This report presents the results of hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and developed techniques for analyzing potential SRB movement and burial and exhumation along the coastline of Alabama and Florida. Results from these modeling efforts are being used to explain the complexity of reoiling in the nearshore environment and to broaden consideration of the different scenarios and difficulties that are being faced in identifying and removing residual oil. For instance, modeling results suggest that larger SRBs are not, under the most commonly

  7. Impact of northern and southern air mass transport on the temporal distribution of atmospheric (210)Po and (210)Pb in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2016-09-01

    Concentration activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 were determined to discuss their distribution and chemical behavior in relation to meteorological parameters especially in air mass transport during monsoon events. Marine aerosol samples were collected between January 2009 and December 2010 at the coastal region of Mersing, which is located in the southern South China Sea and is about 160 km northeast of Johor Bahru, as part of the atmosphere-ocean interaction program in Malaysia. About 47 PM10 samples were collected using the Sierra-Andersen model 1200 PM10 sampler over a 2-year sampling campaign between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples were processed using acid digestion sequential extraction techniques to analyze various fractions such as Fe and Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions. While, (210)Pb and (210)Po activities were measured with the Gross Alpha/Beta Counting System model XLB-5 Tennelec® Series 5 and the Alpha Spectrometry (model Alpha Analyst Spectroscopy system with a silicon-surface barrier detector), respectively. The distribution activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 samples were varied from 162 to 881 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 347 ± 170 μBq/m(3) and from 85 to 1009 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 318 ± 202 μBq/m(3), respectively. The analysis showed that (210)Po activity in our samples lies in a border and higher range than global distribution values due to contributions from external sources injected to the atmosphere. The speciation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in marine aerosol corresponds to transboundary haze; e.g., biomass burning especially forest fires and long-range air mass transport of terrestrial dust has enriched concentrations of particle mass in the local atmosphere. The monsoon seems to play an important role in transporting terrestrial dust from Indo-China and northern Asia especially during the northeast monsoon, as well as biogenic pollutants originating from Sumatra and the southern

  8. Impact of northern and southern air mass transport on the temporal distribution of atmospheric (210)Po and (210)Pb in the east coast of Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sabuti, Asnor Azrin; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2016-09-01

    Concentration activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 were determined to discuss their distribution and chemical behavior in relation to meteorological parameters especially in air mass transport during monsoon events. Marine aerosol samples were collected between January 2009 and December 2010 at the coastal region of Mersing, which is located in the southern South China Sea and is about 160 km northeast of Johor Bahru, as part of the atmosphere-ocean interaction program in Malaysia. About 47 PM10 samples were collected using the Sierra-Andersen model 1200 PM10 sampler over a 2-year sampling campaign between January 2009 and December 2010. Samples were processed using acid digestion sequential extraction techniques to analyze various fractions such as Fe and Mn oxides, organic matter, and residual fractions. While, (210)Pb and (210)Po activities were measured with the Gross Alpha/Beta Counting System model XLB-5 Tennelec® Series 5 and the Alpha Spectrometry (model Alpha Analyst Spectroscopy system with a silicon-surface barrier detector), respectively. The distribution activities of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the PM10 samples were varied from 162 to 881 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 347 ± 170 μBq/m(3) and from 85 to 1009 μBq/m(3) with mean value of 318 ± 202 μBq/m(3), respectively. The analysis showed that (210)Po activity in our samples lies in a border and higher range than global distribution values due to contributions from external sources injected to the atmosphere. The speciation of (210)Pb and (210)Po in marine aerosol corresponds to transboundary haze; e.g., biomass burning especially forest fires and long-range air mass transport of terrestrial dust has enriched concentrations of particle mass in the local atmosphere. The monsoon seems to play an important role in transporting terrestrial dust from Indo-China and northern Asia especially during the northeast monsoon, as well as biogenic pollutants originating from Sumatra and the southern

  9. A 26,600 yr record of climate and vegetation from Rice Lake in the Eel River drainage of the northern California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    Rice Lake, (40'41" N; 123'30" W, 1109 m elev.) lies in the transition zone of the precipitation dipole in the western United States, which is reflected by the present vegetation - a mosaic of mesic northern mixed hardwood-evergreen forests (Quercus spp., Pinus spp., Calocedrus/Juniperus) and more arid southern oak foothill woodlands (Quercus spp.) that borders the westernmost edge of coastal redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) forest. The site, which lies on the active Lake Mountain fault zone, is now a large (~15 ha) sagpond that dries in summer. Between ~26,600 yr - ~15,000 yr, a permanent lake with aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) occupied the core site. Montane conifer forests, with pine (Pinus, spp.), mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana), spruce (Picea spp), and western hemlock (T. heterophylla) covered the region. Climatic parameters of modern montane coniferous forest and the continued presence of aquatic vegetation (Isoetes) suggest higher precipitation and lower temperatures during the last glacial. Charcoal (fire event frequency) was minimal. Rapid oscillations of oak, the riparian alder (Alnus), pine, Cupressaceae (Juniperus, Calocedrus), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menzeii), and fir (Abies) characterize the deglacial, and reflect rapid changes in precipitation and temperatures, e.g, Bølling-Allerød warming and Younger Dryas cooling. Between ~15,000 yr and ~13,000 yr, aquatic vegetation of the lake abruptly decreased. Expansion of oak, tanoak (Lithocarpus), shrubs (cf. Ceanothus) and decline of pine and montane conifers, along with the development of marshes with Typha and Cyperaceae on the former lakebed, imply early Holocene warming and decreasing precipitation. This is supported by an increase in charcoal, which is attributed to forest fires. Between ~5,000 yr - ~6,000 yr, a short interval of increased precipitation (inferred from a peak in alder and decrease in Cupressaceae) initiates the development of modern mixed hardwood-evergreen forest. Correlative data

  10. Chilean Teachers Begin Exchange Program Visit in Magdalena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    Two teachers from the town of San Pedro de Atacama, in the northern desert of the South American nation of Chile, arrive in Magdalena, New Mexico, Sunday, January 28, for a two-week visit that is part of a Sister Cities program sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), the nonprofit research corporation that operates the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). They will be accompanied by their town's mayor. Myriam Nancy Rivera Mercado, Head of the high school in San Pedro, Gabriela Fernanda Rodriguez Moraleda, a tourism teacher there, and San Pedro Mayor Sandra Berna Martinez will begin a visit that includes classroom observations in the Magdalena schools, a reception hosted by the Magdalena Village Council, and a Mayor's Breakfast with Magdalena Mayor Jim Wolfe. They also will meet local residents, tour the Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge with a second-grade class, visit an area ranch, tour the Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope, and see Socorro's Community Arts Party. "These teachers will learn much about New Mexico, the United States, and our educational system, and will take this new knowledge back to their students and their community," said NRAO Education Officer Robyn Harrison. The visit is part of a Sister Cities program initiated and funded by AUI, which operates the NRAO for the U.S. National Science Foundation. Radio astronomy is a common link between San Pedro de Atacama and Magdalena. San Pedro is near the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international telescope project now under construction with funding by major partners in North America, Europe, and Japan. Magdalena is near the site of NRAO's VLA radio telescope. In Magdalena, the Village Council and Mayor Wolfe formalized their participation in the Sister Cities program last September, and San Pedro ratified the program in December. In San Pedro, the ceremony ratifying the agreement was attended by U.S. Ambassador to Chile Craig K

  11. Microsatellite Markers Reveal Strong Genetic Structure in the Endemic Chilean Dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, María José; Olavarría, Carlos; Moraga, Rodrigo; Baker, C. Scott; Hamner, Rebecca M.; Poulin, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding genetic differentiation and speciation processes in marine species with high dispersal capabilities is challenging. The Chilean dolphin, Cephalorhynchus eutropia, is the only endemic cetacean of Chile and is found in two different coastal habitats: a northern habitat with exposed coastlines, bays and estuaries from Valparaíso (33°02′S) to Chiloé (42°00′S), and a southern habitat with highly fragmented inshore coastline, channels and fjords between Chiloé and Navarino Island (55°14′S). With the aim of evaluating the potential existence of conservation units for this species, we analyzed the genetic diversity and population structure of the Chilean dolphin along its entire range. We genotyped 21 dinucleotide microsatellites for 53 skin samples collected between 1998 and 2012 (swab: n = 8, biopsy: n = 38, entanglement n = 7). Bayesian clustering and spatial model analyses identified two genetically distinct populations corresponding to the northern and southern habitats. Genetic diversity levels were similar in the two populations (He: 0.42 v/s 0.45 for southern and northern populations, respectively), while effective size population was higher in the southern area (Ne: 101 v/s 39). Genetic differentiation between these two populations was high and significant (FST = 0.15 and RST = 0.19), indicating little or no current gene flow. Because of the absence of evident geographical barriers between the northern and southern populations, we propose that genetic differentiation may reflect ecological adaptation to the different habitat conditions and resource uses. Therefore, the two genetic populations of this endemic and Near Threatened species should be considered as different conservation units with independent management strategies. PMID:25898340

  12. Canada's east coast play

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, I.M.

    1984-02-01

    The intent of this paper is to give a basic overview presentation on Canada's east coast play - most likely the number one offshore play in the free world - and possibly the world. The play stretches 2,500 miles north and south, as it follows the Labrador Coast, past the Strait of Belle Isle and onto the Grand Banks of Newfoundland and as it makes a 90 degree turn, 1,000 miles east to west along the coast of Nova Scotia to the Georges Bank. 3,500 miles in all - which if placed in western Canada, would stretch from northern Alberta to southern Mexico. It's geologic potential is immense - 15-20 billion barrels of oil and 80-90 Tcf of natural gas. And so far only approximately 2 billion barrels of oil and 5 Tcf of natural gas have been found. There is more out there. And less than 200 wells have been drilled - still very virgin territory. Two world size discoveries have been made in the area. Hibernia, on the Grand Banks, is estimated to contain 1.8 billion barrels. Venture, on the Scotian Shelf, has a natural gas reserve of 2.5 Tcf - big by Canadian standards and significant in that Mobil Oil has also made some other interesting discoveries on the same Sable Island block which have not been delineated.

  13. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  14. Is the Chilean diet a Mediterranean-type diet?

    PubMed

    Rozowski, Jaime; Castillo, Oscar

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet.

  15. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  16. February 27, 2010 Chilean Tsunami in Pacific and its Arrival to North East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, EfiM.; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Ozer, Ceren; Chernov, Anton; Kostenko, Irina; Shevchenko, Georgy

    2010-05-01

    The outskirts of the fault plane broken by the strong earthquake on February 27, 2010 in Chili with a magnitude 8.8 at the 35km depth of 35.909°S, 72.733°W coordinates generated a moderate size tsunami. The initial amplitude of the tsunami source is not so high because of the major area of the plane was at land. The tsunami waves propagated far distances in South and North directions to East Asia and Wet America coasts. The waves are also recorded by several gauges in Pacific during its propagation and arrival to coastal areas. The recorded and observed amplitudes of tsunami waves are important for the potential effects with the threatening amplitudes. The event also showed that a moderate size tsunami can be effective even if it propagates far distances in any ocean or a marginal sea. The far east coasts of Russia at North East Asia (Sakhalin, Kuriles, Kamchatka) are one of the important source (i.e. November 15, 2006, Kuril Island Tsunami) and target (i.e. February, 27, 2010 Chilean tsunami) areas of the Pacific tsunamis. Many efforts have been spent for establishment of the monitoring system and assessment of tsunamis and development of the mitigation strategies against tsunamis and other hazards in the region. Development of the computer technologies provided the advances in data collection, transfer, and processing. Furthermore it also contributed new developments in computational tools and made the computer modeling to be an efficient tool in tsunami warning systems. In this study the tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE Nested version is used. NAMI-DANCE solves Nonlinear form of Long Wave (Shallow water) equations (with or without dispersion) using finite difference model in nested grid domains from the source to target areas in multiprocessor hardware environment. It is applied to 2010 Chilean tsunami and its propagation and coastal behavior at far distances near Sakhalin, Kuril and Kamchatka coasts. The main tide gauge records used in this study are from

  17. 'NASA Helps Chilean Miners' Tops This Week @NASA

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA experts journeyed to Chile to assist the Chilean government on everything from what the trapped miners should eat and drink to how they could best adapt to their cramped, prolonged confinement...

  18. Nutrition education in Chilean primary schools.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Sonia; Zacarías, Isabel; Andrade, Margarita; Kain, Juliana; Lera, Lydia; Vio, Fernando; Morón, Cecilio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to incorporate nutrition education in Chilean primary schools. The baseline information included nutritional status, food consumption and physical activity of 1701 children from 3rd to 7th grade in ten urban and rural schools. Main results showed a high prevalence of obesity (15.4%) and overweight (19.6%), low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, high intake of snacks and a low level of physical activity, especially in girls. Because the Ministry of Education does not allow the incorporation of new programs into the curriculum, the educational strategy was based on the development of a text book, a teacher's guide, five practical guides for students from third to eighth grade and a CD-Rom. These materials were validated by 36 teachers in six schools through an educational intervention. Teachers and students considered the educational materials useful, motivational and easy to understand. This program is being implemented in 57 schools.

  19. Hurricane Isaac Moving Towards Northern Gulf Coast

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an animation of GOES-13 satellite imagery from Aug. 26-28, 2012 of Hurricane Isaac's track through the Gulf of Mexico. Isaac is headed for New Orleans, exactly 7 years after hurricane Katri...

  20. INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TOWER ROOM LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  1. Gulf Coast Sea Turtle Hatchlings Released at KSC

    NASA Video Gallery

    The first group of hatchlings from endangered sea turtle eggs brought from beaches along the northern U.S. Gulf Coast was released into the Atlantic Ocean off NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida...

  2. Results of Chilean water markets: Empirical research since 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carl J.

    2004-09-01

    Chile's free-market Water Code turned 20 years old in October 2001. This anniversary was an important milestone for both Chilean and international debates about water policy because Chile has become the world's leading example of the free-market approach to water law and water resources management, the textbook case of treating water rights not merely as private property but also as a fully marketable commodity. The predominant view outside of Chile is that Chilean water markets and the Chilean model of water management have been a success, and this perception has encouraged other countries to follow Chile's lead in water law reform. Much of the debate about Chilean water markets, however, has been based more on theoretical or political beliefs than on empirical study. This paper reverses that emphasis by reviewing the evolution of empirical research about these markets since 1990, when Chile returned to democratic government after 16 years of military rule. During the period since 1990, understanding of how Chilean water markets have worked in practice has gradually improved. There have been two major trends in this research: first, a gradual shift from exaggerated claims of the markets' success toward more balanced assessments of mixed results and, second, a heavy emphasis on the economics of water rights trading with very little attention given to the Water Code's impacts on social equity, river basin management, environmental protection, or resolution of water conflicts. The analysis in this study is qualitative and interdisciplinary, combining law, economics, and institutions.

  3. Chilean Virtual Observatory services implementation for the ALMA public data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antognini, Jonathan; Solar, Mauricio; Ibsen, Jorge; Araya, Mauricio; Nyman, Lars; Mardones, Diego; Valenzuela, Camilo; Ramirez, Patricio; Fernandez, Christopher; Garces, Mario

    2014-07-01

    The success of an observatory is usually measured by its impact in the scientific community, so a common objective is to provide transparent ways to access the generated data. The Chilean Virtual Observatory (ChiVO), started working in the implementation of a prototype, in collaboration with ALMA, considering the current needs of the Chilean astronomical community, in addition to the protocols and standards of IVOA, and the comparison of different existing data access toolkit services. Based on this efforts, a VO prototype was designed and implemented for the ALMA large scale of data.

  4. Last millenium environmental changes in Lake Bertrand sediments, Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, V.; Fagel, N.; Schmidt, S.; Alvarez, D.; Araneda, A.; Urrutia, R.

    2012-04-01

    Our study focuses on a multiproxy analysis of sedimentary records from Lago Bertrand (area 50 km2; 227 masl; 46°55'S 72°50'W). Three cores were retrieved during fieldtrips in 2009 and 2011 with an Uwitec gravity corer. One core was collected in the main lake (LBt09, 102 cm) and two others in a lateral extension (LBb11-A, 162 cm and LBb11-B, 156 cm). Data 210Pb and 137Cs give average sedimentation rates of 2 mm/yr for the upper core section from the main lake, allowing a decennial resolution. Our aim is to document the climatic variability during the last millennium in Northern Patagonia and its impact on the environment. Lago Bertrand is separated from a pro-glacial lake (Lago Plomo) by a morainic barrier. The sediments of this lake are mainly composed of clayed silts and very few sandy silts. In the cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand, X-ray radiographies and magnetic susceptibility profiles evidence well-defined pluri-millimetric laminations with organic-rich layers, especially in the central core section. In the main lake, X-ray radiographies show diffuse pluri-millimetric laminations while magnetic susceptibility profiles do not confirm it. The sediments of the main lake appear more homogeneous with less organic-rich layers. They are characterized by low C/N ratio (10), supporting an important aquatic productivity; high inorganic content (90-95% of the bulk sediment); two peaks in the biological silica profile; and abundant diatoms (50-100 µm). According to the age model, the changes in aquatic productivity occurred between 1700 and 1850 AD. The cores from the Eastern branch of Lago Bertrand are under investigation to confirm the extension of the sedimentological changes observed in the main lake. The main sedimentological change observed in Lago Bertrand occurs during an interval equivalent to a part of the Little Ice Age. A similar biogenic silica-rich layer was also recorded in another relatively distant lake (Lago Thompson at 45°30'S, 72°47

  5. Homogeneous Nuclear Background for Mitochondrial Cline in Northern Range of Notochthamalus scabrosus

    PubMed Central

    Zakas, Christina; Jones, Ken; Wares, John P.

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial cline along the Chilean coast in the barnacle Notochthamalus scabrosus suggests a species history of transient allopatry and secondary contact. However, previous studies of nuclear sequence divergence suggested population genetic homogeneity across northern and central Chile. Here, we collect single-nucleotide polymorphism data from pooled population samples sequenced with restriction site−associated DNA sequencing procedures, confirm these data with the use of a GoldenGate array, and identify a discordance between population genetic patterns in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. This discordance was noted in previous work on this species, but here it is confirmed that the nuclear genome exhibits only slight phylogeographic variation across 3000 km of coastline, in the presence of a strong and statistically significant mitochondrial cline. There are nevertheless markers (approximately 5% of nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms) exhibiting cytonuclear disequilibrium relative to mitotype. Although these data confirm our previous explorations of this species, it is likely that some of the nuclear genomic diversity of this species has yet to be explored, as comparison with other barnacle phylogeography studies suggest that a divergence of similar magnitude should be found in the nuclear genome somewhere else in the species range. PMID:24347623

  6. 33 CFR 167.402 - Off San Francisco: Northern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Northern approach. 167.402 Section 167.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.402 Off San Francisco: Northern...

  7. 33 CFR 167.402 - Off San Francisco: Northern approach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Northern approach. 167.402 Section 167.402 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.402 Off San Francisco: Northern...

  8. The 2011 Chilean Student Movement against Neoliberal Educational Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristián; Cabalin, Cristian; Orellana, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the 2011 Chilean student movement, the most relevant social mobilisation in Chile since the restoration of democracy in 1990. Based on available material and secondary sources, it describes the main features of this student movement, analyses the key components of the students' discourse and its relationship with the…

  9. Association between eating behavior scores and obesity in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Inadequate eating behavior and physical inactivity contribute to the current epidemic of childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to assess the association between eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chilean children. Design and methods We recruited 126 obese, 44 overweight and 124 normal-weight Chilean children (6-12 years-old; both genders) according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Eating behavior scores were calculated using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Factorial analysis in the culturally-adapted questionnaire for Chilean population was used to confirm the original eight-factor structure of CEBQ. The Cronbach's alpha statistic (>0.7 in most subscales) was used to assess internal consistency. Non-parametric methods were used to assess case-control associations. Results Eating behavior scores were strongly associated with childhood obesity in Chilean children. Childhood obesity was directly associated with high scores in the subscales "enjoyment of food" (P < 0.0001), "emotional overeating" (P < 0.001) and "food responsiveness" (P < 0.0001). Food-avoidant subscales "satiety responsiveness" and "slowness in eating" were inversely associated with childhood obesity (P < 0.001). There was a graded relation between the magnitude of these eating behavior scores across groups of normal-weight, overweight and obesity groups. Conclusion Our study shows a strong and graded association between specific eating behavior scores and childhood obesity in Chile. PMID:21985269

  10. Quality of Chilean Early Childhood Education from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villalon, Malva; Suzuki, Emy; Herrera, Maria Olivia; Mathiesen, Maria Elena

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the quality of different types of early childhood care and education programs in Chile according to international standards. Recorded structural and process characteristics observed in the classrooms. Found that Chilean preschool programs showed a minimum level of quality, with a high proportion of centers in the inadequate range.…

  11. Records of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments of four remote Chilean Andean Lakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo, Karla; Urrutia, Roberto; Barra, Ricardo; Mariottini, Michela; Treutler, Hanns-Christian; Araneda, Alberto; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-01-01

    Sediment cores from four Chilean lakes along the Andes Chain (Chungará, Laja, Castor and Venus) were analysed in order to investigate PCB concentrations and distributions in sediment samples. Sediment cores were analysed for PCBs using gas chromatography (GC-ECD/MS) and radioisotopically dated using 210Pb. Organic carbon content (OC) and 210Pb fluxes were also measured. Results showed that sediment PCB concentrations (ngg(-1) d.w.) at Lake Chungará (1.2 +/- 1) in northern Chile, Laja (5 +/- 4) in central, and in Lake Castor (3.5 +/- 4) in southern Chile (the eastern side of the Andes Mountain) were lower than sediments collected from Lake Venus (64 +/- 30) located in southern Chile (the western side) which contained 15-fold higher concentrations of PCBs. The percentage (%) of organic carbon was variable and showed a high range of values in the sediment fluctuating from 2% (Lake Laja) to 22% (Lake Chungará). Analysis of 210Pb fluxes, presented a decrease trend following Lake Laja>Castor>Chungará with a positive correlation with rainfall at each site. Sedimentation rates in Lake Castor (1846 gm(-2)yr(-1)) were higher than at Chungará (748 gm(-2)yr(-1)) and Lake Laja (508 gm(-2)yr(-1)). Focusing factor (FF) is used as a tool to elucidate PCB input in the aquatic ecosystem. FF were lower (<1) for the shallower lakes (Lakes Chungará and Castor). This study provides background levels of PCBs at remote lakes in Chile. Differences in geographical characteristics (orographic effect) might play an important role in the arrival of PCBs, particularly into the southern lakes. PCB fluxes indicated deposition of PCBs in recent sediments is higher than in previous years with peaks of PCB between 1991 and 1998. The continuing increase of PCB inputs in remote Chilean lakes, could be associated with long range atmospheric transport (LRAT). PMID:17049964

  12. Holocene earthquake-triggered turbidites from the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi (Chilean margin) fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Chapron, Emmanuel; Mulsow, Sandor; Salas, Marcos; Debret, Maxime; Foucher, Anthony; Mulder, Thierry; Desmet, Marc; Costa, Pedro; Ghaleb, Bassam; Locat, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    Fjords are unique archives of climatic and environmental changes, but also of natural hazards. They can preserve thick sedimentary sequences deposited under very high sediment accumulation rates, making them ideally suited to record historical and pre-historical sedimentological events such as major landslides, floods or earthquakes. In fact, by carefully characterizing and dating the sediments and by comparing the basin fill seismic stratigraphy and sedimentary records with historical events, it is possible to "calibrate" recent rapidly deposited layers such as turbidites with a trigger mechanism and extend these observations further back in time by using seismic reflection profiles and longer sediment cores. Here, we will compare earthquake-triggered turbidites in fjords from the Southern and Northern Hemispheres: the Saguenay (Eastern Canada) and Reloncavi fjords (southern Chilean margin). In both settings, we will first look at basin fill geometries and at the sedimentological properties of historical events before extending the records further back in time. In both fjords, several turbidites were associated with large magnitude historic and pre-historic earthquakes including the 1663 AD (M>7) earthquake in the Saguenay Fjord, and the 1960 (M 9.5), 1837 (M~8) and 1575 AD major Chilean subduction earthquakes in the Reloncavi Fjord. In addition, a sand layer with sea urchin fragments and the exoscopic characteristics typical of a tsunami deposit was observed immediately above the turbidite associated with the 1575 AD earthquake in the Reloncavi Fjord and supports both the chronology and the large magnitude of that historic earthquake. In both fjords, as well as in other recently recognized earthquake-triggered turbidites, the decimeter-to meter-thick normally-graded turbidites are characterized by a homogeneous, but slightly fining upward tail. Finally, new radiocarbon results will be presented and indicate that at least 19 earthquake-triggered turbidites were

  13. Temporal variation in the diversity and cover of sessile species in rocky intertidal communities affected by copper mine tailings in northern Chile.

    PubMed

    Fariña, J M; Castilla, J C

    2001-07-01

    Several coastal rocky shores in the northern Chile have been affected by the discharges of copper mine tailings. In spite of this, the temporal and spatial variation on the diversity and composition of their intertidal benthic communities has scarcely been studied. The objectives of the present study were to analyse and to compare quantitatively the temporal variation on the diversity, cover and composition of sessile species in rocky intertidal benthic communities of the northern Chilean coast, in relation to the presence of copper mine tailings. The results show that the drastic reduction on the sessile species diversity and the monopolization of the substrate exerted by the green algae Enteromorpha compressa, are common and permanent features of the intertidal rocky shores affected by copper mine tailings. Such spatial (between sites) and temporal (seasonal) variation of these changes has been associated with the relative concentrations of trace metals and inorganic particles of the mining wastes. Our results suggest that the mechanical effects of resuspended and settling tailings are a more likely cause.

  14. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  15. Along-strike Variations of Subduction Parameters at the Chilean Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, A.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.

    2004-12-01

    Newly compiled data of the geometric, kinematic and mechanic properties and their variations along-strike the oblique Chilean subduction margin between 20° S and 46° S are used to weigh their competing influence on forearc deformation. Special emphasis lies on the formation of margin-parallel strike-slip systems. Among the parameters considered are the convergence rate and obliquity, the ocean floor age, the dip of the down-going and the slope of the overriding plate, the geodetic and seismic coupling depth, the interplate seismicity, the depth of the trench-fill and the mass transfer mode at the subduction front. Commonly discussed control factors for forearc deformation can be attributed to three major elements of a subduction system, namely (1) the plate kinematic boundary conditions, (2) the plate coupling properties that govern the effectiveness of force transmission from the subducting plate to the overriding plate, and (3) the upper plate heterogeneities affecting its rheology (e.g. elasticity, shear strength) or resistance to block motion (buttressing). An example is given for each of these elements: (1) Oblique convergence is a pre-requisite for the activation of margin-parallel strike-slip systems, but apparently not a sufficient condition. For example, strike-slip motion can presently be observed along the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone in southern Chile, while neither the Atacama Fault Zone nor the Precordilleran Fault System in northern Chile accommodate significant amounts of margin-parallel slip since the Pliocene. This difference can not be explained by variations of convergence rate or obliquity as the plate kinematic framework is almost constant along the Chilean trench. (2) The plate coupling force is a function of the frictionally coupled area on the plate interface and of the shear friction that needs to be overcome. Along the Chilean margin various factors affect coupling in opposing manner: The slab-dip is shallower in southern Chile compared to

  16. Geographical structuring of Trypanosoma cruzi populations from Chilean Triatoma infestans triatomines and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Venegas, J; Rojas, T; DÍaz, F; Miranda, S; Jercic, M I; González, C; Coñoepán, W; Pichuantes, S; RodrÍguez, J; Gajardo, M; Sánchez, G

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain more information about the population structure of Chilean Trypanosoma cruzi, and their genetic relationship with other Latino American counterparts, we performed the study of T. cruzi samples detected in the midgut content of Triatoma infestans insects from three endemic regions of Chile. The genetic characteristics of these samples were analysed using microsatellite markers and PCR conditions that allow the detection of predominant T. cruzi clones directly in triatomine midgut content. Population genetic analyses using the Fisher’s exact method, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and the determination of FST showed that the northern T. cruzi population sample was genetically differentiated from the two southern population counterparts. Further analysis showed that the cause of this genetic differentiation was the asymmetrical distribution of TcIII T. cruzi predominant clones. Considering all triatomines from the three regions, the most frequent predominant lineages were TcIII (38%), followed by TcI (34%) and hybrid (8%). No TcII lineage was observed along the predominant T. cruzi clones. The best phylogenetic reconstruction using the shared allelic genetic distance was concordant with the population genetic analysis and tree topology previously described studying foreign samples. The correlation studies showed that the lineage TcIII from the III region was genetically differentiated from the other two, and this differentiation was correlated with geographical distance including Chilean and mainly Brazilian samples. It will be interesting to investigate whether this geographical structure may be related with different clinical manifestation of Chagas disease. PMID:22325822

  17. The Chilean health system: 20 years of reforms.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Annick

    2002-01-01

    The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990) aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  18. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  19. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns.

    PubMed

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M

    2015-03-17

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography.

  20. Genetic structure characterization of Chileans reflects historical immigration patterns

    PubMed Central

    Eyheramendy, Susana; Martinez, Felipe I.; Manevy, Federico; Vial, Cecilia; Repetto, Gabriela M.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ancestral components of genomes of admixed individuals helps uncovering the genetic basis of diseases and understanding the demographic history of populations. We estimate local ancestry on 313 Chileans and assess the contribution from three continental populations. The distribution of ancestry block-length suggests an average admixing time around 10 generations ago. Sex-chromosome analyses confirm imbalanced contribution of European men and Native-American women. Previously known genes under selection contain SNPs showing large difference in allele frequencies. Furthermore, we show that assessing ancestry is harder at SNPs with higher recombination rates and easier at SNPs with large difference in allele frequencies at the ancestral populations. Two observations, that African ancestry proportions systematically decrease from North to South, and that European ancestry proportions are highest in central regions, show that the genetic structure of Chileans is under the influence of a diffusion process leading to an ancestry gradient related to geography. PMID:25778948

  1. North Chilean forearc tectonics and cenozoic plate kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddin, Tim S.; Stimpson, Ian G.; Williams, Graham D.

    1993-04-01

    The continental forearc of northern Chile has been subjected to contemporaneous extension and compression. Here, cross-sections constructed across the forearc are presented which show that since initial shortening, deformation of the forearc has occurred in two tectonically distinct areas. These inner and outer forearc areas are separated by the strain discontinuity of the Atacama fault system and the tectonically neutral Central Depression. The outer forearc, the Coastal Cordillera, exhibits extensional tectonics, with large (up to 300 m) normal fault scarps preserved. These faults cut the earlier thrusts responsible for the elevation of Jurassic rocks at the coast above their regional elevation. The normal faults have been re-activated, displacing Quaternary salt deposits in the Salar Grande. This re-activation of the basement faults is probably due to the subduction of anomalously thick oceanic crust, producing an isostatic imbalance in the outer forearc. In the inner forearc, cross-sections through the Sierra del Medio and Cordillera de Domeyko show that structures of the Pre-Cordillera are best explained by a thick-skinned thrust system, with localized thin-skinned tectonics controlled by evaporite detachment horizons. Current forearc deformation features indicate a strong degree of correlation between subduction zone geometry and forearc tectonics. The timing of Cenozoic tectonism also fits well with established plate motion parameters, and the spatial and temporal variation in the state of stress of the forearc shows a close relationship throughout the Cenozoic to the plate kinematics and morphology of the subducting Nazca plate.

  2. [Minimum legal drinking age in the Chilean context].

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Jorge; Heller, Nereida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is harmful to minors. One of the most wide ly accepted measures for the prevention of harm associated with alcohol consumption for young people is to establish a minimum legal drinking age. This document presents the evidence available on this policy, offers a condensed analysis of its characteristics in the United States of America, describes current consumption patterns of Chilean youth, and proposes concrete solutions to be implemented. PMID:26998989

  3. Prevalence of Astrovirus Infection among Chilean Children with Acute Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Gaggero, Aldo; O’Ryan, Miguel; Noel, Jacqueline S.; Glass, Roger I.; Monroe, Stephan S.; Mamani, Nora; Prado, Valeria; Avendaño, Luis F.

    1998-01-01

    The frequency of astrovirus infection in 456 Chilean children with diarrhea was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcriptase PCR, and cell culture. Astrovirus was detected in 16.5% of rotavirus-negative and 7% of rotavirus-positive samples obtained from emergency rooms or hospitals and in 11% of samples from day care centers. HAst-1 was the predominant serotype identified. PMID:9817899

  4. Women and changes in the Chilean economy: some questions.

    PubMed

    Smiaroski, M S

    1996-10-01

    The author argues that a new development model that encourages greater participation of women in the work force in domestic piecework, temporary work, and subcontracting may further lead to the exploitation of women in Chile. The importance of women in economic development in Chile should be based on building skills, providing support child care services, reorienting women's education, and tax incentives. Chile over the past decade has achieved relatively stable economic growth and increased employment of women. During 1990-93 the growth of women in the work force increased at a rate of 16.8%, while men's presence increased by only 9.8%. The Chilean economy is based on a sophisticated modern sector and a labor-intensive informal sector. The Chilean model of development relies on cheap, flexible labor and a government approval of this model. Increased participation of women in the labor force is usually perceived as increased economic empowerment. A 1994 Oxfam study found that women were being forced into the labor market due to declines in family income and low wages. 46% of men and women received wages that did not cover basic necessities. The Chilean labor market is gender-stratified. Men are paid better than women for the same work. Men are in more permanent positions. Labor laws are either inadequate or violated, particularly for hours of work and overtime pay and conditions of employment and benefits. Traditional female jobs are those that rely on women's natural attributes. These unskilled attributes are rewarded with low wages. Little opportunity is provided for upgrading skills or acquiring new skills. Some women turn down advancement because of a lack of role models. Women have little opportunity to develop their self-image as workers. Poor self-images affect women's work attitudes and motivation. Some firms use competition between women to boost production. Chilean women remain in subordinate roles.

  5. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making.

  6. [ANTHROPOMETRIC CHILEAN TABLE TENNIS PLAYERS OF COMPETITIVE FEATURES].

    PubMed

    Yáñez Sepúlveda, Rodrigo; Barraza, Fernando; Rosales Soto, Giovanni; Báez, Eduardo; Tuesta, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the anthropometric profile and somatotype of a sample of 50 players table tennis competitive with an average age 21.6 (± 3.1) years belonging to the Chilean team and institutions of higher education in the region of Valparaiso. The evaluation was conducted under the protocol marking the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK) for the measurement procedure 25 restricted profile variables described by Drinkwater, Norton and Olds. Order to determine the body composition, fat, muscle, bone, skin and tissue residual was considered, using the equations proposed by Kerr. The body shape is characterized through somatotype method proposed by Carter. The sample was divided into 4 groups; Chilean Selection, Traditional Private Universities, State Universities and Private Universities Traditional Nontraditional. Regarding body composition; the Chilean team has the highest values of muscle tissue (45.6 ± 1.7%) and the lowest values of adipose tissue (25.2 ± 1.8%), also presenting lesser value in the Σ 6 skinfolds (mm) . The results showed no significant differences between groups in the aforementioned variables. In general somatotype compared by analyzing SANOVA no significant differences between groups (p = 0.409) was observed. The results show a biotype with such a characterization of endo-mesomorph with average values (4,1-4,9-1,8). This study provides updated data biotypological reference for this sport that can be used for decision-making. PMID:26545537

  7. Transient uplift since the 1960 Chilean earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishikura, M.; Youlton, C.; Sawai, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Postseismic uplift midway along the 1960 Chile rupture appears to be slowing down. We studied the uplift near Puerto Montt, 70 km east of the Pacific coast. Puerto Montt is located on the boundary between the 1960 earthquake's coseismic and a coseismic and/or postseismic upwarp farther inland. This deformation was mapped by George Plafker in 1968, and the postseismic uplift was checked by him and others in 1989. The postseismic uplift has been attributed to afterslip on the plate interface, stress relaxation in the forearc mantle, or both. We obtained further information about shoreline change before and after the earthquake from the Pacific coast to 120 km eastward inland, about midway along the length of the 1960 rupture. Following in Plafker's footsteps, we used several criteria for distinguishing between coseismic and postseismic movement. We asked eyewitnesses whether sea level changed at the time of the earthquake, and whether it has changed in the decades since. We also looked for emerged landforms and for environmental changes in vegetation. Where reliable testimony or natural features provided exact reference points, we measured differences in height by means of total station. Twenty-seven places yielded numerical estimates of land-level changes since 1960. The largest total amount of displacement during past 44 years was estimated to be 2.1 m in Chamiza, 10 km east from Puerto Montt. According to the interviews, most of the uplift occurred during or in the first month the earthquake. The total amount of uplift tends to decrease eastward from Chamiza. The easternmost point (60 km east from Puerto Montt) did not rise or fall during the 1960 earthquake, but gradually rose nearly 1 m in the first 40 years thereafter. The postseismic uplift has probably been canceled by subsidence later in earthquake deformation cycles. The Puerto Montt tide gauge record shows little or no uplift in the 1990s. Similarly, some eyewitnesses in and near Chamiza say that in the

  8. Associations between sociocultural pressures to be thin, body distress, and eating disorder symptomatology among Chilean adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Ferrer-García, Marta; Toro, José; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Peñaloza, Claudia; Cuadros-Sosa, Yasna; Gálvez-Madrid, Ma José

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between perceived sociocultural pressure to fulfill the thin beauty ideal, body distress, and the presence of eating disorder symptoms. Participants were 437 Chilean adolescent girls from Arica, northern Chile, aged 13-18. Results showed significant associations between perceived pressure from social agents to be thin and the presence of disrupted eating attitudes and behavior. The perceived influence of advertising, verbal messages and social situations related to eating and dieting emerged as the strongest predictors of eating disorders symptoms. Influence of advertising was also the strongest predictor of body image distress. Age differences emerged in perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin, with older participants reporting higher sociocultural pressure to fulfill the slender beauty ideal. This paper provides information about body distress and associated disturbances, a phenomenon which has seldom been studied in non-Western countries, but which has important health implications.

  9. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    PubMed

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  10. Latitudinal environmental niches and riverine barriers shaped the phylogeography of the Central Chilean endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae).

    PubMed

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary.

  11. Latitudinal environmental niches and riverine barriers shaped the phylogeography of the Central Chilean endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae).

    PubMed

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:25295517

  12. Latitudinal Environmental Niches and Riverine Barriers Shaped the Phylogeography of the Central Chilean Endemic Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Viruel, Juan; Catalán, Pilar; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Pleistocene glaciations and geographical barriers on the phylogeographic patterns of lowland plant species in Mediterranean-climate areas of Central Chile are poorly understood. We used Dioscorea humilis (Dioscoreaceae), a dioecious geophyte extending 530 km from the Valparaíso to the Bío-Bío Regions, as a case study to disentangle the spatio-temporal evolution of populations in conjunction with latitudinal environmental changes since the Last Inter-Glacial (LIG) to the present. We used nuclear microsatellite loci, chloroplast (cpDNA) sequences and environmental niche modelling (ENM) to construct current and past scenarios from bioclimatic and geographical variables and to infer the evolutionary history of the taxa. We found strong genetic differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci between the two subspecies of D. humilis, probably predating the LIG. Bayesian analyses of population structure revealed strong genetic differentiation of the widespread D. humilis subsp. humilis into northern and southern population groups, separated by the Maipo river. ENM revealed that the ecological niche differentiation of both groups have been maintained up to present times although their respective geographical distributions apparently fluctuated in concert with the climatic oscillations of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the Holocene. Genetic data revealed signatures of eastern and western postglacial expansion of the northern populations from the central Chilean depression, whereas the southern ones experienced a rapid southward expansion after the LGM. This study describes the complex evolutionary histories of lowland Mediterranean Chilean plants mediated by the summed effects of spatial isolation caused by riverine geographical barriers and the climatic changes of the Quaternary. PMID:25295517

  13. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales.

    PubMed

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-04-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  14. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales.

    PubMed

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-04-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  15. High genetic diversity in a small population: the case of Chilean blue whales

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Florez, Juan P; Hucke-Gaete, Rodrigo; Rosenbaum, Howard; Figueroa, Christian C

    2014-01-01

    It is generally assumed that species with low population sizes have lower genetic diversities than larger populations and vice versa. However, this would not be the case for long-lived species with long generation times, and which populations have declined due to anthropogenic effects, such as the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus). This species was intensively decimated globally to near extinction during the 20th century. Along the Chilean coast, it is estimated that at least 4288 blue whales were hunted from an apparently pre-exploitation population size (k) of a maximum of 6200 individuals (Southeastern Pacific). Thus, here, we describe the mtDNA (control region) and nDNA (microsatellites) diversities of the Chilean blue whale aggregation site in order to verify the expectation of low genetic diversity in small populations. We then compare our findings with other blue whale aggregations in the Southern Hemisphere. Interestingly, although the estimated population size is small compared with the pre-whaling era, there is still considerable genetic diversity, even after the population crash, both in mitochondrial (N = 46) and nuclear (N = 52) markers (Hd = 0.890 and Ho = 0.692, respectively). Our results suggest that this diversity could be a consequence of the long generation times and the relatively short period of time elapsed since the end of whaling, which has been observed in other heavily-exploited whale populations. The genetic variability of blue whales on their southern Chile feeding grounds was similar to that found in other Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. Our phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA haplotypes does not show extensive differentiation of populations among Southern Hemisphere blue whale feeding grounds. The present study suggests that although levels of genetic diversity are frequently used as estimators of population health, these parameters depend on the biology of the species and should be taken into account in a

  16. Chilean Student Movements: Sustained Struggle to Transform a Market-Oriented Educational System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellei, Cristian; Cabalin, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, Chilean society was shaken by sharply critical and powerful student movements: secondary students led the 2006 "Penguin Revolution" and university students led the 2011 "Chilean Winter." This article describes and analyzes these student movements to illustrate how students can be highly relevant…

  17. Chilean Family Reminiscing about Emotions and Its Relation to Children's Self-Regulation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Nolivos, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: This study examined the relation between Chilean parents' narrative participatory styles (i.e., the way in which parents scaffold children's participation in conversations) and children's self-regulation skills. A total of 210 low-income Chilean parent-child dyads participated in the study. Dyads were videotaped talking about a…

  18. Chilean Analog for 17th-Century Uplift Along the Southern Kuril Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwater, B. F.; Ikeda, Y.; Satake, K.

    2002-12-01

    What caused a meter or so of widespread uplift in eastern Hokkaido in the last decades of the 17th century A.D.? Coasts along the Kamchatka, Kuril, and Japan Trenches lack documented modern analogs for uplift this large and geologically fast. But a meter of uplift, in 1960-1990, raised shorelines inland from the seismic rupture plane of the 1960 Chile earthquake. By this Chilean analogy, Hokkaido's 17th-century uplift may have occurred aseismically-during minutes of precursory slip and also during decades of postseismic creep, all downdip from the seismic rupture surface. Hokkaido's area of 17th-century uplift extends at least 50 km along the southern Kuril Trench. It includes the estuaries Akkeshi-ko and Hichirippu, on the Pacific coast, and Furen-ko and Onneto, on the Okhotsk Sea. At each estuary, intertidal and subtidal flats rose with respect to tide level; wetland plants colonized the emerging land; and peaty wetland deposits thereby covered mud and sand of the former flats. Such evidence for uplift was first reported by Sawai and coworkers, who identified at least three uplift events from the past 2500 years at Akkeshi-ko [Quat. Res. 56, 231-241, 2001]. The youngest of the uplift events probably began in the 1660s or 1670s, as dated by tephra layers. The uplift probably exceeded 1/2 m (inferred from paleoecology) without far exceeding 1 m (estimated by comparing early descriptions of Akkeshi-ko). Though this evidence permits the Hokkaido uplift to have been coseismic or aseismic or both, depths to the subducting Pacific plate probably preclude seismic rupture of the plate boundary directly beneath the uplifted area. These depths exceed 50 km and also exceed depths of seismic coupling inferred from continuous GPS [Mazzotti et al., JGR 105, 13159-13177, 2000; Ito et al., EPSL 176, 117-130, 2000]. When Hokkaido's plate boundary ruptured in earthquakes of Mw 8.1 (in 1952) and 7.8 (1973), the ruptures occurred offshore at depths less than 50 km, and the adjoining

  19. Historical dimensions of population structure in a continuously distributed marine species: The case of the endemic Chilean dolphin

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Alvarez, M. J.; Olavarría, C.; Moraga, R.; Baker, C. S.; Hamner, R. M.; Poulin, E.

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity of historical and contemporary processes contributes to understanding the genetic structure of continuously distributed marine species with high dispersal capabilities. Cephalorhynchus eutropia, has a continuous coastal distribution with strong genetic differentiation identified by nuclear DNA markers. We explored the historical dimension of this genetic differentiation between northern and southern populations to evaluate phylogeographic structure. Additionally, we conducted mtDNA and microsatellite analyses to detect past and recent demographic changes. The southern population was characterized by lower genetic diversity with a signal of population expansion, likely associated with ice retreat and habitat extension after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In contrast, structure within the northern population was more consistent with stable historical population size. Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses suggested that during the LGM, C. eutropia persisted in the northern area; while the south was colonized by dispersal ~11,000 years ago followed by population expansion. This study shows that Chilean dolphin population structure is consistent with predictions from the Expansion-Contraction biogeographic model, with a poleward post-glacial shift revealed in current genetic structure. The results also confirm the validity of the population units previously identified, demonstrating their historical origin and highlighting the utility of integrating genetic markers with different temporal scale resolutions. PMID:27759113

  20. Hazardous waste management in Chilean main industry: an overview.

    PubMed

    Navia, Rodrigo; Bezama, Alberto

    2008-10-01

    The new "Hazardous Waste Management Regulation" was published in the Official Newspaper of the Chilean Republic on 12 June 2003, being in force 365 days after its publication (i.e., 12 June 2004). During the next 180 days after its publication (i.e., until 12 December 2004), each industrial facility was obligated to present a "Hazardous Waste Management Plan" if the facility generates more than 12 ton/year hazardous wastes or more than 12 kg/year acute toxic wastes. Based on the Chilean industrial figures and this new regulation, hazardous waste management plans were carried out in three facilities of the most important sectors of Chilean industrial activity: a paper production plant, a Zn and Pb mine and a sawmill and wood remanufacturing facility. Hazardous wastes were identified, classified and quantified in all facilities. Used oil and oil-contaminated materials were determined to be the most important hazardous wastes generated. Minimization measures were implemented and re-use and recycling options were analyzed. The use of used oil as alternative fuel in high energy demanding facilities (i.e., cement facilities) and the re-refining of the used oil were found to be the most suitable options. In the Zn and Pb mine facility, the most important measure was the beginning of the study for using spent oils as raw material for the production of the explosives used for metals recovery from the rock. In Chile, there are three facilities producing alternative fuels from used oil, while two plants are nowadays re-refining oil to recycle it as hydraulic fluid in industry. In this sense, a proper and sustainable management of the used oil appears to be promissory. PMID:18337002

  1. Predictors of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villlegas, Natalia; De Oliveira, Giovanna; Hires, Kimberly; Gattamorta, Karina; Ferrer, Lilian; Peragallo, Nilda

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To investigate if socio-demographic factors, religiosity, HIV-related knowledge, Marianismo, history of having been tested for HIV, knowing someone who died of AIDS and HIV risk perception were predictive factors to HIV enacted stigma predictors among Chilean women. Background HIV infection is the number one cause of death among women during their reproductive years. In Chile, studies with people living with HIV demonstrate the existence of HIV-related stigma. However, limited evidence is available about the underlying causes of HIV enacted stigma that results in stigmatisation and discrimination. Design The current cross-sectional study is a secondary analysis of data collected to assess the impact of an HIV prevention intervention (Mano a Mano-Mujer) designed for Chilean women. A quasi-experimental design was used in the original study. Methods This study was conducted in two communities in Santiago, Chile. The sample for this study consisted of 496 Chileans between ages 18–49. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used for the analysis. Results Participants in the study reported high levels (77·8%) of HIV enacted stigma. Higher levels of HIV-related knowledge were associated with lower levels of HIV enacted stigma. Women with higher education had lower levels of HIV enacted stigma than women with elementary education. In addition, greater levels of marianismo (cultural belief that women should be passive, faithful, and devoted to family) were associated with higher HIV enacted stigma scores. Conclusions The findings reflected the presence of HIV enacted stigma among Chilean women. Identifying the significant predictors of HIV enacted stigma can help the nursing community to design HIV prevention interventions that include the reduction in HIV enacted stigma. HIV evidence-based prevention interventions should incorporate contents related to stigma to contribute to prevent HIV enacted stigma at individual and community levels

  2. Self-selection and moral hazard in Chilean health insurance.

    PubMed

    Sapelli, Claudio; Vial, Bernardita

    2003-05-01

    We study the existence of self-selection and moral hazard in the Chilean health insurance industry. Dependent workers must purchase health insurance either from one public or several private insurance providers. For them, we analyze the relationship between health care services utilization and the choice of either private or public insurance. In the case of independent workers, where there is no mandate, we analyze the relationship between utilization and the decision to voluntarily purchase health insurance. The results show self-selection against insurance companies for independent workers, and against public insurance for dependent workers. Moral hazard is negligible in the case of hospitalization, but for medical visits, it is quantitatively important.

  3. Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of undiscovered oil and gas, Cotton Valley group and Travis Peak-Hosston formations, East Texas basin and Louisiana-Mississippi salt basins provinces of the northern Gulf Coast region. Chapters 1-7.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Oil and Gas Assessment is to develop geologically based hypotheses regarding the potential for additions to oil and gas reserves in priority areas of the United States. The USGS recently completed an assessment of undiscovered oil and gas potential of the Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations in the East Texas Basin and Louisiana-Mississippi Salt Basins Provinces in the Gulf Coast Region (USGS Provinces 5048 and 5049). The Cotton Valley Group and Travis Peak and Hosston Formations are important because of their potential for natural gas resources. This assessment is based on geologic principles and uses the total petroleum system concept. The geologic elements of a total petroleum system include hydrocarbon source rocks (source rock maturation, hydrocarbon generation and migration), reservoir rocks (sequence stratigraphy and petrophysical properties), and hydrocarbon traps (trap formation and timing). The USGS used this geologic framework to define one total petroleum system and eight assessment units. Seven assessment units were quantitatively assessed for undiscovered oil and gas resources.

  4. INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME ROOM, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  5. INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR TV/GAME, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Oregon Inlet Coast Guard Station, Northern end of Pea Island, East side of State Road 1257, 0.3 mile North of North Carolina Highway 12, Rodanthe, Dare County, NC

  6. Antimicrobial activity of submerged cultures of Chilean basidiomycetes.

    PubMed

    Aqueveque, Pedro; Anke, Timm; Saéz, Katia; Silva, Mario; Becerra, José

    2010-10-01

    This study is part of a screening program aimed at searching for bioactive metabolites from Chilean basidiomycetes. Submerged cultivation of fungal mycelia in liquid media was evaluated for antimicrobial activity. A total of 148 strains were obtained in vitro. The extracts produced from submerged cultures were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. In the primary antimicrobial assay, approximately 60% of the extracts presented positive biological activity. The highest frequencies of active strains were from the orders Agaricales (31.0%), Polyporales (20.6%), Sterales (18.3%), Boletales (11.4%), and Cortinariales (9.1%). Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Twelve extracts that exhibited strong antimicrobial activity showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 50 µL/mL against Bacillus brevis and 25∼50 µL/mL against Penicillium notatum and Paecilomyces variotii. The biological activity of some strains did not vary considerably, regardless of the substrate or collection site whereas, for others, it showed marked variations. Differences in antimicrobial activities observed in the different fungal genera suggested that the ability to produce bioactive compounds is not homogenously distributed among basidiomycetes. The information obtained from this study reveals that Chilean basidiomycetes are able to generate small and/or large variations in the normal pathway of compounds production. Thus, it is necessary to evaluate this biological and chemical wealth, which could be an unsuspected reservoir of new and potentially useful molecules.

  7. Positive discrimination in education: Its justification and a Chilean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Eduardo S.

    1994-05-01

    Educational policies in Latin America have centred on two main issues: raising the quality of education, and improving the equity of its distribution. Access to schooling was until recently at the heart of the debate, the degree of justice of the educational systems being measured by their capacity to enrol and retain the population. Attention is now concentrated on the strength of the cultural resources offered by schools and the effectiveness of provision. Learning is the priority of education policy. This article develops the theme of equity, examining the concept and describing a programme which focuses on improving the equity of the Chilean educational system. It is suggested that educational equity should no longer mean equality of access but equality of results. A just system therefore needs to concentrate on raising the quality of schools serving the poorest sectors of society. The Chilean "900 Schools Programme" is an example. Its aim was to raise levels of achievement by improving the learning of poor children from 1st to 4th grade in reading, writing and mathematics. To do so, it improved the school environment, textbooks and methodologies, and offered support to children outside school hours by the work of community monitors.

  8. Grandparenting and psychosocial health among older Chileans: A longitudinal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Emily M.; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D.; Elbourne, Diana; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate factors associated with Chilean grandparents’ provision of help to grandchildren and associations between provision of such help and grandparents’ mental well-being two years later. Methods: Data are drawn from a representative sample of 2000 people aged 66–68 resident in low- or middle-income areas of Santiago who were surveyed in 2005 and re-interviewed two years later. Multivariable analyses were used to investigate factors associated with provision of help to grandchildren at baseline and associations between providing such help and life satisfaction, SF36-Mental Component Summary scores, and depression two years later. Results: 41% of grandparents lived with one or more grandchildren and over half provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren. Models controlling for baseline mental health, grandchild characteristics, marital and household characteristics, socio-economic status and functional health showed that grandfathers who provided four or more hours per week of help to grandchildren had better life satisfaction two years later and that those providing material help had higher SF36 MCS scores at follow-up. Grandmothers providing four or more hours of help a week had lower risks of depression. Conclusion: Older Chileans make important contributions to their families through the provision of help to grandchildren and these appear to have some benefits for their own psychosocial health. Gender differences in the pattern of associations may reflect differences in overall family responsibilities and merit further investigation. PMID:22690765

  9. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  10. Seismic Moment and Slip Distribution of the 1960 and 2010 Chilean Earthquakes as Inferred from Tsunami Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.; Fujii, Y.

    2010-12-01

    The 27 February 2010 Chilean earthquake generated tsunami and caused significant damage on the Chilean coast. The tsunami was recorded at many tide gauge stations around the Pacific Ocean, as well as bottom ocean bottom pressure gauges of DART system. We inverted tsunami waveform data, recorded at 11 tide gauges in Chile and Peru and 4 nearby DART stations, to estimate the slip distribution on the fault. When we assume 36 subfaults (12 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 50 km × 50 km), very large slip is located at the most downdip subfaults beneath coast and land. Tsunami waveforms recorded other DART stations also require such deep slips. However, other geodetic and seismic data do not show such deep slips, and tsunami data have limited resolution for such a deep onshore slip. We therefore used coastal uplift and subsidence data at 36 locations reported by Farias et al. (2010). The joint inversion indicates two asperities, one to the north around Constitucion and the other to the south around Arauco peninsula. While the largest slip is still located beneath the coast, the offshore slips generally become larger than the tsunami inversion. The total seismic moment is about 1.8 × 1022 Nm (Mw 8.8), similar to the value estimated from tsunami waveforms only, and the fault length is 450 km. For the 22 May 1960 Chilean earthquake, we first made an inversion of tsunami data, recorded at 12 tide gauge stations mostly in South America. When we assume 27 subfaults (9 along strike by 3 downdip, size of each subfault is 100 km × 50 km), the total seismic moment is 4.6 × 1022 Nm (Mw 9.0). Again, the largest slip is estimated at the deepest subfault beneath land near the epicenter, which would produce large coastal uplift where the coastal subsidence was reported by Plafker and Savage (1970). Poor station coverage of tide gauges may limit the resolution of slip distribution particularly at the southern part of the source area. We therefore made a joint

  11. Language Change, Contact, and Koineization in Pacific Coast Athabaskan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Coast Athabaskan (PCA) languages are part of the Athabaskan language family, one of the most geographically widespread in North America. Over a millennium ago Athabaskan-speaking groups migrated into northwestern California and southwestern Oregon from a northern point of origin several hundred miles away, but even after several…

  12. 75 FR 35652 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display...

  13. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce safety zone for the annual July 4th Fireworks Display (Tahoe City 4th of...

  14. 75 FR 35649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, July 4th Fireworks Display AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Tahoe City 4th of July Fireworks Display safety zone, from 9 a.m. through 10...

  15. 76 FR 37646 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, City of Sausalito, Sausalito, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement of regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the Fourth of July Fireworks, City...

  16. 78 FR 77385 - Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 and 165 RIN 1625-AA08; AA00 Special Local Regulations and Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Northern New England AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update special local regulations and permanent safety...

  17. "How and when Chilean Pharmacology started to be experimental and became a science".

    PubMed

    Bustos, Gonzalo; Renard, Georgina M; Noriega, Viviana; Sotomayor-Zárate, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacology in Chile has about 75 years of history and from its beginning until today has grown exponentially. Today, pharmacology is taught in the biomedical careers of the main Chilean universities and research centers in pharmacology are in the north, central and south of Chile. This editorial offers an overview of the main milestones that have led to the consolidation of Chilean pharmacology in Latin America and the world.

  18. Tectonics of the Argentine and Chilean Andes: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folguera, Andrés; Alvarado, Patricia; Arriagada, César; Ramos, Victor A.

    2015-12-01

    This Special Issue gathers a series of contributions derived from presentations at the 19° Congreso Geológico Argentino held in Córdoba in 2-6 June 2014. Specific subjects cover a wide variety of topics and regions of the Argentine and Chilean Andes, varying from sedimentological analyses and U/Pb dating of detrital zircons in different rocks to determine source areas for different times and regions along the southern Andes; satellite gravity data for monitoring earthquakes at the subduction zone to understand their complex rupture structure; fission track data from the Andes to the foreland region; use of seismic tomographies and conventional seismic reflection data for analyzing crustal structure; to paleomagnetic data and structural and morphological analyses (Fig. 1).

  19. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism.

  20. [Sodium and potassium content of various Chilean foods].

    PubMed

    Alvarez de Araya, C; Farah, M; Zuccarelli, M T; Masson, L

    1981-03-01

    Sodium and potassium contents of 40 high-protein dietary products were determined in order to complete the Table de Composición Química se Alimentos Chilenos (Chemical Composition Table of Chilean Foods). These cations' level must be strictly controlled in diets of many renal and heart patients. In Chile, Nutritionists who are in charge of preparing these diets, do not have a national composition table related to the sodium and potassium content for most of the food products. Samples of fluid cow's milk, dried milk with different fat contents, some cheeses, hen eggs, bovine entrails, some meat derivates and several meat cuts, including bovine, pork, lamb and chicken were studied.

  1. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  2. IATROGENIC MICROCHIP ARTERIAL EMBOLISM IN A CHILEAN FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS CHILENSIS).

    PubMed

    Olds, June E; Ewing, Jacob; Arruda, Paulo; Kuyper, Jennifer; Riedesel, Elizabeth; Miles, Kristina M

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant microchip migration has been reported in domestic animal species, but in most cases, this migration is atraumatic to the patient. Reports of microchip-associated trauma and sarcoma development also have been reported in a variety of mammal species. This report describes accidental arterial microchip insertion causing obstruction of the iliac artery in a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis). Diagnostic imaging included digital radiography and pre- and post-contrast computed tomography to determine the location of the microchip. Surgical removal of the microchip was attempted; however, the flamingo died intraoperatively. Postmortem evaluation found trauma to the epicardium, without penetration of the ventricle. The descending aorta was found traumatized and identified as the most likely insertion point leading to the embolism. PMID:27468052

  3. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  4. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  5. Yuki Grammar in Its Areal Context with Sketches of Huchnom and Coast Yuki

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balodis, Uldis Ivars Janis

    2011-01-01

    Yuki and the other Northern Yukian languages, Huchnom and Coast Yuki, were spoken until recently in Mendocino County in Northern California. This dissertation is a grammar of Yuki based primarily on spoken narratives recorded in the first decade of the twentieth century, so it provides a description of the Yuki language as it was spoken at that…

  6. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  7. Twilight vertical migrations of zooplankton in a Chilean fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Castro, Leonardo; Cáceres, Mario; Pizarro, Oscar

    2014-12-01

    Time series of acoustic backscatter and vertical velocity profiles were obtained at three sites along a Chilean fjord with the purpose of determining dominant structures of vertical migrations of the sound scattering layer. Ancillary data obtained with stratified net samples indicated that the sound scattering layer may have been dominated by euphausiids and decapods. Therefore, distributions of acoustic backscatter anomalies and vertical velocities were attributed to vertical migrations of predominantly these organisms. Migration patterns were dominated by twilight excursions in which organisms swam toward the water surface at sunset, spent <0.5 h at a depth near the pycnocline (∼10 m) and then swam downward to depths between ∼20 and ∼60 m. After congregating at those depths during night-time, organisms swam upward again toward the pycnocline at sunrise, spent <1 h near the pycnocline and swam downward to their day-time depths (>100 m). This migration strategy can also be termed 'semidiel migration' as two double excursions were linked to light levels. The reasons for this twilight migration remain uncertain. But it is possible that the up and down motion around sunset was related to predation avoidance, hunger-satiation state, ontogeny, seaward transport evasion, or reaction to the environmental shock from the pycnocline, or a combination of all or some of them. In contrast, the sunrise double excursion was probably linked to feeding requirements by organisms that need to spend the day at great depth with no food available. This study demonstrated the existence of semidiel patterns throughout the fjord and through prolonged periods. In addition, identification of this pattern by acoustic backscatter was complemented by direct vertical velocity measurements. It is proposed that twilight vertical migration is a common strategy in Chilean fjords.

  8. The Vallenar Discontinuity and the Maipo Orocline: Regional significance of clockwise vertical-axis rotations in the central Chilean Andes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.; Mpodozis, C.; Charrier, R.; Yanez, G.; Farias, M.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most prominent tectonic features of the Andes is the Central Andean Rotation Pattern (CARP), which is closely related to the Bolivian Orocline and characterized by paleomagnetically determined clockwise rotations in northern Chile and counterclockwise rotations in southern Peru (Arriagada et al., 2008). Along the Chilean margin, between 29°S and 38°S, three prominent curvatures are observed. The Vallenar Discontinuity near ˜29°S corresponds to the southern limit of the Bolivian Orocline. North of 29°S the major structural elements (Paleozoic basement highs and thrusts) are NNE oriented while from 29°S down to 32°S the structures are mainly NS. The central Chilean margin presents also significant bends near Santiago (˜33°S, Maipo Orocline) and in the Arauco region (˜38°S). Near Santiago, the Maipo bend coincides with the subduction of the Juan Fernandez Ridge (JFR). During the last five years we have undertaken new paleomagnetic and structural studies along the forearc of northern and central Chile in order to understand the origin of the bends in the Chilean margin and the consequence of its indentation by the JFR. Clockwise rotations are, consistently large (30°S- 45°) north of the Vallenar discontinuity, but south of the Vallenar discontinuity, the segment between 29°S to 32°S was not subjected to significant clockwise rotation. South of ˜33°S, significant clockwise deflections up to 39° of the declinations are again observed. Rotations occur both in Mesozoic rocks of the Coastal Cordillera and Tertiary rocks of the Main Cordillera. Whereas most of the CARP rotations, involving bending of the Bolivian Orocline and clockwise rotations north of the Vallenar Discontinuity, occurred essentially during the Paleogene, the paleomagnetic rotations obtained in Tertiary formations of central Chile constrain the maximum possible age for the occurrence of rotations of the Maipo Orocline to the Miocene. Neogene shortening in the foreland belt

  9. POSSIBLE TSUNAMI ALONG THE NORTHWESTERN COAST OF THE UNITED STATES INFERRED FROM INDIAN TRADITIONS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heaton, Thomas H.; Snavely, Parke D.

    1985-01-01

    There is no direct geologic or historical evidence presently available to confirm that great shallow subduction earthquakes have occurred along the coast of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. However, there are reports describing Indian legends of great sea-level disturbances that may be related to large nearby earthquakes. In this letter, we briefly review the history of exploration and settlement of this region by nonnative people and then discuss legends from Indians in northern Washington and northern California. Refs.

  10. Coast Guard Firefighting Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. Coast Guard are jointly developing a lightweight, helicopter-transportable, completely self-contained firefighting module for combating shipboard and dockside fires. The project draws upon NASA technology in high-capacity rocket engine pumps, lightweight materials and compact packaging.

  11. Report on the 2010 Chilean earthquake and tsunami response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    In July 2010, in an effort to reduce future catastrophic natural disaster losses for California, the American Red Cross coordinated and sent a delegation of 20 multidisciplinary experts on earthquake response and recovery to Chile. The primary goal was to understand how the Chilean society and relevant organizations responded to the magnitude 8.8 Maule earthquake that struck the region on February 27, 2010, as well as how an application of these lessons could better prepare California communities, response partners and state emergency partners for a comparable situation. Similarities in building codes, socioeconomic conditions, and broad extent of the strong shaking make the Chilean earthquake a very close analog to the impact of future great earthquakes on California. To withstand and recover from natural and human-caused disasters, it is essential for citizens and communities to work together to anticipate threats, limit effects, and rapidly restore functionality after a crisis. The delegation was hosted by the Chilean Red Cross and received extensive briefings from both national and local Red Cross officials. During nine days in Chile, the delegation also met with officials at the national, regional, and local government levels. Technical briefings were received from the President’s Emergency Committee, emergency managers from ONEMI (comparable to FEMA), structural engineers, a seismologist, hospital administrators, firefighters, and the United Nations team in Chile. Cities visited include Santiago, Talca, Constitución, Concepción, Talcahuano, Tumbes, and Cauquenes. The American Red Cross Multidisciplinary Team consisted of subject matter experts, who carried out special investigations in five Teams on the (1) science and engineering findings, (2) medical services, (3) emergency services, (4) volunteer management, and (5) executive and management issues (see appendix A for a full list of participants and their titles and teams). While developing this

  12. Analysis of Tsunamigenic Coastal Rock Slope Failures Triggered by the 2007 Earthquake in the Chilean Fjordland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepulveda, S. A.; Serey, A.; Hermanns, R. L.; Redfield, T. F.; Oppikofer, T.; Duhart, P.

    2011-12-01

    The fjordland of the Chilean Patagonia is subject to active tectonics, with large magnitude subduction earthquakes, such as the M 9.5 1960 earthquake, and shallow crustal earthquakes along the regional Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault Zone (LOFZ). One of the latter (M 6.2) struck the Aysen Fjord region (45.5 S) on the 21st of April 2007, triggering dozens of landslides in the epicentral area along the fjord coast and surroundings. The largest rock slides and rock avalanches induced a local tsunami that together with debris flows caused ten fatalities and severely damaged several salmon farms, the most important economic activity of the area. Multi-scale studies of the landslides triggered during the Aysen earthquake have been carried out, including landslide mapping and classification, slope stability back-analyses and structural and geomorphological mapping of the largest failures from field surveys and high-resolution digital surface models created from terrestrial laser scanning. The failures included rock slides, rock avalanches, rock-soil slides, soil slides and debris flows. The largest rock avalanche had a volume of over 20 million cubic metres. The landslides affected steep slopes of intrusive rocks of the North Patagonian batholith covered by a thin layer of volcanic soils, which supports a high forest. The results of geotechnical analyses suggest a site effect due to topographic amplification on the generation of the landslides, with peak ground accelerations that may have reached between about 1.0 and 2.0 g for rock avalanches and between 0.6 and 1.0 g for shallow rock-soil slides, depending on the amount of assumed vertical acceleration and the applied method (limit equilibrium and Newmark). Attenuation relationships for shallow crustal seismicity indicate accelerations below 0.5 g for earthquakes of a similar magnitude and epicentral distances. Detailed field structural analyses of the largest rock avalanche in Punta Cola indicate a key role in the failure

  13. Historical Tsunami Deposits on the Sanriku Coast, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, T.; Satake, K.; Sugai, T.; Ishibe, T.; Harada, T.; Murotani, S.

    2013-12-01

    . According to Japanese historical documents, candidates of tsunamis are from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, the 1933 and 1896 Sanriku earthquakes, the 1793 Miyagi-oki earthquake, the 1763 Aomori-oki earthquake, the 1677 Boso-oki earthquake, and the 1611 Sanriku earthquake. Some trans-Pacific tsunamis such as the 1700 Cascadia and 1960 Chilean tsunamis also caused severe damage along the Sanriku coast and these tsunami deposits may be also preserved.

  14. [Risk factors for gallbladder cancer in Chilean females].

    PubMed

    Endoh, K; Nakadaira, H; Yamazaki, O; Yamamoto, M; Tajima, K; Serra, I; Calvo, A; Baez, S

    1997-02-01

    A case-control study of gallbladder cancer was conducted with 90 Chilean cases registered at one hospital in Santiago city, Chile from January, 1992 to August, 1994. Controls were selected among outpatients of the hospital who received abdominal echography. Each case was assigned 2 age- and sex-matched controls; either with or without gallstone(s). Study subjects were all directly interviewed by well-trained medical students. The present study focused on 74 female pairs and the following findings were obtained: 1) Odds Ratio(OR)s were significantly high for education years less than or equal to 6, body mass index greater than or equal to 24.0, constipation, and consumption of egg, fried meals, green and red chili. Chili pepper consumption of both types in cases showed significantly elevated risks with higher frequency. 2) While high ORs were observed, biliary symptoms such as dyspepsia and past history of cholelithiasis were strongly involved with present gallstone(s) and may not be independent factors for gallbladder cancer. 3) Significantly low ORs were seen for past history of intestinal parasitosis and surgical operation, hormone therapy, all industrial workers and workers in clothes & textile industry. However results may be influenced by more years of education or recall bias. 4) When a conditional logistic model was applied and controls with gallstone(s) were taken as reference, those with the habit of constipation showed a significantly high risk of 2.10 (95% CI: 1.01-4.38), and the consumers of red chili with a frequency > or = 1 time/day had elevated risks of 2.16 (1.27-3.66) vs those < 1 time/day and 4.66 (1.63-13.40) vs non-consumers, respectively. From the above results, the occurrence of gallbladder cancer in Chilean females may be related to constipation and chili pepper consumption, based on the presence of gallstone(s). Further investigations are needed to elucidate whether these are actual risk factors or whether only a false association was

  15. Maine coast winds

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, Richard

    2000-01-28

    The Maine Coast Winds Project was proposed for four possible turbine locations. Significant progress has been made at the prime location, with a lease-power purchase contract for ten years for the installation of turbine equipment having been obtained. Most of the site planning and permitting have been completed. It is expect that the turbine will be installed in early May. The other three locations are less suitable for the project, and new locations are being considered.

  16. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-09

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders.

  17. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  18. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies. PMID:10390867

  20. Microcystin in cyanobacterial blooms in a Chilean lake.

    PubMed

    Campos, V; Cantarero, S; Urrutia, H; Heinze, R; Wirsing, B; Neumann, U; Weckesser, J

    1999-05-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms dominated by Microcystis sp. occurred in lake Rocuant ("marisma", near Concepción/Chile) in February 1995 and 1996. In the bloom samples collected in both years the hepatotoxin microcystin was detected by RP-HPLC in both samples and in the sample of 1995 also by a toxicity assay using primary rat hepatocytes. In the bloom of 1995, the microcystin content of the dry bloom biomass was determined to be 130 micrograms/g on the basis of the RP-HPLC peak area and 800 micrograms/g on the basis of the rat hepatotoxicity assay, respectively. In the bloom of 1996, RP-HPLC analysis revealed a microcystin content of 8.13 micrograms/g bloom material dry weight. In this year no hepatotoxicity was measured using a concentration range up to 0.8 mg (d. w.) of bloom material per ml in the rat hepatotoxicity assay. This is the first report on the detection of microcystins in Chilean water bodies.

  1. Paleomagnetism of Permian and Triassic rock, central Chilean Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsythe, Randall D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Mpodozis, Constantino; Davidson, John

    The first paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic formations west of the Andean divide are presented. Four formations of Permian or Triassic age in the central Chilean Andes have been investigated: two are located in the coastal ranges, and two are in the main cordillera. Of the formations in the main cordillera (Pastos Blancos and Matahuaico formations), only the Pastos Blancos Formation has yielded characteristic directions. While a fold test is absent, magnetizations are most likely secondary and yield pre-tilt corrected concordant inclinations, but yield declinations discordant 30° clockwise in comparison to the South American apparent polar wander path. Both formations from the coastal ranges (Cifuncho and Pichidangui formations) yielded stable directions. Postfolding magnetizations in the Cifuncho Formation also show declinations discordant 30° clockwise and concordant inclinations. The Pichidangui Formation has two stable components: one of postfolding age is concordant to apparent polar wander path data, and one of probable prefolding (Late Triassic) age is concordant in declination, but discordant in inclination. Further work is needed to better define the prefolding magnetizations in the Pichidangui Formation, but at present these preliminary results are the first paleomagnetic signs of displaced terranes along the Pacific margin of Chile. If correct, the results suggest that the Pichidangui Formation was some 15° of latitude farther south during the Late Triassic and had likely moved northward to its present latitudinal position with respect to cratonic South America by Middle to Late Jurassic.

  2. [Training of specialists in the Chilean national health services].

    PubMed

    Román, Oscar; Feliú, Mauricio; Echavarría, Luis A

    2011-06-01

    Several institutions, such as the Ministry of Health, Universities, the Chilean Medical Association, Scientific societies and public opinion, recognize that there is a deficiency of specialized physicians in Chile. To overcome this shortage of specialists, the Ministry of Health, along with universities, is developing diverse initiatives to train specialists and cope with the requirements of the country. Seventy five percent of posts offered were filled by physicians. The number of positions increased from 173 in 2007 to 576 in 2010, with a cumulative total of 1582 physicians in four years. Fifty two percent are being trained in Basic Primary Specialties and 48% in primary specialties. Thirty three percent of graduates have the obligation to continue working in the public service during a certain lapse. This figure will increase to 50% in the following years. These specialists are mainly working in the more densely populated regions of the country. The universities that offer the higher number of training positions are the University of Chile, The Catholic University of Chile and the University of Santiago.

  3. Case Report: Strawberry Disease in Farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carlos; Infante, Jorge; Abad, Jessica; Ferguson, Hugh W; Paredes, Enrique; Valdebenito, Samuel; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Ilardi, Pedro; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry disease is a chronic, nonlethal skin condition that affects Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the United States and several European countries, where it is also known as red-mark syndrome. We provide the first identification and characterization of three strawberry disease outbreaks occurring at two aquaculture farms in southern Chile. Clinically affected fish weighing an average of 400 g presented multiple bright-red, usually raised, skin lesions on the flank, ventral surface, and dorsal surface. A PCR using Rickettsia-like-organism (RLO)-specific primers was performed on nine affected fish, and all skin samples were positive for the RLO 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. All PCR results for Flavobacterium psychrophilum and other bacterial and viral pathogens were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed extensive dermatitis, with severe lymphocytic infiltration in advanced cases. This report is the first to describe strawberry disease in farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk for Rainbow Trout culture; fish challenge experiments should be performed to fulfill Koch's postulates and to demonstrate that RLO is the cause of this disease. Received December 27, 2014; accepted October 23, 2015. PMID:26913369

  4. Case Report: Strawberry Disease in Farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Carlos; Infante, Jorge; Abad, Jessica; Ferguson, Hugh W; Paredes, Enrique; Valdebenito, Samuel; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Ilardi, Pedro; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry disease is a chronic, nonlethal skin condition that affects Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the United States and several European countries, where it is also known as red-mark syndrome. We provide the first identification and characterization of three strawberry disease outbreaks occurring at two aquaculture farms in southern Chile. Clinically affected fish weighing an average of 400 g presented multiple bright-red, usually raised, skin lesions on the flank, ventral surface, and dorsal surface. A PCR using Rickettsia-like-organism (RLO)-specific primers was performed on nine affected fish, and all skin samples were positive for the RLO 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. All PCR results for Flavobacterium psychrophilum and other bacterial and viral pathogens were negative. Histopathological examination of the skin lesions revealed extensive dermatitis, with severe lymphocytic infiltration in advanced cases. This report is the first to describe strawberry disease in farmed Chilean Rainbow Trout. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the risk for Rainbow Trout culture; fish challenge experiments should be performed to fulfill Koch's postulates and to demonstrate that RLO is the cause of this disease. Received December 27, 2014; accepted October 23, 2015.

  5. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  6. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

  7. Magellanic penguin mortality in 2008 along the SW Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Boersma, P Dee; Ruoppolo, Valeria; Pinho-da-Silva-Filho, Rodolfo; Corrado-Adornes, Andréa; Conte-Sena, Daniella; Velozo, Raquel; Myiaji-Kolesnikovas, Cristiane; Dutra, Gustavo; Maracini, Pryscilla; Carvalho-do-Nascimento, Cláudia; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir; Barbosa, Lupércio; Serra, Sheila

    2010-10-01

    Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000 km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins.

  8. HIV prevention and low-income Chilean women: machismo, marianismo and HIV misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; McElmurry, Beverly J

    2008-04-01

    Socio-cultural factors and HIV-related misinformation contribute to the increasing number of Chilean women living with HIV. In spite of this, and to date, few culturally specific prevention activities have been developed for this population. The goal of the present study was to elicit the perspectives of low-income Chilean women regarding HIV and relevant socio-cultural factors, as a forerunner to the development of a culturally appropriate intervention. As part of a mixed-methods study, fifty low-income Chilean women participated in a survey and twenty were selected to participate in prevention, in-depth interviews. Results show evidence of widespread misinformation and misconceptions related to HIV/AIDS. Machismo and marianismo offer major barriers to prevention programme development. Future HIV prevention should stress partner communication, empowerment and improving the education of women vulnerable to HIV.

  9. Distribution of Ochlerotatus togoi along the Pacific coast of Washington.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Herman, William E; Florin, David A; Maloney, Francis A

    2004-06-01

    Before this study, the mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) togoi (Theobald) had been reported from only 2 locations within the continental United States, both of which were documented in Washington State. This study used active and passive surveillance to determine the current distribution of Oc. togoi along the Pacific Coast of Washington. Results of the study show that small, but stable, populations of Oc. togoi exist in the northern San Juan Island region of Puget Sound. Geological formations in this region are conducive to rock holes and support populations of Oc. togoi. No members of Oc. togoi were found on the southwestern Washington coast, the coast of the Olympic Peninsula, or in the lower Puget Sound. PMID:15264615

  10. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  11. Eating Disorders Among a Community-based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Granillo, M Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that those with higher symptoms of anxiety and who had tried cigarettes were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with an eating disorder. Findings indicate that Chilean female adolescents are at risk of eating disorders and that eating disorders, albeit maladaptive, may be a means to cope with negative affect, specifically anxiety.

  12. [Cooperation between Chili and France in management training in the Chilean public health sector].

    PubMed

    Guillou, Michèle; Carabantes Cárcamo, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    A cooperation programme launched in 1999 by the Chilean Health Department and the French National College of Public Health (ENSP France) has now been running for four years. Its aim was to create and validate a national scheme for manager and executive training within the Chilean public hospital systems. Developed in partnership with the Public Health National College of Rio de Janeiro (Fondation Oswaldo Cruz) with whom ENSP France has teamed up for 10 years, this cooperation was designed by the Chilean partner as a contribution to the definition and implementation of a national policy on Human Resources which might follow the vast reform of the health system currently underway in the country. The scheme which gained international support is backed by a network of 5 universities (7 in 2004) associated with the Chilean Health Department, in a joint national development project for in-house management training for the management teams already in office. More than 100 manager and senior executives et 150 intermediate executives were thus trained between 2000 and 2003. The present scheme est presently being modified to meet new challenges arising from the need to support important changes occurring in the management of Chilean public hospitals, to give them more independence, while encouraging a network of all carers. The ENSP input concerns a line of transfer of competence in training and teaching engineering for all the Chilean partners involved. A module on know-how development support in 'remote control' open training engineering was added in 2002, resulting in the French ENSP concluding a collaboration agreement with the Université de Technologie de Compiègne (France). Moreover, support for implementing an accreditation scheme for management training for the Chilean health sector is under way, linking both French and Brazilian ENSP. Designed from the start on a regional South Cone/Brazil basis, a new expansion phase will be added to this international programme

  13. Probabilistic Forecast of Tsunami Hazards along Chinese Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingchun; Shi, Yaolin; Sevre, Erik O. D.; Xing, Huilin; Yuen, David A.

    There is indeed a potential non-negligible threat for Chinese coast from tsunamogenic earthquakes originating at the neighboring subducting plate boundaries of Eurasian plate and Philippine sea plate: Manila trench and the Okinawa trough. This finding comes from our newly devised method for determining the probabilistic forecast of tsunami hazard (PFTH), which finds this probability distribution from direct numerical simulation of the waves excited by hypothetical earthquakes in these zones. There are significant differences in the bottom bathymetry between the South China Sea bordering the southern province of Guangdong and the East China Sea and Yellow Sea adjacent to the provinces of Zhejiang, Jiangsu, and Shandong. We have verified that the linear shallow-water equations can be employed to predict with sufficient accuracy the travel time of tsunami waves in the South China Sea, while the nonlinear shallow-water equations must be used for the shallower seas next to the northern Chinese provinces. Distribution for the possibility of tsunami waves with above 2.0 m hitting the coast has been shown in eastern China sea area, the delta region of the Yangzi River, the north-eastern coast of Zhejiang province, and northern Taiwan island. The distribution has also been displayed in South China Sea area, along the southeastern coast of mainland and Southwestern Taiwan. In this century the probability of a wave with a height of over 2.0 m to hit Hong Kong and Macau is about 10.0%, 0.5% for Shanghai, 3.2% for Wenzhou, and 7.2% for Keelung. Cities on eastern Chinese coast are less vulnerable than those on the southern Chinese coast. We also have discussed the prospects of tsunamis coming from large earthquakes along the Manila trench and the Ryukyu-Kyushu arc region to the north, as they can impact many countries in Southeast Asia, besides China.

  14. Coasts in Crisis

    SciTech Connect

    Hinrichsen, D.

    1996-11-01

    Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.

  15. Science of Tsunami Forecasting: 2010 Chilean Tsunami Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Vasily; Bernard, Eddie; Tang, Rachel; Wei, Yong; Uslu, Burak; Eble, Marie

    2010-05-01

    Tsunami forecasting with real-time models and real-time data has always been one of the main goals of tsunami research. The February 27th, 2010 Chile tsunami provided the challenge and the opportunity to test the modern state of the science in tsunami forecasting. By contrast with the previous basin-wide tsunami generated by the third largest 2004 Sumatra earthquake, the fifth largest Chilean earthquake occurred at the time and in the area where a variety of real-time measurements and model forecast models have been available to assess the generated tsunami in real-time. The Chile tsunami was generated by a Mw 8.8 earthquake (35.846S, 72.719W ), at 06:34 UTC, 115 km (60 miles) NNE of Concepcion, Chile (according to the USGS). It has been recorded at coastal sea level gages around the Pacific Ocean, staring from the near-field record that caught the wave half an hour after generation at Valparaiso, to the coastal recordings of the wave arrived at Japan and Russian Far East almost a day later. In approximately 3 hours after the earthquake, the tsunami was first recorded at DART buoy 32412, providing real-time deep ocean signature of the propagating tsunami. All that measurements provided ample data for the real-time forecast analysis and for the model performance and forecast skills assessment throughout the Pacific basin. We present results of the performance of the NOAA forecast. The forecast method uses MOST model with the data assimilated from the earthquake and deep-ocean tsunami DART measurement. The comparison with tide gages and coastal impacts provide opportunity to assess the accuracy and efficiency of the forecast. The successes, lessons learned and future challengers for the tsunami forecast science are discussed.

  16. Organic carbon in glacial fjords of Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Gutiérrez, Marcelo; Tapia, Fabián; Abarzúa, Leslie; Daneri, Giovanni; Reid, Brian; Díez, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ice Field in Chilean Patagonia is the largest (13,000 km2) temperate ice mass in the Southern hemisphere, yearly transporting ca. 40 km3 of freshwater to fjords. This volume of fresh and cold water likely affects adjacent marine ecosystems by changing circulation, productivity, food web dynamics, and the abundance and distribution of planktonic and benthic organisms. We hypothesize that freshwater-driven availability of inorganic nutrient and transport of organic and inorganic suspended matter, as well as microbes, become a controlling factor for productivity in the fjord associated with the Baker river and Jorge Montt glacier. Both appear to be sources of silicic acid, but not of nitrate and particulate organic carbon, especially during summer, when surface PAR and glacier thawing are maximal. In contrast to Baker River, the Jorge Montt glacier is also a source of dissolved organic carbon towards a proglacial fjord and the Baker Channel, indicating that a thorough chemical description of sources (tidewater glacier and glacial river) is needed. Nitrate in fiord waters reaches ca. 15 μM at 25 m depth with no evidence of mixing up during summer. Stable isotope composition of particulate organic nitrogen reaches values as low as 3 per mil in low-salinity waters near both glacier and river. Nitrogen fixation could be depleting δ15N in organic matter, as suggested by the detection at surface waters of nif H genes belonging to diazotrophs near the Montt glacier. As diazotrophs have also been detected in other cold marine waters (e.g. Baltic Sea, Arctic Ocean) as well as glaciers and polar terrestrial waters, there is certainly a potential for both marine and freshwater microbes to contribute and have a significant impact on the Patagonian N and C budgets. Assessing the impact of freshwater on C and N fluxes and the microbial community structure in Patagonian waters will allow understanding future scenarios of rapid glacier melting. This research was funded

  17. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg.

  18. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  19. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

    2010-09-28

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  20. Maximal oxygen uptake in Chilean workers of normal nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, J; Donoso, H

    1988-01-01

    Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was measured directly and predicted from cardiac frequency measurements in 54 healthy Chilean industrial workers aged 20 to 55 years, together with assessment of their dietary intake, body composition and blood chemistry. Measurement of VO2 was performed on a motor-driven treadmill. The predicted VO2max was obtained using a cycle ergometer by two methods: 1) the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and 2) the linear relationship between "steady state" heart rate (HR) and submaximum work, with subsequent extrapolation to "maximum" heart rate. Extrapolation of the HR/load regression line to 170 bpm permitted determination of the physical working capacity at 170 bpm (W170). VO2max for the 20-29 year group (Group I) averaged 3624 ml.min-1 and decreased to 3066 ml.min-1 in the 50-55 year group (Group IV). Lower values were obtained using the Astrand-Ryhming nomogram and HR/load regression (-15% and -9% respectively). W170 was also affected by age (Group I: 190.6 W and Group IV: 158.5 W). No significant correlation were found between VO2max and plasma variables, with the exception of cholesterol (r = 0.59). On the contrary, anthropometric variables showed significant correlations with VO2max, which permitted the prediction of VO2max using multiple regression equations. The two best correlations were: 1. VO2max = 0.800 - 0.0225.(A) +0.0189.(W)+1.26.(H) (r = 0.87; p less than 0.001) 2. VO2max = 0.996 - 0.0176.(A) + 0.025.(W) + 0.838.(H) + 0.0255.(LBM) (r = 0.88; p less than 0.001) where A = years of age; W = body weight in kg; H = height in m and LBM = lean body mass in kg. PMID:3342789

  1. Ocean acidification along the Gulf Coast and East Coast of the USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanninkhof, Rik; Barbero, Leticia; Byrne, Robert; Cai, Wei-Jun; Huang, Wei-Jen; Zhang, Jia-Zhong; Baringer, Molly; Langdon, Chris

    2015-04-01

    As part of an effort to monitor changes in inorganic carbon chemistry of the coastal ocean, near-synoptic cruises are being conducted in the Northern Gulf of Mexico and along the East Coast of the United States. Here we describe observations obtained on a cruise in the summer of 2012 and compare them with results from a cruise following a similar track in 2007. The focus is on describing spatial patterns of aragonite saturation state (ΩAr). This parameter is an indicator of ecosystem health, in particular for calcifying organisms. The results show large-scale regional trends from different source waters at the northeastern and southwestern edges of the domain, along with the modulating effects of remineralization/respiration and riverine inputs. The broader patterns and changes over five years along the coast can be well described by the impacts of large-scale circulation, notably changes in source water contributions. Changes in the well-buffered Loop Current and Gulf Stream with high ΩAr impact the waters in the southern part of the study area. The less buffered southward coastal currents with low ΩAr originating from the Labrador Sea and Gulf of St. Lawrence impact the ΩAr patterns in the Northern regions. The expected 2% average decrease in ΩAr in the surface mixed layer due to increasing atmospheric CO2 levels over the 5-year period is largely overshadowed by local and regional variability from changes in hydrography and mixed layer dynamics.

  2. Did Francis Drake bring Chilean potatoes to the British Isles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R.N Salaman, in 1937, speculated that the first potatoes cultivated in Great Britain and northern Europe were obtained by Francis Drake at Cartagena, Colombia and brought to the British Isles in the 1570-80’s. Presumably S. andigenum tubers would have been brought down the 500 miles from Bogotá to C...

  3. A coasting cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    A Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology with energy density decreasing in expansion as 1/R-squared, where R is the Robertson-Walker scale factor, is studied. In such a model the universe expands with constant velocity; hence the term coasting cosmology. Observational consequences of such a model include the age of the universe, the luminosity distance-redshift relation (the Hubble diagram), the angular diameter distance-redshift relation, and the galaxy number count as a function of redshift. These observations are used to limit the parameters of the model. Among the interesting consequences of the model are the possibility of an ever-expanding closed universe, a model universe with multiple images at different redshifts of the same object, a universe with Omega - 1 not equal to 0 stable in expansion, and a closed universe with radius smaller than 1/H(0).

  4. Sulfur Upwelling off the African Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though these aquamarine clouds in the waters off the coast of northern Namibia may look like algae blooms, they are in fact clouds of sulfur produced by anaerobic bacteria on the ocean's floor. This image of the sulfur-filled water was taken on April 24, 2002, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. The anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that can live without oxygen) feed upon algae carcasses that exist in abundance on the ocean's floor off of Namibia. As the bacteria ingest the algae husks, they produce hydrogen sulfide, which slowly builds up in the sea-floor sediments. Eventually, the hydrogen sulfide reaches the point where the sediment can no longer contain it, and it bubbles forth. When this poisonous chemical reaches the surface, it combines with the oxygen in the upper layers of the ocean to create clouds of pure sulfur. The sulfur causes the Namibian coast to smell like rotten eggs, and the hydrogen sulfide will often kill fish and drive lobsters away. For more information, read: A Bloom By Any Other Name A high-resolution (250 meters per pixel) image earlier on the 24th taken from the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows additional detail in the plumes. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE. MODIS image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. The Impact of Powerful Oral Language Lab on Chilean EFL Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Hsuying Chiou; Andruske, Cynthia Lee

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory qualitative case study reports the impact of using a public-speaking structure (Powerful Oral Language Lab [POLL]) in teaching preservice Chilean English pedagogy students. It describes how this task-based method of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teacher training is related to language strategic competence. Twenty students…

  6. Bringing the Schools Back in: The Stratification of Educational Achievement in the Chilean Voucher System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Torche, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is…

  7. New English Cultures and Learner Autonomy for Intrinsic Motivation and Democratic Empowerment in the Chilean Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Katharina; Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.

    2013-01-01

    Chilean youth are currently demanding access to better-quality education for all: greater democracy and curricula that respect the country's indigenous cultural roots form part of their petitions. This article puts forward a twofold pedagogical proposal for English Language Teaching intended to foster intrinsic motivation and democratic…

  8. Remaking Education from Below: The Chilean Student Movement as Public Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jo

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the Chilean student movement and its ten-year struggle for public education as an example of public pedagogy. Secondary and university students, along with the parents, teachers, workers and community members who have supported them, have engaged in the most sustained political activism seen in Chile since the democratic…

  9. Chilean Adolescents' and Parents' Views on Autonomy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martínez, M. Loreto; Pérez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand Chilean parents' and adolescents' conceptions of autonomy and whether they hold different expectations for autonomous behaviors by generation and socioeconomic level. A qualitative approach to data collection was used through separate focus groups of parents and adolescents from different socioeconomic…

  10. The Influence of Ethnicity on Warfarin Dosage Requirements in the Chilean Population

    PubMed Central

    Subiabre, Valeska; Palomo, Ivan; Guzmán, Neftalí; Retamales, Eduardo; Henríquez, Hugo; Gonzalez, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Background Vitamin K antagonists are drugs that are widely prescribed around the world and their use has helped improve the prognosis of patients with thromboembolic disease. However, a high interindividual variability has been observed in dosage requirements to reach the desired anticoagulation range that could be due to environmental and genetic factors. Studies suggest that ethnicity influences coumarin response, supporting the observed differences in dose requirements across various populations. Studies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers have suggested that the Chilean population has a predominantly Amerindian genetic pool. Objective To evaluate the influence of ethnicity, defined by the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups, on the variability in therapeutic response to warfarin in the Chilean population. Methods A total of 191 patients treated with warfarin were included in this study. Analysis of the mitochondrial genome for detecting the presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroups was performed using polymerase chain reaction and polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The evaluation of warfarin requirements according to each haplogroup was performed by ANOVA with a 95% CI and assuming statistical significance at P < 0.05. Results Based on the presence of an mtDNA haplogroup, 91% of the Chilean population had an Amerindian background. There were no significant differences in warfarin dosage requirements among the different Amerindian haplogroups (P = 0.083). Conclusions The presence of Amerindian mtDNA haplogroup does not influence warfarin dosage requirements in the Chilean population. PMID:25709720

  11. Eating Disorders among a Community-Based Sample of Chilean Female Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granillo, M. Teresa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence and correlates of eating disorders among a community-based sample of female Chilean adolescents. Data were collected through structured interviews with 420 female adolescents residing in Santiago, Chile. Approximately 4% of the sample reported ever being diagnosed with an eating disorder.…

  12. [Recommendations for Chilean travelers to the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Perret, Cecilia; Weitzel, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    This article provides a checklist of precautions and vaccines for Chilean travelers attending the FIFA World Cup 2014 in Brazil. It aims to help physicians to prepare visitors of this mass gathering and summarizes useful hints to avoid infectious diseases considering the circumstances and availabilities in Chile.

  13. The CAF Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire in a Sample of Chilean Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Leandro Navas; Llorca, Jose Antonio Soriano; Tello, Francisco Pablo Holgado

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to verify whether the six-dimension structure of the Physical Self-Concept Questionnaire is maintained with Chilean students, and to assess its psychometric qualities in this population. Method: One thousand seven hundred sixty-seven students took part in this research, from Central and South Chile; 45.8%…

  14. Cutaneous tumour-like lesions due to poxvirus infection in Chilean flamingos.

    PubMed

    Arai, S; Arai, C; Fujimaki, M; Iwamoto, Y; Kawarada, M; Saito, Y; Nomura, Y; Suzuki, T

    1991-05-01

    Cutaneous tumour-like growths were observed on the face and other areas of the body surface of young Chilean flamingos. In the cells of these lesions, avian pox-specific cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed by light microscopy and virus particles were detected under an electron-microscope. It was diagnosed as avian pox.

  15. The Dad in the Che Guevara T-Shirt: Narratives of Chilean English Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard-Warwick, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Building on previous critical research regarding student resistance to English Language Teaching (ELT), this paper illustrates Chilean high-school English teachers' use of narrative to make sense of ideological challenges from students. While the government of Chile is promoting English in connection with the nation's export-oriented economic…

  16. Uneven Distribution of Novice Teachers in the Chilean Primary School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckes, Lorena; Bascope, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the allocation of novice primary teachers in Chilean schools, looking at their characteristics and at the attributes of the schools at which they are hired after having completed their initial teacher training. The study reveals that in Chile, more qualified novice teachers are more prone to get jobs in socio-economically…

  17. Higher Education Policy in Authoritarian Regimes: Comparative Perspectives on the Chilean Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Daniel

    A Chilean case study of higher education under an authoritarian regime is presented. The study restricts itself to the most prevalent sub-type of the authoritarian regime which is "bureaucratic-authoritarianism" (BA). The BA designation refers to regimes which exert considerable repressive control over societies that have undergone substantial…

  18. Educational Effectiveness in Chilean Secondary Education: Comparing Different "Value Added" Approaches to Evaluate Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz-Chereau, B.; Thomas, S. M.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an original investigation into school performance measures and the multilevel nature of pupil achievement data in the Chilean school system using a sample of 177,461 students, nested within 7146 classrooms, 2283 secondary schools and 313 municipalities. The data-set comprised Year 10 students' 2006 SIMCE test's results in two…

  19. External Technical Support for School Improvement: Critical Issues from the Chilean Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osses, Alejandra; Bellei, Cristián; Valenzuela, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    To what extent school improvement processes can be initiated and sustained from the outside has been a relevant question for policy-makers seeking to increase quality in education. Since 2008, the Chilean Government is strongly promoting the use of external technical support (ETS) services to support school improvement processes, as part of the…

  20. The Class and Culture-Based Exclusion of the Chilean Neoliberal Educational Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavieres, Eduardo A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I analyze the class- and cultural-based exclusion produced by the Chilean neoliberal educational reform, carried out during the period from 1990 to 2010. This educational reform follows the same neoliberal model applied to the economy of the country. Although some indicators improved in relation to coverage and public spending in…

  1. United States West Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On Thursday (Feb. 14, 2002), the cloud cover that often overshadows the western United States this time of year broke to provide those at the Olympic Games with a beautiful day. The nearly cloud-free day was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASAs Terra spacecraft. A thick layer of snow blankets northernmost Nevada, northern Utah, most of Idaho and western Wyoming. The snow surrounds and highlights Utahs Great Salt Lake. Just south of the lake, clouds can be seen hovering over southern Utah. (In general, clouds appear streaky and uneven on a satellite image, and snow cover appears solid with definable borders.) North of the Great Salt Lake, one can clearly discern the light gray Northern Rocky Mountains cutting through Idaho and up into Canada. Moving southwest, the spine-like Sierra Nevada mountains separate the greenery of Southern California from the brown deserts of Arizona and Nevada. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  2. Pathogenicity of a highly exopolysaccharide-producing Halomonas strain causing epizootics in larval cultures of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rodrigo; Miranda, Claudio D; Amaro, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    Mass mortalities of larval cultures of Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus have repeatedly occurred in northern Chile, characterized by larval agglutination and accumulation in the bottom of rearing tanks. The exopolysaccharide slime (EPS) producing CAM2 strain was isolated as the primary organism from moribund larvae in a pathogenic outbreak occurring in a commercial hatchery producing larvae of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus located in Bahía Inglesa, Chile. The CAM2 strain was characterized biochemically and was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA as Halomonas sp. (Accession number DQ885389.1). Healthy 7-day-old scallop larvae cultures were experimentally infected for a 48-h period with an overnight culture of the CAM2 strain at a final concentration of ca. 10(5) cells per milliliter, and the mortality and vital condition of larvae were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe the chronology of the disease. Pathogenic action of the CAM2 strain was clearly evidenced by SEM analysis, showing a high ability to adhere and detach larvae velum cells by using its "slimy" EPS, producing agglutination, loss of motility, and a posterior sinking of scallop larvae. After 48 h, a dense bacterial slime on the shell surface was observed, producing high percentages of larval agglutination (63.28 +/- 7.87%) and mortality (45.03 +/- 4.32%) that were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the unchallenged control cultures, which exhibited only 3.20 +/- 1.40% dead larvae and no larval agglutination. Furthermore, the CAM2 strain exhibited a high ability to adhere to fiberglass pieces of tanks used for scallop larvae rearing (1.64 x 10(5) cells adhered per square millimeters at 24 h postinoculation), making it very difficult to eradicate it from the culture systems. This is the first report of a pathogenic activity on scallop larvae of Halomonas species, and it prompts the necessity of an appraisal on

  3. Pathogenicity of a highly exopolysaccharide-producing Halomonas strain causing epizootics in larval cultures of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819).

    PubMed

    Rojas, Rodrigo; Miranda, Claudio D; Amaro, Ana María

    2009-01-01

    Mass mortalities of larval cultures of Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus have repeatedly occurred in northern Chile, characterized by larval agglutination and accumulation in the bottom of rearing tanks. The exopolysaccharide slime (EPS) producing CAM2 strain was isolated as the primary organism from moribund larvae in a pathogenic outbreak occurring in a commercial hatchery producing larvae of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus located in Bahía Inglesa, Chile. The CAM2 strain was characterized biochemically and was identified by polymerase chain reaction amplification of 16S rRNA as Halomonas sp. (Accession number DQ885389.1). Healthy 7-day-old scallop larvae cultures were experimentally infected for a 48-h period with an overnight culture of the CAM2 strain at a final concentration of ca. 10(5) cells per milliliter, and the mortality and vital condition of larvae were determined by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe the chronology of the disease. Pathogenic action of the CAM2 strain was clearly evidenced by SEM analysis, showing a high ability to adhere and detach larvae velum cells by using its "slimy" EPS, producing agglutination, loss of motility, and a posterior sinking of scallop larvae. After 48 h, a dense bacterial slime on the shell surface was observed, producing high percentages of larval agglutination (63.28 +/- 7.87%) and mortality (45.03 +/- 4.32%) that were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of the unchallenged control cultures, which exhibited only 3.20 +/- 1.40% dead larvae and no larval agglutination. Furthermore, the CAM2 strain exhibited a high ability to adhere to fiberglass pieces of tanks used for scallop larvae rearing (1.64 x 10(5) cells adhered per square millimeters at 24 h postinoculation), making it very difficult to eradicate it from the culture systems. This is the first report of a pathogenic activity on scallop larvae of Halomonas species, and it prompts the necessity of an appraisal on

  4. Rock coasts and seabird breeding sites : a common optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marie, Eveillard-Buchoux

    2014-05-01

    The North-West coasts of Europe support a lot of part of Northern hemisphere breeding seabirds. In that context, Scotland has a preponderant place and Brittany has southernmost limit of these species areas, for most of them. Outside the breeding season these species live mainly on the open sea and when they do visit the land to breed, they nest on a specific sites : almost all the time they breed on the rock coasts, often on seacliffs. This specific habitat are defines by geomorphological characteristics which offer special forms of the coast. The forms of rock coasts are originally and different because of several proprieties of geology, of lithology, of structures. Breeding seabird, occupying these sites, reveals, in a new light, the richness of these forms and the originals geographic location of the coastline : seabirds prefer nest in exposed coastline like rock caps, rocky points or islands. Seabirds and rock coasts are research topics in environmental geography since several years. However, these combination studies is a new approach in this field and enlargement in the heritage field allows supplement scientific approach. For example, it show that in most important touristic sites, environmental protection measures focused on landscape, habitat or bird, but much more rarely on rock coasts for these intrinsic values. Indeed, in Brittany or in Scotland, seabirds are often stars species in lot of coastal nature reserves, where they're considered like greater ecological heritage. We could see it in touristic promotion field : bird is everywhere, cliff is mostly kept in the dark, as well in leaflets as in speech visitor's guides - without, for example, as a part of this landscape. In all cases, combination of these two heritages is extremely rare. Yet, this current research illustrates the interest and the issue of development of this comparative approach seabirds / rock coasts for optimization of nature tourism and geotourism.

  5. Amino acid biogeo- and stereochemistry in coastal Chilean sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomstein, Bente Aa.; Jørgensen, Bo B.; Schubert, Carsten J.; Niggemann, Jutta

    2006-06-01

    The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) and amino acid enantiomers ( D- and L-forms) was investigated in sediments underlying two contrasting Chilean upwelling regions: at ˜23 °S off Antofagasta and at ˜36 °S off Concepción. The contribution of amino acids to total organic carbon (%T AAC: 7-14%) and total nitrogen (%T AAN: 23-38%) in surface sediments decreased with increasing water depth (from 126 to 1350 m) indicating that organic matter becomes increasingly decomposed in surface sediments at greater water depth. Changes in the ratio between the protein amino acid aspartate and its non-protein degradation product β-alanine confirmed this observation. Furthermore, estimates of THAA mineralization showed that sedimentary amino acid reactivity decreased with both increasing water depth as well as progressive degradation status of the organic matter that was incorporated into the sediment. Reactivity of organic matter in the sediment was also assessed using the Degradation Index (DI) developed by [Dauwe, B., Middelburg, J.J., 1998. Amino acids and hexosamines as indicators of organic matter degradation state in North Sea sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.43, pp. 782-798.]. Off Concepción, DI was successfully applied to examine the degradation status of sedimentary organic matter at different water depths. However, unexpected results were obtained at the Antofagasta stations as DI increased with sediment depth, suggesting more degraded organic matter at the surface than deeper in the cores. The contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA was estimated from the concentrations of D-aspartate, D-glutamic acid, D-serine, and D-alanine. Peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for >18% of THAA in all investigated samples. In surface sediments peptidoglycan amino acids accounted for a progressively larger fraction of THAA at increasing water depths (up to >26%). Further, the contribution of peptidoglycan amino acids to THAA increased with

  6. Geographical Variation in Health-Related Physical Fitness and Body Composition among Chilean 8th Graders: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Garber, Michael D.; Sajuria, Marcelo; Lobelo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In addition to excess adiposity, low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and low musculoskeletal fitness (MSF) are important independent risk factors for future cardio-metabolic disease in adolescents, yet global fitness surveillance in adolescents is poor. The objective of this study was to describe and investigate geographical variation in levels of health-related physical fitness, including CRF, MSF, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) in Chilean 8th graders. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a population-based, representative sample of 19,929 8th graders (median age = 14 years) in the 2011 National Physical Education Survey from Chile. CRF was assessed with the 20-meter shuttle run test, MSF with standing broad jump, and body composition with BMI and WC. Data were classified according to health-related standards. Prevalence of levels of health-related physical fitness was mapped for each of the four variables, and geographical variation was explored at the country level by region and in the Santiago Metropolitan Area by municipality. Results Girls had significantly higher prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI than boys (p<0.05). Overall, 26% of boys and 55% of girls had unhealthy CRF, 29% of boys and 35% of girls had unhealthy MSF, 29% of boys and 44% of girls had unhealthy BMI, and 31% of adolescents had unhealthy WC. High prevalence of unhealthy fitness levels concentrates in the northern and middle regions of the country and in the North and Southwest sectors for the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Conclusion Prevalence of unhealthy CRF, MSF, and BMI is relatively high among Chilean 8th graders, especially in girls, when compared with global estimates. Identification of geographical regions and municipalities with high prevalence of unhealthy physical fitness presents opportunity for targeted intervention. PMID:25255442

  7. Numerical evaluation of the wave energy resource along the Atlantic European coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes Soares, C.; Bento, A. Rute; Gonçalves, Marta; Silva, Dina; Martinho, Paulo

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper a hindcast system is applied to the analysis of the Atlantic European coast as a whole with specific nestings for sites of interest in each country. The areas included in this study were: Ireland west coast, UK South Western coast, France west coast, northern Spain and Canary Islands and Portugal's continental coast. Two contemporary spectral models were used: WaveWatch III for wave generation, covering almost the entire North Atlantic basin, which outputs are then used as boundary conditions for SWAN which simulates wave transformation in coastal areas. Wind fields were taken from the ERA Interim data base. Results are validated against buoy data. These validations allowed a reformulation, when needed, of the model's configurations in order to better tune its outcomes to the real data. Using the energy transport vectors given by SWAN, the wave power is afterwards calculated and an energy resource assessment is done for a period of several years.

  8. Relationship between pelagic larval duration and abundance of tropical fishes on temperate coasts of Japan.

    PubMed

    Soeparno; Nakamura, Y; Shibuno, T; Yamaoka, K

    2012-02-01

    The influence of pelagic larval duration (PLD) and egg type dispersal capabilities of 35 demersal and pelagic-spawning tropical fish species is examined in relation to their abundance on the temperate coasts of Japan. The PLDs of pelagic spawners were significantly longer than those of demersal spawners, and a high occurrence of pelagic spawners on the temperate coasts suggests that these fishes are more easily transported to temperate coasts than demersal spawners. For demersal spawners, the common species on the temperate coasts had significantly longer PLDs than the rare species; this suggests that PLD is a major factor influencing the distribution patterns of tropical demersal spawners on temperate coasts. Moreover, a negative correlation between PLD and the abundance of some species of pelagic and demersal spawners suggests the presence of reproductively active fishes in northern subtropical and even in temperate waters.

  9. 76 FR 37650 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Fourth of July Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Fireworks, South Lake Tahoe Gaming Alliance (Lights on the Lake Fireworks Display). This action is...

  10. 76 FR 37649 - Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Independence Day Fireworks

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Northern California Annual Fireworks Events, Independence...) safety zone. This action is necessary to control vessel traffic and to ensure the safety of event...-399-7443, e-mail D11-PF-MarineEvents@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Coast Guard...

  11. Monitoring the northern Chile megathrust with the Integrated Plate boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schurr, Bernd; Asch, Günter; Cailleau, Beatrice; Diaz, Guillermo Chong; Barrientos, Sergio; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Oncken, Onno

    2010-05-01

    The oceanic Nazca plate subducts beneath the continental South American plate by recurrent rupture of large segments of its interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all sizeable segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.5 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the south and north broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake intruded into the southern part of the seismic gap in 2007 between Antofagasto and Tocopilla. This makes northern Chile a unique natural laboratory to observe a subduction megathrust at various stages of its seismic cycle. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (France), and the GFZ German research Centre for Geosciences (Germany). Currently we are operating 17 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. Continuous GPS, tilt, creep, climate and magnetotellurics measurements are complementing the seismological part. A majority of the sites provide data near real-time. We will present results of seismic monitoring including analysis of the 2007 M7.7 Tocopilla earthquake sequence that was recorded during the installation stage of the observatory. We relocated the mainshock and about a one

  12. The 2007 Tocopilla earthquake and its aftershock sequence - A subduction zone earthquake at the edge of the northern Chile seimic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, S.; Sobiesiak, M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2010-12-01

    On 14 November 2007 a large Mw 7.7 earthquake occurred in the region of Tocopilla in Northern Chile. The earthquake took place in the southern end of the Northern Chile seismic gap which is supposed to be at the end of its seismic cycle. Studying the event and its aftershock sequence will provide closer insight into the behavior of a subduction zone earthquake at the edge of a subduction zone segment. We present a comprehensive study of the rupture area combining seismic and geodetic data. The aftershock sequence following the earthquake was very well recorded by a local seismic network of 34 short period and broad band stations. The spatial distribution of the aftershock sequence shows a concentration of aftershocks around the north-western part of the Mejillones Peninsula and along the coast up to the Río Loa. The distribution into depth shows that the majority of the hypocenters are located along the subduction interface, reaching down to ~ 50 km depth. In the western part, the aftershock sequence splits into two branches, one heading towards the trench, the other bending into the crust in front of the Mejillones Peninsula. These seismic observations lead to the conclusion that the fault rupture propagated towards the south-west with a fault plane of about 150 km length leaving the shallow part in the north west probably unbroken. To better understand the behavior of the aftershock distribution we model the Coulomb stress transfer along the fault plane. The results show that stresses are increased in the southern part of the rupture area where we find a high concentration of aftershocks. This is consistent with the calculated energy release that shows two main patches along the plate interface rupturing from north to south. The 2007 Tocopilla earthquake is the first large event that occurred inside the Northern Chile seismic gap since the 1877 Iquique event. The rupture process stopped underneath the Mejillones Peninsula, a proposed segment boundary along the

  13. Holocene Tsunami deposits associated with earthquakes along Pacific coast, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Imaizumi, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kagohara, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Marushima, N.; Omachi, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated Holocene tsumami deposits along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan in order to define the ages and source areas of earthquakes generating large tsunamis. Sediment cores were collected by using geoslicers and hand augers at alluvial lowlands interpreted by aerial photographs, and ages of deposits were dated by radiocarbon methods and tephrochronology. Pacific coast of northeast Japan faces the Japan trench where Pacific plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, so that the coast has repeatedly experienced some large tsunamis following historical interplate earthquakes (the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami, the 1793 Kansei Tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku Tsunami and the 869 Jogan Tsunami). While the southern part along the Pacific coast (from the Sendai Plain to the Joban coastal region) has nearly straight shorelines and well developed coastal lowlands, the northern part (the Sanriku coastal region) has typical ria shorelines and poorly developed coastal lowlands. Multiple sand layers are identified between muddy or peaty sediments in drilled core samples to a depth of 1-5.5 m at several coastal areas, which is located at backlands of beach ridges and natural levees. In the southern part along the Pacific coast, sand layers corresponding to the 869 Jogan Tsunami are identified, and the older sand layers suggest that tsunamis which are as large as the 869 tsunami have occurred at few hundred years intervals over the past 5000 years. On the other hand, in the northern part along the Pacific coast, multiple sand layers which indicate the arrival of large tsunamis are also found at the similar intervals to the southern coast during 6000-2000 years ago, but most of the depositional ages of the sand layers do not coincide with those of the southern coast. We suggest that earthquakes generating large tsunamis along northern and southern Pacific coast of northeast Japan have both occurred at few hundred years intervals during the late Holocene, but in most

  14. Observations and Impacts from the 2010 Chilean and 2011 Japanese Tsunamis in California (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Rick I.; Admire, Amanda R.; Borrero, Jose C.; Dengler, Lori A.; Legg, Mark R.; Lynett, Patrick; McCrink, Timothy P.; Miller, Kevin M.; Ritchie, Andy; Sterling, Kara; Whitmore, Paul M.

    2013-06-01

    The coast of California was significantly impacted by two recent teletsunami events, one originating off the coast of Chile on February 27, 2010 and the other off Japan on March 11, 2011. These tsunamis caused extensive inundation and damage along the coast of their respective source regions. For the 2010 tsunami, the NOAA West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center issued a state-wide Tsunami Advisory based on forecasted tsunami amplitudes ranging from 0.18 to 1.43 m with the highest amplitudes predicted for central and southern California. For the 2011 tsunami, a Tsunami Warning was issued north of Point Conception and a Tsunami Advisory south of that location, with forecasted amplitudes ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 m, the highest expected for Crescent City. Because both teletsunamis arrived during low tide, the potential for significant inundation of dry land was greatly reduced during both events. However, both events created rapid water-level fluctuations and strong currents within harbors and along beaches, causing extensive damage in a number of harbors and challenging emergency managers in coastal jurisdictions. Field personnel were deployed prior to each tsunami to observe and measure physical effects at the coast. Post-event survey teams and questionnaires were used to gather information from both a physical effects and emergency response perspective. During the 2010 tsunami, a maximum tsunami amplitude of 1.2 m was observed at Pismo Beach, and over 3-million worth of damage to boats and docks occurred in nearly a dozen harbors, most significantly in Santa Cruz, Ventura, Mission Bay, and northern Shelter Island in San Diego Bay. During the 2011 tsunami, the maximum amplitude was measured at 2.47 m in Crescent City Harbor with over 50-million in damage to two dozen harbors. Those most significantly affected were Crescent City, Noyo River, Santa Cruz, Moss Landing, and southern Shelter Island. During both events, people on docks and near the ocean became at risk to

  15. Protection of Northern Chile as an ICOMOS/IAU ``Window to the Universe''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Malcolm G.

    2015-03-01

    Over the last two decades, La Serena's population has increased by about 70 percent. A site description of the AURA Observatory in Chile as a ``Window to the Universe`` is now available on the recently-launched UNESCO-IAU Astronomical Heritage Web Portal, www.astronomicalheritage.net This can serve as an example of possible material for the Chilean authorities, should they wish to propose the dark skies over much of northern Chile for protection as a World Scientific Heritage site. Some of the steps involved are discussed briefly here.

  16. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness. PMID:25733067

  17. "One of the Most Uniform Races of the Entire World": Creole Eugenics and the Myth of Chilean Racial Homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    This article illuminates why Nicolás Palacios's 1904 monograph, Raza chilena: Libro escrito por un Chileno i para los Chilenos [Chilean Race: A Book Written by a Chilean for Chileans], is central to the creation of a myth of Chilean racial homogeneity at the turn of the twentieth century. Placing Palacios in the context of Latin American eugenic discourse, it demonstrates how he selected a specific racial origin story in order to accommodate his belief in racial hierarchy while also depicting race mixing in a positive light. Specifically, the article highlights how the myth of Chilean racial homogeneity elided the difference between the term "mestizo," which was applied to people of mixed racial heritage, and "white." I contend that Palacios sought to differentiate Chileans from other Latin Americans by emphasizing their racial distinctiveness. The article therefore highlights that Latin American eugenics was concerned with the creation of national narratives that historicized particular racial mixtures in order to reify and affirm national differences. As such, it connects to literature regarding the history of eugenics, race, nation, and the creation of whiteness.

  18. A new alcyonacean octocoral (Cnidaria, Anthozoa, Octocorallia) from Chilean fjords.

    PubMed

    Breedy, Odalisca; Cairns, Stephen D; Häussermann, Verena

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Swiftia comauensis, is described from Chile. It occurs in shallow waters from 18 to 59 m in the Patagonian fjord region and seems to be endemic to the northern part of the region. The species is characterized by having straggly colonies with sparse branching and long drooping branches, prominent polyp mounds, and long, thin spindles; the colonies are bright orange with pale yellow polyp mounds. A sharp decline in colony abundance was observed between 2003 and 2013, and in January 2014 a proposal was submitted to the IUCN for the addition of this taxon to the Red List of Threatened Species. PMID:25781130

  19. 76 FR 44535 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District, Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District, and South Coast Air Quality... proposing to approve revisions to the Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District (NSAQMD),...

  20. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W), though mostly cloud covered in this view, is still readily identifiable because of the distinctive features of the Texas Gulf Coast. Galveston Island, Galveston Bay and the coastal prairie are in the clear. Most of the city of Houston is cloud covered but the Gulf Freeeway connecting Houston and Galveston can be traced for most of it's route.

  1. Upper Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Upper Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.5W) is clearly represented in this view from space. The area covered stretches almost 300 miles from Aransas Pass, on the Texas coast in the south to Cameron, Louisiana in the north. The sharp detail of both the natural and cultural features throughout the scene is especially evident in the Houston area where highways, major streets, airport runways and even some neighborhood lanes can be easily seen.

  2. Thunderstorm, Texas Gulf Coast, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This thunderstorm along the Texas Gulf Coast (29.0N, 95.0W), USA is seen as the trailing edge of a large cloud mass formed along the leading edge of a spring frontal system stretching northwest to southeast across the Texas Gulf Coast. This system brought extensive severe weather and flooding to parts of Texas and surrounding states. Muddy water discharging from coastal streams can be seen in the shallow Gulf of Mexico as far south as Lavaca Bay.

  3. Seismicity of California's north coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.

    2000-01-01

    At least three moment magnitude (M) 7 earthquakes occurred along California's north coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. The M 7.3 earthquake on 23 November 1873 occurred near the California-Oregon coast and likely was located on the Cascadia subduction zone or within the North American plate. The M 7.0 + earthquake on 9 May 1878 was located about 75 km offshore near the Mendocino fault. The surface-wave magnitude (M(s)) 7.0 earthquake on 16 April 1899 was located about 150 km offshore within the Gorda plate. There were at least three M 7 north-coast earthquakes in the 35 years before 1906, two M 7 earthquakes in the 20 years after 1906, no M 7 earthquakes from 1923 until 1980, and four M 7 earthquakes since 1980. The relative seismic quiescence after 1906 for M 7 earthquakes along California's north coast mimics the post-1906 seismic quiescence in the San Francisco Bay area for M 6 earthquakes. The post-1906 relative quiescence did not extend to lower magnitudes in either area. The 18 April 1906 earthquake apparently influenced the rate of occurrence of M 7 north-coast earthquakes as it apparently influenced the rate of M 6 earthquakes in the San Francisco Bay area. The relative seismic quiescence along the California north-coast region after 1906 should be taken into account when evaluating seismic hazards in northwest California.

  4. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  5. Microearthquakes and crustal structure off the Makran Coast of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niazi, M.; Shimamura, H.; Matsu'ura, M.

    1980-05-01

    On the basis of bathymetric and seismic data collected recently off the coast of Makran in the Gulf of Oman, it has been suggested that the folding of the sediments at the northern edge of the abyssal plain is taking place at the present time. The folding is thought to be the consequence of ongoing subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the Eurasian lithosphere along the Makran coast. The model assigns a far more significant role to the Makran coast in shaping the tectonics of the region than has thus far been assumed. In order to examine whether, despite the lack of teleseismically observable seismicity, the suggested deformation is associated with any microearthquake activity or not, a network of high gain seismographs, including three OBS’s, was installed near the western end of the Makran coast in May 1977 and operated for about two weeks. During the observation period no noticeable microearthquake activity associated with the suggested boundary was observed. Nearly 40 of the earthquakes located by the network data are aftershocks of the destructive earthquake which occurred on March 21, 1977, north of Bandar-Abbas, more than 400 km from the OBS’s. From the observed travel times of the three 180 kilogram explosions set off for regional calibration, a 20 km thick two layered oceanic crust was obtained.

  6. Spanish and Chilean Standardizations of the Personality Assessment Inventory: the Influence of Sex.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; Ferragut, Marta; Santamaría, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the adaptation of psychological questionnaires in different countries, due to the need for cross-cultural research using the same tests adapted to diverse populations. This paper presents the standardization of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991, 2007) in Spain and Chile (both Spanish-speaking countries). The Spanish sample was made up of 940 people (461 men and 479 women), and the Chilean sample of 569 people (231 men and 338 women). Results revealed that the Chilean means were higher than those of the Spanish sample at confidence level 99.9%, although the associated effect sizes were generally small to moderate (partial eta-square between 0.008 and 0.187). Sex differences in the variables evaluated were commented on, and the importance of cross-cultural research and the influence of sex on personality and psychopathology variables were discussed.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Socially Disadvantaged Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Bernales, Margarita; Cabieses, Báltica

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged Chilean women. A correlational analysis with data from the NIH-funded project, “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women,” was conducted. Two hundred and sixtyone women were included in this analysis (n = 261). Those women who had experienced any type of IPV in the past 3 months had significantly higher risk for HIV than those who had not (t = −2.016, p < .05). Also a linear trend was found among those women who had experienced more than one type of IPV in the past 3 months and HIV risk. PMID:21486859

  8. Draft genome sequence of the Chilean isolate Aeromonas salmonicida strain CBA100.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Natalia; Espinoza, Carolina; Sanhueza, Loreto; Gonzalez, Alex; Corsini, Gino; Tello, Mario

    2015-03-01

    We report the draft genome sequence from Aeromonas salmonicida sp. strain CBA100, which was characterized as an antibiotic-resistant bacterium isolated from infected rainbow trout. The total size of the genome is 4,788,109 bp, with a G + C content of 60.55%. Comparison of its open reading frames shows that the closest homologue to one third of the genes of strain CBA100 are found in A. hydrophila. The strain contains several efflux pumps and putative genes that confer resistance to multiclass antibiotics, including macrolide, β-lactamics, florfenicol and quinolones. The antibiogram profile suggests that efflux pumps are the main mechanism of resistance to non-β-lactamic antibiotics. This is the first genome of a Chilean isolate of A. salmonicida, which should shed light on the design of strain-specific vaccines against this pathogen and reduce the use of antibiotics for preventive treatment in Chilean aquaculture.

  9. Socioeconomic Status and Internalizing Symptoms in Chilean Children: Does Reserve Capacity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    Informed by the reserve capacity model, we examined pathways between socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing symptoms (IS) in 1119 Chilean 10-year-olds. Mediators included parental disciplinary style and reserve capacity resources (RCR), namely home environment, parent-child engagement, and self-esteem, and conduct problems. Using structural equation modeling, the model was stratified by gender. For boys, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment and parental disciplinary style. For girls, the SES-IS relationship was mediated by the home environment, parent-child engagement, self-esteem, and conduct problems. Findings suggest different RCR may protect against IS in a sample of Chilean children. PMID:27123471

  10. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  11. Original footage of the Chilean miners with manganism published in Neurology in 1967.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo; Bustamante, M Leonor; Mena, Francisco; Lees, Andrew

    2015-12-15

    Manganism has captured the imagination of neurologists for more than a century because of its similarities to Parkinson disease and its indirect but seminal role in the "l-dopa miracle." We present unpublished footage of the original case series reported in Neurology® in 1967 by Mena and Cotzias depicting the typical neurologic signs of manganism in 4 Chilean miners and their response to high doses of l-dopa.

  12. Perceived and objective breast cancer risk assessment in Chilean women living in an underserved area

    PubMed Central

    Banegas, Matthew P.; Püschel, Klaus; Martinez, Javiera; Anderson, Jennifer C.; Thompson, Beti

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy among Chilean women and an increasingly significant public health threat. This study assessed the accuracy of breast cancer risk perception among underserved, Chilean women. Methods Women aged 50 to 70 years, with no mammogram during the last two years, were randomly selected from a community clinic registry in Santiago, Chile (n=500). Perceived risk was measured using three methods: absolute risk, comparative risk and numerical risk. Risk comprehension was measured by comparing women’s perceived and objective risk estimates. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess overestimation of perceived risk. Results Women at high risk of breast cancer were more likely than average risk women to perceive themselves at high or higher risk, using absolute and comparative risk approaches (p<0.001). The majority of participants (67%) overestimated their breast cancer risk, based on risk comprehension; although, participants achieved higher accuracy with comparative risk (40%) and absolute risk (31.6%) methods. [Age, breast cancer knowledge and Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) 5-year risk were significantly associated (p<0.01) with accuracy of perceived risk]. Conclusion Chilean women residing in an underserved community may not accurately assess their breast cancer risk, though risk perception and level of accuracy differed between perceived risk measures. Comparative and absolute risk methods may better reflect women’s interpretation and accuracy of risk perception. Impact Improving our understanding of Chilean women’s perceptions of developing breast cancer may lead to the development of culturally relevant efforts to reduce the breast cancer burden in this population. PMID:22837144

  13. Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly I: Root of the main crustal decollement for the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J. )

    1990-09-01

    The Gulf Coast-East Coast magnetic anomaly extends for at least 4000 km from south-central Texas to offshore Newfoundland as one of the longest continuous tectonic features in North America and a major crustal element of the entire North Atlantic-Gulf Coast region. Analysis of 28 profiles spaced at 100km intervals and four computed models demonstrate that the anomaly may be explained by a thick zone of mafic and ultramafic rocks averaging 13-15 km in depth. The trend of the anomaly closely follows the trend of main Appalachian features: in the Gulf Coast of Louisiana, the anomaly is as far south of the Ouachita front as it is east of the western limit of deformation through the central Appalachians. Because the anomaly continues across well-known continental crust in northern Florida and onshore Texas, it cannot plausibly be ascribed to an edge effect at the boundary of oceanic with continental crustal compositions. The northwest-verging, deep-crustal events discovered in COCORP data from the Ouachitas and Appalachians suggest an analogy with the main suture of the Himalayan orogen in the Tibetan Plateau. In this paper the anomaly is identified with the late Paleozoic Alleghenian megasuture, in which the northwest-verging crustal-detachment surfaces ultimately root.

  14. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  15. Rhizobacterial Community Structures Associated with Native Plants Grown in Chilean Extreme Environments.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Milko A; Maruyama, Fumito; Ogram, Andrew V; Navarrete, Oscar U; Lagos, Lorena M; Inostroza, Nitza G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Rilling, Joaquín I; de La Luz Mora, María

    2016-10-01

    Chile is topographically and climatically diverse, with a wide array of diverse undisturbed ecosystems that include native plants that are highly adapted to local conditions. However, our understanding of the diversity, activity, and role of rhizobacteria associated with natural vegetation in undisturbed Chilean extreme ecosystems is very poor. In the present study, the combination of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 454-pyrosequencing approaches was used to describe the rhizobacterial community structures of native plants grown in three representative Chilean extreme environments: Atacama Desert (ATA), Andes Mountains (AND), and Antarctic (ANT). Both molecular approaches revealed the presence of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in the rhizospheres of native plants. Lower numbers of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were observed in rhizosphere soils from ATA compared with AND and ANT. Both approaches also showed differences in rhizobacterial community structures between extreme environments and between plant species. The differences among plant species grown in the same environment were attributed to the higher relative abundance of classes Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria. However, further studies are needed to determine which environmental factors regulate the structures of rhizobacterial communities, and how (or if) specific bacterial groups may contribute to the growth and survival of native plants in each Chilean extreme environments. PMID:27406732

  16. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni.

    PubMed

    Correa, Margarita C G; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-11-12

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader.

  17. Impact of Mano a Mano Mujer, an HIV Prevention Intervention, on Depressive Symptoms among Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Lara, Loreto; Villegas, Natalia; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide, an in Chile, the number of women living with HIV is increasing. Depression is considered a factor that interferes with HIV prevention. Depression may reach 41% among low income Chilean women. Depressed people are less willing to participate in behaviors that protect them against HIV. Objectives To analyze the impact of Mano a Mano-Mujer (MM-M) on depressive symptoms among Chilean women. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used to test the impact of MM-M, an HIV prevention intervention. The research was conducted in Santiago- Chile, a total of 400 women participated in the study (intervention group, n = 182; control group, n = 218). The intervention was guided by the social-cognitive model and the primary health model. The intervention consists of six two-hour sessions delivered in small groups. Sessions covered: HIV prevention, depression, partner's communication, and substance abuse. Face to face interviews were conducted at baseline and at 3 months follow-up Results At 3 months post-intervention, Chilean women who participated in MM-M significantly decreased their reported depressive symptoms. Conclusions MM-M provided significant benefits for women's depression symptoms. This study offers a model that address depression, a risk factor for HIV. It uses nurses as leaders for the screening of depressive symptoms and as facilitators of community interventions. PMID:22452388

  18. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  19. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Maternal Diet and Erythrocyte Phospholipid Status in Chilean Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Bascuñán, Karla A.; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Chamorro, Rodrigo; Valencia, Alejandra; Barrera, Cynthia; Puigrredon, Claudia; Sandoval, Jorge; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Chilean diets are characterized by a low supply of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), which are critical nutrients during pregnancy and lactation, because of their role in brain and visual development. DHA is the most relevant n-3 PUFA in this period. We evaluated the dietary n-3 PUFA intake and erythrocyte phospholipids n-3 PUFA in Chilean pregnant women. Eighty healthy pregnant women (20–36 years old) in the 3rd–6th month of pregnancy were included in the study. Dietary assessment was done applying a food frequency questionnaire, and data were analyzed through the Food Processor SQL® software. Fatty acids of erythrocyte phospholipids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography. Diet composition was high in saturated fat, low in mono- and PUFA, high in n-6 PUFA (linoleic acid) and low in n-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid and DHA), with imbalance in the n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio. Similar results were observed for fatty acids from erythrocyte phospholipids. The sample of Chilean pregnant women showed high consumption of saturated fat and low consumption of n-3 PUFA, which is reflected in the low DHA content of erythrocyte phospholipids. Imbalance between n-6/n-3 PUFA could negatively affect fetal development. New strategies are necessary to improve n-3 PUFA intake throughout pregnancy and breast feeding periods. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop dietary interventions to improve the quality of consumed foods with particular emphasis on n-3 PUFA. PMID:25386693

  20. Mealybug species from Chilean agricultural landscapes and main factors influencing the genetic structure of Pseudococcus viburni

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Margarita C. G.; Lombaert, Eric; Malausa, Thibaut; Crochard, Didier; Alvear, Andrés; Zaviezo, Tania; Palero, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize the distribution of mealybug species along Chilean agro-ecosystems and to determine the relative impact of host plant, management strategy, geography and micro-environment on shaping the distribution and genetic structure of the obscure mealybug Pseudococcus viburni. An extensive survey was completed using DNA barcoding methods to identify Chilean mealybugs to the species level. Moreover, a fine-scale study of Ps. viburni genetic diversity and population structure was carried out, genotyping 529 Ps. viburni individuals with 21 microsatellite markers. Samples from 16 localities were analyzed using Bayesian and spatially-explicit methods and the genetic dataset was confronted to host-plant, management and environmental data. Chilean crops were found to be infested by Ps. viburni, Pseudococcus meridionalis, Pseudococcus longispinus and Planococcus citri, with Ps. viburni and Ps. meridionalis showing contrasting distribution and host-plant preference patterns. Ps. viburni samples presented low genetic diversity levels but high genetic differentiation. While no significant genetic variance could be assigned to host-plant or management strategy, climate and geography were found to correlate significantly with genetic differentiation levels. The genetic characterization of Ps. viburni within Chile will contribute to future studies tracing back the origin and improving the management of this worldwide invader. PMID:26559636

  1. Intra and Inter-Population Morphological Variation of Shape and Size of the Chilean Magnificent Beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis in the Baker River Basin, Chilean Patagonia

    PubMed Central

    Benítez, Hugo A.; Briones, Raúl; Jerez, Viviane

    2011-01-01

    The alteration of habitat generates different degrees of stress in insects. It has been suggested that the degrees of phenotypic disturbances reflect the ability of an individual to overcome the effects of stress. The Baker River Basin in the Aysén Region, Chilean Patagonia has a very fragmented landscape, due to the destruction of the native forest and the use of land for agriculture and animal husbandry. This alteration should generate different degrees of disturbances in the insect communities, whose effects may be quantified by geometric morphometric tools. We analyzed morphological differences in 244 males and 133 females of the the Chilean magnificent beetle, Ceroglossus chilensis (Eschscholtz) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected in January, 2007, in mixed forests of Nothofagus dombeyi Mirbel (Ørsted) (Fagales: Nothofagaceae) and N. nitida Hofmus and in Second-growth forest of N. pumilio (Poepp. & Endl.) Krasser. Males were generally wider in the pronotum, while females had wider abdominal sternites. Although there were significant differences in shape and size between mature forests and second-growth forest, these were less significant among the sites within each type of vegetal formation. Individuals had more shape variations in the mature forest. We suggest that differences in shape are due at least in part to the isolation of the habitat. The differences found between sexes raises the question of how morphological variations and sexual dimorphism may be affected spatially by natural selection. PMID:21870986

  2. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies.

  3. Fault Scarp Degradation in the North Chilean Forearc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J. S.; Isacks, B. L.; Hoke, G. D.

    2001-12-01

    A new digital elevation model (DEM) with 20 m resolution of the forearc region of northern Chile highlights the remarkable system of fault scarps disrupting the low relief Paleogene surface of the Coastal Cordillera. The scarps range in height from tens to hundreds of meters (up to 300 m) and appear sharp and youthful. However, the hyper-arid climate of the region may lead to long-term preservation of older, currently inactive structures. Field examination of a sampling of the scarps reveals some highly weathered bedrock outcrops near the top but mainly debris slopes close to the angle of repose. The scarp faces are relatively smooth with rounded tops, with only occasional widely spaced rills on the slopes, all suggesting little development of an advective erosional system; instead, the evidence implies the dominance of transport-limited, diffusive processes. Profiles extracted from the digital topographic dataset are integrated with scarp profiles measured in the field to assess DEM accuracy. Landscape development is studied at the regional scale from DEM profiles and at the hillslope scale from field profiles. We apply diffusion modeling on scarp profiles to determine constraints for the ages of faulting. We document the relative ages of tectonic landforms based on the degrees of degradation; older landforms are expected to be smoother than younger landforms. These relative ages are then compared with apparent cross cutting relationships from overhead imagery which has implications for the sequence of faulting in the forearc.

  4. Residual Circulation in a Chilean Equatorward Facing Embayment: Tongoy Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraga-Opazo, J.; Valle-Levinson, A.

    2006-12-01

    Underway current velocity profiles were measured along a pair of transects during a period of 48 hours in an equatorward facing bay with the objective of characterizing the impact of circulation in bay aquaculture activities. The bay is Tongoy, located in north-central Chile (30° 15´S, 71° 35´W) and oriented northward. The bay entrance is oriented in the east-west direction and its width is 12 km while its maximum depth is 100 m. The bay is near a permanent upwelling focus that is likely to supply nutrients. The eastern portion of the bay is used for aquaculture (suspended system) of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus and is the most important aquaculture area in northern Chile. The velocity measurements were obtained during austral autumn and spring, in April and December 2005. Mean flows showed inflow over the eastern side of the entrance and outflow on the western side, following the bay's morphology. The mean flows were almost unidirectional in the autumn but changed more dramatically with depth in the spring. Results of a simple analytical model that compares the relative influence of frictional and Earth's rotational effects suggest that these mean circulations were close to being in geostrophic balance. This meant that frictional influences were negligible, corresponding to a low Ekman number regime. The mean circulation suggested that larvae should be concentrated near the coastline, in depths < 20 m, with greatest abundances to the southwest of the bay.

  5. Bryan Coast, English Coast, Alexander Island, Fallieres Coast, and Bellingshausen Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Antarctica shows the Bryan Coast (lower left), the English Coast (lower central), Alexander Island (middle right), the Fallieres Coast (top right), and the Bellingshausen Sea. The entire continent has been dedicated to peaceful scientific investigation since 1961, with the signing of the Antarctic Treaty.The waters surrounding Antarctica are intensely cold. Salt water freezes at -2C, allowing sea ice to form. The middle left portion of the image shows quite a lot of sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea. During the Antarctic winter, when data for this image was acquired, Antarctica doubles in size to about 28.5 million square km (or about 11 million square miles), and temperatures in the -60C range are common.This true-color image was compiled from MODIS data gathered March 29, 2002. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-01

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  7. Post Fukushima tsunami simulations for Malaysian coasts

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, Hock Lye; Teh, Su Yean; Abas, Mohd Rosaidi Che

    2014-10-24

    The recent recurrences of mega tsunamis in the Asian region have rekindled concern regarding potential tsunamis that could inflict severe damage to affected coastal facilities and communities. The 11 March 2011 Fukushima tsunami that crippled nuclear power plants in Northern Japan has further raised the level of caution. The recent discovery of petroleum reserves in the coastal water surrounding Malaysia further ignites the concern regarding tsunami hazards to petroleum facilities located along affected coasts. Working in a group, federal government agencies seek to understand the dynamics of tsunami and their impacts under the coordination of the Malaysian National Centre for Tsunami Research, Malaysian Meteorological Department. Knowledge regarding the generation, propagation and runup of tsunami would provide the scientific basis to address safety issues. An in-house tsunami simulation models known as TUNA has been developed by the authors to assess tsunami hazards along affected beaches so that mitigation measures could be put in place. Capacity building on tsunami simulation plays a critical role in the development of tsunami resilience. This paper aims to first provide a simple introduction to tsunami simulation towards the achievement of tsunami simulation capacity building. The paper will also present several scenarios of tsunami dangers along affected Malaysia coastal regions via TUNA simulations to highlight tsunami threats. The choice of tsunami generation parameters reflects the concern following the Fukushima tsunami.

  8. Free Education! A "Live" Report on the Chilean Student Movement 2011-2014--Reform or Revolution? [A Political Sociology for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbuerger, Elisabeth; Neary, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a report on the Chilean student movement, 2011-2014, from the perspective of the students themselves, based on the main research question: are the student protests for reform or revolution? The research data was collected during October 2013 before the Chilean Presidential and Parliamentary elections using the methodology of…

  9. The Image of E-Learning: Perceptions about a Chilean University and the E-Learning System in the Context of Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farcas, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the image of a Chilean university, as perceived by those inside and outside of the institution, in contrast with the general image of the e-learning system in Chile. The internal perceptions are those of current students and graduates of this Chilean university, while the external perceptions are those…

  10. Chilean blue whales as a case study to illustrate methods to estimate abundance and evaluate conservation status of rare species.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Hedley, Sharon L; Branch, Trevor A; Bravington, Mark V; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Findlay, Ken P

    2011-06-01

    Often abundance of rare species cannot be estimated with conventional design-based methods, so we illustrate with a population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) a spatial model-based method to estimate abundance. We analyzed data from line-transect surveys of blue whales off the coast of Chile, where the population was hunted to low levels. Field protocols allowed deviation from planned track lines to collect identification photographs and tissue samples for genetic analyses, which resulted in an ad hoc sampling design with increased effort in areas of higher densities. Thus, we used spatial modeling methods to estimate abundance. Spatial models are increasingly being used to analyze data from surveys of marine, aquatic, and terrestrial species, but estimation of uncertainty from such models is often problematic. We developed a new, broadly applicable variance estimator that showed there were likely 303 whales (95% CI 176-625) in the study area. The survey did not span the whales' entire range, so this is a minimum estimate. We estimated current minimum abundance relative to pre-exploitation abundance (i.e., status) with a population dynamics model that incorporated our minimum abundance estimate, likely population growth rates from a meta-analysis of rates of increase in large baleen whales, and two alternative assumptions about historic catches. From this model, we estimated that the population was at a minimum of 9.5% (95% CI 4.9-18.0%) of pre-exploitation levels in 1998 under one catch assumption and 7.2% (CI 3.7-13.7%) of pre-exploitation levels under the other. Thus, although Chilean blue whales are probably still at a small fraction of pre-exploitation abundance, even these minimum abundance estimates demonstrate that their status is better than that of Antarctic blue whales, which are still <1% of pre-exploitation population size. We anticipate our methods will be broadly applicable in aquatic and terrestrial surveys for rarely encountered species

  11. Chilean blue whales as a case study to illustrate methods to estimate abundance and evaluate conservation status of rare species.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Hedley, Sharon L; Branch, Trevor A; Bravington, Mark V; Zerbini, Alexandre N; Findlay, Ken P

    2011-06-01

    Often abundance of rare species cannot be estimated with conventional design-based methods, so we illustrate with a population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) a spatial model-based method to estimate abundance. We analyzed data from line-transect surveys of blue whales off the coast of Chile, where the population was hunted to low levels. Field protocols allowed deviation from planned track lines to collect identification photographs and tissue samples for genetic analyses, which resulted in an ad hoc sampling design with increased effort in areas of higher densities. Thus, we used spatial modeling methods to estimate abundance. Spatial models are increasingly being used to analyze data from surveys of marine, aquatic, and terrestrial species, but estimation of uncertainty from such models is often problematic. We developed a new, broadly applicable variance estimator that showed there were likely 303 whales (95% CI 176-625) in the study area. The survey did not span the whales' entire range, so this is a minimum estimate. We estimated current minimum abundance relative to pre-exploitation abundance (i.e., status) with a population dynamics model that incorporated our minimum abundance estimate, likely population growth rates from a meta-analysis of rates of increase in large baleen whales, and two alternative assumptions about historic catches. From this model, we estimated that the population was at a minimum of 9.5% (95% CI 4.9-18.0%) of pre-exploitation levels in 1998 under one catch assumption and 7.2% (CI 3.7-13.7%) of pre-exploitation levels under the other. Thus, although Chilean blue whales are probably still at a small fraction of pre-exploitation abundance, even these minimum abundance estimates demonstrate that their status is better than that of Antarctic blue whales, which are still <1% of pre-exploitation population size. We anticipate our methods will be broadly applicable in aquatic and terrestrial surveys for rarely encountered species

  12. Mg and 18O Variations in the Shell of the Chilean Gastropod Concholepas concholepas Reflect SST and Growth Rate variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, N.; Lazareth, C. E.; Poitrasson, F.; Cuif, J.; Ortlieb, L.

    2004-12-01

    To validate the use of fossil mollusc shells as recorders of environmental conditions, a primary calibration study was carried out on modern shells of the Chilean gastropod Concholepas concholepas, the so-called southern hemisphere abalone which is particularly abundant in Holocene archaeological sites. Organisms were maintained in culture tanks and feed with live mytilids. The sea water temperature in the tank was recorded every half-an-hour by an automatic device. The experiment lasted several months. Periodical marking with calcein provided a precise chronological control of the shell growth. Thus, well-dated high resolution chemical profiles could be directly compared with temperatures during shell formation. Geochemical analyses of the calcite layers include Mg, Sr and 16O/18O composition. Trace elements were analysed using Laser Ablation ICP-MS and Electron Microprobe while stable isotopes were measured on a Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry (SIMS). The shell growth rate during two months of formation varied between 30 and 140 µm/day which allows us to reach a temporal resolution for chemical profiles between a few hours and three days. The growth rate variations do not seem to be related to temperature fluctuations. Only Mg content was analytically reproducible and showed significant variations across the shells. The Mg high-resolution profiles display a grossly sinusoidal shape. Shells from different sites along the coasts of Chile showed mean Mg contents of 300 ppm and 500 ppm for mean temperatures of 17 and 20° C, respectively. This suggests a gross correlation between Mg and temperature. However, high resolution Mg results do not show an exact fitting neither with temperature nor with growth rates. Other parameters, like shell ageing as suggested by an amplitude increase observed near the edge of one of the shells, or other complex biological factors, may influence Mg incorporation into the shell. \\delta 18O values of the calcite vary between -1,5 and 2

  13. Ivory Coast: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruhn, Thea C.

    A survey of the status of language usage in the Ivory Coast begins with an overview of the usage patterns of French, the official language, and the five most commonly used native languages: Jula, Anyi-Baoule, Senoufo, Bete, and Dan. Recent Ivorian efforts at language planning, development, and research are also highlighted. A matrix follows that…

  14. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  15. The response of nitrifying microbial assemblages to ammonium (NH4+) enrichment from salmon farm activities in a northern Chilean Fjord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elizondo-Patrone, Claudia; Hernández, Klaudia; Yannicelli, Beatriz; Olsen, Lasse Mork; Molina, Verónica

    2015-12-01

    The consequences of aquaculture include alterations in nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments that may lead to ecosystem degradation. Herein salmon aquaculture release of ammonium (NH4+) to the water column and its effects on natural archaea and bacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOA and AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) community structure were studied in the Comau fjord using molecular approaches, such as: cloning (AOA and AOB richness), qPCR for C. Nitrosopumilus maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. (NOB) abundance (DNA) and RT-qPCR only for Nitrospina sp activity (RNA). Sampling was carried out in brackish (0.7-25 salinity, <5 m depth) and marine (>30 salinity, 25 m depth) waters during contrasting salmon production periods: rest (winter 2012), growth and harvest (summer and winter 2013). During the rest period, the highest NH4+ concentration was observed at Vodudahue River, whereas during productive periods NH4+ accumulated in the brackish layer inside salmon cages and in the vicinty (up to 700 m distance from the cages). The nitrifier community from the fjord reference station (Stn-C) was characterized by C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrosomonas sp. (AOB) sequences affiliated with cosmopolitan ecotypes (e.g., marine, freshwater, hydrothermal), maxima abundances of C. N. maritimus (AOA) and Nitrospina sp. and extreme ranges of Nitrospina sp. activity occurred in the brackish layer. During productive periods, abundances of C. N. maritimus were co-varied with NH4+ concentrations inside salmon cages (summer) and the adjacent areas (winter). Productive periods were characterized by lower abundances but more homogeneity between brackish and marine areas than for the Stn-C nitrifiers. The physiological state of Nitrospina sp. estimated from cDNA:DNA ratios indicated higher growth during winter 2013 associated with NH4+ enrichment derived from production and river input. Our results suggest that in Comau Fjord, NH4+ enrichment events occur during salmon production and also naturally by river inputs, supporting an abundant and active nitrifying community potentially processing only part of the extra NH4+ that occurs, predominantly outside the salmon cages. Our work highlights the abundance and activities of nitrifying communities and identifies these communities as being sensitive to increased loads of NH4+ .

  16. Bloom of the Yessotoxin producing dinoflagellate Protoceratium reticulatum (Dinophyceae) in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, Gonzalo; Uribe, Eduardo; Díaz, Rosario; Braun, Mauricio; Mariño, Carmen; Blanco, Juan

    2011-05-01

    In summer 2007, a dinoflagellate preliminarily identified as Protoceratium reticulatum bloomed in Bahía Mejillones, northern Chile. Phytoplankton samples were analyzed in detail by light and scanning electron microscopy revealing the presence of resting cyst and motile cells of P. reticulatum. Oceanographic and phytoplankton data suggest that the bloom was initiated offshore by motile cells and germinated cysts during an upwelling pulse. These cells were advected into the bay when upwelling relaxed and grew without any relevant competitor. Phytoplankton net samples were found to contain yessotoxin as the only toxin in an estimated proportion of 0.2 and 0.4 pg cell - 1 , thus confirming that P. reticulatum is a source of yessotoxin in northern Chilean waters and consequently that it poses a risk for human health and mollusk exploitation in the area.

  17. Oceanographic Conditions Off Northern Chile During the 1996 La Nina and 1997-1998 El Nino: Part1 - Hydrographic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, J.; Thomas, A.; Strub, T.; Carr, M.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile (18(sup o) - 24(sup o)S) betweeen 1996 and 1998 (including 1997-1998 El Nino) is presented using hydrographic measurements acquired on quarterly cruises of the Chilean Fisheries Institute, sea-surface temperature (SST), sea level, and wind speeds from Arica (18.5(sup o)S), Iquique (20.5(sup o)S), and Antofagasta (23.5(sup o)S), and a time series of vertical temperature profiles off Iquique.

  18. Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francoise; Doyle, John P.; Grossi, Stefania; vanderLinde, Dirk; Targa, Cristina; Alberotanza, Luigi; McClain, Charles R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Atmosphere and Sea Time Series (CoASTS) Project aimed at supporting ocean color research and applications, from 1995 up to the time of publication of this document, has ensured the collection of a comprehensive atmospheric and marine data set from an oceanographic tower located in the northern Adriatic Sea. The instruments and the measurement methodologies used to gather quantities relevant for bio-optical modeling and for the calibration and validation of ocean color sensors, are described. Particular emphasis is placed on four items: (1) the evaluation of perturbation effects in radiometric data (i.e., tower-shading, instrument self-shading, and bottom effects); (2) the intercomparison of seawater absorption coefficients from in situ measurements and from laboratory spectrometric analysis on discrete samples; (3) the intercomparison of two filter techniques for in vivo measurement of particulate absorption coefficients; and (4) the analysis of repeatability and reproducibility of the most relevant laboratory measurements carried out on seawater samples (i.e., particulate and yellow substance absorption coefficients, and pigment and total suspended matter concentrations). Sample data are also presented and discussed to illustrate the typical features characterizing the CoASTS measurement site in view of supporting the suitability of the CoASTS data set for bio-optical modeling and ocean color calibration and validation.

  19. Chalk coast dynamics: Implications for understanding rock coast evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Cherith; Robinson, David

    2011-12-01

    Rock cliffs and shore platforms are linked components of the world's coastal zone. Understanding of the dynamics of their relationships has been hindered by the often imperceptible changes that occur within human time scales. The Cretaceous Chalk coasts of northwest Europe, and particularly those of southeast England, are among the most dynamic, and most intensively studied, cliffed rock coasts in the world. Perceptible changes to both cliffs and platforms have been measured on monthly, seasonal, annual and decadal time scales. Through a review of previously published data and the addition of data not previously published, average cliff retreat rates are calculated as 0.49 ± 0.38 m y - 1 and platform erosion rates 3.999 ± 3.208 mm y - 1 . This paper highlights some of the interactions over time and space between process and measurement that continue to limit our understanding of the dynamics of rock coasts; in particular the link between rates of cliff retreat and platform erosion. It concludes by identifying fruitful areas for future research.

  20. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Araya, A. X.; Norr, K. F.; Levy, J.A.; Pérez, C.M.; Park, C.G.; Kim, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Identifying both HIV-related and co-morbid symptoms experienced by people living with HIV (PLWH) who are receiving antiretroviral therapy treatment (ART) is a major challenge for health care providers globally. Yet little research to date has examined the symptoms of illness experienced by PLWH including patients living in Central and South American. To address this gap, this study was designed to identify symptoms of HIV by socio-demographic and/or clinical characteristics among Chilean patients living with the virus. A convenience sample of 209 Chilean PLWH was recruited from an outpatient clinic in Santiago, Chile. A structured interview was used to elicit socio-demographic information and HIV symptoms status. Additional clinical information was obtained through a review of the participants’ medical records. Results show that patients’ most commonly reported HIV-related symptoms were fear/worries (66%), anxiety (52%), gas/bloating (50%), and thirst (50%). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the number of reported HIV-related symptoms and number of years living with HIV. Having completed college was negatively associated with number of symptoms. Latent class analysis indicated that PLWH in the sample who had completed college were two times more likely to experience a mild intensity of HIV-related symptoms than their lesser educated counterparts. Similarly, logistic regression revealed that college-educated PLWH were twice as likely to be classified in the subgroup reporting mild intensity of symptoms than those who lacked a college degree. Overall, the study’s results reveal that many Chilean PLWH, even those with high CD4 counts and low or undetectable viral loads, are not symptom free. The findings point to the need for clinicians to tailor a plan of care for individuals living with HIV that is based on their symptomatology. PMID:22909386

  1. Identification of High Frequency Pulses from Earthquake Asperities Along Chilean Subduction Zone Using Strong Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, S.; Kausel, E.; Campos, J.; Saragoni, G. R.; Madariaga, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Chilean subduction zone is one of the most active of the world with M = 8 or larger interplate thrust earthquakes occurring every 10 years or so on the average. The identification and characterization of pulses propagated from dominant asperities that control the rupture of these earthquakes is an important problem for seismology and especially for seismic hazard assessment since it can reduce the earthquake destructiveness potential. A number of studies of large Chilean earthquakes have revealed that the source time functions of these events are composed of a number of distinct energy arrivals. In this paper, we identify and characterize the high frequency pulses of dominant asperities using near source strong motion records. Two very well recorded interplate earthquakes, the 1985 Central Chile (Ms = 7.8) and the 2007 Tocopilla (Mw = 7.7), are considered. In particular, the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake was recorded by a network with absolute time and continuos recording. From the study of these strong motion data it is possible to identify the arrival of large pulses coming from different dominant asperities. The recognition of the key role of dominant asperities in seismic hazard assessment can reduce overestimations due to scattering of attenuation formulas that consider epicentral distance or shortest distance to the fault rather than the asperity distance. The location and number of dominant asperities, their shape, the amplitude and arrival time of pulses can be one of the principal factors influencing Chilean seismic hazard assessment and seismic design. The high frequency pulses identified in this paper have permitted us to extend the range of frequency in which the 1985 Central Chile and 2007 Tocopilla earthquakes were studied. This should allow in the future the introduction of this seismological result in the seismic design of earthquake engineering.

  2. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  3. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  4. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  5. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  6. 27 CFR 9.116 - Sonoma Coast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Coast. 9.116... Sonoma Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Coast”. (b) Approved map. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma Coast viticultural area are...

  7. Genotypic characterization of Chilean llama (Lama glama) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) pestivirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, I M; Fuentes, R; Celedón, M O

    2014-01-31

    Llamas and alpacas are domesticated South American camelids (SACs) important to ancestral population in the Altiplano region, and to different communities worldwide where they have been introduced. These ungulates have shown to be susceptible to several livestock viral pathogens such as members of the Pestivirus genus, in particular Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVDV), but there is little data available on Pestivirus infections in SACs. In this study we aimed to detect and identify Pestivirus genotypes and subgroups infecting SACs in both wild and confined environments. Samples were collected from 136 llamas and 30 alpacas from different areas in the Chilean Altiplano (wild animals), and from 22 llamas and 26 alpacas diagnosed as Pestivirus positive from the Metropolitana region in Chile (confined animals). Seroneutralization tests showed titers lower than 2 in all 166 samples from Chilean Altiplano. These samples were also negative to BVDV isolation, indicating that these animals have not been exposed to Pestivirus. After reactivation of positive samples from the Metropolitana region, the 5' non-codifying region (5'NCR) and E2 glycoprotein were amplified by RT-PCR from the Pestivirus genome. Viral sequences were pairwise compared and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The 5'NCR analysis showed that all 12 sequenced isolates belonged to BVDV-1. Of particular interest, isolates from eight llama and two alpaca were BVDV-1j and two alpacas were BVDV-1b. In agreement with these results, E2 phylogenetic analysis rendered a similar grouping indicating that all 16 isolates belong to BVDV-1. However, the lower availability of E2 sequences determines the creation of a smaller number of sub-groups than the 5'NCR sequences. Based on the E2 sequences, the 5'NCR BVDV 1j group consisting of all the llamas and 3 alpacas are completely included in the E2 BVDV 1e group. Due to the universal availability of the 5'NCR segment, we propose the classification of these Chilean llamas and

  8. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists.

    PubMed

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  9. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed.

  10. [Considerations on the new Chilean law about rights and duties of patients].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Sergio; Aliaga, Verónica; Burdiles, Patricio; Carvallo, Aurelio; Díaz, Eduardo; Guerrero, Manuel; Rueda, Laura; Valenzuela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    After years of discussion by the Chilean legislature, the Law Nº 20.584, which regulates health care related rights and duties of people, entered into force in Chile in October 2012. This bill represents an important step in the recognition and protection of health care related rights, welfare, dignity and duties of persons. It also intends to protect potential participants in clinical research. However such protective measures include explicit prohibitions such as the review of clinical records or the inclusion of people with mental or psychological handicaps as research participants. We herein discuss the implications of this law in medical research.

  11. [Considerations on the new Chilean law about rights and duties of patients].

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Sergio; Aliaga, Verónica; Burdiles, Patricio; Carvallo, Aurelio; Díaz, Eduardo; Guerrero, Manuel; Rueda, Laura; Valenzuela, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    After years of discussion by the Chilean legislature, the Law Nº 20.584, which regulates health care related rights and duties of people, entered into force in Chile in October 2012. This bill represents an important step in the recognition and protection of health care related rights, welfare, dignity and duties of persons. It also intends to protect potential participants in clinical research. However such protective measures include explicit prohibitions such as the review of clinical records or the inclusion of people with mental or psychological handicaps as research participants. We herein discuss the implications of this law in medical research. PMID:25860274

  12. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the Chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika.

    PubMed

    Hechinger, Ryan F; Lafferty, Kevin D; Kuris, Armand M

    2008-08-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems.

  13. Results on the neutron energy distribution measurements at the RECH-1 Chilean nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, P.; Molina, F.; Romero-Barrientos, J.

    2016-07-01

    Neutron activations experiments has been perform at the RECH-1 Chilean Nuclear Reactor to measure its neutron flux energy distribution. Samples of pure elements was activated to obtain the saturation activities for each reaction. Using - ray spectroscopy we identify and measure the activity of the reaction product nuclei, obtaining the saturation activities of 20 reactions. GEANT4 and MCNP was used to compute the self shielding factor to correct the cross section for each element. With the Expectation-Maximization algorithm (EM) we were able to unfold the neutron flux energy distribution at dry tube position, near the RECH-1 core. In this work, we present the unfolding results using the EM algorithm.

  14. Mano a Mano Mujer: An Effective HIV Prevention for Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L.; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally-facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low income Chilean women was examined using a quasi-experimental design. At three months post-intervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes towards people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self-efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. However, they did not have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries. PMID:22420675

  15. Mano a Mano-Mujer: an effective HIV prevention intervention for Chilean women.

    PubMed

    Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F; Miner, Sarah; Irarrazabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Peragallo, Nilda; Levy, Judith; Norr, James L; McElmurry, Beverly

    2012-01-01

    The impact of a professionally facilitated peer group intervention for HIV prevention among 400 low-income Chilean women was examined using a quasiexperimental design. At 3 months postintervention, the intervention group had higher HIV-related knowledge, more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV, fewer perceived condom use barriers, greater self- efficacy, higher HIV reduction behavioral intentions, more communication with partners about safer sex, and decreased depression symptoms. They did not, however, have increased condom use or self-esteem. More attention to gender barriers is needed. This intervention offers a model for reducing HIV for women in Chile and other Latin American countries.

  16. Misconceptions of the p-value among Chilean and Italian Academic Psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Badenes-Ribera, Laura; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Iotti, Bryan; Bonilla-Campos, Amparo; Longobardi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Common misconceptions of p-values are based on certain beliefs and attributions about the significance of the results. Thus, they affect the professionals' decisions and jeopardize the quality of interventions and the accumulation of valid scientific knowledge. We conducted a survey on 164 academic psychologists (134 Italian, 30 Chilean) questioned on this topic. Our findings are consistent with previous research and suggest that some participants do not know how to correctly interpret p-values. The inverse probability fallacy presents the greatest comprehension problems, followed by the replication fallacy. These results highlight the importance of the statistical re-education of researchers. Recommendations for improving statistical cognition are proposed. PMID:27602007

  17. Age-related haematological changes and haemopathological responses in Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chiliensis).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1984-04-01

    Full blood counts and fibrinogen estimations were carried out on 49 clinically normal Chilean flamingos of different ages. Compared with adults, chicks aged 2-3 months showed low haemoglobin levels, red cell counts, packed cell volumes and mean cell haemoglobin concentrations. There was a rise in haemoglobin level and red cell count with increasing age but the mean cell haemoglobin concentration did not reach optimum until the birds were mature. In chicks the total white cell count was high and the number of heterophils was widely variable. Findings on four sick adult birds provided preliminary evidence that clinical haematology has a potential diagnostic value in this species.

  18. A chromosomal analysis of four species of Chilean Chrysomelinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Petitpierre, Eduard; Elgueta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Four species of Chilean leaf beetles in the subfamily Chrysomelinae have been cytogenetically analyzed, Blaptea elguetai Petitpierre, 2011, Henicotherus porteri Bréthes, 1929 and Jolivetia obscura (Philippi, 1864) show 2n = 28 chromosomes and a 13 + Xyp male meioformula, and Pataya nitida (Philippi, 1864) has the highest number of 2n = 38 chromosomes. The karyotype of Henicotherus porteri is made of mostly small meta/submetacentric chromosomes, and that of Jolivetia obscura displays striking procentric blocks of heterochromatin at pachytene autosomic bivalents using conventional staining. These findings are discussed in relation to previous cytogenetic data and current taxonomy of the subfamily. PMID:24260673

  19. Search For Paleoseismolgical Evidences Of Subduction-zone Earthquakes Along The Northwestern (Rakhine) Coast Of Myanmar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aung, T. T.; Okamura, Y.; Satake, K.; Swe, W.; Swe, T. L.; Saw, H.; Tun, S. T.

    2006-12-01

    The northwestern Myanmar (Rakhine) coast is located along the northern extension of the 2004 Sumatra- Andaman earthquake source. Historical data since 1809 indicate that a number of large earthquakes and tsunami have been struck off the western coast of Myanmar, but none of them was great in size as the 2004 earthquake. We started paleoseismological investigation of geological and geomorphological evidences of past subduction-zone earthquakes along the northwestern coast of Myanmar, and a reconnaissance survey was conducted in February 2006. Survey points of tidal flat, lagoon, coral exposure and marine terrace were chosen through examinations of geomorphic nature in available topographic maps and ASTER images. We visited total of 29 survey points around two major cities, Sittway and Thandwe. No clear evidence for tsunami deposits or uplifted coral microatolls that indicate tsunamis or coseismic sea level changes due to past subdcution zone earthquakes was recognized. Marine terraces with three distinct emerged steps were found on the coasts of Myengun and Tandin islands, near Sittway city. Coral samples on the upper steps of marine terraces, with the elevation of about 13 m at one location and 5 m of the other, were dated as about 3000 yr BP. Maximum elevations of marine terraces indicate 2-4 mm/yr uplift rate of the Rakhine coast. This is consistent with horizontal motion estimated from GPS measurement (~20 mm/yr) on the northwestern coast of Myanmar (Rakhine coast) by Socquet et al. (2006) Distribution and changes in elevation of these emerged terraces were interpreted as due to past subduction zone earthquakes occurred off the western coast of Myanmar. Further mapping the lateral extents and detailed field work of marine terraces are needed to ensure that these terraces were formed by tectonic activity associated with the subduction-zone earthquakes. Thus we plan to continue our survey on the western coast of Myanmar in early 2007.

  20. Atlantic coast feeding habits of striped bass: A synthesis supporting a coast-wide understanding of trophic biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, J. F.; Overton, A.S.; Ferry, K.H.; Mather, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    The recent increase in the Atlantic coast population of striped bass, Morone saxatilis (Walbaum), prompted managers to re-evaluate their predatory impact. Published and unpublished diet data for striped bass on the Atlantic Coast of North America were examined for geographical, ontogenetic and seasonal patterns in the diet and to assess diet for this species. Diets of young-of-the-year (YOY) striped bass were similar across the Upper Atlantic (UPATL), Chesapeake and Delaware Bays (CBDEL) and North Carolina (NCARO) areas of the Atlantic coast where either fish or mysid shrimp dominate the diet. For age one and older striped bass, cluster analysis partitioned diets based on predominance of either Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe), characteristic of striped bass from the CBDEL and NCARO regions, or non-menhaden fishes or invertebrates, characteristic of fish from the UPATL, in the diet. The predominance of invertebrates in the diets of striped bass in the UPATL region can be attributed to the absence of several important species groups in Northern waters, particularly sciaenid fishes, and to the sporadic occurrences of Atlantic menhaden to UPATL waters. In all regions, across most seasons and in most size classes of striped bass, the clupeiod fishes; menhaden, anchovies (Anchoa spp.) and river herrings (Alosa spp,) and Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus L., dominated the diets of striped bass above the first year of life.

  1. California coast nearshore processes study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the California coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson Current period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.

  2. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  3. Differential stream incision in the Oregon Coast Range

    SciTech Connect

    Personius, S.F. )

    1993-04-01

    Stream incision rates are used to determine rates and styles of late quaternary deformation of the Oregon Coast Range, in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction zone. Bedrock incision rates were obtained along westward-flowing streams, from the Umpqua river in a central western Oregon to the North Fork Nehalem River in northwestern Oregon. Incision measurements were restricted mostly to nontidal reaches that are more than 20--40 km inland from the coast, to exclude areas affected by eustatic changes in sea level. Most strath ages were determined indirectly by radiocarbon dating of detrital charcoal sampled from alluvium that overlies the straths. A few incision measurements were made on straths that underlie higher, less well preserved terrace remnants. The ages of some of these higher straths were determined by thermoluminescence (TL) dating. These ages are less constrained than those established with radiocarbon dating, but they appear to yield similar rates of incision. The difference in age between the overlying sediments and the age of strath abandonment is unknown, but several lines of evidence indicate that sediment mobilization and deposition most likely were concurrent with cutting of the strath. Numerous strath height measurements indicate that rates of incision are fairly uniform along many kilometers of individual Coast Range streams, regardless of the type of bedrock traversed. Such uniform incision rates do not support the landward tilting of the Coast Range as postulated by other studies. However, regional differences in incision apparent in northern Oregon may be explained by differential uplift caused by north-south compression in the overriding North American plate, or by changes in the geometry of the subducting Juan de Fuca plate.

  4. Coasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Edward K.; Cliff, Ursula

    1974-01-01

    This article compares two approaches to regional planning. In San Francisco, a citizen-initiated supra-agency was organized to prevent overdevelop ment of the coastline. The New York coastline, developed by one man, Robert Moses, is now victim of an inadequate and inefficient system of development that ecologically threatens the area. (MA)

  5. [The and beginnings of Chilean endocrinology in the 1920s].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Delgado, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Rejuvenation was a chapter of critical importance for the worldwide development of endocrinology in the 1920s. This work explores the acceptance of these techniques in Chile. Starting in the late 19th century, the Chilean Medical Journal (Revista Médica de Chile) incorporated references to experiments with endocrine gland preparations that were being conducted in Europe at the time. An appropriation of the experiments by the Austrian Eugen Steinach began in 1920, with prominent figures such as the Italian professor Juan Noe Crevani and the young Chilean student Ottmar Wilhelm. Between 1922 and 1924, Wilhelm developed a series of experiments on dogs, bulls, pigs, rats and Welfare Board patients through the so-called Steinach operation, which consisted of the sectioning of the efferent channel in one of the testicles. Professor Noe's scientific patronage policy and Wilhelm's strategy of succession in the field led the latter to hold a chair in the new School of Medicine of Universidad de Concepci6n at the age of 25. From this position, the. figure of Wilhelm was fundamental for the development of a line of endocrinological research that was able to position Universidad de Concepci6n as a scientific development centre, which was strengthened by the arrival of another disciple of Steinach in Chile, the Latvian professor Alejandro Lipschütz. PMID:27363250

  6. The Epidemiology of Sleep Quality and Consumption of Stimulant Beverages among Patagonian Chilean College Students

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Juan Carlos; Souza, Aline; Traslaviña, Samantha; Barbosa, Clarita; Wosu, Adaeze; Andrade, Asterio; Frye, Megan; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To assess sleep patterns and parameters of sleep quality among Chilean college students and (2) to evaluate the extent to which stimulant beverage use and other lifestyle characteristics are associated with poor sleep quality. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among college students in Patagonia, Chile. Students were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire to provide information about lifestyle and demographic characteristics. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. In addition, students underwent a physical examination to collect anthropometric measurements. Results. More than half of students (51.8%) exhibited poor sleep quality. Approximately 45% of study participants reported sleeping six hours or less per night and 9.8% used medications for sleep. In multivariate analysis, current smokers had significantly greater daytime dysfunction due to sleepiness and were more likely to use sleep medicines. Students who reported consumption of any stimulant beverage were 1.81 times as likely to have poor sleep quality compared with those who did not consume stimulant beverages (OR:1.81, 95% CI:1.21–2.00). Conclusions. Poor sleep quality is prevalent among Chilean college students, and stimulant beverage consumption was associated with the increased odds of poor sleep quality in this sample. PMID:23766919

  7. Psychometric properties of the multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) in a Chilean population

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela-Moguillansky, Camila; Reyes-Reyes, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The multidimensional assessment of interoceptive awareness (MAIA) is an instrument designed to assess interoceptive awareness. The aim of this study was to adapt the original MAIA scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties in a Chilean population. The MAIA was administered to 470 adults, aged 18–70 years, 76.6% women and 23.4% men, residents of the provinces of Valparaíso and Concepción, Chile. Exploratory factor analysis reduced the scale from 32 to 30 items. Confirmatory factor analysis supports a structure of eight interrelated factors (Noticing, Not-Distracting, Not-Worrying, Attention Regulation, Emotional Awareness, Self- Regulation, Body Listening, and Trusting), similar to the original scale (χ2(371) = 659.78, p = 0.0001; CFI = 0.92, TLI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.056 and SRMR = 0.059). The Spanish version showed appropriate indicators of construct validity and reliability, with a Cronbach’s α of 0.90 for the total scale, and values between 0.40 and 0.86 for the different subscales. Similar to previous studies, low reliability was observed in two of the eight scales (Not-Distracting and Not-Worrying), thus further revision of these subscales is suggested. The Spanish version of MAIA proved to be a valid and reliable tool to investigate interoceptive awareness in the Chilean population. PMID:25717312

  8. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  9. Depressed mood and speech in Chilean mothers of 5½-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Katy M.; Su, Jing; Kaciroti, Niko; Castillo, Marcela; Millan, Rebeca; Rule, Heather; Lozoff, Besty

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on maternal speech and depression has focused almost exclusively on how depressed mothers talk to their infants and toddlers in the U.S. and U.K., two English-speaking countries. This study considered how depressed Spanish-speaking mothers from a Latin American country talk about their preschool-age children. Five-minute speech samples were provided by 178 Chilean mothers who were asked to talk about their 5½-year-old children to a project psychologist. Maternal depressive symptomatology was measured by the Spanish-language version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). In multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), higher maternal depressed mood showed statistically significant associations with the following maternal speech characteristics: more criticisms, less laughter, fewer medium pauses, less positive satisfaction with the child’s behavior or characteristics, a rating of a negative overall relationship with the child, and more crying (suggestive trend). A structural equation model confirmed these findings and found an indirect effect between laughter and criticisms: mothers with higher depressed mood who laughed less criticized their children less. The findings illustrate that depressed mood adversely affects how a group of Chilean mothers speak about their children. PMID:21785514

  10. Family and parenting characteristics associated with marijuana use by Chilean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bares, Cristina B; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Objective Family involvement and several characteristics of parenting have been suggested to be protective factors for adolescent substance use. Some parenting behaviors may have stronger relationships with adolescent behavior while others may have associations with undesirable behavior among youth. Although it is generally acknowledged that families play an important role in the lives of Chilean adolescents, scant research exists on how different family and parenting factors may be associated with marijuana use and related problems in this population which has one of the highest rates of drug use in Latin America. Methods Using logistic regression and negative binomial regression, we examined whether a large number of family and parenting variables were associated with the possibility of Chilean adolescents ever using marijuana, and with marijuana-related problems. Analyses controlled for a number of demographic and peer-related variables. Results Controlling for other parenting and family variables, adolescent reports of parental marijuana use showed a significant and positive association with adolescent marijuana use. The multivariate models also revealed that harsh parenting by fathers was the only family variable associated with the number of marijuana-related problems youth experienced. Conclusion Of all the family and parenting variables studied, perceptions of parental use of marijuana and harsh parenting by fathers were predictors for marijuana use, and the experience of marijuana-related problems. Prevention interventions need to continue emphasizing the critical socializing role that parental behavior plays in their children’s development and potential use of marijuana. PMID:21660209

  11. Associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance in Chilean youths

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the associations between different components of fitness and fatness with academic performance, adjusting the analysis by sex, age, socio-economic status, region and school type in a Chilean sample. Methods Data of fitness, fatness and academic performance was obtained from the Chilean System for the Assessment of Educational Quality test for eighth grade in 2011 and includes a sample of 18,746 subjects (49% females). Partial correlations adjusted by confounders were done to explore association between fitness and fatness components, and between the academic scores. Three unadjusted and adjusted linear regression models were done in order to analyze the associations of variables. Results Fatness has a negative association with academic performance when Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist to Height Ratio (WHR) are assessed independently. When BMI and WHR are assessed jointly and adjusted by cofounders, WHR is more associated with academic performance than BMI, and only the association of WHR is positive. For fitness components, strength was the variable most associated with the academic performance. Cardiorespiratory capacity was not associated with academic performance if fatness and other fitness components are included in the model. Conclusions Fitness and fatness are associated with academic performance. WHR and strength are more related with academic performance than BMI and cardiorespiratory capacity. PMID:27761345

  12. Psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" in Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people.

    PubMed

    Gil-Monte, Pedro R; Olivares Faúndez, Víctor E

    2011-05-01

    While the most commonly employed burnout measure has been the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), researchers have been troubled by some of the psychometric limitations of this instrument. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the "Spanish Burnout Inventory" (SBI). The psychometric properties were analysed with data from a sample of 277 Chilean professionals working to physical disabled people. The psychometric properties of the SBI were examined through the following analyses: confirmatory factor analysis, reliability Cronbach's alpha, and concurrent validity with the MBI. The hypothesized four factor model obtained an adequate data fit for the sample (chi2(164) = 285.32, p < .001, GFI = .96, RMSEA = .052, NNFI .93, CFI = .94). Results confirmed the hypothesis formulated. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was higher than .70 for the four scales of the instruments. Results supported the concurrent validity with the MBI. As a whole, the results of these study provided evidence on the adequate psychometric properties of the SBI for the study of burnout in the Chilean cultural context.

  13. [The Chilean medical scientific societies join to form a common entity].

    PubMed

    Armas Merino, R

    2001-05-01

    A recent law project pretended to improve the number and distribution of clinical specialists throughout the country. Several Medical Scientific Societies felt that the diagnosis and the treatment proposed for the problem were erroneous. In Chile, there is no such lack of specialists but, unfortunately, they are badly distributed and any solution should include their better geographical distribution. This was the beginning of a common action by 30 Medical Scientific Societies, which realized that they have several problems in common, deciding to create an entity to face them: the Chilean Association of Medical Scientific Societies (ASOCIMED). This association was formed last August. In a few months of work it has studied its bylaws to be submitted for approval to the Member Societies. Also it has started to study, together with the Ministry of Public Health, the needs, number and distribution of specialists in the country and important information should be gathered from this study. ASOCIMED is already representing Medical Scientific Societies in the National Corporation for Medical Certification (CONACEM), together with the National Academy of Medicine is creating a National Award of Medicine and with the Health Insurance Companies is studying a way to face high cost diseases. During its short existence, ASOCIMED has faced a diversity of different issues and it seems reasonable to believe that it will play an important role in Chilean Medicine.

  14. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.

  15. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Cutoffs for Classifying Obesity in Chilean Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; David Langer, Raquel; de Fátima Guimarães, Roseane; Contiero San Martini, Mariana; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; de Arruda, Miguel; Guerra-Júnior, Gil; Moreira Gonçalves, Ezequiel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the accuracy of two international Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs for classifying obesity compared to the percentage of fat mass (%FM) assessed by Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) in a Chilean sample of children and adolescents; Material and Methods: The subjects studied included 280 children and adolescents (125 girls and 155 boys) aged 8 to 17 years. Weight and height were measured. The BMI was calculated. Two international references (IOFT and WHO) were used as cut-off points. The %FM was assessed by DXA. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to assess the performance of BMI in detecting obesity on the basis of %FM; Results: A high correlation was observed between the %FM measured by the DXA and the Z-scores of IOTF and WHO scores in the Chilean adolescents separated by sex (r = 0.78–0.80). Differences occurred in both references (IOFT and WHO) in relation to the criteria (p < 0.001). Both references demonstrated a good ability to predict sensitivity (between 84% and 93%) and specificity (between 83% and 88%) in both sexes of children and adolescents; Conclusions: A high correlation was observed between the Z-score of the BMI with the percentage of fat determined by the DXA. Despite this, the classifications using the different BMI cut-off points showed discrepancies. This suggests that the cut-off points selected to predict obesity in this sample should be viewed with caution. PMID:27164119

  16. Weak association between HLA-DR4 and rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients.

    PubMed Central

    Massardo, L; Jacobelli, S; Rodríguez, L; Rivero, S; González, A; Marchetti, R

    1990-01-01

    Evidence has suggested a genetic link between the HLA-DR4 phenotype and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), particularly in its seropositive form. Such an association varies among different ethnic groups and remains controversial for seronegative patients. Data obtained for a group of 64 Chilean patients with RA (46 seropositive, 18 seronegative), as defined by the 1987 criteria of the American Rheumatism Association, and for 76 controls are reported here. The prevalence of HLA-DR4 and DR9 was significantly increased in the group of patients considered as a whole. The prevalence of HLA-DR4 was not significantly higher, however, when seronegative and seropositive patients were separately compared with controls. Also, it did not correlate with the severity of the disease within each subgroup of patients. On the other hand, HLA-DR9 showed a highly significant difference, not previously described, only for the seropositive patients in comparison with controls. The prevalence of DQ specificities showed no relevant differences among the groups. The HLA-DR4 serotype, therefore, is a weak marker for RA and does not differentiate any subgroup of patients in the Chilean group studied. This new finding, indicating an association between RA and the DR9 antigen, may be explained by the suggestion that susceptibility epitopes are shared among different DR molecules. This hypothesis might also account for the variation in the association of DR4 with RA. PMID:2344208

  17. Frequency and Specificity of Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization in Chilean Transfused Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caamaño, José; Musante, Evangelina; Contreras, Margarita; Ulloa, Hernán; Reyes, Carolina; Inaipil, Verónica; Saavedra, Nicolás; Guzmán, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Alloimmunization is an adverse effect of blood transfusions. In Chile, alloimmunization frequency is not established, and for this reason the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in Chilean transfused subjects. Methods Records from 4,716 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. In these patients, antibody screening was carried out prior to cross-matching with a commercially available two-cell panel by the microcolum gel test, and samples with a positive screen were analyzed for the specificity of the alloantibody with a 16-cell identification panel. Results The incidence of RBC alloimmunization in transfused patients was 1.02% (48/4,716) with a higher prevalence in women (40/48). We detected 52 antibodies, the most frequent specificities identified were anti-E (30.8%), anti-K (26.9%), anti-D (7.7%), and anti-Fya (5.8%). The highest incidence of alloantibodies was observed in cancer and gastroenterology patients. Conclusion The data demonstrated a low alloimmunization frequency in Chilean transfused patients, principally associated with antibodies anti-E, anti-K, anti-D, and anti-Fya. PMID:25960709

  18. Human papillomavirus infection in oral squamous cell carcinomas from Chilean patients.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Montserrat; Rojas-Alcayaga, Gonzalo; Pennacchiotti, Gina; Carrillo, Diego; Muñoz, Juan P; Peña, Nelson; Montes, Rodrigo; Lobos, Nelson; Aguayo, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causal agent of cervical, anogenital and a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas. In addition, the role of HPV in oral carcinogenesis has been suggested, although the findings are inconclusive. In this study, using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and genotyping by specific PCR and DNA sequencing, we analyzed the HPV presence in 80 oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) from Chilean subjects. In addition, we determined the expression of p16, p53, pRb and Ki-67 using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CDKN2A (p16) promoter methylation was evaluated using methylation-specific PCR (MSP). HPV sequences were found in 9/80 (11%) OSCCs. Non-statistically significant association with p53, pRb, Ki-67 and p16 levels were found (p=0.77; 0.29; 0.83; 0.21, respectively). HPV-16 and 18 were the most prevalent HPV genotypes in 8/9 (89%) OSCCs. In addition, CDKN2A (p16) was methylated in 39% of OSCCs. No association with HPV presence (p=0.917) was found. These results suggest that HPV positive OSCCs are entities that do not resemble the molecular alterations of HPV-associated tumors in a Chilean population. More studies are warranted to determine the role of HPV in OSCCs.

  19. Increasing Students' Academic Involvement: Chilean Teacher Engagement with Learners in Blended English as a Foreign Language Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Learning English as a foreign language (EFL), a highly valued skill in the Chilean marketplace, is an arduous and complex personal endeavor requiring high student motivation. Reflecting this challenge is the heightened anxiety among EFL students, whose work has been associated with historically meager results. Blended learning, the fusion of…

  20. Local Coherence in Persuasive Writing: An Exploration of Chilean Students' Metalinguistic Knowledge, Writing Process, and Writing Products

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concha, Soledad; Paratore, Jeanne R.

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on 12th-grade Chilean students' ability to produce locally coherent persuasive texts and on the cognitive basis that underlies this ability. All the participants wrote persuasive texts and answered a test of recognition of incoherent sequences. A subsample wrote another persuasive text while thinking aloud and had a…

  1. Opening a Side-Gate: Engaging the Excluded in Chilean Higher Education through Test-Blind Admission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koljatic, Mladen; Silva, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The article describes a test-blind admission initiative in a Chilean research university aimed at expanding the inclusion of talented, albeit educationally and socially disadvantaged, students. The outcomes of the test-blind admission cohort were compared with those of students admitted via the regular admission procedure to the same academic…

  2. Modeling the Impacts of National and Institutional Financial Aid Opportunities on Persistence at an Elite Chilean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Catherine; Santelices, María Verónica; Avendaño, Ximena Catalán

    2014-01-01

    Much of the recent Chilean educational debate and reform has centered around issues of higher education cost, debt burden, and availability of grants versus loans. This quantitative case study of Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile sought to understand the longitudinal contributions of combinations of types of financial aid to persistence of…

  3. Quality of life among caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a cross-cultural comparison of Chilean and French families

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no study has examined quality of life (QoL) among caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia between a developing and a developed country. The aim of this study was to assess QoL of the caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia in two countries characterized by different social, economic and cultural conditions, namely Chile and France. Methods Data were collected from public mental health outpatient services in Arica (Chile), and in Marseille (France). QoL was measured with the short-form health survey scale - 36 items (SF36). QoL of 41 Chilean caregivers was firstly compared with 245 French caregivers. Univariate and multivariate analyses using linear regression were then performed to determine variables potentially related to QoL scores. Results The caregivers were primarily mothers in the two groups, but Chilean caregivers were younger, and lived more frequently with the individual with schizophrenia than French caregivers. The SF36 scores were globally low in the two groups, especially on the mental QoL scores. Chilean caregivers reported lower physical SF36 scores than French caregivers. In the multivariate analysis, being mother and Chilean caregivers were the most regular features associating to a lower QoL. Conclusion Despite differences between Chile and France, especially in terms of quality and quantity of mental health services and economic supports, caregivers’ QoL levels remain particularly low for both countries. Future support programmes should address the specific needs of caregivers. PMID:22640267

  4. Adolescent Temperament and Parental Control in the Development of the Adolescent Decision Making in a Chilean Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, J. Carola; Cumsille, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    The study analyzes the way in which adolescents' temperamental characteristics interact with parental control to shape adolescent decision making development. A sample of high-school Chilean adolescents (N = 391) answered a self-report questionnaire that included measures of behavioral autonomy (the extent to which adolescents make decisions in…

  5. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  6. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  7. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  10. Paleoseismology of Upper Plate Faults in the Chilean Covergent Margin: Insights from 10BE and OSL Dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, G.; Cortes, J. A.; Binnie, S.; Robinson, R.; Toledo, C.

    2010-12-01

    The Chilean convergent margin is the locus of most of the largest subduction earthquakes recorded in history. Slip deficit along this plate boundary is absorbed by elastic deformation of the upper plate. Numerical models and geodetic data suggest a fully elastic behaviour of the overriding crust and that deformation is balanced between inter- and co-seismic phases earthquake cycle; thus, non permanent deformation should be expected. However,the topographic surface of the coastal area, especially in the arid northern region of Chile (18°-26°S), shows clear evidences of permanent deformation expressed as kilometric-long fault scarps produced by normal faults. It suggests that normal faulting is a regional-scale extended process characteristic of the near surface structure of the upper plate. Some unanswered, yet critical, questions in this plate boundary are the present activity of these faults and the causal relationship between them and the subduction earthquake cycle. In order to answer these questions we conducted a paleoseismological project aimed at understanding the most recent activity of the upper plate faults in northern Chile. Here, we present the first results of two main faults located nearby the city of Antofagasta and the Mejillones Peninsula. One of these faults corresponds to the main strand of the Atacama Fault System whereas the other is the Mejillones Fault. At least 18 trenches were excavated for paleoseismological logging across these faults. OSL samples were extracted from wedge shaped colluvium and 10Be exposures ages were determined in alluvial surfaces displaced by the faults. Our results indicate that fault scarps were formed during Late Pleistocene-Holocene with a fault slip rate of 0.3 to 0.6 m/ky. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these faults generated large Mw~7 earthquakes with recurrence interval of many thousands years. In the Mejillones Fault, we determined that the elapsed time since the last large earthquake Mw~6.7 is ~3 ky BP

  11. Comparing sociodemographic factors associated with disability between immigrants and the Chilean-born: are there different stories to tell?

    PubMed

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-12-04

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile.

  12. Comparing Sociodemographic Factors Associated with Disability between Immigrants and the Chilean-Born: Are There Different Stories to Tell?

    PubMed Central

    Cabieses, Baltica; Pickett, Kate E.; Tunstall, Helena

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a range of sociodemographic factors associated with disability among international immigrants in Chile, and compared them to the Chilean-born. Secondary data analysis of the Chilean population-based survey CASEN-2006 was conducted (268,873 participants). Main health outcomes: any disability and six different types of disability: visual, hearing, learning, physical, psychiatric and speaking (binary outcomes). Sociodemographic variables: Demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, urban/rural, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (SES: income, education, employment status, and an integrated indicator combining the SES measures through cluster analysis for the immigrant population), material factors (overcrowding, sanitation, housing quality) and migration related (country of origin and length of stay). Immigrants reported a significantly lower prevalence of any disability (3.55%), visual (1.00%) and physical disability (0.38%). Factors associated with any disability among immigrants were age, low SES or over 20 years duration of residence in Chile; while a range of sociodemographic factors were associated with disability in the Chilean-born. Conditional regression models by age group varied between populations, but SES remained significantly associated with disability across immigrants and the Chilean-born. However, there are no similar patterns of factors associated to different types of disability between the populations under study. Factors associated with disability varied between populations under study, but SES showed a consistent association with any disability in immigrants and the Chilean-born. Types of disability showed different patterns of factors associated to them between populations, which suggest the great complexity of underlying mechanisms related to disability in Chile. PMID:23211607

  13. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  14. Enhancement of Chlorophyll Concentration and Growing Harmful Algal Bloom Along the California Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceves, Joselyn; Singh, Ramesh

    2016-07-01

    We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data at different locations, Cal Poly, Goleta, Newport, Santa Monica, and Scripps piers and Monterey, Stearns and Santa Cruz wharfs along the California coast for the period 2008-2015. The sea surface temperature and chlorophyll concentrations derived from satellite data are analyzed together with ground observations of nitrogen, phosphorus, domoic acids and harmful algal blooms. The frequency of harmful algal blooms are found to increase in recent years depending upon the enhancement of chlorophyll concentrations and the discharges along the coast and dynamics of the sea surface temperature. The frequency of harmful algal blooms is higher in the northern California compared to southern California. The anthropogenic activities along the coast have increased which are associated with the forest fires and long range transport of dusts from Asia. The aerosol optical depth derived from satellite data during summer months seems to play an important role in the frequency of harmful algal blooms.

  15. An American scientist visits the Altamira cave in northern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, M.

    1981-12-01

    The Altamira Cave is internationally known for its remarkable Stone Age paintings. It is located in the brow of a hill overlooking the village of Santillana del Mar which is nestled among green rolling hills near the coast of northern Spain. This report gives a brief description of the Cave and its paintings, the nature of the deterioration that has resulted in the closing of the cave to tourists, and the scientific studies being undertaken to help preserve the paintings.

  16. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, S. N.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.; Banas, N. S.; Davis, K. A.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Trainer, V. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Pelland, N. A.; Connolly, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast. We show that transport pathways are seasonal, with transport to the Washington (WA) coast from a northern source (the Juan de Fuca Eddy) during the summer/fall upwelling season and from a southern source (Heceta Bank) during the winter/early spring due to the predominant wind-driven currents. Interannual variability in transport from the northern source is related to the degree of wind intermittency with more transport during years with more frequent relaxation/downwelling events. The Columbia River plume acts to mitigate transport to the coast as the plume front blocks onshore transport. The plume's influence on alongshore transport is variable although critical in aiding transport from the southern source to the WA coast via plume entrainment. Overall transport from our simulations captures most observed Pn HAB beach events from 2004 to 2007 (characterized by Pseudo-nitzschia cell abundance); however, numerous false positives occur. We show that incorporating phytoplankton biomass results from a coupled biogeochemical model reduces the number of false positives significantly and thus improves our Pn HAB predictions.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  18. Sea ice loss enhances wave action at the Arctic coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overeem, I.; Anderson, R. Scott; Wobus, C.W.; Clow, G.D.; Urban, F.E.; Matell, N.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion rates of permafrost coasts along the Beaufort Sea accelerated over the past 50 years synchronously with Arctic-wide declines in sea ice extent, suggesting a causal relationship between the two. A fetch-limited wave model driven by sea ice position and local wind data from northern Alaska indicates that the exposure of permafrost bluffs to seawater increased by a factor of 2.5 during 1979-2009. The duration of the open water season expanded from ???45 days to ???95 days. Open water expanded more rapidly toward the fall (???0.92 day yr-1), when sea surface temperatures are cooler, than into the mid-summer (???0.71 days yr-1).Time-lapse imagery demonstrates the relatively efficient erosive action of a single storm in August. Sea surface temperatures have already decreased significantly by fall, reducing the potential impact of thermal erosion due to fall season storm waves. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Elevated atmospheric sulfur levels off the Peruvian coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltzman, E. S.; Savoie, D. L.; Prospero, J. M.; Zika, R. G.; Mosher, B.

    1986-06-01

    Elevated levels of non-sea-salt sulfate and SO2 in samples collected off the west coast of South America indicate that there is a major source of atmospheric sulfur in the region of southern Peru and northern Chile. During a 1983 cruise, observed concentrations of non-sea-salt sulfur, SO2, selenium, arsenic, and antimony were comparable to levels reported for moderately polluted urban air. In contrast, methanesulfonic acid levels were typical of coastal marine air. Clearly, the elevated atmospheric sulfur levels in this region cannot be ascribed to oceanic organosulfur emissions. The major inputs are tentatively attributed to the smelting of sulfide ores which is a major industry in this region. The transport of smelter derived aerosols to this region may have a number of consequences for the atmospheric and oceanic chemistry of the Peruvian upwelling area.

  20. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    PubMed

    Varela, R; Álvarez, I; Santos, F; deCastro, M; Gómez-Gesteira, M

    2015-01-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts. PMID:25952477

  1. Has upwelling strengthened along worldwide coasts over 1982-2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, R.; Álvarez, I.; Santos, F.; Decastro, M.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.

    2015-05-01

    Changes in coastal upwelling strength have been widely studied since 1990 when Bakun proposed that global warming can induce the intensification of upwelling in coastal areas. Whether present wind trends support this hypothesis remains controversial, as results of previous studies seem to depend on the study area, the length of the time series, the season, and even the database used. In this study, temporal and spatial trends in the coastal upwelling regime worldwide were investigated during upwelling seasons from 1982 to 2010 using a single wind database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with high spatial resolution (0.3°). Of the major upwelling systems, increasing trends were only observed in the coastal areas of Benguela, Peru, Canary, and northern California. A tendency for an increase in upwelling-favourable winds was also identified along several less studied regions, such as the western Australian and southern Caribbean coasts.

  2. Human impact on dynamics of Barents and Kara Seas Coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodov, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    of the material on the beaches and triggered violent thermoabrasion of the coast in 1982-1985 and 2006-2008. Third example of the negative impacts of human activities takes place at the sites of entrance underwater gas to the Coast of Baydarata Bay Kara Sea. Here also designers and builders are not taken into account negative experience of management and sediment removal, as it was at Varandey and Harasavey industrial areas. Construction of the pipeline, accompanied by numerous technogenic effects and removal of sediment from the beach and tide-flat, in period from 2007 to 2012 led to multiple increases in the rate of coastal erosion. A truly responsible decision making towards the strategy of developing the northern coasts of Russia and constructing new facilities is to be based upon an integrated knowledge of the ongoing environmental processes, in particular coastal dynamics. The ignoring of this issue may cause irreversible damage to both the coastal geosystems and the facilities themselves, which, once they are destructed, may drag in enormous environmental implications.

  3. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    PubMed

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive. PMID:23079347

  4. [Quality control in Medicine. Position of the Chilean Academy of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Goic, A; Segovia, S

    2001-07-01

    In the last two decades, important changes in medical training and care have occurred in Chile. The number of medical schools has been doubled, exceeding the national availability of professors and qualified training fields. The quality assessment and accreditation of medical training and care is insufficient in Chile. A National Autonomous Corporation of Certification of Medical Specialties, has certified more than 4,000 physicians in 44 specialties. The Chilean Association of Faculties of Medicine has accredited training centers during the last four decades. The National Commission of Undergraduate Training Accreditation, has developed a voluntary system for medical school accreditation. The Academy supports these strategies and considers that accreditation does not threaten institutions or individuals. It is rather a mechanism that identifies strengths and weaknesses of institutions and programs. This will finally result in better quality in medical training and patient care.

  5. Gymnopanella nothofagi, a new genus and species of gymnopoid fungi (Omphalotaceae) from Chilean Nothofagus forest.

    PubMed

    Sandoval-Leiva, Pablo Andrés; McDonald, Jennifer V; Thorn, R Greg

    2016-01-01

    A novel, lignicolous agaric from Nothofagus forests of southern Chile is described as a new genus and species, Gymnopanella nothofagi This taxon falls within the family Omphalotaceae as a sister group to Gymnopus in phylogenetic analyses based on sequences spanning the internal transcribed spacer region and D1/D2 region of nuclear 28S rDNA. Morphologically it is characterized by convex to flabellate basidiomata with distinctly gelatinized trama, pileipellis in the form of a cutis with erect fascicles of cylindrical, spirally incrusted hyphae and nonamyloid, broadly ellipsoid basidiospores. This combination of features, in particular the lack of a rameales structure, serve to distinguish Gymnopanella from Gymnopus, Marasmiellus and other similar genera of the Omphalotaceae or Marasmiaceae. The new taxon is known only from Chilean Nothofagus forests at approximately 45-46° south latitude, but concerted searching in similar habitats in surrounding areas or in New Zealand may extend the known range considerably. PMID:27055572

  6. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-01-01

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). PMID:27470721

  7. Conceptual clarifications regarding Chilean Act 20850 on public funding of high-cost diseases.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-04-30

    In 2015, Chile enacted the 20850 law, providing public funds for rare and costly diseases that demanded high diagnostic and therapeutic expenditures. The law modifies the Chilean Sanitary Code regulation of research with human beings, aiming at the protection of subjects by securing post-investigational medical benefits and insurance coverage for damage imputable to the research they participated in. Due to ambiguous phrasing, a polemic rose for fear that these protective measures applied to all clinical research, although a careful reading of the law in its context clearly suggests that it refers to phase I therapeutic trials. This paper stresses the distinction between compassionate use and genuine phase I/II therapeutic trials aimed at both pharmacodynamics and an intended therapeutic effect for severe and progressive diseases that are therapeutically orphaned, emphasizing the ethical and medical duty of providing post-trial beneficial medication.

  8. Trematodes indicate animal biodiversity in the chilean intertidal and Lake Tanganyika

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hechinger, R.F.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Trematode communities in populations of estuarine snails can reflect surrounding animal diversity, abundance, and trophic interactions. We know less about the potential for trematodes to serve as bioindicators in other habitats. Here, we reanalyze data from 2 published studies concerning trematodes, 1 in the Chilean rocky intertidal zone and the other from the East African rift lake, Lake Tanganyika. Our analyses indicate that trematodes are more common in protected areas and that in both habitats they are directly and positively related to surrounding host abundance. This further supports the notion that trematodes in first intermediate hosts can serve as bioindicators of the condition of free-living animal communities in diverse ecosystems. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2008.

  9. Autoimmune pulmonary proteinosis in a Chilean teenager, a rare aetiology of interstitial lung disease

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, Alexis; Boza, Maria Lina; Koppmann, Andres; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases, and is even rarer in children than in adults. ILDs compromise more than 100 different entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). There are many causes of PAP in children, including surfactant protein gene mutations (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, TTF-1), GMCSF receptor mutations and antigranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. We report a case of a 13-year-old Chilean girl who presented with an 8-month history of progressive exercise intolerance, fatigability and diminished school performance. Physical examination revealed resting tachypnoea, a few basal bilateral inspiratory crackles, and hypoxaemia on minimal exertion. Clinical suspicion and evaluation, including international collaboration, led to the diagnosis of autoimmune PAP and specific therapy for the condition. PMID:24859540

  10. Autoimmune pulmonary proteinosis in a Chilean teenager, a rare aetiology of interstitial lung disease.

    PubMed

    Strickler, Alexis; Boza, Maria Lina; Koppmann, Andres; Gonzalez, Sergio

    2014-05-23

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is rare and encompasses a heterogeneous group of diseases, and is even rarer in children than in adults. ILDs compromise more than 100 different entities, including pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). There are many causes of PAP in children, including surfactant protein gene mutations (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3, TTF-1), GMCSF receptor mutations and antigranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor autoantibodies. We report a case of a 13-year-old Chilean girl who presented with an 8-month history of progressive exercise intolerance, fatigability and diminished school performance. Physical examination revealed resting tachypnoea, a few basal bilateral inspiratory crackles, and hypoxaemia on minimal exertion. Clinical suspicion and evaluation, including international collaboration, led to the diagnosis of autoimmune PAP and specific therapy for the condition.

  11. Anthocyanins and antioxidant capacities of six Chilean berries by HPLC-HR-ESI-ToF-MS.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Javier E; Zambrano, Ricardo; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Kennelly, Edward J; Simirgiotis, Mario J

    2015-06-01

    The HPLC profiles of six fruits endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis (HR-ToF-ESI-MS). The anthocyanin fingerprints generated for the fruits were compared and the antioxidant capacities measured by the scavenging of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA), and correlated with the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes (LP) and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Several anthocyanins were identified, including 3-O-glycosides derivatives of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloyl-quinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid) and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin) were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity. However, the highest LP activity was found for Chilean blueberries (>95%) followed by calafate fruits (91.27%) and luma (83.4%). PMID:25624212

  12. Relationship between Discordance in Parental Monitoring and Behavioral Problems among Chilean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yoonsun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Ma, Julie; Castillo, Marcela; Delva, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the role of discrepancies between parent and youth reports of perceived parental monitoring in adolescent problem behaviors with a Chilean sample (N= 850). Higher levels of discordance concerning parental monitoring predicted greater levels of maladaptive youth behaviors. A positive association between parent-youth discordance and externalizing problems indicated that large adult-youth disagreement in parental monitoring may impose a great risk, despite protective efforts of parental monitoring. Although the direct relationship between parental monitoring and youth internalizing behaviors was not significant, parent-youth incongruence in monitoring was associated with greater levels of internalizing behaviors. Therefore, differing assessments of parental behaviors, as an indicator of less optimal family functioning, may provide important information about youth maladjustment and may potentially provide a beginning point for family-focused intervention. PMID:23097593

  13. A new species of Heleobia (Caenogastropoda: Cochliopidae) from the Chilean Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Collado, Gonzalo A; Valladares, Moisés A; Méndez, Marco A

    2016-07-11

    Cochliopidae Tryon, 1866 is a diverse family of caenogastropods that lives in a wide variety of aquatic habitats primarily in the New World (Hershler &Thompson 1992). In Chile, the species of the group have been traditionally assigned to the genus Littoridina Souleyet, 1852 using conchological characters (Biese 1944, 1947; Stuardo, 1961; Valdovinos 2006) but according to anatomical studies and phylogenetic analysis the majority of them have been reassigned to the genus Heleobia Stimpson, 1865 (Hershler & Thompson 1992; Collado et al. 2011a; Kroll et al. 2012; Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016). Here we formally describe a new species of the genus Heleobia from Spring 1 in the Carcote saltpan, Chilean Altiplano, based on molecular and morphological characters. Snails from this locality were previously shown to be distinct based on DNA sequences (Collado et al. 2013; Collado et al. 2016).

  14. Factors affecting aggression in a captive flock of Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    PubMed

    Perdue, Bonnie M; Gaalema, Diann E; Martin, Allison L; Dampier, Stephanie M; Maple, Terry L

    2011-01-01

    The influence of pair bond status, age and sex on aggression rates in a flock of 84 captive Chilean flamingos at Zoo Atlanta was examined. Analysis showed no difference between aggression rates of male and female flamingos, but adult flamingos had higher rates of aggression than juveniles. There were also significant differences in aggression depending on pair bond status (single, same-sex pair, male-female pair or group). Bonded birds were significantly more aggressive than single birds, which is consistent with the concept that unpaired birds are not breeding and do not need to protect pair bonds or eggs. Birds in typical pair bonds (male-female) and atypical pair bonds (same-sex pairs or groups) exhibited similar rates of aggression. These results contribute to the existing body of research on aggression in captive flamingos.

  15. E-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from Chilean strawberry fruits, Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Saud, Guillermo; Caligari, Peter D S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-11-01

    Three E-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the Chilean strawberry Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-O-E-Cinnamoyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. The cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in F. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analyses of extracts showed that cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and free ellagic acid are present in achenes while the E-cinnamoyl derivatives and tryptophan were identified only in the thalamus. The free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract can be associated with the anthocyanin content.

  16. PCR-specific detection of recently described Lotmaria passim (Trypanosomatidae) in Chilean apiaries.

    PubMed

    Arismendi, Nolberto; Bruna, Alex; Zapata, Nelson; Vargas, Marisol

    2016-02-01

    The recently described trypanosome Lotmaria passim is currently considered the most predominant trypanosomatid in honey bees worldwide and could be a factor in honey bee declines. For a specific and quick detection of this pathogen, we developed primers based on the SSU rRNA and gGAPDH genes for the detection of L. passim in Chilean honey beehives. PCR products amplified and sequenced for these primers shared 99-100% identity with other sequences of L. passim. The designed primers were specific and we were able to detect a high prevalence (40-90%) of L. passim in bee hives distributed throughout Chile. Our described PCR-based method offers a feasible and specific detection of L. passim in any honey bee samples. PMID:26721451

  17. E-cinnamic acid derivatives and phenolics from Chilean strawberry fruits, Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis.

    PubMed

    Cheel, José; Theoduloz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Jaime; Saud, Guillermo; Caligari, Peter D S; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2005-11-01

    Three E-cinnamic acid glycosides, tryptophan, and cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from ripe fruits of the Chilean strawberry Fragaria chiloensis ssp. chiloensis. 1-O-E-Cinnamoyl-beta-D-xylopyranoside, 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside, and 1-O-E-cinnamoyl-alpha-xylofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranose are reported for the first time. The cinnamic acid glycosides and aromatic compound patterns in F. chiloensis fruits were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC analyses of extracts showed that cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and free ellagic acid are present in achenes while the E-cinnamoyl derivatives and tryptophan were identified only in the thalamus. The free radical scavenging effect of the fruit extract can be associated with the anthocyanin content. PMID:16248546

  18. Conceptual clarifications regarding Chilean Act 20850 on public funding of high-cost diseases.

    PubMed

    Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, Chile enacted the 20850 law, providing public funds for rare and costly diseases that demanded high diagnostic and therapeutic expenditures. The law modifies the Chilean Sanitary Code regulation of research with human beings, aiming at the protection of subjects by securing post-investigational medical benefits and insurance coverage for damage imputable to the research they participated in. Due to ambiguous phrasing, a polemic rose for fear that these protective measures applied to all clinical research, although a careful reading of the law in its context clearly suggests that it refers to phase I therapeutic trials. This paper stresses the distinction between compassionate use and genuine phase I/II therapeutic trials aimed at both pharmacodynamics and an intended therapeutic effect for severe and progressive diseases that are therapeutically orphaned, emphasizing the ethical and medical duty of providing post-trial beneficial medication. PMID:27187789

  19. The HLA-A*68:23 allele in the Chilean population.

    PubMed

    Turner, E V; Dilioglou, S; Arnold, P Y; Palma, J; Rivera, G

    2014-12-01

    HLA-A*68:23, first described in 2002, has not been widely reported. The studies reported here were performed for support of a collaborative hematopoietic stem cell transplantation program at Luis Calvo Mackenna Hospital for which St. Jude Children's Research Hospital provided human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. Family studies performed between 2000 and 2011 included 197 patients and their immediate family members. In a total of 559 individuals, A*68:23 was confirmed by DNA sequencing in eight individuals with no known relationship to each other. A*68:23 positive individuals included six patients, along with one of their parents, and two parents whose children did not inherit A*68:23. The frequency of A*68:23 in this Chilean population is >0.0125. This HLA-A allele appears to fit the description of a well-documented allele in this population studied in Santiago, Chile. PMID:25352173

  20. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  1. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  2. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  3. PRESENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSP. PARATUBERCULOSIS IN ALPACAS (LAMA PACOS) INHABITING THE CHILEAN ALTIPLANO.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Sevilla, Iker; Rios, Carolina; Crossley, Jorge; Tejeda, Carlos; Manning, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the etiologic agent of paratuberculosis. The organism causes disease in both domestically managed and wild ruminant species. South American camelids have a long, shared history with indigenous people in the Andes. Over the last few decades, increasing numbers of alpacas were exported to numerous countries outside South America. No paratuberculosis surveillance has been reported for these source herds. In this study, individual fecal samples from 85 adult alpacas were collected from six separate herds in the Chilean Altiplano. A ParaTB mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid culture of each individual fecal sample, followed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used for confirmation. DNA extracts from a subset of confirmed MAP isolates were subjected to mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Fifteen alpaca were fecal culture test-positive. Five false-positive culture samples were negative on PCR analysis for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium (MAA), Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis), and the 16 S rDNA gene. Three MAP isolates subset-tested belonged to the same MIRU-VNTR type, showing four repeats for TR292 (locus 1) in contrast to the three repeats typical of the MAP reference strain K10. The number of repeats found in the remaining loci was identical to that of the K10 strain. It is not known how nor when MAP was introduced into the alpaca population in the Chilean Altiplano. The most plausible hypothesis to explain the presence of MAP in these indigenous populations is transmission by contact with infected domestic small ruminant species that may on occasion share pastures or range with alpacas. Isolation of this mycobacterial pathogen from such a remote region suggests that MAP has found its way beyond the confines of intensively managed domestic agriculture premises.

  4. Catchment similarity and classification in areas of high hydrologic gradients: the case of Chilean Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dussaillant, A.; Buytaert, W.; Maturana, O.; Arias, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Baker River Basin is located in Patagonia, Southern South America, with a total drainage area of 26,726 km2 (second-largest river basin in Chile). The Baker River has the highest mean annual discharge rate of all Chilean rivers (1,133 m3/s), and flows out of Bertrand Lake, which in turn receives the draining waters from the General Carrera Lake (surface area of about 1800 km2, Latin America's second largest). Geology and climate gradients are even more extreme than in the rest of the country, from mountain to sea, and sometimes having mean annual rainfalls change from 8000 mm to 400 mm in less than 60 km. Bigger basins, like the Baker, have Eastern sub-basins with even a semi-arid character, whereas Western sub-catchments drain from ice fields. Thus, flow regimes may have very diverse characters in combination. And regarding sediment, although many rivers are born in lakes (many bi-national), they have important profile slopes and plenty of sediment available (partly due to glacial deposits). In spite of this huge natural variability, there is scant data due to low resources and remoteness: few meteorological and flow stations (having few decades or much shorter data series), and lack of stations in Western areas, linked to mountainous terrain, glaciers, and the ice fields. Nevertheless, decisions are being made with what seems extremely limited hydro-meteorological, streamflow, and in general, river data. In fact, Chile is currently in a crossroad due to mega projects being planned in Aysén, Chilean Patagonia (at least 5 hydropower dams producing more than 2000 MW). We characterize streamflows for ungauged basins, such as floods, mean annual flows, and flow duration curves, which can then be used related to a more sustainable design and operation of dams for hydropower. Relations extracted from gauged catchments to their geomorphologic characteristics and indices will be used to transfer those relations to ungauged catchments.

  5. Alcohol, Binge Drinking and Associated Mental Health Problems in Young Urban Chileans

    PubMed Central

    Mason-Jones, Amanda J.; Cabieses, Báltica

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the link between alcohol use, binge drinking and mental health problems in a representative sample of adolescent and young adult Chileans. Methods Age and sex-adjusted Odds Ratios (OR) for four mental wellbeing measures were estimated with separate conditional logistic regression models for adolescents aged 15-20 years, and young adults aged 21-25 years, using population-based estimates of alcohol use prevalence rates from the Chilean National Health Survey 2010. Results Sixty five per cent of adolescents and 85% of young adults reported drinking alcohol in the last year and of those 83% per cent of adolescents and 86% of young adults reported binge drinking in the previous month. Adolescents who reported binging alcohol were also more likely, compared to young adults, to report being always or almost always depressed (OR 12.97 [95% CI, 1.86-19.54]) or to feel very anxious in the last month (OR 9.37 [1.77-19.54]). Adolescent females were more likely to report poor life satisfaction in the previous year than adolescent males (OR 8.50 [1.61-15.78]), feel always or almost always depressed (OR 3.41 [1.25-9.58]). Being female was also associated with a self-reported diagnosis of depression for both age groups (adolescents, OR 4.74 [1.49-15.08] and young adults, OR 4.08 [1.65-10.05]). Conclusion Young people in Chile self-report a high prevalence of alcohol use, binge drinking and associated mental health problems. The harms associated with alcohol consumption need to be highlighted through evidence-based prevention programs. Health and education systems need to be strengthened to screen and support young people. Focussing on policy initiatives to limit beverage companies targeting alcohol to young people will also be needed. PMID:25830508

  6. Locking, mass flux and topographic response at convergent plate boundaries - the Chilean case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oncken, Onno

    2016-04-01

    On the long term, convergent plate boundaries have been shown to be controlled by either accretion/underplating or by subduction erosion. Vertical surface motion is coupled to convergence rate - typically with an uplift rate of the coastal area ranging from 0 to +50% of convergence rate in accretive systems, and -20 to +30% in erosive systems. Vertical kinematics, however, are not necessarily linked to horizontal strain mode, i.e. upper plate shortening or extension, in a simple way. This range of kinematic behaviors - as well as their acceleration where forearcs collide with oceanic ridges/plateau - is well expressed along the Chilean plate margin. Towards the short end of the time scale, deformation appears to exhibit a close correlation with the frictional properties and geodetic locking at the plate interface. Corroborating analogue experiments of strain accumulation during multiple earthquake cycles, forearc deformation and uplift focus above the downdip and updip end of seismic coupling and slip and are each related to a particular stage of the seismic cycle, but with opposite trends for both domains. Similarly, barriers separating locked domains along strike appear to accumulate most upper plate faulting interseismically. Hence, locking patters are reflected in topography. From the long-term memory contained in the forearc topography the relief of the Chilean forearc seems to reflect long term stability of the observed heterogeneity of locking at the plate interface. This has fundamental implications for spatial and temporal distribution of seismic hazard. Finally, the nature of locking at the plate interface controlling the above kinematic behavior appears to be strongly controlled by the degree of fluid overpressuring at the plate interface suggesting that the hydraulic system at the interface takes a key role for the forearc response.

  7. [Nutritional status of urban and rural Chilean school children of the metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, R; Olivares, M; Ivanović, D

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of chilean students by geographic area. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 students from elementary and high school was chosen from the Metropolitan Region of Chile (representative of 38.0% of chilean school population). Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements. Percent weight for age (% W/A), height for age (% H/A) and weight for height (% W/H) were compared with WHO standard; head circumference for age (% HC/A) with Tanner standard; arm circumference for age (% AC/A), triceps skinfold for age (% TS/A), arm muscle area for age (% AMA/A) and arm fat area/age (% AFA/A) with Frisancho norms. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar modified scale. Percent W/H is a better indicator of nutritional status due to growth failure which was thus detected in 27.6% of the whole sample (24.2% and 46.8%, respectively, in urban and rural area, p less than 0.001). According to % W/H, the frequencies of obesity were 13.4% and 10.5%, and those for undernutrition 5.7% and 8.2%, in urban and rural area, respectively, (p less than 0.05). Students from rural area showed significantly lower values for % HC/A, % AC/A, % TS/A and % AFA/A (p less than 0.001). There were no differences for % AMA/A. The fact that 90.5% of rural students belong to low SES must be taken into account to explain differences in the nutritional status of students of different geographic areas. PMID:2087594

  8. [Nutritional status of urban and rural Chilean school children of the metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Ivanović, R; Olivares, M; Ivanović, D

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of chilean students by geographic area. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 students from elementary and high school was chosen from the Metropolitan Region of Chile (representative of 38.0% of chilean school population). Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometric measurements. Percent weight for age (% W/A), height for age (% H/A) and weight for height (% W/H) were compared with WHO standard; head circumference for age (% HC/A) with Tanner standard; arm circumference for age (% AC/A), triceps skinfold for age (% TS/A), arm muscle area for age (% AMA/A) and arm fat area/age (% AFA/A) with Frisancho norms. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured through Graffar modified scale. Percent W/H is a better indicator of nutritional status due to growth failure which was thus detected in 27.6% of the whole sample (24.2% and 46.8%, respectively, in urban and rural area, p less than 0.001). According to % W/H, the frequencies of obesity were 13.4% and 10.5%, and those for undernutrition 5.7% and 8.2%, in urban and rural area, respectively, (p less than 0.05). Students from rural area showed significantly lower values for % HC/A, % AC/A, % TS/A and % AFA/A (p less than 0.001). There were no differences for % AMA/A. The fact that 90.5% of rural students belong to low SES must be taken into account to explain differences in the nutritional status of students of different geographic areas.

  9. [Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption en 15 Chilean hospitals: Results of a collaborative work, 2013].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Isabel; Rosales, Ruth; Cabello, Ángela; Bavestrello, Luis; Labarca, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption is a central part in programs of antibiotic stewardship. However, in Chile there are no national data on antibiotic consumption representing a significant number of hospitals by clinical services. In 2013 a survey was sent to multiple Chilean hospitals to evaluate antimicrobial consumption in medical services (MS), surgery services (SS) and critical care units (ICU). We used the standardized methodology recommended by the WHO, using the number of DDD/100 days beds. In the MS and SS beta-lactam and no beta-lactam antibiotics commonly used were evaluated. In the ICU consumption vancomycin, linezolid, imipenem, merope-nem, colistin and tigecycline was evaluated. Fifteen hospitals reported the density of antimicrobial consumption. Ceftriaxone and cloxacillin were the most commonly used antibiotics in general services (average cloxacillin 4,9 DDD/100 bed days in MS and 8,0 DDD/100 in SS; ceftriaxone 13,5 DDD/100 in MS and 16,7 DDD/100 in SS). In the SS there was also a significant consumption of metronidazole (average 14,5 DDD/100 bed days). In the ICU there was an important variability of consumption of selected antibiotics. This study reports the average and range of antibiotic consumption in MS, SS, and ICU from a significant number of hospitals in the country, during 2013. This information allows hospitals to compare their consumption of antibiotics with a significant sample of Chilean hospitals. Analysis of this information should consider a careful interpretation according to the sample shown here and the reality of each hospital.

  10. [Evaluation of antimicrobial consumption en 15 Chilean hospitals: Results of a collaborative work, 2013].

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Isabel; Rosales, Ruth; Cabello, Ángela; Bavestrello, Luis; Labarca, Jaime

    2016-06-01

    Surveillance of antimicrobial consumption is a central part in programs of antibiotic stewardship. However, in Chile there are no national data on antibiotic consumption representing a significant number of hospitals by clinical services. In 2013 a survey was sent to multiple Chilean hospitals to evaluate antimicrobial consumption in medical services (MS), surgery services (SS) and critical care units (ICU). We used the standardized methodology recommended by the WHO, using the number of DDD/100 days beds. In the MS and SS beta-lactam and no beta-lactam antibiotics commonly used were evaluated. In the ICU consumption vancomycin, linezolid, imipenem, merope-nem, colistin and tigecycline was evaluated. Fifteen hospitals reported the density of antimicrobial consumption. Ceftriaxone and cloxacillin were the most commonly used antibiotics in general services (average cloxacillin 4,9 DDD/100 bed days in MS and 8,0 DDD/100 in SS; ceftriaxone 13,5 DDD/100 in MS and 16,7 DDD/100 in SS). In the SS there was also a significant consumption of metronidazole (average 14,5 DDD/100 bed days). In the ICU there was an important variability of consumption of selected antibiotics. This study reports the average and range of antibiotic consumption in MS, SS, and ICU from a significant number of hospitals in the country, during 2013. This information allows hospitals to compare their consumption of antibiotics with a significant sample of Chilean hospitals. Analysis of this information should consider a careful interpretation according to the sample shown here and the reality of each hospital. PMID:27598281

  11. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus species from gut microbiota of Chilean Altiplano camelids

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Olmos, Katheryne; Báez, John; Valenzuela, Nicomédes; Gahona, Joselyne; del Campo, Rosa; Silva, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Background Enterococcus is one of the major human pathogens able to acquire multiple antibiotic-resistant markers as well as virulence factors which also colonize remote ecosystems, including wild animals. In this work, we characterized the Enterococcus population colonizing the gut of Chilean Altiplano camelids without foreign human contact. Material and methods Rectal swabs from 40 llamas and 10 alpacas were seeded in M-Enterococcus agar, and we selected a total of 57 isolates. Species identification was performed by biochemical classical tests, semi-automated WIDER system, mass spectrometry analysis by MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer), and, finally, nucleotide sequence of internal fragments of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I genes. Genetic diversity was measured by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-SmaI, whereas the antibiotic susceptibility was determined by the WIDER system. Carriage of virulence factors was explored by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results Our results demonstrated that the most prevalent specie was Enterococcus hirae (82%), followed by other non–Enterococcus faecalis and non–Enterococcus faecium species. Some discrepancies were detected among the identification methods used, and the most reliable were the rpoB, pheS, and aac(6)-I nucleotide sequencing. Selected isolates exhibited susceptibility to almost all studied antibiotics, and virulence factors were not detected by PCR. Finally, some predominant clones were characterized by PFGE into a diverse genetic background. Conclusion Enterococcus species from the Chilean camelids’ gut microbiota were different from those adapted to humans, and they remained free of antibiotic resistance mechanisms as well as virulence factors. PMID:25405007

  12. Sources of nutrition information of Chilean schoolers, metropolitan region, Chile, survey 1986-1987.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, R; Olivares, M; Ivanović, D

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative importance of different sources of nutrition information used by Chilean schoolers to learn the basics of nutrition. In this respect, a representative sample of 4,509 elementary and high-school children was randomly selected and stratified according to grade, sex, type of school and geographic area. Schoolers were individually interviewed in order to collect data related with socioeconomic status (SES) and sociocultural conditions, as well as to learn as to what they considered to be the most important sources of nutrition information influencing their nutritional learning, gathering the necessary data through a questionnaire especially designed for this purpose. Results indicated that 87.8% schoolers mentioned their family (mainly the mother), as the most important source of nutrition information; 10.7% said the school teacher, and 1.5%, mass media (0.8% television, 0.5% books, 0.1% magazines and 0.1% radio) without significant differences by sex, age and geographic area. The role attributed to the family (mother) was important in all SES categories, but proved to be significantly higher in the high SES group (91.9%) than in the low SES group (84.6%). The role attributed to the school teacher, in contrast, was lower (6.7%) in the high SES group than in the low SES group (13.8%) (p less than 0.001). In relation to mass media, the influence attributed to books and magazines was high in the high SES group, but television and radio were more important in the low SES group. On the other hand, significant differences found by type of school were related to SES. These findings could be useful in the establishment of food and nutrition policies, as well as in educational planning focused on the Chilean school population, considering that few studies have been carried out along these lines.

  13. Geochemical evidence of past earthquakes in sediments of the Reloncaví fjord (Chilean Patagonia) during the last ˜ 1000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebolledo, Lorena; Lange, Carina; Muñoz, Práxedes; Salamanca, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chilean fjords are excellent archives of paleoearthquakes, tsunamis and landslides (St-Onge et al., 2012 in Sedimentary Geology 243-244: 89-107). Here we report on new sedimentological and geochemical evidence of past earthquakes in sediments of the Reloncavi fjord, Northern Patagonia (41° S, 72° W), during the last ~1000 years. We recovered four sediment cores from the Reloncaví fjord (RH-5B, RH-5C, RH-6B, RH7B, water depth range = 90-260 m; core length range = 45-75 cm). Age models were based on 210Pb, AMS-14C and the first appearance of the diatom Rhizosolenia setigera cf. pungens in the fossil record as statigraphic marker. The cores span the last ~122 to 800 years of sedimentation with sedimentation rates ranging between 0.1 and 0.24 cm yr-1. The cores revealed evidence of turbidites associated with the historical earthquakes of 1960, 1837, 1737 and 1575 AD, and an earlier period for which there is no historical information, 1200-1400 AD. The turbidites exhibit a grading-up pattern with sand layers, and are characterized by a decrease in organic carbon and biogenic opal, an increase in the C/N molar ratio, negative values of δ13Corg(average -27),and an increase in the relative abundance of Paralia sulcata, a diatom associated with sandy environments, being the turbite layers mainly freshwater in origen. We suggest that these turbidite layers were triggered by past earthquakes that produced movement of land from the cliff areas that surround the Reloncaví fjord. Funding: Project FONDECYT # 11110103 and COPAS Sur-Austral project PFB-31.

  14. Greenland's Coast in Holiday Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Vibrant reds, emerald greens, brilliant whites, and pastel blues adorn this view of the area surrounding the Jakobshavn Glacier on the western coast of Greenland. The image is a false-color (near-infrared, green, blue) view acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera. The brightness of vegetation in the near-infrared contributes to the reddish hues; glacial silt gives rise to the green color of the water; and blue-colored melt ponds are visible in the bright white ice. A scattering of small icebergs in Disco Bay adds a touch of glittery sparkle to the scene.

    The large island in the upper left is called Qeqertarsuaq. To the east of this island, and just above image center, is the outlet of the fast-flowing Jakobshavn (or Ilulissat) glacier. Jakobshavn is considered to have the highest iceberg production of all Greenland glaciers and is a major drainage outlet for a large portion of the western side of the ice sheet. Icebergs released from the glacier drift slowly with the ocean currents and pose hazards for shipping along the coast.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer views the daylit Earth continuously and the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude is observed every 9 days. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired on June 18, 2003 during Terra orbit 18615. The image cover an area of about 254 kilometers x 210 kilometers, and use data from blocks 34 to 35 within World Reference System-2 path 10.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  15. Endoparasite fauna of five Gadiformes fish species from the coast of Chile: host ecology versus phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Chávez, R A; González, M T; Oliva, M E; Valdivia, I M

    2012-03-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare, using multivariate analyses, the degree of similarity of the endoparasite fauna of five fish species belonging to the order Gadiformes: Merluccius gayi, Merluccius australis, Macruronus magellanicus (Gadoidei) and Micromesistius australis and Nezumia pulchella (Macrouroidei), from the southern and central Chilean coast, and to evaluate whether the composition of the endoparasite fauna was determined by phylogenetic or ecological relationships. We employed our database of Merluccius australis, M. magellanicus and Micromesistius australis, which was complemented with published information for M. magellanicus, Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis, M. gayi and N. pulchella. A higher number of endoparasite species was recorded for Merluccius australis, Micromesistius australis and M. magellanicus, namely Anisakis sp. and Hepatoxylon trichiuri, which is the most prevalent parasite among these hosts. Aporocotyle wilhelmi and Hysterothylacium sp. were detected only in M. gayi, whereas Lepidapedon sp. was found exclusively in N. pulchella. These results suggest that fish ecology rather than host phylogeny was the most important factor for the determination of similarity in parasite composition. This result could be explained by the similar trophic patterns of hosts and by the predominance of generalist larval species among these fish parasite communities. PMID:21251342

  16. Scenario-based tsunami hazard assessment for the coast of Vietnam from the Manila Trench source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong Nguyen, Phuong; Cong Bui, Que; Ha Vu, Phuong; The Pham, Truyen

    2014-11-01

    This paper assesses the impact of tsunamis in the East Vietnam Sea potentially originated from a giant rupture along the Manila Trench to the Vietnamese coast. Tsunami heights and arrival times to the major forecast points along the Vietnamese coast are computed using COMCOT model. The results of the worst case scenario (Mw = 9.3) and two extreme scenarios were used to assess the tsunami hazards. The simulation results show that Vietnamese coast can be divided into three parts with different levels of tsunami hazard. The highest threat exists along the coasts of Central and North-Central Vietnam, from Quang Binh to Ba Ria - Vung Tau provinces, with maximum wave height of 18 m observed near Quang Ngai coast, and a tsunami would reach this coastline in two hours at the earliest. The northern coastal zone of Vietnam has lower tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, maximum amplitudes of tsunami waves at Hai Phong sea port and Nam Dinh city, North Vietnam, are 3.5 m and 3.7 m, respectively, while the travel times to these sites are much longer, over 8 h. The southern coastal zone of Vietnam has very low tsunami hazard. In the worst case scenario, the maximum amplitude at Ca Mau is 0.12 m, while the travel time is over 10 h.

  17. Water level fluctuations in Guangxi near coast caused by typhoons in South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Shi, M. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Ding, Y.; Zheng, B. X.; Dong, D. X.; Qiu, S. F.

    2016-08-01

    The increasing and decreasing water level in Guangxi near the coast is mainly caused by typhoon-induced storm surges. The maximum values of increase and decrease recorded at the Beihai Station over the last 42 years are 1.45 m and -1.87 m. The water level first decreases and then increases in Guangxi near the coast. Apart from the direct influence of typhoons, the westward coastal-trapped wave along the Guangdong continental shelf is also greatly affected. A portion of the westward coastal-trapped wave passed directly through the Qiongzhou Strait into Beibu Gulf, and the other portion passed through the southern part of Hainan Island into the Beibu Gulf. On July 2, 2001, the westward coastal-trapped wave caused by Typhoon Durian induced a strong westward flow along the Guangxi coast, and the geostrophic flow velocity on the surface reached 92cm/s. On July 6, 2001, though Typhoon Utor landed at the northern part of the Pearl River Estuary, it widely induced a 20-cm increase in the water level in Guangxi near the coast on July 8. Apart from the direct and indirect influences of typhoons on the fluctuation of the water level along the Guangxi coast, the particular topography and atmospheric gravity wave also have affect the fluctuation of the water level.

  18. Mya arenaria — an ancient invader of the North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Matthias

    1998-09-01

    Mya arenaria currently occupies a wide geographical range in the northern hemisphere, on both coasts of the Atlantic as well as on the Pacific east coast. Some authors claim it also occurs on the Pacific west coast. The species originated in the Pacific during the Miocene and was already present on both Atlantic coasts in the Pliocene. However, it died out on the east coasts of the Pacific and the Atlantic during glaciation of the Pleistocene. With the aid of man it was reintroduced to the North Sea some 400-700 years ago and to the East Pacific last century. In the 1960s it was also introduced to the Black Sea. M. arenaria invaded new habitats by different modes: (1) natural range expansion (2) intentional as plantings, (3) unintentional as a ballast species and (4) unintentional as a byproduct of oyster transplants. Properties that may favor its wide range of distribution and invading success are: high fecundity; planktonic dispersal stages and life stages that lend itself to unintentional transport by humans; a broad spectrum of habitat and food preference; tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions such as salinity and temperature; longevity, and perhaps relatively large size.

  19. Geological impacts and implications of the 2010 tsunami along the central coast of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Buckley, Mark L.; Richmond, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Geological effects of the 2010 Chilean tsunami were quantified at five near-field sites along a 200 km segment of coast located between the two zones of predominant fault slip. Field measurements, including topography, flow depths, flow directions, scour depths, and deposit thicknesses, provide insights into the processes and morphological changes associated with tsunami inundation and return flow. The superposition of downed trees recorded multiple strong onshore and alongshore flows that arrived at different times and from different directions. The most likely explanation for the diverse directions and timing of coastal inundation combines (1) variable fault rupture and asymmetrical slip displacement of the seafloor away from the epicenter with (2) resonant amplification of coastal edge waves. Other possible contributing factors include local interaction of incoming flow and return flow and delayed wave reflection by the southern coast of Peru. Coastal embayments amplified the maximum inundation distances at two sites (2.4 and 2.6 km, respectively). Tsunami vertical erosion included scour and planation of the land surface, inundation scour around the bases of trees, and channel incision from return flow. Sheets and wedges of sand and gravel were deposited at all of the sites. Locally derived boulders up to 1 m in diameter were transported as much as 400 m inland and deposited as fields of dispersed clasts. The presence of lobate bedforms at one site indicates that at least some of the late-stage sediment transport was as bed load and not as suspended load. Most of the tsunami deposits were less than 25 cm thick. Exceptions were thick deposits near open-ocean river mouths where sediment supply was abundant. Human alterations of the land surface at most of the sites provided opportunities to examine some tsunami effects that otherwise would not have been possible, including flow histories, boulder dispersion, and vegetation controls on deposit thickness.

  20. Geological effects and implications of the 2010 tsunami along the central coast of Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Buckley, M.L.; Richmond, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Geological effects of the 2010 Chilean tsunami were quantified at five near-field sites along a 200. km segment of coast located between the two zones of predominant fault slip. Field measurements, including topography, flow depths, flow directions, scour depths, and deposit thicknesses, provide insights into the processes and morphological changes associated with tsunami inundation and return flow. The superposition of downed trees recorded multiple strong onshore and alongshore flows that arrived at different times and from different directions. The most likely explanation for the diverse directions and timing of coastal inundation combines (1) variable fault rupture and asymmetrical slip displacement of the seafloor away from the epicenter with (2) resonant amplification of coastal edge waves. Other possible contributing factors include local interaction of incoming flow and return flow and delayed wave reflection by the southern coast of Peru. Coastal embayments amplified the maximum inundation distances at two sites (2.4 and 2.6. km, respectively). Tsunami vertical erosion included scour and planation of the land surface, inundation scour around the bases of trees, and channel incision from return flow. Sheets and wedges of sand and gravel were deposited at all of the sites. Locally derived boulders up to 1. m in diameter were transported as much as 400. m inland and deposited as fields of dispersed clasts. The presence of lobate bedforms at one site indicates that at least some of the late-stage sediment transport was as bed load and not as suspended load. Most of the tsunami deposits were less than 25. cm thick. Exceptions were thick deposits near open-ocean river mouths where sediment supply was abundant. Human alterations of the land surface at most of the sites provided opportunities to examine some tsunami effects that otherwise would not have been possible, including flow histories, boulder dispersion, and vegetation controls on deposit thickness