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Sample records for northern italy incidence

  1. High incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma in Mantua, Po Valley, Northern Italy (1989–1998)

    PubMed Central

    Ascoli, V; Belli, S; Benedetti, M; Trinca, S; Ricci, P; Comba, P

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of classic Kaposi's sarcoma was estimated in the province of Mantua, Po Valley, Northern Italy, yielding age-standardized rates of 2.5/100 000 men and 0.7/100 000 women (1989–98). Elevated rates in the rural zone of Viadana/Sabbioneta (5.0/100 000 men and 2.8/100 000 women) are among the highest so far reported for Italian communities. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11487269

  2. Animal tumour registry of two provinces in northern Italy: incidence of spontaneous tumours in dogs and cats

    PubMed Central

    Vascellari, Marta; Baioni, Elisa; Ru, Giuseppe; Carminato, Antonio; Mutinelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Cancer is a major cause of death in domestic animals. Furthermore, many forms of pet neoplasm resemble that of their human counterparts in biologic behaviour, pathologic expression, and recognised risk factors. In April 2005, a pilot project was activated so as to establish a dog and cat tumour registry living in the Venice and Vicenza provinces (Veneto Region, north-eastern Italy), with the aim of estimating the incidence of spontaneous tumours. Results Through a telephone survey, the estimates of canine and feline populations of the catchment area turned out to be of 296,318 (CI +/- 30,201) and 214,683 (CI +/- 21,755) subjects, respectively. During the first three years, overall 2,509 canine and 494 feline cases of neoplasia were diagnosed. In dogs, the estimated annual incidence rate (IR) per 100,000 dogs for all tumours was 282 in all the catchment area, whereas in cats the IR was much lower (IR = 77). Malignant and benign tumours were equally distributed in male and female dogs, whereas cats had a 4.6-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than benign. In both dogs and cats, purebreds had an almost 2-fold higher incidence of malignant tumours than mixed breeds. Tumour incidence increased with age in both dog and cat populations. Conclusion This study has provided estimates of incidence of spontaneous neoplasm in companion animals. Further attempts will be made to increase the accuracy in the population size assessment and to ascertain the real gap with the official regional canine demographic registry. Veterinary practitioners may also benefit from the tumour registry insofar they may obtain data for specific breeds, age groups or geographical areas. PMID:19825169

  3. [The incidence of malignant mesothelioma (1977-1996) and asbestos exposure in the population of an area neighboring Lake Iseo, northern Italy].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, P G; Migliori, M; Merler, E

    1999-01-01

    The study was stimulated by the occurrence of malignant mesotheliomas among the workers of two adjacent factories located in Sarnico, near Lake Iseo (province of Brescia, northern Italy), one of which manufactured crocidolite and chrysotile ropes and gaskets until 1993. The aim of the study was: identification of malignant mesotheliomas occurring between 1977 and 1996 among the residents of 11 villages, which constituted the recruitment area of the work-force; estimation of the incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma; collection of working histories of all cases to evaluate previous exposure to asbestos and radiation therapy. 21 cases of mesothelioma were detected (20 pleural, 1 peritoneal; 9 among males), and 20 were supported by histopathologic diagnosis. The incidence (x 100,000 person-years, standard: European population) was 2.5 (0.7-4.2) and 2.8 (1.2-4.3) among males and females, respectively, corresponding to a three-fold increase among males and a more than ten fold increase among women in comparison with the incidence reported by the Lombardy Cancer Registry. No cases had been exposed to radiation therapy, whereas all cases had been occupationally exposed to asbestos. Occupational exposure to asbestos had occurred in work on the production of crocidolite and chrysotile ropes and gaskets (6 males); in work in a textile factory producing cotton garments that was adjacent to and polluted by the former, where, in addition, chrysotile blankets were used for fireproofing in the weaving area and pipes were insulated using amosite-containing materials (10 cases, 6 among females); 5 cases occurred among women working in silk factories, where asbestos exposure was possible because of the presence of pipes insulated with asbestos and because women were handling temperature-controlled trays insulted with asbestos. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that the occurrence of mesothelioma was higher among females than males in the study area and that all cases of

  4. Primary liver cancer and occupation in men: a case-control study in a high-incidence area in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Placidi, D; Carta, A; Gelatti, U; Ribero, M L; Tagger, A; Boffetta, P; Donato, F

    2001-12-15

    The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between occupation and risk of liver cancer. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out during 1997-1999 in the Province of Brescia, a highly industrialized area in Northern Italy with a high incidence of this neoplasm. The cases were 144 male patients with incident liver cancer (96% hepatocellular carcinoma). Controls were 283 male patients, matched to cases on age (+/-5 years), period and hospital of admission. Information on lifetime occupational history and alcohol consumption was obtained via interview. Specific occupational exposures to pesticides, solvents and other suspected hepatocarcinogens were evaluated. A blood sample was collected to detect hepatitis B and C infections. Odds ratios (OR) of occupational exposure and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for age, residence, education, heavy alcohol intake, hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus antibodies positivity were computed. A statistically significant increased OR was observed for employment in repair of motor vehicles (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.1-12.3; 9 exposed cases, 10 exposed controls). Increased ORs, although not statistically significant, were found for field-crop farm workers, food and beverage processors, blacksmiths and machine-tool operators, electrical fitters, clerical workers, manufacture of industrial machinery and personal and household services. A slightly increased OR was noted in workers exposed to toluene and xylene (OR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7-3.0, 23 cases, 36 controls); the OR was 2.8 (95% CI 1.0-7.6, 11 cases, 12 controls) for 20 or more years of exposure and 2.0 (95% CI 0.9-4.1, 21 cases, 28 controls) for 30 or more years of time since first exposure. The increase in OR seemed to be independent from that of alcohol or viral infections. Our study showed that the role of occupational exposures in liver carcinogenesis is limited. However, prolonged exposure to organic solvents such as toluene and xylene may

  5. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy.

    PubMed

    Ratti, Chiara; Vulcano, Ettore; La Barbera, Giuseppe; Canton, Gianluca; Murena, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2013-10-01

    Osteoporosis can significantly impact on the risk of developing a fracture. Thus, fragility fractures represent a challenge for health professionals and decision makers of the twenty-first century. The aim of this work is to review the literature concerning osteoporotic fractures in Italy in terms of incidence, rate of hospitalization, relative risk of a new fragility fracture, and costs for the national health system. It was estimated that the costs of treating proximal femur fragility fractures in 2002 summed up to 1 billion Euros. The number of fragility fractures in Italy was calculated as follows: 91.494 hip fractures, 61.009 clinical vertebral fractures, 57.401 humeral fragility fractures, and 94.045 forearm/wrist fragility fractures. The incidence of fragility fractures in Italy is very high, and osteoporosis is the leading cause of morbidity in the Italian population. PMID:24046040

  6. Records of Chrysomya albiceps in Northern Italy: an ecological and forensic perspective.

    PubMed

    Vanin, S; Caenazzo, L; Arseni, A; Cecchetto, G; Cattaneo, C; Turchetto, M

    2009-07-01

    Knowledge of the carrion-breeding insects present at a local level is important and necessary for defining the post-mortem interval. Climate changes and globalisation are affecting species ranges and population dynamics. In this note, we report the incidence of Chrysomya albiceps (Diptera: Calliphoridae) on dead human bodies and carrion in Northern Italy. These data confirm the spread of this species in the Northern regions. The partial sequencing of a 583-bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene of an Adriatic population did not reveal any difference compared to the same genomic region in the African and South American populations of this species.

  7. Incidence of Legionella pneumophila infection in tourists: Italy.

    PubMed

    Passi, C; Maddaluno, R; Pastoris, M C

    1990-05-01

    Legionella pneumophila has frequently been recognised as a cause of infection in tourists. From 1973 to 1987, 117 cases of legionellosis were reported in tourists who spent one or more weeks in Italian summer resorts. 6 (5.1%) patients died. 42 (35.9%) were sporadic cases, and 75 (64.1%) were related to clusters or outbreaks. Among the 117 cases, 63 were reported to the Istituto Superiore di Sanità by the health authorities of other countries. Some travellers became ill while in Italy, others soon after they returned home. All tourists but two had stayed in hotels. L. pneumophila was isolated from the water system of 10 hotels, and in another hotel the same Legionella species was detected by direct immunofluorescence. Persistent and/or recurrent sources of infection seem to be present in some summer resorts on the Adriatic Coast and in the Lake Garda area in northern Italy. Some groups of cases were associated with particular hotels over a period of several months and sometimes years. Investigations have implicated potable water as the likely vehicle and the source of infection for tourists. The need of a greater awareness amongst clinicians that travel is a risk factor for legionellosis, and for better international surveillance and cooperation, is stressed.

  8. A population-based study of active and drug-resistant epilepsies in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giussani, Giorgia; Canelli, Valentina; Bianchi, Elisa; Franchi, Carlotta; Nobili, Alessandro; Erba, Giuseppe; Beghi, Ettore

    2016-02-01

    Drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) is defined by the International League Against Epilepsy as a failure of adequate trials of two tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs to achieve sustained seizure freedom. Our aim was to calculate the following: (1) the prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE in a well-defined population of Northern Italy and (2) the proportion of incident cases developing DRE. The study population (146,506; year 2008) resided in the province of Lecco, Northern Italy. The medical records of 123 general practitioners were reviewed to identify patients with epilepsy, diagnosed by a neurologist during the period 2000-2008. The point prevalence of active epilepsy and DRE was calculated on December 31, 2008. A total of 747 prevalent patients with epilepsy, 684 patients with active epilepsy, and 342 incident cases were identified. The frequency of DRE was 15.6% (107/684) of all active epilepsies and 10.5% (36/342) of incident cases. The point prevalence was 0.73 per 1000. The standardized prevalence of DRE was 0.7 per 1000 (Italian population) and 0.8 per 1000 (world population). Our data indicate that 1/6 patients with active epilepsy in the general population has DRE, and 1/10 patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy will develop DRE within nine years from the diagnosis.

  9. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the northern Apennines, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Elosegui, P.; Normandeau, J. E.; Serpelloni, E.

    2003-12-01

    Continuous GPS stations within and around the northern Apennines, northern Italy, provide sparse but very precise constraints on crustal deformation associated with Africa, Eurasia, and Adriatic plate interactions. We analyzed data acquired by these stations during the time period of 1996 to 2003.5, finding distributed northwest range-parallel crustal shortening, totaling some 2 mm/yr, and northeast directed crustal extension across the Apennines hinterland, totaling 2.5--3.0 mm/yr or more. Extensional strain rates vary as a function of latitude within the northern Apennines, with higher strain rates across a narrow belt in the central part of the northern Apennines (latitude ˜43N) and lower strain rates across a broader zone further north (latitude ˜44N). Northeast directed crustal extension is prominent in the geology and seismicity of the Apennines hinterland, and forms an important observational basis for contemporary geodynamical models describing present-day deformation processes in northern Italy. Range-parallel crustal shortening is less well understood, however, because there are very few geological or seismological indicators of northwest directed crustal shortening for the northern Apennines. On the other hand, combined paleomagnetic and tomographic inferences suggest that the northern Apennines is an orocline, achieving its arcuate shape as a result of progressive bending of an originally straight orogen. The rates and patterns of range-parallel deformation may thus provide important new constraints on geodynamical models for this complex region.

  10. Uncertainty analysis for seismic hazard in Northern and Central Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lombardi, A.M.; Akinci, A.; Malagnini, L.; Mueller, C.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine uncertainty and parametric sensitivity of Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) and 1-Hz Spectral Acceleration (1-Hz SA) in probabilistic seismic hazard maps (10% probability of exceedance in 50 years) of Northern and Central Italy. The uncertainty in hazard is estimated using a Monte Carlo approach to randomly sample a logic tree that has three input-variables branch points representing alternative values for b-value, maximum magnitude (Mmax) and attenuation relationships. Uncertainty is expressed in terms of 95% confidence band and Coefficient Of Variation (COV). The overall variability of ground motions and their sensitivity to each parameter of the logic tree are investigated. The largest values of the overall 95% confidence band are around 0.15 g for PGA in the Friuli and Northern Apennines regions and around 0.35 g for 1-Hz SA in the Central Apennines. The sensitivity analysis shows that the largest contributor to seismic hazard variability is uncertainty in the choice of ground-motion attenuation relationships, especially in the Friuli Region (???0.10 g) for PGA and in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions (???0.15 g) for 1-Hz SA. This is followed by the variability of the b-value: its main contribution is evident in the Friuli and Central Apennines regions for both 1-Hz SA (???0.15 g) and PGA (???0.10 g). We observe that the contribution of Mmax to seismic hazard variability is negligible, at least for 10% exceedance in 50-years hazard. The overall COV map for PGA shows that the uncertainty in the hazard is larger in the Friuli and Northern Apennine regions, around 20-30%, than the Central Apennines and Northwestern Italy, around 10-20%. The overall uncertainty is larger for the 1-Hz SA map and reaches 50-60% in the Central Apennines and Western Alps.

  11. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in internal medicine wards in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mellace, Luca; Consonni, Dario; Jacchetti, Gaia; Del Medico, Marta; Colombo, Riccardo; Velati, Marta; Formica, Simone; Cappellini, Maria Domenica; Castaldi, Silvana; Fabio, Giovanna

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD) is a growing health care problem. Elderly patients with multiple comorbidities and repeated hospitalization are at high risk for developing the disease. Few data are available on epidemiology of CDAD in Italy and no studies have focused on CDAD burden in internal medicine wards. We retrospectively analysed all CDAD cases in four internal medicine wards of a city hospital in northern Italy and reviewed the medical records of patients who developed CDAD during hospitalization. We identified 146 newly acquired cases, yielding a cumulative incidence of 2.56 per 100 hospitalizations and an incidence rate of 23.3 per 10,000 patient-days. Main risk factors were advanced age and length of hospitalization. A high proportion of CDAD patients had several comorbidities and had been treated with more than one antibiotic. The incidence is among the highest previously reported, this may be due to the characteristics of patients admitted to internal medicine wards and to the wards per se. We conclude that efforts are needed to reduce CDAD's burden in this setting, paying attention to logistics, patients care and antibiotic use.

  12. Estimating the incidence of induced abortion in Italy.

    PubMed

    Figa'talamanca, I

    1976-01-01

    This attempts to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in Italy using a number of reproductive models and estimates of contraceptive use and effectiveness. The models of Henry and Metiner are based on assumptions of uncontrolled fertility of all women of reproductive age with single women assumed to be as much at risk as married women. These yield abortion estimates of 2.78-3.64 million a year. The actual situation is probably closer to the method of Larsen, which eliminates single women and women over age 44 but assumes uncontrolled fertility. Surveys have shown that contraceptive use, especially among working-class Italian couples, is irregular and most traditional methods such as coitus interruptus. This method estimates .98 million abortions a year. If the same assumptions are made but corrected for shorter birth intervals, the Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques method, an estimate of 1.45 million is obtained. The Larson method was then modified for 2/3 of all married women using contraception with 60% efficiency, with 30% efficiency, and 2/3 at 30% with 2% using contraception 100% efficiently. These estimates are .22, .60, and .50 million. The method of Tietze and Bongaarts with fertility adjusted to age groups and various assumptions of fertility control gives .96 million abortions in the contraception dominant model, 2.26 million in the abortion dominant model, and .63 million in the abortion used after contraceptive failure model. Actual data on contraceptive usage is unavailable so it is impossible to make an accurate estimate.

  13. Herbicide contamination of surficial groundwater in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Guzzella, Licia; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Giuliano, Giuseppe

    2006-07-01

    Data on herbicide pollution in groundwater are rather scarce; monitoring data are based on single investigation, focussing on limited area and on few compounds of interest. The large number of approved active ingredients (approximately 600 chemicals) makes difficult to obtain an accurate and actual information on herbicide application in different countries, even if herbicides are the second most important class of pesticides used in the European Union. The results of a two-year monitoring campaign undertaken in two areas intensively cultivated at Lombardy, Northern Italy, showed a diffuse groundwater contamination due to active ingredients and their metabolites. More than 50% of samples overcame M.A.C. and the most common herbicides were Atrazine, Terbuthylazine and Metolachlor, while DEA and DET metabolites were often characterized by greater concentrations than their relative active principles.

  14. Usutu virus in wild birds in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Manarolla, G; Bakonyi, T; Gallazzi, D; Crosta, L; Weissenböck, H; Dorrestein, G M; Nowotny, N

    2010-02-24

    Usutu virus (USUV) infection was diagnosed in two free-living blackbirds and in three captive owls belonging to two different species in northern Italy in the summers of 2006-2008. Diagnosis was established by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. RT-PCR was performed on frozen and on paraffin-embedded tissues (PET), respectively. From the frozen samples a partial sequence of the putative USUV E and NS1 proteins (1229 bp) was determined, whereas partial sequences of the putative NS3 (278 bp) and NS5 (159 bp) proteins were obtained from PET. Additionally, one partial sequence (163 bp) of the putative 3'UTR region was determined from all samples. Sequencing of the amplification products revealed 99.8-100% nucleotide identity of the Italian USUV strains to those from other central European countries. PMID:19720475

  15. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased.

  16. Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Incorvaia, C; Senna, G; Mauro, M; Bonadonna, P; Marconi, I; Asero, R; Nitti, F

    2004-12-01

    The epidemiology of Hymenoptera venom allergy in Europe showed prevalence of systemic reactions of about 3%, but is scantly investigated in Italy. We studied two samples of the general and an at risk population, i.e. the foresters, in northern Italy. A standardized questionnaire dealing with allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings was submitted to the subjects included in the study, who were factory workers in Milan and Verona and foresters in Lombardy. An overall number of 574 subjects participated to the study, 462 (299 males and 163 females, mean age 40.1 yrs, range 20-63 yrs) were factory workers and 112 (all males, mean age 38.8 yrs, range 24-59 yrs) were foresters. Among factory workers, 302 (65.4%) were stung by Hymenoptera, 49 (10.6%) had had large local reactions, and 13 (2.8%) systemic reactions. Among foresters, 76 (67.8%) were stung, 11 (9.8%) had had large local reactions, and 5 (4.5%) systemic reactions. The systemic reactions were life-threatening in 3 (0.6%) industrial workers and 2 (1.8%) foresters. The prevalence of systemic reaction of 2.8% in the general population agrees with the data reported from a number of countries with temperate climate. The prevalence of 4.5% in foresters attributed to this population a risk only slightly increased. PMID:15662965

  17. Variations and trends of Fagaceae pollen in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, Annalisa; Pellizzaro, Grazia; Arca, Bachisio; Vargiu, Arnoldo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze variations in the start and the end dates of pollen season, date of maximum concentration peak, pollen season duration, pollen concentration value and Seasonal Pollen Index of airborne Fagaceae pollen series recorded in Sassari, Northern Italy, and to evaluate their relation to meteorological data. Daily pollen concentration data were measured from 1986 to 2008 in a urban area of northern Sardinia (Italy) using a Burkard seven-day recording volumetric spore trap. The date of the peak occurrence was defined as the day when the cumulated daily pollen values reached the 50 % of the total annual pollen concentration. Meteorological data were recorded during the same period by an automatic weather station. Cumulative Degree days were calculated, for each year, from different starting dates using the daily averaging method. The correlation between meteorological variables and the different characteristics of pollen seasons was analyzed using Spearman's correlation tests. In the city of Sassari the Fagaceae airborne pollen content was mainly due to Quercus. The main pollen season took place from April to June. The longest pollen season appeared in the year 2002. The cumulative counts varied over the years, with a mean value of 5,336 pollen grains, a lowest total of 550 in 1986 and a highest total of 8,678 in 2001. Daily pollen concentrations presented positive correlation with temperature, and negative with relative humidity (p<0,0001) and with rainfall. In addition, Cumulative Degree days were significantly correlated with the dates of maximum concentration peak (p<0,0001).

  18. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of 1990–2003 Incidence Time Trends of Childhood Diabetes in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Graziella; Maule, Milena; Merletti, Franco; Novelli, Giulia; Falorni, Alberto; Iannilli, Antonio; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Altobelli, Emma; d'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Piffer, Silvano; Pozzilli, Paolo; Iafusco, Dario; Songini, Marco; Roncarolo, Federico; Toni, Sonia; Carle, Flavia; Cherubini, Valentino

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate age-period-cohort effects on the temporal trend of type 1 diabetes in children age 0–14 years in Italian registries. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This report is based on 5,180 incident cases in the period 1990–2003 from the Registry for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Italy (RIDI). Multilevel (random intercept) Poisson regression models were used to model the effects of sex, age, calendar time, and birth cohorts on temporal trends, taking into account the registry-level variance component. RESULTS The incidence rate was 12.26 per 100,000 person-years and significantly higher in boys (13.13 [95% CI 12.66–13.62]) than in girls (11.35 [10.90–11.82]). Large geographical variations in incidence within Italy were evident; incidence was highest in Sardinia, intermediate in Central-Southern Italy, and high in Northern Italy, particularly in the Trento Province, where the incidence rate was 18.67 per 100,000 person-years. An increasing temporal trend was evident (2.94% per year [95% CI 2.22–3.67]). With respect to the calendar period 1990–1992, the incidence rates increased linearly by 15, 27, 35, and 40% in the following time periods (P for trend < 0.001). With respect to the 1987–1993 birth cohort, the incidence rate ratio increased approximately linearly from 0.63 (95% CI 0.54–0.73) in the 1975–1981 cohort to 1.38 (1.06–1.80) in the 1999–2003 cohort. The best model, however, included sex, age, and a linear time trend (drift). CONCLUSIONS Large geographical variations and an increasing temporal trend in diabetes incidence are evident among type 1 diabetic children in Italy. Age-period-cohort analysis shows that the variation over time has a linear component that cannot be ascribed to either the calendar period or the birth cohort. PMID:20566665

  19. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves and crustal structure in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2016-04-01

    Horizontal-to-vertical amplitude ratio of elliptically-polarised ground motion of Rayleigh waves depends on the local crustal structure. Its measurement therefore adds another, seldom used, tool to image shallow earth structure. Frequency-dependent sensitivity kernels are dominated by shear-wave velocity and are rather shallow, so they are a convenient tool to model sedimentary layers that nicely complement surface wave studies. We perform extensive measurements, in the period range between 10 and 110 s, on traces from about 500 globally-distributed earthquakes, occurred in years 2008 ÷ 2014, recorded by 95 stations in northern Italy - - a region including the wide basin of the Po Plain and encircling Alps and northern Apennines. The observations are well correlated with known strucure: high ellipticity correlates well with low seismic velocity (such as in the Po Plain), and low ellipticity corresponds to fast seismic velocity in hard rock environments in correspondence of Alps and Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region (Molinari et al., 2015) shows substantial fit. Sensitivity to vS is quite non linear, but inversion is possible and may provide very useful complementary information to, e.g., surface wave phase or group velocity or receiver functions.

  20. Magnetostratigraphy Of The Pleistocene Arda River Section (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monesi, E.; Muttoni, G.; Scardia, G.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the magnetic properties of the Pleistocene sediments exposed in the Arda river section in southern Po plain, northern Italy. This site contains a complete record of the transition occurring in the greater Po basin between marine sedimentation typical of the Early Pleistocene and continental sedimentation typical of the Middle-Late Pleistocene. The study of the magnetic mineralogy shows a dominance of Magnetite as the main magnetic mineral in almost the whole sequence except for the top where it changes into Hematite and for two minor intervals at the base and the middle of the sequence where the signal is carried mainly by sulphides. Five magnetic polarity reversals were recognized and used to construct an age model of sedimentation for the whole sequence, which was found to span in substantial stratigraphic continuity between ~2.5 Ma in the Matuyama chron across the Olduvai subchron, the Jaramillo subchron to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary at 0.78 Ma, the correct interpretation of these magnetostratigraphic data has been proven by biostratigraphic data collected at the same time as the paleomagnetic sampling. According to this age model, the age of continentalization occurred in this area between the top of the Jaramillo (0.99 Ma) and the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma) and during the late Early Pleistocene climate revolution (EPR). Using magneto-lithostratigraphic data from other sections from the literature outcropping nearby, we reconstructed the timing of continentalization of the greater Po basin area during the EPR. The comparison between data coming form different sections in the Po basin prove a slight diachrony in the marine-continental transtition occurring from the western to the eastern part of the plain due to the gradual infilling by continental sediments. This age for the continentalization of the northern italian area combines well with the age of the best-dated sites with evidence of the earliest peopling of Europe.

  1. Prevalence of otitis externa in stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Spada, Eva

    2014-06-01

    Feline otitis externa is a dermatological disorder that has not been evaluated much in stray cats. One hundred and eighty-seven stray cats were randomly selected during a trap-neuter-release programme to investigate the prevalence of otitis externa in stray cat colonies in northern Italy. Swabs for cytological examination were obtained from the external ear canal of each cat. A direct otoscopic assessment of the external ear canal was made in 86/187 cats. Cytological evidence of otitis externa was present in 55.1% of cats. The influence on otitis of age, gender, habitat and season of sampling was tested, but no risk factors were found. Otodectes cynotis (as a sole agent or in combination) was the primary cause of otitis in 53.3% of cats. Cocci and rods, either alone or in combination with other agents, were perpetuating factors in 71.8% and 29.1% of cats, respectively. Pregnancy status was a risk factor for otitis caused by coccal infections. Malassezia species, alone or in combination, was the perpetuating factor in 50.5% of cats with otitis. Urban habitat and winter season were risk factors for otitis associated with Malassezia species. Demodex cati was identified as an incidental finding in two cats. There was good agreement between otoscopy and cytology with regard to the diagnosis of otitis externa. The results of this study show a high prevalence of otitis externa in stray colony cats and provide information on causal factors for feline otitis externa.

  2. Active transpression in the northern Calabria Apennines, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferranti, L.; Santoro, E.; Mazzella, M. E.; Monaco, C.; Morelli, D.

    2009-10-01

    the Amendolara ridge and northern Sila, where partitioning between thrust and left strike-slip motion occurs in response to ˜ E to ˜ NE directed shortening. A local ˜ NW-SE extension is recorded by fault-kinematic analysis on NE-SW striking fault segments parallel to the coast on the eastern flank of Pollino. These small-length normal faults do not form a through-going lineament, rather they accommodate the seaward collapse of the uppermost crust above the deeper shortening compartment. Conversely, the active transpression testified by geomorphic, structural and seismicity data is accommodated along deep-seated oblique back-thrusts that involve the Apulian foreland plate underlying the now inactive thin-skinned accretionary wedge down to near-Moho depths. In light of the tight interlacing between regional and local components of deformation affecting the marine terraces, we suggest that the large-scale uplift in this sector of Calabria may reflect whole crustal-scale folding. The novel seismotectonic frame reconstructed for this region is consistent with GPS velocities suggesting that large part of geodetic shortening detected between the Apennines and the Apulian block on the eastern side of southern Italy might be accommodated in northern Calabria.

  3. Molecular and Epidemiological Analysis of a Campylobacter jejuni Outbreak in Northern Italy in November 2013.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Claudia; Dionisi, Anna Maria; Trezzi, Livia; Farina, Claudio; Passera, Marco; Kärki, Tommi; D'Ancona, Fortunato; Luzzi, Ida

    2016-09-01

    Campylobacter spp. is the most common gastrointestinal pathogen worldwide with a very low reported incidence in Italy. In November of 2013, local and national public health authorities investigated an outbreak caused by Campylobacter jejuni among children in a kindergarten in Northern Italy. A case was defined as a child who had diarrhea with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of C. jejuni between 11 and 30 November. Stool samples from the kindergarten kitchen staff and environmental samples from the kitchen were examined for enteric pathogens. As food leftovers were not available, the menu logbook of the refectory was reviewed to identify a possible source of the outbreak. C. jejuni strains were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and subtyped by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). We identified 20 cases among 247 schoolchildren (attack rate = 8%), all who reported having lunch in the kindergarten. The stools from the kitchen staff as well as the environmental samples were negative for enteric pathogens. The identified outbreak strains (n = 5) were sensitive to all of the antimicrobials tested; the first four strains showed an identical PFGE profile, whereas the fifth strain showed a PFGE pattern similarity of 89%. Using MLST, all five strains were assigned to a single sequence type (ST), ST451 (clonal complex, CC21); this was the first identification of ST and the third reported outbreak of C. jejuni in Italy. Molecular typing confirmed that most of the cases belonged to a clonal cluster supporting the hypothesis of a common source; however, the source was not identified. Due to a delayed start of the investigation, it was not possible to perform any microbiological evaluation of the food consumed. PMID:27455195

  4. Characterization of Present and Future Droughts in Northern Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Oria, M.; Ferraresi, M.; Molini, P.; Tanda, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts are "creeping" natural hazards that are usually related to extended time periods with rainfall deficiency when compared to average statistics. Characterization of regional, present and future, droughts associated with climate natural variability and/or global changes are important to assess their impact on water resource availability. In this work, we make use of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify and quantify, at different timescales, precipitation deficits and droughts in the northern part of the Tuscany Region (Italy). The study site extends from the Appenine to the Tirrenian Sea and has an area, of about 3000 km2. Historical rainfall data collected in the last 90 years are available in gauging stations covering the entire area. We first analyzed the historical drought (in terms of SPI) frequencies in comparison with those of the last decade. It seems likely that an increase in droughts in the last period, at all timescale, can be detected from the available data. Then, to evaluate the effects of natural climate variabilities which, as some Authors as pointed out, can be far greater than climate change signals, we made use of a multi-site weather generator to produce synthetic rainfall time-series that match the statistical properties of the historical data. In this way we provided equally likely alternative realizations of the last decade climate useful to explore the variability and evaluate the uncertainty of the present drought frequencies. Moreover, to characterize the possible upcoming droughts (next 25 and 40 years) we made use of synthetic future rainfall time-series. For this purpose, we modified the weather generator parameters on the basis of available RCM climate model outputs under the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. This study is a first step, for the local water supply company, to understand the need of implementing immediate and/or medium-tem water conservation activities and drought response measures over the area.

  5. Prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis in Italy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Maurizio; Rossi, Elisa; Bernardi, Davide; Viapiana, Ombretta; Gatti, Davide; Idolazzi, Luca; Caimmi, Cristian; Derosa, Marisa; Adami, Silvano

    2014-05-01

    Aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from an administrative cohort consisting of 2,268,514 males and 2,446,769 females, aged ≥ 18 years, from 32 Italian Health Districts. The diagnosis of RA was certified by a qualified specialist and confirmed by ≥3 prescriptions of "specific drugs" (corticosteroids, DMARDs or "biological" agents) during 2011. Patients on "specific drugs" qualified as "active RA"; those who never had more than 4 prescriptions in the past were classified as "unlikely RA," and those previously on chronic treatment but who discontinued therapy for >1 year were classified as "remission RA." The patients with a diagnosis of RA were 22,801 (0.48 %) with a prevalence of "active RA," "remission RA" and "confirmed RA" (Active + Remission RA) of 0.32, 0.09 and 0.41 % (95 % CI 0.38-0.44), respectively. The classification criteria tested in a fifth of the study population by direct analysis yielded >90 % accuracy and precision. The yearly incidence of "active RA" per 100,000 subjects was 48 (95 % CI 40-57) and 20 (95 % CI 10-30) for women and men, respectively. The peak for both prevalence and incidence was around the eighth decade of life. The female/male ratios for both prevalence and incidence were ca. 2.6 before the fifth decade of life, but approached unity in the ninth decade of life. The overall prevalence and incidence of RA in a large sample of the Italian population is only marginally lower than that reported from a similar administrative database of Sweden. With advancing age, the female/male ratio declines to about one.

  6. Identification of dangerous fibers: some examples in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanetti, Giovanna; Marini, Paola; Giorgis, Ilaria

    2016-04-01

    The presence of asbestiform minerals has to be foreseen in the planning of infrastructural activities: Asbestos can be a component of sedimentary rocks or of mafic and ultra mafic metamorphic rocks. Surveys and core drilling, in addition to providing important information on the quality of the rock and its geotechnical characteristics, allow for a prediction of the presence of asbestiform minerals in the areas affected by mining or infrastructural activities. During the excavation, workers can be exposed to the asbestos risk, therefore, the control of the air quality and of the excavated materials are fundamental for the safety of involved people. In this work some problems we met in the analysis of airborne filters and bulk samples from sites in northern Italy are presented. The asbestos fibers present in rocks as accessory minerals, are often different in habit and dimension from the well-known asbestos fibers used as industrial minerals and moreover can be erroneously identified as minerals morphologically and chemically similar present in the same rock or environment. In the case of tunnel muck it could be contaminated by substances used for the excavation that could modify colours and optical properties of asbestos minerals. In the PCOM (Phase Contrast Optical Microscope) analysis chrysotile, sepiolite and antigorite, due to their different refraction index, when the fibers have dimension > 0,5 micron and aren't contaminated by lubricant can be easely identified even if the morphology of chrysotile is very similar to that of sepiolite. In Electron Scanning Microscope (SEM) the discrimination between chrysotile and antigorite on the airborne filters is not always possible because the fibers of thin dimensions show similar habit and spectrum. In the case of the tremolite amphibole, morphology changes from prismatic to fibrous depending on its origin (p.eg. Monastero, Val Grana, Verrayes, Brachiello). Both prismatic and asbestiform tremolite (Gamble and Gibbs

  7. Domestic violence. Incidence and prevalence in a northern emergency department.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jane; Bota, Gary W.; Carter, Mary; Bretzlaff-Michaud, Jennifer A.; Sahai, Vic; Rowe, Brian H.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and prevalence of domestic violence (DV) against women presenting to emergency departments. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study to determine health status and exposure to DV. SETTING: Hospital emergency department in urban northern Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Random sample of women older than 16 presenting to the emergency department for any reason. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic variables, exposure to DV. RESULTS: Of 1800 potential subjects, 577 (32%) did not fit inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 1223, 983 (80%) agreed to participate. Mean age was 41, 135 of participants (14%) were aboriginal, and 546 (56%) were married. Overall, 725 (74%) had current partners. Incidence of DV resulting in emergency department presentation on the day of assessment was 2%. Of women with partners, 66 (9%) had previously been threatened or injured by those partners. Lifetime prevalence of DV was 51%; physical DV was experienced by 40%. One-year prevalence was 26%. CONCLUSION: Incidence of DV was lower than expected; prevalence of DV was high. PMID:14761109

  8. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  9. Molecular characterization of noroviruses and rotaviruses involved in a large outbreak of gastroenteritis in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Monini, Marina; Losio, Marina Nadia; Pavoni, Enrico; Lavazza, Antonio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2011-08-01

    Noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near Garda Lake (Northern Italy) in 2009 were investigated. Characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples.

  10. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species.

  11. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  12. Climate, Soil Management, and Cultivar Affect Fusarium Head Blight Incidence and Deoxynivalenol Accumulation in Durum Wheat of Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Aureli, Gabriella; Cesarano, Gaspare; Incerti, Guido; Fanelli, Corrado; Scala, Felice; Reverberi, Massimo; Bonanomi, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a multifaceted disease caused by some species of Fusarium spp. A huge production of mycotoxins, mostly trichothecenes, often accompanied this disease. Amongst these toxic compounds, deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives represent a major issue for human as well as for animal health and farming. Common and durum wheat are amongst the hosts of trichothecene-producing Fusaria. Differences in susceptibility to fungal infection and toxin accumulation occur in wheat cultivars. Recently, increasing incidence and severity of Fusarium infection and a higher DON accumulation in durum wheat were observed in Italy, especially in Northern regions. In this study, we analyzed wheat yield, technological parameters, the incidence of Fusarium infection and DON content in kernel samples of durum wheat coming from three locations of Southern Italy with different climatic conditions and grown during two seasons, with two methods of cultivation. Four different durum wheat cultivars prevalently cultivated in Southern Italian areas were chosen for this study. Our analysis showed the effects of environment and cultivar types on wheat productivity and key technological parameters for the quality level of the end-product, namely pasta. Notably, although a low rate of mycotoxin contamination in all study sites was assessed, an inverse relation emerged between fungal infection/DON production and durum wheat yield. Further, our study pinpoints the importance of environment conditions on several quality traits of durum wheat grown under Mediterranean climate. The environmental conditions at local level (microscale) and soil management practices may drive FHB outbreak and mycotoxin contamination even in growing area suitable for cropping this wheat species. PMID:27446052

  13. Potential SRF generation from a closed landfill in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Passamani, Giorgia; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work is to assess the possibility of producing solid recovered fuel (SRF) and "combustible SRF" from a landfill located in the north of Italy, where the waste is placed in cylindrical wrapped bales. Since the use of landfills for the disposal of municipal solid waste has many technical limitations and is subject to strict regulations and given that landfill post-closure care is very expensive, an interesting solution is to recover the bales that are stored in the landfill. The contents of the bales can then be used for energy recovery after specific treatments. Currently the landfill is closed and the local municipal council together with an environmental agency are considering constructing a mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant for SRF production. The municipal solid waste that is stored in the landfill, the bio-dried material produced by the hypothetically treated waste in a plant for bio-drying, and the SRF obtained after the post-extraction of inert materials, metals and glass from the bio-dried material were characterized according to the quality and classification criteria of regulations in Italy. The analysis highlighted the need to treat the excavated waste in a bio-drying plant and later to remove the inert waste, metals and glass. Thus in compliance with Italian law, the material has a high enough LHV to be considered as "combustible SRF", (i.e. an SRF with enhanced characteristics).

  14. Epidemiology of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Caminati, Antonella; Conti, Sara; Cesana, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the most common and severe form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Despite its clinical relevance, few studies have examined the epidemiology of IPF and temporal variation in disease incidence and prevalence. Aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, incidence and trends of IPF in Lombardy, a region with nearly 10 million inhabitants, during 2005–2010. Methods For the identification of IPF patients, we used healthcare administrative databases of Lombardy Healthcare System and adopted three algorithms: generic, broad and narrow case definition (GCD, BCD, NCD). IPF cases were identified according to diagnoses reported in inpatient and outpatient claims occurred during 2000–2010. We estimated age- and sex-adjusted annual prevalence and incidence rates from 2005 to 2010, thus allowing for a 5-year washout period. Results The mean annual incidence rate was estimated at 2.3 and 5.3 per 100,000 person-years using NCD and GCD, respectively. IPF incidence was higher among males, and increased with age. Trend remained stable over the years. The estimated annual prevalence rate was 35.5, 22.4, and 12.6 per 100,000 person-years using GCD, BCD and NCD, respectively, and increased with age. Moreover, we observed a positive trend over the years. Using BCD and NCD, prevalence was higher among males. Conclusions The results of this study, which is one of the largest population-based survey ever conducted according to strict criteria, indicated that prevalence of IPF increased across the years while incidence remained stable, thus suggesting that survival with IPF has improved. PMID:26841042

  15. Spread and habitat selection of Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera Calliphoridae) in Northern Italy: forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Lambiase, Simonetta; Camerini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Habitat selection exploited by Chrysomya albiceps during its initial spread in Northern Italy was analyzed in relation to landscape structure. The results of two short studies and a case report are here discussed. C. albiceps was not found on experimental pig carcasses in the urban area of Pavia. It was missing in the woody mountains surrounding Lecco, but it was found in the same area, at a lower altitude, within the typical "urban sprawl" landscape. It was then recorded in a natural reserve, among a rich carrion-fly population. Indications coming from habitat selection suggest that C. albiceps has not yet saturated its potential ecological niche in newly colonized areas of Northern Italy. Factors like temperature, altitude, and interspecific competition can act as limiting factors, affecting habitat selection and distribution in newly colonized areas; the influence of those factors has to be taken into account for forensic purposes. PMID:22211800

  16. West Nile virus outbreak in the Lombardy region, northern Italy, summer 2013.

    PubMed

    Rovida, Francesca; Sarasini, Antonella; Campanini, Giulia; Percivalle, Elena; Gorini, Giovanna; Mariani, Bianca; Pan, Angelo; Cuzzoli, Antonio; Possenti, Stefano; Manzini, Lisa; Castelli, Francesco; Bossini, Nicola; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Castilletti, Concetta; Calzolari, Mattia; Lelli, Davide; Piatti, Alessandra; Baldanti, Fausto

    2015-04-01

    In the summer of 2013, an outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection occurred in the Lombardy, a region of northern Italy to the west of districts affected by WNV in previous years. Eighteen cases of human WNV infection were diagnosed--10 cases of acute WNV neuroinvasive disease and eight of WNV fever. In the same period, WNV was detected in birds (one crow) in horses (11 cases) and from mosquitoes (six pools).

  17. Monitoring atmospheric levels and deposition of dioxin-like pollutants in sub-alpine Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Jiménez, J.; Eisenreich, S. J.; Mariani, G.; Skejo, H.; Umlauf, G.

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the atmospheric occurrence, seasonal variations and deposition of dioxin-like pollutants (17 PCDD/Fs + 12 DL-PCBs) in sub-alpine northern Italy. A total of 108 weekly integrated samples (aerosol + gas phases) were collected during a 1-year period (2005-2006) at the Ispra EMEP site (Northern Italy, 45°49'N, 8°38'E). Atmospheric loadings into Lake Maggiore were also estimated by implementing a deposition model. ∑2,3,7,8-PCDD/F atmospheric total concentrations were dominated by the aerosol-bound fraction which ranged from 50 to 3080 (1-215 WHO98 TEQ) fg m-3. In contrast DL-PCB levels were dominated by the gas phase concentrations and varied from 1800 to 14800 (1-5 WHO98 TEQ) fg m-3. The aerosol and gas phase concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs exhibited a similar seasonality (higher values in winter time for aerosol-bound contaminants and lower concentrations for gas phase contaminants) in spite of their different environmental sources and properties. Estimated total atmospheric (dry + wet) depositional fluxes of dioxin-like pollutants in sub-alpine northern Italy were ˜0.2-˜9.5 ng m-2 d-1, with wet deposition dominating. Total atmospheric inputs (2,3,7,8-PCDD/Fs + DL-PCBs) into Lake Maggiore ranged from 14 to 304 g y-1. Higher environmental concentrations of dioxin-like pollutants in sub-alpine northern Italy are expected in the cold season and in rainy days due to a combined effect of stagnant atmospheric conditions (low winds), household wood burning in the region and higher pollutant loads via rainfall in winter.

  18. Frequency of piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Roggero, Nora; Caracappa, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. Blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program in northern Italy were examined with conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis DNA. No sample (0.0%) tested positive for C. felis, whilst B. microti DNA was detected in two samples (0.8%). Both infected cats were in good clinical condition and recovered well from the neutering surgery. One of these two cats had a triple coinfection with Babesia microti, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Evidence presented in this study indicates that the blood borne protozoans Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis are not widely distributed in stray cat populations in Milan, northern Italy, and that the significance of cats as a reservoir host for B. microti in this area is limited.

  19. Frequency of Piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in Stray Cats from Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Perego, Roberta; Roggero, Nora; Caracappa, Santo

    2014-01-01

    Emerging diseases caused by piroplasms pose a health risk for man and other animals, and domestic cats have been proposed as potential reservoirs for some piroplasm infections. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of the piroplasms Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis in stray cats from northern Italy and to identify possible risk factors associated with these infections. Blood samples from 260 stray cats enrolled in a trap-neuter-release (TNR) program in northern Italy were examined with conventional PCR for the presence of Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis DNA. No sample (0.0%) tested positive for C. felis, whilst B. microti DNA was detected in two samples (0.8%). Both infected cats were in good clinical condition and recovered well from the neutering surgery. One of these two cats had a triple coinfection with Babesia microti, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Evidence presented in this study indicates that the blood borne protozoans Babesia microti and Cytauxzoon felis are not widely distributed in stray cat populations in Milan, northern Italy, and that the significance of cats as a reservoir host for B. microti in this area is limited. PMID:24895629

  20. Italy

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Rice Cultivation in Northwest Italy     View Larger Image The lowlands of Lombardy and Piedmont in northwest Italy are some of the most highly developed irrigation areas in the world. ...

  1. Risk factors for seromucinous benign ovarian cysts in northern Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Parazzini, F; Moroni, S; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Mezzopane, R; Crosignani, P G

    1997-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse risk factors for seromucinous benign ovarian cysts. DESIGN: Between 1984 and 1994 a case-control study was carried out. Cases were 225 women aged less than 65 year with a histologically confirmed diagnosis of benign seromucinous ovarian cysts admitted to a network of obstetrics and gynaecology departments in Milan. Controls were a random sample of 450 women admitted for acute conditions that were not gynaecological, hormonal or neoplastic. They were interviewed within the framework of a case-control study of female genital neoplasms. SETTING: Network of hospitals in the greater Milan area, Italy. MAIN RESULTS: The risk of seromucinous benign ovarian cysts was higher in more educated women than in women with fewer than seven years of schooling. The odds ratios (OR) for seromucinous ovarian cysts were 1.3 and 1.4 respectively in women reporting 7-11 and > or = 12 years of schooling, and the trend in risk was statistically significant (chi(2)1 trend 5.20, p < 0.05). There was no clear relationship between the risk of seromucinous ovarian cysts and marital status, age at first marriage, oral contraceptive use, smoking or body mass index. In comparison with women reporting menstrual cycles lasting < 28 days, the risks of seromucinous cysts were 1.6, 2.6, and 2.5 respectively in women reporting cycles lasting 28-30, > or = 31 days, or with totally irregular ones. Among ever married women, nine cases and two controls reported difficulty in conception, and the corresponding OR for seromucinous cysts was 17.7 (95% confidence interval 4.2, 83.8). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of seromucinous benign ovarian tumours is greater in more educated women and in women with a history of infertility and with long or irregular menstrual cycles. PMID:9328556

  2. 2-D Coda and Direct Wave Attenuation Tomography in Northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Gok, R; Phillips, W S; Malagnini, L

    2007-10-17

    A 1-D coda method was proposed by Mayeda et al. (2003) in order to obtain stable seismic source moment-rate spectra using narrowband coda envelope measurements. That study took advantage of the averaging nature of coda waves to derive stable amplitude measurements taking into account all propagation, site, and Sto-coda transfer function effects. Recently this methodology was applied to micro earthquake data sets from three sub-regions of northern Italy (i.e., western Alps, northern Apennines and eastern Alps). Since the study regions were small, ranging between local-to-near-regional distances, the simple 1-D path assumptions used in the coda method worked very well. The lateral complexity of this region would suggest, however, that a 2-D path correction might provide even better results if the datasets were combined, especially when paths traverse larger distances and complicated regions. The structural heterogeneity of northern Italy makes the region ideal to test the extent to which coda variance can be reduced further by using a 2-D Q tomography technique. The approach we use has been developed by Phillips et al. (2005) and is an extension of previous amplitude ratio techniques to remove source effects from the inversion. The method requires some assumptions such as isotropic source radiation which is generally true for coda waves. Our results are compared against direct Swave inversions for 1/Q and results from both share very similar attenuation features that coincide with known geologic structures. We compare our results with those derived from direct waves as well as some recent results from northern California obtained by Mayeda et al. (2005) which tested the same tomographic methodology applied in this study to invert for 1/Q. We find that 2-D coda path corrections for this region significantly improve upon the 1-D corrections, in contrast to California where only a marginal improvement was observed. We attribute this difference to stronger lateral

  3. Guillain-Barré syndrome variants in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, 1992-3: incidence, clinical features, and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Clinical, E.; Neurology, E. P.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To estimate the incidence rate of Guillain-Barré syndrome variants in an unselected population and to describe their clinical features and prognosis.
METHODS—A two year prospective multicentre study on the incidence and prognosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was performed in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy (3 909 512 inhabitants). A surveillance system was instituted within the study area, which comprised all the neurological departments, private and public general hospitals, and practising neurologists. The international classification of diseases (ICD) codes 357.XX (any peripheral neuropathy) of hospital discharges were also reviewed.
RESULTS—Data were separately analysed for Miller Fisher syndrome and other Guillain-Barré syndrome variants. During the study period 18 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome variants including seven with Miller Fisher syndrome were recruited; the incidence rates were 0.14/100 000/year (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.07-0.25) for Guillain-Barré syndrome variants (excluding Miller Fisher syndrome) and 0.09/100 000/year (95% CI 0.04-0.18) for Miller Fisher syndrome. Guillain-Barré syndrome variants alone (excluding Miller Fisher syndrome) accounted for 10.5% of total cases. Death and relapses were not found. Details of clinical, electrophysiological, and CSF findings of Guillain-Barré syndrome variants are provided.
CONCLUSIONS—Guillain-Barré syndrome variants other than Miller Fisher syndrome, as obtained through a population based study, account for about 10% of total cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome and, as a whole, have a good prognosis. Their clinical features are heterogeneous; bifacial weakness (associated with other signs, mainly sensory disturbances) represents the most frequent finding.

 PMID:9703176

  4. Three-dimensional seismo-tectonics in the Po Valley basin, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turrini, Claudio; Angeloni, Pamela; Lacombe, Olivier; Ponton, Maurizio; Roure, Francois

    2015-04-01

    The Po Valley (Northern Italy) is a composite foreland-foredeep basin caught in between the Southern Alps and Northern Apennine mountain belts. By integrating the 3D structural model of the region and the public earthquake dataset, the three-dimensional seismo-tectonics of the basin is here illustrated for the first time at different scales of observation across the region. Despite the overall uncertainty due to the original data distribution-quality as well as the crustal scale model dimension, the positive correlation that structures and seismicity do show inside and around the study area, validate the performed 3D geo-volume while confirming the related active tectonic framework. The association of structures and earthquakes shows how deformation mainly develops at the front of the Southern Alps and the Northern Apennines, these being, at present, advancing onto their common Po Valley foreland-foredeep domain. Here the hypocentres are essentially concentrated in the eastern sector of the basin. While the 3D picture of a "living" tectonic system is visualized and analysed across the faulted structures of the entire Northern Italy, this study eventually indicates that the methodology can be a powerful tool for the understanding and validation of highly complex seismo-tectonic situations at both regional and local scale.

  5. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  6. Incidence of mesothelioma in Lombardy, Italy: exposure to asbestos, time patterns and future projections

    PubMed Central

    Mensi, Carolina; De Matteis, Sara; Dallari, Barbara; Riboldi, Luciano; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Consonni, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Italy, asbestos has been extensively used from 1945 to 1992. We evaluated the impact of exposure to asbestos on occurrence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) in the Lombardy Region, Northwest Italy, the most populated and industrialised Italian region. Methods From the Lombardy Mesothelioma Registry, we selected all incident cases of MM diagnosed between 2000 and 2012. We described sources of exposure to asbestos and examined time trends of MM rates. Using Poisson age-cohort models, we derived projections of burden of MM in the Lombardy population for the period 2013–2029. Results In 2000–2012, we recorded 4442 cases of MM (2850 men, 1592 women). Occupational exposure to asbestos was more frequent in men (73.6%) than in women (38.2%). Non-occupational exposure was found for 13.6% of women and 3.6% of men. The average number of cases of MM per year was still increasing (+3.6% in men, +3.3% in women). Incidence rates were still increasing in individuals aged 65+ years and declining in younger people. A maximum of 417 cases of MM (267 men, 150 women) are expected in 2019. We forecast there will be 6832 more cases (4397 in men, 2435 in women) in the period 2013–2029, for a total of 11 274 cases of MM (7247 in men, 4027 in women) in 30 years. Conclusions This study documented a high burden of MM in both genders in the Lombardy Region, reflecting extensive occupational (mainly in men) and non-occupational (mainly in women) exposure to asbestos in the past. Incidence rates are still increasing; a downturn in occurrence of MM is expected to occur after 2019. PMID:27312399

  7. [A geographical and epidemiological analysis of cancer incidence in the city of Vercelli, Italy, 2002-2009].

    PubMed

    Salerno, Christian; Berchialla, Paola; Fossale, Pier Giorgio; Palin, Lucio Antonio; Barasolo, Ezio; Panella, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    The idea of conducting a geographical analysis of cancer incidence in Vercelli, a city with about 46,000 population in the Province of Vercelli (Piedmont, northern Italy), originated from the need to respond to concerns of the population and local administrators regarding the presence of a solid waste incinerator just a few kilometers from the city, and the ongoing intense agricultural activity in the area. The study also aimed to verify the excess risk identified in a similar study on mortality. We obtained census data and mortality data for the years 2002 to 2009, from the Italian Institute of Statistics (ISTAT) and analysed these from both an epidemiological point of view, through standardised mortality rates, and spatial analysis through the use of Bayesian models. Both approaches highlighted an overall increased risk for cancers and increased risks for colorectal and lung cancer, in persons residing south of the capital. They also identified an increased cancer risk in the young adult population of both sexes, which deserves further investigation. PMID:27510293

  8. Seroepidemiology of polioviruses among university students in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Vincenzo; Baldovin, Tatjana; Cocchio, Silvia; Lazzari, Roberta; Saracino, Elena; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Trevisan, Andrea

    2012-08-01

    The widespread use of poliovirus vaccination schemes has led to a marked decline in the incidence of paralytic poliomyelitis worldwide, but wild poliovirus is still endemic in some developing countries, and in 2009 a total of 23 countries reported at least 1 case of poliomyelitis caused by wild-strain polio viruses. A serological survey was thus conducted on the immunological status against polioviruses of 318 young adults, classified by their country of origin. Immunity to poliomyelitis was assessed by neutralizing antibody titration in tissues cultured on microplates. The rate of seronegativity (≤ 1:8) in the study population was 26.7% for poliovirus type 1, 7.2% for type 2, and 22.6% for type 3. In our sample of 318 individuals, 219 (68.9%) were Italian and 99 (31.1%) were from outside the European Union (EU). The proportion of cases found seropositive to polioviruses 1 and 3 decreased significantly with older age; this age-related decrease was more evident in the Italian group than among the non-EU subjects. Any risk of the wild virus recurring and causing paralytic poliomyelitis must be prevented, keeping Europe polio free by means of appropriate immunological protection, until polio has been conclusively eradicated all over the world. Judging from our findings, it may be worth considering administering a fifth dose of polio vaccine to adolescents.

  9. Tectonics of the Dolomites (southern alps, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doglioni, Carlo

    In post-Variscan times the Dolomites underwent a number of tectonic events, which may be summarized as follows: Permian and Triassic rifting phases broke the area into NS trending basins with different degrees of subsidence. A Middle Triassic transpressive event then deformed the region along a N70°E axis, generating flower structures within the basement. Volcano-tectonic domal uplift and subsequent caldera formation occurred at the same time as the Late Ladinian magmatism. Early Jurassic rifting also controlled the subsidence which increased eastward. This long period of deformation was followed by a pre-Neogene (Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene ?) EW (ENE-WSW) compression which generated a W-vergent belt, possibly equivalent to the folded foreland of the Dinaric chain. A 70 km EW section of the Dolomites indicates shortening of at least 10 km. During the Neogene the Dolomites, as far north as the Insubric Lineament, were the innermost part of a S-vergent thrust belt: the basement of the Dolomites was thrust southwards along the Valsugana Line onto the sedimentary cover of the Venetian Prealps for at least 10 km. This caused a regional uplift of 3-5 km. The Valsugana Line and its backthrusts on the northern side of the central Dolomites generated a 60 km wide pop-up in the form of a synclinorium within which the sedimentary cover adapted itself mainly by flexural-slip often forming triangle zones. The shortening linked to this folding is about 5 km with Neogene thrusts faulting and folding pre-existing thrust-planes. On the north-eastern side of the Dolomites, Neogene deformation is apparently more strictly controlled by the transpressive effects of the Insubric Lineament and shortening of the sedimentary cover may be greater than in the central Dolomites. Minor deformation linked to the Giudicarie belt is present in the western Dolomites. The present structure of the Dolomites is thus the result of a number of tectonic events of different significance and

  10. Incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Liguria Region, Italy (1996-2002).

    PubMed

    Gennaro, V; Ugolini, D; Viarengo, P; Benfatto, L; Bianchelli, M; Lazzarotto, A; Montanaro, F; Puntoni, R

    2005-11-01

    In this study, incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) in the Liguria Region (Italy) (approximately 1.6 million inhabitants), in the presence of asbestos exposure was investigated. New PMM cases recorded by the Mesothelioma Registry of Liguria, from 1996 to 2002 and interviews reported on a standardised questionnaire were analysed according to demographical and etiological characteristics. Nine hundred and forty five PMM cases were recorded (757 males and 188 females); the age standardised (European population) incidence rates per 100,000 were 8.51 and 1.43, respectively. The rates among the four provinces ranged between 1.18 and 13.7 for males and 0.68 and 1.44 for females. The questionnaire was evaluated for 786 PMM cases (or next-of-kin). Higher incidence rates were reported in the provinces with larger industrial and harbour areas, including shipyards (construction and repair), dockyards, building activities, chemical and heavy industrial activities. Asbestos exposure was unlikely or unknown for 57.5% females and 15% males. A major role of environmental asbestos exposure in the etiology of PMM is hypothesised for females and for a minor proportion of males.

  11. Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background During recent years, numerous novel ‘insect flaviviruses’ have been discovered in natural mosquito populations. In a previous study we described the presence of flavivirus DNA sequences integrated in Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) populations from Northern Italy in 2007. Methods During 2008 we collected and tested Aedes females for flavivirus presence and developed phylogenetic analysis, virus isolation, electron microscopy studies and RNAse treatments. Results We detected a high prevalence of flavivirus in Ae. albopictus (77.5%). The phylogenetic analysis identified the insect flavivirus sequences as Aedes flavivirus (AEFV) recently described in Japan, and that may have been introduced in Italy travelling with the tiger mosquito. Some of these pools grew in C6/36 cells, producing cytopathic effects, and the RNase treatment results showed the presence of the detected sequences in RNA forms. Furthermore, we detected a new insect flavivirus in one pool of Aedes cinereus/geminus mosquitoes. Phylogenetic analysis of this virus shows that it forms a distinct cluster within the clade of insect flavivirus. Conclusions This is the first study to report a high prevalence, to describe the seasonal activity and an isolation of the insect flavivirus Aedes flavivirus in Europe. Moreover we describe the detection of a new insect flavivirus detected from Ae. cinereus mosquitoes from Italy. These flavivirus may be common, ubiquitous and diverse in nature and we discuss the implications of the insect flavivirus group in virus evolution and transmission. PMID:23043958

  12. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis.

  13. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis. PMID:26233742

  14. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-07-31

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ(18)O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate.

  15. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ18O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate. PMID:26227092

  16. Marine Sediments Remotely Unveil Long-Term Climatic Variability Over Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Taricco, Carla; Alessio, Silvia; Rubinetti, Sara; Zanchettin, Davide; Cosoli, Simone; Gačić, Miroslav; Mancuso, Salvatore; Rubino, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    A deep understanding of natural decadal variability is pivotal to discuss recently observed climate trends. Paleoclimate proxies allow reconstructing natural variations before the instrumental period. Typically, regional-scale reconstructions depend on factors like dating, multi-proxy weighting and calibration, which may lead to non-robust reconstructions. Riverine records inherently integrate information about regional climate variability, partly overcoming the above mentioned limitation. The Po River provides major freshwater input to Eastern Mediterranean, as its catchment encompasses a large part of Northern Italy. Here, using historical discharge data and oceanographic measurements, we show that Po River discharge undergo robust decadal fluctuations that reach the Ionian Sea, ~1,000 km South of Po River delta, through propagating salinity anomalies. Based on this propagation, we use a high-resolution foraminiferal δ(18)O record from a sediment core in the Ionian Sea to reconstruct North Italian hydrological variability on millennial-scale for the first time. The reconstruction reveals highly significant decadal variability that persists over the last 2,000 years. Many reconstructed extremes correspond to documented catastrophic events. Our study provides the first millennial-scale reconstruction of the strength of decadal hydrological variability over Northern Italy. It paves the way to assess the persistence of large-scale circulation fingerprints on the North Italian climate. PMID:26227092

  17. Application of a regional approach for hazard mapping at an avalanche site in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.; Rosso, R.

    2008-04-01

    The currently adopted approach to avalanche hazard mapping in northern Italy includes avalanche dynamic modelling, coupled with statistical analysis of snow depth at avalanche start. The 30-years and 300-years return period avalanches at a given site are modelled and their run out zone and pressure are evaluated. The snow depth in the avalanche release zone is assumed to coincide with the three days snow fall depth H72 featuring a return period of 30 years and 300 years, respectively. In the Italian alps only short series of observed snow depth are available, covering a period of 20 years or so, thus requiring a regional approach, or index value approach for the purpose of high return period quantile estimation. Based of former studies, here we apply the index value approach developed for the Lombardia region, in northern Italy, for hazard mapping in a particular avalanche site. A dynamic avalanche model is tuned using the runout data for two major observed avalanche events. Then, the 30-years and 300-years runout zone and dynamic pressure are calculated. It is then shown that the obtained hazard maps are more accurate than those obtained using the evaluation of H72 as deduced from distribution fitting in a single site.

  18. Survey of Campylobacter spp. in owned and unowned dogs and cats in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacomelli, M; Follador, N; Coppola, L M; Martini, M; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Campylobacteriosis is among the most common bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide and pet ownership has been identified as a risk factor for Campylobacter infection in humans. Since canine and feline prevalence data are scarce in Italy, the present study was carried out to assess the prevalence, species distribution and risk factors for Campylobacter infection in dogs and cats under different husbandry conditions. Rectal swabs were collected from 171 dogs (household pets, n = 100; shelter-housed dogs, n = 50; dogs from breeding kennels, n = 21) and 102 cats (household pets, n = 52; shelter-housed cats, n = 21; free-roaming cats n = 29) in Northern Italy. Campylobacter was isolated from 17% (n = 29) of dogs and 14.7% (n = 15) of cats. C. jejuni was the most common isolate in both species (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 55.2%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 53.3%), followed by C. upsaliensis (Campylobacter spp.-positive dogs, 27.6%; Campylobacter spp.-positive cats, 40%). Other Campylobacter species were rarely detected, but included C. hyointestinalis subsp. hyointestinalis, C. lari and C. coli in dogs and C. coli and C. helveticus in cats. Among considered variables (sex, age, origin, diarrhoea, season of sampling), origin was identified as a risk factor for dogs, with shelter-housed dogs at higher risk than household dogs (odds ratio, 2.84; 95% CI 1.17, 6.92; P = 0.021). The results of this study, particularly the high prevalence of C. jejuni in Campylobacter-positive animals, demonstrated that household and stray dogs and cats in Northern Italy might pose a zoonotic risk for humans. Moreover, biosecurity measures should be improved in dog shelters. PMID:25951986

  19. Cervical cancer epidemiology in foreign women in Northern Italy: role of human papillomavirus prevalence in country of origin.

    PubMed

    Di Felice, Enza; Caroli, Stefania; Paterlini, Luisa; Campari, Cinzia; Prandi, Sonia; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2015-05-01

    This study compares the incidence and treatments of cervical neoplasia in foreigners from high migration countries and Italians in the Reggio Emilia province (Northern Italy) in 2002-2009. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) and cancer were calculated for foreigners versus Italian women; foreigners were also classified according to the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) in their country of origin. The proportion of hysterectomies is presented as an indicator of inappropriate surgery in CIN3 and microinvasive cancers. A higher risk was observed in women from high human papillomavirus prevalence countries (HHPVC) both for cancer and for CIN3 (SIR=4.1, 95% CI=2.2-6.9; SIR=2.0, 95% CI 1.7-2.5, respectively), whereas in those from low human papillomavirus prevalence countries (LHPVC), no difference for cancer and a lower risk for CIN3 were observed (SIR=1.0, 95% CI 0.2-2.2; SIR=0.6, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, respectively). A lower CIN3/cancer ratio was found in women from HHPVC (2.6) and in women from LHPVC (3.6) than in Italians (7.4). The percentage of hysterectomies for CIN3 or microinvasive cancers was 3.4 in foreigners and 4.7 in Italians. A higher risk of cervical cancer was found in women from HHPVC compared with Italians and women from LHPVC, suggesting a role of HPV prevalence in the country of origin in the excess risk. The CIN3/cancer ratio was lower for both women from HHPVC and women from LHPVC, also suggesting a role of low screening uptake for cervical cancer incidence in immigrants.

  20. Ellipticity of Rayleigh waves in basin and hard-rock sites in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbellini, Andrea; Morelli, Andrea; Ferreira, Ana M. G.

    2016-07-01

    We measure ellipticity of teleseismic Rayleigh waves at 95 seismic stations in Northern Italy, for wave period between 10 and 110 s, using an automatic technique and a large volume of high-quality seismic recordings from over 500 global earthquakes that occurred in 2008-2014. Northern Italy includes a wide range of crustal structures, from the wide and deep Po Plain sedimentary basin to outcropping sedimentary and crystalline rocks in the Northern Apennines and Alps. It thus provides an excellent case for studying the influence of shallow earth structure on polarization of surface waves. The ellipticity measurements show excellent spatial correlation with geological features in the region, such as high ellipticity associated with regions of low seismic velocity in the Po Plain and low ellipticity values in faster, hard rock regions in the Alps and Apennine mountains. Moreover, the observed ellipticity values also relate to the thickness of the basement, as highlighted by observed differences beneath the Alps and the Apennines. Comparison between observations and predicted ellipticity from a reference crustal model of the region show substantial fit, particularly for T ˜ 38 s data. Discrepancy for shorter wave period suggests that slight modifications of the model are needed, and that the ellipticity measurements could help to better constrain the shallow crustal structure of the region. Predictions for the Po Plain are larger than the observations by a factor of four or more and transition from retrograde to prograde Rayleigh wave motion at the surface for periods of T ˜ 10-13 s is predicted for seismic stations in the plain. Analysis of corresponding real data indicates a possible detection of teleseismic prograde particle motion, but the weak teleseismic earthquake signals are mixed with ambient noise signals at the predicted, short, transition periods. Detection of the period of polarity inversion from the joint analysis of earthquake and ambient noise

  1. A model for northern Vermont's Acadian magmatism with insight from Italy's Tuscan magmatic province

    SciTech Connect

    Westerman, D.S. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    S-type Devonian acidic intrusives in northern Vermont occur scattered throughout the turbiditic flysch sequence and pervasive horizon of mafic Standing Pond Volcanics of the Connecticut Valley--Gaspe Trough (CVGT). These granitoids formed in a successor basin that opened over the stalled Taconic subduction zone located between the Bronson Hill--Boundary Mountain Volcanic arc (east) and the ophiolite-bearing accretionary complex of the Green Mountains (west). Contact aureoles surrounding the granitoids are superimposed over low-pressure facies series metamorphic isograds that have concentric pattern correlated with the centers of intrusion. Italy's Tuscan Magmatic Province, also dominated by S-type acidic intrusives, developed between 7 and 2 Ma in a successor basin over an extinct subduction zone. In that case, the basin and its plutons developed when the Corsica-Sardinia plate pulled back to form the Tyrrhenian Sea after having collided with Italy to form the Apennine range approximately 10 m.y. earlier. In this model for northern Vermont, a volcanic arc and accretionary complex developed during Ordovician subduction, perhaps with continuing trench--arc separation due to shallow subduction. When the leading edge of continental North America entered the subduction zone, the process stalled and the subducted Iapetus slab continued to lose heat and increase density, promoting its separation from the overlying plate. Upwelling under the former forearc region rifted the crust to form the CVGT. The mantle-derived mafic melts rose, transferring heat to metamorphose and partially melt the basin fill. The Standing Pond Volcanics represent this melt that reached the surface at one stage and flooded the basin. Northern Vermont's granitoids rose, penetrating the domed strata above their source region, as extensional tectonism was replaced by Acadian compression.

  2. Acute hepatitis A in Italy: incidence, risk factors and preventive measures.

    PubMed

    Tosti, M E; Spada, E; Romanò, L; Zanetti, A; Mele, A

    2008-10-01

    The incidence of, and risk factors for, acute hepatitis A (AHA) were assessed by using data collected from the Italian surveillance system of acute viral hepatitis (SEIEVA). To this end, a case-control study within a population-based surveillance for acute viral hepatitis was performed. AHA incidence has been estimated since 1991; the association with considered risk factors was analysed from 2001 to 2006 employing cases of acute hepatitis B (AHB) as controls. The incidence of AHA declined from 4 / 100 000 in 1991 to 1.4/100 000 in 2006, with a peak during 1996-1998 due to an outbreak in southern Italy. The incidence of AHA was highest among persons aged 15-24 years. The case-fatality rate was 2.9 / 10 000. Contact with individuals with AHA [adjusted OR (OR(adj)) = 3.8, 95% CI 2.7-5.5; population-attributable risk (PAR) = 7.5%], travelling to endemic areas (OR(adj) = 3.1, 95% CI = 2.6-3.8; PAR = 19.5%), ingestion of raw shellfish (OR(adj) = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6-2.1; PAR = 26.6%), and cohabitation with day care children (OR(adj) = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.01-1.7; PAR = 2.3%) were the main important risk factors. In 2003, an outbreak, with high case-fatality rate occurred among intravenous drug users, in a central Italian town. A weak association was found for male homosexuality when acute hepatitis C cases were employed as controls (OR(adj) = 1.4 CI, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Hepatitis A virus infections are currently occurring more frequently in adults, in whom the disease is most severe. In conclusion, looking at the attributable risks, at present most of the AHA infections are due to shellfish consumption, travel to endemic areas and contact with patients with AHA. Vaccination of individuals at increased risk of infection, as well as persons with underling liver disease and those at increased risk of complications, combined with surveillance of shellfish retail outlets are efficient control measures. PMID:18837830

  3. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the main constraints to ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in goats throughout Europe, yet little is known about the AR status in Italy. The aims of the study were: i) determine the frequency of AR in GINs in goat flocks in Northern Italy, Italy, ii) survey goat farmers on the current practices of parasite control, iii) update the species composition of the gastrointestinal helminthofauna. Thirty three flocks were enrolled and 1288 individual fecal samples were collected. Based on the egg per gram (EPG), 15 flocks were selected to evaluate the presence of AR in GINs with the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). A questionnaire surveyed 110 dairy goat farmers to acquire information about farm management and drenching practices against GINs. Further, the gastrointestinal tracts of 42 goats were analyzed. Results The FECRs indicated that five of the 15 flocks had problems of AR, which was identified in all two of the anthelmintic classes tested. Resistance and suspected resistance was found in 40% of the flocks selected for AR testing that were treated with benzimidazoles while 20% of the flocks treated with eprinomectin had resistant GINs. Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus L3 were isolated from the post-treatment coprocultures of all flocks with resistance but not from the flock with suspected oxfendazole resistance. Treatments against helminths were performed once annually in 73.63% of the flocks, but 20.00% of farmers declared not regularly treating their goats every year. Annual treatments usually occurred in autumn or winter at dose rate for sheep. Te. circumcincta, H. contortus, Tr. colubriformis, Skrjabinema caprae and Oesophagostomum venulosum were the most abundant and prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions Strategies to prevent the development of AR should be widely adopted in Northern Italy. Further, farmers and practitioners should be

  4. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Noroviruses and Rotaviruses Involved in a Large Outbreak of Gastroenteritis in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Bartolo, Ilaria; Monini, Marina; Losio, Marina Nadia; Pavoni, Enrico; Lavazza, Antonio; Ruggeri, Franco Maria

    2011-01-01

    Noroviruses and rotaviruses from a gastroenteritis outbreak affecting >300 people near Garda Lake (Northern Italy) in 2009 were investigated. Characterization of viruses from 40 patient stool samples and 5 environmental samples identified three distinct rotavirus and five norovirus genotypes; two of the latter were detected in both patient and environmental samples. PMID:21666024

  6. Italy.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    For "Background Notes" on Italy, the U.S. State Department, Bureau of Public Affairs, covers geography, people, history, government, politics, economy, defense and foreign relations. Italy had 57.3 million persons in 1986, with a growth rate of 2.3%. The life expectancy is 73 years; the infant mortality rate is 14.3/1000 live births. 98% of the people are literate. The current constitutional republic has existed since 1948. Mean per capita income is $6,447. The people work mainly in services (60%), industry (30%) and agriculture (10%). Most of the country is mountainous, without significant food, energy or natural resources, so Italy's central position in the Mediterranean has influenced economic development since ancient times. The nation is highly homogeneous, as the government is centralized. Although there are several influential political parties, the diverse structure of the Christian Democrats has given them power since the war. The current prime minister, Bettino Craxi, is a member of the centralist Italian Socialist Party. The Italian Communist Party is the largest such party in the free world, polling 30% of the vote in 1983. Italy is a member of NATO.

  7. Survey on the prevention and incidence of haemolytic disease of the newborn in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bennardello, Francesco; Curciarello, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2010, the Italian Society of Immunohaematology and Transfusion Medicine (SIMTI) carried out a survey of the incidence of haemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) and the prevention of HDN caused by anti-Rh(D) in Italian Transfusion Structures (TS). Materials and methods A questionnaire divided into the following five sections was administered: (i) types of services provided and maintenance of legally required registers, (ii) immunoprophylaxis (IP), (iii) red cell typing and searches for irregular antibodies, (iv) evaluation of foetal-maternal haemorrhage (FMH), and (v) incidence of HDN in 2010. Of the 280 TS sent the questionnaire, 176 (63%) replied. Results A HDN register was available in 55.5% of the TS (n =91). Immunoprophylaxis with a dose of anti-D IgG was given to all Rh(D) negative and Rh(D) variant puerpera with Rh(D) positive newborns: in more than 93% of cases the dose was between 1,500 IU (300 μg) and 1,250 IU (250 μg). Antenatal IP between the 25th and 28th week was proposed by 42 TS (26%). Seventy percent of the TS (n =115) did not make any evaluation of FMH. The number of births surveyed in 2010 was 203,384, the number of Rh(D) negative pregnancies was 13,569, while anti-D antibodies were present in 245 pregnancies. There were 111 cases of HDN due to anti Rh(D) incompatibility and in 40 of these, intrauterine transfusion (n =8) or exchange transfusion (n =32) was necessary. In 94 cases HDN was due to other irregular antibodies: in 4 of these cases intrauterine transfusion was needed and in 11 other recourse was made of exchange transfusion. Finally, there were 1,456 newborns with ABO HDN of whom 13 underwent exchange transfusion. Discussion The data collected give a picture of the incidence of HDN in Italy and of the methods of managing IP and could form the basis for an update of the SIMTI recommendations on the management and prevention of this disease. PMID:23867179

  8. Homicide-suicide in Brescia County (Northern Italy): a retrospective study from 1987 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Verzeletti, Andrea; Russo, Maria Cristina; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    From January 1987 to December 2012, 19 homicide-suicide events were registered at the Brescia Institute of Forensic Medicine (Northern Italy), leading to 39 deaths (20 homicide victims and 19 suicide victims). The homicide victims were females in the total of the cases (100%), while perpetrators were exclusively males (100%). Only one event involved foreigners as both victim and perpetrator, all the other cases regarded Italian people. The average age was 37.3 years for the homicide victims and 41.57 years for the offenders. Perpetrators usually used a firearm both for murder (65%) and suicide (84%). In 66% of the cases the homicide-suicide events occurred at home; homicide victims were strictly bound to their perpetrators (husband, boyfriend or ex boyfriend, father) in all the events.

  9. Computer-aided classification for remote sensing in agriculture and forestry in Northern Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejace, J.; Megier, J.; Mehl, W.

    1977-01-01

    A set of results concerning the processing and analysis of data from LANDSAT satellite and airborne scanner is presented. The possibility of performing inventories of irrigated crops-rice, planted groves-poplars, and natural forests in the mountians-beeches and chestnuts, is investigated in the Po valley and in an alphine site of Northern Italy. Accuracies around 95% or better, 70% and 60% respectively are achieved by using LANDSAT data and supervised classification. Discrimination of rice varieties is proved with 8 channels data from airborne scanner, processed after correction of the atmospheric effect due to the scanning angle, with and without linear feature selection of the data. The accuracies achieved range from 65% to more than 80%. The best results are obtained with the maximum likelihood classifier for normal parameters but rather close results are derived by using a modified version of the weighted euclidian distance between points, with consequent decrease in computing time around a factor 3.

  10. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found.

  11. Trace-Metal Enrichment and Pollution in Coastal Sediments in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Scanu, Sergio; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the distribution pattern and pollution of chromium, arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), nickel, lead, and copper in surface sediments along the northern Latium coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. The enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, and potential toxicity response index were used to evaluate the degree of contamination. These results show As and Mn contamination. The high enrichment and contamination levels of As and Mn are located in two hot spots. These elevations are due to naturally high levels of As and Mn in the Mignone River and the Marangone Stream as well as the intense human activity in the area including the largest energy production site in Europe (Torrevaldaliga Nord coal-fired power plant) and of one of the most important ports for cruise traffic in the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:26033264

  12. Malthusian dynamics in a diverging Europe: Northern Italy, 1650-1881.

    PubMed

    Fernihough, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Recent empirical research questions the validity of using Malthusian theory in preindustrial England. Using real wage and vital rate data for the years 1650-1881, I provide empirical estimates for a different region: Northern Italy. The empirical methodology is theoretically underpinned by a simple Malthusian model, in which population, real wages, and vital rates are determined endogenously. My findings strongly support the existence of a Malthusian economy wherein population growth decreased living standards, which in turn influenced vital rates. However, these results also demonstrate how the system is best characterized as one of weak homeostasis. Furthermore, there is no evidence of Boserupian effects given that increases in population failed to spur any sustained technological progress.

  13. A methodology for assessing the maximum expected radon flux from soils in northern Latium (central Italy).

    PubMed

    Voltaggio, Mario; Masi, Umberto; Spadoni, Massimo; Zampetti, Giorgio

    2006-12-01

    Northern Latium (Italy) is an area where the Rn risk rate is potentially high because of the extensive outcropping of Neogene U-rich volcanics and the presence of major active tectonic lineaments. The lack of data on Rn risk rates in that area, which is undergoing major urban and industrial development, has prompted this study. It proposes a methodology to evaluate the maximum potential diffusive Rn flux from soils based on the measurement of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities by gamma-ray spectrometry, and the measurement of main soil parameters influencing the Rn emanation. This methodology provides a simple, reliable and low-cost tool for drawing up radon flux maps useful to both public planners and private individuals, who want to operate safely in the study area. The proposed methodology may also be applied to other geographic areas outside the prescribed study area.

  14. Trace-Metal Enrichment and Pollution in Coastal Sediments in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy.

    PubMed

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Scanu, Sergio; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the distribution pattern and pollution of chromium, arsenic (As), manganese (Mn), nickel, lead, and copper in surface sediments along the northern Latium coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy. The enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, and potential toxicity response index were used to evaluate the degree of contamination. These results show As and Mn contamination. The high enrichment and contamination levels of As and Mn are located in two hot spots. These elevations are due to naturally high levels of As and Mn in the Mignone River and the Marangone Stream as well as the intense human activity in the area including the largest energy production site in Europe (Torrevaldaliga Nord coal-fired power plant) and of one of the most important ports for cruise traffic in the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Underwater noise assessment in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) using an MSFD approach.

    PubMed

    Codarin, Antonio; Picciulin, Marta

    2015-12-30

    In the marine environment, underwater noise is one of the most widespread input of man-made energy. Recently, the European Commission has stressed the necessity of establishing threshold levels as a target for the descriptor 11.2.1 "Continuous low frequency sounds" in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). In 2012, a monthly underwater noise monitoring programme was conducted in the Gulf of Trieste (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy); the collected acoustic samples (frequency range: 10-20,000 Hz) were analysed in the 1/3 octave bands. The stations have been further clustered following the 63 and 125 Hz bands noise levels. Average SPL levels resulted similar to those previously computed for proximate areas, indicating that the Adriatic Sea sub-region experiences high noise pressure in the marine waters. In its turn this claims for a scientific and technical international cooperation, as requested by the EU programme. No seasonal variation in local noise levels has been found. PMID:26506026

  16. A case-control study of diet and colo-rectal cancer in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; Decarli, A; D'Avanzo, B; Gallotti, L; Gentile, A; Franceschi, S

    1988-04-15

    The relation between dietary factors and the risk of colorectal cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 339 cases of colon cancer, 236 cases of rectal cancer and 778 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic or digestive disorders. Consistent positive associations were observed with more frequent consumption of starchy foods (pasta or rice) (relative risk, RR = 3.0 for colon and 1.8 for rectum for highest vs. lowest tertile) and beef/veal meats (RR = 2.1 for colon, 2.3 for rectum), whereas reduced relative risks were observed in subjects reporting more frequent green vegetable consumption (RR = 0.5 for highest vs. lowest tertile), a few specific vegetable or fruit items, and coffee (RR = 0.6 for highest vs. lowest tertile). Various fats in seasonings were positively, but inconsistently, related to intestinal cancer risk, whereas no association was evident with measures of whole grain foods or alcohol intake. For both intestinal sites, a 4- to 5-fold difference in risk was evident between the extreme quintiles of a simple score obtained by algebraic sum of the 4 major groups of foods. These findings could not be explained in terms of confounding by socio-economic status or other major potential distorting factors, are in agreement with the results from previous studies of colo-rectal cancer in Southern Europe, and are consistent with various aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of intestinal cancer in Italy.

  17. Deformation responses of slow moving landslides to precipitation in the Northern Apennines (Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Benedikt; Simoni, Alessandro; Schmidt, David; Bertello, Lara; Berti, Matteo

    2016-04-01

    Slow moving landslides are a frequent feature in the Northern Apennines of Italy and one of the main landscape forming agents. Among the most common landslide types are complex earth flows that occur in chaotic clay-shales and complex rock slides in highly fractured flysch. We present the results of an InSAR-based survey in the Reno and Panaro river catchments, which are located South of Bologna and Modena in the Northern Apennines of Italy. We processed Envisat and Cosmo-SkyMed radar data using the Stanford Method of Persistent Scatterers (StaMPS) and documented movement on 62 deep-seated landslides. These landslides were compared to the regional landslide inventory that contains information about the type of landslide, its state of activity and the lithological characteristics of the host rock. Of the landslides found using InSAR, 42 % correspond to active landslide bodies in the regional inventory, while 48 % are mapped as dormant and 10% are not previously mapped. InSAR-derived landslides often do not correspond to the exact extent of mapped landslide bodies. InSAR results show two recurring styles of deformation: (1) earthflows involving chaotic clay-shale units that exhibit steady state displacement, or exhibit long-term (multi-annual) accelerations and decelerations, or (2) complex landslides in flysch units that are characterized by distinct increases in displacement rate following periods (weeks-to-months) of intense precipitation. Such differences in behavior might be due to inherent differences in the mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the material in relation to the specific climatic forcing experienced during the observation period (2003 and 2015). Flysch units are relatively more fragile and have higher permeability when compared to clay-shale units. Hence the deformation response to the precipitation is likely faster and characterized by more abrupt accelerations and decelerations.

  18. Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2008-06-01

    Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, observed hydrological patterns over northern Italy are significantly correlated, under periods of quiet sunspot activity, with parameters characterizing the Sun's orbital motion, specifically with the time derivative of the solar angular momentum (τ) which is thought to modulate the strength of the solar wind and sunspot dynamics under weak sunspot activity. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is detected as potential link between the Sun and Po River discharges, since it is significantly correlated with both solar activity and the decadal variability in the north Italian climate. In particular, positive (negative) NAO anomalies, which are associated with comparatively lower (higher) Po River discharges, are assessed to alternatively correlate at decadal timescales either with τ or with the Earth's geomagnetic activity (GA), which closely follows sunspot activity. This changing correlation seems to be regulated by the strength of sunspot activity: under periods of quiet sunspot activity, a weakening of the GA-NAO connection and a reinforcement of the τ-NAO connection is observed. In this sense, the strength of solar activity apparently modulates the connection between the NAO and Po River discharges.

  19. Long term (1921-2011) hydrological regime of Alpine catchments in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocchiola, D.

    2014-08-01

    Long term (1921-2011) yearly and seasonal hydrological regime of 23 Alpine rivers in Northern Italy (ca. 102-104 km2) was investigated here. First, for regulated catchment, the potential effect of flow storage was investigated using an index of potential flow regulation, and pre and post reservoirs' installation flow analysis. For catchments displaying little regulation effect, non stationarity was studied using linear regression, including variable (segmented) slope analysis, and Mann Kendall test, traditional and progressive. The link of the observed trends against descriptive physiographic variables was then investigated, to highlight geographic and topographic patterns of changes of the hydrological cycle. Dependence upon global thermal and North Atlantic Oscillation NAO anomalies were analysed to highlight potential impact of large scale climate drivers against regional hydrological regimes. Also, the correlation between stream flows and climatic drivers of precipitation and temperatures in nearby stations was investigated, to highlight climate trends potentially driving hydrological changes, and potential changes in the nexus between climate and hydrology given by reservoirs' operation. The results display for several Alpine rivers here likelihood of significant changes of hydrological fluxes, notably during Winter, Spring and Summer. Winter discharges is decreasing on average, but decrease is seen below 1800 m a.s.l. or so, while increase is found above, and the more Northern the larger the increase. Discharges during Spring mostly decrease in time, and more so for increasing outlet altitude, while Summer specific discharges always decrease, and more notably with increasing altitude of the contributing catchment. NAO and global thermal anomalies are correlated against the rate of variation of hydrological fluxes, with the intensity of correlation linked to altitude, longitude, and basin's size. Specifically targeted studies are necessary to investigate the

  20. HIV incidence rates among drug users in northern Thailand, 1993-7.

    PubMed Central

    Jittiwutikarn, J.; Sawanpanyalert, P.; Rangsiveroj, N.; Satitvipawee, P.

    2000-01-01

    Drug use is a major mode of HIV transmission in Thailand. This study determined HIV incidence rates among drug users in a regional drug treatment centre in northern Thailand. A retrospective cohort of repeatedly-hospitalized drug users between 1993 and 1997 was formed and HIV incidence rates were calculated. The overall incidence was 11.44 per 100 person-years of observation. Gender, age, religion, ethnicity, education, employment, income, reasons for drug use, type of drugs, mode of use, spending on drugs, and referral for treatment are associated with HIV incidence. However, there are no associations between HIV incidence and history of treatment and mode of discharge from the centre. This implies that current treatment modality has no impact on HIV infection risk and other therapeutic approaches should be explored. PMID:11057970

  1. Surveillance and vaccination coverage of measles and rubella in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Amendola, Antonella; Bubba, Laura; Piralla, Antonio; Binda, Sandro; Zanetti, Alessandro; Pariani, Elena; Ranghiero, Alberto; Premoli, Marta; Pellegrinelli, Laura; Coppola, Liliana; Gramegna, Maria; Baldanti, Fausto; Zanetti, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are infectious diseases and humans are the only reservoir of these infections. Effective vaccines are available with the potential for measles (MV) and rubella (RuV) virus eradication. According to the World Health Organisation guidelines, a national plan was approved in Italy in 2013 to achieve the MV/RuV elimination by 2015, and active MV/RuV integrated surveillance initiated. Towards this purpose, a regional laboratory centre was set up on 1 September 2013 in Lombardy, Northern Italy. This paper aimed at: (1) evaluating measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine coverage and MV/RuV notified cases retrospectively; and (2) presenting the results of MV/RuV integrated surveillance (laboratory confirmed and viral genetic profiles).   The 95% target for MMR vaccine coverage was achieved in 2001, and coverage increased until 2007 (96.6%), but then a decreasing trend was observed. Since 2000 to 2014, 3026 rubella cases were notified, with nearly 58% of them in the 2002 epidemic. From 2009, less than 45 RuV cases per year were reported. From 2000 to 2014, 5024 measles cases were notified. Since 2008, three large outbreaks (in 2008, 2011, and 2013) were observed. From data obtained during our surveillance activity, there were no rubella cases, and 57.5% (46/80) collected samples were MV-positive by real-time RT-PCR. A fragment of the MV N gene was sequenced from 37 MV-positive samples; D8, D9, and B3 genotypes were detected. Data obtained retrospectively and from active surveillance underline the necessity to achieve and maintain high vaccination coverage and to improve surveillance and the effectiveness of healthcare actions.

  2. Transition zone structure beneath northern Italy investigated using receiver function analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V.; Benoit, M.; Park, J.

    2006-12-01

    The convergence of the Eurasian and African plates has created complex tectonic features in the Apennine region in Northern Italy. While convergence within the orogen has been ongoing since ~30 Ma, syn- convergent extension has been active in this region since ~15 Ma. This extension is often attributed to slab rollback of the subducted Adriatic lithosphere. However, the present state of previously subducted Adriatic lithosphere is debated. End-member scenarios proposed are a "normal" continuous subduction with rollback, and a complete slab detachment and sinking. First-order constraints on the state of the subducted slab could be placed on the basis of its location and shape relative to the Apennines mountain chain. One way to obtain such constraints is through mapping of the transition zone interfaces. Slab material crossing the bounds of the transition zone should deflect them due to its lower temperature. We use migration and stacking of teleseismic receiver functions to construct images of the upper mantle structure beneath Northern Italy. Our data come from a recently completed 3-year long 45-station portable array deployment in the region (part of the RETREAT project, see website). We present preliminary receiver function stacks from over 4100 high quality receiver functions using time- domain deconvolution. For the stacking procedure, a specific time and amplitude was correlated with a specific position in the subsurface to bin the receiver functions, and then the amplitudes of the receiver functions were summed in 0.25 degree bins. We found that including traces from at least 3 stations together with a minimum of 30 receiver functions per bin produced stacks with discernable P-S converted arrivals. Converted-wave images of the upper mantle structure display considerable lateral variability with a fairly short (order of 1°) length scale. The 410 km discontinuity is visible in the eastern part of the study region, beneath the continental Adria plate, but is

  3. Holocene climate variability from Rio Martino cave (Western Alps, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regattieri, Eleonora; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Isola, Ilaria; Drysdale, Russell; Hellstrom, John; Dallai, luigi; Baneschi, Ilaria; Magri, Federico

    2013-04-01

    The Alpine region currently experiences complex climatic conditions (Efthymidias et al., 2007). Such a complexity is also apparent during the Holocene, as revealed by the isotopic composition of speleothems (e.g. Spötl et al., 2010). However, virtually no speleothem data are available from the western Alps, which are dominated by North Atlantic synoptic systems. With this in mind, several flowstone cores were retrieved in Rio Martino Cave (Piemonte, Northern Italy, ca. 1530 m asl). A large part of the cave's catchment was substantially glaciated until the end of the Younger Dryas. U/Th dating of three different flowstones indicates that deposition started at the beginning of the Holocene and covered a thick deposit of cemented sand and gravels probably related to the last deglaciation. The combined δ18O record of different flowstones shows substantial variability through the Holocene, both on millennial and century time scales. Relatively low δ18O values last until ca. 6 ka. From 6 to 3 ka, the δ18O increases gradually before decreasing again from 3 ka to the present. This long-term trend may be related to changes in the seasonal patterns of precipitation, as suggested for the lake level record at Ledro (Magny et al., 2012). Superimposed on this trend there are several short-term oscillations which may reflect alternating periods of drier and wetter conditions. Some of these episodes are also in agreement with changes documented at Ledro. Efthymidias D., et al., 2007. Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on climate variability in the Greater Alpine Region of Europe. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, D12104. Magny M. et al., 2012. Holocene palaeohydrological changes in the northern Mediterranean borderlands as reflected by the lake-level record of Lake Ledro, northeastern Italy. Quaternary Research, 77, 382-396 Spötl, C., et al., 2010. Humid climate during deposition of sapropel 1 in the Mediterranean Sea: Assessing the influence on the Alps

  4. Incidence of psoriasis and association with comorbidities in Italy: a 5-year observational study from a national primary care database.

    PubMed

    Vena, Gino A; Altomare, Gianfranco; Ayala, Fabio; Berardesca, Enzo; Calzavara-Pinton, Piergiacomo; Chimenti, Sergio; Giannetti, Alberto; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Lotti, Torello; Martini, Patrizia; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Peserico, Andrea; Puglisi Guerra, Antonio; Sini, Giovanna; Cassano, Nicoletta; Cricelli, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    An observational study was conducted to estimate the incidence of psoriasis in Italy, as well as the utilization of healthcare resources and the association with selected comorbidities in psoriasis patients. The data source was the Health Search/Thales Database, containing computer-based patient records from over 900 primary care physicians (PCPs) throughout Italy. The study cohort comprised all adults receiving a first-ever diagnosis of psoriasis during the years 2001-2005. From a total sample of 511,532 individuals, the incidence of psoriasis was 2.30-3.21 cases per 1,000 person-years. Psoriatic arthritis was present in 8% of psoriasis patients. The comparison with matched controls showed that psoriasis patients were more likely to have comorbidities (e.g., chronic bronchitis, chronic ischemic heart disease, obesity and diabetes mellitus) and to undergo PCP visits and hospitalizations, and to refer for specialist visits. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs appeared to be significantly more prevalent in patients as compared to controls. Topical therapy with corticosteroids and non-steroidal preparations accounted for 45.3% and 47.2% of all cases, respectively. Only a minority of cases used systemic immunosuppressive drugs or acitretin. The incidence rate of psoriasis in our study was particularly high and might reflect an overestimation by PCPs. Our results show the association between psoriasis and multiple comorbidities.

  5. Adolescents in southern regions of Italy adhere to the Mediterranean diet more than those in the northern regions.

    PubMed

    Noale, Marianna; Nardi, Mariateresa; Limongi, Federica; Siviero, Paola; Caregaro, Lorenza; Crepaldi, Gaetano; Maggi, Stefania

    2014-09-01

    There is a large amount of literature regarding the benefits of the Mediterranean diet in the adult population; however, there is growing curiosity about the individuals who naturally adhere to those principles early in life. The "Evaluation of Dietary Habits in Adolescents," carried out by the National Research Council of Italy in 2009, is a survey that aimed to assess the dietary habits and lifestyles of Italian adolescents and their adherence to the Mediterranean diet. We hypothesized that there would be differences across regions, with a higher adherence in Southern Italy compared with Northern Italy based on geography. The survey was conducted in 3 different geographic locations in Italy and included a convenience sample of adolescents who attended either a middle or high school. The participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire concerning demographic data, lifestyle factors, and eating patterns, and scores were assigned according to adherence to the Mediterranean diet, as calculated using Trichopoulou's Mediterranean diet scale. The final sample included 565 adolescents, between 12 and 19 years old, who attended school in the northeastern, northwestern, or southern regions of Italy in 2009. According to the findings, 38.6% of the respondents had scores indicating a low adherence to the Mediterranean diet, whereas only 14% had scores showing a high adherence. Teenagers from the Southern region showed the highest adherence. Those with a high adherence to the Mediterranean diet consumed higher quantities of fiber, iron, vitamin B6, vitamin C, folic acid, vitamin A, vitamin D, and monounsaturated fats.

  6. The geodynamical evolution of the Northern Apennines chain (Central Italy): an exploring numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauselli, Cristina; Federico, Costanzo; Braun, Jean

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, 2D thermo-mechanical models with crustal deformation, driven by subduction, are performed to test the geodynamical scenario of a slab-retreat for the Northern Apennines chain (Central Italy). In the models, the lithosphere is regarded as a non-linear Maxwell visco-elastic body capable of brittle failure at low pressure and temperature and of viscous creep at elevated temperature, in Lagrangian description of deformations. We focus particularly on the time variation of the thermal field across the chain in order to evaluate the influence of temperature on the final crustal-scale deformation. Bearing in mind the difficulty to "frame" the history of an orogen in a simple, unique model and the intrinsic limitations of numerical technique, the performed models were able to give a deeper insight into the evolution of this region. On the basis of the results, we suggest that the presence of roll-back retreat together with the intrusion of an asthenospheric rise on the retreating lithosphere justify particular geological and geophysical features observed today across the chain. The models predict that this geodynamical scenario determines both the collapse of the previously formed Alpine orogen and the observed progradation of the deformation front toward east. The models also predict that the regional uplift that has interested the western sector of the chain (Tuscany), is due to the increase of temperature connected with the asthenospheric rise.

  7. Temporal trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Dreissena polymorpha specimens from Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Binelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been recognized as an aquatic environment heavily contaminated by persistent organic pollutants, mainly organochlorine compounds, but to date limited information is available regarding another class of widespread and hazardous pollutants, such as the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim of this study was to investigate seasonal and temporal trends of 18 PAHs accumulated in native Dreissena polymorpha specimens during a 5-year biomonitoring program, as well as to identify the possible PAH emission sources by using isomeric diagnostic ratios. Zebra mussels were sampled both in their pre- (May) and post-reproductive (September) stage over the 2008-2012 period in eight sampling stations covering the whole lake shoreline. PAH concentrations were measured through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A notable PAH contamination following an increasing temporal trend was noticed in bivalves from all the sampling stations, with the benzo(α)anthracene as the predominant compound. An overall increase in PAH levels was found in the post-reproductive surveys, indicating a marked seasonality of this contamination probably due to the increase in touristic activity during spring-summer months. PMID:24532210

  8. Slope Stability Analysis In Seismic Areas Of The Northern Apennines (Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Lo Presti, D.; Fontana, T.; Marchetti, D.

    2008-07-08

    Several research works have been published on the slope stability in the northern Tuscany (central Italy) and particularly in the seismic areas of Garfagnana and Lunigiana (Lucca and Massa-Carrara districts), aimed at analysing the slope stability under static and dynamic conditions and mapping the landslide hazard. In addition, in situ and laboratory investigations are available for the study area, thanks to the activities undertaken by the Tuscany Seismic Survey. Based on such a huge information the co-seismic stability of few ideal slope profiles have been analysed by means of Limit equilibrium method LEM - (pseudo-static) and Newmark sliding block analysis (pseudo-dynamic). The analysis--results gave indications about the most appropriate seismic coefficient to be used in pseudo-static analysis after establishing allowable permanent displacement. Such indications are commented in the light of the Italian and European prescriptions for seismic stability analysis with pseudo-static approach. The stability conditions, obtained from the previous analyses, could be used to define microzonation criteria for the study area.

  9. Temperature Characterization of Different Urban Microhabitats of Aedes albopictus (Diptera Culicidae) in Central-Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vallorani, Roberto; Angelini, Paola; Bellini, Romeo; Carrieri, Marco; Crisci, Alfonso; Mascali Zeo, Silvia; Messeri, Gianni; Venturelli, Claudio

    2015-08-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) is an invasive mosquito species that has spread to many countries in temperate regions bordering the Mediterranean basin, where it is becoming a major public health concern. A good knowledge of the thermal features of the most productive breeding sites for Ae. albopictus is crucial for a better estimation of the mosquitoes' life cycle and developmental rates. In this article, we address the problem of predicting air temperature in three microhabitats common in urban and suburban areas and the air and water temperature inside an ordinary catch basin, which is considered the most productive breeding site for Ae. albopictus in Italy. Temperature differences were statistically proven between the three microhabitats and between the catch basin external and internal temperature. The impacts on the developmental rates for each life stage of Ae. albopictus were tested through a parametric function of the temperature, and the aquatic stages resulted as being the most affected using the specific temperature inside a typical catch basin instead of a generic air temperature. The impact of snow cover on the catch basin internal temperature, and consequently on the mortality of diapausing eggs, was also evaluated. These data can be useful to improve epidemiological models for a better prediction of Ae. albopictus seasonal and population dynamics in central-northern Italian urban areas. PMID:26314064

  10. Conservation tillage affects species composition but not species diversity: a comparative study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  11. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic Latemar buildup, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement.

  12. Facies-related fracturing in turbidites: insights from the Marnoso-Arenacea Fm. (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bedogni, Enrico; Tinterri, Roberto; Fetter, Marcos; Gomes, Leonardo; Hatushika, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Natural fractures deeply influence subsurface fluid flow, exerting a primary control on resources like aquifers, hydrocarbons and geothermal reservoirs, and on environmental issues like CO2 storage and nuclear waste disposal. In layered sedimentary rocks, depositional processes-imprinted rock rheology favours the development of both mechanical anisotropy and heterogeneity on a wide range of scales, and are thus expected to strongly influence location and frequency of fractures. To better constrain the contribution of stratigraphic, sedimentological and petrophysical attributes, we performed a high-resolution, multidisciplinary study on a selected stratigraphic interval of jointed foredeep turbidites in the Miocene Marnoso-arenacea Formation (Northern Apennines, Italy), which are characterised by a great lateral and vertical variability of grain-size and depositional structures. Statistical relationships among field and laboratory data significantly improve when the single facies scale is considered, and, for similar facies recording different evolutionary stages of the parent turbidity currents, we observed a direct correlation between the three-dimensional anisotropies of rock hardness tensors and the normalized fracture frequencies, testifying for the primary sedimentary flow-related control on fracture distributions.

  13. Salmonella serotypes in wild boars (Sus scrofa) hunted in northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Salmonella species (spp.) are zoonotic enteric bacteria able to infect humans, livestock and wildlife. However, little is known about the prevalence and the presence of the different serovars in wildlife. Considering the wide distribution of wild boars and the feeding behaviour (omnivorous scavengers), wild boars may be a good indicator for environmental presence of Salmonella spp. The aims of this study were to determine the presence of Salmonella spp. in hunted wild boars and to determine the serotype the isolated strains. Findings Over three hunting seasons, the intestinal contents of 1,313 boars hunted in northern Italy were sampled and cultured. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 326 boars (24.82%). Thirty different serovars belonging to three different S. enterica spp. were found. Twenty-one serovars of S. enterica subsp. Enterica were found including the human pathogens S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. In addition, nine serovars belonging to S.enterica subsp. diarizonae and S. enterica subsp. houtenae were detected. Conclusions Considering the widespread occurrence of wild boars in Europe, the epidemiological role of this species in relation to salmonellosis might be relevant and should be further investigated. Wild boars may act as healthy carriers of a wide range of Salmonella serotypes. PMID:23692883

  14. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill.

  15. Variability in Macrobenthos Communities in the Valli di Comacchio, Northern Italy, a Hypereutrophized Lagoonal Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistri, M.; Fano, E. A.; Rossi, G.; Caselli, K.; Rossi, R.

    2000-11-01

    The composition and the community structure of the macrobenthic assemblages in different habitats in the Valli di Comacchio (northern Italy, Adriatic Sea) was investigated. Nine stations in three major basins were selected and sampled quarterly from November 1997 to September 1998 for macrofauna and environmental parameters. Sampling stations were located along a gradient of macrophytic coverage and sediment texture. Data were subjected to ANOVA and multivariate analysis to discriminate between habitats, sites, and seasonality on their faunal attributes. Water variable values were typical of eutrophic areas. A total of 37 macrobenthic taxa were identified, and differences in the species complement were found between the various habitats within each site. Unvegetated habitats were generally found quite impoverished. Community structure of the macrobenthos at the most marine station was ruled by the cycle of Ulva rigida. Trophic guild analysis revealed a well structured community thriving in the Ruppia -vegetated habitat. The persistence, in the marginal Ruppia -vegetated habitat, of such a well structured macrobenthic community, suggests that, notwithstanding the loss of structuring capacity of the habitat exhibited by innermost areas, this lagoonal ecosystem could be resilient enough to recover to its former ecological value.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow’s Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gramaglia, Monica; Loria, Andrea; Nucera, Daniele; Gallina, Silvia; Gili, Marilena; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012–2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt (ng/kg) and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy. PMID:26927175

  17. Seismic model of a progradational carbonate platform, Picco di Vallandro, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Biddle, K.T.; Bush, T.L. ); Schlager, W. ); Rudolph, K.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a seismic model of a well-exposed carbonate platform-to-basin transition from the Triassic succession at Picco di Vallandro, the Dolomites, northern Italy. The core of this model is a detailed lithologic cross section that represents 1,500 m of stratigraphic section over a distance of 3.5 km. The cross section is based on detailed measured sections, photo interpretation, and careful projection of surface mapping into the plane of section. Samples from the measured sections provide control on velocity and density distribution, and these data were used to generate an impedance model from the cross section. The impedance model was convolved with a zero-phase, 25-Hz peak-frequency wavelet to produce the seismic model. The results illustrate how the platform-to-basin transition might be imaged by conventional seismic reflection data, how the reflections relate to the distribution of lithology and through-going geological surfaces, and how constructive and destructive interference and seismic resolution combine to produce individual reflections.

  18. Verification of a probabilistic flood forecasting system for an Alpine Region of northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laiolo, P.; Gabellani, S.; Rebora, N.; Rudari, R.; Ferraris, L.; Ratto, S.; Stevenin, H.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic hydrometeorological forecasting chains are increasingly becoming an operational tool used by civil protection centres for issuing flood alerts. One of the most important requests of decision makers is to have reliable systems, for this reason an accurate verification of their predictive performances become essential. The aim of this work is to validate a probabilistic flood forecasting system: Flood-PROOFS. The system works in real time, since 2008, in an alpine Region of northern Italy, Valle d'Aosta. It is used by the Civil Protection regional service to issue warnings and by the local water company to protect its facilities. Flood-PROOFS uses as input Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) derived from the Italian limited area model meteorological forecast (COSMO-I7) and forecasts issued by regional expert meteorologists. Furthermore the system manages and uses both real time meteorological and satellite data and real time data on the maneuvers performed by the water company on dams and river devices. The main outputs produced by the computational chain are deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts in different cross sections of the considered river network. The validation of the flood prediction system has been conducted on a 25 months period considering different statistical methods such as Brier score, Rank histograms and verification scores. The results highlight good performances of the system as support system for emitting warnings but there is a lack of statistics especially for huge discharge events.

  19. Landfill restoration and biodiversity: a case of study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Camerini, Giuseppe; Groppali, Riccardo

    2014-08-01

    Landfilling is a worldwide common waste treatment method. Final recovery usually consists of capping the area with top soil on which vegetation can grow. Depending on the suitability of the recovery pattern, landfill sites can work as potential reserve of semi-natural habitats. A recovery pattern applied to land reclamation of two hazardous waste landfills sited in Northern Italy (Po floodplain) was studied to assess the results in terms of biodiversity. These landfills lie within a landscape dominated by intensive agriculture. After final sealing, both landfills were covered by soil on which a meadow was sown and a hedgerow was planted around the borders. One of the compared areas was not provided with a pond and the hedgerow was incomplete. Butterflies and birds were used as indicators, and their seasonal abundance was related to habitat structure and ecological factors. Meadows grown on both areas supported a rich butterfly population (30 species), including some species that are by now uncommon in the Po floodplain. In both areas butterfly abundance was affected by summer drought. The birds' community included 57 species; 16 Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) were observed. Each bird community was different in the compared study areas because of their different size and habitat structure. For example, landfill A, provided with a pond and a more complex structure of the hedgerow, supported a richer birds community (52 species versus 39). Both restored landfills worked well as a stepping stone for migratory birds, but they were a reproductive habitat of poor quality. PMID:25161277

  20. Conservation Tillage Affects Species Composition But Not Species Diversity: A Comparative Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boscutti, Francesco; Sigura, Maurizia; Gambon, Nadia; Lagazio, Corrado; Krüsi, Bertil O.; Bonfanti, Pierluigi

    2015-02-01

    Conservation tillage (CT) is widely considered to be a practice aimed at preserving several ecosystem functions. In the literature, however, there seems to be no clear pattern with regard to its benefits on species diversity and species composition. In Northern Italy, we compared species composition and diversity of both vascular plants and Carabids under two contrasting tillage systems, i.e., CT and conventional tillage, respectively. We hypothesized a significant positive impact of CT on both species diversity and composition. We also considered the potential influence of crop type. The tillage systems were studied under open field conditions with three types of annual crops (i.e., maize, soybean, and winter cereals), using a split-plot design on pairs of adjacent fields. Linear mixed models were applied to test tillage system, crop, and interaction effects on diversity indices. Plant and Carabids communities were analyzed by multivariate methods (CCA). On the whole, 136 plant and 51 carabid taxa were recorded. The two tillage systems studied did not differ in floristic or carabid diversity. Species composition, by contrast, proved to be characteristic for each combination of tillage system and crop type. In particular, CT fields were characterized by nutrient demanding weeds and the associated Carabids. The differences were especially pronounced in fields with winter cereals. The same was true for the flora and Carabids along the field boundaries. For studying the effects of CT practices on the sustainability of agro-ecosystems, therefore, the focus should be on species composition rather than on diversity measures.

  1. Rayleigh-wave ellipticity and shallow structure in sedimentary basins: the Po Plain (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berbellini, A.; Morelli, A.; Ferreira, A. M. G.

    2015-12-01

    The amplitude ratio between horizontal and vertical components of Rayleigh waves (also known as ellipticity) is in principle uniquely sensitive to local earth structure beneath each recording station. Rayleigh wave ellipticity is mostly influenced by the shallowest layers, so it can be effectively used to infer the structure of the uppermost crust, with particular relevance for sedimentary environments. We implement an automatic method to measure Rayleigh wave ellipticity, and extensively apply it to teleseismic records from the northern part of Italy, for a period range between 10s and 130s. As expected, no appreciable correlation with epicenter distance or azimuth can be seen, but rather a strong correlation with local structure: generally high horizontal to vertical amplitude ratios are seen in sedimentary settings, with respect to Alpine and Apenninic crystalline-rock terrains. We verify that shortest usable period may be limited by very low shear-wave velocity in shallow sediments, when the assumed retrograde elliptical particle motion polarisation for the fundamental mode breaks off. The highly non-linear sensitivity of frequency-dependent ellipticity curves can then be inverted using a direct search method to infer shear wave velocity profiles below stations. By comparing our results with local a priori geological information we show that robust information can indeed be retrieved.

  2. 4D modelling of the Alto Tiberina Fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Donatis, Mauro; Susini, Sara; Mirabella, Francesco; Lupattelli, Andrea; Barchi, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Alto Tiberina Fault (ATF) in the Northern Apennines of Italy is a low-angle normal fault dipping to the East and accommodating up to 10 km of extension. The fault is ~70 km long and is the detachment for the SW-dipping Gubbio normal fault. The ATF fault system has been dramatically exhumed and the ATF footwall has evolved in a horst bounded to the east by ATF synthetic faults and to the west by the Corciano west-dipping normal fault. The fault has been widely studied over the last years in order to understand its mechanical behaviour, its present-day deformation rate and its seismological role. By using a wide data-set including subsurface data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes) and surface geological data (new maps of the CARG project of Italy), we have reconstructed the 3D geometry of both the fault and of the main lithostratigraphic boundaries at the fault hanging-wall and foot-wall. The CARG map data were integrated by local observations and mapping using mobile GIS software (BeeGIS) and Android app (Geopaparazzi). Surface data were combined with seismic reflection profiles and wells interpretation and other data from available literature. The large amount of information were combined in MOVE software (Midland Valley Exploration ltd). Our reconstruction allows to i) build up a three-dimensional geological model of the subsurface including the main faults and lithostratigraphic boundaries; ii) identify a set of east-west trending faults the role of which was previously underestimated; iii) test a 3D-restoration of extension for the visualization of the time evolution and for the validation of the structural reconstruction. The restored structures are the main normal faults in the region. The sequential restoration was performed by taking into account the timing of deformation as derived from the literature. The model was sequentially restored according to the following chronological order from the latest to the oldest: 1a) last deformational event

  3. Sinuosity change of the Po River near Cremona (Northern Italy) - a result of neotectonic activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit; Timár, Gábor

    2010-05-01

    In the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire, Lombardia, Parma, Modena and Venice also can be seen (Timár et al., 2006). This area was surveyed between 1818 and 1829. In these map sheets, we can also follow the river Po from Vaccarizza to the delta. This river reach is about 350 km long. This river reach was digitized and sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). At Cremona, a significante sinuosity change were identified. The sinuosity increasing, and we have high sinuosity values. In the summarizing geological map of Italy (Compagnoni and Calluzzo, 2004), at this place, a tectonic line was identified. So probably this fault line invokes the sinuosity change on the river. The vertical movements indicated on the maps are just the opposite like they would be according to the flume experiments of Ouchi (1985). In the case of the Po River at Cremona, the decrease of the channel slope results higher sinuosity. The reason is that the rate of the slope and water discharge is higher than it is required by the self-organized meandering and the river parameters fell to the range of the unorganized meandering (cf. Timár, 2003). Another possible explanation could be that the northern tributary, the Adda River has significant sediment load that lowers the sinuosity of the trunk river at the confluence. Compagnoni, B., Galluzzo, F. (eds., 2004): Geological Map of Italy. Agenzia per la Protezione dell'Ambiente per I Servizi Tecnici - Dipartimento Difesa del Suolo, Servizio Geologico d'Italia, Rome-Florence-Genoa. Map, scale=1:1250000, especially printed for the 32nd International Geological Congress. Ouchi, S. (1985): Response of alluvial rivers to slow active tectonic movement. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 96: 504-515. Timár, G. (2003): Controls on channel sinuosity changes: a case study of the Tisza River, the Great Hungarian Plain. Quaternary

  4. Epidemiologic and immunogenetic aspects of polymyalgia rheumatica and giant cell arteritis in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Salvarani, C; Macchioni, P; Zizzi, F; Mantovani, W; Rossi, F; Castri, C; Capozzoli, N; Baricchi, R; Boiardi, L; Chiaravalloti, F

    1991-03-01

    We studied the epidemiology of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) in a Mediterranean population. Ninety-nine patients with PMR and/or GCA were identified over a 9-year period (1980-1988) in Reggio Emilia, Italy. The average annual incidence of PMR and GCA was 12.7/100,000 and 6.9/100,000, respectively, in a population aged 50 years or older. Frequencies of HLA antigens were determined in 49 patients with PMR and/or GCA who were followed by staff at our rheumatology unit during the 1980-1988 period. When compared with HLA findings in 242 healthy controls, DR4 was not found to be significantly associated with PMR (24% in PMR patients versus 14% in controls). Patients with GCA also showed an increased frequency of DR4 compared with controls (36% versus 14%), but this difference was also not statistically significant. The immunogenetic features of PMR and GCA and the relationship between the immunogenetic and epidemiologic patterns in different populations are discussed.

  5. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation.

    PubMed

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  6. West Nile Virus Surveillance in 2013 via Mosquito Screening in Northern Italy and the Influence of Weather on Virus Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Calzolari, Mattia; Pautasso, Alessandra; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Albieri, Alessandro; Bellini, Romeo; Bonilauri, Paolo; Defilippo, Francesco; Lelli, Davide; Moreno, Ana; Chiari, Mario; Tamba, Marco; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Varisco, Giorgio; Bertolini, Silvia; Modesto, Paola; Radaelli, Maria Cristina; Iulini, Barbara; Prearo, Marino; Ravagnan, Silvia; Cazzin, Stefania; Mulatti, Paolo; Monne, Isabella; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano; Goffredo, Maria; Savini, Giovanni; Martini, Simone; Mosca, Andrea; Farioli, Marco; Gemma Brenzoni, Laura; Palei, Manlio; Russo, Francesca; Natalini, Silvano; Angelini, Paola; Casalone, Cristina; Dottori, Michele; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a recently re-emerged health problem in Europe. In Italy, an increasing number of outbreaks of West Nile disease, with occurrences of human cases, have been reported since 2008. This is particularly true in northern Italy, where entomological surveillance systems have been implemented at a regional level. The aim of this study was to use, for the first time, all the entomological data collected in the five regions undergoing surveillance for WNV in northern Italy to characterize the viral circulation (at a spatial and temporal scale), identify potential mosquito vectors, and specify relationships between virus circulation and meteorological conditions. In 2013, 286 sites covering the entire Pianura Padana area were monitored. A total of 757,461 mosquitoes were sampled. Of these, 562,079 were tested by real-time PCR in 9,268 pools, of which 180 (1.9%) were positive for WNV. The largest part of the detected WNV sequences belonged to lineage II, demonstrating that, unlike those in the past, the 2013 outbreak was mainly sustained by this WNV lineage. This surveillance also detected the Usutu virus, a WNV-related flavivirus, in 241 (2.6%) pools. The WNV surveillance systems precisely identified the area affected by the virus and detected the viral circulation approximately two weeks before the occurrence of onset of human cases. Ninety percent of the sampled mosquitoes were Culex pipiens, and 178/180 WNV-positive pools were composed of only this species, suggesting this mosquito is the main WNV vector in northern Italy. A significantly higher abundance of the vector was recorded in the WNV circulation area, which was characterized by warmer and less rainy conditions and greater evapotranspiration compared to the rest of the Pianura Padana, suggesting that areas exposed to these conditions are more suitable for WNV circulation. This observation highlights warmer and less rainy conditions as factors able to enhance WNV circulation and cause virus

  7. AgeStandardized Incidence Rates and Survival of Osteosarcoma in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pruksakorn, Dumnoensun; Phanphaisarn, Areerak; Pongnikorn, Donsuk; Daoprasert, Karnchana; Teeyakasem, Pimpisa; Chaiyawat, Parunya; Katruang, Narisara; Settakorn, Jongkolnee

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Recent worldwide average incidences of osteosarcoma in people aged 0 to 24 years were 4.3 and 3.4 per million, respectively, with a ratio of 1.4:1. However, data on the incidence of osteosarcoma in Thailand are limited. This study analyzed the incidence of osteosarcoma in the upper northern region of Thailand, with a population of 5.85 million people (8.9% of the total Thai population), using data for the years 1998 to 2012, obtained from the Chiang Mai Cancer Registry (CMCR) at Chiang Mai University Hospital and the Lampang Cancer Registry (LCR) at the Lampang Cancer Hospital, a total of 144 cases. The overall annual incidence of osteosarcoma was 1.67 per million with a male:female ratio of 1.36:1. Incidences by age group (male and female) at 0 to 24, 25 to 59 and over 60 years were 3.5 (3.9 and 3.0), 0.8 (0.9 and 0.6), and 0.7 (0.8 and 0.5), respectively. The peak incidence occurred at 15 to 19 years for males and at 10 to 14 years for females. The median survival time was 18 months with a 5year survival rate of 43%. Neither the age group nor the 5year interval period of treatment was significantly correlated with survival during the 15year period studied. PMID:27509991

  8. Trends in incidence of head and neck cancer in the northern territory, Australia, between 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Jayaraj, Rama; Singh, Jagtar; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2014-01-01

    Incidence trends of head and neck cancer (HNC) have implications for screening strategies, disease management, guiding health policy making, and are needed to further oral cancer research. This paper aims to describe trends in age-adjusted HNC incidence rates focusing on changes across calendar period between 2007 and 2010 in Australian Northern Territory. Age-adjusted incidence rates of HNC were calculated for 2007- 2010 using Northern Territory population based data assembled by Department of Health, Northern Territory Government of Australia. Changes in the HNC rate ratio (RR) and Estimated Annual Percentage Change (EAPC) between 2007-2008, 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 were calculated. A total of 171 HNC patients were recorded by the Northern Territory Department of Health during the time period between 2007 and 2010, out of which, 135 were males (78.9% of male HNC patients) and 36 were females (21.1% of female HNC patients). In conclusion, HNC incidence rate has decreased in the Northern Territory Australian males but remains unchanged in Australian females. High incidences of HNC may be associated with the high smoking rate and high alcohol consumption in the Northern Territory. Continued monitoring of trends in HNC incidence rates is crucial to inform Northern Territory based cancer prevention strategies.

  9. Human impacts on the evolution of Rosolina Mare (Northern Adriatic, Italy): first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbau, Corinne; Simeoni, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    The Italian coasts have undergone profound changes over the last century, in particular after the late 1950's. With the tourism industry development, the coastal system has been hardened resulting in the drastic reduction of its evolutive capacity. Human activity has therefore become a geological agent that has affected the evolution of the coastal zone both directly and indirectly in the last century. This study focuses on some of the coastal morphologies that have been modified by human actions in long and medium-term. The research was based on a comparison of sixty-year changes in land use, on dune-beach system and on the nearshore of Rosolina (Northern Adriatic, Italy). This coastal sandy zone extends over about 8 km in a N-NE - S-SW direction, and is delimited by the Adige River to the north and by the Porto Caleri to the south. This littoral, characterized by highly humanized stretches and natural stretches without human activities, can be divided into three parts: the first in the north, about 2 km long, where the beach is almost non-existent, the second in the central part long about 3 km, with a wide beach and completely built up for tourism, and the third in the south, about 3 km long, is within a natural park and is characterized by a wide beach bordered by a complex dune system. In the central part the coastal dunes present the greater heights, with an average of about +7 m (+ 4.5 m to +11 m); in the northern part the rare dunes reach heights of about +5 m (+4.5 m to +5.5 m). In the southern part the dunes present lower heights averaging +4.2 m (from +3 m to +5.5 m). The conservation state of the dunes is the result of coastal anthropization: blowouts and breaches in the coastal dune system are observed where there was the greatest urban development to allow users access to the beach. These "passages", however, constitute preferential sediment paths out of the beach as sediments are no longer stopped by the dune and its vegetation and are thus

  10. Extreme rainfall analysis based on precipitation events classification in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Lorenzo; Fiori, Elisabetta; Molini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    the raingauges observation in northern Italy for the period 2006-2015.

  11. Modeling the effects of tillage management practices on herbicide runoff in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Miao, Zewei; Vicari, Alberto; Capri, Ettore; Ventura, Francesca; Padovani, Laura; Trevisan, Marco

    2004-01-01

    The need to quantitatively predict pesticide runoff and erosion under cropping system management has gained increasing importance. In Europe, predictive models have not yet been fully validated because of the lack of field data sets. The objective of this study was to validate the capability of PRZM (Pesticide Root Zone Model) 3.12 to predict water runoff, sediment erosion, and associated transport of atrazine (6-chloro-N(2)-ethyl-N(4)-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), terbuthylazine (N(2)-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N(4)-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and metolachlor [2-chloro-6'-ethyl-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl)acet-o-toluidide] under common tillage management practices found in northern Italy. A 2-yr field data set was used to evaluate the model. Results showed that the model could qualitatively simulate significant differences of water runoff, soil erosion, and associated herbicide losses between conventional tillage (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) for a winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cover crop. For MT, water runoff, soil erosion, herbicide losses in water runoff and eroded sediment, and the proportion of herbicide loss via sediment erosion were significantly lower than for CT. The model failed to correctly simulate event-based herbicide concentration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The model usually underestimated pesticide runoff events with high rainfall intensity and low daily precipitation volume, and overestimated runoff events with low intensity and high volume. The main reason was that the description of runoff and erosion processes is rather empirical in the model and not physically based. Moreover, model calculations do not adequately reflect the relationships between soil erosion intensity and chemical concentration in sediment losses, leading to discrepancies between predictions and field observations.

  12. Complementarity between Solar and Hydropower: Sensitivity study to climate characteristics in Northern-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francois, Baptiste; Borga, Marco; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Hingray, Benoit; Raynaud, Damien; Sauterleute, Julian-Friedrich

    2015-04-01

    Climate related energy sources such as wind, solar and runoff sources are variable in time and space, following their driving weather variables. High penetration of such energy sources into the energy network might be facilitated by using the complementarity of different energy sources. Complementary resources lead to reduce the balance between the energy load and production from the energy mix. This study presents the analysis of the effect of a 100 % renewable energy mix composed by solar and run-of-the-river energy in three administrative units in Northern Italy. These two energy sources are the main ones in this area. Solar power is generated in the flat Veneto plains and run-of-the-river power is generated at the two opposite location of a climate transect going from the Alpine crest (snow melt dominated area) to the Veneto plains (rainfall dominated area). The manageability of each energy source is first discussed thanks to the analysis of the standardized auto-correlation of the energy balance obtain using each energy source alone. Covering the all possible energy mix among these energy sources, we then analyze their complementarity across different time scale using two different indicators. The first one is the standard deviation of the energy balance. The second one is the theoretical storage required for balancing. Results show that at small time scale (hourly), a high share of run-of-the-river power allows minimizing the energy balance variability. The opposite is obtained at larger time scale (daily and monthly) essentially because of lower variability of solar power generation at those time scale, which also implies a lower storage requirement.

  13. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Mycobacterium microti Isolates in Wild Boar from Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Gaffuri, Alessandra; Gelmetti, Daniela; Tagliabue, Silvia; Chiari, Mario; Mangeli, Anna; Spisani, Matteo; Nassuato, Claudia; Gibelli, Lucia; Sacchi, Cristina; Zanoni, Mariagrazia; Pacciarini, M. Lodovica

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 23,000 hunter-harvested wild boars from the pre-Alpine area of northern Italy were examined for tuberculosis over a 9-year period (2003 to 2011). Retropharyngeal and mandibular lymph nodes from the wild boars were examined grossly, and 1,151 of the lymph nodes were analyzed in our laboratory by histology (728 samples) and culture isolation (819 samples). Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-specific PCR (1,142 samples) was used for molecular-level detection in tissue samples, as was a gyrB restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay (322 samples). Lesions compatible with tuberculosis and indistinguishable from those described in cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection had been observed since 2003. Mycobacterium microti was identified directly in 256 tissue samples by the adopted molecular approaches. However, only 26 M. microti strains were obtained by culture isolation due to the well-known difficulties in isolating this slow-growing mycobacterium. During 2006, a prevalence study was performed in two provinces of the area, and the diffusion of M. microti was calculated to be 5.8% (95% confidence intervals surrounding the estimated prevalences [CIP95%], 3.94 to 7.68%). Over the following years (2007 to 2011), the presence of M. microti appeared to be stable. All isolates were genotyped by spoligotyping and exact tandem repeat analysis (ETR types A to F). In addition to the typical vole type (SB0118), a new spoligotype lacking the 43 spacers was found. Spoligotyping was also applied directly to tissue samples, and a geographical cluster distribution of the two spoligotypes was observed. This is the first report studying the diffusion and genetic variability of M. microti in wild boar. PMID:24871212

  14. Chemical and biomarker responses for site-specific quality assessment of the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Pedriali, Alessandra; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s, the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been recognized as an aquatic environment contaminated by DDTs and other persistent organic pollutants, but to date just few studies were carried out to investigate the effects of pollution to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was the application of a stepwise approach based on chemical data, a suite of biomarkers and the integration of their responses into a biomarker response index (BRI) to evaluate the site-specific quality assessment in different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, one of the largest European lakes. We used as biological model the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Several hundred bivalve specimens were sampled on May 2011 from eight sampling sites located along the lake shoreline. We measured levels of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and PAHs accumulated in D. polymorpha soft tissues by GC/MSn, while the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were evaluated in homogenates from native bivalves as oxidative stress indices. Moreover, DNA damage was investigated by the alkaline precipitation assay. Significant imbalances of enzymatic activity were found in mussels from most of the sampling sites, as well as notable increases of damage to macromolecules. Health status of mussels from Baveno was greatly affected by lake pollution, probably due to high levels of DDTs measured in this site, while a wide variability in biomarker responses was found in all the other stations. The application of a BRI allowed distinguishing impacts of pollution to bivalves, confirming mussels from Baveno as the most threatened and revealing that also the health status of bivalves from Suna, Brissago, Pallanza, and Laveno is affected. These evidences suggest the usefulness of a specific index to integrate all the biomarker endpoints in order to provide a correct environmental

  15. Sexual behaviour in Ligurian (Northern Italy) adolescents and young people: suggestions for HPV vaccination policies.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Lugarini, Jessica; Sasso, Tiziana; Sormani, Maria Pia; Badolati, Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted virus, and persistent infection with high-risk types is the necessary factor for cervical cancer. We investigated sexual behaviour and the age of the first sexual intercourse among young people (14-24 years) in Liguria (Northern Italy) in order to provide information that might orient the country's future vaccination policy. The Italian Authorities offer free vaccination to 12-year-old females, however a better prevention of HPV would to be implemented by introducing the vaccine to new cohorts of females after the first year of the vaccination campaign. Our survey was carried out from 1st May 2006 to 31st December 2007 and involved 3474 volunteers. We administered a written questionnaire to students (14-24 years) and workers (20-24 years). The median age+/-MAD of the sexual debut was 15+/-1 for both females and males in students group and 16+/-1 for both males and females in workers group. This study provides evidence that many Ligurian adolescents have their first sexual experience at a very early age, and often without protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Furthermore, a large percentage of all age-groups are sexually active and have multiple partners. The aim of this study was to identify those cohorts of females to whom vaccination should be offered free of charge. To this end, we calculated the percentage of infections that could be avoided by vaccination in each age-class: the younger the subjects, the higher the number of preventable infections. Our findings suggest that current HPV vaccination should be implemented by introducing new cohorts, especially young girls (14-16 years).

  16. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic latemar buildup, the dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-02-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement. Standard textural classification of Latemar dolomites hindered the resolution of the timing of dolomitization events. Instead, paragenetic relationships provided a powerful tool for grouping dolomites into generations representing specific diagenetic events in specific dolomitizing environments.

  17. Prevalence of faecal-borne parasites in colony stray cats in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Domenichini, Giulia; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Traldi, Giorgio; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2013-08-01

    Endoparasitic infections are common in stray cats. Many of these parasites are responsible for zoonoses, and stray cats can be a source of environmental contamination. The prevalence of parasites in 139 stray colony cats in the city of Milan, northern Italy, was investigated by faecal examination. The overall prevalence of endoparasites was 50.4%, with 11 different parasites found. Parasites with zoonotic potential were detected in 49.6% of cats. Concurrent infections with two or more zoonotic parasites were recorded in 14.3% of cats. Among the parasites found, the most common was Toxocara cati (33.1%; P <0.0001). The other species found by coproscopic examination were: Ancylostoma tubaeformae (7.2%), Isospora species (4.3%), Trichuris vulpis (2.9%), Dipylidium caninum (2.9%), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (2.9%), Eucoleus aerophilus (syn Capillaria aerophila) (1.4%), Spirometra species (1.4%), Taenia pisiformis (0.7%) and Hymenolepis nana (0.7%). Coproantigen specific for Giardia duodenalis was detected in 2.9% of the samples. Pseudoparasites (eggs of mites) were found in 4.3% of the samples. No sample contained Toxoplasma gondii oocysts, despite the fact that 70 cats tested positive for T gondii-specific IgG antibodies, and none of the diarrhoetic samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium species oocysts. Variables linked to infection were body condition score (BCS), the presence of diarrhoea and infection with G duodenalis. Cats infected with G duodenalis were more likely to have a low BCS (odds ratio (OR) = 11.5, P = 0.02) and diarrhoea (OR = 30.7, P = 0.0007). The results of the present study confirm that endoparasitic infections, most of which have zoonotic potential, are distributed in stray colony cats of Milan.

  18. Land use changes and its climatic implications in Northern Italy during the Dark Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeggl, Klaus; Oeggl-Wahlmüller, Notburga; Festi, Daniela; Zagermann, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    Here we present an interdisciplinary study on land use changes in Northern Italy at the transition from the Roman Empire to the Early Middle Ages. The combination of archaeological data and high-resolution pollen analyses carried out in the Fiavè basin (Trentino) provide a detailed insight in socio-economic changes and its implications with climate in the Dark Ages. The vegetation in this area is dominated up to 1000 m by submediterranian trees like Fraxinus ornus and Ostrya carpinifolia, superseded by a mixed Fagus and Abies forest with variable amounts of Picea abies. Since 2008 archaeological surveys in the Fiavè basin as well as excavations conducted on a fortified hill-top settlement (castrum) in 985m register the settlement development of this settlement cluster and reveal an almost continuous occupation from Roman to Early Medieval Times. In addition a high-resolution pollen record from a 1.30 m thick peat sequence of the bog "Palude di Fiave" discloses four main phases: (1) in the Late Iron Age high amounts of arboreal pollen and the spread of Abies demonstrate a decrease in settlement activity suggested by wetter climate conditions. (2) During the Roman Empire a phase with arable farming in the basin starts. Olea, Juglans and Castanea sativa are introduced and document the onset of horticulture in this region. (3) After 300 AD - during the Migration Period - the wet and cool conditions have had poor impact on settlement activity. Agricultural (Cerealia) and nitrophilous indicators (Plantago, Chenopodiaceae, Urticaceae) are continuously proved. However a change within the cultivated crops in relation to the climate conditions is observed. Subsequently a progressive recovery of Pinus followed by Abies and Fagus marks the climatic improvement at the beginning of the Early Medieval Times. (4) The time from 600 to 800 AD is characterized by increasing frequency and diversity of anthropogenic-related indicators. The implications of these land use changes with

  19. Recent contamination of mercury in an estuarine environment (Marano lagoon, Northern Adriatic, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covelli, Stefano; Acquavita, Alessandro; Piani, Raffaella; Predonzani, Sergio; De Vittor, Cinzia

    2009-04-01

    The Marano Lagoon, in the northern Adriatic Sea (Italy), has been affected by mercury (Hg) contamination from industrial and mining activities. It has been estimated that 186,000 kg of Hg were deliberately discharged into the main drainage system (Aussa-Corno River) by a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) from 1940s to 1984. The lagoon has also experienced a secondary long-term Hg input, originated from mining activity in Idrija (Slovenia), due to the supply of fluvial suspended particles carried by the Isonzo River in the Gulf of Trieste. Since local fishing activities are extensively conducted, there is great concern on the risk posed by potentially harmful effects of Hg to the trophic chain. Present inputs of this metal, both in dissolved (52.4-4.1 ng L -1) and particulate (130.8-3.4 ng L -1) phases, were preliminary investigated in the water column. Although direct discharge of Hg from the CAP no longer exists, the metal is still released from the source area into freshwaters, and its distribution and abundance is controlled by the salt-wedge circulation system, which is tide-influenced. Remobilization from bottom sediments can also be a secondary source of Hg into the aquatic environment. A speciation technique, used to investigate the main binding sites and phase associations of Hg in sediments (5.69-0.82 μg g -1), evidenced the presence of mobile (1.8-11%) and potentially available species for methylation processes. The results are particularly important if related to resuspension effects caused by natural events and anthropogenic activities. Preliminary considerations on Hg behaviour in this estuarine environment are reported.

  20. Chemical and biomarker responses for site-specific quality assessment of the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Parolini, Marco; Pedriali, Alessandra; Binelli, Andrea

    2013-08-01

    Since the 1990s, the Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) has been recognized as an aquatic environment contaminated by DDTs and other persistent organic pollutants, but to date just few studies were carried out to investigate the effects of pollution to aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was the application of a stepwise approach based on chemical data, a suite of biomarkers and the integration of their responses into a biomarker response index (BRI) to evaluate the site-specific quality assessment in different sampling stations of Lake Maggiore, one of the largest European lakes. We used as biological model the freshwater bivalve Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). Several hundred bivalve specimens were sampled on May 2011 from eight sampling sites located along the lake shoreline. We measured levels of DDTs, PCBs, HCHs, HCB, and PAHs accumulated in D. polymorpha soft tissues by GC/MSn, while the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase, as well as the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content were evaluated in homogenates from native bivalves as oxidative stress indices. Moreover, DNA damage was investigated by the alkaline precipitation assay. Significant imbalances of enzymatic activity were found in mussels from most of the sampling sites, as well as notable increases of damage to macromolecules. Health status of mussels from Baveno was greatly affected by lake pollution, probably due to high levels of DDTs measured in this site, while a wide variability in biomarker responses was found in all the other stations. The application of a BRI allowed distinguishing impacts of pollution to bivalves, confirming mussels from Baveno as the most threatened and revealing that also the health status of bivalves from Suna, Brissago, Pallanza, and Laveno is affected. These evidences suggest the usefulness of a specific index to integrate all the biomarker endpoints in order to provide a correct environmental

  1. Dynamics and conceptual model of the Rossena castle landslide (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelli, A.; Mandrone, G.; Ruffini, A.; Truffelli, G.

    2005-11-01

    In the Northern Apennines there are many historical villages and castles, which are of great value and represent a cultural heritage of great importance. Their presence within a territory greatly affected by landslide hazards creates, in many circumstances, the need to solve problems of land management and to act for the preservation of historical monuments. This paper describe an interesting landslide, failed during the night of 28 February 2004, that involved the village of Rossena: the failure damaged the village (Fig. 1), the road and the fields down to the stream but, fortunately, the castle just upslope the village was not involved at all. The 10th century massive castle of Rossena stands on the top of a cliff at about 500 m a.s.l., on the border between the provinces of Parma and Reggio Emilia, and it is surrounded by a small ancient village. The castle of Rossena is the best preserved stronghold of the Longobard times, enlarged and reinforced in the tenth century and partially rebuilt by Bonifacio, the father of Matilda of Canossa (the Vice-Queen of Italy and probably the most important woman in the Middle Ages) as a defensive structure guarding the Enza Valley. In addition, at Conossa, very close to Rossena, there was the meeting between Pope Gregory VII and the Emperor of Germany Henry IV, during the historical event known as "fight for the investitures". For these reasons, the area of Rossena is one of the most relevant from a historical point of view in the entire western part of the Emilia Romagna Region and it also has a high value as a geosite (Coratza et al., 2004).

  2. Tectonic control on the Late Quaternary hydrography of the Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benvenuti, Marco; Bonini, Marco; Moroni, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    We examine the intramontane Upper Tiber Basin in the Northern Apennines (central Italy), where sub-orthogonal fault systems forced river deviation and the abandonment of alluvial fans since the late Middle Pleistocene. Archaeological material, spanning the Middle Palaeolithic-Iron Age, was collected mostly from the surface of the Late Quaternary alluvial landforms and related deposits (MUP and HOL units). This information contributed to the partial dating of seven major stages of drainage development. Normal faults parallel and transverse to the basin trend were active at different times and conditioned the valley pattern of the Middle (MUP1-2)-Late (MUP3) Pleistocene Tiber, Singerna, Sovara and Tignana rivers, which still flow today into the basin. The MUP1 and the MUP3 fans were beheaded by the displacement of their feeder valleys along the basin-transverse Carmine and Montedoglio faults. In some cases, the former feeder rivers underwent stream piracy but their courses mostly deviated in response of the topographic gradient created by faulting, as well as through the incision of new valleys that exploited the lithological contrast along the fault lines. The MUP3 Tignana fan was abandoned mostly due to the activity of the basin-parallel, dip-slip Sansepolcro fault. Subsidence driven by the basin-parallel Anghiari and Sansepolcro fault systems also provided the accommodation space for the MUP3 and HOl1-2 Afra fans between Late Pleistocene and early-mid Holocene. This study exemplifies the interplay between longitudinal and transverse fault systems, and the Late Quaternary hydrographic evolution of an extensional basin settled in the axial zone of an active fold-and-thrust belt. Although the faulting has interacted with the forcing exerted by the Late Quaternary climate fluctuations on the basin drainage systems, the tectonic rates are sufficiently high to represent the prime controller on base-level change and drainage routing patterns.

  3. Multi-disciplinary dating of a baked clay kiln excavated at Chieri, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tema, Evdokia; Fantino, Fulvio; Ferrara, Enzo; Lo Giudice, Alessandro; Re, Alessandro; Barello, Federico; Vella, Silvia; Cirillo, Luigi; Gulmini, Monica

    2014-05-01

    A combined archaeological, archaeomagnetic and thermoluminescence study has been carried out on a rescue excavation kiln, discovered at Chieri, Northern Italy. Rock magnetic experiments indicate the dominance of a low coercivity magnetic phase, such as magnetite and/or Ti-magnetite as the main carrier of the remanent magnetization. Stepwise thermal demagnetization experiments generally show a stable characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM). The mean archaeomagnetic direction, calculated from 17 independently oriented samples, is D=18.2o, I=66.8o with α95=2.6o and k=184. Archaeomagnetic dating of the kiln has been obtained after comparison of the kiln's ChRM direction with the reference curves produced by the SHA.DIF.3K European regional geomagnetic field model. Independent dating of the kiln has also been obtained from thermoluminescence (TL) study of two baked clay samples coming from the kiln's walls. The environmental dose has been measured in situ using field dosimeters. Accurate TL procedures have been followed for the calculation of annual dose and eventually the TL age. The combination of the archaeological evidence, archaeomagnetic and TL datings suggest that the last usage of the kiln occurred around the 17th century AD. Comparison of the results obtained from the different methods shows the relevant potential of these techniques on dating of baked clay artefacts; yet it also highlights the range of uncertainty sources affecting measurements, related to the samples and/or to the environment, and the utility of dating cross-checking for obtaining reliable dates.

  4. Modelling nitrogen leaching from sewage sludge application to arable land in the Lombardy region (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Mattia; Perego, Alessia; Acutis, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Sewage sludge can be used as fertiliser, offering the possibility of safely recycling this waste product as a resource in agricultural applications. As the environmental concerns related to waste recycling in agricultural applications are well-known, restrictions on the use of sewage sludge have been implemented by the EU and local authorities. This work aimed to evaluate the nitrogen leaching associated with the application of sludge and the effectiveness of the temporal restrictions on its application implemented to safeguard the environment in the Lombardy region of northern Italy (120 days in Nitrate Vulnerable Zones and 90 days elsewhere) using the CropSyst model which was first validated. The effects of fertilisation using four different sludge types on N leaching were simulated at five sites under cultivation with maize and rice crops; six different timing schemes for sludge application were tested, three of which involved dates that were in agreement (AT) with the regulation, while the other three were not in agreement (NAT). We detected a significant effect of the sludge type and application timing, whereas the effect of their interaction was never significant. The mean annual leaching was 22 to 154 kg N ha(-1). The higher the ammonium N content in the sludge was, the greater the potential for N leaching was found to be. For the maize crop, the distribution of sludge in the late fall period resulted in significantly greater N leaching (61 kg N ha(-1)) and led to lower yields (9 t DM ha(-1)) compared to late winter fertilisation (49 kg N ha(-1); 10 t DM ha(-1)), whereas no differences in N leaching or yield were detected between AT and NAT, which was also observed for the rice crop. Therefore, the applied temporal constraints did not always appear to be advantageous for protecting the environment from leaching. PMID:23751334

  5. Changes in flood seasonality in Northern Italy during the past 2000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Stefanie B.; Gilli, Adrian; Simonneau, Anaëlle; Ariztegui, Daniel; Vannière, Boris; Glur, Lukas; Chapron, Emmanuel; Magny, Michel; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2014-05-01

    The hydro-climate of the Mediterranean area is expected to experience strong impacts with climate change, a prognosis that was corroborated by the cyclone Cleopatra and its devastating effects in November 2013. In order to investigate the occurrence and the controlling climatic factors of such extreme hydrological events in the past, we investigated the frequency and seasonality of floods in Northern Italy during the past 2000 years using an annually laminated (i.e. varved) lake-sediment record (Lake Ledro, Trentino). The past flood occurrence is traced by characteristic flood deposits intercalated within the regular lacustrine sediments. The seasonality information is retrieved from the stratigraphic position of these flood deposits within the annual sedimentary cycle. Overall, the reconstructed flood signal reveals a dominance of summer (26.2%) and autumn (63.4%) events, while winter (3.7%) and spring (6.7%) events are rare, yet, the seasonal distribution varies over time. With regard to climatic forcing, periods of increased flood frequency, in particular in summer, correlate with solar minima (including Dalton, Maunder, Spörer). This correlation indicates a strong influence of variations in solar irradiance on the atmospheric circulation over the North Atlantic and thus on the latitudinal position of the westerly storm tracks. Furthermore, the comparison of our data with a sea-surface temperature (SST) reconstruction based on foraminiferal oxygen isotopes from the Mediterranean suggests that intense autumn floods more often occurred during periods of warm Mediterranean sea-surface temperature, in particular from 500 to 1000 AD. However, the intensity aspect of paleofloods requires more research, for instance by comparison with instrumental and historic data sets. The outcome of this paleoclimate study agrees with modern weather patterns in the Southern Alps. On this basis, our data set thus supports the assessment of precipitation forcing on a timescale that

  6. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing. PMID:23770928

  7. A coupled distributed hydrological-stability analysis on a terraced slope of Valtellina (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camera, C.; Apuani, T.; Masetti, M.

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to understand and reproduce the hydrological dynamics of a slope, which was terraced using dry-stone retaining walls and its response to these processes in terms of stability at the slope scale. The slope studied is located in Valtellina (northern Italy), near the village of Tresenda, and in the last 30 yr has experienced several soil slip/debris flow events. In 1983 alone, such events caused the death of 18 people. Direct observation of the events of 1983 enabled the principal triggering cause of these events to be recognized in the formation of an overpressure at the base of a dry-stone wall, which caused its failure. To perform the analyses it is necessary to include the presence of dry-stone walls, considering the importance they have in influencing hydrological and geotechnical processes at the slope scale. This requires a very high resolution DEM (1 m × 1 m because the walls are from 0.60 m to 1.0 m wide) that has been appositely derived. A hydrogeological raster-based model, which takes into account both the unsaturated and saturated flux components, was applied. This was able to identify preferential infiltration zones and was rather precise in the prediction of maximum groundwater levels, providing valid input for the distributed stability analysis. Results of the hydrogeological model were used for the successive stability analysis. Sections of terrace were identified from the downslope base of a retaining wall to the top of the next downslope retaining wall. Within each section a global method of equilibrium was applied to determine its safety factor. The stability model showed a general tendency to overestimate the amount of unstable areas. An investigation of the causes of this unexpected behavior was, therefore, also performed in order to progressively improve the reliability of the model.

  8. Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

    2014-11-15

    The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, p<0.01) and it resulted in significantly higher yield under water stress condition (+15%, p<0.01) and optimal water supply (+2%, p<0.05). The elongated cycle has a positive effect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

  9. Spread of plant pathogens and insect vectors at the northern range margin of cypress in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zocca, Alessia; Zanini, Corrado; Aimi, Andrea; Frigimelica, Gabriella; La Porta, Nicola; Battisti, Andrea

    2008-05-01

    The Mediterranean cypress ( Cupressus sempervirens) is a multi-purpose tree widely used in the Mediterranean region. An anthropogenic range expansion of cypress has taken place at the northern margin of the range in Italy in recent decades, driven by ornamental planting in spite of climatic constraints imposed by low winter temperature. The expansion has created new habitats for pathogens and pests, which strongly limit tree survival in the historical (core) part of the range. Based on the enemy release hypothesis, we predicted that damage should be lower in the expansion area. By comparing tree and seed cone damage by pathogens and pests in core and expansion areas of Trentino, a district in the southern Alps, we showed that tree damage was significantly higher in the core area. Seed cones of C. sempervirens are intensively colonized by an aggressive and specific pathogen (the canker fungus Seiridium cardinale, Coelomycetes), associated with seed insect vectors Megastigmus wachtli (Hymenoptera Torymidae) and Orsillus maculatus (Heteroptera Lygaeidae). In contrast, we observed lower tree damage in the expansion area, where a non-aggressive fungus ( Pestalotiopsis funerea, Coelomycetes) was more frequently associated with the same insect vectors. Our results indicate that both insect species have a great potential to reach the range margin, representing a continuous threat of the arrival of fungal pathogens to trees planted at extreme sites. Global warming may accelerate this process since both insects and fungi profit from increased temperature. In the future, cypress planted at the range margin may then face similar pest and pathogen threats as in the historical range.

  10. Chrysotile asbestos in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Alessandro; Rimoldi, Bianca

    2013-07-01

    The Valmalenco serpentinite (Central Alps, Northern Italy) is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, from the XIX century until 1975. Asbestos is a well-known carcinogen, and there is the possibility of releasing fibres during quarrying, subsequently exposing workers. From 2004 to 2011, extensive sampling and monitoring of quarry fronts, asbestos veins, commercial stones and airborne asbestos was carried out. Massive rock and vein samples were analyzed by a combined use of optical microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and quantitative electron microscopy (SEM). Asbestos is concentrated almost exclusively in discrete horizons, that coincide with the main discontinuities of the rock mass. Commercial stones without fractures and veins are practically asbestos free, whereas there is a slight contamination (sometimes exceeding the 1000 ppm threshold) close to hydrothermal selvages. Quarry floors were always quite contaminated by chrysotile "beards" detached from the surface of the blocks. The airborne asbestos concentrations (PCM and SEM) were distributed over a wide range, mostly below the occupational exposure limit of 0.1 f ml(-1). Concentrations at the quarry property border or at the closest villages were always below the environmental exposure limit of 0.002 f ml(-1). The extreme thinness of chrysotile fibrils produced during quarrying activities, and the abundance of pseudo-fibrous antigorite cleavage fragments proved the SEM-EDS analytical procedure to be the most suitable. It is of crucial importance to avoid the interception of veins during quarrying and to remove all visible asbestos from the extracted blocks, before any further processing.

  11. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  12. Tectono-magmatic evolution of sheeted plutonic bodies along the north Giudicarie line (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S.; Prosser, G.; Morten, L.

    1993-04-01

    Tectonized slices of foliated quartz-diorite/ quartz-gabbro rocks are exposed along the north Giudicarie line between Dimaro and Rumo (Western Trentino region, north-east Italy). They show geochemical and mineralogical similarities with the north-east corner of the Adamello batholith (Presanella pluton) and may be regarded as a northern apophysis lamella of Adamello. The intrusive bodies were emplaced within the Adria crust at a relatively shallow depth (approximatelyP_{{text{H}}_{text{2}} {text{O}}} equal to 3 kbar) along a proto-Giudicarie line under transtensive conditions during late Oligocene. Only near Rumo has contact metamorphism on the Austroalpine basement been observed, whereas in other outcrops it has been tectonically removed by later movements along the Giudicarie line. In the Samoclevo lamella a magmatic flow texture, which developed during the emplacement of a crystal mush at shallow depth, is recorded by the preferred alignment of plagioclase and hornblende. A solid state foliation, outlined by quartz crystal aggregates, green hornblende and biotite, has been observed mostly in the Rumo lamella. This indicates that a later ductile deformation, which developed under decreasing temperatures, overprinted the intrusive rocks. This deformation probably reflects late Oligocene strike-slip movements along the Tonale and Giudicarie lines. Finally semi-brittle to brittle deformation overprints the foliated igneous lamellae producing cataclasites and pseudotachylites. Sometimes these structures are subsequently cut by prehnite and epidote bearing veins. During this event, the intrusive lamellae were decoupled from their contact aureole and carried over the Insubric Flysch of the southern Alps. This last tectonic phase may be correlated to the Upper Miocene neo-Alpine transpressive event along the Giudicarie Line.

  13. Online participation in climate change adaptation: A case study of agricultural adaptation measures in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Dragana; Bonzanigo, Laura; Giupponi, Carlo; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2015-07-01

    The new EU strategy on adaptation to climate change suggests flexible and participatory approaches. Face-to-face contact, although it involves time-consuming procedures with a limited audience, has often been considered the most effective participatory approach. In recent years, however, there has been an increase in the visibility of different citizens' initiatives in the online world, which strengthens the possibility of greater citizen agency. This paper investigates whether the Internet can ensure efficient public participation with meaningful engagement in climate change adaptation. In elucidating issues regarding climate change adaptation, we developed an eParticipation framework to explore adaptation capacity of agriculture to climate change in Northern Italy. Farmers were mobilised using a pre-existing online network. First they took part in an online questionnaire for revealing their perceptions of and reactions to the impacts of ongoing changes in agriculture. We used these results to suggest a portfolio of policy measures and to set evaluation criteria. Farmers then evaluated these policy options, using a multi criteria analysis tool with a simple user-friendly interface. Our results showed that eParticipation is efficient: it supports a rapid data collection, while involving high number of participants. Moreover, we demonstrated that the digital divide is decreasingly an obstacle for using online spaces for public engagement. This research does not present eParticipation as a panacea. Rather, eParticipation was implemented with well-established participatory approaches to both validate the results and, consequently, communicate meaningful messages on local agricultural adaptation practices to regional decision-makers. Feedbacks from the regional decision-makers showed their interest in using eParticipation to improve communication with farmers in the future. We expect that, with further Internet proliferation, eParticipation may allow the inclusion of

  14. Performance of stormwater detention tanks for urban drainage systems in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Todeschini, Sara; Papiri, Sergio; Ciaponi, Carlo

    2012-06-30

    The performance of stormwater detention tanks with alternative design configurations (insertion in the storm sewer network; volume per impervious hectare) and operating conditions (continuous and intermittent emptying rules) have been evaluated according to an integrated approach. Various performance indices have been adopted to describe the mitigation of the pollution impact to the natural environment, the reduction of the management and maintenance charges for the urban drainage system, the preservation of the normal purification efficiency, and the limitation of the costs at the treatment plant. The US EPA Storm Water Management Model has been used to simulate the rainfall-runoff process and the pollutant dynamics on theoretical catchments and storm sewer networks for an individual event, as well as for a continuous run of events and inter event periods of one year recorded at the rain gauge of Cascina Scala (Pavia, northern Italy). Also the influence of the main characteristics of the urban catchment and the drainage system (area of the catchment and slope of the network) on the performance of alternative design and operating solutions has been examined. Stormwater detention tanks combined with flow regulators demonstrated good performance with respect to environmental pollution: satisfactory performance indicators can be obtained with fairly low flow rates of flow regulators (0.5-1 L/s per hectare of impervious area) and tank volumes of about 35-50 m(3) per impervious hectare. Continuous emptying guaranteed the lowest number and duration of overflows, while an intermittent operation minimised the volume sent for purification reducing the costs and the risks of impairment in the normal treatment efficiency of the plant. Overall, simulation outcomes revealed that the performance indexes are scarcely affected by the area of the catchment and the slope of the drainage network. The result of this study represents a key issue for the implementation of

  15. Effects of temperature and rainfall on the activity and dynamics of host-seeking Aedes albopictus females in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Rosà, Roberto; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2010-10-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has colonized nearly all the regions of Italy as well as other areas of Europe. During the summer of 2007 the tiger mosquito was responsible for an outbreak of Chikungunya in Italy, when this virus was brought in by a tourist of Indian origin returning from an endemic area. To increase the knowledge of tiger mosquito population dynamics, a survey was carried out from April to November 2008 in the municipalities of Arco and Riva del Garda (northern Italy) through a Biogents Sentinel™ (BG)-trap sampling. In particular, the aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of temperature and rainfall on the activity and dynamics of A. albopictus host-seeking females. The seasonal emergence of host-seeking females was strongly influenced by the minimum temperature, and a lower threshold of 13°C was identified. In addition, the threshold for the end of adult activity was found at a minimum temperature of 9°C. Host-seeking female abundance was positively affected by the accumulated temperatures over the period 3 and 4 weeks before the sampling week, possibly as a consequence of the positive effect of accumulated temperatures on larval density. Instead, accumulated precipitation over 1-4 weeks before sampling was negatively correlated with host-seeking female abundance. Finally, the activity of host-seeking females, estimated by the weekly increment in female abundance, was positively affected by the total abundance of females and by mean weekly temperatures. Our study provides useful information for predicting the dynamics of host-seeking Ae. albopictus females in northern Italy and for designing control strategies for preventing arbovirus outbreaks in areas colonized by Ae. albopictus. PMID:20059318

  16. High incidence of neural tube defects in Northern part of India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Royana; Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Shinde, Neeraj; Rai, Sangita; Prasad, Rajniti; Shama, Satya Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the absence of primary care and prevailing associated social stigma, many patients of neural tube defects (NTDs) from remote areas die without getting any treatment. The high number of such untreated cases and unregistered deaths in these areas made us ponders to the fact that tertiary care center-based studies do not represent the true incidence of NTDs. Materials and Methods: We did a population-based survey for NTDs births of rural areas from Jaunpur to Ghazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. These districts are among the least developed areas of Northern India in Uttar Pradesh among other 17. Results: The data show an incidence of 7.48 per 1000 live births. Conclusion: Besides of unawareness regarding periconceptional folate supplementation, intensive effort is required to design adequately powered studies to search other key factors responsible for high prevalence of NTDs. PMID:27695536

  17. High incidence of neural tube defects in Northern part of India

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Sunil Kumar; Singh, Royana; Pandey, Sharad; Singh, Kulwant; Shinde, Neeraj; Rai, Sangita; Prasad, Rajniti; Shama, Satya Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the absence of primary care and prevailing associated social stigma, many patients of neural tube defects (NTDs) from remote areas die without getting any treatment. The high number of such untreated cases and unregistered deaths in these areas made us ponders to the fact that tertiary care center-based studies do not represent the true incidence of NTDs. Materials and Methods: We did a population-based survey for NTDs births of rural areas from Jaunpur to Ghazipur district in Eastern Uttar Pradesh. These districts are among the least developed areas of Northern India in Uttar Pradesh among other 17. Results: The data show an incidence of 7.48 per 1000 live births. Conclusion: Besides of unawareness regarding periconceptional folate supplementation, intensive effort is required to design adequately powered studies to search other key factors responsible for high prevalence of NTDs.

  18. Mantle xenoliths from Marosticano area (Northern Italy): a comparison with Veneto Volcanic Province lithospheric mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brombin, Valentina; Bonadiman, Costanza; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    redox conditions (Δlog fO2: +1.2 to -0.7, Ballhaus, 1991) to Lessinean and Val d'Adige xenoliths which may indicate a local oxidation of the mantle below this portion of VVP. References • Beccaluva L., Bianchini G., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Milani L., Salvini L., Siena F., Tassinari R. (2007). Intraplate lithospheric and sublithospheric components in the Adriatic domain: Nephelinite to tholeiite magma generation in the Paleogene Veneto Volcanic Province, Southern Alps. Geological Society of America, 131-152. • Beccaluva L., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Salvini L., Siena F. (2001). Depletion events, nature of metasomatizing agent and timing of enrichment processes in lithospheric mantle xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province. Journal of Petrology, 42, 173-187. • Gasperini D., Bosch D., Braga R., Bondi M., Macera P., Morten L. (2006). Ultramafic xenoliths from the Veneto Volcanic Province (Italy): Petrological and geochemical evidence for multiple metasomatism of the SE Alps mantle lithospere. Geochemical Journal, 40, 377-404. • Siena F., Coltorti M. (1989). Lithospheric mantle evolution: evidences from ultramafic xenoliths in the Lessinean volcanics (Northern Itlay). Chemical Geology, 77, 347-364.

  19. Petroleum systems of the Po Basin Province of northern Italy and the northern Adriatic Sea; Porto Garibaldi (biogenic), Meride/Riva di Solto (thermal), and Marnoso Arenacea (thermal)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindquist, Sandra J.

    1999-01-01

    The Porto Garibaldi total petroleum system dominates the Po Basin Province of onshore northern Italy and offshore Italy and Croatia in the northern Adriatic Sea. Porto Garibaldi contains Pliocene (primarily) and Pleistocene (secondarily) biogenic gas ? approximately 16 TCF (2.66 BBOE) ultimately recoverable ? accumulated in co-eval siliciclastic reservoirs. This area was the northwestern edge of the Gondwanan (African) continental plate in pre-Hercynian time until the assembly of Pangea, a dominantly carbonate passive continental margin during the Mesozoic breakup of Pangea, and a Cenozoic collision zone with siliciclastic foredeep and foreland regions surrounded by thrust belts. At least two other petroleum systems, with Triassic (Meride / Riva di Solto) and Miocene (Marnoso Arenacea) source rocks, contribute oil and thermal gas reserves (nearly 1 BBOE) to the province. The major time of hydrocarbon expulsion of the thermal systems was Late Neogene during the Alpine and Apennine orogenies. Local Mesozoic oil expulsion from Triassic rocks also occurred, but those oils either were not trapped or were leaked from faulty traps through time.

  20. The 2012 Emilia earthquake in northern Italy: coseismic geological effects within a compressive tectonic framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montone, P.; Alessio, G.; Alfonsi, L.; Brunori, C.; Burrato, P.; Casula, G.; Cinti, F. R.; Civico, R.; Colini, L.; Cucci, L.; De Martini, P. M.; Falcucci, E.; Galadini, F.; Gaudiosi, G.; Gori, S.; Mariucci, M.; Moro, M.; Nappi, R.; Nardi, A.; Nave, R.; Pantosti, D.; Patera, A.; Pesci, A.; Pignone, M.; Pinzi, S.; Pucci, S.; Vannoli, P.; Venuti, A.; Villani, F.

    2012-12-01

    On May 20 2012 a Ml 5.9 seismic event hit the Emilia Po Plain area (northern Italy) triggering an intense earthquake activity along a broad area of the Plain. Nine days later, on May 29 a Ml 5.8 event occurred roughly 10 km to the SW of the first main shock; these events caused 26 victims and several injured and damages. The aftershock area extended for more than 50 km, in WNW-ESE direction, including five major aftershocks with 5.1≤Ml≤5.3 and more than two thousands of minor events. In general, the seismic sequence was confined in the upper 10 km of depth (ISIDe, http://iside.rm.ingv.it/). The focal mechanisms calculated for the main events and also for several M>4.5 aftershocks are almost all consistent with a compression (P-axes) N-S oriented due to thrust fault mechanisms. The two nodal planes, both E-W oriented, show a 40° southward and 60-70° northward dipping plane (QRCMT, Quick Regional Moment Tensors, http://autorcmt.bo.ingv.it/quicks.html), connected with the compressional regime of the area. From a tectonic point of view, the active Apennine thrust fronts, buried under the Po Plain Plio-Quaternary sediments, locally consist of three N-verging arcs. The most external structures, the active Ferrara and Mirandola thrusts and folds are responsible for the Emilia Romagna 2012 earthquake sequence. Just after the 20th May seismic event, the EMERGEO Working Group was active in surveying the epicentral area searching for coseismic geological effects. The survey lasted one month, involving about thirty researchers and technicians of the INGV in field and aerial investigations. Simultaneously, a laboratory-working group gathered, organized and interpreted the observations, processing them in the EMERGEO Information System (siE), on a GIS environment. The most common coseismic effects are: 1) liquefactions related to overpressure of aquifers hosted in buried and confined sand layers, occurring both as single cones or through several aligned vents forming

  1. Integrating multidisciplinary, multiscale geological and geophysical data to image the Castrovillari fault (Northern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinti, F. R.; Pauselli, C.; Livio, F.; Ercoli, M.; Brunori, C. A.; Ferrario, M. F.; Volpe, R.; Civico, R.; Pantosti, D.; Pinzi, S.; De Martini, P. M.; Ventura, G.; Alfonsi, L.; Gambillara, R.; Michetti, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Castrovillari scarps (Cfs) are located in northern Calabria (Italy) and consist of three main WSW-dipping fault scarps resulting from multiple rupture events. At the surface, these scarps are defined by multiple breaks in slope. Despite its near-surface complexity, the faults likely merge to form a single normal fault at about 200 m depth, which we refer to as the Castrovillari fault. We present the results of a multidisciplinary and multiscale study at a selected site of the Cfs with the aim to (i) characterize the geometry at the surface and at depth and (ii) obtain constraints on the fault slip history. We investigate the site by merging data from quantitative geomorphological analyses, electrical resistivity and ground penetrating radar surveys, and palaeoseismological trenching along a ˜40 m high scarp. The closely spaced investigations allow us to reconstruct the shallow stratigraphy, define the fault locations, and measure the faulted stratigraphic offsets down to 20 m depth. Despite the varying resolutions, each of the adopted approaches suggests the presence of sub-parallel fault planes below the scarps at approximately the same location. The merged datasets permit the evaluation of the fault array (along strike for 220 m within a 370-m-wide zone). The main fault zone consists of two closely spaced NW-SE striking fault planes in the upper portion of the scarp slope and another fault at the scarp foot. The 3-D image of the fault surfaces shows west to southwest dipping planes with values between 70° and 80°; the two closely spaced planes join at about 200 m below the surface. The 8-to-12-m-high upper fault, which shows the higher vertical displacements, accommodated most of the deformation during the Holocene. Results from the trenching analysis indicate a minimum slip per event of 0.6 m and a maximum short-term slip rate of 0.6 mm yr-1 for the Cf. The shallow subsurface imaging techniques are particularly helpful in evaluating the possible field

  2. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (p<0.01) from TA to CA under all the crop rotations with a potential SOC sequestration ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 t C ha-1 y-1. While soil type did not affect significantly the SOC sequestration, crop residue determined relevant increases in SOC. That was particularly evident in grain maize monoculture with or without cover crop. References: Oorts K., Garnier P., Findeling A., Mary B., Richard G., Nicolardot B

  3. Incidence and distribution of coeliac disease in Campania (Italy): 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Zingone, Fabiana; West, Joe; Auricchio, Renata; Maria Bevilacqua, Rosa; Bile, Guido; Borgheresi, Patrizia; Erminia Bottiglieri, Maria; Caldore, Mariano; Capece, Giuseppe; Cristina Caria, Maria; Crudele, Antonio; Cuomo, Rosario; Lucia Garofano, Maria; Giardullo, Nicola; Gerarda Gravina, Antonietta; Greco, Luigi; Iannotta, Patrizia; Kosova, Paolo; Lamanda, Roberto; Malamisura, Basilio; Marmo, Riccardo; Napoli, Gianfranco; Nardone, Gerardo; Pacelli, Maria; Pascarella, Filomena; Riccio, Elisabetta; Riegler, Gabriele; Rispo, Antonio; Rocco, Alba; Romano, Marco; Saffiotti, Ottavio; Saviano, Paola; Sorrentini, Italo; Speranza, Pietro; Tolone, Carlo; Tortora, Raffaella; Troncone, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Background There exists a wide variation in the reported incidence of coeliac disease in recent decades. We aimed to evaluate the incidence rate of coeliac diagnoses performed in an Italian region, Campania, between 2011 and 2013 and its variation therein. Methods All coeliac diagnoses made from 2011 to 2013 and registered within the Campania coeliac disease register (CeliacDB) were identified. Incidence rates were analysed by sex, age and province of residence, with a Poisson model fitted to determine incidence rate ratios. Results We found 2049 coeliac disease diagnoses registered in the CeliacDB between 2011 and 2013; 1441 of these patients were female (70.4%) and 1059 were aged less than 19 years (51.7%). The overall incidence of coeliac disease in Campania was 11.8 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 11.3–12.3) during the study period, with marked variation by age [27.4 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI 25.8–29.1) in children under 19 years of age and 7.3 per 100,000 (95% CI 6.8–7.8) in adults] and sex [16.1 per 100,000 person-years in females (95% CI 15.3–16.9) and 7.2 per 100,000 person-years in males (95% CI 6.6–7.8)]. Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar in Naples, Salerno, Caserta and Avellino, but about half in Benevento. More than 80% of our study population was diagnosed by the combination of positive antitransglutaminase IgA and Marsh 3. More than half of the patients were symptomatic at the time of coeliac disease diagnosis (39.7% had a classical presentation and 21.1% a non-classical one according to the Oslo definition). Conclusions Coeliac disease incidence was roughly similar among Campania provinces, except in Benevento where it was about half, probably due to less awareness of coeliac disease in this area. The incidence of coeliac disease in Campania appears to be lower than that reported by most of the previous literature, suggesting the necessity of new coeliac awareness programmes. PMID:25922679

  4. Calibration and use of integrated hydrological models in a large groundwater basin in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandolfi, Claudio; Giudici, Mauro; Ponzini, Giansilvio; Agostani, Davide; Rienzner, Michele

    2010-05-01

    We present and discuss the main steps of the implementation and use of the ground water flow model of a large alluvial aquifer system underlying a densely settled and heavily irrigated territory, with a special focus on the estimation of the distributed recharge and on the calibration of the model. The 2500 km² grounwater basin lies in the Padana plain (Northern Italy), one of the most developed industrial and agricultural areas of Europe, and is bordered by the rivers Adda, Oglio and Po. The model implementation was urged by the water management and administration authorities in the area, which in the last years have been under increasing pressure for the release of pumping consents, especially from the irrigation sector. Indeed, the limitation to water withdrawal from rivers to ensure the minimum instream flow, along with a sequence of very dry years, pushed the farmers to seek new sources of irrigation water. On the other side the water authorities are trying to drive a process of transformation of the irrigation systems, towards an increase of their water use efficiency. The same authorities, however, are aware that this process must be carefully controlled in order to protect a number of groundwater dependent ecosystems, that are largely dependent on the distributed recharge due to irrigation. Therefore, the main practical goals of the model is to provide a tool for the assessment of both the sustainability of increased groundwater withdrawals and the effects of changes of the irrigation systems characteristics. Distributed recharge, mainly due to rainfall and irrigation, has been often treated in a simplified way in many applications of groundwater models, in spite of the fact that the unsaturated zone scientific community has achieved significant progresses in the modelling of soil-water-atmosphere interactions. Indeed, especially when irrigation systems are densely spread over a large area but poorly efficient, the distributed recharge term may represent

  5. Incidence of rhinitis and asthma related to welding in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Storaas, Torgeir; Zock, Jan-Paul; Morano, Ana Espinosa; Holm, Mathias; Bjørnsson, Eythor; Forsberg, Bertil; Gislason, Thorarinn; Janson, Christer; Norback, Dan; Omenaas, Ernst; Schlünssen, Vivi; Torén, Kjell; Svanes, Cecilie

    2015-11-01

    Welding-related asthma is well recognised but less is known about rhinitis in relation to welding. The aim here, was to study associations between welding, rhinitis and asthma in a general population sample, and factors influencing selection into and out of a welding occupation.Adult-onset asthma and non-infectious rhinitis were investigated in the international multicentre population-based Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) study, including 16,191 responders aged 26-54 years. Ever welding (n=2181), welding >25% of working time (n=747), and welding in stainless steel >6 months (n=173) were assessed by questionnaire. Subjects with rhinitis or asthma onset when aged <18 years were excluded. Incidence rates for asthma and rhinitis were calculated from year of disease onset, and start and end of welding job. Cox's proportional hazard models adjusting for age, sex, parental education and study centre, and Kaplan-Meier curves were used.Rhinitis incidence was higher among welders (hazard ratio (HR) 1.4, 95% CI 1.3-1.6), consistent in men and women, and across centres (pheterogeneity=0.4). In men, asthma incidence was higher among welders (HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.04-1.97). Quitting welding was indicated higher after adult-onset rhinitis (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). Adult-onset rhinitis and asthma was higher among welders, consistent across population samples from Northern Europe. No pre-employment selection was found, whereas selection out of welding jobs was suggested.

  6. Incidence and Genetic Characterization of Gongylonema pulchrum in Cattle Slaughtered in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Halajian, A; Eslami, A; Salehi, N; Ashrafi-Helan, J; Sato, H

    2010-01-01

    Background The gullet worm, Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857, is a thread-like spirurid nematode found in a variety of mammals worldwide. Its incidences in Iranian cattle of different breed or age have not been reported. The aims of the present study are to disclose the infection status of G. pulchrum in cattle slaughtered in northern region of Iran. Methods Full-length esophagi of cattle of 97 native dairy breed and 41 Holstein-Friesian breed were collected at four local abattoirs in Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, from March 2006 to August 2007, and were examined parasitologically. Eight overlapping segments of the small- and large-subunits of rDNA were amplified by PCR, and the obtained nucleotide sequences were characterized. Results The incidences of G. pulchrum in female and male native dairy breed were 38.9% and 24.0%, respectively, whereas those in female and male Holstein-Friesian breed were 4.2% and 0%, respectively. The first internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) region of G. pulchrum rDNA showed an intra-individual variation in the sequence and length, and the variation was ascribed to some unstable repeats of "A" or "CA". Conclusion Distinct incidences of G. pulchrum infection in native dairy breed and Holstein-Friesian breed might be ascribed to different animal husbandry manners for each breed in Iran; the former breed grazes freely in the pasture, but the latter breed is usually held in a pen. The rDNA sequence of Iranian G. pulchrum, obtained for the first time by us, might facilitate a reliable species identification of the parasite with a wide spectrum of morphological variations. PMID:22347239

  7. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that

  8. Seasonal monitoring and estimation of regional aerosol distribution over Po valley, northern Italy, using a high-resolution MAIAC product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvani, Barbara; Pierce, R. Bradley; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Wang, Yujie; Ghermandi, Grazia; Teggi, Sergio

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the new 1 km-resolved Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) algorithm is employed to characterize seasonal PM10 - AOD correlations over northern Italy. The accuracy of the new dataset is assessed compared to the widely used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5.1 Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data, retrieved at 0.55 μm with spatial resolution of 10 km (MYD04_L2). We focused on evaluating the ability of these two products to characterize both temporal and spatial distributions of aerosols within urban and suburban areas. Ground PM10 measurements were obtained from 73 of the Italian Regional Agency for Environmental Protection (ARPA) monitoring stations, spread across northern Italy, during a three-year period from 2010 to 2012. The Po Valley area (northern Italy) was chosen as the study domain because of its severe urban air pollution, resulting from it having the highest population and industrial manufacturing density in the country, being located in a valley where two surrounding mountain chains favor the stagnation of pollutants. We found that the global correlations between the bin-averaged PM10 and AOD are R2 = 0.83 and R2 = 0.44 for MYD04_L2 and for MAIAC, respectively, suggesting a greater sensitivity of the high-resolution product to small-scale deviations. However, the introduction of Relative Humidity (RH) and Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) depth corrections allowed for a significant improvement to the bin-averaged PM - AOD correlation, which led to a similar performance: R2 = 0.96 for MODIS and R2 = 0.95 for MAIAC. Furthermore, the introduction of the PBL information in the corrected AOD values was found to be crucial in order to capture the clear seasonal cycle shown by measured PM10 values. The study allowed us to define four seasonal linear correlations that estimate PM10 concentrations satisfactorily from the remotely sensed MAIAC AOD retrieval. Overall, the results show that the high

  9. Cat-scratch disease in Northern Italy: atypical clinical manifestations in humans and prevalence of Bartonella infection in cats.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, E; Fabbi, M; Ferraioli, G; Prati, P; Filice, C; Sassera, D; Dalla Valle, C; Bandi, C; Vicari, N; Marone, P

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we report an investigation on cat-scratch disease (CSD) in Northern Italy. Seventy-four cases of CSD were diagnosed at the San Matteo hospital, Pavia, during the period 2005-2010. Of these 74 patients, 18 (24.3 %) reported atypical clinical manifestations such as ocular papillitis, maculopapular eruptions, vertebral infection, pulmonary infiltrates, and granulomatous hepatitis. Contact with cats was documented for 61 patients (82.4 %), while cat-related trauma was reported for 49 patients (66.2 %). We subsequently investigated the presence of Bartonella infection in cats belonging to the above patients and in other domestic and stray cats from three provinces of Northern Italy. Among the 27 domestic cats tested, nine of the 11 belonging to the CSD patients and two of the remaining 16 were infected by B. henselae (81.8 % vs. 12.5 %). Out of over 1,300 stray cats examined, 23.1 % were seropositive for B. henselae; after culturing and genotyping, 17 % were found to be infected by B. henselae (15.5 %) or B. clarridgeiae (1.5 %).

  10. From northern Gondwana passive margin to arc dismantling: a geochemical discrimination of Ordovician volcanisms (Sardinia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaggero, L.; Oggiano, G.; Buzzi, L.; Funedda, A.

    2009-04-01

    geodynamic setting, and likely represent an early phase of the major rifting event at the Northern Gondwana margin, that probably attained to the palaeo-Tethys expansion (von Raumer et al., 2003). Thus, Sardinia as other Palaeozoic terranes issued from the former northern Gondwana margin (as the French Massif Central and Iberia) experienced an evolution from continental break-up to volcanic arc dismantling and subsequent ensialic rifting (e.g. Sánchez-Garcia et al. 2003; Etxebarria et al. 2006; Chichorro et al. 2008; Pin & Lancelot 1982; Pin & Marini 1993). References Chichorro M., Pereira M.F., Díaz-Azpiroz M., Williams I.S., Fernández C., Pin C., Silva J.B. (2008) Cambrian ensialic rift-related magmatism in the Ossa-Morena Zone (Évora-Aracena metamorphic belt, SW Iberian Massif): Sm-Nd isotopes and SHRIMP zircon U-Th-Pb geochronology. Tectonophysics, 461, 91-113. Etxebarria M., Chalot-Prat F., Apraiz A., Ehuiluz L. (2006) Birth of a volcanic passive margin in Cambrian time: rift paleogeography of the Ossa - Morena Zone, SW Spain. Precambrian Research, 147, 366-386. Leone F., Hamman W., Laske R., Serpagli E., Villas E. (1991) Lithostratigraphic units and biostratigraphy of the post-sardic Ordovician sequence in south-west Sardinia. Bollettino della Società Paleontologica Italiana, 30, 201-235. Oggiano G., Gaggero L., Funedda A., Buzzi L., Different Early Palaeozoic volcanic events at the northern Gondwana margin: U-Pb age evidence from the Southern Variscan branch (Sardinia, Italy). Pin C., Lancelot J. (1982) U-Pb Dating of an Early Paleozoic Bimodal Magmatism in the French Massif Central and of Its Further Metamorphic Evolution. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 79, 1-12. Pin C., Marini F. (1993) Early Ordovician continental break-up in Variscan Europe: Nd-Sr isotope and trace element evidence from bimodal igneous associations of the Southern Massif Central, France. Lithos, 29, 177-196. Sánchez-García T., Bellido F., Quesada C. 2003. Geodynamic setting and geochemical

  11. First evidences of the occurrence of polycyclic synthetic musk fragrances in surface water systems in Italy: spatial and temporal trends in the Molgora River (Lombardia Region, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Villa, Sara; Assi, Laura; Ippolito, Alessio; Bonfanti, Patrizia; Finizio, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    The polycyclic synthetic musks (PCMs) such as galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and celestolide (ABDI) are important ingredients in fragrances for consumer products because of their typical musky scent. In EU, PCMs are classified as HPVC (High Production Volume Chemicals). Furthermore, it has been recognized that these substances are only partially degraded in domestic sewers. For both reasons these chemicals are considered ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic systems. Monitoring data are available for the Northern region of the EU, but it is not known whether they are also representative for the Southern EU countries. The lack of data upon the environmental exposure in Southern EU can be significant, since use patterns and volumes differ from country to country. This is particularly true for Italy that has the largest detergent consumption per capita in EU. Due to this, the objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of selected PCMs in the Molgora River (Lombardia region, Italy). To our knowledge it represents the first overview of PCM occurrence in the Italian water bodies. Water samples were collected seasonally in seven sampling stations located before and after the 3 sewage treatment plants present along the river, which serve about 300,000 inhabitants. The spatial and temporal profiles of contamination are described. A comparison of the results with existing monitoring data of other European regions indicated a significant higher level of PCM pollution of the Molgora River and the need to extend the monitoring campaigns to other Italian water bodies, in order to achieve a better knowledge of the levels of PCM contamination in this country.

  12. Provenance and accommodation pathways of late Quaternary sediments in the deep-water northern Ionian Basin, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perri, Francesco; Critelli, Salvatore; Dominici, Rocco; Muto, Francesco; Tripodi, Vincenzo; Ceramicola, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    The northern Calabria along the southeastern coast of Italy provides a favorable setting in which to study complete transects from continental to deep-marine environments. The present northern Ionian Calabrian Basin is a wedge-top basin within the modern foreland-basin system of southern Italy. The Ionian margin of northern Calabria consists of a moderately developed fluvial systems, the Crati and Neto rivers, and diverse smaller coastal drainages draining both the Calabria continental block (i.e., Sila Massif) and the southern Apennines thrust belt (i.e., Pollino Massif). The main-channel sand of the Crati and Neto rivers is quartzofeldspathic with abundant metamorphic and plutonic lithic fragments (granodiorite, granite, gneiss, phyllite and sedimentary lithic fragments). Sedimentary lithic fragments were derived from Jurassic sedimentary successions of the Longobucco Group. The mud samples contain mostly phyllosilicates, quartz, calcite, feldspars and dolomite. Traces of gypsum are present in some samples. The I-S mixed layers, 10 Å-minerals (illite and micas), chlorite and kaolinite are the most abundant phyllosilicates, whereas smectite and chlorite/smectite mixed layers are in small amounts. The geochemical signatures of the muds reflect a provenance characterized by both felsic and mafic rocks with a significant input from carbonate rocks. Furthermore, the degree of source-area weathering was most probably of low intensity rather than moderately intense because CIA values for the studied mud samples are low. Extrapolation of the mean erosion budget from 1 to 25 Ma suggests that at least 5 to 8 km of crust have been removed from the Calabrian orogenic belt and deposited in the marine basins. The Calabrian microplate played an important role in the dynamic evolution of southern Italian fossil and modern basins, representing the key tectonic element of the entire orogenic belt.

  13. Middle and Upper Eocene nummulite banks of Northern Italy: common traits and differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seddighi, M.; Papazzoni, C. A.

    2012-04-01

    The well-known genus Nummulites flourished in the stable, oligotrophic environments of Eocene. During this time, peculiar monospecific accumulations called nummulite banks (Arni, 1965) developed. The paleoenvironmental interpretation of these banks is still debated. So far, several studies deal with nummulite banks but their quantitative aspects were neglected. Here we present new quantitative observations useful to better define the nummulite bank concept. Samples were collected from Pederiva di Grancona (N. lyelli bank) and San Germano dei Berici (N. fabianii bank; both in the Berici Mts., northern Italy). According to the Shallow Benthic Zonation of Serra Kiel et al. (1998) the Pederiva bank is referred to the SBZ 17 (Early Bartonian), and the San Germano bank to the SBZ 19 (Early Priabonian). In both cases there is a bimodal grain size distribution of microspheres and megalospheres of Nummulites in a fine-grained matrix, giving rise to a packstone texture. In Pederiva, 1448 Nummulites isolated specimens (A-forms) were counted and identified at the species level. Among them 1082 individuals are Nummulites lyelli, so 74.7% of the identified assemblage. Nummulites striatus is the second most-abundant species with the 11.5%, and the rest are the three accessory species N. discorbinus, N. biarritzensis, N. beaumonti. In the San Germano bank, 2043 isolated A-forms of Nummulites were counted and identified at the species level. Among them, 1742 are Nummulites fabianii, which means 85.3% of the assemblage. The second most-abundant species is Nummulites stellatus, accounting for 10.6% of the assemblage. The rest of the assemblage is made by small, lenticular Nummulites (N. incrassatus, N. chavannesi, N. cunialensis and N. garnieri). On polished surfaces of two samples from San Germano and Pederiva, two areas (38 and 76 cm2 respectively) were observed to count all the visible specimens of Nummulites in order to calculate the A/B ratio. The "normal" A/B ratio usually

  14. Age and speleogenesis of epigenic gypsum caves in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Columbu, Andrea; Chiarini, Veronica; De Waele, Jo; Drysdale, Russell; Forti, Paolo; Hellstrom, John; Woodhead, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Triassic and Messinian gypsum beds host the majority of the caves in the eastern flank of the northern Apennines. To date, more than six hundreds voids have been mapped, including the longest known epigenic gypsum cave system in the world (Spipola-Acquafredda, ~11 km of tunnels) (De Waele et al., 2013). Superimposed caves are typically sub-horizontal (Klimchouk, 2000) and connected through vertical shafts, reflecting the palaeo base-level variations. When preserved, river terraces at the surface lie at the same palaeo altitude of the base level and horizontal cave passages. Notwithstanding the well-known geology of the area known (Vai and Martini, 2001), the age of these caves has been greatly underestimated in the past. Considering the rapid dissolution of the gypsum and uplifting of the area, the start of speleogenesis activity was considered to have occurred during the last glacial age. The age of karst voids can be only indirectly estimated by the dating of the infilling sediments. U-Th dating on carbonate speleothems provides high-precision and accurate ages (Hellstrom, 2003; Scholz and Hoffmann, 2008). We thus applied this methodology to 20 speleothems coming from 14 different caves belonging to the Monte Tondo, Spipola Acquafredda, Castelnuovo, Stella-Rio Basino and Brisighella systems. The results show that: i) caves were forming since at least ~300 ka; ii) the peak of speleogenesis was reached during relatively cold climate stages, when rivers formed terraces at the surface and aggradation caused paragenesis in the stable cave levels (Columbu et al., 2015). Besides the significant contribution to the understanding of the Apennines evaporite karst evolution, this study (and its further advancement) may also refine knowledge of the local vs regional uplifting rates and base-level variations since the late Pleistocene (Wegmann and Pazzaglia, 2009). References Columbu, A., De Waele, J., Forti, P., Montagna, P., Picotti, V., Pons-Branchu, E., Hellstrom, J

  15. The atmospheric degradation of a durable lithotype used in Northern Italy: the Oira stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toniolo, Lucia; Bugini, Roberto; Gulotta, Davide

    2016-04-01

    The cathedral of Monza is a masterpiece of the northern Italian architectural heritage dated at the beginning of the XIV century. Its façade was modified over time as a result of the variation of the general plan and its current appearance is defined by six main pillars which identify five sectors, the central one hosting the main portal and a huge rose window. All the architectural elements and sculptures were realized in stone using several and different local lithotypes, including marbles, limestones, sandstones and volcanic stones. One of the most distinctive hallmarks of the façade is the alternated presence of rows of white and dark stones for the flat blocks which cover the masonry. Originally, the white rows were realized with different types of whitish marbles, whereas the dark ones were made by Varenna stone, a local black sedimentary rock. Unfortunately, this stone type extensively deteriorated as a result of the outdoor exposition and it was therefore completely substituted with blocks of dark green-coloured Oira stone during the restoration of the façade carried out at the end of XIX century by the famous architect Luca Beltrami [1]. Pietra d'Oira is a dark green peridotite, with olivine crystals partly altered to serpentine and pertains to Metabasites embedded in gneiss and micaschist of Strona - Ceneri zone (late Palaeozoic) and outcrops on the western shore of lake Orta (North-western Piedmont) near the Oira village. In the early XX century, Pietra d'Oira replaced some stone by then badly decayed as Triassic black limestone from several quarry sites of Prealps or dark grey limestone from Saltrio quarries. Several buildings were involved in these restoration works: the façade of the Church of Certosa (Pavia, XV century), Cappella Colleoni (Bergamo, last quarter of XV century) and, as reported, the façade of the Monza cathedral. The present paper reports the study of the degradation of the Oira stone exposed to outdoor atmospheric conditions

  16. Soil organic carbon and land use in Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Renzi, Gianluca; Benedetti, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The Italian Ministry of Agricultural Food and Forestry Policies (MiPAAF) has set up a statistical survey aimed to provide the national forecast of yields and areas related to the main Italian agricultural crops (AGRIT). The methodology is based on field surveys and remote-sensed data, covers yearly the whole national territory, and is based on 100,000 observations which are statistically selected from a predefined grid made up of about 1,200,000 georeferenced points. In 2011-2012 we determined the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of 1,160 sampling points situated in Northern Italy in the plains and hills of Veneto (VEN) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG), for which the land use in the period 2008-2010 was known. Samples have been subdivided in three main classes: arable crops, orchards and fodder crops. SOC was higher in FVG samples (2.48%, n=266) than in VEN samples (1.90%, n=894). The average value (2.03%) is clearly affected by the higher number of VEN samples. FVG data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean, wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean wheat, maize-soybean), 3-yr rotations, vineyards (totally, partially and no-grassed), alfalfa, and permanent fodder crops. No significant differences were detected among the land uses due to the low number of samples in some classes, but some important findings do exist from the agronomic point of view. Fodder crops (5.65%), alfalfa (3.41%) and vineyards (2.72%) showed the higher SOC content. SOC was 2.94% and 1.39 % in the grassed and no-grassed vineyards respectively. In the arable crops the average SOC was 2.18%, ranging from 2.32% (soybean-wheat rotation) to 2.03% (continuous soybean). SOC was 2.19% in the continuous maize, with 2.23% in corn and 1.87% in silage maize. The lower values were in the maize-wheat rotation (1.53%) and the continuous wheat (1.47%). VEN data have been aggregated in continuous crops (maize, soybean and wheat), 2-yr rotations (maize-wheat, soybean-wheat, maize

  17. Chrysotile asbestos quantification in serpentinite quarries: a case study in Valmalenco, central Alps, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    Outcrops of serpentinites are usually strongly fractured and cataclastic, and the rock can only be used as ballast. However, in rare cases, like in Valmalenco (Central Alps, Northern Italy), fractures are regular and well spaced, and the rock mass has good geotechnical quality, ideal conditions for the extraction of dimension stone blocks. The Valmalenco Serpentinite is marketed worldwide as dimension and decorative stone, with remarkable mechanical properties and pleasing colours and textures. However, the same area was once subject to chrysotile asbestos mining, in the form of discrete veins along the main discontinuities of the rock mass. For this reason, airborne asbestos contamination can occur during the extraction and processing cycle of the rocks, therefore it is essential to locate and quantify asbestos in the rock mass, to reduce as much as possible the exposure risk. The first step was a detailed geostructural survey of each quarry, in order to characterize the main discontinuities (orientation, spacing, linear persistence, opening, filling), with special attention to the identification of fibrous minerals. The surveys was followed by extensive sampling of massive rocks, mineralized veins and fillings of fractures, and the cutting sludge derived from diamond wire cutting. Preliminary qualitative XRPD was performed on all samples, while quantitative analysis was carried out on the most representative samples of the main rock mass discontinuities. On the other hand, XRPD is not effective in the identification of asbestos percentages of less than 2% by weight, and the accurate distinction among the various serpentine polymorphs (antigorite, lizardite, chrysotile) is very difficult (if not impossible) when they are simultaneously present, due to their very similar basic structure and the strong structural disorder. The same samples were then analyzed by SEM-EDS (fiber counting after filtration on a polycarbonate filter), for a better distinction between

  18. Cancer incidence in northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Tondel, Martin; Walinder, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Sweden received about 5 % of the total release of (137)Cs from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. The distribution of the fallout mainly affected northern Sweden, where some parts of the population could have received an estimated annual effective dose of 1-2 mSv per year. It is disputed whether an increased incidence of cancer can be detected in epidemiological studies after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident outside the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. In the present paper, a possible exposure-response pattern between deposition of (137)Cs and cancer incidence after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident was investigated in the nine northernmost counties of Sweden (2.2 million inhabitants in 1986). The activity of (137)Cs from the fallout maps at 1986 was used as a proxy for the received dose of ionizing radiation. Diagnoses of cancer (ICD-7 code 140-209) from 1980 to 2009 were received from the Swedish Cancer Registry (273,222 cases). Age-adjusted incidence rate ratios, stratified by gender, were calculated with Poisson regression in two closed cohorts of the population in the nine counties 1980 and 1986, respectively. The follow-up periods were 1980-1985 and 1986-2009, respectively. The average surface-weighted deposition of (137)Cs at three geographical levels; county (n = 9), municipality (n = 95) and parish level (n = 612) was applied for the two cohorts to study the pre- and the post-Chernobyl periods separately. To analyze time trends, the age-standardized total cancer incidence was calculated for the general Swedish population and the population in the nine counties. Joinpoint regression was used to compare the average annual percent change in the general population and the study population within each gender. No obvious exposure-response pattern was seen in the age-adjusted total cancer incidence rate ratios. A spurious association between fallout and cancer incidence was present, where areas with the

  19. The incidence and cause of lasalocid residues in eggs in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D G; Blanchflower, W J; Hughes, P J; McCaughey, W J

    1996-10-01

    Lasalocid is a coccidiostat licensed for use in poultry, but not for use in egg-laying birds. Lasalocid residues were determined in an egg sample from each of 161 egg producers in Northern Ireland using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, following reports from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate concerning the incidence of lasalocid residues in the United Kingdom. Approximately 66% of the eggs contained lasalocid residues at concentrations in excess of 0.3 ng/g. There was no apparent difference in the incidence of lasalocid residues between free range and battery eggs. Carry-over of lasalocid from medicated to unmedicated batches of both premix and feed, during milling processes, was identified as a possible cause of contamination. Subsequently, egg-laying birds were fed meal containing a range of lasalocid concentrations, similar to those found as a result of unintentional contamination at a feed mill (0.1-5.0 mg/kg). The concentrations of lasalocid, measured in their eggs, were similar to that found in the survey. Lasalocid persisted in eggs for 10 days after withdrawal of medicated feed and replacement with lasalocid-free feed.

  20. Disentangling the roles of mammographic screening and HRT in recent breast cancer incidence trends in italy by analyses based on calendar time and time since screening activation.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Falcini, Fabio; Cortesi, Laura; De Lisi, Vincenzo; Ferretti, Stefano; Tumino, Rosario; Russo, Antonio; Paci, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the roles of screening activation and hormone replacement therapy discontinuation on the recent declining breast cancer incidence trends in Italy. We analyzed 41,358 invasive female breast cancers incident during 1991-2004 in six Italian population-based cancer registries. Overall and age-specific incidence trends were evaluated using Joinpoint analysis. In addition to calendar years, data were analyzed on a years-since-screening-activation basis. Annual percentage change of standardized rates was computed. There were statistically significant increasing trends for women 40-44 and 45-49 years that did not change after screening activation. On the contrary, for women 50-69 years old and for those 70+ years, the increasing trends flattened around 2 years after screening activation. The prevalence of hormone replacement therapy use in Italy is and was rather low. In conclusion, the recent tendency toward stabilization observed in Italy for female breast cancer incidence rates in women aged 50 years or more follows the introduction of mammographic screening.

  1. An application of multivariate analysis to acid rain data in Northern Italy to discriminate natural and man-made compounds.

    PubMed

    Finzi, G; Novo, A; Viarengo, S

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a study, the aim of which was to analyse the pluviometric and chemical rain data, recorded by a wet only network located in Northern Italy.More in detail, precipitations were collected on a weekly basis and chemical analysis was performed on pH, electric conductivity and Ca, Mg, Na, K, NH4, NO3, SO4, Cl concentrations.The Principal Components Analysis pointed out that the first three components are enough to explain more than 90% of the variability of the parameters. Moreover each component may have a different physical interpretation, that is the first one is mainly related to the precipitation amount, while the second to the man made and natural sources and the last one to the sea/soil contribution.

  2. Heavy metal, organochlorine pesticide, and PCB residues in eggs and feathers of herons breeding in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Fasola, M; Movalli, P A; Gandini, C

    1998-01-01

    We report on organochlorine pesticide and PCB concentrations in eggs of the little egret, Egretta garzetta, and the black-crowned night-heron, Nycticorax nycticorax, collected in 1993-1994, and on mercury, cadmium, and lead concentrations in feathers of 20-day-old nestlings collected from the same nests in 1994, from heronries near Pavia, northern Italy. Organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were lower than those commonly associated with mortality and reduced reproductive success. As population levels of the species studied are not declining, these contaminants appear to have no significant adverse effect on reproduction in the heronries studied. DDE levels have decreased markedly in heron eggs since 1978. However, the presence of both DDT and beta-HCH, albeit at low levels, is notable, given that these compounds were banned in Italy in 1978 and 1988, respectively. Relatively high levels of Hg, Cd, and Pb in feathers suggest birds in their colonies are exposed to these contaminants, although both Cd and Pb may relate more to external than to internal contamination.

  3. Detecting a hierarchical genetic population structure: the case study of the Fire Salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Giulia; Orioli, Valerio; Spilotros, Giulia; Fabbri, Elena; Randi, Ettore; Bani, Luciano

    2015-02-01

    The multistep method here applied in studying the genetic structure of a low dispersal and philopatric species, such as the Fire Salamander Salamandra salamandra, was proved to be effective in identifying the hierarchical structure of populations living in broad-leaved forest ecosystems in Northern Italy. In this study, 477 salamander larvae, collected in 28 sampling populations (SPs) in the Prealpine and in the foothill areas of Northern Italy, were genotyped at 16 specie-specific microsatellites. SPs showed a significant overall genetic variation (Global F ST = 0.032, P < 0.001). The genetic population structure was assessed by using STRUCTURE 2.3.4. We found two main genetic groups, one represented by SPs inhabiting the Prealpine belt, which maintain connections with those of the Eastern foothill lowland (PEF), and a second group with the SPs of the Western foothill lowland (WF). The two groups were significantly distinct with a Global F ST of 0.010 (P < 0.001). While the first group showed a moderate structure, with only one divergent SP (Global F ST = 0.006, P < 0.001), the second group proved more structured being divided in four clusters (Global F ST = 0.017, P = 0.058). This genetic population structure should be due to the large conurbations and main roads that separate the WF group from the Prealpine belt and the Eastern foothill lowland. The adopted methods allowed the analysis of the genetic population structure of Fire Salamander from wide to local scale, identifying different degrees of genetic divergence of their populations derived from forest fragmentation induced by urban and infrastructure sprawl. PMID:25691995

  4. The "green stones" of Valtellina and Valchiavenna (central Alps, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Valtellina and Val Chiavenna (Sondrio, Central Alps, northern Italy) are traditionally areas of production of building and ornamental stones (e.g. Serizzo Ghiandone, Serizzo Valmasino, San Fedelino Granite), and among these the "green stones" have a leading position. These stones had an extensive use in Lombardy, as well as abroad (e.g Switzerland). The "green stones" are related to the two mafic-ultramafic bodies of Valmalenco and Chiavenna, where the two largest quarrying districts of the Province of Sondrio are located. Until the early decades of the XX century, serpentinites (and other lithologies from Valtellina) were also extracted from the erratic boulders of Brianza (north of Milan), but at present time the law protects the few remaining boulders. The extracted and processed materials are various: serpentinites, ophicalcites, soapstones. Even the "Stone of Tresivio", used in the past in important monuments of Valtellina, could be classified among the "green stones" in a broad sense: it is a green chloritic schist with scarce and thin ferriferous calcitic veins, pertaining to the sedimentary "Servino" Formation. In recent times, the ancient quarries of this stone were rediscovered near the homonymous village, a few kilometers from Sondrio. There are also historic reports about other "green stones", used in ancient times, such as the "Stone of Grosio", a chloritic schist, and the "Bormio Prasinite". Currently the extraction and processing of "green stones" occurs mostly in Valmalenco, with 22 active serpentinite quarries and a gross volume of 70000 m3 extracted per year, with a yield of about 50%. The Malenco serpentinite (interpreted as sub-continental mantle rocks) forms a 1-2 km thick tabular body, outcropping over an area of about 170 km2, almost entirely confined within the boundaries of the valley. The antigoritic serpentinites (with variable amounts of olivine, clinopyroxene, chlorite and magnetite) are moderately up to strongly foliated, sometimes

  5. 3D Quaternary deformation pattern in the central Po Plain (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sileo, G.; Mueller, K.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Berlusconi, A.; Carcano, C.; Rogledi, S.; Vittori, E.

    2009-04-01

    km wide with a progressive westward narrowing, and still displays an asymmetric transversal profile. Sedimentation rates are considerably higher than uplift rates of the structures, resulting in a paleobathymetry gentler than the ‘A' surface The measurement of the folds axial length becomes consequently more difficult. In order to filter the tectonic signal we conducted a profile curvature analysis perpendicular to the mean axial direction of the structures. We recognized six structures with an average length of 18 - 20 km and an average axial strike of N 110° E. The comparison of these structures with those recognized on the ‘A' surface clearly shows a decreasing number of folds, suggesting some thrusts shut off between "A" and "R" surface time. The similar geometry of folded "R" and "A" surfaces suggest consistent fault geometry and stress orientation during this time. This kinematic pattern is consistent with a spatially - varying shortening rate model (e.g., Salvini & Storti, 2002). The folds appear to grow with constant fault geometry and the displacement varies along strike since the tip of the faults migrates laterally in a direction perpendicular to the regional horizontal stress (Mueller & Talling, 1997, Keller et al., 1999; Champel et al, 2002; Burbank & Anderson, 2001). In summary, the analysis of the two described Quaternary seismic surfaces allowed us to understand the evolution of active folds within the Po Plain and their growth mechanism and evolution both in space and time. These folds are the modern loci of compressive strain that links the Southern Alps with the Northern Apennines. Comparing the two surfaces we can observe a significant shift in the localization of the tectonic deformation, consisting A) in the reactivation of N-verging backthrusts and associated folds in the Southern Alps instead of the main forethrusts, and B) in a similar backward skip of the activity from the outermost Apennines fronts, with the reactivation of the

  6. Opposite evolution in incidence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis in Northern France (1988–1999)

    PubMed Central

    Molinié, F; Gower-Rousseau, C; Yzet, T; Merle, V; Grandbastien, B; Marti, R; Lerebours, E; Dupas, J-L; Colombel, J-F; Salomez, J-L; Cortot, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Northern France was characterised by a high incidence of Crohn’s disease (CD) and a low incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) according to the first inquiry undertaken in the late 1980s. Aims: To assess the trends in the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) over a 12 year period (1988–1999) in the same area of Northern France. Patients: Patients living in Northern France (Nord, Pas-de-Calais, Somme, and Seine Maritime—total of 5 790 526 inhabitants) between 1988 and 1999 were included in the study. Case ascertainment was established according to methodology previously described. Methods: Trends in incidence were studied using a Poisson regression model in four three year periods (1988–90, 1991–93, 1994–96, and 1997–99) adjusted for age at diagnosis and sex. Incidence rates were standardised for age with the European standard population. Results: During 1988–99, 7066 cases of IBD were recorded (56.8% CD, 37.7% UC, and 5.5% indeterminate colitis). Mean annual incidence rate of CD increased from 5.2/100 000 inhabitants in 1988–90 to 6.4 in 1997–99 (adjusted p for trend <0.001). In contrast, the incidence of UC decreased from 4.2 to 3.5 (adjusted p for trend <0.001). The ileocolonic subtype of CD increased by 25% even though median age at diagnosis and frequency of digestive investigations were not different. Conclusions: Contrary to what has been reported in other countries in Northern Europe, the incidence of CD increased by 23% in 12 years in Northern France while that of UC decreased by 17% during the same period. This indicates that some factors which influence IBD frequency (in both directions) are still at work in this area of Europe, and that further studies aimed at identifying these should be performed. The rising incidence of CD could enhance the burden of this disease on the public health system in France. PMID:15138211

  7. Extensional deformation structures within a convergent orogen: The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-09-01

    A low-angle extensional fault system affecting the non metamorphic rocks of the carbonate dominated Tuscan succession is exposed in the Lima valley (Northern Apennines, Italy). This fault system affects the right-side-up limb of a kilometric-scale recumbent isoclinal anticline and is, in turn, affected by superimposed folding and late-tectonic high-angle extensional faulting. The architecture of the low-angle fault system has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and damage zone characterization. Pressure-depth conditions and paleofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses. Our results show that the low-angle fault system was active during exhumation of the Tuscan succession at about 180°C and 5 km depth, with the involvement of low-salinity fluids. Within this temperature - depth framework, the fault zone architecture shows important differences related to the different lithologies involved in the fault system and to the role played by the fluids during deformation. In places, footwall overpressuring influenced active deformation mechanisms and favored shear strain localization. Our observations indicate that extensional structures affected the central sector of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge during the orogenic contractional history, modifying the fluid circulation through the upper crust and influencing its mechanical behavior.

  8. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments.

  9. Mercury Enrichment in Sediments of the Coastal Area of Northern Latium, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scanu, Sergio; Piazzolla, Daniele; Frattarelli, Francesco Manfredi; Mancini, Emanuele; Tiralongo, Francesco; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Tibullo, Daniele; Pecoraro, Roberta; Copat, Chiara; Ferrante, Margherita; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of the Hg geochemical anomaly arising in the Amiata and Tolfa complex to the coastal area of northern Latium and to examine the possible influence on this area by the Mignone River, and by the small coastal basins, which are characterized by both previous mining activities and decades of past industrial impact. The results confirm the extension of the anomaly of concentrations of Hg in the coastal area of northern Latium, with the northern sector influenced by the contributions of the Fiora and Mignone Rivers and the southern sector influenced by the contributions of minor basins. The results show high values of the Adverse Effect Index throughout the considered area and highlight the need for further investigation in order to assess the impact of human activities on the present and past values of Hg in marine sediments. PMID:26994618

  10. Incidence (1988–97) and prevalence (1997) of multiple sclerosis in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrom, P; Nystrom, L; Forsgren, L

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the incidence and prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Västerbotten County in northern Sweden. Methods: Multiple sources were used in the case identification process. Follow up interviews with clinical examinations were undertaken and, when indicated, additional paraclinical investigations were done. In this way case ascertainment was assured and supplemental clinical data were collected. The incidence rate was based on symptom onset. Onset adjusted prevalence was applied. Results: The crude incidence rate of multiple sclerosis in 1988–97 in Västerbotten County was 5.2/105 (95% confidence interval, 4.4 to 6.2): 6.7/105 (6.0 to 8.3) in women and 3.7/105 (2.7 to 4.9) in men. The onset adjusted prevalence for 31 December 1997 was 154/105 (139 to 170): 202/105 (179 to 228) in women and 105/105 (89 to 125) in men. When compared with a previous estimate of prevalence, a yearly 2.6% increase in prevalence between 1990 and 1997 was found, mainly attributable to a higher incidence than mortality. Conclusions: The present incidence rate and prevalence confirms earlier findings that Västerbotten is a high risk area for multiple sclerosis. The adjusted incidence was twice as high as the incidence from 1974–88 in the only previous Swedish population based study from Göteborg, but comparable with other recent Fennoscandian multiple sclerosis incidence rates. PMID:12486262

  11. Heavy metal contamination in little owl (Athene noctua) and common buzzard (Buteo buteo) from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Alessandra; Ghidini, Sergio; Campanini, Giorgio; Spaggiari, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two raptor species, the common buzzard (Buteo buteo) and the little owl (Athene noctua), were investigated for lead and cadmium concentrations, using liver, kidneys, pectoral muscle, sternum bone, and feathers. All the collected birds died at the Centro Recupero Rapaci of Lega Italiana Protezione Uccelli in Sala Baganza (Parma, Italy). They arrived alive at the Centro between November 1998 and November 1999 but died or were put to death as a consequence of injuries or other ailments. The results of the investigation do not show an excessive exposure to cadmium, whereas some interesting data have emerged in the case of lead. The concentration of the latter in the liver and in the bone of two little owls seem to suggest the possibility of chronic exposure. The high values found in one common buzzard, on the other hand, suggest an acute exposure and, probably, a case of lead shot ingestion.

  12. Sediment analysis to support the recent glacial origin of DDT pollution in Lake Iseo (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Galassi, Silvana; Guilizzoni, Piero; Quadroni, Silvia

    2011-09-01

    In the present study, a depth-related distribution of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in sediments of Lake Iseo, one of the major southern Alpine Italian lakes, is reported in order to further test the hypothesis of melting Alpine glaciers as a secondary source of contamination. In a previous paper, a "glacier contamination hypothesis" was suggested to explain the unexpected contamination of the biota of Lake Iseo, mainly fed by the Alpine melting ice. The sediment core analyses covered around the last 50 years. The organic matter profile evaluated as a Loss-On-Ignition percentage indicated transition of the basin from an oligotrophic to a mesotrophic status at around the early 1970s, but there was no evidence of the shift to eutrophy in the 1980s. Among DDTs, pp'DDE was the predominant metabolite, accounting on average for 79.4% of the total DDT concentrations and ranging from 6.4 to 447.5 ng g(-1)d.w. PCBs ranged from 5.0 to 163.7 ng g(-1)d.w. The maximum PCB concentrations were found in sediment layers corresponding to the 1970s when the highest production and use of these compounds occurred in Italy. In contrast, concentrations of DDTs showed a sharp increase from the early 1990s, long after their agricultural use was banned in Italy. This delayed pollution provides support for the hypothesis that the recent retreat of glaciers represents a secondary pollution source for old pesticides that were stored in the ice at the time of their use in agriculture.

  13. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-05-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects.

  14. Occupational cancer in Italy.

    PubMed Central

    Merler, E; Vineis, P; Alhaique, D; Miligi, L

    1999-01-01

    This article is a discussion of occupational cancer in Italy. The introduction provides the necessary context of Italian industrialization and occupational health regulation. This is followed by a review of Italian epidemiologic studies of occupational cancer risks considered in terms of relative measures of risk and attributable risk of carcinogenic agents or exposure circumstances. We attempt to establish the number of workers exposed to carcinogens in Italy and the intensity of their exposures. Finally, the Italian system of compensation for occupational cancer is discussed. Several cohort and case-control studies have addressed the issue of occupational risks, mostly among male workers. The results of these studies suggest that the growing incidence of and mortality by mesothelioma is explained by the widespread and intense exposure to asbestos in some Italian industrial settings. A high attributable risk of lung tumors among male populations in industrial areas of northern Italy is explained by occupational exposures. However, insufficient data are available for clear definition of the extent and intensity of occupational exposure to carcinogenic substances. In Italy, we must prioritize and maximize resources in occupational cancer epidemiology and revitalize the role of national institutions. Recent legislation has established new regulations on the handling of carcinogenic substances in industrial settings, a new list of occupational diseases, and a national registry of mesothelioma linked to asbestos exposure. These legislative changes are expected to have positive effects. PMID:10350509

  15. Diagnosis and high incidence of hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome in northern Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Sokoro, AbdulRazaq A H; Lepage, Joyce; Antonishyn, Nick; McDonald, Ryan; Rockman-Greenberg, Cheryl; Irvine, James; Lehotay, Denis C

    2010-12-01

    Mutations in the SLC25A15 gene, encoding the human inner mitochondrial membrane ornithine transporter, are thought to be responsible for hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinemia (HHH) syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive condition. HHH syndrome has been detected in several small, isolated communities in northern Saskatchewan (SK). To determine the incidence of HHH syndrome in these communities, a PCR method was set up to detect F188Δ, the common French-Canadian mutation. Neonatal blood spots collected from all newborns from the high risk area were genotyped for the F188Δ mutation for seven consecutive years. Using DNA analysis, we estimated that the heterozygote frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome to be about 1 in 19 individuals, predicting one affected child with HHH syndrome for approximately every 1,500 individuals (1 in 1,550 live births; 1 child every 12 years) in this isolated population. The frequency for the mutant allele for HHH syndrome in this isolated community is probably the highest in the world for this rare disorder. We determined that ornithine levels, by tandem mass spectrometry, were not abnormal in newborns with F188Δ mutation, carriers and normals. Ornithine rises to abnormally high levels at some time after birth well past the time that the newborn screening blood spot is collected. The timing or the reasons for the delayed rise of ornithine in affected children with HHH syndrome have not been determined. Newborn screening for HHH Syndrome in this high risk population is only possible by detection of the mutant allele using DNA analysis. PMID:20574716

  16. Environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy): aspects of soil and vegetation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfredi, Paolo; Giupponi, Luca; Cassinari, Chiara; Trevisan, Marco

    2014-05-01

    This work, originating in the preliminary analyses of a Life project and co-financed by the European Union ("Environmental recovery of degraded soils and desertified by a new treatment technology for land reconstruction", Life 10 ENV IT 400 "New Life"; http://www.lifeplusecosistemi.eu), aims to evaluate the environmental quality of a semi-natural area of the Po Valley (northern Italy) by analysing the characteristics of soil and vegetation. The area of study is located in the municipal territory of Piacenza (Emilia-Romagna, Italy) along the eastern shores of the river Trebbia and is made up of the closed landfill of Solid Urban Waste of Borgotrebbia (active from 1972 to 1985) and of the neighbouring areas (in North-South order: riverside area, northern borders of the landfill, landfill disposal, southern borders and cultivated corn fields). For each area pedological and vegetational analyses were carried out and in particular, as regards the soil, various chemical-physical analyses were done among which: pH, organic carbon, total nitrogen, salinity, exchangeable bases and granulometry. The ground vegetation data were collected using phytosociological relevés according to the method of the Zurich-Montpellier Sigmatist School, (Braun-Blanquet, 1964). For the analysis of the environmental quality of each area, the floristic-vegetation indexes system was applied as proposed by Taffetani & Rismondo (2009) (updated by Rismondo et al., 2011) conveniently created for analysing the ecological functionality of the agro-ecosystems. The results obtained by such applications drew attention to a dynamic vegetation mass in the landfill which, despite a value of the floristic biodiversity index (IFB) comparable to that of the borders, shows a much lower value of the maturity index (IM). This is due to the elevated percentage of annual species (index of the therophytic component = 52.78%) belonging to the phytosociological class Stellarietea mediae Tüxen, Lohmeyer & Preising ex

  17. Curie temperature depths in the Alps and the Po Plain (northern Italy): Comparison with heat flow and seismic tomography data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, Fabio; Minelli, Liliana; Pignatelli, Alessandro; Gilardi, Matteo

    2016-08-01

    We report on the spectral analysis of the aeromagnetic residuals of the Alps and the Po Plain (northern Italy) to derive the Curie point depth (CPD), assumed to represent the 550 °C isotherm depth. We analysed both the aeromagnetic residuals of northern Italy gathered by Agip (now Eni) and the recent EMAG2 compilation. We used the centroid method on 44 and 96 (respectively) 100 × 100 km2 windows considering both a random and a fractal magnetization distribution, but found that, at least for the Alps, the fractal model yields unrealistically shallow CPDs. Analyses considering a random magnetization model give CPDs varying between 12 and 39 km (22 to 24 km on average considering the two data sets) in the Po Plain, representing the Adriatic-African foreland area of the Alps, in substantial agreement with recently reported heat flow values of 60-70 mW/m2. In the Alps, the Eni data set yields shallow CPDs ranging between 6 and 23 km (13 km on average). EMAG2 analysis basically confirms the "hot" Alpine crust, but reduces it to three 50-100 km wide patches elongated along the chain, where CPDs vary between 10 and 15 km. Such "hot" Alpine domains occur just north of maximum (50-55 km) crustal thickness zones of the Alps and correspond to low seismic wave velocity anomalies recently documented in the 20-22 to 35-38 km depth interval, whereas no relation is apparent with local geology. Assuming an average crustal thermal conductivity of 2.5 W/m °C and a steady-state conductive model, CPDs from the hot zones of the Alps translate into heat flow values of 110-120 mW/m2, and to a basal heat flow from the mantle exceeding 100 mW/m2 that is significantly greater than that expected in a mountain range. Thus we conclude that the steady-state conductive model does not apply for the Alps and granitic melts occur at ∼15-40 km depths, consistently with seismic tomography evidence.

  18. Rabies and Canine Distemper Virus Epidemics in the Red Fox Population of Northern Italy (2006–2010)

    PubMed Central

    De Benedictis, Paola; Citterio, Carlo; Obber, Federica; Lorenzetto, Monica; Pozza, Manuela Dalla; Cauchemez, Simon; Cattoli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Since 2006 the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in north-eastern Italy has experienced an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV). Additionally, in 2008, after a thirteen-year absence from Italy, fox rabies was re-introduced in the Udine province at the national border with Slovenia. Disease intervention strategies are being developed and implemented to control rabies in this area and minimise risk to human health. Here we present empirical data and the epidemiological picture relating to these epidemics in the period 2006–2010. Of important significance for epidemiological studies of wild animals, basic mathematical models are developed to exploit information collected from the surveillance program on dead and/or living animals in order to assess the incidence of infection. These models are also used to estimate the rate of transmission of both diseases and the rate of vaccination, while correcting for a bias in early collection of CDV samples. We found that the rate of rabies transmission was roughly twice that of CDV, with an estimated effective contact between infected and susceptible fox leading to a new infection occurring once every 3 days for rabies, and once a week for CDV. We also inferred that during the early stage of the CDV epidemic, a bias in the monitoring protocol resulted in a positive sample being almost 10 times more likely to be collected than a negative sample. We estimated the rate of intake of oral vaccine at 0.006 per day, allowing us to estimate that roughly 68% of the foxes would be immunised. This was confirmed by field observations. Finally we discuss the implications for the eco-epidemiological dynamics of both epidemics in relation to control measures. PMID:23630599

  19. Late Quaternary tectonics in the inner Northern Apennines (Siena Basin, southern Tuscany, Italy) and their seismotectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Andrea; Capezzuoli, Enrico; Martini, Ivan; Picozzi, Matteo; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Defining the most recent Quaternary tectonics represents a challenging task for neotectonic, palaeoseismological and seismotectonic studies. This paper focuses on an integrated approach to reconstructing the latest Quaternary deformation affecting the northern part of the Siena Basin (inner Northern Apennines, i.e., southern Tuscany, Italy) near the town of Siena, and to discuss the seismological implications. Field work and structural and stratigraphic analyses, coupled with the interpretation of reflection seismic lines, have been combined to define the geometry, kinematics and age of mesoscopic to map-scale faults which have affected the mainly Quaternary continental and Pliocene marine deposits. The resulting dataset describes a tectonic setting characterized by coeval SW- and NW-trending transtensional and normal faults, respectively, dissecting alluvial sediments younger than 23.9 ± 0.23 ka. Seismic interpretation sheds light on the geometrical setting of the faults at deeper levels, down to 1-2 km, and provides support for the presence of a wide brittle shear zone defined by conjugated fault segments, locally giving rise to an asymmetrical negative flower-like structure. Faults and their damage zones have controlled (and still control) the discharge of gas vents (mainly CO2 and H2S) and hydrothermal circulation (which deposits travertine) since at least 23.216 ± 0.124 ka. The resulting complete data set provides support for our description of the Neogene-Quaternary tectonics which were active until the late Quaternary, providing additional information about the seismotectonic framework of an area characterized by low seismicity and generally low-magnitude earthquakes (M < 4), but having experienced significant seismic events over the last few centuries.

  20. Finite fault kinematic inversion of the 2012, May 20th and 29th Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, Earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirella, A.; Piatanesi, A.; Molinari, I.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the rupture process of the 2012, May 20 and 29, Mw 6.1 and 5.9, respectively, Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy, earthquakes. The two earthquakes struck a densely populated region, causing 26 fatalities and significantly damaging the economy of the region. We image the rupture history of these events, by separately and jointly inverting strong motions, GPS displacements and High-Rate GPS data. The region of interest is a sedimentary basin (the Po Plain) surrounded by the northern Apennines; and it is characterized by a significant presence of fluid and strong heterogeneities leading to remarkable site effects and liquefaction phenomena; for these reasons we adopt an ad-hoc velocity profiles at each station, by inverting in a low-intermediate frequency band (0 - 0.25 Hz). We use a two-stage non-linear inversion technique that, rather than simply looking at the best model, extracts the most stable features of the earthquake rupture that are consistent with the data and gives an estimate of the variability of each model parameter. During the first stage, an algorithm based on the heat-bath simulated annealing generates an ensemble of models that efficiently sample the good data-fitting regions of parameter space. In the second stage the algorithm performs a statistical analysis of the ensemble providing us the best-fitting model, the average model, and the associated standard deviation, coefficient of variation, moda and median distributions. The goal of our work is to constrain the earthquake rupture history and to assess the associated model uncertainty, to better understand the mechanics of the causative fault as well as the observed ground shaking.

  1. Adherence of backcountry winter recreationists to avalanche prevention and safety practices in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Procter, E; Strapazzon, G; Dal Cappello, T; Castlunger, L; Staffler, H P; Brugger, H

    2014-10-01

    Backcountry recreationists account for a high percentage of avalanche fatalities, but the total number of recreationists and relative percentage of different recreation types are unknown. The aim of this study was to collect the first comprehensive survey of backcountry skiers and snowshoers in a region in the European Alps to quantify adherence to basic prevention and safety practices. Over a 1-week period in February 2011 in South Tyrol, Italy, 5576 individuals (77.7% skiers, 22.3% snowshoers) in 1927 groups were surveyed. Significantly more skiers than snowshoers could report the avalanche danger level (52.5% vs 28.0% of groups) and carried standard rescue equipment (transceiver, probe, and shovel) (80.6% vs 13.7% of individuals). Complete adherence to minimum advisable practices (i.e., an individual being in a group with one member correctly informed about the danger level and carrying personal standard rescue equipment) was 41.5%, but was significantly higher in skiers (51.1% vs 8.7% snowshoers) and in individuals who were younger, reported more tours per season, traveled in larger groups, and started earlier. A transnational survey over a complete winter season would be required to obtain total participation prevalence, detect regional differences, and assess the influence of prevention and safety practices on relative reduction in mortality.

  2. Use of bioclimatic indexes to characterize phenological phases of apple varieties in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Valentini, N; Me, G; Ferrero, R; Spanna, F

    2001-11-01

    The research was designed to characterize the phenological behaviour of different apple varieties and to compare different bioclimatic indexes in order to evaluate their adaptability in describing the phenological phases of fruit species. A field study on the requirement for chilling units (winter chilling requirement) and the accumulation of growing degree hours of 15 native apple cultivars was carried out in a fruit-growing area in North West Italy (Cuneo Province, Piedmont). From 1991 to 1993, climatic data were collected at meteorological stations installed in an experimental orchard (Verzuolo, Cuneo). Four methods were compared to determine the winter chilling requirement: Hutchins, Weinberger-Eggert, Utah and North Carolina. The Utah method was applied to determine the time when the chilling units accumulated become effective in meeting the rest requirements. A comparison of the different methods indicated that the Weinberger-Eggert method is the best: as it showed the lowest statistical variability during the 3 years of observations. The growing degree hour requirement (GDH) was estimated by the North Carolina method with two different base temperatures: 4.4 degrees C and 6.1 degrees C. More difficulties were met when the date of rest completion and the beginning of GDH accumulation was determined. The best base temperature for the estimation of GDH is 4.4 degrees C. Phenological and climatic characterizations are two basic tools for giving farmers and agricultural advisors important information about which varieties to choose and which are the best and the most correct cultivation practices to follow.

  3. Space-time LAI variability in Northern Puglia (Italy) from SPOT VGT data.

    PubMed

    Balacco, Gabriella; Figorito, Benedetto; Tarantino, Eufemia; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation space-time variability during 1999-2010 in the North of the Apulian region (Southern Italy) was analysed using SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) sensor data. Three bands of VEGETATION (RED, NIR and SWIR) were used to implement the vegetation index named reduced simple ratio (RSR) to derive leaf area index (LAI). The monthly average LAI is an indicator of biomass and canopy cover, while the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. The space-time distribution of LAI at the catchment scale was analysed over the examined period to detect the consistency of vegetation dynamics in the study area. A diffuse increase of LAI was observed in the examined years that cannot be directly explained only in terms of increasing water availability. Thus, in order to explain such a general behaviour in terms of climatic factors, the analysis was performed upon stratification of land cover classes, focusing on the most widespread species: forest and wheat. An interesting ascending-descending behaviour was observed in the relationship between inter-annual increments of maximum LAI and rainfall, and in particular, a strong negative correlation was found when the rainfall amount in January and February exceeded a critical threshold of about 100 mm. PMID:26077022

  4. Polio Patients in Northern Italy, a 50 Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bertolasi, L.; Danese, A; Monaco, S; Turri, M; Borg, K; Werhagen, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue. Objectives: To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimated Method: The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not. Results: Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS. Conclusion: Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups. PMID:27651845

  5. Space-time LAI variability in Northern Puglia (Italy) from SPOT VGT data.

    PubMed

    Balacco, Gabriella; Figorito, Benedetto; Tarantino, Eufemia; Gioia, Andrea; Iacobellis, Vito

    2015-07-01

    The vegetation space-time variability during 1999-2010 in the North of the Apulian region (Southern Italy) was analysed using SPOT VEGETATION (VGT) sensor data. Three bands of VEGETATION (RED, NIR and SWIR) were used to implement the vegetation index named reduced simple ratio (RSR) to derive leaf area index (LAI). The monthly average LAI is an indicator of biomass and canopy cover, while the difference between the annual maximum and minimum LAI is an indicator of annual leaf turnover. The space-time distribution of LAI at the catchment scale was analysed over the examined period to detect the consistency of vegetation dynamics in the study area. A diffuse increase of LAI was observed in the examined years that cannot be directly explained only in terms of increasing water availability. Thus, in order to explain such a general behaviour in terms of climatic factors, the analysis was performed upon stratification of land cover classes, focusing on the most widespread species: forest and wheat. An interesting ascending-descending behaviour was observed in the relationship between inter-annual increments of maximum LAI and rainfall, and in particular, a strong negative correlation was found when the rainfall amount in January and February exceeded a critical threshold of about 100 mm.

  6. Origin of arsenic in groundwater from the multilayer aquifer in Cremona (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rotiroti, Marco; Sacchi, Elisa; Fumagalli, Letizia; Bonomi, Tullia

    2014-05-20

    An analysis of 70 wells that tap groundwater from depths of up to 260 m in and around the town of Cremona, N. Italy, shows that 50 of them contain more than 10 μg/L of arsenic. Concentrations of As >10 ppb are accompanied by concentrations of Fe ranging from <0.1 to 6 mg/L and high concentrations of NH4 and Mn (<19 and <1.3 mg/L, respectively). The associations suggest that the mechanism of mobilization of As is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxides driven by the degradation of peat, which is commonly found in the aquifer system. Groundwater in the aquifer has a component of downward flow via leakage through aquitards and flow through lateral discontinuities in them. Along these flow paths, As is released by reductive dissolution of Fe oxides in shallow and intermediate aquifers (0-85 m below surface), reaching up to 183 μg/L, and is attenuated (<95 μg/L) at greater depths (100-150 m). Coprecipitation in iron sulfides could play an important role in As attenuation at these depths. The lower As concentration (<37 μg/L) in the deepest aquifer (160-260 m) is less related to the As concentration of the overlying aquifers because the groundwater here has a component of upward flow.

  7. PCDD/Fs and PCBs in ambient air in a highly industrialized city in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Andrea; Benfenati, Emilio; Bugatti, Simona Grazia; Lodi, Marco; Mariani, Alessandro; Musmeci, Loredana; Rotella, Giuseppe; Senese, Vincenzo; Ziemacki, Giovanni; Fanelli, Roberto

    2013-03-01

    Ambient air samples were collected in five locations around a polychlorobiphenyl (PCB) production plant in a highly industrialized city in the north of Italy, for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and PCBs. PCDD/F atmospheric concentrations were lower than those generally detected in urban areas, while PCB concentrations were higher than in urban and industrialized areas in other countries, especially in the locations closest to the plant. To identify source emissions responsible for air pollution we used principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the "fingerprint" of the air in Brescia with some source-related experimental and published data. This analysis showed that the PCDD/F fingerprints were more similar to steel plant emission data, while none of the PCB air patterns were comparable to emission profiles, indicating that different sources are responsible for the concentration of these two pollutants. The highest PCB concentrations detected in the areas closest to the chemical plant are indicative of its impact on the surrounding environment.

  8. Polio Patients in Northern Italy, a 50 Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bertolasi, L.; Danese, A; Monaco, S; Turri, M; Borg, K; Werhagen, L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis was before the immunization an important medical problem. Nowadays polio prior patients (PP) suffer from polio sequelae or have developed post-polio-syndrome (PPS) with increasing paresis, pain and fatigue. Objectives: To analyze the medical situation 50 years after acute polio. The degree of paresis was compared between the recovery 1952-1961 and 2012.The prevalence of patients fulfilling the criteria for PPS was estimated Method: The study was performed in Italy. Included were PP with rehabilitation after acute polio 1952-1961 and in 2012. During the years PP underwent yearly evaluation. A thorough neurological examination was performed in 2012. A telephone interview with questions concerning pain, paresis, fatigue, walking aids and concomitant diseases was performed in 2012. The patients were divided in two groups, if they fulfilled the criteria for PPS or not. Results: Included were 67(94%) patients receiving rehabilitation after acute poliomyelitis and 2012. 78% were walkers, half of the PPS used wheelchair. Eight out of ten suffered from pain. Four out of ten fulfilled the PPS criteria. Pain was slightly more common in PPS. Conclusion: Female gender, fatigue and wheelchair dependency were significantly more common in PPS while pain was common in both groups.

  9. Quantification of Cr(VI) in soil samples from a contaminated area in northern Italy by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, Laura; Queipo Abad, Silvia; Rodríguez-González, Pablo; García Alonso, J Ignacio; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the work were to detect and quantify hexavalent chromium in 14 soil samples from an area in Lombardia (northern Italy) contaminated by two polluted water plumes. Cr(VI) was extracted from the solid samples by applying focused microwaves in an alkaline medium after Cr(III) complexation with EDTA. Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) when previously reported extraction conditions for the analysis of certified reference materials were used, and Cr(VI) could not be reliably quantified in the soil samples. The influence of organic matter and iron contents in the samples on the reduction of Cr(VI) was subsequently studied using a new set of soil samples with different iron and organic matter concentrations. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) measured two different enriched stable isotopes of Cr (54 and 53) to evaluate the reduction extent of hexavalent chromium during the analytical procedure. The extraction conditions were optimized to obtain the lowest amount of Cr(VI) reduction and quantify Cr(VI) in the polluted soil samples from Lombardia.

  10. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas. PMID:15636064

  11. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Ligurian ophiolites (Northern Apennine, Italy): Implications for continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzio, Riccardo; Garzetti, Fabio; Corfu, Fernando; Tiepolo, Massimo; Renna, Maria Rosaria

    2016-01-01

    Fragments of Jurassic oceanic crust exposed in the Northern Apennine (Italy) are either associated with continental lithosphere material (External Ligurian ophiolites), or bear structural and compositional resemblances to slow spreading ridge crust (Internal Ligurian ophiolites). To acquire new information about the transition from continental breakup to slow seafloor spreading, we carried out a U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from gabbro bodies of both External and Internal Ligurian ophiolites. Zircons were separated from seven samples and analyzed for U-Pb isotopes by laser ablation ICPMS and isotope dilution TIMS. The zircons were also investigated for morphology, internal structures, inclusions and chemistry. These characteristics reveal remarkable similarities to zircons collected from modern oceanic crust. Taken as a whole, the new U-Pb zircon dates obtained for the Ligurian ophiolites range from ~ 165 to ~ 161 Ma, thereby arguing against previous geochronological investigations suggesting a period of ~ 26 Ma for the formation of the Ligurian gabbroic crust. The time interval intervened from onset of gabbroic crust formation to configuration of a "slow spreading ridge type" crust was most likely ≤ 5 Ma. New insights into the opening mechanisms of the fossil, slow seafloor spreading basin are provided.

  12. Potential Risk of Dengue and Chikungunya Outbreaks in Northern Italy Based on a Population Model of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Baldacchino, Frédéric Alexandre; Metz, Markus; Capelli, Gioia; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Pugliese, Andrea; Rosà, Roberto; Poletti, Piero; Merler, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The rapid invasion and spread of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894) within new continents and climatic ranges has created favorable conditions for the emergence of tropical arboviral diseases in the invaded areas. We used mosquito abundance data from 2014 collected across ten sites in northern Italy to calibrate a population model for Aedes albopictus and estimate the potential of imported human cases of chikungunya or dengue to generate the condition for their autochthonous transmission in the absence of control interventions. The model captured intra-year seasonality and heterogeneity across sites in mosquito abundance, based on local temperature patterns and the estimated site-specific mosquito habitat suitability. A robust negative correlation was found between the latter and local late spring precipitations, indicating a possible washout effect on larval breeding sites. The model predicts a significant risk of chikungunya outbreaks in most sites if a case is imported between the beginning of summer and up to mid-November, with an average outbreak probability between 4.9% and 25%, depending on the site. A lower risk is predicted for dengue, with an average probability between 4.2% and 10.8% for cases imported between mid-July and mid-September. This study shows the importance of an integrated entomological and medical surveillance for the evaluation of arboviral disease risk, which is a precondition for designing cost-effective vector control programs. PMID:27304211

  13. High-resolution shallow reflection seismic image and surface evidence of the Upper Tiber Basin active faults (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donne, D.D.; Plccardi, L.; Odum, J.K.; Stephenson, W.J.; Williams, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Shallow seismic reflection prospecting has been carried out in order to investigate the faults that bound to the southwest and northeast the Quaternary Upper Tiber Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). On the northeastern margin of the basin a ??? 1 km long reflection seismic profile images a fault segment and the associated up to 100 meters thick sediment wedge. Across the southwestern margin a 0.5 km-long seismic profile images a 50-55??-dipping extensional fault, that projects to the scarp at the base of the range-front, and against which a 100 m thick syn-tectonic sediment wedge has formed. The integration of surface and sub-surface data allows to estimate at least 190 meters of vertical displacement along the fault and a slip rate around 0.25 m/kyr. Southwestern fault might also be interpreted as the main splay structure of regional Alto Tiberina extensional fault. At last, the 1917 Monterchi earthquake (Imax=X, Boschi et alii, 2000) is correlable with an activation of the southwestern fault, and thus suggesting the seismogenic character of this latter.

  14. Inorganic raw materials economy and provenance of chipped industry in some stone age sites of northern and central Italy.

    PubMed

    Bietti, Amilcare; Boschian, Giovanni; Crisci, Gino Mirocle; Danese, Ermanno; De Francesco, Anna Maria; Dini, Mario; Fontana, Federica; Giampietri, Alessandra; Grifoni, Renata; Guerreschi, Antonio; Liagre, Jérémie; Negrino, Fabio; Radi, Giovanna; Tozzi, Carlo; Tykot, Robert

    2004-06-01

    An opportunistic and local choice of raw materials is typically attested in the Lower and Middle Paleolithic industries throughout Italy. The quality of the raw material usually affected the flaking technology and quality of the products. In the Upper Paleolithic and the Mesolithic, raw material procurement strategies were more complex. Flint was exploited both locally, in areas where abundant outcrops of raw materials were available (such as the Lessini mountains), and in distant localities, after which it was transported or exchanged over medium/long distances. Different routes of exchange were thus followed in the various periods; good reconstruction of these routes have been provided by a study of the Garfagnana sites in Northern Tuscany, and the Mesolithic deposit of Mondeval de Sora (Dolomites). An interesting example of a Late Upper Paleolithic flint quarry and workshop were found in Abruzzo, in the San Bartolomeo shelter. The extended trade of obsidian from Lipari, Palmarola and Sardinia to the Italian Peninsula is attested in the Neolithic, with some differences concerning the age and different areas.

  15. Synergic use of satellite and ground based remote sensing methods for monitoring the San Leo rock cliff (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Gigli, Giovanni; Lombardi, Luca; Raspini, Federico; Nocentini, Massimiliano; Scardigli, Cosimo; Casagli, Nicola

    2016-07-01

    The historic town of San Leo (Emilia Romagna Region, northern Italy) is located on top of an isolated rock massif above the Marecchia River valley hillside. On February 27th 2014, a northeastern sector of the massif collapsed; minor structural damages were reported in the town and a few buildings were evacuated as a precautionary measure. Although no fatalities occurred and the San Leo cultural heritage suffered no damage, minor rock fall events kept taking place on the newly formed rock wall, worsening this hazardous situation. In this framework, a monitoring system based on remote sensing techniques, such as radar interferometry (both spaceborne and ground-based) and terrestrial laser scanning, was planned in order to monitor the ground deformation of the investigated area and to evaluate the residual risk. In this paper the main outlines of a 1-year monitoring activity are described, including a pre-event analysis of possible landslide precursors and a post-event analysis of the displacements of both the collapse-affected rock wall sector and the rock fall deposits.

  16. Origin and evolution of a salty gypsum/anhydrite karst spring: the case of Poiano (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiesi, Mauro; de Waele, Jo; Forti, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    Poiano is the largest karst spring of the Emilia Romagna region (northern Italy). It drains an aquifer of unique properties composed of anhydrite with halite lenses at depth and gypsum at the surface (both with high NaCl content). Hydrogeological research has been undertaken using automatically recorded hourly data on temperature, electrical conductivity, and water level. Water feeding the Poiano spring is restricted within the gypsum/anhydrite outcrop between the Lucola, Sologno and Secchia rivers. Karstification in the Upper Secchia Valley only concerns the gypsum rocks mainly present along the border and in the shallower parts of the sulfate outcrop and does not appear to occur at depth. Data strongly support the hypothesis that the salt content in the spring water derives from active halokinetic movements. For the first time, the fundamental hydrogeological importance of the anhydrite part inside the sulfate rocks is demonstrated. If gypsum prevails over anhydrite the karst drainage network can extend deep into the rocks following a network of fractures and fissures. Instead, if in the deep parts of the aquifer anhydrite prevails over gypsum, the karst evolution cannot take place at depth and the structure of the underground drainage paths only follows near-surface paths in gypsum.

  17. Substance use and related problems: a study on the abuse of recreational and not recreational drugs in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria

    2006-01-01

    2015 subjects were interviewed at musical events and raves in Northern Italy: average age 25.1, 42% female, 67% work, 42% study, 61% have higher certificate of education. 3.8% used drugs for the first time in the last year, and 60% have been using drugs for over 5 years, age of first use 16.3. In the last year, 26% have tried a mix of drugs, 52% alcohol and drugs, 48% have driven after drinking; drug consumption was: marijuana 58%, hashish 55%, cocaine 24%, popper 12%, hallucinogenic mushrooms 13%, ecstasy 13%, amphetamines 13%, Salvia divinorum 11%, LSD 9%, opium 9%, ketamine 7%, heroin 5%. In the last year, 27% subjects had depression, 25.7% anxiety, 23.7% sleep disorders, 15% financial problems, 13% road accidents, 9% addiction, 6% judicial problems. All problems were correlated to CAGE (Cut, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener) test, drug use and mix drug use; psychological problems were higher for females: anxiety for cocaine, memory and psychosomatic for opium, sleeping disorders for crack, anxiety for popper, hallucinations for LSD and hallucinogenic mushrooms.

  18. Single-Station Passive Seismic Stratigraphy for the characterization of subsurface structure of the Valtellina valley (central Alps, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, M.; Bini, A.; Bassi, S.; Giudici, M.; Monti, M.; Azzola, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reconstruction of the subsurface structure of alpine valleys plays a key-role in the evaluation of their genesis, entrenchment and tectonic evolution. As a matter of fact, their characterization is strictly dependent on borehole data (water wells, shallow geognostic logs) and land based, deep seismic reflection/refraction lines; unfortunately, the availability of these datasets is often limited by economic and logistical limitations. In this work the subsurface structure of the Valtellina buried valley (central Alps, northern Italy) was investigated by the means of Single-Station Passive Seismic Stratigraphy (S-SPSS), which yields the 1D shear velocity (Vs) profiles, based on the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratios (HVSR) of microtremors produced by Raleigh waves trapped in the ground and provided by measurements of the resonance frequencies produced by a layered seismic stratigraphy. The study area is the central part of Valtellina, W-E oriented along the Insubric line and drained by the Adda river. The sedimentary succession is known by shallow (

  19. Early detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus spatial distribution and activity in the province of Trento, northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, Annapaola; Neteler, Markus; Rosà, Roberto; Versini, Walter; Cristofolini, Antonio; Bregoli, Marco; Buckley, Alan; Gould, Ernest A

    2007-05-01

    New human cases of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) have recently been recorded outside the recognised foci of this disease, i.e. in the province of Trento in northern Italy. In order to predict the highest risk areas for increased TBE virus activity, we have combined cross-sectional serological data, obtained from 459 domestic goats, with analysis of the autumnal cooling rate based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST) data. A significant relationship between finding antibodies against the virus in serum (seroprevalence) in goats and the autumnal cooling rate was detected, indicating that the transmission intensity of the virus does not only vary spatially, but also in relation to climatic factors. Virus seroprevalence in goats was correlated with the occurrence of TBE in humans and also with the average number of forestry workers' tick bites, demonstrating that serological screening of domestic animals, combined with an analysis of the autumnal cooling rate, can be used as early-warning predictors of TBE risk in humans. PMID:18686242

  20. Cave clastic sediments and implications for speleogenesis: New insights from the Mugnano Cave (Montagnola Senese, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    The study of cave clastic sediments has been considered one of the hottest topics during the last years because of their importance in paleoclimatic reconstructions and archaeological surveys. This paper focuses on clastic deposits of the Mugnano Cave, a small cave located in the Siena district (Northern Apennines, Italy), showing unique features regarding the sedimentary fill, mostly made of grey-blue dolomitic silts. The sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological analysis aimed at a better understanding of sedimentary processes active during the deposition. The entire succession was subsequently reinterpreted through an allostratigraphic approach: the recognition of an important erosional surface, associated with a significant change in sedimentation, allowed the distinguishing of two main allounits labelled MG1 and MG2. Furthermore, the different kinds of sediments collected in the cave were analysed using the XRF and XRD techniques, in order to establish their chemical and mineralogical compositions. The integration of lithological, sedimentological, allostratigraphic and mineralogical data permits formulation of an interesting hypothesis about speleogenetic processes that influenced the cave, with particular reference to the processes capable of generating the underground space. In this context, most of the current available space results from a complex interplay between different processes: disintegration of a particular lithofacies of the bedrock, consequent production of sediments and deposition into a subterranean lake. These sediments were removed from the cave during some non-depositional and erosive phases, which led to a positive balance in the available space.

  1. Molecular hydrogen observations at the high mountain station of Mt. Cimone (2165 m a.s.l.), Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maione, M.; Arduini, J.; Uguccioni, F.; Graziosi, F.; Giostra, U.; Furlani, F.; Bonasoni, P.; Cristofanelli, P.

    2009-04-01

    Since hydrogen will certainly play an important role in the energy supply chain of the coming decades, it is important to prevent consequences deriving from unbalanced source-sink processes deriving from a possible increase of molecular hydrogen emissions. In fact, higher atmospheric hydrogen levels lead to an increased lifetime of a greenhouse gas like methane and to an increase of stratospheric water vapour, resulting in a stratospheric cooling. The EU-FP6 Project EuroHydros has been established with the aim of i) developing a European Network for observations of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide; ii) putting in place a new and consistent calibration scale for molecular hydrogen; iii) improving the understanding of hydrogen in the global background atmosphere and of the impact of European emissions on the present day atmosphere. In this frame, continuous measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide have been started since January 2007 at the Atmospheric Research Station "O.Vittori" at Monte Cimone, Northern Apennines, Italy (44°11' N, 10°42' E) at the altitude of 2165 m asl, using a custom made gas-chromatograph equipped with an RGD detector - Trace Analytical RGA-2. The instrument is running continuously. Results since obtained since January 2007 will be shown, highlighting correlation patterns between H2 and CO, with a focus on selected episodes. Also, the seasonal and short time variability of molecular hydrogen will be reported.

  2. Three-dimensional geometry and tectonostratigraphy of the Pennine zone, Central Alps, Switzerland and Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxelon, Michael; Mancktelow, Neil S.

    2005-08-01

    Continental collision during Alpine orogenesis entailed a polyphase deformation history (D 1-D 5) in the Pennine zone of the Central Alps. The regional tectonostratigraphy was basically developed during D 1 and D 2, characterised by isoclinal, typically north-closing recumbent anticlines, separated by pinched-in synclines, on the scale of tens of kilometres. Later deformation phases (D 3 and D 4) warped the stack into wavy to open folds. Exhumation of this zone resulted locally in later vertical shortening and folding of already steep fabrics (D 5). Three-dimensional models of the nappe pile were constructed, based on geostatistical assessment of the regional foliation field and considering the abundant structural field data. These models indicate the existence of five principal tectonostratigraphic levels developed during D 1 and thus equivalent to nappe units s. str.: the Gotthard, the Leventina-Antigorio, the Maggia-Simano (and probably the Monte Leone as well as the Composite Lepontine Series), Lebendun-Soja and Adula-Cima Lunga levels. All these tectonic units formed part of the passive continental margin of Europe prior to the onset of the Alpine orogenesis. Individual isoclinal post-nappe folds reflect relative displacements on the order of 40 km or more. The most prominent D 2 post-nappe structure is the Wandfluhhorn Fold, structurally equivalent to the northern closure of the Leventina-Lucomagno Antiform. The Lebendun and Monte Leone folds are of similar magnitudes and also affect the whole nappe pile, whereas the smaller Mogno and Molare synforms only refold the Maggia-Simano nappe internally. Principal D 3 and D 4 structures are the tight Mergoscia Synform directly north of the Insubric Fault between Bellinzona and Locarno (Southern Steep Belt), the Maggia Steep Zone, forming the steep western limb of the Campo Tencia Synform and subdividing the Lepontine dome into the Simplon and Ticino subdomes, the Chiéra Synform steepening the dominant foliation in

  3. Documenting Mica Microstructures in Mylonites of the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago Line, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslin, Joe; Mariani, Elisabetta; Wheeler, John

    2016-04-01

    The rheology of the Earth's crust is ultimately a function of the properties of its constituent minerals. Nowhere are the results of applied tectonic stresses within the Earth's crust more evident than along large scale fault zones and shear zones where strains become focussed producing localised deformation and displacement. These dynamic tectonic discontinuities are often dominated by fault rocks and mylonites that contain an abundance of phyllosilicates (such as micas) whose inherent weakness, relative to other silicate phases (Mariani et al. 2006), acts to concentrate deformation along these narrow regions. Experimental studies show that even in rocks where the concentration of weak phases, such as micas, is low, their effect on the strength and fabric of the rock is significant due to processes such as strain-induced interconnectivity (Holyoke & Tullis 2006). Once this interconnectivity has been established, very high strains can be accommodated within very narrow regions, termed shear bands or micro-shear zones. In this study, a combination of optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) based techniques including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) have been used to observe and document features that are indicative of such processes within samples collected from the Cossato-Mergozzo-Brissago (CMB) shear zone in North Western Italy. This tectonic discontinuity is interpreted to be of Permian age and separates the metapelitic schists of the Kinzigite formation of the lower crustal Ivrea-Verbano zone from the mid-crustal schists and amphibolites of the Serie dei Laghi. Despite its present vertical attitude, the CMB line is believed to have formed as a gently inclined, mid-crustal shear zone during the early stages of post-Hercynian crustal stretching (Rutter et al. 2007). This has produced mylonites composed predominantly of quartz, feldspar and abundant phyllosilicates which serve as perfect natural examples on which to study the distribution of micas

  4. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate flood damage for residential buildings: first results in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luino, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is the most common natural instability process in Italy. Flood damage are the results of land-use planning policies which, starting chiefly from the late 1950s and early 1960s, did not take into account the geomorphologic-hydraulic characteristics of an area or the its historical data on past flood events. Historically, compared to other areas, riverside property has always been less valuable. Unfortunately, year after year, even areas of high recreational and environmental value were intensely urbanized despite their being exposed to the threat of flooding. As the number of residential dwellings, infrastructure and industrial buildings increased, what was originally a hazard became a risk. For each flood event, the damage depends on the specific land-use of the area and subsequently on the elements at risk in the area involved and its vulnerability, expressed as a percentage of the element that has actually been lost during the event. This is why a comprehensive knowledge of the area it is so important for conducting a detailed survey of an area's structures and infrastructure and to evaluate the degree of vulnerability. This paper presents first results in Italy of the European Project called DAMAGE, the first attempt by the civil protection agencies of several European Union member states to devise a common methodology for the assessment of damage caused by natural or anthropic disasters. The main objective was to create an initial tool for practical and immediate application by civil protection agencies and local governments, to assess damage in a multidimensional perspective that takes into account infrastructure, the economy, the environment and social problems. Within the framework of a broad-based project for the evaluation and collection of reports on damage caused by floods, the CNR-IRPI of Turin and Regione Lombardia have directed attention to the town of Cittiglio (province of Varese), which was struck by severe flash flood in May 2002. One of

  5. Prevalence in bulk tank milk and epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in dairy herds in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Valentina; Borella, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; Parisi, Antonio; Miccolupo, Angela; Santoro, Eliana; Recordati, Camilla; Luini, Mario

    2014-03-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequently the cause of human gastroenteritis and have assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter spp. in dairy herds and to investigate the possible sources of bulk milk contamination. Bulk milk from dairy herds (n = 282) was cultured for Campylobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. At three Campylobacter jejuni-positive farms, bovine feces, pigeon intestines, milk, and water points were also investigated. Isolates were identified by PCR and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. jejuni was detected in 34 (12%) bulk milk samples. The strains belonged to 14 sequence types, and the most common clonal complexes were CC-21, CC-48, and CC-403. No association was demonstrated between the presence of C. jejuni and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in bulk milk. At the three farms examined, C. jejuni was isolated from bovine feces (25/82 [30.5%]), pigeon intestines (13/60 [21.7%]), bulk milk (10/24 [41.7%]), and water points (4/16 [25%]). MLST revealed lineages that were common between milk and bovine feces but distinct between cattle and pigeons. In one herd, C. jejuni with the same genotype was isolated repeatedly from bulk milk and a cow with an udder infection. Our results showed a high prevalence of C. jejuni in bulk milk and suggested that udder excretion, in addition to fecal matter, may be a route of bulk milk contamination. MLST analysis indicated that pigeons are probably not relevant for the transmission of C. jejuni to cattle and for milk contamination.

  6. Prevalence in Bulk Tank Milk and Epidemiology of Campylobacter jejuni in Dairy Herds in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Valentina; Borella, Laura; Benedetti, Valentina; Parisi, Antonio; Miccolupo, Angela; Santoro, Eliana; Recordati, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. are frequently the cause of human gastroenteritis and have assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter spp. in dairy herds and to investigate the possible sources of bulk milk contamination. Bulk milk from dairy herds (n = 282) was cultured for Campylobacter spp. and Enterobacteriaceae. At three Campylobacter jejuni-positive farms, bovine feces, pigeon intestines, milk, and water points were also investigated. Isolates were identified by PCR and genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). C. jejuni was detected in 34 (12%) bulk milk samples. The strains belonged to 14 sequence types, and the most common clonal complexes were CC-21, CC-48, and CC-403. No association was demonstrated between the presence of C. jejuni and high levels of Enterobacteriaceae in bulk milk. At the three farms examined, C. jejuni was isolated from bovine feces (25/82 [30.5%]), pigeon intestines (13/60 [21.7%]), bulk milk (10/24 [41.7%]), and water points (4/16 [25%]). MLST revealed lineages that were common between milk and bovine feces but distinct between cattle and pigeons. In one herd, C. jejuni with the same genotype was isolated repeatedly from bulk milk and a cow with an udder infection. Our results showed a high prevalence of C. jejuni in bulk milk and suggested that udder excretion, in addition to fecal matter, may be a route of bulk milk contamination. MLST analysis indicated that pigeons are probably not relevant for the transmission of C. jejuni to cattle and for milk contamination. PMID:24413598

  7. Salmonella Enterica Prevalence in Finishing Pigs at Slaughter Plants in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bacci, Cristina; Lanzoni, Elisa; Brindani, Franco; Bonardi, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Finishing pigs carrying Salmonella enterica are believed to be the main source of carcass contamination at the beginning of slaughtering. The aim of this study was to assess the S. enterica carrier status of finishing pigs at herd level by sampling pooled faeces on farm and mesenteric lymph nodes at slaughter in the North East of Italy. Environmental faecal samples belonging to 30 batches of pigs were collected on farm. At slaughter, mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from five randomly selected pigs per batch. S. enterica was isolated from 16 lymph nodes out of 150 (10.6%) and from seven out of 30 (23.3%) faecal samples. Four batches (13.3%) were positive to S. enterica both in lymph nodes and in faeces. The number of batches positive to S. enterica either in lymph nodes or in faeces was 13 out of 30 (43.3%). The most prevalent serovars from lymph nodes were S. Derby (25.0%) and S. Typhimurium monophasic variant 1, 4,[5],12:i:- (18.6%), which were also isolated from faecal material (14.3 and 42.8% respectively). Contaminated faecal material or lymph nodes could be a primary source of carcass contamination at slaughter during evisceration. S. enterica contamination is widespread on pig farms and carrier pigs pass undetected the inspection visits at slaughter, entering the food chain. Therefore, in order to control S. enterica in pigs, the need to quantify possible risk factors at slaughter and develop effective management strategies on farm is of paramount importance to ensure food safety. PMID:27800330

  8. Differential Hydrogeological Effects of Draining Tunnels Through the Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzi, Valentina; Gargini, Alessandro; Goldscheider, Nico; Piccinini, Leonardo

    2014-05-01

    Water inflows are a major challenge in tunnelling and particularly difficult to predict in geological settings consisting of heterogeneous sedimentary rock formations with complex tectonic structure. For a high-speed railway line between Bologna and Florence (Italy), a series of seven railway tunnels was drilled through turbiditic formations, ranging from pelitic rocks with thin arenitic layers over sequences including thick-bedded sandstone to calcareous rocks showing chemical dissolution phenomena (karstification). The tunnels were built as draining tunnels and caused significant impacts, such as drying of springs and base-flow losses at mountain streams. A comprehensive hydrological monitoring programme and four multi-tracer test were done, focusing on four sections of the tunnel system. The tracer tests delivered unprecedented data on groundwater flow and transport in turbiditic aquifers and made it possible to better characterize the differential impacts of tunnel drainage along a geological gradient. The impact radius is 200 m in the thin-bedded sequences but reaches 2.3-4.0 km in calcareous and thick-bedded arenitic turbidites. Linear flow velocities, as determined from the peaks of the tracer breakthrough curves, range from 3.6 m/day in the thin-bedded turbidites to 39 m/day in the calcareous rocks (average values from the four test sites). At several places, discrete fault zones were identified as main hydraulic pathways between impacted streams and draining tunnels. This case shows that ignoring the hydrogeological conditions in construction projects can cause terrible damage, and the study presents an approach to better predict hydraulic impacts of draining tunnels in complex sedimentary rock settings.

  9. Use of bioclimatic indexes to characterize phenological phases of apple varieties in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentini, N.; Me, G.; Ferrero, R.; Spanna, F.

    The research was designed to characterize the phenological behaviour of different apple varieties and to compare different bioclimatic indexes in order to evaluate their adaptability in describing the phenological phases of fruit species. A field study on the requirement for chilling units (winter chilling requirement) and the accumulation of growing degree hours of 15 native apple cultivars was carried out in a fruit-growing area in North West Italy (Cuneo Province, Piedmont). From 1991 to 1993, climatic data were collected at meteorological stations installed in an experimental orchard (Verzuolo, Cuneo). Four methods were compared to determine the winter chilling requirement: Hutchins, Weinberger-Eggert, Utah and North Carolina. The Utah method was applied to determine the time when the chilling units accumulated become effective in meeting the rest requirements. A comparison of the different methods indicated that the Weinberger-Eggert method is the best: as it showed the lowest statistical variability during the 3 years of observations. The growing degree hour requirement (GDH) was estimated by the North Carolina method with two different base temperatures: 4.4°C and 6.1°C. More difficulties were met when the date of rest completion and the beginning of GDH accumulation was determined. The best base temperature for the estimation of GDH is 4.4°C. Phenological and climatic characterizations are two basic tools for giving farmers and agricultural advisors important information about which varieties to choose and which are the best and the most correct cultivation practices to follow.

  10. Morphological and Phenological characterization of Mediterranean species in Northern Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piga, Alessandra; Duce, Pierpaolo; Cesaraccio, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring of vegetation, in particular methodologies for phenological and biometrical monitoring, are widely implied for climate change studies and their importance for understanding the consequences of global environmental change on vegetation is highlighted in the most recent IPCC reports. It is very likely that, during the next decades, the Mediterranean Regions will cope to the very negative effects of climatic changes. Consequently, due to the climate change impacts and the effects of anthropogenic pressures upon natural resources, these regions are among the most vulnerable ecosystems to the effects of climate change. Therefore, appears to be of crucial importance to better understand the physiological strategies for cope to climate change adaptation for the Mediterranean maquis shrub species which are key information for developing adaptation strategies guidelines. In this work, the biological and reproductive cycle of some Mediterranean species growing in an experimental area located within a nature reserve in the peninsula of Capo Caccia, north-west Sardinia, Italy, was investigated for a period of two years. In particular, the research was focused on: (1) the study of the development processes and the description of phenological phases, and (2) the analysis of the growth processes performed through biometric and floristic composition measurements. Specific BBCH scales for each species were developed. Shoot growth and floristic composition analysis did not show a clear trend in the response of the different species to climatic manipulations but a downward trend in the number of species. The results obtained in this study add useful information on the phenological cycle and growth of the Mediterranean species, improving the knowledge on the mechanisms of adaptation to adverse environmental conditions of these species

  11. Harmful Algae Records in Venice Lagoon and in Po River Delta (Northern Adriatic Sea, Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Bilaničovà, Dagmar; Marcomini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A detailed review of harmful algal blooms (HAB) in northern Adriatic Sea lagoons (Po River Delta and Venice lagoon) is presented to provide “updated reference conditions” for future research and monitoring activities. In the study areas, the high mollusc production requires the necessity to identify better methods able to prevent risks for human health and socioeconomical interests. So, an integrated approach for the identification and quantification of algal toxins is presented by combining microscopy techniques with Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-HR-TOF-MS). The method efficiency was first tested on some samples from the mentioned coastal areas, where Dinophysis spp. occurred during summer in the sites directly affected by seawaters. Although cell abundance was always <200 cells/L, the presence of Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), detected by HPLC-HR-TOF-MS, indicated the potential release of detectable amounts of toxins even at low cell abundance. PMID:24683360

  12. The nature of annual lamination in flowstones from non-karstic fractures, Vinschgau (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltai, Gabriella; Spötl, Christoph; Cheng, Hai

    2016-04-01

    zones in deep-seated gravitational slope deformations. The annual signal is still preserved by the δ18O values, but the development of laminae varies both in space and time. Spötl, C., Unterwurzacher, M., Mangini, A., Longstaffe, F.J., 2002: Carbonate speleothems in the dry, inneralpine Vinschgau Valley, northernmost Italy: Witnesses of changes in climate and hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, 793-808.

  13. Microtaphofacies of Lower Jurassic Limestones from the Rotzo Formation, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Luise; Nebelsick, James; Bassi, Davide; Posenato, Renato

    2015-04-01

    Microtaphofacies investigations allow for the study of taphonomic features of cemented limestones as found in thin sections. It allows for changes in environmental parameters to be assessed especially with respect to abrasion, fragmentation, encrustation and bioerosion of biotic components. Variations of taphonomic features along environmental gradients can thus be examined and can be compared to other facies determining features such as the distribution of specific biotic components as well as carbonate fabrics. The Lower Jurassic Rotzo Formation, occurring in the palaeogeographic unit Trento Platform (Southern Alps, Italy), is characterized by very well preserved components in a shallow water lagoonal setting. Components are dominated by dasycladalean algae, small and large benthic foraminifera, various bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods and echinoderms. Oncoids and trace fossils can also be prevalent. Although bioclastic components are commonly preserved in very fine micritic limestones, various types of mass occurrences are also present especially with respect to the bivalves including the well known Lithiotis fauna. Microfacies are dominated by mudstones. Bioclastic rich microfacies are also present with packstones and rudstones mainly containing foraminifera and bivalves, but also including, and in part dominated by other components. Microtaphofacies were studied along the Monte Toraro section to the east of Tonezza del Cimone (Vicenza Province). Abrasion, fragmentation, bioerosion and encrustation were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed with features being scored into three categories equivalent to good, fair, and poor preservation. This allowed for changes along the section to be analyzed. Abrasion and fragmentation are common in all facies and affect most components. Encrustation and bioerosion rates, however, are highly variably are only dominate in oncoids rich facies. Components in mass shell accumulations are often very well preserved

  14. Stakeholder discourse and water management in a catchment in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupo Stanghellini, P. S.; Collentine, D.

    2007-06-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD; directive 2000/60/EC) was created to ensure the sustainable use of water resources in the European Union. A central guideline included throughout the directive is a call for the participation of stakeholders in the management of these resources. Involving stakeholders is an important step to ensure that catchment management plans take into consideration local experience in the development of these plans and the impact of the plans on local interests. This paper describes and analyses the results of a series of workshops to facilitate implementation of the WFD at a catchment level based on the stakeholder participation model, CATCH. To test the usefulness of the stakeholder participation model CATCH for water management in a catchment area, a sub-catchment in an alpine valley in the north-east of Italy, the Alta Valsugana in the Province of Trento, was chosen as the setting for a series of workshops. In this valley water is fundamental for activities associated with agriculture, domestic use, energy production, sports and recreation. In the recent past the valley has had serious problems related to water quality and quantity. Implementation of water management plans under the WFD may lead to conflicts within the catchment between different stakeholder interest groups. Including stakeholders in the development of management plans not only follows the guidelines of the WFD but also could result in a more locally adapted and acceptable plan for the catchment. A new stakeholder analysis methodology was developed and implemented in order to identify the relevant stakeholders of the area and then two sets of workshops involving the key stakeholders identified were conducted in Spring 2006. The CATCH meetings were a new experience for the participants, who had to deal with both the principles of the WFD in general and the participation requirement in particular. During the meetings, the CATCH model played a very important role in

  15. Interaction between regional and local tectonic forcing along a complex Quaternary extensional basin: Upper Tiber Valley, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, S.; Mirabella, F.; Pazzaglia, F.; Barchi, M. R.; Melelli, L.; Tuccimei, P.; Soligo, M.; Saccucci, L.

    2014-10-01

    In extending areas undergoing regional tectonic uplift, the persistence of subsidence at a normal-fault hanging-wall depends on the competition between regional and local tectonic effects. When regional uplift exceeds the subsidence of the hanging-wall block, denudation prevails at both the hanging-wall and the foot-wall. When local tectonic subsidence exceeds regional uplift, sedimentation occurs over the hanging-wall block, supplied by foot-wall erosion. We analyzed a Pliocene-Quaternary continental basin, currently crossed by the Tiber River in Italy. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the basin developed at the hanging-wall of a regional low-angle extensional detachment, the Alto Tiberina Fault, in the axial region of the Northern Apennines of Italy. This area is affected by regional uplift on the order of 0.5-1.0 mm/yr. The present-day activity of the fault is revealed by both microseismicity and geodetic (GPS) data. We investigated the mid- (10-100 ka) and long-term (0.5-3.0 Ma) evolution of the three depocenters by studying the continental Pleistocene succession infilling the basin as well as fluvial terraces and higher paleosurfaces carved into the Pleistocene deposits. By using surficial geologic data and an interpretation of a set of seismic reflection profiles, we show that the three depocenters experienced a fairly similar evolution during the Pliocene-Early Pleistocene, when a 1000-m-thick continental succession was deposited. On the contrary, geomorphological observations indicate that, at the beginning of the Middle Pleistocene, a switch occurred in the evolution of the three depocenters. In the northernmost Sansepolcro sub-basin, bounding normal faults are active and hanging-wall subsidence outpaces regional uplift. Concurrently, in the Umbertide and Ponte Pattoli sub-basins uplift dominates over the hanging-wall subsidence, promoting river incision and exhumation of the Pleistocene deposits. For these two depocenters, by means of terrace

  16. HPV genotypes detected in the oropharyngeal mucosa of HIV-infected men who have sex with men in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Martinelli, M; Mazza, F; Frati, E R; Fasolo, M M; Colzani, D; Bianchi, S; Fasoli, E; Amendola, A; Orlando, G; Tanzi, E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological profile of HPV oropharyngeal infections in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. A total of 135 subjects were enrolled at the L. Sacco University Hospital (Milan, Italy) to evaluate their HPV oropharyngeal infection status at baseline and at a follow-up visit at least 12 months later. HPV DNA was detected from oropharyngeal swabs using an in-house nested PCR that amplifies a segment of the L1 gene. The PCR products were then sequenced and genotyped. A greater percentage of high-risk genotypes was identified compared to low-risk genotypes (13·7% vs. 6·9%, P < 0·05), and two uncommon alpha-HPV genotypes were detected, i.e. HPV-102 and HPV-114. HPV infection prevalence was 24·4% and the cumulative incidence was 24·1%. During the follow-up period, one case of HPV infection (HPV-33) persisted, while the overall rate of infection clearance was 58·3%. HPV oropharyngeal infection was widespread in the cohort examined, and most of the infections were transient and cleared within 12 months. These results may help to clarify the role of HPV in the oropharynx and may also improve our understanding of the need to implement preventive strategies in at-risk populations.

  17. The Manciano Sandstone: a shoreface deposit of Miocene basins of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, I. P.; Cascella, A.; Rau, A.

    1995-09-01

    Well exposed, diamond-line cut, quarry-exposures of the Manciano Sandstone allow a detailed analysis of sandy, fossiliferous, nearshore deposits of the shelf of the Northern Apennines. The Manciano Sandstone is characterized by medium to very coarse, washed, fairly well sorted, lithic sandstone, with thin interlayers of sandy conglomerates. It displays two principal, rhythmically alternating sandy facies: (a) slightly burrowed (mostly Macaronichnus, Ophiomorpha, Skolithos) units, trough cross-bedded, locally showing possible tidal bundles with few whole Scutella (echinoid) shells reworked on foresets, or occasional large-scale (approximately 2 m) planar cross-bedded, bar-accretion units; and (b) slightly finer, darker-coloured reddish-brown sandstone units, heavily bioturbated ( Cruziana-Skolithos) ichnofauna) representing slightly more sheltered settings. Large oysters are present in near-living position in a few thin layers and, more commonly, as reworked, comminuted fragments in sandy layers. Many calcareous pebbles and oyster fragments are bored. Other fossils consist of echinoids ( Scutella), some balanids and reworked foraminifera and bryozoa. The Manciano sands were deposited primarily in a wave-dominated shoreface, containing migrating bars/ridges and affected by wave-induced, possibly tidal-enhanced currents. This tidal influence confirms the opening of the Miocene Apenninic Sea to oceans, both the developing Atlantic Ocean to the west and, through a long, narrow seaway, the Asian portion of the Tethys Sea to the east.

  18. Flares in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Restuccia, Giovanna; Boiardi, Luigi; Cavazza, Alberto; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Muratore, Francesco; Cimino, Luca; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Crescentini, Filippo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study evaluated the frequency, timing, and characteristics of flares in a large cohort of Italian patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to identify factors at diagnosis able to predict the occurrence of flares. We evaluated 157 patients with biopsy-proven transmural GCA diagnosed and followed at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for whom sufficient information was available from the time of diagnosis until at least 4 years of follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (36.5%) experienced ≥1 flares. Fifty-one (46.4%) of the 110 total flares (88 relapses and 22 recurrences) were experienced during the first 2 years after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone ≤ 10 mg/day (82.9%), whereas only 3.4% of relapses occurred for doses ≥ 25 mg/day. Polymyalgia rheumatica (46.5%) and cranial symptoms (41.9%) were the most frequent manifestations at the time of the first relapse. Cumulative prednisone dose during the first year and total cumulative prednisone dose were significantly higher in flaring patients compared with those without flares (7.8 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.4 g, P = 0.02; 15.5 ± 8.9 vs 10.0 ± 9.2 g, P = 0.0001, respectively). The total duration of prednisone treatment was longer in flaring patients (58 ± 44 vs 30 ± 30 months, P = 0.0001). Patients with disease flares had at diagnosis more frequently systemic manifestations (P = 0.02) and fever ≥ 38°C (P = 0.02), significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.05), more frequent presence at temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens of giant cells (P = 0.04) and intraluminal acute thrombosis (P = 0.007), and more moderate/severe arterial inflammation (P = 0.009) compared with those without flares. In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38 °C (hazard ratio 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.32, P = 0.03) and the severity of inflammatory infiltrate

  19. Rickettsia slovaca in immature Dermacentor marginatus and tissues from Apodemus spp. in the northern Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martello, Elisa; Selmi, Marco; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Stella, Maria Cristina; Mannelli, Alessandro; Tomassone, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Immature Dermacentor marginatus ticks and tissues from small rodents were tested for infection with Rickettsia slovaca in the northern Apennines, Lucca Province, where tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA) was previously reported in people. Prevalence of infestation with D. marginatus was 30.5% (n=131, 95% CI: 22.8-39.2%) in Apodemus spp. and 26.5% (n=34, 95% CI: 12.9-44.4%) in Myodes glareolus, which were captured during 1980 trap nights in 2009 and 2010. Rickettsia slovaca was identified by polymerase chain reaction, targeting the gltA and OmpA genes, in ear biopsies from 8 out of 37 tested Apodemus (22%, 95% CI: 9.8-38.2%), but not from 9 M. glareolus. The prevalence of R. slovaca in D. marginatus feeding on Apodemus spp. was 53% in larvae (n=51, 95% CI: 38.5-67.1%) and 47.5% in nymphs (n=59, 95% CI: 34.3-60.9%). No larvae (0.0%, 95% CI: 0-36.9%), but one nymph removed from M. glareolus was positive (10%, 95% CI: 0.3-44.5%). Prevalence of R. slovaca in host-seeking D. marginatus larvae, collected in the same area, was 42% (n=38; 95% CI: 26.3-59.2%). Prevalence of R. slovaca was greater in larvae feeding on PCR-positive Apodemus than in those feeding on negative mice (78.6% vs. 37.1%). Furthermore, levels of infestation with D. marginatus larvae were greater for R. slovaca-positive mice. The infection of Apodemus spp. was probably the result of repeated bites by transovarially infected larvae. On the other hand, the finding of R. slovaca in mice tissues would be compatible with transmission from these hosts to feeding D. marginatus. Based on such a hypothesis, the most heavily infested Apodemus might play a role as amplifiers of the infection.

  20. Magnetic fabric of clay sediments from the external northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Speranza, Fabio; Winkler, Aldo; Mattei, Massimo; Funiciello, Renato

    1998-02-01

    We report on the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses of fine-grained sediments deposited during the Messinian in foredeep basins at the front of the northern Apenninic chain. The data refer to 32 sampling sites, mostly distributed in the fine-grained intervals of the Laga and Colombacci formations, extending along the belt for a total length of about 300 km. Rock magnetism analyses indicate that the magnetic susceptibility and its anisotropy are in most cases dominated by the paramagnetic minerals of the clay matrix. In order to delineate the contribution of the ferrimagnetic fraction to the overall susceptibility fabric, the anisotropy of the anhysteretic remanent magnetisation was investigated at some representative sites. The magnetic fabric of the studied sediments mostly reflects the effects of compaction, showing a predominant magnetic foliation parallel to the bedding plane. At all the sites a well distinct magnetic lineation was also found, which is parallel to the fold axes and thrust fronts, both at local and regional scales. This feature is maintained in sequences that differ for sedimentological character and age, implying that the magnetic lineation was produced by a mild tectonic overprint of the primary sedimentary-compactional fabric. The relationship between the magnetic lineation trends and the vertical axis rotations detected by Speranza et al. [Speranza, F., Sagnotti, L., Mattei, M., 1997. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 3153-3166] indicates that the magnetic lineation formed during the compressive phases of the Messinian-early Pliocene, when the Apenninic front was almost rectilinear and oriented N320°.

  1. Bedrock channel reaches morphology: examples from the Northern Marche Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, V.; di Agostino, V.; Troiani, F.; Nesci, O.; Savelli, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Northern Marche rivers, on account of a significant variability of their catchment geology, geodynamics and geomorphology, can be regarded as excellent natural laboratories for the study of the morphology, dynamics and evolution of bedrock channel reaches. Hence a geomorphologic study has been carried on in order to map and describe -from qualitative and quantitative point of view- some bedrock channel types of this area, to detect morphological controls at different scales (from the local scale up to the catchment one), and to assess human perturbations on the drainage systems. The study is based on detailed field surveying concerning channel shape and dynamics, floodplain configurations, slope geomorphologic processes, bedrock structure and composition. In addiction, a good aero photograph documentation dating back to the 1955 allowed a reliable reconstruction of the main evolution trends of bedrock channel reaches in the latest past. In the reported rivers the bedrock channel reaches vary in length from a few tens to hundreds of meters, and alternate with alluvial and mixed bedrock-alluvial channel reaches. In many cases specific numerical relations among geometric parameters of bedrock channels have been discovered and some similarities in both morphology and dynamics of rock-cut channels with alluvial channel reaches have been pointed out. Specifically, with regard of their morphologic arrangement, geometric parameters, and flow dynamics several bedrock channels are quite similar to step pool channels found along gravelly channel reaches. Nonetheless, along a given segment of the hydrographical network where an individual alluvial-channel pattern (e.g. a wandering) is found both upstream and downstream a rock-cut channel reach, the occurrence of this latter (e.g. planar bedrock-floored channel) simply breaks the along-stream continuity of the alluvial-bed morphology.

  2. Holocene vegetation and fire history of the mountains of northern Sicily (Italy)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinner, Willy; Vescovi, Elisa; Van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; Colombaroli, Daniele; Henne, Paul; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Beffa, Giorgia; Gnaegi, Bettina; Van der Knaap, Pim W O; La Mantia, Tommaso; Pasta, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about vegetation and fire history of the mountains of Northern Sicily is scanty. We analysed five sites to fill this gap and used terrestrial plant macrofossils to establish robust radiocarbon chronologies. Palynological records from Gorgo Tondo, Gorgo Lungo, Marcato Cixé, Urgo Pietra Giordano and Gorgo Pollicino show that under natural or near natural conditions, deciduous forests (Quercus pubescens, Q. cerris, Fraxinus ornus, Ulmus), that included a substantial portion of evergreen broadleaved species (Q. suber, Q. ilex, Hedera helix), prevailed in the upper meso-mediterranean belt. Mesophilous deciduous and evergreen broadleaved trees (Fagus sylvatica, Ilex aquifolium) dominated in the natural or quasi-natural forests of the oro-mediterranean belt. Forests were repeatedly opened for agricultural purposes. Fire activity was closely associated with farming, providing evidence that burning was a primary land use tool since Neolithic times. Land use and fire activity intensified during the Early Neolithic at 5000 bc, at the onset of the Bronze Age at 2500 bc and at the onset of the Iron Age at 800 bc. Our data and previous studies suggest that the large majority of open land communities in Sicily, from the coastal lowlands to the mountain areas below the thorny-cushion Astragalus belt (ca. 1,800 m a.s.l.), would rapidly develop into forests if land use ceased. Mesophilous Fagus-Ilex forests developed under warm mid Holocene conditions and were resilient to the combined impacts of humans and climate. The past ecology suggests a resilience of these summer-drought adapted communities to climate warming of about 2 °C. Hence, they may be particularly suited to provide heat and drought-adaptedFagus sylvatica ecotypes for maintaining drought-sensitive Central European beech forests under global warming conditions.

  3. Risk-mitigation strategies for large earth flows in Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolini, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    This presentation proposes an overview on ancient earth flows of the Northern Apennines and their reactivation mechanisms, with a view to gleaning information that can subsequently be utilized to implement risk-reduction strategies for land-use planning and mitigation measures. These large landslide bodies are the result of multi-phase events occurred during the last 13.000 years, but, in spite of the ancient origin, they are still dangerous, due to the repetitiveness of the reactivation events. Damages deriving from the recurrent reactivation of these ancient landslides exceeds the 90% of the total. The hazard assessment of these landslides, which are of slope scale, constitutes a thorny problem, especially in view of the inapplicability of traditional deterministic models such as limit equilibrium stability analysis. The usual set of factors that form the basis of deterministic methods is insufficient to make reliable predictions about the future behaviour of these landslides and their related hazard. Nevertheless, a site-specific assessment of probability of reactivation is fundamental to effective land-use planning. The observation of real, recent events (e.g. Boschi di Valoria, Corniglio and Cà Lita) has proved to be an useful mean for understanding which are the conditions and behaviours that usually lead to the reactivation of an ancient earth flow. More in general, the analysis of the evolution of earth flows during actual reactivation acknowledges a typical, recurring succession of events that precede the failure of the slope. In order to perform an effective risk-reduction strategy, a site-specific, interdisciplinary and partially heuristic approach should be implemented, pooling together many elements of evaluation. Most importantly, using detailed field observation and all other available means, the hazard estimate must consider possible indicators of present and recent movement, or situations that could lead to future reactivation, with special

  4. Incidence and mortality from mucosal head and neck cancers amongst Australian states and territories: what it means for the northern territory.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jagtar; Jayaraj, Rama; Baxi, Siddhartha; Ramamoorthi, Ramya; Thomas, Mahiban

    2013-01-01

    Mucosal head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas that develop in the upper-aero digestive epithelium. Together they constitute the sixth most common cancer with an estimated 900,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths each year reported worldwide. The risk factors are tobacco, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Our research team initially reported a high incidence rate of HNC in the indigenous population of the Northern Territory. Mortality rates also vary in the Australian States and Territories, with particularly high mortality observed in the Northern Territory. There is a paucity of incidence studies of HNC for the Australian States and Territories. Therefore this review primarily focuses on variation in incidence and mortality iacross the country and highlights specifically the high incidence and mortality in the Northern Territory. Attention is also given to sex-specific incidence and mortality rates.

  5. A new species-complex within the trapdoor spider genus Nemesia Audouin 1826 distributed in northern and central Italy, with descriptions of three new species (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Decae, Arthur; Pantini, Paolo; Isaia, Marco

    2015-12-23

    Three new Nemesia Audouin 1826 species from northern and central Italy are named. They share a combination of sexual characters, not found in other described species. A new species-complex within Nemesia is here referred to as the apenninica group. Within the apenninica group, N. apenninica n. sp., N. hastensis n. sp., and N. pedemontana n. sp. differ in the morphology of the male palpal organ and the female spermathecae. The three species have different kinds of geographical distributions. While N. apenninica and N. hastensis have locally restricted and geographically separated distributions, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of both of these species and extends widely in northern and central Italy. In its periphery, the distribution of N. pedemontana overlaps with that of species other than the apenninica group, e.g., N. meridionalis (Costa, 1835) in southern Italy and N. manderstjernae (L. Koch, 1871) and N. carminans (Latreille, 1818) in Liguria. Information on burrow structure, phenology and habitat are provided for all three new species. Some aspects of the behavior and feeding are discussed for N. pedemontana and N. hastensis.

  6. Resistivity imaging of Pleistocene alluvial aquifers in a contractional tectonic setting: A case history from the Po plain (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, M.; Bersezio, R.; Giudici, M.; Inzoli, S.; Cavalli, E.; Zaja, A.

    2013-06-01

    In this work we present the hydrogeophysical imaging of a key sector of the Quaternary Po foreland basin (northern Italy), focussing on the reconstruction of clastic aquifers and aquitards in a complex tectono-sedimentary subsurface architecture. The study area includes the relic reliefs of Casalpusterlengo and Zorlesco, two smooth morphological features involving uplifted and gently folded Pleistocene marine to alluvial sediments, plausibly linked to the buried Northern Apennines thrust and fold belt. The geophysical data include 35 Direct Current Vertical Electrical Soundings collected over a 37 km2 wide area, acquired with Schlumberger array and maximum half-spacing of 500 m. 1-D resistivity-depth profiles were computed for each VES. An integrated hydrostratigraphic approach was applied, to constrain the interpretation of the geophysical data along several cross-sections, including the comparison of resistivity soundings to stratigraphic logs, borehole electric logs and the pore-water properties. The resistivity interfaces, traceable with the same laterally continuous vertical polarity, were used to develop an electrostratigraphic model in order to portray the stacking of electrostratigraphic units down to 200 m below ground surface. Their vertical associations show a general upward increase of electrical resistivity. This assemblage mimics the regional coarsening upwards depositional trend, from the conductive units of the Plio-Pleistocene marine-to-transitional depositional systems to the resistive units of the Middle-Late Pleistocene fluvial and alluvial plain depositional systems. Middle Pleistocene depositional systems host an alternation of North-dipping, high-to-intermediate permeability aquifer systems (70-180 Ωm, thickness of 5-70 m) separated by low permeability aquitards (20-50 Ωm, thickness up to 40 m). These units pinch out against the Casalpusterlengo and Zorlesco relic reliefs, where they cover the uplifted and folded regional aquitard (20-50

  7. The Monte Orfano Conglomerate revisited: stratigraphic constraints on Cenozoic tectonic uplift of the Southern Alps (Lombardy, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciunnach, Dario; Scardia, Giancarlo; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Premoli Silva, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    The Monte Orfano Conglomerate (MOC), exposed in the foothills of the Southern Alps (northern Italy), is one of the few outcrops of sediments documenting the Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Alpine retrowedge. Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy allowed us to constrain the upper part of the MOC, formerly attributed to the Early-Middle Miocene in the type-locality, to the earliest Miocene (Neogene part of the NN1 nannofossil zone). A likely latest Oligocene age is therefore suggested for the bulk of the underlying conglomerates, whose base is not exposed. Deposition of the MOC can be placed within the post-collisional tectonic uplift of the Alps, documented in the Lake Como area by the Como Conglomerate (CC) at the base of the Gonfolite Lombarda Group, and supports the correlation with Upper Oligocene clastic sediments cropping out further to the East, in the Lake Garda and in the Veneto-Friuli areas (“ molassa”). The remarkable difference in petrographic composition between the western (CC) and eastern (MOC) clastics deposited in the Alpine retro-foreland basin highlights the synchronous tectonic activity of two structural domains involving different crustal levels. Whilst the bulk of the CC, that straddles the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, records largely the tectonic exhumation of the Alpine axial chain crystalline complexes, the coeval MOC consists of detritus derived from the superficial crustal section (Triassic to Paleogene sedimentary rocks) of the Alpine retrowedge and constrains the onset of the post-collisional deformation phase of the Southern Alps as not younger than the Late Oligocene.

  8. Climatic Factors Driving Invasion of the Tiger Mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into New Areas of Trentino, Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Castellani, Cristina; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2011-01-01

    Background The tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), vector of several emerging diseases, is expanding into more northerly latitudes as well as into higher altitudes in northern Italy. Changes in the pattern of distribution of the tiger mosquito may affect the potential spread of infectious diseases transmitted by this species in Europe. Therefore, predicting suitable areas of future establishment and spread is essential for planning early prevention and control strategies. Methodology/Principal Findings To identify the areas currently most suitable for the occurrence of the tiger mosquito in the Province of Trento, we combined field entomological observations with analyses of satellite temperature data (MODIS Land Surface Temperature: LST) and human population data. We determine threshold conditions for the survival of overwintering eggs and for adult survival using both January mean temperatures and annual mean temperatures. We show that the 0°C LST threshold for January mean temperatures and the 11°C threshold for annual mean temperatures provide the best predictors for identifying the areas that could potentially support populations of this mosquito. In fact, human population density and distance to human settlements appear to be less important variables affecting mosquito distribution in this area. Finally, we evaluated the future establishment and spread of this species in relation to predicted climate warming by considering the A2 scenario for 2050 statistically downscaled at regional level in which winter and annual temperatures increase by 1.5 and 1°C, respectively. Conclusions/Significance MODIS satellite LST data are useful for accurately predicting potential areas of tiger mosquito distribution and for revealing the range limits of this species in mountainous areas, predictions which could be extended to an European scale. We show that the observed trend of increasing temperatures due to climate change could facilitate further invasion of Ae. albopictus

  9. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems. PMID:25874424

  10. Temporal dynamics of hepatitis C genotypes in a five-year hospital-based surveillance in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    De Conto, F; Medici, M C; Ferraglia, F; Pinardi, F; Fazzi, A; Arcangeletti, M C; Chezzi, C; Calderaro, A

    2016-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes have became important epidemiological markers in the management of HCV-infected subjects and infection treatment. The dynamics of HCV genotypes are changing in Europe. During a five-year (2009-2013) hospital-based surveillance in the area of Parma, Northern Italy, serum/plasma samples from 1,265 HCV RNA-positive subjects were genotyped. Subtypes 1b, 3a, and 1a were predominant (32.6 %, 19.1 %, and 17.8 %, respectively), with a correlation between viral load and gender. Subtypes 1a and 3a were more frequent in adults and males with a significant difference with the over-50 age group and females (P > 0.0001). Subtype 1b, as well as 2a/2c and G2 not-subtypeable (15.7 % and 7.2 %, respectively), were more common in females and in the over-50 age group compared to males (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001, and P < 0.05, respectively) and the under-50 age group (P < 0.0001). While subtype 1b showed a nearly constant trend, subtype 1a peaked in 2012, when a consistent decrease in G2 was observed. The increasing detection of G4, mainly in adults, and subtypes 1a and 3a suggests their epidemiological relevance in the population. The detection of more than one HCV genotype in the same sample (0.2 %) and different genotypes in distant samples (5.1 %) from the same subject reinforces the opinion that re-infection and super-infection with different genotypes are not negligible events, especially in HIV-infected subjects. The dynamics of HCV genotypes could have significant implications for infection control.

  11. Geochemical characterization and biomonitoring of reclaimed soils in the Po River Delta (Northern Italy): implications for the agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Vittori Antisari, Livia; Martucci, Annalisa; Natali, Claudio; Beccaluva, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    This geochemical study is focused on the easternmost part of the Po River alluvial plain in Northern Italy, which is interested by widespread agricultural activities, investigating a reclaimed sector of the Province of Ferrara, known as "Valle del Mezzano" (Mezzano Low Land, hereafter reported as MLL) characterized by peat-rich soils. The chemical-mineralogical characterization of these reclaimed soils is important to compare the local geochemical backgrounds with those recorded in other sectors of the River Po plain and to monitor if the observed concentration exceeds critical thresholds. The reported analyses include (a) measurement of the soil salinity, (b) nutrient evaluation, (c) major and trace element concentrations carried out on bulk soils, (d) tests of metal extraction with both aqua regia and EDTA to highlight the distinct elemental mobility and (e) phyto-toxicological measurement of heavy metal concentrations in plants (Lactuca sativa acephala) grown on the studied soils. The results indicate (1) high soil salinity, often with drastic increase of sodium and chloride along the soil profiles, (2) high nitrogen content (in part related to anthropogenic activities) on superficial horizons and nitrate decrease along the soil profiles and (3) comparative enrichments in heavy metals with respect to other soils of the province, which indicate that peat deposits are effective in trapping metals from anthropogenic sources. This, in turn, implies potential geochemical risks for the agricultural activities. In this regard, specific concerns are related to the high nickel and arsenic content of MLL soils due to the mobility of these elements and their attitude to be taken up by plants.

  12. Geochemistry and isotope geochemistry of the Monfalcone thermal waters (northern Italy): inference on the deep geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrini, R.; Italiano, F.; Ponton, M.; Slejko, F. F.; Aviani, U.; Zini, L.

    2013-09-01

    Geochemical investigations were carried out to define the origin of the low- to moderate-temperature thermal waters feeding the Monfalcone springs in northern Italy. Chemical data indicate that waters approach the composition of seawater. Mixing processes with cold low-salinity waters are highlighted. The δ18O and δD values are in the range -5.0 to -6.4 ‰, and -33 to -40 ‰, respectively, suggesting the dilution of the saline reservoir by karst-type freshwaters. A surplus of Ca2+ and Sr2+ ions with respect to a conservative mixing is ascribed to diagenetic reactions of the thermal waters with Cretaceous carbonates at depth. The measured Sr isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr ratio) ranges between 0.70803 and 0.70814; after correction for the surplus Sr, a 87Sr/86Sr ratio indicating Miocene paleo-seawater is obtained. The dissolved gases indicate long-lasting gas-water interactions with a deep-originated gas phase of crustal origin, dominated by CO2 and marked by a water TDIC isotopic composition in the range -5.9 to-8.8 and helium signature with 0.08 < R/Ra < 0.27, which is a typical range for the crust. A possible scenario for the Monfalcone thermal reservoir consists of Miocene marine paleowaters which infiltrated through the karstic voids formed within the prevalently Cretaceous carbonates during the upper Eocene emersion of the platform, and which were entrapped by the progressive burial by terrigenous sediments.

  13. Physics-Based Long-Period Ground Motion Scenarios in and Around the Po Plain Sedimentary Basin (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, I.; Morelli, A.; Casarotti, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unexpected large and prolonged shaking (> 80s) associated with long-period ground motion has been observed inside the Po Plain sedimentary basin (Northern Italy) during the two M~6, May 20-29, 2012, earthquakes. Long-period ground motion impacts on the seismic response of taller structures. It is hence important to understand the characteristics of long-period ground motion associated with the 3D structure and finite fault properties, in particular in those regions with deep sedimentary basins and a complex geological context. We implement a recent high resolution model of the Po basin (MAMBo), derived from geological constraints, in spectral-element code SPECFEM3D_cartesian (Peter et al., 2012). The simulations are numerically accurate for periods of 2 sec and longer, and incorporate complex 3D basin structure and topography as well as the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of source rupture. The response of our basin model has been evaluated for several instrumental earthquakes. Synthetics seismograms reproduce well amplitude and long duration, as well as envelope and coda, observed in paths that travel through sediments. We also evaluate ground motion produced by plausible earthquakes inferred from historical data, such as the Modena (1501) and Verona (1117) events that caused well-documented strong effects in a unusually wide areas with lengths of hundreds of kilometers. We test different representations of the seismic source, from point source to finite sources with different rupture histories, evaluating the impact on shaking amplitude. We compare our results with damage maps (when available) and with the GMPEs currently adopted for this area, evaluating the effects of finite fault and 3D propagation on ground shaking. We show that deterministic ground motion calculation can indeed provide information to be actively used to mitigate the effects of destructive earthquakes on critical infrastructures.

  14. Endolithic microbial communities in carbonate precipitates from serpentinite-hosted hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif (Ligurian Alps, Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Quéméneur, Marianne; Palvadeau, Alexandra; Postec, Anne; Monnin, Christophe; Chavagnac, Valérie; Ollivier, Bernard; Erauso, Gaël

    2015-09-01

    The Voltri Massif is an ophiolitic complex located in the Ligurian Alps close to the city of Genova (Northern Italy) where several springs discharge high pH (up to 11.7), low salinity waters produced by the active serpentinization of the ultramafic basement. Mixing of these hyperalkaline waters with the river waters along with the uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide forms brownish carbonate precipitates covering the bedrock at the springs. Diverse archaeal and bacterial communities were detected in these carbonate precipitates using 454 pyrosequencing analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Archaeal communities were dominated by members of potential methane-producing and/or methane-oxidizing Methanobacteriales and Methanosarcinales (Euryarchaeota) together with ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) similar to those found in other serpentinization-driven submarine and terrestrial ecosystems. Bacterial communities consisted of members of the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia phyla, altogether accounting for 92.2% of total retrieved bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Amongst Bacteria, potential chemolithotrophy was mainly associated with Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria classes, including nitrogen-fixing, methane-oxidizing or hydrogen-oxidizing representatives of the genera Azospirillum, Methylosinus, and Hydrogenophaga/'Serpentinomonas', respectively. Besides, potential chemoorganotrophy was attributed mainly to representatives of Actinobacteria and Planctomycetales phyla. The reported 16S rRNA gene data strongly suggested that hydrogen, methane, and nitrogen-based chemolithotrophy can sustain growth of the microbial communities inhabiting the carbonate precipitates in the hyperalkaline springs of the Voltri Massif, similarly to what was previously observed in other serpentinite-hosted ecosystems.

  15. Magnetic fabric results in weakly deformed deposits from extensional and compressional domains of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, Chiara; Cifelli, Francesca; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Mattei, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Since 1960s the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analysis has been used to reconstruct the deformation history of rocks, and many studies have been published regarding the relationships between magnetic fabric and tectonics. Nevertheless, an active scientific debate still exists on the tectonic or sedimentary origin of the magnetic fabric observed in sedimentary rocks in which visible evidence of deformation is lacking. In this work, we present results from AMS analyses carried out on weakly deformed fine-grained sediments from the Northern Apennines (Italy). We analyzed pre-, syn- and post- orogenic sequences, which differ in age, composition, depositional environment, degrees of deformation and tectonic regimes. The AMS fabric of these weakly deformed sediments is characterized by a magnetic foliation sub-parallel to the bedding plane, and a magnetic lineation well-defined in this plane. The sediments are characterized by strongly oblate magnetic susceptibility ellipsoids suggesting that magnetic fabric results from both compaction process and tectonic load during diagenesis and orogenic events. The orientation of the magnetic lineation with respect to the main tectonic elements depends on the regional tectonic context, and in particular it varies between extensional and compressional tectonic regimes. In the pre- and syn- orogenic deposits of the more internal arc of the Apennine chain, the lineation is mostly NNW-SSE, parallel to the main compressional structures (folds and thrusts), suggesting a tectonic origin of the magnetic lineation with an acquisition related to the Apennines compressional phases. Instead, in the post-orogenic deposits of the extensional basins developed along the Tuscan Tyrrhenian Margin, magnetic lineation is oriented ENE-WSW, almost perpendicular to the main extensional faults which represent the main deformation elements of the area. Our results indicate a distinctive linkage between the magnetic fabric and the local

  16. Internal fabric of a fossil erosive subduction channel in the Northern Apennines of Italy: implication for fluid flow and seismogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannucchi, P.; Remitti, F.; Bettelli, G.

    2006-12-01

    In the Northern Apennines of Italy, a shallow erosive subduction channel have been formed during the Tertiary transition from subduction to collision and it has been preserved by later deactivation and fossilization of the plate boundary. Here for the first time it is possible to observe the activations of a basal and roof décollement defining an erosive subduction channel containing material detached or reworked from the upper plate. The outcropping Apennine erosive subduction channel, about 500 m thick, is representative of a portion reaching about 150°C, a critical temperature recognized in most of the subduction zones as coincident with the updip limit of seismogenesis. The onset of structural features developed in the channel testify an evolution from diffusive deformation to strain localization. In particular as the material enters the subduction channel, compaction and pervasive extensional shear fractures accommodates the longitudinal compression. The geometry and kinematic of the extensional shear fractures define a polymodal fracture pattern that in 2D cut the rock in lozenge-shaped elements. We speculate that the onset of extensional features is representative of the weak nature of erosive plate boundaries. As the material is dragged down the channel shear localization is observed, but still in the extensional strain regime. Our results indicate that this second phase of deformation was characterized by high fluid pressure. The strong dynamic interaction between fluids, shear zones and state of eroded material influence fault mechanics and have maintained a locus of broad active deformation that influenced rupture propagation within the channel. Contraction develops only as result of further strengthening caused by the complete lithification of all the components in the subduction channel and suggests locked condition. Collectively these changes indicate favorable conditions for storage of elastic energy in the subduction channel that can be released

  17. Fecal carriage of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and carcass contamination in cattle at slaughter in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Silvia; Mora, Azucena; Blanco, Miguel; Blanco, Jesús E; Dahbi, Ghizlane; Ferreiro, María T; López, Cecilia; Alberghini, Leonardo; Albonetti, Sabrina; Echeita, Aurora; Trevisani, Marcello; Blanco, Jorge

    2007-06-01

    Feedlot cattle slaughtered at a large abattoir in northern Italy during 2002 were examined for intestinal carriage and carcass contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Carcass samples were taken following the excision method described in the Decision 471/2001/EC, and fecal material was taken from the colon of the calves after evisceration. Bacteria were isolated and identified according to the MFLP-80 and MFLP-90 procedures (Food Directorate's Health Canada's). Eighty-eight non-sorbitol-fermenting E. coli O157:H7 isolates were obtained from 12 of the 45 calves examined. In particular, E. coli O157:H7 isolates were found in 11 (24%) fecal and five (11%) carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all 11 fecal samples and five carcass samples carried eae-gamma1-positive E. coli O157:H7 isolates. In addition, genes encoding Shigatoxins were detected in O157:H7 isolates from nine and two of those 11 fecal and five carcasses, respectively. A representative group of 32 E. coli O157:H7 isolates was analyzed by phage typing and DNA macrorestriction fragment analysis (PFGE). Five phage types (PT8, PT32v, PT32, PT54, and PT not typable) and seven (I-VII) distinct restriction patterns of similarity >85% were detected. Up to three different O157:H7 strains in an individual fecal sample and up to four from the same animal could be isolated. These findings provide evidence of the epidemiological importance of subtyping more than one isolate from the same sample. Phage typing together with PFGE proved to be very useful tools to detect cross-contamination among carcasses and should therefore be included in HACCP programs at abattoirs. The results showed that the same PFGE-phage type E. coli O157:H7 profile was detected in the fecal and carcass samples from an animal, and also in two more carcasses corresponding to two animals slaughtered the same day.

  18. Seasonal and interannual variability of photosynthetic capacity in relation to leaf nitrogen in a deciduous forest plantation in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Giacomo; Vicinelli, Elisa; Ponti, Francesca; Cantoni, Lucia; Magnani, Federico

    2005-03-01

    Gas exchange was measured in a forest plantation dominated by Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Quercus robur L. in northern Italy, over three growing seasons that differed in water availability (2001, 2002 and 2003). The objectives were to: (1) determine variability in the photosynthetic parameters V(cmax) (maximum carboxylation capacity) and J(max) (maximum rate of electron transport) in relation to species, leaf ontogeny and drought; and (2) assess the potential of the photosynthesis-nitrogen relationship for estimating leaf photosynthetic capacity. Marked seasonal and interannual variability in photosynthetic capacity was observed, primarily caused by changes in leaf ontogeny and water stress. Relatively small differences were apparent between species. In the absence of water stress (year 2002), the seasonal patterns of V(cmax) and J(max) were characterized by a rapid increase during spring, a relatively steady state during summer and a rapid decline during autumn. In years with a moderate (year 2001) or a severe (year 2003) water stress, photosynthetic capacity decreased during the summer in proportion to drought intensity, without a parallel decline in leaf nitrogen content. The V(cmax)-nitrogen relationship was significantly affected by both leaf ontogeny and drought. As a consequence, the use of a single annual regression to predict V(cmax) from leaf nitrogen yielded good estimates only during the summer and in the absence of water stress. Irrespective of the mechanisms by which photosynthetic capacity is affected by water stress, its large seasonal and interannual variability is of great relevance for modeling the forest carbon cycle.

  19. Natural background levels and threshold values of chemical species in three large-scale groundwater bodies in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Antonio; Guadagnini, Laura; Marcaccio, Marco; Guadagnini, Alberto

    2012-05-15

    We analyze natural background levels (NBLs) and threshold values (TVs) of spatially distributed chemical species (NH(4), B and As) which may be a potential pressure and concern in three large scale alluvial and fluvio-deltaic aquifers at different depths of the Apennines and Po river plains in Emilia-Romagna, Northern Italy. Our results are based on statistical methodologies designed to separate the natural and anthropogenic contributions in monitored concentrations by modeling the empirical distribution of the detected concentration with a mixture of probability density functions. Available chemical observations are taken over a 20 years period and are associated with different depths and cover planar investigation scales of the order of hundreds of kilometers. High concentration values detected for NH(4) and B appear to be related to high natural background levels. Due to interaction with the host rock in different geochemical environments we observed that concentration vary in time and space (including in depth) consistently with the hydrogeochemical features and the occurrence of natural attenuation mechanisms in the analyzed reservoirs. Conversely, estimated As NBLs are not consistent with the conceptual model of the hydrogeochemical behavior of the systems analyzed and experimental evidences of As content in aquifer cores. This is due to the inability of these techniques to incorporate the complex dynamics of the processes associated with the specific hydrogeochemical setting. Statistical analyses performed upon aggregating the concentration data according to different time observation windows allow identifying temporal dynamics of NBLs and TVs of target compounds within the observation time frame. Our results highlight the benefit of a dynamic monitoring process and analysis of well demarcated groundwater bodies to update the associated NBLs as a function of the temporal dependence of natural processes occurring in the subsurface. Monitoring protocols could

  20. Interpretation of radon anomalies in seismotectonic and tectonic-gravitational settings: the south-eastern Crati graben (Northern Calabria, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tansi, C.; Tallarico, A.; Iovine, G.; Folino Gallo, M.; Falcone, G.

    2005-02-01

    The study area is located in the south-eastern part of the Crati valley (Northern Calabria, Italy), which is a graben bordered by N-S trending normal faults and crossed by NW-SE normal left-lateral faults. Numerous severe crustal earthquakes have affected the area in historical time. Present-day seismic activity is mainly related to the N-S faults located along the eastern border of the graben. In this area, much seismically induced deep-seated deformation has also been recognised. In the present paper, radon concentrations in soil gas have been measured and compared with (a) lithology, (b) Quaternary faults, (c) historical and instrumental seismicity, and (d) deep-seated deformation. The results highlight the following: There is no evidence of a strong correlation between lithology and the radon anomalies. A clear correlation between the N-S geometry of radon anomalies and the orientation of main fault systems has been recognised, except in the southernmost part of the area, where the radon concentrations are strongly affected by the superposition of the N-S and the NW-SE fault systems. Epicentral zones of instrumental and historical earthquakes correspond to the highest values of radon concentrations, probably indicating recent activated fault segments. In particular, high radon values occur in the zones struck by earthquakes in 1835, 1854, and 1870. Deep-seated gravitational deformation generally coincides with zones characterised by low radon concentrations. In the studied area, the anisotropic distribution of radon concentrations is congruent with the presence of neotectonic features and deep-seated gravitational phenomena. The method used in this study could profitably contribute towards either seismic risk or deep-seated gravitational deformation analyses.

  1. Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then

  2. Incidence of End-Stage Renal Disease in the Turkish-Cypriot Population of Northern Cyprus: A Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Thomas M. F.; Oygar, D. Deren; Gale, Daniel P.; Steenkamp, Retha; Nitsch, Dorothea; Neild, Guy H.; Maxwell, Patrick H.

    2013-01-01

    Background This is the first report of the incidence and causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) of the Turkish-Cypriot population in Northern Cyprus. Methods Data were collected over eight consecutive years (2004–2011) from all those starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) in this population. Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was calculated and comparisons made with other national registries. We collected DNA from the entire prevalent population. As an initial experiment we looked for two genetic causes of ESRD that have been reported in Greek Cypriots. Results Crude and age-standardised incidence at 90 days was 234 and 327 per million population (pmp) per year, respectively. The mean age was 63, and 62% were male. The age-adjusted prevalence of RRT in Turkish-Cypriots was 1543 pmp on 01/01/2011. The incidence of RRT is higher than other countries reporting to the European Renal Association – European Dialysis and Transplant Association, with the exception of Turkey. Diabetes is a major cause of ESRD in those under 65, accounting for 36% of incident cases followed by 30% with uncertain aetiology. 18% of the incident population had a family history of ESRD. We identified two families with thin basement membrane nephropathy caused by a mutation in COL4A3, but no new cases of CFHR5 nephropathy. Conclusions This study provides the first estimate of RRT incidence in the Turkish-Cypriot population, describes the contribution of different underlying diagnoses to ESRD, and provides a basis for healthcare policy planning. PMID:23349874

  3. Three rockslides shaped the valleys around Sterzing/Vipiteno, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Marc; Sanders, Diethard; Rodnight, Helena

    2010-05-01

    The post-Glacial development of mountain valleys near the city of Sterzing/Vipiteno (Italy) was profoundly influenced by instantaneous local base-level rise caused by rockslides. Each of the mass-wasting events had blocked the valley it descended into, resulting in rockslide-dammed lakes that became filled, or largely so, by lacustrine and fluvial deposits. Three rockslides have been investigated. (1) The Pfitsch-valley rockslide, situated in the tributary Pfitsch valley east of Sterzing, has an estimated volume of 0.38 km3 and covers an area of about 0.92 km2. This rockslide consists of calcareous phyllites and, locally, is lithified into a rockslide breccia (Sanders et al., 2010). The backwater lake of the rockslide mass shows well-developed shoreline terraces. Uranium/Thorium age-dating of post-rockslide calcite cements, found within the rockslide deposit, yielded a minimum age of 2686 ± 50 a respectively 11290 a ± 500. Additionally, the shoreline terraces and lack of glacial overprint of the rockslide indicate that the valley bottom was free of ice when the Pfitsch rockslide occurred. (2) The Ridnaun-valley rockslide descended into a tributary valley west of Sterzing. The Ridnaun rockslide is of an estimated volume of 0.6 km3, and covers an area of about 2.4 km2. The corresponding rockslide-dammed lake has been breached and run out an unknown interval of time ago; again, however, well-developed shoreline terraces are present that can be traced laterally over a few kilometres. The rockslide mass of Ridnaun is composed of paragneiss, phyllithic mica schist and, subordinately, of amphibolite and marble. Radiocarbon dating of organic remnants from a sandy deltaic succession shed into the former rockslide lake yielded an age of 8865 ± 50 a BP; this implies that the rockslide event is older. Again, however, there is no evidence for glacial overprint of the rockslide mass and its associated backwater deposits. Samples for optically-stimulated luminescence dating of

  4. Olivine-rich troctolites from the Internal Liguride ophiolites (Northern Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renna, M. R.; Tribuzio, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Internal Liguride ophiolites from Northern Apennine represent an intra-oceanic domain of the Middle to Late Jurassic Ligure-Piemontese basin. These ophiolites are characterised by morphological highs made of gabbroic rocks preserving intrusive relations with mantle peridotites (Cortesogno et al. 1987). The gabbroic plutons consist mostly of coarse-grained gabbros to olivine-gabbros and contain, at different stratigraphic levels, sill-like lenses of olivine-rich troctolites. These lenses are commonly tens of metres in thickness and hundred of metres in length. The olivine-rich troctolites are mainly composed of rounded to polygonal olivine (generally 70-90 vol%), anhedral plagioclase, minor poikilitic clinopyroxene and accessory spinel (Bezzi and Piccardo 1971). They are locally associated with layers (up to tens of centimetres in thickness) that vary modally from troctolite to anortosite and chromitite. One of the studied olivine-rich troctolite lenses shows a metre-scale layer displaying a "harrisite" pegmatoid texture, in which huge skeletal olivines (up to 30 cm) are intergrown with plagioclase (Bezzi and Piccardo 1971). In addition, gabbroic dykelets (mm- to cm-scale in thickness) displaying fuzzy contacts towards the olivine-rich troctolites occur in places. Olivine from the olivine-rich troctolites has forsterite ranging from 88 to 85 mol% and NiO concentrations of 0.3 wt%. Spinel has Cr# and TiO2 varying from 54 to 46 and from 2.7 to 1.0 wt%, respectively. Clinopyroxene displays Mg# ranging from 90 to 86 and high amounts of Al, Cr and Ti; its REE pattern is LREE-depleted with nearly flat HREE, thus showing equilibrium with MORB-type melts. Increasing total REE abundances in clinopyroxene are associated with the development of negative Eu anomaly. The outermost rim of clinopyroxene is Al- and Cr-depleted and Ti-enriched compared to the core. Accessory Cr- and Ti-rich amphibole is locally present, as rim around spinel and as inclusion within spinel. Other

  5. The traditional irrigation technique of Lake Garda lemon--houses (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barontini, Stefano; Vitale, Nicola; Fausti, Federico; Bettoni, Barbara; Bonati, Sara; Peli, Marco; Pietta, Antonella; Tononi, Marco; Ranzi, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Between 16th and 19th centuries the North-Western side of Lake Garda was seat of an important district which, at the time of its maximum splendour between 18th and 19th centuries, produced and exported lemons and citrus even toward the Northern Europe and the Russia. The limonaie del Garda (Lake-Garda lemon-houses), the local name of the citrus orchards, were settled on terraces built on steep slopes, with landfill taken from the Eastern side of the lake, and closed by greenhouses during late autumn and winter in order to protect the cultivations. The terraces were built nearby streams, they were South-Eastern exposed and protected by walls from the cold winds. Thanks in fact to the Lake Garda microclimate, lemon trees were not cultivated in pots, as in the typical orangeries of mid-latitudes Europe, but directly in the soil. Here the citrus cultivation technique reached a remarkably high degree of standardisation, with local cultivar as the Madernino or lemon from Maderno, and it involved, as in modern industrial districts, all the surrounding land in order to satisfy the needing of required materials to build the terraces, the walls, the greenhouses and the wooden frames to hold the branches laden with fruits. Due to the great water requirement of lemon trees during summer, which is estimated to range from 150 to 300 ℓ every ten days, the water management played a key role in the cultivation technique. The traditional irrigation technique was standardized as well. During our surveys, we observed that most of the lemon-houses still conserve little stone flumes along the walls upslope to the terraces, with spillways every adult tree, i.e. about every 4 m. The flumes were filled with water taken from an upstream reservoir, built nearby a stream. The spillways were activated with a backwater obtained by means of a sand bag placed within the flume, just downstream to the spillway itself. In order to avoid any excavation, spilled water was driven to the base of each

  6. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes among Children and Adolescents in Italy between 2009 and 2013: The Role of a Regional Childhood Diabetes Registry

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, F.; Cappelli, M. G.; Vece, M. M.; Caputi, G.; Delvecchio, M.; Prato, R.; Martinelli, D.; Workgroup, Apulian Childhood-Onset Diabetes Registry

    2016-01-01

    Background. Surveillance represents a key strategy to control type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). In Italy, national data are missing. This study aimed at evaluating the incidence of T1DM in subjects <18 year olds in Apulia (a large southeastern region, about 4,000,000 inhabitants) and assessing the sensitivity of the regional Registry of Childhood-Onset Diabetes (RCOD) in the 2009–2013 period. Methods. We performed a retrospective study matching records from regional Hospital Discharge Registry (HDR), User Fee Exempt Registry (UFER), and Drugs Prescription Registry (DPR) and calculated T1DM incidence; completeness of each data source was also estimated. In order to assess the RCOD sensitivity we compared cases from the registry to those extracted from HDR-UFER-DPR matching. Results. During 2009–2013, a total of 917 cases (about 184/year) in at least one of the three sources and an annual incidence of 25.2 per 100,000 were recorded, lower in infant, increasing with age and peaked in 5- to 9-year-olds. The completeness of DPR was 78.7%, higher than that of UFER (64.3%) and of HDR (59.6%). The RCOD's sensitivity was 39.05% (360/922; 95% CI: 34.01%–44.09%). Conclusions. Apulia appeared as a high-incidence region. A full, active involvement of physicians working in paediatric diabetes clinics would be desirable to improve the RCOD performance. PMID:27092312

  7. Late Glacial to Holocene environmental variabilities: A new multi-proxy paleolimnological study of sedimentary sequences from Como (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höbig, N.; Martinelli, E.; Motella, S.; Michetti, A. M.; Livio, F.; Tinner, W.; Reicherter, K.; Castelletti, L.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Como (northern Italy) is the deepest Italian lake, reaching a depth of about 425 m. The lambda-shaped lake expands about 45 km in NE-SW direction. Southwards of the hydrologically closed western branch, two sediment cores of 70 m (S1) and 65 m length (S2) were taken in the year 2005 close to the cathedral of Como (Piazza Verdi). The drilling sites are located in the middle of the Southern Alps, some 300 m from the present-day lakeshore. The cores provide the first detailed Late Glacial to Holocene multi-proxy record for the Lake Como basin. Our research is aimed at investigating the environmental and geological evolution of the Insubria Region. The multi-proxy study of the stratigraphic sequences contain geophysical, geotechnical, sedimentological, paleobotanical, and radiocarbon analyses. They have been performed for core S1 and are still in progress on core S2. With this data the working group focuses on two main issues. The first topic is the reconstruction of the natural and anthropogenic processes controlling the ground subsidence in the Como urban area (e.g., Comerci et al., 2007) and another aim is to reconstruct vegetation and land-use dynamics. In particular, 150 samples of vegetal macroremains have been collected in the palustrine deposits along S1 core, down to 31,00 m. Below this depth (dated 14C 12,496 ± 55 yr BP - 15,050 - 14,250 cal yr BP), the amount of plant macroremains in the sediment drops dramatically. The taxonomic determination was carried out on more than 800 macroremains. They are represented by fragments of wood, leaves, needles, seeds, fruits, mosses and tiny charcoals (Motella, 2009, unpublished PhD Thesis). Picea/Larix, Pinus sp., Juniperus with Betula, found in the deeper levels (30.80 - 30.00 m), are the first arboreal taxa that colonized the shores of Lake Como, and show that the reforestation began in this area about 16,000 years ago. During the early Holocene (25.10 m) Abies alba expanded and further upwards the sequence

  8. Detection of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) in bovine dairy herds in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Trevisani, M; Mancusi, R; Delle Donne, G; Bacci, C; Bassi, L; Bonardi, S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the presence of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli in dairy farms authorized to sell raw milk and other farms, located in the same area, which sell milk to industry or use it to produce Parmesan or Grana cheese. Our research was focused on the serogroups O157 and O26, which are the most common in human cases in Italy and genetic markers that characterize the strains that can cause hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (EHEC) in humans. Overall, 255 bulk-milk and 225 milk filter samples were screened for the presence of Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2), O157 and O26 serogroups by using PCR. The samples were collected in 193 bovine dairy farms located in Northern Italy, including 32 farms selling raw milk to consumers. According to the preliminary PCR screening test, 32 out of 255 (12.5%; CI95%, 8.7% to 17.3%) bulk milk samples and 68 out of 225 (30.2%; CI95%, 24.3% to 36.7%) milk filters were positive for stx genes. Of the 32 milk samples that were stx-positive, 4 (1.6%, CI95%, 0.4% to 4%) were also positive by PCR for the rfbEO157 gene and 6 (2.4%, CI95%, 0.9% to 5.1%) were positive for the wzxO26 gene. The culture detection method, which was based on the immunomagnetic separation, achieved isolation rates of E. coli serogroups O157 and O26 in 25-67% of the milk samples that tested positive by PCR for these serogroups. STEC O26 was detected in one milk filter (1.6%) from a farm that sells raw milk to consumers directly and one sample (1.4%) of bulk milk intended for pasteurization. The presence of STEC O157 was also detected in 2 milk filters (1.7%) from farms that use milk to produce Grana cheese. All the STEC stains O157 and O26 isolated carried the genes eae and espK and genes belonging to the pathogenicity island OI-122 (efa1/2, sen, pagC), which are markers suitable for screening the human virulent EHEC strains. These virulence markers were also detected in the three strains of stx-negative E. coli O

  9. Sedimentological and geochronological evidences of anthropogenic impacts on river basins in the Northern Latium coastal area (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2015-04-01

    In this work we aimed to compare sedimentological and geochronological data from three sediment core samples (MIG50, MRT50, and GRT50) taken in the Northern Latium (Italy) coastal area, at -50 m depth, to data regarding rainfall, river flows and the land use in the three most important hydrographic basins (Mignone, Marta and Fiora) and in the coastal area. Different trends of sediment mass accumulation rate (MAR) are detected in the three cores: a strongly increasing trend was identified in MIG50 and MRT50 cores while GRT50 doesn't show significant variation. Data from the sedimentological analysis of GRT50 core identify a progressive decrease in the sandy component, which declined from about 30% to the current level of 7% over the last 36 years, while MRT50 and MIG50 cores (mainly composed by pelitic fraction > 95%) showed slight variations of textural ratio between silt and clay. According to the general decrease of pluviometric trend observed in Italy, related to teleconnection pattern tendency (NAO), the statistical analysis of rain identified significative decrease only in the Fiora river basin, whereas in the other two locations the decrease was not as significant. Regarding the Fiora river flow, a significative decreasing trend of average flow is detected, while the flood regime remained unaffected over the past 30 years. The analysis of the land use shows that the human activities are increased of 6-10% over the available time steps (1990 - 2006) in Fiora and Mignone river basins, while the Marta river basin has a strong human impact since 1990 highligting more than 80% of artificial soil covering. The largest variation is observed on the Fiora basin (10%) where the antrhopic activities have expanded to an area of about 85 Km2. Moreover, in the last ten years a large beach nourishment in 2004 (570000 m3) and dredging activities in the early second half of 2000s (1000000 m3 moved) were performed in Marina di Tarquinia beach and in front of the Torrevaldaliga

  10. Reconstruction of full glacial environments and summer temperatures from Lago della Costa, a refugial site in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samartin, Stéphanie; Heiri, Oliver; Kaltenrieder, Petra; Kühl, Norbert; Tinner, Willy

    2016-07-01

    Vegetation and climate during the last ice age and the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, ∼23,000-19,000 cal BP) were considerably different than during the current interglacial (Holocene). Cold climatic conditions and growing ice-sheets during the last glaciation radically reduced forest extent in Europe to a restricted number of so-called "refugia", mostly located in the southern part of the continent. On the basis of paleobotanical analyses the Euganian Hills (Colli Euganei) in northeastern Italy have previously been proposed as one of the northernmost refugia of temperate trees (e.g. deciduous Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus excelsior, Acer, Abies alba, Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus and Castanea) in Europe. In this study we provide the first quantitative, vegetation independent summer air temperature reconstruction for Northern Italy spanning the time ∼31,000-17,000 cal yr BP, which covers the coldest periods of the last glacial, including the LGM and Heinrich stadials 1 to 3. Chironomids preserved in a lake sediment core from Lago della Costa (7m a.s.l.), a small lake at the south-eastern edge of the Euganean Hills, allowed quantitative reconstruction of Full and Late Glacial summer air temperatures using a combined Swiss-Norwegian temperature inference model based on chironomid assemblages from 274 lakes. Chironomid and pollen evidence from Lago della Costa derives from finely stratified autochthonous organic gyttja sediments, which excludes major sediment mixing or reworking. After reconstructing paleo-temperatures, we address the question whether climate conditions were warm enough to permit the local survival of temperate tree species during the LGM and whether local expansions and pollen-inferred contractions of temperate tree taxa coincided with chironomid-inferred climatic changes. Our results suggest that chironomids at Lago della Costa have responded to major climatic fluctuations such as temperature decreases during the LGM and Heinrich stadials. The

  11. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis.

  12. Estimating the incidence of connective tissue diseases and vasculitides in a defined population in Northern Savo area in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elfving, P; Marjoniemi, O; Niinisalo, H; Kononoff, A; Arstila, L; Savolainen, E; Rutanen, J; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, O

    2016-07-01

    Objective of the study was to evaluate the annual incidence and distribution of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides during 2010. All units practicing rheumatology in the Northern Savo area, Finland, participated in the study by collecting data on newly diagnosed adult patients with autoimmune connective tissue disease or vasculitis over 1-year period. Seventy-two cases with autoimmune connective tissue disease were identified. The annual incidence rates were as follows: systemic lupus erythematosus 3.4/100,000 (95 % CI 1.4-7.0), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies 1.9 (0.5-5.0), systemic sclerosis 4.4 (2.0-8.3), mixed connective tissue disease 1.0 (0.1-3.5), Sjögren's syndrome 10.7 (6.7-16.1) and undifferentiated connective tissue disease 13.6 (9.0-19.6). The annual incidence rates among vasculitis category were as follows: antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis 1.5/100,000 (95 % CI 0.3-4.3), central nervous system vasculitis 0.5 (0-2.7) and Henoch-Schönlein purpura 1.5 (0.3-4.3). The annual incidence of giant cell arteritis in the age group of 50 years or older was 7.5/100,000 (95 % CI 3.2-14.8). The longest delay from symptom onset to diagnosis occurred in systemic sclerosis. The incidences of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and vasculitides were comparable with those in published literature. The present study showed female predominance in all connective tissue diseases, excluding idiopathic inflammatory muscle diseases and mean age at onset of disease around 50 years of age. Despite improved diagnostic tools, diagnostic delay is long especially among patients with systemic sclerosis. PMID:27053177

  13. Sedimentological and micromorphological investigation on the fill of the Bronze age wooden pool at Noceto La Torretta (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerboni, Andrea; Cremaschi, Mauro

    2010-05-01

    A recent excavation at Noceto La Torretta (Parma, northern Italy) revealed an exceptional archaeological structure, composed of a wooden pool, quadrangular in shape, about 12 x 6 m, up to 4 m deep. Since the beginning the pool appears as an unicum in the Prehistory of Europe (Bernabò Brea and Cremaschi, 2009); furthermore, it represents an important naturalistic and environmental archive and the sedimentary infilling undergone to sedimentological and micromorphological analyses. The Noceto La Torretta site is placed on the hydrographic left side of the Taro river, on the northernmost fringe of the Pleistocene Apennine terraces. On the basis of pottery type it is possible to attribute the structure to the Terramare culture (beginning of the advanced phase of the Middle Bronze Age, second half of XV century a.C.). Six radiocarbon dates are available up to now, and, once calibrated, they put the building and activity of the wooden pool between 1420 and 1320 cal. years BP. On the basis of sedimentological and micromorphological analyses (Cremaschi et al., 2009) the stratigraphic sequence could be divided into four groups of units. A) Upper deposits, silty and sandy sediments deposited by colluviation in shallow water, interlayered by charcoal and diatom rich layers. B) Organic deposits, formed in deeper and anoxic water. C) Gyttja in a sandy-silty matrix; three main facies are present: pair of organic and inorganic laminae (O/I), poorly laminated gyttja, anoxic and clastic layers. D) basal deposits. Considering the short time of the deposition inside the pool and the recurrent sedimentary facies, a seasonal control in sedimentation should be inferred. The gyttja-rich laminae should indicate the summer season, with intense biological activity inside and outside the pool, promoting a strong production of organics, while the anoxic and clastic layers are possibly related to the winter season (without production of organic matter). Finally, the O/I laminae represent the

  14. Changes in land use and rainfall-triggered rainfall: a case study in Oltrepo Pavese (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisina, Claudia; Visconti, Luca

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall-triggered shallow landslides are the most damaging among the all landslide phenomena. Land use change has been recognized as one of the most important factor influencing the occurrence of rainfall-triggered landslides. On April 27th 2009 a strong rainfall event triggered hundreds of shallow landslides in the western sector of Oltrepo Pavese area, which has an extension of about 800 km2 and is located in Northern Apennines, Italy. The soils involved in the slides were sandy silt and clay derived from the weathering of marls and conglomerates. Land use consists of cultivated areas with extensive vineyards. The events, which involved one fatality and several injured people, provided an opportunity to improve knowledge on the causes of shallow landslides in the study area and an analysis of the relationship between shallow landslide distribution and the changes in land use was carried out. Digital aerial photographs with a spatial resolution of 15 cm were taken in May 2009 and they were used to identify the location and the typologies of the landslides. Results obtained through an extensive field survey (determination of the slide body and runout geometries and the geological and geotechnical characteristics of the soils involved in landslides) combined with photo-interpretation revealed that the causes of the slides involved geological, geotechnical, hydrogeological and above all anthropogenic processes. Three sets of aerial photos, taken in 1980, 2003 and 2009, were the basis for constructing the land use maps and to study the influence of land use changes in shallow landslide development. Significant changes occurred in land use, particularly in the agricultural practices, during studied period and they had caused a significant modification of the runoff conditions. Till the 80s traditional vineyard plantations presented tillage perpendicular to the maximum slope gradient; agricultural works were undertaken in the traditional manner with weeding and digging

  15. Channel response to extreme floods: Insights on controlling factors from six mountain rivers in northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surian, Nicola; Righini, Margherita; Lucía, Ana; Nardi, Laura; Amponsah, William; Benvenuti, Marco; Borga, Marco; Cavalli, Marco; Comiti, Francesco; Marchi, Lorenzo; Rinaldi, Massimo; Viero, Alessia

    2016-11-01

    This work addresses the geomorphic response of mountain rivers to extreme floods, exploring the relationships between morphological changes and controlling factors. The research was conducted on six tributaries of the Magra River (northern Apennines, Italy) whose catchments were affected by an extreme flood (estimated recurrence interval > 100 years in most of the basins) on 25 October 2011. An integrated approach was deployed to study this flood, including (i) analysis of channel width changes by comparing aerial photographs taken before and after the flood, (ii) estimate of peak discharges in ungauged streams, (iii) detailed mapping of landslides and analysis of their connectivity with the channel network. Channel widening occurred in 35 reaches out of 39. In reaches with channel slope < 4% (here defined as nonsteep reaches), average and maximum ratios of post-flood and pre-flood channel width were 5.2 and 19.7 (i.e., channel widened from 4 to 82 m), respectively. In steep reaches (slope ≥ 4%), widening was slightly less intense (i.e., average width ratio = 3.4, maximum width ratio = 9.6). The relationships between the degree of channel widening and seven controlling factors were explored at subreach scale by using multiple regression models. In the steep subreaches characterized by higher confinement, the degree of channel widening (i.e., width ratio) showed relatively strong relationships with cross-sectional stream power, unit stream power (calculated based on pre-flood channel width), and lateral confinement, with coefficients of multiple determination (R2) ranging between 0.43 and 0.67. The models for the nonsteep subreaches provided a lower explanation of widening variability, with R2 ranging from 0.30 to 0.38; in these reaches a significant although weak relation was found between the degree of channel widening and the hillslope area supplying sediment to the channels. Results indicate that hydraulic variables alone are not sufficient to satisfactorily

  16. Hydro-chemical anomalies in clay-rich landslides: evidences from case studies in the northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervi, Federico; Ronchetti, Francesco; Bogaard, Thom

    2010-05-01

    The presence of deep faults can affect the groundwater circulation. They can control the rising of deep fluids to the ground surface. Normally, deep fluids have a chemical composition completely different from the shallow groundwater; depending on the travel depth, temperature and pressure conditions, mineral composition of the rocks crossed and time of interaction. This can affect the hydro-chemical characteristics of near-surface groundwater. Eventually, it can change the fingerprint of groundwater circulating in landslides and it can influence long-term pore-pressure fluctuations, playing a role on slope stability. In the northern Apennines of Italy, several large-scale earth slides - earth flows affecting faulted clayey formations are believed to be somehow influenced by deep fluids. The study was aimed at detecting hydro-chemical anomalies in groundwater circulating in 3 landslides that have resumed activity several times in the last decades, and that are occurring in areas of potential deep-fluid influence (Silla, Ca' Lita, Vedriano). More than 30 water-samples were collected at different depth in the landslide body and in the underlying bedrock, owing to the presence of several piezometers. Physical and chemical analyses comprised determination of temperature, conductibility, pH, main cations and anions (K+, Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42 - and HCO-). Isotopic analyses (oxygen and deuterium) are still ongoing. Results allowed discriminating between a Ca-Carbonate hydrotype (400-600 μS/cm), that is interpreted as being directly connected with rainfall infiltration, and a Na-sulfate-rich hydrotype, that is interpreted as the evidence of deep fluids upflow. This would actually be the result of the mixing between two extreme hydrotypes: Na-bicarbonate water and Ca-sulfate waters, both characterized by high salinity, over 4000 μS/cm. The first is typical of geothermal water in the Apennines and is linked to the infiltration at great depth of rain water and the

  17. Bryozoan beds in northern Italy as a shallow-water expression of environmental changes during the Oligocene isotope event 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo-Vogel, David; Bover-Arnal, Telm; Strasser, André

    2016-01-01

    Shifts in carbonate-producing biotic communities in the geological record provide evidence of past environmental changes in the neritic realm. The shallow-marine Calcare di Nago Formation exposed in the San Valentino section (northern Italy) covers the Late Eocene and Earliest Oligocene. The succession is characterized by the occurrence of light-dependent biota such as coralline algae and larger benthic foraminifera. In the uppermost part of the section, however, the fossil association is dominated by bryozoans, which are filter-feeder organisms. This ca. 12 m thick interval locally contains up to 86% bryozoans, while coralline algae as well as larger benthic foraminifera are absent. Coralline algae and nummulitid foraminifera recover in the upper part of the bryozoan beds, whereas orthophragminids do not recover. The gradual disappearance of larger foraminifera and coralline algae within the bryozoan-dominated deposits is coeval with a pronounced positive shift in δ13C. Based on its biostratigraphic position, this positive shift is interpreted to be linked to the positive shift in δ13C recognized in deep-sea records shortly above the Eocene-Oligocene boundary, which in turn is associated to the positive shift in δ18O leading to the Oi-1 (Oligocene isotope event 1) cooling phase. Total phosphorus content increases in the bryozoan beds, suggesting enhanced nutrient supply to the neritic ecosystem. This phosphorous peak is coeval with the globally recognized increment in ocean productivity around the Oi-1 and δ13C positive shift. Thus, disappearance of light-dependent biota and the dominance of bryozoans in the platform carbonates studied are interpreted to result not necessarily from a deepening of the depositional environment but from the combination of lower sea-surface temperatures and the deterioration of underwater light conditions on account of elevated turbidity in surface waters, resulting from enhanced primary productivity. As bryozoan beds occur in

  18. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy) based on two fall/winter field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, V.; Bacco, D.; Castellazzi, S.; Ricciardelli, I.; Vecchietti, R.; Zigola, C.; Pietrogrande, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    The carbonaceous aerosol in Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy) was characterized in two fall/winter monitoring campaigns conducted through the years 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were collected at three monitoring stations describing urban background (main city Bologna, MS, Parma and Rimini) and one rural background site (San Pietro, SP). OC and EC values were measured by the thermal-optical transmittance method (TOT). Low flow-rate sampling strategy (24 m3 air volume per day) was used to reduce loading of light absorbing material on the filter surface in order to ensure the correct OC/EC discrimination. The TC values measured in winter 2011-2012 ranged from 9.8 μgC m- 3 at San Pietro to 12.0 μgC m- 3 at Parma, consisting of OC from 8.6 μgC m- 3 at SP to 9.9 μgC m- 3 at MS and EC from 1.3 μgC m- 3 at SP to 2.5 μgC m- 3 at Rimini. In winter 2012-2013, lower values were in general found with TC values ranging from 7.8 to 9.1 μgC m- 3 consisting of OC from 5.1 to 7.0 μgC m- 3 and EC from 1.5 to 2.2 μgC m- 3. Such differences can be likely explained by higher pollutant emissions related to domestic heating in colder fall/winter 2011/2012 (mean temperature ≈ 2 °C in comparison with ≈ 7 °C in winter 2012/2013). This hypothesis is supported by high levels of levoglucosan, as unambiguous tracer for biomass burning emission, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons related to combustion (levoglucosan ≃ 1000 ng m- 3 and burning PAHs ≃ 4 ng m- 3 at MS and SP sites).

  19. Paleomagnetism of Aptian Albian sections from the Northern Apennines (Italy): Implications for the 150 100 Ma apparent polar wander of Adria and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satolli, Sara; Besse, Jean; Calamita, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    We computed a new 120 to 100 Ma high-resolution Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) for Adria from magnetostratigraphic studies in the Northern Apennines (Italy). We analyzed 274 cores from three Early Aptian-Late Albian sections of the Marne a Fucoidi Fm., belonging to the sedimentary succession deposited above the Adria passive margin during Meso-Cenozoic time. To solve the problem of tectonic rotations induced during the Apennine orogenesis, we computed relative rotations between sections and realigned them into a common declination reference frame (Bosso, Italy). These new data were added to the previous 150-125 Ma segment computed from the same region [Satolli, S., Besse, J., Speranza, F., Calamita, F., 2007. New 125-150 Ma high-resolution Apparent Polar Wander Path for Adria from magnetostratigraphic sections in Umbria-Marche (Northern Apennines, Italy): Timing and duration of the global Jurassic-Cretaceous hairpin turn. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 257, 329-342. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2007.03.009.] to get a very high-resolution 100 to 150 Ma APWP for Adria. The comparison of our APWP with the African APWP segment of Besse and Courtillot computed with 10 Myr sliding window [Besse, J., Courtillot, V., 2002. Apparent and true polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr. J. Geophys. Res. 107. doi:10.1029/2000JB000050.] leads to the following conclusions: 1) our segment (after a 25° clockwise rotation of the Bosso reference frame) is in very good agreement with the African APWP, as shown by a very similar time evolution of inclinations and declinations, most often statistically indistinct; 2) this agreement vindicates our previous model of structural unit rotation for older periods [Satolli, S., Besse, J., Speranza, F., Calamita, F., 2007. New 125-150 Ma high-resolution Apparent Polar Wander Path for Adria from magnetostratigraphic sections in Umbria-Marche (Northern Apennines, Italy): Timing and duration of the global Jurassic

  20. Detection, enumeration and characterization of Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in pig tonsils at slaughter in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Pongolini, Stefano; Morganti, Marina; Tagliabue, Silvia; Bacci, Cristina; Brindani, Franco

    2014-05-01

    Tonsils from 150 pigs slaughtered at 270 days or older were tested for Yersinia enterocolitica with different cultural methods. Samples were collected in three different abattoirs of Northern Italy between April and November 2012 and were analysed by direct plating on cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar and by enrichment procedures following the ISO 10273:2003 reference method. Twenty-three (15.3%) samples were positive: 22 tonsils (14.7%) were positive for human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 4/O:3 and one tonsil (0.7%) for Y. enterocolitica bio-serotype 1A/7,8-8,8,19. Seventeen samples out of 23 (73.9%) were positive by direct plating method. Among the enrichment procedures, the best recovery rate (8 positives out of 23; 34.8%) was obtained by the two-day enrichment in peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth followed by plating on CIN agar plates. The two-day enrichment in PSB followed by potassium hydroxide (KOH) treatment before plating onto CIN agar gave 7 positives out of 23 (30.4%), decreasing to 3 positives (13.0%) without KOH treatment. The worst results were obtained by prolonged (five days) enrichment in PSB, with or without KOH treatment, followed by plating on CIN agar: 4.3% (1 out of 23) and 0.0% recovery rates, respectively. The mean concentration was 1.9 × 10(4)CFU/g, with a minimum of 1.0 × 10(2)CFU/g and a maximum of 5.8 × 10(4)CFU/g, thus demonstrating that tonsils may play an important role in contamination of pluck sets, carcasses, and slaughterhouse environment. Prevalence of virulence genes among the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates was as follows: 12/22 (54.5%) for yadA, 21/22 (95.5%) for ail, 21/22 (95.5%) for inv and 22/22 (100%) for ystA. All Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were sensitive to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin and ceftazidime and resistant to ampicillin and cephalotin. High proportions of 4/O:3 isolates (95%) were sensitive to cefotaxime, gentamicin, kanamicin and nalidixic acid. High levels of

  1. Reconstructing hidden landscapes. DC and EM prospections in the Terramara Santa Rosa (bronze age settlement - northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mele, M.; Cremaschi, M.; Giudici, M.; Bassi, A.; Pizzi, C.; Lozej, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Terramara Santa Rosa is an archaeological site, located in the Po alluvial plain (northern Italy), which has been explored since 1986. As as seen by aerial photograph, Santa Rosa site is constituted by two moated villages of the Middle and Late Bronze Ages (1600-1150 BC), delimited by earth rampart. The smaller and older settlement (Villaggio Piccolo; VP), to the North, has a nearly circular shape and was founded during the Middle Bronze age, whereas the larger and younger one, delimited by a wide U-shaped rampart, is mostly dates to the Recent Bronze age. These settlements are surrounded by wide, asymmetrical moats, smooth and gradual on the exterior, steep and inaccessible on the village side, running parallel to the villages fences and being part of a complex hydraulic system; stratigraphic excavation involved the VP, at the transition between the VG and the hydraulic system, to the South. As the Bronze landscape is today sealed by flood plain clays, up to 3-4 m thick, which hide the archeological features and constitutes the present-day topography, a large-scale geophysical survey was planned to integrate to map the buried structure of the settlements and surrounding areas and to yield useful information to plan future archeological excavations. At this purpose, Direct Current Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI) and Electro-Magnetic Induction (EMI) geophysical prospections were applied to reveal the near-surface, lateral and vertical heterogeneities in order to improve the likelihood of locating the villages, the moats and other hidden targets in the surroundings. 70 ERI profiles, with Wenner and Wenner-Schlumberger array were collected with roll-along technique and electrode spacing ranging from 1 m to 3 m, for an exploration depth of 15 m below the ground surface and a total length greater than 9000 m. EMI survey was conducted over a 16 ha wide area in order to map shallow heterogeneities at the entire site scale. Data acquisition was conducted with a

  2. Asbestos exposure during quarrying and processing of serpentinites: a case study in Valmalenco, Central Alps, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavallo, A.; Rimoldi, B.

    2012-04-01

    Serpentinites are metamorphic rocks derived from ultramafics such as peridotites (lherzolites and/or harzburgites), with a typical mineralogical assemblage of antigorite, olivine, diopside and minor magnetite, chlorite and chrysotile. If the rock mass has good geotechnical properties, these stones are quarried because of their wide variety of green shades and outstanding technical properties. Excellent stones are produced in the Malenco Valley, Central Alps (northern Italy, Sondrio): here the geological set-up is dominated by the ultramafic Malenco massif (lower crust-mantle complex), exposed at the Penninic to Austroalpine boundary zone. Different processing operations give origin to valuable products like stoves, funeral monuments, design home appliances; important building element as roof slabs, tiles for floor and wall coverings constitute the main commercial line of production. In this area, good quality long fibre chrysotile asbestos was mined since the XIX century, till the seventies. The asbestos fissures (mostly slip-fiber) are well known in Valmalenco, associated to an important ENE-WSW striking fracture and hydrothermal vein system. Some actual serpentinite quarries "cross" at times tunnels of the old asbestos mines, because the fracture and vein system "guides" the extraction. At present time, this area represents an excellent example of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). For these reasons, workers' exposure to asbestos during quarrying and processing cannot be ruled out, and must be assessed according to national laws. From 2004 to nowadays, the INAIL Regional Management of Lombardia, with the collaboration of University of Milan-Bicocca, carried out extensive monitoring campaigns both in quarries and in processing laboratories. More than 300 massive samples (rocks and veins) and 250 airborne dust samples were collected during the surveys. One of the main problems in the study of massive serpentinites is the accurate identification of the different

  3. Comparison between different approaches of modeling shallow landslide susceptibility: a case history in the area of Oltrepo Pavese, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zizioli, D.; Meisina, C.; Valentino, R.; Montrasio, L.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow landslides are triggered by intense rainfalls of short duration. Even though they involve only small portions of hilly and mountainous terrains, they are the cause of heavy damages to people and infrastructures. The identification of shallow landslide prone-areas is, therefore, a necessity to plan mitigation measures. On the 27th and 28th of April 2009, the area of Oltrepo Pavese, northern Italy, was affected by a very intense rainfall event, which caused a great number of shallow landslides. These instability phenomena meanly occurred on slopes taken up by vineyards and caused damages to many roads and one human loss. On the basis of aerial photographs taken immediately after the event and field surveys, it was possible to detect more than 1,600 landslides. After acquiring all the information dealing with topography, geotechnical properties of the involved soils and land use, a susceptibility analysis on territorial scale has been carried out. The paper deals with the application and the comparison, on the study area, of different methods for the susceptibility assessment: a) the physically-based stability models TRIGRS (Transient Rainfall Infiltration and Grid-Based Regional Slope-Stability Model, Baum et al., 2008), which is designed for modelling the potential occurrences of shallow landslides by incorporating the transient pressure response to rainfall and downward infiltration processes and SLIP (Shallow Landslides Instability Prediction; Montrasio, 2000; Montrasio and Valentino, 2008), which allows to dynamically take into account the connection between the stability condition of a slope, the characteristics of the soil, and the rainfall amounts, including also previous rainfalls; b) the logistic regression and the Neural Artificial Network (ANN) that take into account some important predisposing factors in the study area (slope angle, landform classification, the potential solar radiation, soil thickness, permeability, topographic ruggedness index

  4. How to comprehensively evaluate river corridor conditions? A comparison of different biotic and morphological indices in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golfieri, Bruno; Surian, Nicola; Hardersen, Sönke; Maiolini, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of river conditions is crucial for planning appropriate management actions. The European Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC (WFD) requires the assessment of biological, physical-chemical and hydromorphological elements to define the ecological status of rivers. The WFD suggests the use of different bioindicators (i.e. benthic macroinvertebrates, diatoms, aquatic macrophytes and fish), the so called "biological quality elements" (BQEs). However, recent studies showed that BQEs-based indices have two main limitations: (i) their standard application is limited to flowing channels and (ii) they are not sensitive to hydromorphological alteration. Hydromorphological conditions are usually evaluated applying methods for physical habitat assessment (i.e. the River Habitat Survey or derived methods) that consist in site-scale inventories of river forms and anthropic structures. The lack of consideration of wider spatial (i.e. reach or catchment scale) and temporal scales (e.g. channel evolution over the last 50-100 years) make such methods inadequate for a sound diagnosis of morphological alterations. The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the dragonfly-based Odonate River Index (ORI) were developed in the recent years to overcome the above-mentioned limitations and to assess the condition of the whole river corridor (i.e. the channel and its adjacent floodplain) at reach scale. In this study we correlated the assessments of MQI, ORI and two BQEs-based biotic indices (i.e. STAR_ICMi for benthic macroinvertebrates and ICMi for diatoms) in 15 lowland river reaches in northern Italy. The selected reaches are characterized by a wide range of morphological degradation. MQI and ORI were highly correlated, probably because both methods work at reach scale and consider the integrity of the whole river corridor, either in terms of morphology or considering ecological aspects. In contrast, no significant relationships were found between MQI and ORI and the BQEs

  5. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time.

  6. Remote sensing of climatic anomalies and West Nile virus incidence in the northern Great Plains of the United States.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Ting-Wu; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    The northern Great Plains (NGP) of the United States has been a hotspot of West Nile virus (WNV) incidence since 2002. Mosquito ecology and the transmission of vector-borne disease are influenced by multiple environmental factors, and climatic variability is an important driver of inter-annual variation in WNV transmission risk. This study applied multiple environmental predictors including land surface temperature (LST), the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and actual evapotranspiration (ETa) derived from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products to establish prediction models for WNV risk in the NGP. These environmental metrics are sensitive to seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in temperature and precipitation, and are hypothesized to influence mosquito population dynamics and WNV transmission. Non-linear generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to evaluate the influences of deviations of cumulative LST, NDVI, and ETa on inter-annual variations of WNV incidence from 2004-2010. The models were sensitive to the timing of spring green up (measured with NDVI), temperature variability in early spring and summer (measured with LST), and moisture availability from late spring through early summer (measured with ETa), highlighting seasonal changes in the influences of climatic fluctuations on WNV transmission. Predictions based on these variables indicated a low WNV risk across the NGP in 2011, which is concordant with the low case reports in this year. Environmental monitoring using remote-sensed data can contribute to surveillance of WNV risk and prediction of future WNV outbreaks in space and time. PMID:23071656

  7. Incidence of heavy metal contamination in water supplies in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, C J; Fimbres, C; Romo, L; Méndez, R O; Grijalva, M

    1998-02-01

    Contaminants in drinking water present public health risks. The objective of this study was to analyze water samples taken from wells or storage tanks, direct sources for domestic water in Northern Mexico, for the presence of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption coupled with a hydride generator or a graphite furnace. High levels of Pb (0.05-0.12 ppm) were found in Hermosillo, Guaymas, and Nacozari. Forty-three percent of the samples in Sonora exceeded the action level (0.015 ppm) established by the EPA for Pb. For As, 8.92% exceeded the limit with a range of 0.002-0.305 ppm. Several studies have indicated a possible link between As and fluoride (F) in drinking water. This study showed a positive correlation between F and As (r = 0.53, P = 0.01, and n = 116). One location in Hermosillo had 7.36 ppm of F and 0.117 ppm of As, 3.5 times the recommended F levels in drinking water and 2 times higher than the level permitted for As. Hg contamination was found in 42% of the samples. Based on the results of this study, it appears that As, Hg, and Pb contamination in the drinking water for some areas of the state of Sonora is a major concern.

  8. Oesophageal cancer in Golestan Province, a high-incidence area in northern Iran - a review.

    PubMed

    Islami, Farhad; Kamangar, Farin; Nasrollahzadeh, Dariush; Møller, Henrik; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Golestan Province, located in the south-east littoral of the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, has one of the highest rates of oesophageal cancer (OC) in the world. We review the epidemiologic studies that have investigated the epidemiologic patterns and causes of OC in this area and provide some suggestions for further studies. Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes over 90% of all OC cases in Golestan. In retrospective studies, cigarettes and hookah smoking, nass use (a chewing tobacco product), opium consumption, hot tea drinking, poor oral health, low intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, and low socioeconomic status have been associated with higher risk of OSCC in Golestan. However, the association of tobacco with OSCC in this area is not as strong as that seen in Western countries. Alcohol is consumed by a very small percentage of the population and is not a risk factor for OSCC in this area. Other factors, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, drinking water contaminants, infections, food contamination with mycotoxins, and genetic factors merit further investigation as risk factors for OSCC in Golestan. An ongoing cohort study in this area is an important resource for studying some of these factors and also for confirming the previously found associations. PMID:19800783

  9. Incidence of heavy metal contamination in water supplies in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, C J; Fimbres, C; Romo, L; Méndez, R O; Grijalva, M

    1998-02-01

    Contaminants in drinking water present public health risks. The objective of this study was to analyze water samples taken from wells or storage tanks, direct sources for domestic water in Northern Mexico, for the presence of lead (Pb), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), and mercury (Hg). The samples were analyzed by atomic absorption coupled with a hydride generator or a graphite furnace. High levels of Pb (0.05-0.12 ppm) were found in Hermosillo, Guaymas, and Nacozari. Forty-three percent of the samples in Sonora exceeded the action level (0.015 ppm) established by the EPA for Pb. For As, 8.92% exceeded the limit with a range of 0.002-0.305 ppm. Several studies have indicated a possible link between As and fluoride (F) in drinking water. This study showed a positive correlation between F and As (r = 0.53, P = 0.01, and n = 116). One location in Hermosillo had 7.36 ppm of F and 0.117 ppm of As, 3.5 times the recommended F levels in drinking water and 2 times higher than the level permitted for As. Hg contamination was found in 42% of the samples. Based on the results of this study, it appears that As, Hg, and Pb contamination in the drinking water for some areas of the state of Sonora is a major concern. PMID:9515066

  10. Evaluation of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability to pollution: COP method for pilot area of Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, B.; Guastaldi, E.; Rossetto, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the characterization of the Apuan Alps groundwater body ( "Corpo Idrico Sotterraneo Significativo", briefly CISS) (Regione Toscana, 2007) the intrinsic vulnerability has been evaluated for Carrara hydrogeological system (Northern Tuscany, Italy) by means of COP method, developed within COST 620 European Action (Zwalhlen, 2003). This system is both characterized by large data availability and it is considered an highly risky zone since groundwater protection problems (turbidity of the tapped spring waters and hydrocarbons contamination) and anthropic activity (marble quarries). The study area, 20 Km2large, has high relief energy, with elevations ranging from 5 to 1700 m amsl in almost 5 km. Runoff is scarce except during heavy rainfall; due to the presence of carbonate rocks infiltration is high: groundwater discharge at 155-255 m amsl. The area is located in the north-western part of Apuan Alps Metamorphic Complex, characterized by carbonate and non-carbonate rocks belonging to the non-metamorphic Tuscan Units (Carnic-Oligocene), Mesozoic Succession, Middle-Triassic Succession, and metamorphic Paleozoic rocks. The main geological structure of the area is the Carrara Syncline, constituted prevalently by dolostones, marbles and cherty limestones. These carbonate formations define several moderately to highly productive hydrogeological units, characterized by fissured and karst flow. Hydrogeological system may be subdivided in two different subsets, because of both geo-structural set up and area conformation. However, these are hydrogeologically connected since anisotropy and fractures of karst groundwater. The southern boundary of Carrara hydrogeological system shows important dammed springs, defined by low productive units of Massa Unit (Cambriano?-Carnic). COP methodology for evaluating intrinsic vulnerability of karst groundwater is based on three main factors for the definition of vulnerability itself: COPIndex = C (flow Concentration) *O (Overlying layers

  11. Distinct magnetic fabric in weakly deformed sediments from extensional basins and fold-and-thrust structures in the Northern Apennine orogenic belt (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caricchi, Chiara; Cifelli, Francesca; Kissel, Catherine; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Mattei, Massimo

    2016-02-01

    We report on results from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) analyses carried out on weakly deformed fine-grained sediments from the Northern Apennine orogenic system (Italy). We sampled 63 sites from preorogenic, synorogenic, and postorogenic sequences, which differ in age, composition, depositional environment, degrees of deformation, and tectonic regimes. The magnetic fabric is typical of weakly deformed sediments, with a magnetic foliation subparallel to the bedding plane and a magnetic lineation well defined in this plane. Northern Apennine chain deposits are characterized by strongly oblate magnetic susceptibility ellipsoids, indicating that the magnetic fabric is the result of both compaction process and tectonic load experienced by the sediments during diagenesis and orogenic events. The orientation of magnetic lineation is significantly different depending whether the studied sites underwent extensional or compressional tectonic regimes. In the Northern Apennine chain, the magnetic lineation is mostly oriented NNW-SSE, parallel to the main compressional structures. It suggests a tectonic origin of the magnetic lineation with an acquisition related to the Apennines compressional phases. In the extensional Tuscan Tyrrhenian margin, magnetic lineation is oriented ENE-WSW, almost perpendicular to the main extensional faults, which represent the main deformation elements of the area. Our results demonstrate a close relationship between the shape and orientation of magnetic fabric and the tectonic history of rocks, confirming that AMS represents a valuable tool to investigate the tectonic history of weakly deformed sedimentary rocks.

  12. Incidence of colonization and bloodstream infection with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in children receiving antineoplastic chemotherapy in Italy.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Desiree; Cesaro, Simone; Fagioli, Franca; Carraro, Francesca; Ziino, Ottavio; Zanazzo, Giulio; Meazza, Cristina; Colombini, Antonella; Castagnola, Elio

    2016-02-01

    Few data are available on the incidence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) infection or colonization in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy. We performed a nationwide survey among centers participating in the pediatric hematology-oncology cooperative study group (Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica, AIEOP). During a 2-year observation period, we observed a threefold increase in the colonization rate, and a fourfold increase of bloodstream infection episodes, caused by CPE, with a 90-day mortality of 14%. This first nationwide Italian pediatric survey shows that the circulation of CPE strains in the pediatric hematology-oncology environment is increasing. Given the mortality rate, which is higher than for other bacterial strains, specific monitoring should be applied and the results should have implications for health-care practice in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  13. Low frequency amplification in deep alluvial basins: an example in the Po Plain (Northern Italy) and consequences for site specific SHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascandola, Claudia; Massa, Marco; Barani, Simone; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the problem of long period seismic site amplification that potentially might involve large and deep alluvial basins in case of strong earthquakes. In particular, it is here presented a case study in the Po Plain (Northern Italy), one of the most extended and deep sedimentary basin worldwide. Even if the studied area shows a low annul seismicity rate with rare strong events (Mw>6.0) and it is characterized by low to medium seismic hazard conditions, the seismic risk is significant for the high density of civil and strategic infrastructures (i.e. high degree of exposition) and the unfavourable geological conditions. The aim of this work is to provide general considerations about the seismic site response of the Po Plain, with particular attention on deep discontinuities (i.e. geological bedrock), in terms of potential low frequency amplification and their incidence on the PSHA. The current results were obtained through active and passive geophysical investigations performed near Castelleone, a site where a seismic station, which is part of the INGV (National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology) Seismic National Network, is installed from 2009. In particular, the active analyses consisted in a MASW and a refraction survey, whereas the passive ones consisted in seismic ambient noise acquisitions with single stations and arrays of increasing aperture. The results in terms of noise HVSR indicate two main peaks, the first around 0.17 Hz and the second, as already stated in the recent literature, around 0.7 Hz. In order to correlate the amplified frequencies with the geological discontinuities, the array acquisitions were processed to obtain a shear waves velocity profile, computed with a joint inversion, considering the experimental dispersion curves and the HVSR results. The obtained velocity profile shows two main discontinuities: the shallower at ~165 m of depth, which can be correlated to the seismic bedrock (i.e. Vs > 800 m/) and the deeper

  14. Influence of season on the hematological and serum biochemical values of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) housed in a controlled environment in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Macchi, Elisabetta; Pezzoli, Lorenzo; Ponzio, Patrizia

    2011-09-01

    Season appears to influence the physiology of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). From 2000 to 2005, blood parameters of three captive bottlenose dolphins housed in northern Italy were examined to determine if seasonal variation was present. Seasonal variation was observed in the male dolphins, with both males exhibiting aminotransferase levels that were higher in autumn and lower in winter. Mean serum creatinine levels were higher during summer and lower during autumn in the adult male, and mean lactate dehydrogenase higher during summer and lower during spring in the juvenile male. Both males exhibited red blood cell counts and hemoglobin levels that were higher during autumn and lower during summer. This study contributes to the knowledge of baseline hematologic and biochemical values based on seasonality in bottlenose dolphins. PMID:22950322

  15. Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group – a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Cortellini, Venusia; Verzeletti, Andrea; Cerri, Nicoletta; Marino, Alberto; De Ferrari, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Aim To find an association between Y chromosome polymorphisms and some ethnic groups. Methods Short tandem repeats (STR) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on the Y chromosome were typed in 311 unrelated men from four different ethnic groups – Italians from northern Italy, Albanians, Africans from the Maghreb region, and Indo-Pakistanis, using the AmpFlSTR® Yfiler PCR Amplification Kit and the SNaPshot Multiplex Kit. Results STRs analysis found 299 different haplotypes and SNPs analysis 11 different haplogroups. Haplotypes and haplogroups were analyzed and compared between different ethnic groups. Significant differences were found among all the population groups, except between Italians and Indo-Pakistanis and between Albanians and Indo-Pakistanis. Conclusions Typing both STRs and SNPs on the Y chromosome could become useful in determining ethnic origin of a potential suspect. PMID:23771759

  16. Solid-phase microextraction in the analysis of virgin olive oil volatile fraction: characterization of virgin olive oils from two distinct geographical areas of northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Stefania; Pizzale, Lorena; Conte, Lanfranco S; Buxaderas, Susana; López-Tamames, Elvira

    2003-10-22

    SPME was employed to characterize the volatile profile of virgin olive oils produced in two geographical areas of northern Italy: the region of the Gulf of Trieste and the area near Lake Garda. There are as yet no data on the headspace composition of virgin olive oils from these regions, characterized by particular conditions of growth for Olea europaea. Using the SPME technique coupled to GC-MS and GC-FID, the volatile components of 42 industrially produced virgin olive oil samples were identified and the principal compounds quantitatively analyzed. Significant differences in the proportion of volatile constituents from oils of different varieties and geographical origins were detected. The results suggest that besides the genetic factor, environmental conditions influence the volatile formation.

  17. Blood meal analysis, flavivirus screening, and influence of meteorological variables on the dynamics of potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Roiz, David; Vazquez, Ana; Rosà, Roberto; Muñoz, Joaquin; Arnoldi, Daniele; Rosso, Fausta; Figuerola, Jordi; Tenorio, Antonio; Rizzoli, Annapaola

    2012-06-01

    An extended area of northern Italy has experienced several West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks and the emergence of Usutu virus (USUV) during previous years. Our aim was to study some of the factors that could explain disease patterns in the Trentino region, where circulation was detected in human sera and sentinel chickens, but no human or equine cases were reported. We collected Culex species (Diptera: Culicidae) in peridomestic environments. The collected specimens were analyzed for feeding behavior, the influence of temperature and rainfall on the abundance of mosquitoes, and the occurrence of flaviviruses. Analysis of blood meals showed that Culex pipiens fed mainly on blackbirds (Turdus merula) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus), while Culex hortensis fed strictly on lizards. The abundance of Cx. pipiens females correlated positively with mean temperature and negatively with rainfall (one to four weeks before capture). This negative relationship could be due to the direct effect of the flushing of habitats together with an indirect effect of oviposition repellency. The mean weekly temperature influenced the abundance of Cx. hortensis. No flaviviruses were detected in the analyzed Culex mosquitoes. These data suggest a silent cycle at low enzootic transmission levels in the area. Furthermore, we present the first contribution to understanding the transmission role of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes in Italy by identifying vertebrate hosts to species level. PMID:22548533

  18. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7-9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica.

  19. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7-9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  20. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  1. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution.

  2. Incidence of plastic fragments among burrow-nesting seabird colonies on offshore islands in northern New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Buxton, Rachel T; Currey, Caitlin A; Lyver, Philip O'B; Jones, Christopher J

    2013-09-15

    Marine plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the world's oceans, and has been found in high concentrations in oceanic gyres of both the northern and southern hemispheres. The number of studies demonstrating plastic debris at seabird colonies and plastic ingestion by adult seabirds has increased over the past few decades. Despite the recent discovery of a large aggregation of plastic debris in the South Pacific subtropical gyre, the incidence of plastics at seabird colonies in New Zealand is unknown. Between 2011 and 2012 we surveyed six offshore islands on the northeast coast of New Zealand's North Island for burrow-nesting seabird colonies and the presence of plastic fragments. We found non-research related plastic fragments (0.031 pieces/m(2)) on one island only, Ohinau, within dense flesh-footed shearwater (Puffinus carneipes) colonies. On Ohinau, we found a linear relationship between burrow density and plastic density, with 3.5 times more breeding burrows in areas with plastic fragments found. From these data we conclude that plastic ingestion is a potentially a serious issue for flesh-footed shearwaters in New Zealand. Although these results do not rule out plastic ingestion by other species, they suggest the need for further research on the relationship between New Zealand's pelagic seabirds and marine plastic pollution. PMID:23899612

  3. Influence of syn-sedimentary faults on orogenic structures in a collisional belt: Insights from the inner zone of the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the possible influence of syn-sedimentary structures on the development of orogenic structures during positive tectonic inversion in the inner Northern Apennines (Italy). Examples from key areas located in southern Tuscany provided original cartographic, structural and kinematics data for Late Oligocene-Early Miocene thrusts, organized in duplex systems, verging in the opposite direction of the foreland propagation (back-thrusts), which affected the Late Triassic-Oligocene sedimentary succession of the Tuscan Domain, previously affected by pre-orogenic structures. These latter consist of mesoscopic-to cartographic-scale Jurassic syn-sedimentary normal faults and extensional structures, which gave rise to effective stratigraphic lateral variation and mechanical heterogeneities. Structural analysis of both syn-sedimentary faults and back-thrusts were therefore compared in order to discuss the possible role of the pre-existing anisotropies in influencing the evolution of the back-thrusts. As a result, it can be reasonably proposed that back-thrusts trajectories and stacking pattern were controlled by relevant syn-sedimentary normal faults; these latter were reactivated, in some cases, if properly oriented. Such an issue adds new inputs for discussing the potential role of structural inheritance during tectonic inversions, and helps to better understand the processes suitable for the development of back-thrusts in the inner zones of orogenic belts, as it is the case of the inner Northern Apennines.

  4. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maroli, M; Mizzon, V; Siragusa, C; D'Oorazi, A; Gradoni, L

    2001-12-01

    Dogs are the domestic reservoir of Leishmania infantum Nicolle (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the agent of zoonotic human visceral leishmaniasis. In southern Europe, where canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is widespread due to L. infantum, killing seropositive dogs is considered unacceptable and drug treatment has low efficacy in preventing transmission. We made a field evaluation of the efficacy of deltamethrin dog collars in a CanL focus of southern Italy, Mount Vesuvius area of Campania region, where the vector is Phlebotomus perniciosus Newstead (Diptera: Psychodidae), by assessing their impact on the incidence of CanL in an intervention town, compared to that in dogs of control towns where no collars were fitted. During two consecutive transmission seasons, collars were fitted to 350 (1998) and 354 (1999) dogs from San Sebastiano al Vesuvio (70% of the canine population). Control dogs (371 and 264 in the 2 years, respectively) were from four towns of the same area. Before each transmission season, the CanL seroprevalence in the intervention and control towns was evaluated by cross-sectional surveys and found to be similar (about 15% in 1998 and 10% in 1999, respectively). After each transmission period, incidence rates of seroconversions were determined in adult dogs that were serologically negative before the season under evaluation, and in puppies. After the 1998 season, 2.7% of the dogs in the intervention town seroconverted compared to 5.4% in the control towns (50% protection, P = 0.15). After the 1999 season, 3.5% of collared dogs seroconverted compared to 25.8% of control dogs (86% protection, P < 0.001). The increase in seroconversion rates recorded in control dogs suggests an increase in the Leishmania force of infection in the canine reservoir during the 1999 sandfly season, as supported by the concomitant increase of human cases in control towns and in the whole Campania region. Our results suggest that the impact of mass use of deltamethrin

  5. Zooming in the kinematic of a curved belt from large- to small-scale: Examples from the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satolli, S.; Turtù, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Apennine-Maghrebide belt is characterized by a first-order curved shape showing the Calabrian units in the apical zone and the Tyrrhenian extensional basin in the inner area. It is further divided into two second-order arcs: the Northern Apennines arc and the Southern Apennines-Calabrian arc, with NE and SE convexity, respectively. These two arcs are characterized by differences in paleogeographic domains, stratigraphic successions, structural settings and geodynamics. The Apennines experienced widespread vertical axes rotations during the orogenesis: paleomagnetic data from back-arc extensional basins along the Tyrrhenian margin show no rotation; conversely, data collected in Mesozoic and Miocene-Lower Pliocene sediments show rotations of varying magnitude and sign. After almost 40 years of paleomagnetic studies, the kinematic of the regional-scale curved belts has been unraveled. Notwithstanding, the Apennines are also characterized by several minor structures, whose kinematic can be understood only throught detailed paleomagnetic study. Here, we report some examples from: 1. the Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt; 2. a minor salient in the Central Apennines (i.e., the Gran Sasso range); 3. a crustal strike-slip faults which separate the northern and the central Apennines (as, the Olevano-Antrodoco line); 4. along-strike variations of the thrust architecture at small scale (in the Northern Apennines). 1. The outer Northern Apennines fold-and-thrust belt has been interpreted in the literature either as an orocline, a primary or a progressive arc, with a thin- or thick-skinned tectonic style. Paleomagnetic and structural data indicate that the Northern Apennines are a progressive arc whose development was influenced by inversion tectonics, involving the reactivation of pre-thrusting normal faults. 2. The detailed paleomagnetic study of the Gran Sasso arc documents how rotations change along the limbs of a kilometric-scale indenter-controlled range salient

  6. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the Vinschgau (northern Italy) and their association with springs and speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostermann, Marc; Koltai, Gabriella; Spötl, Christoph; Cheng, Hai

    2016-04-01

    onset of these movements (Agliardi et al. 2009). Agliardi, F., Crosta, G.B., Zanchi, A., Ravazzi, C., 2009: Onset and timing of deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the eastern Alps, Italy. Geomorphology, 103, 113-129. Spötl, C., Unterwurzacher, M., Mangini, A., Longstaffe, F.J., 2002: Carbonate speleothems in the dry, inneralpine Vinschgau Valley, northernmost Italy: Witnesses of changes in climate and hydrology since the Last Glacial Maximum. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 72, 793-808.

  7. HP-LT metamorphism in Elba Island: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Caterina; Brogi, Andrea; Caggianelli, Alfredo; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The inner Northern Apennines belt (i.e., northern Tyrrhenian Sea and Tuscany) is an Alpine chain affected by high-P metamorphic conditions during its evolution. Although Elba Island is structurally located close to the Adria-Europe suture zone, for several authors it represents a sector of the orogen affected by low-P metamorphism. The involvement of Elba Island tectonic units in high-P metamorphism was only suspected for the sparse presence of phengitic white mica in the metasedimentary rocks. This paper presents the first clear evidence of high-P and low-T metamorphism found in metabasite rocks embedded in the Cretaceous calcschist of eastern Elba Island. Mineral composition of metabasite includes Gln + Cpx + Ep + Ab + Act + Qtz + Ilm ± Ti-oxide ± Spn and is indicative of a former equilibration in the epidote blueschist subfacies and subsequent retrogression in the greenschist facies. Recorded metamorphic conditions are P = 0.9-1.0 GPa and T = 330-350 °C. Tectonic discrimination using immobile elements in the metabasite does not point to an oceanic setting. As a consequence, the metasedimentary succession containing metabasite is explained as belonging to the Tuscan continental domain and not to the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, as previously interpreted. Our results have two significant implications: (i) it is confirmed and strengthened that the tectonic stacking of the Elba Island units did not occur in a low-pressure context; (ii) Elba Island is now completely reconciled in the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines.

  8. West Nile virus infection incidence based on donated blood samples and neuroinvasive disease reports, Northern Texas, USA, 2012.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Diana T; Chen, Shande; Sutor, Laurie J; Stonecipher, Shelley; Janoski, Nicolette; Wright, David J; Busch, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    During the 2012 outbreak of West Nile virus in the United States, approximately one third of the cases were in Texas. Of those, about half occurred in northern Texas. Models based on infected blood donors and persons with neuroinvasive disease showed, respectively, that ≈0.72% and 1.98% of persons in northern Texas became infected.

  9. A seismic sequence from Northern Apennines (Italy) provides new insight on the role of fluids in the active tectonics of accretionary wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, Giovanna; Di Giovambattista, Rita; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Ventura, Guido

    2009-04-01

    We analyze a seismic sequence which occurred in 2000 along the Northern Apennines accretionary wedge (Italy). The sequence developed within the Cretaceous-Triassic limestones of the tectonic wedge, where methane-rich and oil reservoirs are stored. Ruptures mainly developed on WNW-ESE striking thrusts. The compressive stress field is consistent with that acting at regional scale in Northern Apennines. Seismic parameters indicate that fluids are involved in the seismogenic process. The amplitudes of the P and S phases and data from some stations evidence a P to S conversion within Vp/ Vs = 2.1 layer. The attenuation properties of crust show a higher attenuation zone located west of the epicentral cloud. Eight hundred aftershocks delineate a sub-vertical cloud of events between 7 and 14 km depth. The space-time evolution of the aftershocks is consistent with a diffusive spreading (diffusivity = 1.9 m 2/s) along vertically superimposed thrusts. Diffusion also controls the time evolution of the sequence. Fluid pressure is estimated to be roughly equal to the vertical, lithostatic stress. The overpressure within reservoirs develops by tectonic compaction processes. The fluids upraise along sub-vertical fractures related to the shortening of the wedge. The 2000 sequence occurred in an area that separates a thermal and deeper petroleum system from a shallower biogenic system. The divider of these systems controls the attenuation properties of the crust. The fluid-rock interaction at seismogenetic depth is related to hydrothermal processes more than to compaction. In accretionary wedges, seismicity activating superimposed thrusts may drive methane and oil upraising from the upper crust.

  10. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds' timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift (Apus apus), nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow (Hirundo rustica), and house martin (Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling (Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow (Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift's onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  11. Long-term trends in first arrival and first egg laying dates of some migrant and resident bird species in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubolini, Diego; Ambrosini, Roberto; Caffi, Mario; Brichetti, Pierandrea; Armiraglio, Stefano; Saino, Nicola

    2007-08-01

    Climate change is affecting the phenology of seasonal events in Europe and the Northern Hemisphere, as shown by several studies of birds’ timing of migration and reproduction. Here, we analyse the long-term (1982-2006) trends of first arrival dates of four long-distance migratory birds [swift ( Apus apus), nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos), barn swallow ( Hirundo rustica), and house martin ( Delichon urbicum)] and first egg laying dates of two migrant (swift, barn swallow) and two resident species [starling ( Sturnus vulgaris), Italian sparrow ( Passer italiae)] at a study site in northern Italy. We also addressed the effects of local weather (temperature and precipitation) and a climate index (the North Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) on the interannual variability of phenological events. We found that the swift and the barn swallow significantly advanced both arrival and laying dates, whereas all other species did not show any significant temporal trend in either arrival or laying date. The earlier arrival of swifts was explained by increasing local temperatures in April, whereas this was not the case for arrival dates of swallows and first egg laying dates of both species. In addition, arrival dates of house martins were earlier following high NAO winters, while nightingale arrival was earlier when local spring rainfall was greater. Finally, Italian sparrow onset of reproduction was anticipated by greater spring rainfall, but delayed by high spring NAO anomalies, and swift’s onset of reproduction was anticipated by abundant rainfall prior to reproduction. There were no significant temporal trends in the interval between onset of laying and arrival in either the swift or the barn swallow. Our findings therefore indicate that birds may show idiosyncratic responses to climate variability at different spatial scales, though some species may be adjusting their calendar to rapidly changing climatic conditions.

  12. Daytime habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail Sylvilagus floridanus and native european hare Lepus europaeus in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolino, Sandro; Montezemolo, Nicola Cordero di; Perrone, Aurelio

    2011-06-01

    We used radiotelemetry to investigate resting sites habitat selection by introduced eastern cottontail (Sylvilagus floridanus) and native European hare (Lepus europaeus) under sympatric conditions. We tracked 24 hares and 34 cottontails in a protected area of northwestern Italy. Hares were found in different sites every week, while cottontails used the same site for two weeks, and occasionally for longer. It is supposed that this periodic nest switching reduces the risk of predation and parasitism. Hares and cottontails forms were located in different habitats and characterized by dense vegetation cover near the ground. This cover increased from winter to summer in both species, while in autumn it continued to increase in cottontails only, and decreased in hares. Cottontails selected shrubby habitats near the river, and avoided crop fields in all seasons. Hares were more adaptive in their search, using high herbs and shrubs all year round, wheat fields in spring, maize in spring and summer, and stubbles in winter. Arguably, partial niche differentiation is necessary to allow the coexistence of similar species. In our study area, hares and cottontails differentiated in the use of resting sites habitats, presumably so as not to compete in this part of their ecological niche.

  13. The Biarzo case in northern Italy: is the temporal dynamic of swine mitochondrial DNA lineages in Europe related to domestication?

    PubMed

    Vai, Stefania; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; Romandini, Matteo; Benazzo, Andrea; Visentini, Paola; Modolo, Marta; Bertolini, Marco; MacQueen, Peggy; Austin, Jeremy; Cooper, Alan; Caramelli, David; Lari, Martina; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-based reconstructions of the history of pig domestication in Europe are based on two major pillars: 1) the temporal changes of mitochondrial DNA lineages are related to domestication; 2) Near Eastern haplotypes which appeared and then disappeared in some sites across Europe are genetic markers of the first Near Eastern domestic pigs. We typed a small but informative fragment of the mitochondrial DNA in 23 Sus scrofa samples from a site in north eastern Italy (Biarzo shelter) which provides a continuous record across a ≈6,000 year time frame from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. We additionally carried out several radiocarbon dating. We found that a rapid mitochondrial DNA turnover occurred during the Mesolithic, suggesting that substantial changes in the composition of pig mitochondrial lineages can occur naturally across few millennia independently of domestication processes. Moreover, so-called Near Eastern haplotypes were present here at least two millennia before the arrival of Neolithic package in the same area. Consequently, we recommend a re-evaluation of the previous idea that Neolithic farmers introduced pigs domesticated in the Near East, and that Mesolithic communities acquired domestic pigs via cultural exchanges, to include the possibility of a more parsimonious hypothesis of local domestication in Europe.

  14. Burden of rotavirus disease and cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination in the Province of Genoa (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Panatto, D; Amicizia, D; Ansaldi, F; Marocco, A; Marchetti, F; Bamfi, F; Giacchino, R; Tacchella, A; Del Buono, S; Gasparini, R

    2009-05-26

    Rotavirus is acknowledged to be a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in infants and young children. As gastroenteritis due to rotavirus is a public health problem and two new vaccines are currently available, we investigated the rotavirus burden and developed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using data collected in the Province of Genoa (Italy), to evaluate the benefits of new borns vaccination. The cost-effectiveness of a rotavirus vaccination programme in the Province of Genoa was performed, in comparison with no vaccination, for both the regional healthcare system (RHS) and society (S). In 2006, admissions to the paediatric emergency department for gastroenteritis numbered 2338 (about 11% of total admissions); of these 33% were hospitalised. In 28% of cases, the children tested positive for rotavirus. During epidemics, paediatricians receive from 3 to 5 calls per day for gastroenteritis, carry out 1 or 2 ambulatory examinations and for children with a severe case history, make house visits. A rotavirus immunisation programme would have a great impact on disease burden, in that 90% coverage would reduce the number of severe cases by more than 85%. From the perspective of both the RHS and S, vaccination proved to be highly cost-effective.

  15. Temporal variability and effect of environmental variables on airborne bacterial communities in an urban area of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Valentina; Gandolfi, Isabella; Ambrosini, Roberto; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Innocente, Elena; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Franzetti, Andrea

    2013-07-01

    Despite airborne microorganisms representing a relevant fraction of atmospheric suspended particles, only a small amount of information is currently available on their abundance and diversity and very few studies have investigated the environmental factors influencing the structure of airborne bacterial communities. In this work, we used quantitative PCR and Illumina technology to provide a thorough description of airborne bacterial communities in the urban area of Milan (Italy). Forty samples were collected in 10-day sampling sessions, with one session per season. The mean bacterial abundance was about 10⁴ ribosomal operons per m³ of air and was lower in winter than in the other seasons. Communities were dominated by Actinobacteridae, Clostridiales, Sphingobacteriales and few proteobacterial orders (Burkholderiales, Rhizobiales, Sphingomonadales and Pseudomonadales). Chloroplasts were abundant in all samples. A higher abundance of Actinobacteridae, which are typical soil-inhabiting bacteria, and a lower abundance of chloroplasts in samples collected on cold days were observed. The variation in community composition observed within seasons was comparable to that observed between seasons, thus suggesting that airborne bacterial communities show large temporal variability, even between consecutive days. The structure of airborne bacterial communities therefore suggests that soil and plants are the sources which contribute most to the airborne communities of Milan atmosphere, but the structure of the bacterial community seems to depend mainly on the source of bacteria that predominates in a given period of time.

  16. The Biarzo case in northern Italy: is the temporal dynamic of swine mitochondrial DNA lineages in Europe related to domestication?

    PubMed Central

    Vai, Stefania; Vilaça, Sibelle Torres; Romandini, Matteo; Benazzo, Andrea; Visentini, Paola; Modolo, Marta; Bertolini, Marco; MacQueen, Peggy; Austin, Jeremy; Cooper, Alan; Caramelli, David; Lari, Martina; Bertorelle, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Genetically-based reconstructions of the history of pig domestication in Europe are based on two major pillars: 1) the temporal changes of mitochondrial DNA lineages are related to domestication; 2) Near Eastern haplotypes which appeared and then disappeared in some sites across Europe are genetic markers of the first Near Eastern domestic pigs. We typed a small but informative fragment of the mitochondrial DNA in 23 Sus scrofa samples from a site in north eastern Italy (Biarzo shelter) which provides a continuous record across a ≈6,000 year time frame from the Upper Palaeolithic to the Neolithic. We additionally carried out several radiocarbon dating. We found that a rapid mitochondrial DNA turnover occurred during the Mesolithic, suggesting that substantial changes in the composition of pig mitochondrial lineages can occur naturally across few millennia independently of domestication processes. Moreover, so-called Near Eastern haplotypes were present here at least two millennia before the arrival of Neolithic package in the same area. Consequently, we recommend a re-evaluation of the previous idea that Neolithic farmers introduced pigs domesticated in the Near East, and that Mesolithic communities acquired domestic pigs via cultural exchanges, to include the possibility of a more parsimonious hypothesis of local domestication in Europe. PMID:26549464

  17. Long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Mediterranean forest vegetation of Northern-Central Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkson, C.L.; Oechel, W.C.; Miglietta, F.

    1995-06-01

    Carbon dioxide springs offer a unique opportunity to study the effects of long-term CO{sub 2} enrichment on natural ecosystems. A CO{sub 2} spring near Laiatico (Pisa), Italy vents approximately 25 to 40% of pure CO{sub 2} and enriches about one hectare of a 30-35 year-old coppiced forest, forming a CO{sub 2} gradient with distance from the emission. A:Ci curves were measured on the upper canopy leaves of mature trees of Quercus ilex before bud-break and after new leaf production between April and July 1994. Photosynthetic rates of trees under elevated CO{sub 2} (490 to 1190 ppm) reflect 30-56% downward adjustment in April and no downward adjustment in July. Photosynthetic rates measured at respective growth CO{sub 2} concentrations were reduced in April by 41.8% and enhanced in July by 12.8% as growth CO{sub 2} concentration increased. Leaf nitrogen concentrations under higher CO{sub 2} levels were significantly less than those at ambient CO{sub 2} concentration in April (1.17 and 1.44% N {+-} 0.04%, respectively; P = 0.001). The results from this study indicate that new leaves of mature Quercus ilex may provide a metabolically active carbon sink for enhanced photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2}, but after one year, the strength of this sink decreases, resulting in reduced photosynthetic rates and leaf nitrogen concentrations.

  18. Estimation of malaria incidence in northern Namibia in 2009 using Bayesian conditional-autoregressive spatial–temporal models☆

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, Victor A.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Wright, Jim A.; Kamwi, Richard; Uusiku, Petrina; Katokele, Stark; Snow, Robert W.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2013-01-01

    As malaria transmission declines, it becomes increasingly important to monitor changes in malaria incidence rather than prevalence. Here, a spatio-temporal model was used to identify constituencies with high malaria incidence to guide malaria control. Malaria cases were assembled across all age groups along with several environmental covariates. A Bayesian conditional-autoregressive model was used to model the spatial and temporal variation of incidence after adjusting for test positivity rates and health facility utilisation. Of the 144,744 malaria cases recorded in Namibia in 2009, 134,851 were suspected and 9893 were parasitologically confirmed. The mean annual incidence based on the Bayesian model predictions was 13 cases per 1000 population with the highest incidence predicted for constituencies bordering Angola and Zambia. The smoothed maps of incidence highlight trends in disease incidence. For Namibia, the 2009 maps provide a baseline for monitoring the targets of pre-elimination. PMID:24238079

  19. D 2 asymmetric folds and their vergence meaning in the Montagnola Senese metamorphic rocks (inner northern Apennines, central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liotta, Domenico

    2002-09-01

    This study describes asymmetric folds whose vergence is derived from refolding of a pre-existing inclined foliation. The study area is in the Montagnola Senese area where Mesozoic rocks in the greenschist facies crop out. These rocks were affected by deformation during the collisional stage (late Oligocene-early Miocene) of the Northern Apennines (D 1 event), and during the post-collisional extensional tectonics (D 2 event) that affected the inner zone of the Northern Apennines since the early-middle Miocene. During the D 1 event, SW dipping axial plane schistosity and non-cylindrical folds indicative of a highly heterogeneous strain developed. During the second event westward verging folds developed. These folds are characterised by thick steep limbs. The S 2 foliation, which is well developed in narrow and localised zones, is mainly a pressure solution cleavage with NE plunging stylolitic teeth. Micro- and meso-structural observations are used to discuss the relation between cleavage distribution and strain during the D 2 event. The evolution of D 2 folds was mainly controlled by a dissolution process and by a component of partitioned shear-strain. In the relatively 'high' strain domains, deformation took place by the combined effects of volume loss and shear displacement. In low strain domains, deformation took place by a veining and flattening process. In this way, the pre-existing foliation can be deformed in folds with vergence opposite to the sense of shear.

  20. Intestinal parasites of owned dogs and cats from metropolitan and micropolitan areas: prevalence, zoonotic risks, and pet owner awareness in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Scarpa, Paola; Berrilli, Federica; Manfredi, Maria Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%-60.42%) and dogs (57.41%-43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas.

  1. Determining flow directions in turbidites: An integrated sedimentological and magnetic fabric study of the Miocene Marnoso Arenacea Formation (northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felletti, Fabrizio; Dall'Olio, Eleonora; Muttoni, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Depositional models of turbidity flows require estimating paleocurrent directions using sedimentological indicators such as flute and ripple marks, but these are not always present in outcrop sections or drill cores. In this study, we apply the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as an alternative tool to estimate paleocurrent directions in a case-study turbiditic system: the Marnoso Arenacea foredeep turbidites of Miocene age exposed in the northern Apennines of Italy. Different depositional facies have been sampled for AMS and additional rock-magnetic analyses. We observed a good agreement between paleocurrent directions from flute casts at the base of turbidite beds and mean directions of maximum magnetic susceptibility axes in organized facies such as massive and laminated sandstones, even if a relatively small but apparently consistent offset of ~ 15-20° seems to be present. Highly dispersed AMS fabrics were instead observed in disordered facies such as convoluted and undulated sandstones as well as debrites. This strong correlation between hydrodynamic regimes of depositional facies and AMS data represents a novel contribution and confirms the validity of the AMS method to estimate flow directions in the absence of sedimentological indicators. Finally, paleomagnetic analyses from the literature were used to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Marnoso Arenacea basin and make inferences about the origin and direction of transport of the sediments at the basin scale.

  2. Range expansion of Ixodes ricinus to higher altitude, and co-infestation of small rodents with Dermacentor marginatus in the Northern Apennines, Italy.

    PubMed

    Martello, Elisa; Mannelli, Alessandro; Ragagli, Charlotte; Ambrogi, Cecilia; Selmi, Marco; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Tomassone, Laura

    2014-10-01

    Immature ticks (Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus) were collected from small rodents (Apodemus spp. and Myodes glareolus), in the Northern Apennines, Italy, at an altitude up to 1650 m above sea level (a.s.l.), from 2009 through 2012. While D. marginatus had been found at the same location in studies carried out in 1994, I. ricinus was very rare or absent. Prevalence (95% confidence interval) of infestation by I. ricinus larvae on Apodemus spp. was 54.4% (47.5, 61.2), and it was greater than prevalence of D. marginatus larvae on the same hosts (23.3%, 17.8, 29.5). The mean (standard deviation) numbers of I. ricinus and D. marginatus larvae per individual Apodemus spp. were similar: 2.3 (4.1) and 2.1 (9.8), respectively. The monthly infestation pattern of the two tick species on Apodemus spp. were different. I. ricinus larvae were more frequent in June and September, than in July-August. I. ricinus nymphs were generally rare, and were most frequently found in July. The prevalence of D. marginatus larvae peaked in July-August, whereas nymphs were mostly active in August-September. Increasing population densities of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), and increasing temperatures, in the last decades, in the Apennine area might have contributed to the observed range expansion of I. ricinus. PMID:25139531

  3. Preliminary evaluation of insecticide resistance in a strain of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) from an intensive chicken farm of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Chicca, Milvia; Tedeschi, Paola; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Leis, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., a relevant sanitary pest, is mainly controlled by insecticides. However, an inappropriate use of chemicals may induce resistance, treatment efficacy decline and environmental damages. We evaluated toxicity of some organophosphates, pyrethroids, spinosad and neonicotinoids by topical applications on adults of a M. domestica strain (OcRo) collected from an intensive chicken farm in Northern Italy, in comparison to a susceptible strain (s-DBF). The OcRo strain exhibited higher levels of resistance (RR₅₀) to four pesticides in comparison to s-DBF. Spinosad and imidacloprid had very low RR₅₀, thus were still efficient in OcRo control. We also tested resistance to pesticides in OcRo after topical applications of synergistic compounds. Hydrolases were involved in phosphorganic detoxification and cytochrome P450 monoxygenases in that of pyrethroids. These results indicate that OcRo strain is now multiresistant to organophosphates and pyrethroids, and this should be considered for an environmentally safe pest management. PMID:21726145

  4. Surveillance of the chikungunya vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy): organizational and technical aspects of a large scale monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Marco; Albieri, Alessandro; Angelini, Paola; Baldacchini, Flavia; Venturelli, Claudio; Zeo, Silvia Mascali; Bellini, Romeo

    2011-06-01

    The chikungunya virus outbreak that occurred in 2007 in northern Italy (Emilia-Romagna region) prompted the development of a large scale monitoring system of the population density of Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1894), comparable at the provincial and municipal levels. In 2007, egg density data presented an aggregated distribution (VMR >1) and Taylor's power law was applied to calculate the minimum number of ovitraps needed to obtain the prefixed precision levels: D=0.2 in the areas where the chikungunya epidemic occurred and D=0.3 in all the other urban areas >600 ha. The estimated minimum ovitrap number was then used to set up a monitoring network at the regional scale in season 2008 (May-October). In 242 municipalities 2,741 ovitraps were activated and the 2008 sampled data showed a similar aggregated distribution as in 2007. The adequacy of the monitoring design was evaluated by recalculating the Taylor's coefficients and the minimum ovitrap number for each urban area >600 ha using the 2008 egg density data. The comparison between the two estimates showed that the minimum ovitrap number calculated in 2007 was underestimated by 2.7% in weeks 22-41 but was overestimated by 29.4% if referring to the period of highest population density (weeks 27-37). The low cost of the proposed monitoring system, based on the use of fortnightly checked ovitraps, could make it economically sustainable even in a non-epidemic season. PMID:21635648

  5. Traces of medieval migrations in a socially stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees

    PubMed Central

    Boattini, A; Sarno, S; Pedrini, P; Medoro, C; Carta, M; Tucci, S; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D

    2015-01-01

    Social and cultural factors had a critical role in determining the genetic structure of Europe. Therefore, socially stratified populations may help to focus on specific episodes of European demographic history. In this study, we use uniparental markers to analyse the genetic structure of Partecipanza in San Giovanni in Persiceto (Northern Italy), a peculiar institution whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and whose members form the patrilineal descent of a group of founder families. From a maternal point of view (mtDNA), Partecipanza is genetically homogeneous with the rest of the population. However, we observed a significant differentiation for Y-chromosomes. In addition, by comparing 17 Y-STR profiles with deep-rooted paternal pedigrees, we estimated a Y-STR mutation rate equal to 3.90 * 10−3 mutations per STR per generation and an average generation duration time of 33.38 years. When we used these values for tentative dating, we estimated 1300-600 years ago for the origins of the Partecipanza. These results, together with a peculiar Y-chromosomal composition and historical evidence, suggest that Germanic populations (Lombards in particular) settled in the area during the Migration Period (400–800 AD, approximately) and may have had an important role in the foundation of this community. PMID:25204305

  6. Traces of medieval migrations in a socially stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Boattini, A; Sarno, S; Pedrini, P; Medoro, C; Carta, M; Tucci, S; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D

    2015-02-01

    Social and cultural factors had a critical role in determining the genetic structure of Europe. Therefore, socially stratified populations may help to focus on specific episodes of European demographic history. In this study, we use uniparental markers to analyse the genetic structure of Partecipanza in San Giovanni in Persiceto (Northern Italy), a peculiar institution whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and whose members form the patrilineal descent of a group of founder families. From a maternal point of view (mtDNA), Partecipanza is genetically homogeneous with the rest of the population. However, we observed a significant differentiation for Y-chromosomes. In addition, by comparing 17 Y-STR profiles with deep-rooted paternal pedigrees, we estimated a Y-STR mutation rate equal to 3.90 * 10(-3) mutations per STR per generation and an average generation duration time of 33.38 years. When we used these values for tentative dating, we estimated 1300-600 years ago for the origins of the Partecipanza. These results, together with a peculiar Y-chromosomal composition and historical evidence, suggest that Germanic populations (Lombards in particular) settled in the area during the Migration Period (400-800 AD, approximately) and may have had an important role in the foundation of this community.

  7. The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.

    PubMed

    Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints.

  8. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact. PMID:23685366

  9. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact.

  10. Carbonate concretions in synkinematic Quaternary sediments as markers of paleo-fluid flow induced by the development of the Quattro Castella growth anticline, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizzati, Mattia; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Iacumin, Paola; Storti, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    Diagenetic alterations and synkinematic precipitation of mineral masses may provide a useful tool to understand paleo-fluid flows in transforming porous media. In compressive settings of a fold-and-thrust-belt, the presence of deep or blind thrusts could lead to the generation of folds that affects synkinematic sedimentation, superficial flow pattern and deep fluids migration. In this contribution we present a multidisciplinary field and laboratory study on carbonate concretions developed in poorly lithified, synkinematic sediments of the Quattro Castella anticline in Northern Apennines, Italy. The study site is located along the Enza River, where Plio-Quaternary shallow marine to continental sediments are extensively exposed. The entire exposed section is a portion of the forelimb of the growing anticline, active since Late Miocene times. Field mapping was aimed to link bedding attitude of synkinematic sediments with the geometry, arrangement, shape and size of concretionary bodies. Concretions are both tabular (i.e. parallel to bedding) and elongate (i.e. plunging parallel to bedding dip). In situ permeability measurements and laboratory grain size analyses were performed along the studied section to characterize the petrophysical properties of sediments hosting carbonate concretions. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses and petrographic observations were used to constrain the diagenetic environment during calcite precipitation. Our results indicate that the growing anticline promoted the development of a local hydraulic gradient which induced cement precipitation in the form of carbonate concretions in synkinematic sediments.

  11. The influence of physical soil properties on the water supply of irrigated orchards-some examples from Val Venosta (South Tyrol/Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Jansen, Sven Grashey

    2012-04-01

    In irrigated agriculture, irrigation water volume and duration of irrigation can be optimized utilizing soil water dynamics data. Val Venosta in South Tyrol (Northern Italy) is a region where irrigation represents a central factor of production in the Tyrolese fruit-growing areas. Intensive orchard production is practised within an area of about 18.000 ha. Although fruit cultivation experts believe that intensive fruit cultivation should be based on regular irrigation of the fruit trees to guarantee optimum results in both fruit quantity and quality; however, fruit growers in the region follow very subjective criteria in regard to irrigation. At many locations much more water is used than the fruit trees actually need. Therefore irrigation in this region is a very cost-intensive factor of production and is criticized by the public for both economic and ecological reasons. To optimize the irrigation practice in this region it is essential to provide an objective basis for the irrigation process. A system of "precision irrigation" proposed, which is therefore based on objective and quantitative criteria focusing primarily on soil properties and hydrologic balance. This contribution will provide an overview of the current situation of irrigation and present results from soil-physical and soil-hydrological studies performed in this region since 2003.

  12. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated.

  13. Traces of medieval migrations in a socially stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Boattini, A; Sarno, S; Pedrini, P; Medoro, C; Carta, M; Tucci, S; Ferri, G; Alù, M; Luiselli, D; Pettener, D

    2015-02-01

    Social and cultural factors had a critical role in determining the genetic structure of Europe. Therefore, socially stratified populations may help to focus on specific episodes of European demographic history. In this study, we use uniparental markers to analyse the genetic structure of Partecipanza in San Giovanni in Persiceto (Northern Italy), a peculiar institution whose origins date back to the Middle Ages and whose members form the patrilineal descent of a group of founder families. From a maternal point of view (mtDNA), Partecipanza is genetically homogeneous with the rest of the population. However, we observed a significant differentiation for Y-chromosomes. In addition, by comparing 17 Y-STR profiles with deep-rooted paternal pedigrees, we estimated a Y-STR mutation rate equal to 3.90 * 10(-3) mutations per STR per generation and an average generation duration time of 33.38 years. When we used these values for tentative dating, we estimated 1300-600 years ago for the origins of the Partecipanza. These results, together with a peculiar Y-chromosomal composition and historical evidence, suggest that Germanic populations (Lombards in particular) settled in the area during the Migration Period (400-800 AD, approximately) and may have had an important role in the foundation of this community. PMID:25204305

  14. Insights on the opening of the Galerian mammal migration pathway from magnetostratigraphy of the Pleistocene marine-continental transition in the Arda River section (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monesi, Edoardo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Scardia, Giancarlo; Felletti, Fabrizio; Bona, Fabio; Sala, Benedetto; Tremolada, Fabrizio; Francou, Carlo; Raineri, Gianluca

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the magnetostratigraphy of the Arda River section (northern Italy) where the transition from marine to continental sedimentation occurring in the Po River basin during the Pleistocene is registered. Four magnetic polarity reversals were used to construct an age model of sedimentation aided by marine biostratigraphy and tied to a standard δ18O curve from the literature. The section spans from the Olduvai subchron (1.94-1.78 Ma) across the Jaramillo subchron (1.07-0.99 Ma) up to the Brunhes-Matuyama boundary (0.78 Ma). The onset of continental deposition occurred during marine isotope stage (MIS) 30 at ˜1.04 Ma. An association of Villafranchian and Early Galerian mammals, including Sus strozzii and Ursus dolinensis, has been found in the continental sediments dated to MIS 29-27 (˜0.99 Ma). Above follows a prominent fluvial conglomerate attributed to the first major lowstand of the Pleistocene culminating with MIS 22 at ˜0.9 Ma during the late Early Pleistocene climate turnover (EPT). These and other data from the literature are used to reconstruct the onset of continental deposition in the greater Po basin and shed light on the opening of the migration pathway that brought far-traveled Galerian mammal immigrants to enter Europe for the first time during the EPT.

  15. Time trends of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene in confined and unconfined aquifers of a groundwater system in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Altissimo, Lorenzo; Andreoli, Elisa; Giacometti, Andrea; Marcomini, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, and perchloroethylene were recorded in a groundwater system of Northern Italy over the period 1985-1997. In the unconfined recharging aquifer these chemicals showed a remarkable overall decline which was accompanied by a five-fold reduction in their consumption (from approx. 250 to approx. 50 tons year-1) over the same period. The time trends for the confined aquifers indicated a steady decline for 1,1,1-trichloroethane which was accompanied by a constant concentration of trichloroethylene and an increasing presence of perchloroethylene. It is suggested that the confined aquifers are recording a contamination which took place in the unconfined recharging aquifer before monitoring period (1982) started. At present, in most of the study area 1,1,1-trichloroethane contamination is below the detection limit (0.1 microgram/L). For trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene, the average unconfined aquifer contamination accounts for approx. 1 +/- 1 and approx. 4 +/- 3 micrograms/L, respectively, while in the confined aquifers the average concentrations are approx. 8 +/- 3 and approx. 35 +/- 5 micrograms/L, respectively.

  16. New results on the hydrodynamic behaviour of fossil Nummulites tests from two nummulite banks from the Bartonian and Priabonian of northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Seddighi, Mona; Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Papazzoni, Cesare Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Settling velocities of 58 well-preserved tests of fossil Nummulites were experimentally determined using a settling tube. The tests were collected from the nummulite banks of Pederiva di Grancona (A forms of N. lyelli and N. striatus, Middle Eocene) and San Germano dei Berici (A and B forms of N. fabianii, Late Eocene), both in the Berici Mts. (Veneto, northern Italy). The data were compared with estimated settling velocities that the same specimens might have had in life conditions. This was done by reconstructing their densities simulating water-filled condition and, to simulate post-diagenetic effects, under calcite-filled condition. These simulations show that A and B forms, even if they greatly diverge in shape, volume and size, still possess comparable settling velocities, and that each nummulite bank is characterized by specific hydrodynamic parameters. The use of settling velocity as a parameter to quantify the hydrodynamic behaviour of particles in seawater enables estimation of palaeoenvironmental conditions such as depth, substrate and the energy scenario. Such information is useful in obtaining further insights into the genesis of nummulite banks, the autochthony or allochthony of which is still being debated. Our results point to an autochthonous interpretation. PMID:26681827

  17. Intestinal Parasites of Owned Dogs and Cats from Metropolitan and Micropolitan Areas: Prevalence, Zoonotic Risks, and Pet Owner Awareness in Northern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Zanzani, Sergio Aurelio; Gazzonis, Alessia Libera; Berrilli, Federica

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal parasites of dogs and cats are cosmopolitan pathogens with zoonotic potential for humans. Our investigation considered their diffusion in dogs and cats from northern Italy areas, specifically the metropolitan area of Milan and two micropolitan areas of neighboring provinces. It included the study of the level of awareness in pet owners of the zoonotic potential from these parasites. A total of 409 fresh fecal samples were collected from household dogs and cats for copromicroscopic analysis and detection of Giardia duodenalis coproantigens. The assemblages of Giardia were also identified. A questionnaire about intestinal parasites biology and zoonotic potential was submitted to 185 pet owners. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites resulted higher in cats (47.37%−60.42%) and dogs (57.41%−43.02%) from micropolitan areas than that from the metropolis of Milan (dogs: P = 28.16%; cats: P = 32.58 %). The zoonotic parasites infecting pets under investigation were T. canis and T. cati, T. vulpis, Ancylostomatidae, and G. duodenalis assemblage A. Only 49.19% of pet owners showed to be aware of the risks for human health from canine and feline intestinal parasites. Parasitological results in pets and awareness determination in their owners clearly highlight how the role of veterinarians is important in indicating correct and widespread behaviors to reduce risks of infection for pets and humans in urban areas. PMID:24883320

  18. A physiologically based approach for degree-day calculation in pest phenology models: the case of the European Corn Borer ( Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiorano, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    Phenological models based on degree-day accumulation have been developed to support the integrated pest management of many insects. Most of these models are based on linear relationships between temperature and development, and on daily time step simulations using daily minimum and maximum temperatures. This approach represents an approximation that does not take into account the insect physiological response to temperature, and daily temperature fluctuations. The objective of this work has been to develop a phenological model for the European corn borer (ECB) based on the insect physiological response to temperature and running at an hourly time step. Two modeling solutions based on the same generic compartmental system have been compared: the first based on a physiologically based relationship between temperature and development, and using hourly derived temperatures as input (HNL modeling solution); and the second based on a linear relationship between temperature and degree-day accumulation and using daily temperature (DL modeling solution). The two approaches have been compared using ECB moth capture data from the Piemonte region in Northern Italy. The HNL modeling solution showed the best results for all the accuracy indicators. The DL modeling solution showed a tendency to anticipate ECB phenological development too early. This tendency is attributable to the linear relationship between temperature and development, which does not take into account (1) the decline of this relationship at high temperatures, and (2) the daily fluctuation of temperature. As a consequence, degree-days accumulation is accelerated in the DL modeling solution and the phenological development anticipated.

  19. Contrasting alluvial architecture of Late Pleistocene and Holocene deposits along a 120-km transect from the central Po Plain (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Bruno; Amorosi, Alessandro; Bruno, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    High-resolution investigation of a ~ 120-km-long transect along the course of the modern Po River, northern Italy, revealed marked changes in alluvial architecture across the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. Along the whole transect, a 20- to 30-m thick sheet-like succession of Late Pleistocene fluvial sands is invariably overlain by silt and clay deposits, with isolated fluvial bodies of Holocene age (< 9.4 cal ka BP). The Holocene succession displays consistent downstream changes in facies architecture: well-drained floodplain deposits are transitional at distal locations to increasingly organic, poorly drained floodplain to swamp facies associations. Thick paludal facies extend continuously up to 60 km landward of the Holocene maximum marine ingression, about 90 km from the modern shoreline. Based on 28 radiocarbon dates, the abrupt change in lithofacies and channel stacking pattern occurred at the transition from the last glacial period to the present interglacial, under conditions of rapid sea-level rise. The architectural change from amalgamated, Late Pleistocene sand bodies to overlying, mud-dominated Holocene units represent an example of chronologically well-constrained fluvial response to combined climate and relative sea-level change. The overall aggradational stacking pattern of individual channel-belt sand bodies indicates that high subsidence rates continuously created accommodation in the Po Basin, even during phases of falling sea level and lowstand.

  20. Influence of vegetation cover on bars morpho-dynamics in sinuous gravel-bed channels of the Northern Marche rivers (central Italy): cues for research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiberi, Valentina

    2010-05-01

    Sinuous gravel-bed channels are well represented in the Northern Marche river basins (central Italy), both in main streams and along several tributaries. In both cases, lozenge bars divide flow into a main branch (always active) and secondary channels (characterized by episodic reactivations). In the study area, this fluvial pattern characterized several river reaches during the last three decades and seems to be evolved from wandering configurations. Researches in progress are mainly investigating the role played by catchment controls (i.e. land use and climate changes, gravel removal, human alterations of longitudinal profiles) on major channel transformations (i.e. with regard to bankfull width, channel downcutting, pattern changes) applying a geomorphological methodology but, detailed studies carried out in order to define sinuous gravel-bed channel at the reach scale, suggest the need of an eco-morphological approach. These considerations result particularly appropriate for the Foglia River Basin where, in some cases, vegetation covers up to the 70% of the channel surface and shows a high stability during several bankfull discharge occurrences. Field surveys and monitoring also seem to demonstrate an impulsive evolution of meso-morphologies and different time-space behaviours of vegetate bars compared to the non-vegetate ones. The aim of this contribution is to provide some preliminary considerations about influence of vegetation cover on bars morpho-dynamics of some sinuous gravel-bed channels and promote specific eco-morphologic researches.

  1. Sensitivity Analysis and Investigation of the Behaviour of the UTOPIA Land-Surface Process Model: A Case Study for Vineyards in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francone, C.; Cassardo, C.; Richiardone, R.; Confalonieri, R.

    2012-09-01

    We used sensitivity-analysis techniques to investigate the behaviour of the land-surface model UTOPIA while simulating the micrometeorology of a typical northern Italy vineyard ( Vitis vinifera L.) under average climatic conditions. Sensitivity-analysis experiments were performed by sampling the vegetation parameter hyperspace using the Morris method and quantifying the parameter relevance across a wide range of soil conditions. This method was used since it proved its suitability for models with high computational time or with a large number of parameters, in a variety of studies performed on different types of biophysical models. The impact of input variability was estimated on reference model variables selected among energy (e.g. net radiation, sensible and latent heat fluxes) and hydrological (e.g. soil moisture, surface runoff, drainage) budget components. Maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index were ranked as the most relevant parameters, with sensitivity indices exceeding the remaining parameters by about one order of magnitude. Soil variability had a high impact on the relevance of most of the vegetation parameters: coefficients of variation calculated on the sensitivity indices estimated for the different soils often exceeded 100 %. The only exceptions were represented by maximum vegetation cover and maximum leaf area index, which showed a low variability in sensitivity indices while changing soil type, and confirmed their key role in affecting model results.

  2. Crustal structure of Northern Latium (central Italy) from receiver functions analysis: New evidences of a post-collisional back-arc margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttinelli, Mauro; Chiarabba, Claudio; Anselmi, Mario; Bianchi, Irene; De Rita, Donatella; Quattrocchi, Fedora

    2014-05-01

    The crustal velocity structure in a region of central Apennines of Italy at the hinge between the highly stretched portion of the Monte Argentario promontory and the magmatic province of the Tolfa Domes Complex (Northern Latium) is discussed in this study. S-wave velocities at depth have been constrained by the modeling of P-wave receiver functions (RF) from both temporary and permanent broadband seismic stations. The computer 3D Vs models show a thin crust (19-25 km) made of a shallow and thin sedimentary cover, a very high velocity and anisotropic layer related to a metamorphic basement, and a low Vs anisotropic layer in the middle-lower crust above a shallow Moho discontinuity modeled at about 20 km depth. The volcano-tectonic evolution of this portion of Tyrrhenian back-arc margin has been strongly influenced by its peculiar crustal architecture. The low-Vs layer acted as a shear zone in the middle-lower crust during the Tyrrhenian extension, also helping the development of Plio-Quaternary magmatism. Our findings potentially give new constraints on the evolution of the area and to the general comprehension of back-arc development in collisional regions.

  3. Human exposure to thallium through tap water: A study from Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    A geological study evidenced the presence of thallium (Tl) at concentrations of concern in groundwaters near Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy). The source of contamination has been identified in the Tl-bearing pyrite ores occurring in the abandoned mining sites of the area. The strongly acidic internal waters flowing in the mining tunnels can reach exceptional Tl concentrations, up to 9000μg/L. In September 2014 Tl contamination was also found in the tap water distributed in the same area (from 2 to 10μg/L). On October 3, 2014 the local authorities imposed a Do Not Drink order to the population. Here we report the results of the exposure study carried out from October 2014 to October 2015, and aimed at quantifying Tl levels in 150 urine and 318 hair samples from the population of Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta. Thallium was quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urine and hair were chosen as model matrices indicative of different time periods of exposure (short-term and long-term, respectively). Thallium values found in biological samples were correlated with Tl concentrations found in tap water in the living area of each citizen, and with his/her habits. Thallium concentration range found in hair and urine was 1-498ng/g (values in unexposed subjects 0.1-6ng/g) and 0.046-5.44μg/L (reference value for the European population 0.006μg/L), respectively. Results show that Tl levels in biological samples were significantly associated with residency in zones containing elevated water Tl levels. The kinetics of decay of Tl concentration in urine samples was also investigated. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination by Tl through water involving such a high number of samples. PMID:26799805

  4. Human exposure to thallium through tap water: A study from Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    A geological study evidenced the presence of thallium (Tl) at concentrations of concern in groundwaters near Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy). The source of contamination has been identified in the Tl-bearing pyrite ores occurring in the abandoned mining sites of the area. The strongly acidic internal waters flowing in the mining tunnels can reach exceptional Tl concentrations, up to 9000μg/L. In September 2014 Tl contamination was also found in the tap water distributed in the same area (from 2 to 10μg/L). On October 3, 2014 the local authorities imposed a Do Not Drink order to the population. Here we report the results of the exposure study carried out from October 2014 to October 2015, and aimed at quantifying Tl levels in 150 urine and 318 hair samples from the population of Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta. Thallium was quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urine and hair were chosen as model matrices indicative of different time periods of exposure (short-term and long-term, respectively). Thallium values found in biological samples were correlated with Tl concentrations found in tap water in the living area of each citizen, and with his/her habits. Thallium concentration range found in hair and urine was 1-498ng/g (values in unexposed subjects 0.1-6ng/g) and 0.046-5.44μg/L (reference value for the European population 0.006μg/L), respectively. Results show that Tl levels in biological samples were significantly associated with residency in zones containing elevated water Tl levels. The kinetics of decay of Tl concentration in urine samples was also investigated. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination by Tl through water involving such a high number of samples.

  5. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production.

  6. Association between PM10 concentrations and school absences in proximity of a cement plant in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Alessandro; Pesce, Giancarlo; Girardi, Paolo; Marchetti, Pierpaolo; Blengio, Gianstefano; de Zolt Sappadina, Simona; Falcone, Salvatore; Frapporti, Guglielmo; Predicatori, Francesca; de Marco, Roberto

    2014-03-01

    Dusts are one of the main air pollutants emitted during cement manufacturing. A substantial part of these are breathable particles that are less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), which represent a potential threat for the health of the exposed population. This study aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of PM10 concentrations on the health of children, aged 6-14 years, who attended the schools in Fumane (Italy), in proximity (1.2 km) to a large cement plant. School absenteeism was used as a proxy indicator of child morbidity. Time series of daily school absences and PM10 concentrations were collected for 3 school-years from 2007 to 2010 (541 school-days, 462 children on average). The associations between PM10 concentrations and school absence rates in the same day (lag0) and in the following 4 days (lag1 to lag4) were evaluated using generalised additive models, smoothed for medium/long term trends and adjusted for day of the week, influenza outbreaks, daily temperature and rain precipitations. The average concentration of PM10 in the period was 34 (range: 4-183) μg/m(3). An average 10 μg/m(3) increase of PM10 concentration in the previous days (lag0-4) was associated with a statistically significant 2.5% (95%CI: 1.1-4.0%) increase in the rate of school absences. The highest increase in the absence rates (2.4%; 95%CI: 1.2-3.5%) was found 2 days after exposure (lag2). These findings provide epidemiological evidence of the acute health effects of PM10 in areas with annual concentrations that are lower than the legal European Union limit of 40 μg/m(3), and support the need to establish more restrictive legislative standards.

  7. Detrital fission-track-compositional signature of an orogenic chain-hinterland basin system: The case of the late Neogene Quaternary Valdelsa basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestrieri, M. L.; Benvenuti, M.; Tangocci, F.

    2013-05-01

    Detrital thermochronological data collected in syn-tectonic basin deposits are a promising tool for deciphering time and processes of the evolution of orogenic belts. Our study deals with the Valdelsa basin, one of the wider basins of central Tuscany, Italy. The Valdelsa basin is located at the rear of the Northern Apennines, a collisional orogen whose late Neogene Quaternary development is alternatively attributed to extensional and compressional regimes. These contrasting interpretations mostly rely on different reconstructions of the tectono-sedimentary evolution of several basins formed at the rear of the chain since the late Tortonian. Here, we explore the detrital thermochronological-compositional signature of tectonic and surface processes during the Valdelsa basin development. For this aim, detrital apatite fission-track analysis of 21 sand samples from the latest Messinian Gelasian fluvial to shallow marine basin deposits, has been accompanied by a clast composition analysis of 7 representative outcrops of the conglomerate facies. The grain-age distributions of the sediment samples are generally characterized by two distinct components, one younger peak (P1) varying between 5.5 ± 2.8 and 9.5 ± 1.0 Ma and one older peak (P2) varying from 15.0 ± 8.0 to 41.0 ± 10 Ma. By comparison with some bedrock ages obtained from the E-NE basin shoulder, we attributed the P2 peak to the Ligurian Units and the P1 peak to the Macigno Formation (Tuscan Units). These units are arranged one upon the other in the complex nappe pile forming the Northern Apennines orogen. While the gravel composition indicates a predominant feeding from the Ligurian units all along the sedimentary succession with a subordinate occurrence of Macigno pebbles slightly increasing upsection, the P1 peak is present even in the oldest collected sandy sediments. The early P1 occurrence reveals that the Macigno was exposed in the E-NE basin shoulder since at least the latest Messinian-early Zanclean

  8. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  9. Root tensile strength relationships and their slope stability implications of three shrub species in the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, Matteo

    2007-07-01

    The role of root strength is important in stabilising steep hillslopes which are seasonally affected by storm-induced shallow landslides. In the Italian Apennines, steep (25-40°) slopes underlain by mudstone are generally stable if they are covered by shrubs whose roots anchor into the soil mantle. To quantify the mechanical reinforcement of roots to soil, the root tensile breaking force and the root tensile strength of three autochthonous shrub species commonly growing on stiff clay soils of the Northern Italian Apennines, Rosa canina (L.), Inula viscosa (L.) and Spartium junceum (L.), were measured by means of field and laboratory tests. For each test approximately 150 root specimens were used. The tensile force increases with increasing root diameter following a second-order polynomial regression curve. The tensile strength decreases with increasing root diameter following a power law curve. The field in situ tensile force required to break a root is always smaller than that obtained from laboratory tests for the same root diameter, although their difference becomes negligible if the root diameter is smaller than 5 mm. The influence of root tensile strength on soil shear strength was verified based on the infinite slope stability model. The root reinforcement was calculated using the number and mean diameter of roots. The factor of safety was calculated for three different soil thickness values (0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 m) and topographic slopes between 10° and 45°. The factor of safety for the combination of 0.6 m soil thickness, slopes smaller than 30°, and vegetation of I. viscosa (L.) or S. junceum (L.) is always larger than 1. If a slope is steeper, the factor of safety may be smaller than 1 for I. viscosa (L.), although it is still larger than 1 for S. junceum (L.). In the stiff clayey areas of the Northern Italian Apennines, I. viscosa (L.) mainly colonizes fan/cone/taluses and stabilises these zones up to a topographic gradient < 30° for a soil 0.6 m thick

  10. Anatomy of a volcanic district in a carbonate fold-and-thrust belt: the northern Volsci Range (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardello, Giovanni Luca; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Filippo, Michele

    2015-04-01

    The Volsci Range is a carbonate fold-and-thrust belt crossed by important normal faults in places associated with explosive volcanic deposits and hydrothermal ongoing activity within a moderately active seismic area (e.g., Latina earthquake 2012, Mw=3.8). Though distribution of volcanites is known, origin, volume and field characterization of a previously unstudied volcanic district is far to be addressed and it is the topic of this work. Several monogenic phreatomagmatic vents occur at the edges of the chain and within its backbone. The most relevant ones are characterized at the base by well welded to zeolitized tuffs, followed either by incoherent tuffs or by surges (e.g., Patrica, Valvisciolo) and locally by lavas (i.e., Giuliano di Roma, Pofi, Terracina) and finally by late Quaternary slope deposits. Most explosive units are largely composed by local Mesozoic platform carbonate litic clasts, showing different degrees of rounding and decarbonation. Micropalaeontology and facies analysis confirm that clasts are not older than late Jurassic and not younger than Cenomanian (Upper part of the Ostracoda and Miliolidae biozone). Therefore considering the stratigraphy beneath the vent points, litics could come from depths of about 400-600 meters. Juvenile litics of different composition, accretionary lapilli and the above mention carbonate litic clasts testify for a complex conduct composition and for the rupture of the carbonatic aquifer during eruption. Right at the southern slope of the Lepini Mounts (northern Volsci Range), as detected from the analysis of the n-2 residual gravity anomalies, monogenic circular vents (tuff rings) occur buried under Quaternary deposits or are just barely cropping out as necks (Doganella di Ninfa). Further south, despite the occurrence of pyroclastic deposits in boreholes, thickness and shape of volcanic deposits below the Pontina Plain is still unconstrained, providing a challenge for further geophysical studies. However, the

  11. High Incidence of Tuberculosis in the Absence of Isoniazid and Cotrimoxazole Preventive Therapy in Children Living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia: A Retrospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Alemu, Yihun Mulugeta; Andargie, Gashaw; Gebeye, Ejigu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the incidence of and predictors for tuberculosis in children living with HIV in Northern Ethiopia. Design Observational, retrospective follow-up study. Methods A total of 645 HIV-infected children were observed between September 2009 and September 2014. Cox regression analysis was used to identify predictors for developing TB. Results The incidence rate of tuberculosis was 4.2 per 100 child-years. Incidence of tuberculosis was higher for subjects who were not on cotrimoxazole preventive therapy, were not on isoniazid preventive therapy, had delayed motor development, had a CD4 cell count below the threshold, had hemoglobin level less than 10 mg/dl and were assessed as World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage III or IV. Conclusion Incidence of TB in children living with HIV was high. This study reaffirmed that isoniazid preventive therapy is one of the best strategy to reduce incidence of TB in children living with HIV. All children living with HIV should be screened for TB but for children with delayed motor development, advanced WHO clinical stage, anemia or immune suppression, intensified screening is highly recommended. PMID:27070435

  12. An integrated approach for analysing earthquake-induced surface effects: A case study from the Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldini, D.; Genevois, R.; Panizza, M.; Puccinelli, A.; Berti, M.; Simoni, A.

    This paper illustrates research addressing the subject of the earthquake-induced surface effects by means of a multidisciplinary approach: tectonics, neotectonics, seismology, geology, hydrogeology, geomorphology, soil/rock mechanics have been considered. The research is aimed to verify in areas affected by earthquake-triggered landslides a methodology for the identification of potentially unstable areas. The research was organized according to regional and local scale studies. In order to better emphasise the complexity of the relationships between all the parameters affecting the stability conditions of rock slopes in static and dynamic conditions a new integrated approach, Rock Engineering Systems (RES), was applied in the Northern Apennines. In the paper, the different phases of the research are described in detail and an example of the application of RES method in a sample area is reported. A significant aspect of the study can be seen in its attempt to overcome the exclusively qualitative aspects of research into the relationship between earthquakes and induced surface effects, and to advance the idea of beginning a process by which this interaction can be quantified.

  13. Benthic flux measurements of Hg species in a northern Adriatic lagoon environment (Marano and Grado Lagoon, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emili, Andrea; Acquavita, Alessandro; Koron, Neža; Covelli, Stefano; Faganeli, Jadran; Horvat, Milena; Žižek, Suzana; Fajon, Vesna

    2012-11-01

    As part of the "MIRACLE" project, the biogeochemical cycling of mercury (Hg) at the sediment-water interface was studied in the field in the Marano and Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea). Seasonal investigations were conducted at selected experimental sites, where Manila Clams (Tapes philippinarum) were previously seeded. Measurements were performed seasonally during three campaigns, using two benthic chambers, one transparent and one dark, to evaluate the effect of light on Hg cycling. Total dissolved Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous Hg (DGM) species were considered. Diurnal benthic fluxes were found to significantly exceed the diffusive fluxes at all stations. The assessment of the annual recycling of Hg species from sediments to the water column showed that up to 99% of MeHg is recycled annually to the water column, while Hg recycling ranges from 30 to 60%. MeHg poses the higher risk for potential bioaccumulation in clams, but it is partially mitigated by Hg reduction, which seems to be an important process leading to evasion losses of Hg from these environments. Estimated benthic fluxes suggest that Hg recycling at the sediment-water interface is more active in the Grado sector. Hence, based on the estimated release of MeHg from sediments, it is suggested that the western sector seems to be more suitable for clam farming and the extension of rearing activities.

  14. Creep and locking of a low-angle normal fault: Insights from the Altotiberina fault in the Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderlini, L.; Serpelloni, E.; Belardinelli, M. E.

    2016-05-01

    While low-angle normal faults have been recognized worldwide from geological studies, whether these structures are active or capable of generating big earthquakes is still debated. We provide new constraints on the role and modes of the Altotiberina fault (ATF) in accommodating extension in the Northern Apennines. We model GPS velocities to study block kinematics, faults slip rates and interseismic coupling of the ATF, which is active and accounts, with its antithetic fault, for a large part of the observed chain normal 3 mm/yr tectonic extension. A wide portion of the ATF creeps at the long-term slip rate (1.7 ± 0.3 mm/yr), but the shallow locked portions are compatible with M > 6.5 earthquakes. We suggest that positive stress accumulation due to ATF creep is most likely released by more favorable oriented splay faults, whose rupture may propagate downdip along low-angle normal fault surface and reduce the probability of occurrence of a seismic rupture of the shallower locked portion.

  15. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case–control study, February 2013 to July 2014

    PubMed Central

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case–control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5–14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9–32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  16. Epidemiology of Strongyloides stercoralis in northern Italy: results of a multicentre case-control study, February 2013 to July 2014.

    PubMed

    Buonfrate, Dora; Baldissera, Mara; Abrescia, Fabrizio; Bassetti, Matteo; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Giobbia, Mario; Mascarello, Marta; Rodari, Paola; Scattolo, Novella; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2016-08-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted helminth widely diffused in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Autochthonous cases have been also diagnosed sporadically in areas of temperate climate. We aimed at defining the epidemiology of strongyloidiasis in immigrants and Italians living in three northern Italian Regions. Screening for S. stercoralis infection was done with serology, confirmation tests were a second serological method or stool agar culture. A case-control approach was adopted and patients with a peripheral eosinophil count ≥ 500/mcL were classified as cases. Of 2,701 individuals enrolled here 1,351 were cases and 1,350 controls; 86% were Italians, 48% women. Italians testing positive were in 8% (97/1,137) cases and 1% (13/1,178) controls (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-14.8), while positive immigrants were in 17% (36/214) cases and in 2% (3/172) controls (aOR 9.6; 95% CI: 2.9-32.4). Factors associated with a higher risk of infection for all study participants were eosinophilia (p < 0.001) and immigration (p = 0.001). Overall, strongyloidiasis was nine-times more frequent in individuals with eosinophilia than in those with normal eosinophil count. PMID:27525375

  17. Transpirative Deficit Index (TDI) for the management of water scarcity in irrigated areas: development and application in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghi, Anna; Facchi, Arianna; Rienzner, Michele; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    In Europe, the monitoring and assessment of drought is entrusted to the European Drought Observatory (EDO). EDO indicators are calculated considering rainfed agriculture and delivered on a 5 km grid. However, in southern Europe, irrigation may compensate for potentially severe agricultural droughts and specific water scarcity indicators that explicitly consider irrigation are needed. In the Po River Plain, irrigated crops cover more than 70% of the agricultural land, massive amounts of water are diverted from rivers for irrigation, and surface irrigation methods are largely applied. Nowadays, the region is not a water scarce basin, but irrigation water shortages have occurred with increased frequency during the last two decades. Moreover, a recent EU report shows that the Po River Plain is included among areas in Europe that by 2030 shall be affected by water scarcity. In this context, a study was started to select and develop indicators for the management and prevention of Water Scarcity and Drought (WS&D) based on the synergic use of hydrological modelling and Earth Observation data applied at a spatial scale of interest for end-users (250m grid). These indicators shall be better suited for the assessment of WS&D in Italy as well as in other southern European countries. This work presents the development and the application of the TDI (Transpirative Deficit Index) to a study area, within the Po River Plain. TDI is an agricultural drought index based on the transpiration deficit (TDx, calculated as the difference between potential and actual transpiration), computed by the spatially distributed hydrological model IDRAGRA and cumulated over a period of x days. TDx for each day of a specific year is compared to the long-term TDx probability distribution (e.g., over 20-30 years), which is transformed into a standardized normal distribution. The non-exceedance probability of TDx is finally expressed in terms of unit of standard deviation (TDI), following the approach

  18. Study and monitoring landslide with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI): the case study of Rosone (Western Alps, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notti, Davide; Meisina, Claudia; Zucca, Francesco; Colombo, Alessio

    2013-04-01

    Large landslides are widespread both in the Alps and Apennines; the observed movements are generally from extremely slow to slow, fairly regular with some occasional acceleration, related to rainfall events of high intensity or long duration. Rapid and superficial phenomena are often associated and they result in significant socio-economic losses. They are also difficult to characterize in their boundaries and state of activity, to monitor with traditional tools due to their extension and low rates of movement, which are close to the detection limit of traditional monitoring equipment. Nevertheless, their management and prevention require a proper detection of ground movements for land use planning and/or civil protection purposes. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) is a powerful tool for studying and monitoring such landslides. This work illustrates the potential of Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data for a detailed detection, characterization and monitoring of a large landslide (Rosone landslide) ground displacements at local scale. The Rosone landslide is located in the Orco valley, Piedmont region (NW Italy) and it is one of the most studied of the western Alps due to its potential hazard. The landslide affects the penstock of the near hydroelectric plant and in case of collapse may creates a dam in the Orco river and an interruption of the road that connects the upper part of the valley with the plain. The landslide has an areal extension of about 5.5 km2 and has been classified as a Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DSGSD) affecting the southern side of the Orco - Piantonetto ridge modelled on lythotypes of the Gran Paradiso Massif (gneiss). The slope morpho-structural features allow to distinguish three adjacent sectors corresponding to three different evolution stages of the DSGSD. The sector of Bertondasco (0.5 km2) classified as complex landslide is the most interesting for its movements

  19. 3D architecture and structural characterization of the Lima Valley low-angle fault system (Northern Apennines, Italy).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, L.; Molli, G.; Botti, F.; Ungari, A.; Storti, F.

    2012-04-01

    The nappe pile of the northern Apennines is characterized, from bottom to top, by metamorphic units (Apuane and Massa), overlain by the anchimetamorphic cover unit (Tuscan Nappe), in turn overlain by remnants of former intraoceanic accretionary wedge (Subligurian and Ligurian units) and by the Epiligurian wedge-top sediments. The upper part of the structural edifice, in several areas, is dismembered and thinned by low-angle extensional fault systems, such as those described in southern Tuscany (Carmignani et al., 1994) and in southernmost Liguria (e.g. Tellaro detachment, Storti, 1995). Here we present another example of such low-angle fault systems, exposed in the Lima valley (northern Tuscany). It consists of a well developed bedding-parallel fault system which appears to be, in turn, affected by superimposed folds and late-stage normal faults (Botti et al., 2010). The original geometry of the low-angle fault system has been reconstructed and superimposed deformations have been restored. The fault system is composed by two first order segments, both of them showing bedding-parallel attitude and top-to-NE kinematics. The uppermost segment causes the tectonic repetition of the pelagic sediments of Scaglia fm. (Upper Cretaceous - Oligocene) and the sandstone of Macigno fm. (Oligocene - Miocene); the lowermost one causes the direct contact of the Macigno fm. on the pelagic carbonate of the Maiolica fm. (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous), via the elision of the Scaglia fm.. In the central part of the study area, other formations are elided by the lowermost fault segment, giving the direct contact of the Macigno fm. with the Calcare selcifero di Limano fm. (Lower Jurassic). The damage zone of the two main tectonic contacts has been studied in detail to investigate the role of the different lithologies involved. In the Macigno sandstone, a foliated cataclasite developed in the proximity of the fault core, intercalated with smaller lithons of less deformed rock

  20. Comparing results from actual and virtual linear scanlines in fractured sandstones of the Marnoso-Arenacea Formation, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsani, Angelo; Balsamo, Fabrizio; Bistacchi, Andrea; Ogata, Kei; Storti, Fabrizio; Fetter, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    Three-dimensional photogrammetric techniques arecommonly used to generate high-resolution digital outcrop models suitable to complement stratigraphic and structural field studies. This is particularly true for near vertical outcrops were direct data collection is very difficult to perform, provided that the data are reliable. To check whether fracture attribute data acquired from photogrammetric digital outcrop models can be effectively integrate field data, we performed a multisource data acquisition programme on the master joint set affecting the Langhian part of the Marnoso Arenacea Formation, a foredeep siliciclastic turbidite succession widely exposed in the external sector of the Northern Apennines. We selected an about 90 m high vertical cliff in a meander of the Santerno River, which was surveyed by both terrestrial and drone-aided photogrammetry to produce two different digital outcrop models of the same strata. Moreover, field data were collected in the same strata along river bed exposures few hundred meters upstream. Comparison of master joint attributes, namely orientation, spacing and height, collected along linear scanlines in the field and in the two digital outcrop models shows quite comparable results, particularly when FSI (Fracture Spacing Index) values are considered. Sensitivity tests of the impact of the number of data on the statistical results from photogrammetric scanlines, where hundreds of measurements can be collected along each scan line, were also performed. Our results provide further support to the effectiveness of the integration between field and photogrammetrically-obtained structural data to study fracture densities in partially accessible exposures. Given the large data numbers that can be collected in digital outcrop models, once validated in the field, photogrammetric data allow robust statistical analysis to be performed on fracture attributes.

  1. Comparison of three methods to derive canopy-scale flux measurements above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, William; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Mentel, Thomas; Tomlinson, Sam; Dragosits, Ulrike; Hewitt, Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2015-04-01

    Plants emit a wide range of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) into the atmosphere. These BVOCs are a major source of reactive carbon into the troposphere and play an important role in atmospheric chemistry by, for example, acting as an OH sink and contributing to the formation of secondary organic aerosol. While the emission rates of some of these compounds are relatively well understood, large uncertainties are still associated with the emission estimates of many compounds. Here the fluxes and mixing ratios of BVOCs recorded during June/July 2012 over the Bosco Fontana forest reserve in northern Italy are reported and discussed, together with a comparison of three methods of flux calculation. This work was carried out as a part of the EC FP7 project ECLAIRE (Effects of Climate Change on Air Pollution and Response Strategies for European Ecosystems). The Bosco Fontana reserve is a semi natural deciduous forest dominated by Carpinus betulus (hornbeam), Quercus robur (pedunculate oak) and Quercus rubra (northern red oak). Virtual disjunct eddy covariance measurements made using Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Proton Transfer Reaction-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS) were used to calculate fluxes and mixing ratios of BVOCs above the forest canopy at Bosco Fontana. BVOC mixing ratios were dominated by methanol with acetaldehyde, acetone, acetic acid, isoprene, the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes also recorded. A large flux of isoprene was observed as well as significant fluxes of monoterpenes, methanol, acetaldehyde and methyl vinyl ketone / methacrolein. The fluxes recorded using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed good agreement. Comparison of the isoprene fluxes calculated using these instruments also agreed well with fluxes modelled using the MEGAN algorithms (Guenther et al. 2006). The detailed tree distribution maps for the forest at Bosco Fontana compiled by Dalponte et

  2. Properties of a hybrid zone between highly distinct chromosomal races of the house mouse (Mus musculus domesticus) in Northern Italy, and comparisons with other hybrid zones.

    PubMed

    Hauffe, H C; Giménez, M D; Vega, R; White, T A; Searle, J B

    2011-01-01

    Here we provide the first detailed description of the hybrid zone between the Cremona chromosomal race of house mouse (ICRE; 2n = 22) and the standard all-telocentric race (40ST; 2n = 40), with full karyotypes of 106 individuals from 17 localities along a transect between the 2 races to the west of Lake Garda in Northern Italy. The ICRE race is characterised by 9 pairs of metacentric chromosomes in a homozygous state and we use the metacentric frequency data along the transect to fit tanh metacentric clines. The clines are narrow (5-8 km, standardised width) suggesting low hybrid fitness. However, the lack of occurrence of ICRE × 40ST F(1) hybrids and presence of other hybrid types suggests that the F(1) hybrids initially produced in this hybrid zone were at least partially fertile, despite having 9 meiotic trivalent configurations. We apply the same cline-fitting methodology to 3 previously studied hybrid zones between metacentric races and the 40ST race. Taken together with published clinal data on 4 further metacentric-40ST hybrid zones, we are able to make objective generalisations on the characteristics of such zones in the house mouse. Zones involving 22-chromosome races are narrower, on average, than other metacentric-40ST hybrid zones and do not show a tendency towards the generation of new races as found with zones where the metacentric race has a higher 2n. It appears that metacentric-40ST zones are unlikely to be sites of speciation (even when a 22-chromosome race is involved), although a mosaic structure to the hybrid zone may enhance this possibility. We make a comparison between metacentric-40ST zones and contacts between 2 metacentric races, for a comprehensive perspective of chromosomal hybrid zones in the house mouse.

  3. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Po valley during the supersito campaigns - Part 3: Contribution of wood combustion to wintertime atmospheric aerosols in Emilia Romagna region (Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Kaipainen, Jussi; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wood combustion on PM in fall/winter that are the most favorable seasonal periods with presumed intense biomass burning for residential heating due to low temperatures. As a part of the Supersito project, nearly 650 PM2.5 samples were daily collected at urban and rural sites in Emilia Romagna (Northern Italy) in five intensive experimental campaigns throughout the years from 2011 to 2014. From specific compounds related to wood combustion a set of 58 organic compounds was determined, such as anhydrosugars, primary biological sugars, low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, methoxylated phenols, PAHs and carbonaceous components (EC/OC). Levoglucosan was by far the most dominant anhydrosugar, both on a relative and an absolute basis (35-1043 ng m-3), followed by mannosan (7-121 ng m-3) and galactosan (4-52 ng m-3), indicating that wood burning for domestic heating is a diffuse regional source during the seasons studied. Different diagnostic ratios between anhydrosugars and methoxylated phenols were computed to discriminate the prevalent contribution of hardwood as combustion fuel. The investigated 19 high molecular weight PAHs were more abundant at the urban than at the rural site, with mean total value of 4.3 and 3.2 ng m-3 at MS and SP, respectively. The strong contribution of wood combustion to atmospheric PAHs was indicated by the positive correlation between levoglucosan and the most abundant PAHs (R2 = 0.71÷0.79) and individually with benzo(a)pyrene (R2 = 0.79). By using this correlation, it was estimated that wood burning contributed nearly 77% to BaP concentration in the winter months. Based on the ratio between levoglucosan and OC data, it could be concluded that the wood burning contributed about 35% to OC during the cold November-February periods and the contribution was similar at both sampling sites.

  4. Mass transport-related stratal disruption within sedimentary mélanges: Examples from the northern Apennines (Italy) and south-central Pyrenees (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Kei; Mutti, Emiliano; Pini, Gian Andrea; Tinterri, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We report here mass transport-related disruption processes and their artifacts within sedimentary mélanges. The case studies include the early Oligocene wedge-top mass transport deposits in the northern Apennines (Italy) and the Eocene foredeep carbonate megabreccias from the south-central Pyrenees (Spain). These "chaotic" units commonly share a block-in-matrix fabric expressed by variously deformed slide blocks of different size, lithology, age and shape, embedded in a fine-grained matrix. Geophysical studies of modern continental margins have characterized many of these deposits, which, however, remain still relatively poorly described in term of meso-scale characteristics. The prominent feature of the analyzed mass transport deposits is the occurrence of an unsorted, strongly mixed, relatively fine-grained clastic matrix, infilling space between large clasts and blocks. This matrix shows either fluidal structures related to simple shear, or a structureless, homogeneous fabric, both probably related to liquefaction/fluidization processes and thus, to the internal strength of the mixed lithologies. We interpreted this phase as a liquefied mixture of water and sediment, characterized by high mobility due to overpressured conditions, as evidenced by both lateral and vertical injections. On a much larger scale this kind of matrix could represent the acoustically "transparent" facies separating slide blocks of many seismic examples. The inferred generating mechanism is that of a progressive soft sediment deformation, linked to different phases of submarine landslide evolution (i.e. failure, translation, accumulation and post-depositional stages), leading to an almost complete stratal disruption of involved bedded sequences, either within the slide mass and in the underlying substrate. In this framework the down-slope movement is favored by the development of ductile, overpressured shear zones, both internally and along the basal sliding horizon. Therefore, this

  5. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, W. J. F.; Schallhart, S.; Langford, B.; Valach, A.; Rantala, P.; Fares, S.; Carriero, G.; Tillmann, R.; Tomlinson, S. J.; Dragosits, U.; Gianelle, D.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean day-time flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28 day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the MEGAN isoprene emissions algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using GC-MS to be scaled up to produce a "bottom-up" canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the "top-down" canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  6. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. PMID:26925729

  7. Persistence and spatial autocorrelation of clones of Erysiphe necator overwintering as mycelium in dormant buds in an isolated vineyard in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cortesi, P; Pizzatti, C; Bertocchi, D; Milgroom, M G

    2008-02-01

    The population structure of the grape powdery mildew fungus, Erysiphe necator (formerly Uncinula necator), has been hypothesized to vary from being clonal to highly diverse and recombining. We report here on the structure of an E. necator population sampled during a 4-year period from an isolated vineyard in northern Italy (Voghera, Pavia Province). We obtained 54 isolates of E. necator that overwintered asexually as mycelium in grapevine buds and caused severe symptoms on the emerging shoots, known as flag shoots. All isolates were genotyped for mating type, four multilocus polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers (a total of 64 loci were scored), and two single-copy loci designed to identify genetic subgroups in E. necator. All isolates had the same mating type and single-locus alleles that correlate to isolates from flag shoots in other areas. Only 2 of the 64 loci scored from multilocus markers were polymorphic; 46 of the 54 isolates had the same multilocus haplotype. Seven isolates had a second haplotype that was recovered over 3 years, and only a single isolate was found with a third haplotype. Both variant haplotypes differed from the main clonal haplotype by single loci. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed that vines with flag shoots were not aggregated within years, but they were aggregated between consecutive years. These results demonstrate that this subpopulation of E. necator on flag shoots is composed of a single clonal lineage that has persisted for at least 4 years. We speculate that the lack of diversity in the flag shoot subpopulation in this vineyard is the result of restricted immigration from surrounding areas and genetic drift operating through founder effects and periodic bottlenecks. We propose a model that integrates epidemiology and population genetics to explain the variation observed in genetic structure of E. necator flag shoot subpopulations from different vineyards or viticultural regions. PMID:18943190

  8. Nitrogen Budget in a Lowland Coastal Area Within the Po River Basin (Northern Italy): Multiple Evidences of Equilibrium Between Sources and Internal Sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soana, Elisa; Racchetti, Erica; Pierobon, Enrica; Mastrocicco, Micol; Tesini, Enrico; Fano, Elisa Anna; Bartoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Detailed studies on pollutants genesis, path and transformation are needed in agricultural catchments facing coastal areas. Here, loss of nutrients should be minimized in order to protect valuable aquatic ecosystems from eutrophication phenomena. A soil system N budget was calculated for a lowland coastal area, the Po di Volano basin (Po River Delta, Northern Italy), characterized by extremely flat topography and fine soil texture and bordering a network of lagoon ecosystems. Main features of this area are the scarce relevance of livestock farming, the intense agriculture, mainly sustained by chemical fertilizers, and the developed network of artificial canals with long water residence time. Average nitrogen input exceeds output terms by ~60 kg N ha-1 year-1, a relatively small amount if compared to sub-basins of the same hydrological system. Analysis of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in groundwater suggests limited vertical loss and no accumulation of this element, while a nitrogen mass balance in surface waters indicates a net and significant removal within the watershed. Our data provide multiple evidences of efficient control of the nitrogen excess in this geographical area and we speculate that denitrification in soil and in the secondary drainage system performs this ecosystemic function. Additionally, the significant difference between nitrogen input and nitrogen output loads associated to the irrigation system, which is fed by the N-rich Po River, suggests that this basin metabolizes part of the nitrogen excess produced upstream. The traditionally absent livestock farming practices and consequent low use of manure as fertilizer pose the risk of excess soil mineralization and progressive loss of denitrification capacity in this area.

  9. Short communication: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in bulk tank milk from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cortimiglia, C; Bianchini, V; Franco, A; Caprioli, A; Battisti, A; Colombo, L; Stradiotto, K; Vezzoli, F; Luini, M

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as a leading cause of mastitis in goats. However, few data are available on the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this species. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy. Eighty-five out of 197 samples (43.1%) tested positive for S. aureus with counts ranging from 10 to more than 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/mL. The MRSA was screened by both direct plating followed by a disk diffusion test to evaluate methicillin resistance and a selective enrichment method. Methicillin-resistance was confirmed by mecA-specific PCR. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was identified in 4 samples (2.0%) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed the presence of livestock-associated MRSA belonging to lineages ST398 (n = 3) and ST1 (n = 1). In one case we demonstrated that the same MRSA strain was able to persist over time on the farm, being isolated from both bulk tank milk and the udder of 3 goats 1 yr after the first isolation. The high prevalence of S. aureus-positive herds detected in this study and the presence of MRSA strains belonging to livestock-associated genotypes is of concern, and represents a novel finding in the Italian dairy goat production system. The application of stringent measures for the control of S. aureus mastitis at the farm level seems appropriate to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize the risk of foodborne illness and the transmission of MRSA to humans by occupational exposure.

  10. Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Wollgast, Jan; Huber, Tania; Hanke, Georg

    2007-02-01

    A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) then liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1-L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 microL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05-0.1 ng L(-1) were achieved for most compounds. Lake-water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Rain water was also analyzed to investigate atmospheric input of the contaminants. Compounds regularly detected at very low concentrations in the lake water included: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng L(-1)), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng L(-1)), atrazine (5 ng L(-1)), simazine (16 ng L(-1)), diuron (11 ng L(-1)), and atrazine-desethyl (11 ng L(-1)), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng L(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng L(-1)), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng L(-1)), and benzafibrate (1.2 ng L(-1)), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng L(-1)), its carboxylates (NPE(1)C 120 ng L(-1), NPE(2)C 7 ng L(-1), NPE(3)C 15 ng L(-1)) and ethoxylates (NPE( n )Os, n = 3-17; 300 ng L(-1)), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng L(-1), PFOA 3 ng L(-1)), and estrone (0.4 ng L(-1)). Levels of these compounds in drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore were almost identical with those found in the lake itself, revealing the poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local

  11. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups. PMID:27436259

  12. Evaluation of downscaled DEMETER multi-model ensemble seasonal hindcasts in a northern Italy location by means of a model of wheat growth and soil water balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marletto, V.; Zinoni, F.; Criscuolo, L.; Fontana, G.; Marchesi, S.; Morgillo, A.; van Soetendael, M.; Ceotto, E.; Andersen, U.

    2005-05-01

    In this paper we explore the new possibilities for early crop yield assessment at the local scale arising from the availability of dynamic crop growth models and of downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts. We compare the use of the latter with other methods, based on crop growth models driven by observed climatic data only. The soil water balance model developed and used at ARPA Emilia-Romagna (CRITERIA) was integrated with crop growth routines from the model WOFOST 7.1. Some validation runs were first carried out and we verified with independent field data that the new integrated model satisfactorily simulated above-ground biomass and leaf area index. The model was then used to test the feasibility of using downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal hindcasts, coming from the DEMETER European research project, in order to obtain early (i.e. 90, 60 and 30 d before harvest) yield assessments for winter wheat in northern Italy. For comparison, similar runs with climatology instead of hindcasts were also carried out. For the same purpose, we also produced six simple linear regression models of final crop yields on within season (end of March, April and May) storage organs and above-ground biomass values. Median yields obtained using downscaled DEMETER hindcasts always outperformed the simple regression models and were substantially equivalent to the climatology runs, with the exception of the June experiment, where the downscaled seasonal hindcasts were clearly better than all other methods in reproducing the winter wheat yields simulated with observed weather data. The crop growth model output dispersion was almost always significantly lower than the dispersion of the downscaled ensemble seasonal hindcast used as input for crop simulations.

  13. Detection of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges: a case study from the central-southern Siena Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Ivan; Arragoni, Simone; Aldinucci, Mauro; Foresi, Luca Maria; Bambini, Anna Maria; Sandrelli, Fabio

    2013-07-01

    The detection of detached nearshore wedges formed in response to relative sea-level drops is considered one of the hottest topics in sequence stratigraphic analysis due to their importance as reservoir analogues. In fact, they usually constitute sandy and porous bodies generally encased in impermeable clay, thus presenting a good potential as traps for fluids. This paper focuses on the sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Pliocene deposits cropping out in the central-southern sector of the Siena Basin (Tuscany, Italy), a post-collisional basin of the Northern Apennines. The exposed sedimentary succession was investigated through a detailed sedimentological and stratigraphic approach, integrated by biostratigraphic analyses, aimed at a better characterization of the infilling history of this sector of the basin. Specifically, this study revealed the occurrence of repeated facies shifts that allowed the identification of two depositional sequences. In detail, a thick sand-rich body far from the basin margins, and previously considered as a turbiditic lobe, has been reinterpreted as formed in a nearshore setting during a fall in relative sea level. This body is totally encased in offshore clay, and due to the lack of physical connection with the related HST deposits, it has to be considered as a detached forced-regressive wedge. The present work led to the recognition of some sedimentological and stratigraphic features typical of falling stage systems tract deposits (e.g. presence of intrabasinal recycled materials, sedimentological evidence of a pre-existing fluvial network subsequently eroded) that can provide useful clues for the identification of detached forced-regressive nearshore wedges in core studies and poorly exposed settings.

  14. A functional entity approach to predict soil erosion processes in a small Plio-Pleistocene Mediterranean catchment in Northern Chianti, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Märker, Michael; Pelacani, Samanta; Schröder, Boris

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we evaluate different methods to predict soil erosion processes. We derived different layers of predictor variables for the study area in the Northern Chianti, Italy, describing the soil-lithologic complex, land use, and topographic characteristics. For a subcatchment of the Orme River, we mapped erosion processes by interpreting aerial photographs and field observations. These were classified as erosional response units (ERU), i.e. spatial areas of homogeneous erosion processes. The ERU were used as the response variable in the soil erosion modelling process. We applied two models i) bootstrap aggregation (Random Forest: RF), and ii) stochastic gradient boosting (TreeNet: TN) to predict the potential spatial distribution of erosion processes for the entire Orme River catchment. The models are statistically evaluated using training data and a set of performance parameters such as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Cohen's Kappa, and pseudo R2. Variable importance and response curves provide further insight into controlling factors of erosion. Both models provided good performance in terms of classification and calibration; however, TN outperformed RF. Similar classes such as active and inactive landslides can be discriminated and well interpreted by considering response curves and relative variable importance. The spatial distribution of the predicted erosion susceptibilities generally follows topographic constraints and is similar for both models. Hence, the model-based delineation of ERU on the basis of soil and terrain information is a valuable tool in geomorphology; it provides insights into factors controlling erosion processes and may allow the extrapolation and prediction of erosion processes in unsurveyed areas.

  15. 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan of Lombardy (Northern Italy) and sedentary prevention: a cross-sectional strategy to develop evidence-based programmes.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Liliana; Ripamonti, Ennio; Cereda, Danilo; Gelmi, Giusi; Pirrone, Lucia; Rebecchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sector, life-course, and setting approaches are identified in the 2015-2018 Regional Prevention Plan (PRP) of Lombardy Region (Northern Italy) as valuable strategies to ensure the efficacy and sustainable prevention of the non-communicable disease (NCDs). The involvement of non-health sectors in health promotion activities represents a suitable strategy to affect on social, economic, and political determinants and to change environmental factors that could cause NCDs. A dialogue among communities, urban planning, and prevention know-how is a prerequisite to develop a system of policies suitable to promote healthy lifestyle in general and, specifically, active lifestyles. The 2015-2018 Lombardy PRP pursues its aims of health promotion and behavioural risk factors for NCDs prevention through programmes that implement their own setting networks (Health Promoting Schools - SPS; Workplace Health Promotion - WHP) and develop new networks. Sedentary lifestyle prevention and active lifestyle promotion are performed through the approach promoted by the Healthy Cities Programme (WHO), encouraging two main processes: 1. creating integrated capacity-building among health and social prevention services, academic research, and local stakeholders on different urban planning and design issues; 2. promoting community empowerment through active citizens participation. Through this process, Lombardy Region aims to orient its services developing evidence-based programmes and enhancing advocacy and mediating capacity skills in order to create a profitable partnership with non-health sectors. This paper reports the main impact data: 26,000 children that reach school by foot thanks to walking buses, 57% of 145 companies joining WHP are involved in promoting physical activity, 18,891 citizens who attend local walking groups.

  16. Nitrogen budget in a lowland coastal area within the Po River basin (northern Italy): multiple evidences of equilibrium between sources and internal sinks.

    PubMed

    Castaldelli, Giuseppe; Soana, Elisa; Racchetti, Erica; Pierobon, Enrica; Mastrocicco, Micol; Tesini, Enrico; Fano, Elisa Anna; Bartoli, Marco

    2013-09-01

    Detailed studies on pollutants genesis, path and transformation are needed in agricultural catchments facing coastal areas. Here, loss of nutrients should be minimized in order to protect valuable aquatic ecosystems from eutrophication phenomena. A soil system N budget was calculated for a lowland coastal area, the Po di Volano basin (Po River Delta, Northern Italy), characterized by extremely flat topography and fine soil texture and bordering a network of lagoon ecosystems. Main features of this area are the scarce relevance of livestock farming, the intense agriculture, mainly sustained by chemical fertilizers, and the developed network of artificial canals with long water residence time. Average nitrogen input exceeds output terms by ~60 kg N ha(-1) year(-1), a relatively small amount if compared to sub-basins of the same hydrological system. Analysis of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in groundwater suggests limited vertical loss and no accumulation of this element, while a nitrogen mass balance in surface waters indicates a net and significant removal within the watershed. Our data provide multiple evidences of efficient control of the nitrogen excess in this geographical area and we speculate that denitrification in soil and in the secondary drainage system performs this ecosystemic function. Additionally, the significant difference between nitrogen input and nitrogen output loads associated to the irrigation system, which is fed by the N-rich Po River, suggests that this basin metabolizes part of the nitrogen excess produced upstream. The traditionally absent livestock farming practices and consequent low use of manure as fertilizer pose the risk of excess soil mineralization and progressive loss of denitrification capacity in this area.

  17. Temporal reliability of a landslide inventory map. A case study in the Northern Apennines (Emilia-Romagna Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Cristina; Farabegoli, Enzo; Onorevoli, Giuseppe

    2015-04-01

    Landslides are multidimensional processes that relate to spatial, temporal, and thematic components. By describing landslide location, characteristics, and pattern distribution, landslide inventory maps are essential tools for landslide specialists as well as for planners and decision-makers. Nevertheless, the lack of suitable information about their quality represents a significant limitation to their use and raises serious questions about possible misuses. In fact, due to the active nature of landslides and of anthropogenic processes, the time variable is an essential aspect of landslide inventories and a fundamental component of their quality assessment. This work aimed to define the temporal reliability of a landslide inventory map and to evaluate potential temporal trends. We investigated the spatial and temporal evolution of slope failures in the Dorgola Valley (16 km2), a landslide-prone catchment located in the Northern Apennines and characterised by a man-made landscape. To this end, we prepared a multi-temporal landslide inventory on the base of 18 sets of aerial and satellite images spanning over a 60-year time interval (from 1954 to 2014). In particular, to investigate potential short-term trends, three sets of very high resolution GeoEYE images were purposely acquired from 2012 to 2014. The results of this study demonstrated that the total number of landslides in each image set is affected by three main factors: detection issues, anthropogenic processes, and slope failure activity and evolution. Basically, it turned out that landslide distribution is the result of two antagonistic forces: landslide activity sensu stricto, which contributes to increase the total number of mass movements, and man efforts to overcome landslides, which become more relevant and intense after slope instability climaxes. As a consequence, in order to understand how much a landslide inventory is affected by time, we analysed new detected landslides as well as those that

  18. Redistribution of material and formation of polygenic mélanges in the External Ligurian accretionary complex (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codegone, G.; Festa, A.; Dilek, Y.; Pini, G.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic, sedimentary and diapiric processes may strongly control the dynamics of the shallower part of subduction-accretionary complexes, and formation of polygenic mélanges at different scales. In modern accretionary complexes, drill cores and seismic images provide in-situ samples and measurements about large-scale features, and crucial informations on the structural processes that control their dynamics. However, minor-scale geological features and processes that are responsible for their formation are still difficult to decipher based on these techniques alone. On-land, exhumed accretionary complexes, on the other hand, can provide essential informations at all scales about (i) 3D features and structural architecture of mélanges, (ii) the role and interplay of different processes of mélange formation, and (iii) the redistribution of material in shallower parts of accretionary complexes (Festa et al., 2010). Detailed structural-stratigraphic observations in the exhumed Ligurian accretionary complex in the westernmost Northern Apennines show that a larger part of it (i.e., the Argille varicolori Formation) represents a composite chaotic unit consisting of diverse scale mélange types formed by tectonic, sedimentary and diapiric processes and their mutual superposition. Here, the spatial and temporal relationships between these mélange types resulted from two main episodes of deformation: (i) late Cretaceous-middle Eocene accretion, producing tectonic deformation of sediments at the wedge-front and formation of tectonically disrupted bodies through layer-parallel extension and contraction. Episodes of dynamic instability of the wedge-front alternating with steady-state accretion caused the removal of material locally and the subsequent emplacement of gravity-driven chaotic bodies within the tectonically disrupted bodies; (ii) late Oligocene-middle Miocene out-of-sequence thrusting, overprinting the previously formed chaotic bodies and producing a new and

  19. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messner, T.; Häggström, I.; Sandahl, I.; Lundberg, V.

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI.

  20. Gneisses (Serizzi and Beole) of the Verbano-Cusio-Ossola district (Piedmont, Northern Italy): possible candidates for the designation of "Global Heritage Stone province"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Borghi, Alessandro; Cavallo, Alessandro; Primavori, Piero

    2016-04-01

    The Verbano-Cusio-Ossola quarrying district (Piedmont, northern Italy) produces many different ornamental stones (granites, gneisses, marbles): two really important categories are represented by Serizzo and Beola gneisses. Several varieties of Serizzo and Beola crop out in the upper and middle Ossola Valley: Serizzo derives from the Antigorio, Monte Leone and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, whereas Beola from the Monte Leone, Orselina-Moncucco-Isorno and Monte Rosa Penninic Units, as well from the Fobello-Rimella schists (Austroalpine). The Serizzo, represented by a group of foliated granitoid orthogneisses (Serizzo Antigorio, Serizzo Formazza, Serizzo Sempione and Serizzo Monte Rosa varieties), is probably the most important and extensively exploited ornamental stones from the VCO province (about 70% of the VCO stone production). The quarries are mostly concentrated in the Antigorio and Formazza valleys, where the Antigorio nappe has a sub-horizontal attitude and reaches its greatest thickness (up to 1000 m). This stone was largely used to produce columns since the end of XV century (e.g. the old Ospedale Maggiore in Milano, now University of Milano) and later on it was replaced with granites. It was also used in the building structure of the Duomo di Milano, for the plinth and the piers. Nowadays, thanks to its good wear resistance and low cost, it is mainly used in polished slabs for paving: a recent application is the Frankfurt airport floor. Beola is the name of a group of heterogeneous orthogneisses with mylonitic foliation and strong mineralogical lineation (Beola Grigia, Bianca, Ghiandonata, Striata varieties), easy to split into thin slabs with hammer and chisel, occurring in the middle Ossola Valley, between Vogogna and Montecrestese. The quarries of Beola are probably the oldest of the Ossola Valley, although the precise period in which the stone started to be exported is unknown. The Beola trade probably started at the end of the XIII century, with the

  1. Increasing Incidence of Tuberculosis Infection in the Coastal Region of Northern Miyagi after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Tatsuya; Ohuchi, Miyako; Terui, Yuki; Kiryu, Kouji; Shikano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake struck off the northeast coast of Japan. Within an hour of the earthquake, devastating tsunamis swept over the coastal region of the Miyagi Prefecture, facing Pacific Ocean. Accordingly, more than 400,000 residents were forced to stay at evacuation shelters. We investigated the changes in tuberculosis prevalence after the disaster. Annual data for all tuberculosis patients between April 1, 2009 and March 31, 2013 were extracted from the database of the Miyagi Prefectural Government. In the coastal region of Northern Miyagi, the number of tuberculosis patients increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001, 9.6 vs.19.1 per 100,000 people), compared to the pre-disaster period. In contrast, its prevalence did not change in the inland region of Northern Miyagi and the coastal and inland regions of Southern Miyagi. Importantly, in the inland and coastal regions of Northern Miyagi, the number of patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) increased in the post-disaster period (p < 0.001). Furthermore, in the coastal shelters, 11 evacuees with the history of contacting tuberculosis patients were diagnosed with LTBI, whereas no cases of LTBI patients were observed in the inland shelters. Thus, staying in the coastal shelters was a risk factor for contracting tuberculosis (OR: 19.31, 95% CI: 1.11-334.80); indeed, twice as many evacuees visited each coastal shelter on April 1, 2011, compared to the inland region. We should prepare the shelters to avoid overcrowding, and long-term observation is required to detect the prevalence of tuberculosis infection. PMID:26936409

  2. Integrated stratigraphy of the Smirra Coring: a new reference sedimentary record for the early Paleogene from the Umbria-Marche Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtù, Antonio; Lauretano, Vittoria; Catanzariti, Rita; Galeotti, Simone; Lanci, Luca; Moretti, Matteo; Lourens, Lucas J.

    2016-04-01

    The early Paleogene represents a critical time interval in Earth's history characterized by prolonged greenhouse conditions, culminating in a series of extreme global warming events (i.e. hyperthermals), as well as large uncertainties in the Geological Time Scale. Therefore new, high-resolution, geological records are crucial in providing novel constraints on these topics. The Paleogene Umbria-Marche sections of the Northern Apennines (Italy) have shown to be suitable for integrated stratigraphy allowing regional-to-global correlations and environmental reconstructions across this time interval. Among several well-known sections, a new sedimentary record is provided by the Smirra Coring, which recovered an undisturbed sequence of rocks (~120 m from 4 overlapping holes) spanning the upper Scaglia Fms. (early Paleocene - middle Eocene) of the Umbria-Marche pelagic succession. Here we present a new, high-resolution, integrated stratigraphic framework (magnetostratigraphy, calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, physical properties, calibrated XRF core scanning and cyclostratigraphy) of the ~93 m composite section drilled in Smirra Holes 1 and 2. The succession extends almost continuously, with modest tectonic disturbance affecting its lowermost part with minor faulting. The resulting magnetic stratigraphy defines a succession of normal and reversed polarity magnetozones. The correlation of the paleomagnetic polarity sequence with the latest Geomagnetic Polarity Timescales (GPTSs; e.g. CK95, GTS 2004 and 2012), also constrained through nannofossil biostratigraphy, shows that the section spans the late Paleocene - middle Eocene from chrons C21n (~46 Ma) to C26r (~60 Ma). The overall sedimentation rates computed at Smirra are fully comparable with those from coeval sections from the Umbria-Marche Basin, ranging from ~10 m/Ma, between chrons C21n and C22n, to ~6 m/Ma, between chrons C22r and the base of the section. However, the sedimentation rates vary considerably

  3. In situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg in sediments of the Toce River (Lake Maggiore basin, Northern Italy): accumulation in benthic invertebrates and passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Pisanello, Francesca; Marziali, Laura; Rosignoli, Federica; Poma, Giulia; Roscioli, Claudio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia

    2016-06-01

    DDT and mercury (Hg) contamination in the Toce River (Northern Italy) was caused by a factory producing technical DDT and using a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant. In this study, DDT and Hg contamination and bioavailability were assessed by using different approaches: (1) direct evaluation of sediment contamination, (2) assessment of bioaccumulation in native benthic invertebrates belonging to different taxonomic/functional groups, and (3) evaluation of the in situ bioavailability of DDT and Hg using passive samplers. Sampling sites were selected upstream and downstream the industrial plant along the river axis. Benthic invertebrates (Gammaridae, Heptageniidae, and Diptera) and sediments were collected in three seasons and analyzed for DDT and Hg content and the results were used to calculate the biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF). Polyethylene passive samplers (PEs) for DDT and diffusive gradients in thin films (DGTs) for Hg were deployed in sediments to estimate the concentration of the toxicants in pore water. Analysis for (DDx) were performed using GC-MS. Accuracy was within ±30 % of the certified values and precision was >20 % relative standard deviation (RSD). Total mercury concentrations were determined using an automated Hg mercury analyzer. Precision was >5 % and accuracy was within ±10 % of certified values. The results of all the approaches (analysis of sediment, biota, and passive samplers) showed an increasing contamination from upstream to downstream sites. BSAF values revealed the bioavailability of both contaminants in the study sites, with values up to 49 for DDx and up to 3.1 for Hg. No correlation was found between values in sediments and the organisms. Concentrations calculated using passive samplers were correlated with values in benthic invertebrates, while no correlation was found with concentrations in sediments. Thus, direct analysis of toxicant in sediments does not provide a measurement of bioavailability. On the contrary

  4. Carbon cycle perturbations recorded by δ13C of bulk organic matter: the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Dolomites, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Dal Corso, Jacopo; Rigo, Manuel; Roghi, Guido; Spötl, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    A period of increased rainfall occurred in the Carnian (Late Triassic), known as Carnian Pluvial Event (CPE), which is evidenced by major lithological changes in continental and marine successions at tropical latitudes. Increased continental weathering and erosion led to the supply of large amounts of siliciclastics into the marginal basins of the Tethys. Seawater anoxia is also observed locally in semi-restricted basins. Simultaneously, microbial factories on high-relief carbonate platforms were replaced by metazoan factories, forming low-relief carbonate ramps and mixed low-gradient shelves. This environmental change has been shown to be closely associated with a negative carbon isotope excursion. A negative δ13C shift is recorded by bulk organic matter in the Milieres section (central Dolomites) and parallels a coeval excursion in carbon-isotope records of higher plant and marine algal biomarker, thus testifying a global change in the isotopic composition of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the ocean. This isotopic excursion was identified in organic carbon records throughout the western Tethys, but so far could not be reproduced convincingly using carbon isotope records from carbonate. A long carbon isotope record was produced from bulk organic matter of the early to late Carnian Milieres - Dibona section in the Dolomites, northern Italy. Carbon isotope analyses of carbonate (limestone and dolomite) were also obtained. This new carbon isotope record illustrates the structure of this complex carbon cycle perturbation related to the CPE. But while sharp carbon isotope oscillations are evident in the bulk organic carbon record, there is no evidence of a similar pattern in carbonate record. It can be shown that the carbon isotope record of carbonates is influenced by fractionation and diagenetic processes that completely obliterated the original δ13C signal. We conclude that the Carnian carbonates of the Dolomites do not

  5. Linking top-down and bottom-up approaches for assessing the vulnerability of a 100 % renewable energy system in Northern-Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borga, Marco; Francois, Baptiste; Hingray, Benoit; Zoccatelli, Davide; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; brown, Casey

    2016-04-01

    in Northern Italy. The main VRE available in the region are solar and hydropower (with an important fraction of run-of-the river hydropower). The indicator of success is the well-known 'energy penetration', defined as the percentage of energy demand met by the VRE power generation. The synthetic weather variables used for building the CRFs are obtained by perturbing the observed weather time series with the change factors method. A large ensemble of future climate scenarios from CMIP5 experiments are further used for assessing these factors for different emission scenarios, climate models and future prediction lead times. Their positioning on the CRFs allows discussing the risk pertaining to VRE penetration in the future. A focus is especially made on the different CRFs obtained from daily to seasonal time scales.

  6. Aggradation and lateral migration shaping geometry of a tidal point bar: An example from salt marshes of the Northern Venice Lagoon (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Lara; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; D'Alpaos, Andrea; Finotello, Alvise; Fontana, Alessandro; Roner, Marcella; Howes, Nick

    2016-08-01

    Although meanders are ubiquitous features of the tidal landscape, the architectural geometries of tidal point bar deposits are relatively unexplored and commonly investigated on the basis of facies models developed for their fluvial counterparts. The present study aims at improving current understanding of tidal point bar deposits developed in salt marsh settings, through a high-resolution investigation of an abandoned intertidal meander loop, located in the northern part of the Venice Lagoon (Italy). The study channel is 6 m wide and was active until the 1950s, when it was deactivated as consequence of a neck cut-off. A total of 150 cores was recovered from the associated point bar. The bar erosionally overlies a subtidal platform consisting of sand and mud and is covered by both channel fill and salt marsh mud. The bar, floored by a shell-rich sandy lag, consists of stratified fine sand, grading upward into sandy mud. The outer bank of the bend is characterized by well-developed, sand-rich levee deposits and absence of crevasse splays, which represent a distinctive feature of alluvial sedimentation. Sediment grain size distributions suggesting that seaward and landward sides of the point bar experienced comparable changes of bed shear stress due to alternation between flood and ebb currents, highlighting a remarkable difference with the classical downstream-fining characterizing fluvial point bars. Spatial interpolation between key stratal surfaces shows an overall thickening of the bar from 1.2 to 1.7 m in the direction of channel migration, associated with both lowering of the bar base and rising of its brink, which occurs in parallel with an increase in channel cross-sectional area, to progressively accommodate the increasing tidal prism. The bar top surface is characterized by a spoon-shaped geometry stemming out from a combination between lateral migration (8-10 cm/yr) and vertical aggradation (2.5-3.0 mm/yr) of the inner bank. In salt marsh settings

  7. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  8. The thick-bedded tail of turbidite thickness distribution as a proxy for flow confinement: Examples from tertiary basins of central and northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, Mattia; Felletti, Fabrizio; Milli, Salvatore; Patacci, Marco

    2016-07-01

    This study reviews the thickness statistics of non-channelized turbidites from four tertiary basins of Central-Northern Apennines (Italy), where bed geometry and sedimentary character have been previously assessed. Though very different in terms of size and, arguably, character of feeder system, these basins share a common stratigraphic evolution consisting in transition from an early ponded to a late unconfined setting of deposition. Based on comparison of thickness subsets from diverse locations and stratigraphic heights within the studied turbidite fills, this paper seeks to answer the following questions: i) how data collection procedures and field operational constraints (e.g. measure location, outcrop quality, use of thicknesses data from single vs. multiple correlative sections, stratigraphic thickness of the study interval) can affect statistics of sample data? ii) how depositional controls of confined vs. unconfined turbidite basins can result in different thickness-frequency distributions?; and iii) is there in thickness statistics a 'flow confinement' signature which can be used to distinguish between confined and unconfined turbidites? Results suggest that: i) best practices of data collection are crucial to a meaningful interpretation of sample data statistics, especially in presence of stratigraphic and spatial trends of turbidite bed thickness; ii) a systematic bias against cm-thick Tcd Bouma sequence turbidites exists in sample data, which can result in the low-end tail of empirical thickness-frequency distributions to depart significantly from the actual distribution of turbidite thickness; and iii) thickness statistics of beds starting with a basal Ta/Tb Bouma division bear a coherent relationship to the transition from ponded to unconfined depositional settings, consisting in reduction of variance and mean and, consequently, parameters, or even type, of best fit model distribution. This research highlights the role of flow stripping, sediment by

  9. Assessment of Temporal and spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties and its implications on soil water content predictions for a maize field in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feki, Mouna; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ceppi, Alessandro; Mancini, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Use of hydrological models to simulate water movement from soil surface to groundwater requires intensive, time consuming and expensive soil related parameters collection, such as, water retention curve (WRC) parameters and hydraulic conductivity (K).Typically, soils to be characterized, , exhibit large variations in space and time as well during the cropping cycle, due to biological processes and agricultural management practices : tillage , irrigation , fertilization and harvest. Soil properties are subjected to diverse physical and chemical changes that leads to a non-stability in term of water and chemical movements within the soil as well to the groundwater. The aim of this study is to assess the variability of soil hydraulic properties dynamics over a cropping cycle. The study site is a surface irrigated Maize field (typical in this area) located in Secugnago (45°13'31.70'' N, 9°36'26.82 E), in Northern Italy-Lombardy region. The field belongs to the Consortium Muzza Bassa Lodigiana, within which meteorological data together with soil moisture were monitored during the cropping season of 2015 . To investigate soil properties variations, both measurements in the field and laboratory tests on both undisturbed and disturbed collected samples were performed. Soil samples were taken from different locations within the study area and at different depths( 0cm , 20cm and 40cm) as well at different growth stages of the plant ,after irrigation events or tillage and as well after harvest. During three measuring campaigns, for each soil samples several parameters were monitored (Organic matter , bulk density) together with soil-water related parameters (Soil water retention curve parameters , saturated hydraulic conductivity). Soil water retention curves parameters were measured following the evaporative method, using the Hyprop (Hydraulic Property Analyzer; UMS Munich, 2010). Parameters were assessed using Hyprop-fit software, by fitting data to Brooks and Corey and

  10. Quaternary migration of active extension revealed by a syn-tectonic alluvial fan shift. A case study in the Northern Apennines of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirabella, Francesco; Bucci, Francesco; Cardinali, Mauro; Santangelo, Michele; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    In areas characterized by the progressive migration of active extension through time, shifts in the position of the active depocenter occur. Such shifts through time produces peculiar geomorphological settings that are often characterized by wind gaps, abandoned valleys, streams captures and drainage inversions. These features provide the opportunity to investigate active areas by studying the recent-most geological history of the related nearby basins. We investigate this topic in a tectonically active area in the Northern Apennines of Italy, as indicated by both instrumental and historical seismicity (maximum epicentral intensity I0=VIII) and extension rates in the order of 2.5-2.7 mm/yr. In particular, we study the Montefalco ridge drainage inversion. Here, fluvial sands and imbricated conglomerates deposited in a lower Pleistocene depocenter constituted by an extensional subsiding basin, are presently uplifted more than 200 m above the present day alluvial plain. The Montefalco ridge drainage inversion, at about 400 m a.s.l., separates two valleys, the Gualdo Cattaneo - Bastardo valley to the West (300 m a.s.l.) and the Foligno present-day alluvial plain to the East (200 m a.s.l.). Seismic reflection data show that the maximum thickness of the continental sequence in the Foligno valley is in the order of 500 m. This valley is presently occupied by a 37 km2 alluvial fan produced by the Topino river flowing from NE to SW. To unravel the Quaternary tectonic evolution of the area, we integrate different data sets collected by field mapping, detailed photo-geological data, sediments provenance information, and subsurface data. We interpret the Montefalco ridge as a paleo-Foligno-like alluvial fan representing the evidence of the recent migration of the active extension to the East of around 7 km. Considering an age of deformation of 2.5 My, an extension rate of about 2.8 mm/yr is derived, which corresponds to the present-day geodetic rates. We stress the importance

  11. Orbital changes, variation in solar activity and increased anthropogenic activities: controls on the Holocene flood frequency in the Lake Ledro area, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannière, B.; Magny, M.; Joannin, S.; Simonneau, A.; Wirth, S. B.; Hamann, Y.; Chapron, E.; Gilli, A.; Desmet, M.; Anselmetti, F. S.

    2012-09-01

    Two lacustrine sediment cores from Lake Ledro in Northern Italy were studied to produce chronologies of flood events for the past 10 000 yr. For this purpose, we have developed an automatic method that objectively identifies the sedimentary imprint of river floods in the downstream lake basin. The automatic counting of flood deposits was based on colour data extracted from processed core photographs, and the count data were processed to capture the flood signal. Automatic quantification was compared with naked-eye counting. Counts were performed twice on the proximal and distal cores to provide an objective and reproducible record of flood frequency. Geophysical and geochemical analyses made it possible to distinguish event deposits from background sedimentation. Flood frequency and reconstructed sedimentary dynamics were compared with lake-level changes and pollen dynamics inferred from vegetation data. The data suggest a record marked by low flood frequency during the early and middle Holocene (10 000-4500 cal BP). Only modest increases during short intervals are recorded at ca. 8000, 7500, and 7100 cal BP. The last third of the Holocene is characterised by a shift toward increased flood frequency at ca. 4500-4000 cal BP. With the exception of two short intervals around 2900-2500 and 1800-1400 cal BP, which show a slightly reduced number of floods, the trend of increasing flood frequency prevailed until the 20th century, reaching a maximum between the 16th and the 19th centuries. Brief-flood frequency increases recorded during the early and middle Holocene can be attributed to cold climatic oscillations. On a centennial time scale, major changes in flood frequency, such as those observed at ca. 4500 and 500 cal BP, can be attributed to large-scale climatic changes such as the Neo-glacial and Little Ice Age, which are under orbital and possibly solar control. The role of climate as the main forcing factor in flood activity is supported by the lake-level records

  12. An assessment of urban heat island effect adopting urban parameterizations in COSMO-CLM simulations over big cities in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesarchio, Myriam; Rianna, Guido; Mercogliano, Paola; Castellari, Sergio; Schiano, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, about 80% of people live in urban areas, which most of them can be particularly vulnerable to climate impacts (e.g. high air temperatures along with heat waves, flooding due to intense precipitation events, water scarcity and droughts). In fact, the density of people and assets within relatively small geographic areas, such as an urban settlements, mean more risk exposure than in rural areas. Therefore, reliable numerical climate models are needed for elaborating climate risk assessment at urban scale. These models must take into account the effects of the complex three-dimensional structure of urban settlements, combined with the mixture of surface types with contrasting radiative, thermal and moisture characteristics. In this respect, previous studies (e.g. Trusilova et al., 2013) have already assessed the importance to consider urban properties in very high resolution regional climate modeling to better reproduce the features of urban climate, especially in terms of urban heat island effect. In this work, two different configurations of the regional climate model COSMO-CLM at the horizontal resolution of 0.02° (about 2.2km), one including urban parameterization scheme and another without including them, have been applied in order to perform two different climate simulations covering the entire northern Italy. In particular, the present study is focused on large urban settlements such as Milan and Turin. Due to high computational cost required to run very high resolution simulations, the results of the two simulations have been compared over a period of ten years, from 1980 to 1989. Preliminary results indicate that the modification of climate conditions, due to the presence of urban areas, is present mainly in the areas covered by big cities and surrounding them, or rather the presence of urban areas induces modification mainly in their local climate. Other evidences are that the simulation including urban parameterization scheme shows, in general

  13. Can an early-warning system help minimize the impacts of coastal storms? A case study of the 2012 Halloween storm, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, M. D.; Valentini, A.; Armaroli, C.; Perini, L.; Calabrese, L.; Ciavola, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Emilia-Romagna early-warning system (ER-EWS) is a state-of-the-art coastal forecasting system that comprises a series of numerical models (COSMO, ROMS, SWAN and XBeach) to obtain a daily 3-day forecast of coastal storm hazard at eight key sites along the Emilia-Romagna coastline (northern Italy). On the night of 31 October 2012, a major storm event occurred that resulted in elevated water levels (equivalent to a 1-in-20- to 1-in-50-year event) and widespread erosion and flooding. Since this storm happened just 1 month prior to the roll-out of the ER-EWS, the forecast performance related to this event is unknown. The aim of this study was to therefore reanalyse the ER-EWS as if it had been operating a day before the event and determine to what extent the forecasts may have helped reduce storm impacts. Three different reanalysis modes were undertaken: (1) a default forecast (DF) mode based on 3-day wave and water-level forecasts and default XBeach parameters; (2) a measured offshore (MO) forecast mode using wave and water-level measurements and default XBeach parameters; and (3) a calibrated XBeach (CX) mode using measured boundary conditions and an optimized parameter set obtained through an extensive calibration process. The results indicate that, while a "code-red" alert would have been issued for the DF mode, an underprediction of the extreme water levels of this event limited high-hazard forecasts to only two of the eight ER-EWS sites. Forecasts based on measured offshore conditions (the MO mode) more-accurately indicate high-hazard conditions for all eight sites. Further considerable improvements are observed using an optimized XBeach parameter set (the CX mode) compared to default parameters. A series of what-if scenarios at one of the sites show that artificial dunes, which are a common management strategy along this coastline, could have hypothetically been constructed as an emergency procedure to potentially reduce storm impacts.

  14. Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Wollgast, Jan; Huber, Tania; Hanke, Georg

    2007-02-01

    A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) then liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1-L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 microL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05-0.1 ng L(-1) were achieved for most compounds. Lake-water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Rain water was also analyzed to investigate atmospheric input of the contaminants. Compounds regularly detected at very low concentrations in the lake water included: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng L(-1)), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng L(-1)), atrazine (5 ng L(-1)), simazine (16 ng L(-1)), diuron (11 ng L(-1)), and atrazine-desethyl (11 ng L(-1)), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng L(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng L(-1)), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng L(-1)), and benzafibrate (1.2 ng L(-1)), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng L(-1)), its carboxylates (NPE(1)C 120 ng L(-1), NPE(2)C 7 ng L(-1), NPE(3)C 15 ng L(-1)) and ethoxylates (NPE( n )Os, n = 3-17; 300 ng L(-1)), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng L(-1), PFOA 3 ng L(-1)), and estrone (0.4 ng L(-1)). Levels of these compounds in drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore were almost identical with those found in the lake itself, revealing the poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local

  15. The importance of bank vole density and rainy winters in predicting nephropathia epidemica incidence in Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Olsson, Gert; Ecke, Frauke; Evander, Magnus; Hjertqvist, Marika; Magnusson, Magnus; Löfvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Hörnfeldt, Birger

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic hantaviruses (family Bunyaviridae, genus Hantavirus) are rodent-borne viruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Eurasia. In Europe, there are more than 10,000 yearly cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS caused by Puumala virus (PUUV). The common and widely distributed bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the host of PUUV. In this study, we aim to explain and predict NE incidence in boreal Sweden using bank vole densities. We tested whether the number of rainy days in winter contributed to variation in NE incidence. We forecast NE incidence in July 2013-June 2014 using projected autumn vole density, and then considering two climatic scenarios: 1) rain-free winter and 2) winter with many rainy days. Autumn vole density was a strong explanatory variable of NE incidence in boreal Sweden in 1990-2012 (R2 = 79%, p<0.001). Adding the number of rainy winter days improved the model (R2 = 84%, p<0.05). We report for the first time that risk of NE is higher in winters with many rainy days. Rain on snow and ground icing may block vole access to subnivean space. Seeking refuge from adverse conditions and shelter from predators, voles may infest buildings, increasing infection risk. In a rainy winter scenario, we predicted 812 NE cases in boreal Sweden, triple the number of cases predicted in a rain-free winter in 2013/2014. Our model enables identification of high risk years when preparedness in the public health sector is crucial, as a rainy winter would accentuate risk.

  16. No covariation between the geomagnetic activity and the incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the polar area of northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Messner, T; Häggström, I; Sandahl, I; Lundberg, V

    2002-05-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether there was any relation between the aurora borealis (measured as the geomagnetic activity) and the number of acute myocardial infarctions (AMI) in the northern, partly polar, area of Sweden. The AMI cases were collected from The Northern Sweden MONICA (multinational MONItoring of trends and determinants of CArdiovascular disease) AMI registry between 1985 and 1998, inclusive, and the information on the geomagnetic activity from continuous measurements at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna. In the analyses, both the relation between the individual AMI case and ambient geomagnetic activity, and the relation between the mean daily K index and the daily number of AMI cases were tested. We found no statistically significant relation between the number of fatal or non-fatal AMI cases, the number of sudden deaths or the number of patients with chest pain without myocardial damage, and geomagnetic activity. Our data do not support a relation between the geomagnetic activity and AMI. PMID:12135204

  17. Kinematic analysis of recent and active faults of the southern Umbria-Marche domain, Northern Apennines, Italy: geological constraints to geodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqui, Valeria; Viti, Marcello; Mantovani, Enzo

    2013-04-01

    The recent and active deformation that affects the crest zone of the Umbria-Marche belt (Northern Apennines, Italy) displays a remarkable extensional character, outlined by development of normal fault sets that overprint pre-existing folds and thrusts of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene age. The main extensional fault systems often bound intermontane depressions hosting recent, mainly continental, i.e. fluvial or lacustrine deposits, separating the latter from Triassic-Miocene, mainly carbonatic and siliciclastic marine rocks that belong to the Romagna-Umbria-Marche stratigraphic succession. Stratigraphic data indicate that the extensional strain responsible for the development of normal fault-bounded continental basins in the outer zones of the Northern Apennines was active until Middle Pleistocene time. Since Middle Pleistocene time onwards a major geodynamic change has affected the Central Mediterranean region, with local reorganization of the kinematics in the Adria domain and adjacent Apennine belt. A wide literature illustrates that the overall deformation field of the Central Mediterranean area is presently governed by the relative movements between the Eurasia and Africa plates. The complex interaction of the Africa-Adria and the Anatolian-Aegean-Balkan domains has led the Adria microplate to migrate NW-ward and to collide against Eurasia along the Eastern Southern Alps. As a consequence Adria is presently moving with a general left-lateral displacement with respect to the Apennine mountain belt. The sinistral component of active deformations is also supported by analysis of earthquake focal mechanisms. A comparison between geophysical and geological evidence outlines an apparent discrepancy: most recognized recent and active faults display a remarkable extensional character, as shown by the geometry of continental basin-bounding structutes, whereas geodetic and seismologic evidence indicates the persistency of an active strike-slip, left-lateral dominated

  18. Incidence and outcome of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis--a 10-year single-centre northern European experience.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsson, H; Thalme, A; Kristjansson, M; Weiland, O

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of infective endocarditis. Little has been published on the outcome and epidemiology of S. aureus endocarditis (SAE) in the twenty-first century. Our aim was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcome of SAE in Stockholm, Sweden, and assess its incidence over time. Patients treated for SAE from January 2004 through December 2013 were retrospectively identified at the Karolinska University Hospital. Clinical data were obtained from medical records and the diagnosis was verified according to the modified Duke criteria. Of 245 SAE cases, 152 (62%) were left-sided and 120 (49%) occurred in intravenous drug users. The calculated incidence in Stockholm County was 1.56/100 000 person-years, increasing from 1.28 in 2004-08 to 1.82/100 000 person-years in 2009-13 (p 0.002). In-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were 9.0% (22/245) and 19.5% (46/236), respectively. Age (OR 1.06 per year) and female sex (OR 3.0) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis. Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) was observed in 30 (12%) patients, and valvular surgery was performed during hospitalization in 37 (15%). In left-sided endocarditis the strongest predictors for surgery were severe valvular insufficiency (OR 8.9), lower age (OR 1.07 per year) and no intravenous drug use (OR 10.7), and for CNS involvement lower age (OR 1.04 per year). In conclusion we noted low mortality, low CNS complication rate, and low valvular surgery frequency associated with SAE in our setting. The incidence was high and increased over time. The study provides an update on the outcome and epidemiology of SAE in the twenty-first century.

  19. Incidence, location and interrelationships between the sites of abscesses recorded in pigs at a bacon factory in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Huey, R J

    1996-05-25

    The position and incidence of all the abscesses detected during post mortem inspection of 75,130 bacon weight pigs were recorded. Abscesses were detected at one site only in 2.87 per cent of the carcases examined, and at more than one site in 0.26 per cent of the carcases. Tail biting was the cause of the infection in 61.7 per cent of all the carcases with lesions at more than one site. In almost all cases there was a statistically significant interrelationship between the visible abscesses at different sites. PMID:8761973

  20. Incidence of human malaria infection in northern hilly region of Balochistan, adjoining with NWFP, Pakistan: district Zhob.

    PubMed

    Yasinzai, Mohammad Iqbal; Kakarsulemankhel, Juma Khan

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to investigate the incidence of malarial infections in human population in 37 localities of district Zhob, Balochistan, Pakistan. Malarial parasites were identified in the blood slides of suspected patients of the disease from July, 2004 to June, 2006 and encompassed 7748 subjects. Out of 7748 suspected cases of malaria, 3240 (41.8%) were found to be positive for malarial parasite in blood smear slides. Out of positive cases, 1681 (51.8%) were identified as Plasmodium vivax infection and 1559 (48.1%) cases with P. falciparum. However, seasonal variation was also noted with the highest (85.4%: 141/165) infection of P. vivax in March and lowest (18.6%: 59/316) in October while infection of P. falciparum was highest (81.3%: 257/316) in October and lowest (14.5%: 24/165) in March. Infection with P. vivax in male was 75.7% (125/165) in March and in female 26.3% (58/220) in May whereas infection of P. falciparum in male was 61.5% (245/398) in July and in female was 20.5% (65/316) in October. These results are compared with those of other studies done in Pakistan. Cases of P. malariae and P. ovale were not found in the present study. In conclusion it can be pointed out that the high incidence rate of P. vivax (51.8%:1681/3240) in Zhob district poses a significant health hazard because it may also lead to cerebral malaria as it was suggested by previous workers.

  1. Venice, Italy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Four hundred bridges cross the labyrinth of canals that form the 120 islands of Venice, situated in a saltwater lagoon between the mouths of the Po and Piave rivers in northeast Italy. All traffic in the city moves by boat. Venice is connected to the mainland, 4 kilometers (2.5 miles) away, by ferries as well as a causeway for road and rail traffic. The Grand Canal winds through the city for about 3 kilometers (about 2 miles), dividing it into two nearly equal sections. According to tradition, Venice was founded in 452, when the inhabitants of Aquileia, Padua, and several other northern Italian cities took refuge on the islands of the lagoon from the Teutonic tribes invading Italy at that time.

    This image was acquired on December 9, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne

  2. Syn-orogenic extensional pulses within the contractional history of thrust wedges. The Val di Lima low-angle normal fault case study, Northern Apennines, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenzi, Luca; Molli, Giancarlo; Storti, Fabrizio; Muchez, Philippe; Swennen, Rudy; Torelli, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution we describe the Val di Lima low-angle fault system, a kilometric-scale extensional structure exposed in the central sector of the Northern Apennines thrust wedge, Italy. The low-angle extensional fault system delaminates the right-side-up limb of a km-scale recumbent isoclinal anticline that affects the carbonate-dominated Late Triassic to early Early Miocene non-metamorphic Tuscan succession. The low-angle fault system, in turn, is affected by superimposed folding and late-tectonic high-angle extensional faulting. The three-dimensional configuration of the low-angle fault system has been investigated through detailed structural mapping and restoration of the superimposed deformations, while the fault damage zone architecture has been characterized in outcrops with appropriate exposure. Pressure-depth conditions and palaeofluid evolution of the fault system have been studied through microstructural, mineralogical, petrographic, fluid inclusion and stable isotope analysis of fault rocks and fault-related calcite and quartz veins. Our results show that the low-angle fault system was active during exhumation of the Tuscan succession, at estimated conditions of about 180°C and 5.2 km depth. The fault system had a twofold influence on fluid circulation within the orogenic wedge: i) it allowed the migration of low-salinity fluids, due to the increased permeability along the fault zone; ii) it favored footwall fluid overpressures where the fault core acted as an efficient hydraulic barrier. Abundant fluid circulation in fault damage zones also characterized the late-stage evolution of the low-angle fault system, allowing the recrystallization of calcite veins and limestone host rocks at shallower conditions (~ 4 km). Within this P-T framework, the fault zone architecture shows important differences, related to the different lithologies involved in the fault system and to the role played by the fluids during deformation. In particular, footwall fluid

  3. Fluid source and pressure temperature conditions of high-salinity fluids in syn-tectonic veins from the Northeastern Apuan Alps (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montomoli, Chiara; Ruggieri, Giovanni; Carosi, Rodolfo; Dini, Andrea; Genovesi, Marianna

    Structural studies on syn-tectonic veins cropping out in the northeastern sector of the Apuan Alps metamorphic complex (Northern Apennines, Italy) revealed two sets of veins: (1) type A fibrous veins within the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, related to a late-D1 tectonic phase; (2) B-veins, within the “Diaspri Formation” that developed between late-D1 and D2 tectonic phases. The mineralogy of the A (quartz, chlorite, hematite with minor amounts of apatite, allanite-(Ce), thorite and synchysite) and B-veins (quartz only) reflects the mineralogical composition of the host-rocks: quartz, chlorite, white mica and accessory minerals (apatite, zircon, titanite) occur in the “Scisti sericitici Formation”, while quartz is the main phase in the “Diaspri Formation”. The study of fluid inclusions trapped in quartz crystals of the syn-tectonic veins shows that the inclusions are always oversaturated in NaCl at room temperature and their salinities range from 29.5 to 37 wt.% NaCl equiv. The isochore of the earliest trapped fluid inclusions (type IA; primary inclusions in fiber quartz of A veins), coupled with mineralogical geothermometric data, constrains the pressure-temperature conditions to around 325-300 MPa and 370-380 °C during the late-D1 phase. Subsequent trapping of inclusion types IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB and VB in the two vein sets probably occurred during a pressure-temperature decrease (down to 220-245 MPa and 260-270 °C) at a lithostatic thermal gradient of 30 °C/km. Type IVB inclusions, on the other hand, were probably trapped at lower pressure (between lithostatic and hydrostatic conditions) during a transient pressure drop resulting from fault-valve action. SEM/EDS analyses on salts precipitated within opened inclusions confirmed the NaCl-rich compositions of the trapped fluids and also revealed the presence of minor amounts of Ca, K and Mn in the salts. A fluid circulation model, based on mineralogical and fluid inclusion data, was proposed for

  4. Nitrogen balance and fate in a heavily impacted watershed (Oglio River, Northern Italy): in quest of the missing sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, M.; Racchetti, E.; Delconte, C. A.; Sacchi, E.; Soana, E.; Laini, A.; Longhi, D.; Viaroli, P.

    2012-01-01

    We present data from a comprehensive investigation carried out from 2007 to 2010, focussing on nitrogen pollution in the Oglio River basin (3800 km2, Po Plain, Northern Italy). Nitrogen mass balances, computed for the whole basin with 2000 and 2008 data, suggest a large N surplus in this area, over 40 000 t N yr-1, and increasing between 2000 and 2008. Calculations indicate a very large impact of animal husbandry and agricultural activities in this watershed, with livestock manure and synthetic fertilizers contributing 85% of total N inputs (about 100 000 t N yr-1) and largely exceeding crop uptake and other N losses (about 60 000 t N yr-1). Nitrogen from domestic and industrial origin is estimated as about 5800 and 7200 t N yr-1, respectively, although these loads are overestimated, as denitrification in treatment plants is not considered; nonetheless, they represent a minor term of the N budget. Annual export of nitrogen from the basin, calculated from flow data and water chemistry at the mouth of the Oglio River, is estimated at 13 000 t N yr-1, and represents a relatively small fraction of N inputs and surplus (∼12% and 34%, respectively). After considering N sinks in crop uptake, soil denitrification and volatilization, a large excess remains unaccounted (∼26 000 t N yr-1) in unknown temporary or permanent N sinks. Nitrogen removal via denitrification was evaluated in the Oglio riverbed with stable isotope techniques (δ15N and δ18O in nitrate). The downstream final segment of the river displays an enriched nitrate stable isotope composition but calculations suggest a N removal corresponding to at most 20% of the unaccounted for N amount. Denitrification was also evaluated in riverine wetlands with the isotope pairing technique. Areal rates are elevated but overall N removal is low (about 1% of the missing N amount), due to small wetland surfaces and limited lateral connectivity. The secondary drainage channel network has a much higher potential for

  5. Nitrogen balance and fate in a heavily impacted watershed (Oglio River, Northern Italy): in quest of the missing sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoli, M.; Racchetti, E.; Delconte, C. A.; Sacchi, E.; Soana, E.; Laini, A.; Longhi, D.; Viaroli, P.

    2011-09-01

    We present data from a comprehensive investigation carried out from 2007 to 2010, focussing on nitrogen pollution in the lower Oglio River basin (3800 km2, Po plain, Northern Italy). Nitrogen mass balances, computed for the whole basin with 2000 and 2008 data, suggest a large N surplus in this area, over 40 000 t N yr-1, and increasing between 2000 and 2008. Calculations indicate a very large impact of animal husbandry and agricultural activities in this watershed, with livestock manure and synthetic fertilizers contributing 85 % of total N inputs (about 100 000 t N yr-1) and largely exceeding crop uptake and other N losses (about 60 000 t N yr-1). Nitrogen from domestic and industrial origin is estimated as about 5800 and 7200 t N yr-1, respectively, although these loads are overestimated, as denitrification in treatment plants is not considered; nonetheless, they represent a minor term of the N budget. Annual export of nitrogen from the basin, calculated from flow data and water chemistry at the mouth of the Oglio River, is estimated at 13 000 t N yr-1, and represents a relatively small fraction of N inputs and surplus (~12 % and 34 %, respectively). After considering N sinks in crop uptake, soil denitrification and volatilization, a large excess remains unaccounted (~26 000 t N yr-1) in unknown temporary or permanent N sinks. Nitrogen removal via denitrification was evaluated in the Oglio riverbed with stable isotope techniques (δ15N and δ18O in nitrate). The downstream final segment of the river displays an enriched nitrate stable isotope composition but calculations suggest a N removal corresponding to at most 12 % of the unaccounted for N amount. Denitrification was also evaluated in riverine wetlands with the isotope pairing technique. Areal rates are elevated but overall N removal is low (about 1 % of the missing N amount), due to small wetland surfaces and limited lateral connectivity. The secondary drainage channel network has a much higher potential

  6. Reconstructing conditions during dolomite formation on a Carnian coastal sabkha/alluvial plain using 87Sr/86Sr isotopes - Travenanzes Formation, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieder, Maximilian; Wegner, Wencke; Horschinegg, Monika; Preto, Nereo; Breda, Anna; Klötzli, Urs; Peckmann, Jörn; Meister, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    indicated by oxygen isotopes. The marine 87Sr/86Sr values have been reconstructed for most of the Phanerozoic and are nearly constant in the Carnian (McArthur et al., 2012), while the age of the dolomite beds of the Travenanzes Formation is constrained by their stratigraphic position in the measured section (Dibona Section; Preto et al., 2015). The continental Sr isotope signal is governed by weathering rates, especially during silicate weathering of the source rock in the catchment area (McArthur et al., 2012). Through 87Sr/86Sr isotope investigation of primary dolomite in beds and nodules of the coastal sabkha or alluvial plain environment, the influence of marine or continental conditions can be determined. The finding of celestine SrSO4 and Sr-rich barite BaSO4 within the cemented dolomite by SEM indicates enrichment of Sr, possibly during strong evaporative conditions. Hence, the generation of phase-specific Sr-isotope data will allow for a more precise reconstruction of the conditions that led to dolomite formation in the Triassic shallow coastal sabkha/alluvial plain environment. McArthur et al. (2012) Strontium isotope stratigraphy. In: "The geologic time scale" (F.M Gradstein et al., eds.), Elsevier, p. 127-144. Preto et al. (2015) Primary dolomite in the Late Triassic Travenanzes Formation Dolomites, Northern Italy: Facies control and possible bacterial influence. Sedimentology 62, p. 697-716.

  7. An automatic procedure for high-resolution earthquake locations: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valoroso, Luisa; Chiaraluce, Lauro; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Latorre, Diana; Piccinini, Davide

    2014-05-01

    The characterization of the geometry, kinematics and rheology of fault zones by seismological data depends on our capability of accurately locate the largest number of low-magnitude seismic events. To this aim, we have been working for the past three years to develop an advanced modular earthquake location procedure able to automatically retrieve high-resolution earthquakes catalogues directly from continuous waveforms data. We use seismograms recorded at about 60 seismic stations located both at surface and at depth. The network covers an area of about 80x60 km with a mean inter-station distance of 6 km. These stations are part of a Near fault Observatory (TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of multi-sensor stations (seismic, geodetic, geochemical and electromagnetic). This permanent scientific infrastructure managed by the INGV is devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the fast/slow (i.e., seismic/aseismic) deformation process active along the Alto Tiberina fault (ATF) located in the northern Apennines (Italy). The ATF is potentially one of the rare worldwide examples of active low-angle (< 15°) normal fault accommodating crustal extension and characterized by a regular occurrence of micro-earthquakes. The modular procedure combines: i) a sensitive detection algorithm optimized to declare low-magnitude events; ii) an accurate picking procedure that provides consistently weighted P- and S-wave arrival times, P-wave first motion polarities and the maximum waveform amplitude for local magnitude calculation; iii) both linearized iterative and non-linear global-search earthquake location algorithms to compute accurate absolute locations of single-events in a 3D geological model (see Latorre et al. same session); iv) cross-correlation and double-difference location methods to compute high-resolution relative event locations. This procedure is now running off-line with a delay of 1 week to the real-time. We are now implementing this

  8. An integrated approach to asses origin and mobilization of As, Fe and Mn in groundwater: the case study of Cremona (northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotiroti, Marco; Bonomi, Tullia; Fumagalli, Letizia

    2013-04-01

    The present work concerns the analysis of the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry of the As, Fe, Mn rich groundwater of the alluvial multi-layer aquifer in the lower Po Plain of Cremona (northern Italy). In this analysis, an integrated approach is applied in order to understand the origins (natural or anthropic) and chemical mechanisms of high groundwater As, Fe and Mn concentrations found in the study area. The study area covers a 50 km2 wide area around the urban territory of Cremona. It is located near the confluence between Adda and Po rivers. The multi-aquifer system which interests the first 200-250 m of depth is investigated. The integrated approach involves the (a) collection of historical data related to water quality, water levels and well logs; (b) storage of collected data in specific databases and geographical information systems; (c) design and execution of two field surveys of water levels and water quality, realized in July 2010 and July 2012, concerning also groundwater sampling for isotope and microbiological analysis; (d) construction of a 3D model of aquifer hydrogeological properties (deposits texture, hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity), built by means of ordinary kriging interpolation of numerical values derived from the coding of well logs; (e) analysis of the hydrodynamic properties of the system on the basis of the field measurements; (f) analysis of water quality data (both field and historical data) considering the hydrogeological and hydrodynamic properties of the aquifer system; (g) analysis of isotope and microbiological measurements; (h) implementation of a 1D reactive transport model in order to better understand the hydrogeochemical mechanisms in the system; (i) elaboration of a general hydrogeochemical conceptual model concerning possible origins and chemical mechanisms for the high groundwater As, Fe, Mn and NH4 concentrations, considering also possible anthropogenic influences; (j) development of management tools

  9. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer. PMID:26948297

  10. Incidence of mammary tumors in the canine population living in the Veneto region (Northeastern Italy): Risk factors and similarities to human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vascellari, Marta; Capello, Katia; Carminato, Antonio; Zanardello, Claudia; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco

    2016-04-01

    Although mammary gland tumors (MT) are the most-common type of tumor in intact female dogs, there is little information about their incidence in dog population. Data on MT in female dogs was retrieved from the Animal Tumor registry of dogs and cats of Venice and Vicenza provinces during 2005-2013 and was analyzed to visualize crude incidence rates by breed and across age categories. Overall, 2744 mammary tumors were reported accounting for 54% of all tumors in female dogs. The annual incidence rate (IR) was 250 cases per 100,000 dogs. The most frequent malignant tumors were complex carcinomas, consisting of both epithelial and myoepithelial tissues (IR=71.89), and simple carcinomas (IR=62.59). The MT incidence rate increased through the study period; particularly in the last 4 years, and malignant neoplasms occurred more frequently (70%) than the benign counterparts (30%). Seventy-four percent of tumors were diagnosed in intact females, and the mean age at diagnosis was significantly higher for spayed dogs than for intact ones. MT were less frequent in dogs younger than 6 years and increased up to approximately 60% for ages between 8 and 13 years. The purebred dogs had a higher probability to have a malignant neoplasm than mixed-breed dogs, particularly in dogs younger than 7 years, and the Samoyed, Dobermann, Schnauzer and Yorkshire Terrier breeds were more inclined to develop malignant MT. The incidence of MT in dogs is increasing, and IRs are comparable to that in women. The epidemiological similarities between dogs and women support the validity of canine MT as a model for human breast cancer.

  11. Management of immigration and pregnancy screening in northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tamaro, Giorgio; Parco, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of immigration in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region of northeastern Italy, on the epidemiological features of hemoglobin patterns and on prothrombotic and trisomy risk in pregnancy for patients of non-Italian origin. This study follows a series of studies on the incidence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies with reduced globin chain synthesis, that were performed during the postwar (1939-45) period in Friuli Venezia Giulia following immigration into the region from Istria and Sardinia (regions of northern and central Italy). Current data show that today's constantly growing immigration into the region differs from previous decades, in terms of origin and quantity of migrants, who mainly come from third world countries. This has a significant impact on health care issues, and more specifically on prospective health screening for foreigners. The authors conclude that scholastic education and hospital services, either public or private, and voluntary associations, may contribute to solving the problem, but only in terms of training and organization, for non-European Union citizens arriving in northern Italy and neighboring areas, especially those from Africa, Asia, Latin America, and eastern Europe.

  12. Incidence and Predictors of HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Female Sex Workers and Their Intimate Male Partners in Northern Mexico: A Longitudinal, Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Rangel, Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Bazzi, Samuel A.; Roesch, Scott; Pines, Heather A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2015-01-01

    Preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) requires an understanding of sexual relationship factors beyond the individual level. We estimated HIV/STI incidence and identified time-varying predictors of STI acquisition in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers and their intimate (noncommercial) male partners in northern Mexico. From 2010 to 2013, couples underwent behavioral and biological assessments biannually for 24 months. Among 413 initially HIV-uninfected participants, 8 seroconverted during follow-up. Incidence of HIV (1.12 cases/100 person-years (PY)), chlamydia (9.47 cases/100 PY), active syphilis (4.01 cases/100 PY), and gonorrhea (1.78 cases/100 PY) was higher among women than among men (HIV: P = 0.069; all STIs combined: P < 0.001). In multivariable conditional logistic regression with individual fixed effects and correlated error terms within couples, risk of STI acquisition was significantly higher among women who had recently used cocaine, crack, or methamphetamine (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 4.28). STI risk was lower among women who reported physically assaulting their male partners (adjusted OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.86) and among men whose female partners had regular sex-work clients (adjusted OR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14, 1.03). Improving vulnerable couples' sexual health will require addressing the contexts in which drug use, interpersonal conflict, and economic vulnerability converge. PMID:25769307

  13. HIV incidence estimate combining HIV/AIDS surveillance, testing history information and HIV test to identify recent infections in Lazio, Italy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number of persons detected as recently infected. Methods We used data from HIV/AIDS surveillance in the period 2004-2008 to identify newly diagnosed persons. These were classified with recent/non-recent infection on the basis of an avidity index result, or laboratory evidence of recently acquired infection (i.e., previous documented negative HIV test within 6 months; or presence of HIV RNA or p24 antigen with simultaneous negative/indeterminate HIV antibody test). Multiple imputation was used to impute missing information. The incidence estimate was obtained as the number of persons detected as recently infected divided by the estimated probability of detection. Estimates were stratified by calendar year, transmission category, gender and nationality. Results During the period considered 3,633 new HIV diagnoses were reported to the regional surveillance system. Applying the model, we estimated that in 2004-2008 there were 5,465 new infections (95%CI: 4,538-6,461); stratifying by transmission category, the estimated number of infections was 2,599 among heterosexual contacts, 2,208 among men-who-have-sex-with-men, and 763 among injecting-drug-users. In 2008 there were 952 (625-1,229) new HIV infections (incidence of 19.9 per 100,000 person-years). In 2008, for men-who-have-sex-with-men (691 per 100,000 person-years) and injecting drug users (577 per 100,000 person-years) the incidence remained comparatively high with respect to the general population, although a decreasing pattern during 2004-2008 was observed

  14. [Epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma cases in Italy: incidence and asbestos exposure figures by the Italian mesothelioma registry (ReNaM)].

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Alessandro; Binazzi, Alessandra; Cauzillo, Gabriella; Chellini, Elisabetta; De Zotti, Renata; Gennaro, Valerio; Menegozzo, Massimo; Mensi, Carolina; Merler, Enzo; Mirabelli, Dario; Musti, Marina; Pannelli, Franco; Romanelli, Antonio; Scarselli, Alberto; Tosi, Sergio; Tumino, Rosario; Nesti, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    The Study describes the epidemiological surveillance of mesothelioma cases carried out by the Italian mesothelioma register (ReNaM). A Regional Operating Centre (COR) is present in nearly all Italian regions (17 out of 20) and it collects malignant mesothelioma cases and investigate the modalities of asbestos exposure by using a structured questionnaire. The register produces malignant mesothelioma incidence measures and analyses of the modalities of the asbestos exposure. The standardized incidence rate of malignant mesothelioma in 2001 was 2.98 (in 100,000 inhabitants) among men and 0.98 among women; a professional (certain, probable, possible) exposure has been detected in 67.4% of defined cases. In addition to the conventional sectors (shipbuilding, railways repair and demolition, asbestos-cement production), also textile, building, transport, chemical and glass industries, petroleum and sugar refineries, electricity production and distribution plants are getting involved. Despite the absence of some regions completing the national coverage and the non homogeneity in collecting and coding data, the epidemiological surveillance of malignant mesothelioma carried out by ReNaM is an important tool for the scientific knowledge and the prevention of asbestos-related diseases.

  15. Incidence and factors associated with the risk of sexually transmitted diseases in HIV-infected people seen for care in Italy: data from the Icona Foundation cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cingolani, A; Zona, S; Girardi, E; Cozzi-Lepri, A; Monno, L; Quiros Roldan, E; Guaraldi, G; Antinori, A; D’Arminio Monforte, A; Marcotullio, S

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to identify temporal trends in the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in a cohort of HIV-infected people and to evaluate factors associated with the risk of a new STD diagnosis. Methods All HIV-infected patients in the Icona Foundation Study cohort enrolled after 1998 were included in this study. STD incidence rates (IRs) were calculated and stratified by calendar period. Predictors of STDs were identified using a Poisson regression model with sandwich estimates for standard errors. Results Data for 9168 participants were analysed [median age 37.3 (range 18–81) years; 74% male; 30% men who have sex with men (MSM)]. Over 46 736 person-years of follow-up (PYFU), 996 episodes of STDs were observed [crude IR 21.3/1000 PYFU; 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.0–22.6/1000 PYFU]. In multivariable Poisson regression analysis, MSM [rate ratio (RR) 3.03; 95% CI 2.52–3.64 versus heterosexuals], calendar period (RR 1.67; 95% CI 1.42–1.97 for 2008–2012 versus 1998–2002), HIV RNA > 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL (RR 1.44; 95% CI 1.19–1.74 versus HIV RNA ≤ 50 copies/mL) and a current CD4 count < 100 cells/μL (RR 4.66; 95% CI 3.69–5.89; P < 0.001 versus CD4 count > 500 cells/μL) were associated with an increased risk of STDs. In contrast, older age (RR 0.82 per 10 years older; 95% CI 0.77–0.89) and being currently on ART (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.33–0.45) compared with being ART-naïve or on a treatment interruption were associated with a lower risk of developing STDs. Conclusions An increase in the incidence of STDs was observed in more recent years. Interventions to prevent STDs and potential spread of HIV should target the younger population, MSM and people currently not receiving ART. PMID:25959419

  16. Impact of a hospital-wide multifaceted programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections in a large teaching hospital in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Viale, P; Tumietto, F; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Tedeschi, S; Ambretti, S; Cristini, F; Gibertoni, C; Venturi, S; Cavalli, M; De Palma, A; Puggioli, M C; Mosci, D; Callea, E; Masina, R; Moro, M L; Lewis, R E

    2015-03-01

    We performed a quasi-experimental study of a multifaceted infection control programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) transmission and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a 1420-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital during 2010-2014, with 30 months of follow-up. The programme consisted of the following: (a) rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients admitted to high-risk units (intensive-care units, transplantation, and haematology) to screen for CRE carriage, or for any room-mates of CRE-positive patients in other units; (b) cohorting of carriers, managed with strict contact precautions; (c) intensification of education, cleaning and hand-washing programmes; and (d) promotion of an antibiotic stewardship programme carbapenem-sparing regimen. The 30-month incidence rates of CRE-positive rectal cultures and BSIs were analysed with Poisson regression. Following the intervention, the incidence rate of CRE BSI (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p 0.03) and CRE colonization (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, p <0.0001) significantly decreased over a period of 30 months. After accounting for changes in monthly census and percentage of externally acquired cases (positive at ≤72 h), the average institutional monthly rate of compliance with CRE screening procedures was the only independent variable associated with a declining monthly incidence of CRE colonization (p 0.002). The monthly incidence of CRE carriage was predictive of BSI (p 0.01). Targeted screening and cohorting of CRE carriers and infections, combined with cleaning, education, and antimicrobial stewardship measures, significantly decreased the institutional incidence of CRE BSI and colonization, despite endemically high CRE carriage rates in the region.

  17. Impact of a hospital-wide multifaceted programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections in a large teaching hospital in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Viale, P; Tumietto, F; Giannella, M; Bartoletti, M; Tedeschi, S; Ambretti, S; Cristini, F; Gibertoni, C; Venturi, S; Cavalli, M; De Palma, A; Puggioli, M C; Mosci, D; Callea, E; Masina, R; Moro, M L; Lewis, R E

    2015-03-01

    We performed a quasi-experimental study of a multifaceted infection control programme for reducing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) transmission and bloodstream infections (BSIs) in a 1420-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital during 2010-2014, with 30 months of follow-up. The programme consisted of the following: (a) rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients admitted to high-risk units (intensive-care units, transplantation, and haematology) to screen for CRE carriage, or for any room-mates of CRE-positive patients in other units; (b) cohorting of carriers, managed with strict contact precautions; (c) intensification of education, cleaning and hand-washing programmes; and (d) promotion of an antibiotic stewardship programme carbapenem-sparing regimen. The 30-month incidence rates of CRE-positive rectal cultures and BSIs were analysed with Poisson regression. Following the intervention, the incidence rate of CRE BSI (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p 0.03) and CRE colonization (risk reduction 0.96, 95% CI 0.95-0.97, p <0.0001) significantly decreased over a period of 30 months. After accounting for changes in monthly census and percentage of externally acquired cases (positive at ≤72 h), the average institutional monthly rate of compliance with CRE screening procedures was the only independent variable associated with a declining monthly incidence of CRE colonization (p 0.002). The monthly incidence of CRE carriage was predictive of BSI (p 0.01). Targeted screening and cohorting of CRE carriers and infections, combined with cleaning, education, and antimicrobial stewardship measures, significantly decreased the institutional incidence of CRE BSI and colonization, despite endemically high CRE carriage rates in the region. PMID:25658534

  18. Relationship between Latitude and Melanoma in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Pimpinelli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Evaluate the ecological relationship between skin melanoma epidemiology and latitude in Italy. Methods. We used data from the Italian network of cancer registries (Airtum). In a Poisson model, we evaluated the effect on incidence, mortality, and survival of latitude, adjusting for some demographic, social, phenotypic, and behavioural variables. Results. Incidence increased in Italy by 17% for each degree of increase in latitude. The effect of latitude was statistically significantly present also adjusting for other variables (incidence rate ratio = 1.08). The effect of latitude on increasing mortality (mortality rate ratio = 1.27) and improving survival (relative excess risk of death = 0.93) was no longer present in the multivariate model. Conclusion. Melanoma incidence, mortality, and survival vary in Italy according to latitude. After adjustment for several confounders, incidence still grows with growing latitude. Presumably, latitude expresses other variables that might be related to individual susceptibility and/or local care.

  19. Multi-scales and multi-satellites estimates of evapotranspiration with a residual energy balance model in the Muzza agricultural district in Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbari, C.; Bissolati, M.; Mancini, M.

    2015-05-01

    Evapotranspiration estimates were performed with a residual energy balance model (REB) over an agricultural area using remote sensing data. REB uses land surface temperature (LST) as main input parameter so that energy fluxes were computed instantaneously at the time of data acquisition. Data from MODIS and SEVIRI sensors were used and downscaling techniques were implemented to improve their spatial resolutions. Energy fluxes at the original spatial resolutions (1000 m for MODIS and 5000 m for SEVIRI) as well as at the downscaled resolutions (250 m for MODIS and 1000 m for SEVIRI) were calculated with the REB model. Ground eddy covariance data and remote sensing information from the Muzza agricultural irrigation district in Italy from 2010 to 2012 gave the opportunity to validate and compare spatially distributed energy fluxes. The model outputs matched quite well ground observations when ground LST data were used, while differences increased when MODIS and SEVIRI LST were used. The spatial analysis revealed significant differences between the two sensors both in term of LST (around 2.8 °C) and of latent heat fluxes with values (around 100 W m-2).

  20. A 10,300-year-old permafrost core from the active rock glacier Lazaun, southern Ötztal Alps (South Tyrol, northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainer, Karl; Bressan, David; Dietre, Benjamin; Haas, Jean Nicolas; Hajdas, Irka; Lang, Kathrin; Mair, Volkmar; Nickus, Ulrike; Reidl, Daniel; Thies, Hansjörg; Tonidandel, David

    2015-03-01

    Two cores were drilled on rock glacier Lazaun in the southern Ötztal Alps (N Italy). The average ice content of core Lazaun I is 43 vol.% and of core Lazaun II is 22 vol.%. Radiocarbon dating of plant macrofossil remains of core Lazaun I yielded ages ranging from 8960 cal yr BP at a depth of ca. 23.5 m to 2240 cal yr BP at a depth of 2.8 m, indicating that the ice near the base is approximately 10,300 yr old. The rock glacier was intact since that time and the ice persisted even during warm periods of the Holocene. An ice-free debris layer between 16.8 and 14.7 m separates the rock glacier into two frozen bodies. Inclinometer measurements indicate that both frozen bodies are active and that deformation occurs within a shear horizon at a depth of 20-25 m at the base of the lower frozen body and to a minor extent at a depth of approximately 14 m at the base of the upper frozen body. The ice-free debris layer in the middle of the Lazaun rock glacier indicates a more than five centennial long drought period, which dates to about 4300-3740 cal yr BP.

  1. The role of the contribution of the whole sea energy on pollution distribution and biocenosis quality: a case study in the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Piazzolla, Daniele; Paladini de Mendoza, Francesco; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco; Mancini, Emanuele; Cognetti de Martiis, Selvaggia; Madonia, Alice; Martellucci, Riccardo; Stefanì, Chiara; Pierattini, Alberto; Scanu, Sergio; Marcelli, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Marine sediments and benthic biocenosis record, at different spatial and temporal scales, natural and anthropogenic processes that occur in the water column. The coastal area of Civitavecchia, in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy, presents valuable marine and coastal ecosystems, which are subject to pollution due to the presence of potentially impactful uses of the coastline (the most important port for traffic passenger in the Mediterranean sea and one of the biggest energy production site in Europe) that overlap with the presence of natural geogenic anomalies related to the concentrations of some trace elements. The C-CEMS monitoring system, currently available in the study area, is able to perform the analysis of pollutants dispersion in coastal waters using in situ and remote observations coupled with numerical models simulations . In particular, water column parameters trends and the distribution of both benthic biocenosis and pollutants from natural sources and human activities in the water column can be assessed. This work focuses on the distribution patterns of pollutants and its relationship with the distribution of the benthic community in relation to biocenosis. Moreover, this work presents a first attempt to relate the whole sea energy contribution, which has effects on both the deposition of fine material and pollutants associated with it, and the distribution of communities, in terms of "exosomatic energy" (sensu Margalef).

  2. The alerting system for hydrogeological hazard in Lombardy Region, northern Italy: rainfall thresholds triggering debris-flows and "equivalent rainfall" method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucchi, A.; Valsecchi, I. Q.; Alberti, M.; Fassi, P.; Molari, M.; Mannucci, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Functional Centre (CFMR) of the Civil Protection of the Lombardy Region, North Italy, has the main task of monitoring and alerting, particularly with respect to natural hazards. The procedure of early warning for hydrogeological hazard is based on a comparison of two quantities: thresholds and rainfall, both referred to a defined area and an exact time interval. The CFMR studied 52 landslide events (1987-2003) in Medium-Low Valtellina and derived a model of the critical detachment rainfall, in function of the local slope and the Curve Number CN (an empirical parameter related with the land cover and the hydrological conditions of the soil): it's physically consistent and allows a geographically targeted alerting. Moreover, rainfall thresholds were associated with a typical probability of exceedance. The processing of rainfall data is carried out through the "equivalent rainfall" method, that allows to take into account the antecedent moisture condition of the soil: in fact the hazard is substantially greater when the soil is near to saturation. The method was developed from the CN method and considers the local CN and the observed rainfall of the previous 5 days. The obtained value for the local equivalent rainfall, that combines rainfall (observed and forecasted) and local soil characteristics, is a better parameter for the evaluation of the hydrogeological hazard. The comparison between equivalent rainfall and thresholds allows to estimate the local hydrogeological hazard, displayed through hazard maps, and consequently to provide a reliable alerting activity (even localized to limited portions of the region).

  3. Active Tectonics of the Umbria Region (Central Italy) in the Framework of the Neogene-Quaternary Extension of the Northern Apennines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barchi, M. R.; Collettini, C.; Federico, C.; Minelli, G.; Mirabella, F.; Pauselli, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Northern Apennines are interested by contemporaneous compression in the external part (Po Plain and Adriatic coast) and extension in the internal part (Apenninic Ridge), as revealed by seismological and geological data on the present-day stress field. The pair compression/extension has been migrating from W to E since Middle Miocene (i.e. about 20 Ma). The eastward migration of the extension reflects on the crustal setting of the Northern Apennines: the Western part (Tyrrhenian domain) is characterised by positive Bouguer anomalies, high values of heat flow and by a flat-young-thinned crust (20-25 km); whilst the eastern part (Adriatic domain) is characterised by negative gravity anomalies, low values of heat flow and a west-dipping-old crust, about 35 km thick. The CROP03, deep NVR profile, crossing the Italian peninsula from the Tyrrhenian coast (Punta Ala, Tuscany) to the Adriatic coast (Gabicce, Marche), gave an important contribution for understanding the geometry and modes of the extensional tectonics in the Northern Apennines, showing that the most relevant structural feature in the upper crust of the western domain is the presence of five main ENE dipping, crustal scale normal faults, producing severe extension of the Tuscan crust and deeply disrupting the previously formed, compressional features. At the hanging-wall of these extensional shear zones, antithetic, high angle, west-dipping normal faults are also present. The Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary basins of the region appear to be geometrically and genetically related to these major shear zones. Many recent studies, based on both geological and geophysical data, confirm the presence of these low angle detachments, and effectively depict the migration of the extension in space and time, from the Corsica basin to the axial zone of the Apennines. The easternmost of these shear zones, named Altotiberina fault , is located in Umbria, at the border between the western domain and the eastern Domain. The

  4. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment.

  5. The 125 150 Ma high-resolution Apparent Polar Wander Path for Adria from magnetostratigraphic sections in Umbria Marche (Northern Apennines, Italy): Timing and duration of the global Jurassic Cretaceous hairpin turn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satolli, Sara; Besse, Jean; Speranza, Fabio; Calamita, Fernando

    2007-05-01

    A new high-resolution Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP) segment has been obtained from the magnetostratigraphy of four Kimmeridgian to Lower Aptian sections in the Northern Apennines (Italy). The use of paleomagnetic data for determination of the Adria APWP was hampered by the large local rotations linked to Apennine tectonics, characterized by folds and thrusts developed during the Neogene. To overcome this problem, we have computed relative rotations between time overlapping sections and realigned them in a common declination reference frame (namely the Bosso section). We synthesized a new high-resolution 150 to 125 Ma APWP for Adria, which has a similar shape to the time-equivalent segment of the synthetic APWP of Africa of Besse and Courtillot [J., Besse, V., Courtillot, Apparent and true polar wander and the geometry of the geomagnetic field over the last 200 Myr, J. Geophys. Res. 107(B11) (2002), doi:10.1029/200JB000050]. A 26° clockwise rotation of our combined Adria APWP places it in almost perfect overlap with African data of same age, confirming that the Adria promontory moved coherently with Africa during this time span, whereas the counterclockwise rotation of Adria with respect to Africa was introduced later, most probably during Apennines orogenesis. Finally, we discuss in relation with worldwide plate evolution the peculiar shape of our APWP, which displays a hairpin turn during Berriasian time, and dates the main Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous change in plate motion at around anomaly M16.

  6. A first survey on the biochemical composition of egg yolk and lysozyme-like activity of egg envelopment in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy).

    PubMed

    Matozzo, Valerio; Conenna, Irene; Riedl, Verena Maria; Marin, Maria Gabriella; Marčeta, Tihana; Mazzoldi, Carlotta

    2015-08-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is an important fishery resource in the Northern Adriatic Sea (Italy). During reproduction, fertilised eggs are released by adult females in coastal waters and embryo development can take over two months. During this period, embryos rely on nutrients and other substances, such as immune factors, provided by the female in egg yolk. In cephalopods in general, and specifically in the common cuttlefish, little information is available on yolk biochemical composition and substances included in egg envelopment. In the present study, the main biochemical components of egg yolk and the presence of antimicrobial substances in egg envelopment of S. officinalis were determined for the first time. Statistically significant differences in total egg weight and egg yolk weight were observed among batches from different females. Egg and yolk weights were positively correlated, with yolk representing the 13% (±5%) of the total egg weight. Total proteins were the main biochemical component (46%) of egg yolk, followed by total carbohydrates plus glycogen (39%) and lipids (15%). Statistically significant differences among batches were recorded in egg yolk total protein amounts, lipids, carbohydrates and glycogen, but no correlations were found between egg yolk weight and the biochemical components. The Petri dish and the quantitative spectrophotometric assays revealed the presence of lysozyme-like activity in egg gelatinous envelopment. PMID:25982397

  7. Field Analogues of Shallow-water Hydrocarbon Seepages in the Pleistocene Argille Azzurre Formation: the Chimneys Field of Enza River, Northern Apennines, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppo, D.; Capozzi, R.; Dinelli, E.; Negri, A.; Montagna, P.; Picotti, V.; Scarponi, D.; Taviani, M.

    2012-12-01

    The geologically young Northern Apennines contain various natural seeps documenting a variability of reservoirs and fluids in terms of origin, age and evolution. Hydrocarbon and saline water seepages are controlled by the structures of the chain and the foredeep. In the geological record, the witness of these natural seepages are represented by authigenic carbonates. Their isotopic content allows to understand the carbon source and the processes of carbonate precipitation. The better known regional examples of Methane Derived Authigenic Carbonates (MDAC) and chemoherm build-ups, clustered in the Upper Miocene and Lower-Upper Pliocene successions, are formed in deep water (> 300 m) sediments. Occurrences in shallow water (shelf) settings have never been reported. Our case study describes the palisade chimneys field, recently exposed along the Enza riverbanks in the Northern Apennines in the Argille Azzurre Formation (blue mudstones) of Pleistocene age. The paleontological content (mainly bivalves) documents that this unit was deposited in an open marine muddy shelfal setting, in a bathymetric range of about 50-70 m, with local anoxic condition, documented by benthic foraminifer assemblages. The succession is biostratigraphically dated at the Early Pleistocene (Calabrian, nannoplancton zone MNN19e). A number of subvertical, metric-high columnar chimneys, ranging in diameter from 10 to 35 cm, in association with discontinuous planar carbonate concretions, intervening along the bedding planes, outcrop within the mudstones. Such concretions are clearly formed by the moderate cementation of the hosting pelitic sediments. The tubular concretions show central conduits running along the whole length, locally filled by sediments. The grain size within the concretions is homogeneous, both in the chimneys and planar concretions and irrespective of the bedding planes, suggesting a process of transport and homogenization prior to the cementation. Within the Enza river succession

  8. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-01

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/- and Y+/- directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  9. Numerical insight into the seismic behavior of eight masonry towers in Northern Italy: FE pushover vs non-linear dynamic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele E-mail: gabriele.milani@polimi.it; Valente, Marco

    2015-12-31

    This study presents some FE results regarding the behavior under horizontal loads of eight existing masonry towers located in the North-East of Italy. The towers, albeit unique for geometric and architectural features, show some affinities which justify a comparative analysis, as for instance the location and the similar masonry material. Their structural behavior under horizontal loads is therefore influenced by geometrical issues, such as slenderness, walls thickness, perforations, irregularities, presence of internal vaults, etc., all features which may be responsible for a peculiar output. The geometry of the towers is deduced from both existing available documentation and in-situ surveys. On the basis of such geometrical data, a detailed 3D realistic mesh is conceived, with a point by point characterization of each single geometric element. The FE models are analysed under seismic loads acting along geometric axes of the plan section, both under non-linear static (pushover) and non-linear dynamic excitation assumptions. A damage-plasticity material model exhibiting softening in both tension and compression, already available in the commercial code Abaqus, is used for masonry. Pushover analyses are performed with both G1 and G2 horizontal loads distribution, according to Italian code requirements, along X+/− and Y+/− directions. Non-linear dynamic analyses are performed along both X and Y directions with a real accelerogram scaled to different peak ground accelerations. Some few results are presented in this paper. It is found that the results obtained with pushover analyses reasonably well fit expensive non-linear dynamic simulations, with a slightly less conservative trend.

  10. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry analysis of ground deformation in the Po Plain (Piacenza-Reggio Emilia sector, Northern Italy): seismo-tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonielli, Benedetta; Monserrat, Oriol; Bonini, Marco; Cenni, Nicola; Devanthéry, Núria; Righini, Gaia; Sani, Federico

    2016-08-01

    This work aims to explore the ongoing tectonic activity of structures in the outermost sector of the Northern Apennines, which represents the active leading edge of the thrust belt and is dominated by compressive deformation. We have applied the Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) technique to obtain new insights into the present-day deformation pattern of the frontal area of the Northern Apennine. PSI has proved to be effective in detecting surface deformation of wide regions involved in low tectonic movements. We used 34 Envisat images in descending geometry over the period of time between 2004 and 2010, performing about 300 interferometric pairs. The analysis of the velocity maps and of the PSI time-series has allowed to observe ground deformation over the sector of the Po Plain between Piacenza and Reggio Emilia. The time-series of permanent GPS stations located in the study area, validated the results of the PSI technique, showing a good correlation with the PS time-series. The PS analysis reveals the occurrence of a well-known subsidence area on the rear of the Ferrara arc, mostly connected to the exploitation of water resources. In some instances, the PS velocity pattern reveals ground uplift (with mean velocities ranging from 1 to 2.8 mm yr-1) above active thrust-related anticlines of the Emilia and Ferrara folds, and part of the Pede-Apennine margin. We hypothesize a correlation between the observed uplift deformation pattern and the growth of the thrust-related anticlines. As the uplift pattern corresponds to known geological features, it can be used to constrain the seismo-tectonic setting, and a working hypothesis may involve that the active Emilia and Ferrara thrust folds would be characterized by interseismic periods possibly dominated by aseismic creep.

  11. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of an extensional basin revealed by a combined photo-geological and field-mapping approach. The Montefalco Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucci, Francesco; Mirabella, Francesco; Santangelo, Michele; Cardinali, Mauro; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2016-04-01

    Active extensional basins are important since their sedimentary infills and bounding tectonic structures provide: i) sinks with preservation potential for sedimentary and fossil records of past changes in climate and sediment/water supply, ii) information on the growth, activity, decay and death of normal faults, iii) vast economic reserves of hydrocarbons, water and minerals. Unfortunately, quaternary extensional basins, especially if located in humid and temperate climate environments, are often characterized by extensively cultivated areas, homogeneous terrains and quite flat morphologies. Furthermore, they commonly host human settlements, together with roads, economic and industrial infrastructures, with a consequent limited availability of good outcrops. Such a limitation can (often severely) hamper an adequate mapping of the sedimentary infill. Therefore alternative methodological approaches (such as aerial photographs interpretation, API) are needed to integrate heterogeneous and incomplete datasets. This contribution presents an updated photo-geological map of a Quaternary extensional basin in Central Italy, the Montefalco Basin. This basin developed in a continental environment characterized by clayey-sandy lacustrine and fluvial sequences (late Pliocene - early Pleistocene) underlying more recent coarse grained deposits related to alluvial fan environment (early-to-late Pleistocene) and younger palustrine deposits (late Pleistocene). Since the late Pleistocene, regional uplift and local tectonics led to the end of deposition in the Montefalco basin, which experienced a diffuse incision and the modification of the drainage network, in response to the W-to-E migration of active faulting and tectonic subsidence. The new photo-geological map represents an important improvement compared to the existing data, since it provides unprecedented and spatially distributed information on the geometry of the continental deposits and on the tectonic structures affecting

  12. Comparison of radioactivity data measured in PM10 aerosol samples at two elevated stations in northern Italy during the Fukushima event.

    PubMed

    Tositti, Laura; Brattich, Erika; Cinelli, Giorgia; Previti, Alberto; Mostacci, Domiziano

    2012-12-01

    The follow-up of Fukushima radioactive plume resulting from the 11th March 2011 devastating tsunami is discussed for two Italian stations in the northern Apennines: Mt. Cimone (Modena) and Montecuccolino (Bologna). Radioactivity data collected at both stations are described, including comparison between local natural background of airborne particulate and artificial radioactivity referable to the arrival of the radioactive plume and its persistence and evolution. Analysis of back-trajectories was used to confirm the arrival of artificial radionuclides following atmospheric transport and processing. The Fukushima plume was first detected on 3rd April 2011 when high volume sampling revealed the presence of the artificial radionuclides (131)I, (137)Cs and (134)Cs. The highest activity concentrations of these nuclides were detected on 5th April 2011 at the Montecuccolino site. Fukushima radioactivity data at the two stations were usually comparable, suggesting a good vertical mixing of the plume; discrepancies were occasional and attributed to different occurrence of wet removal, typically characterized by a scattered spatial pattern. To understand the relevance to the local population of the extra dose due to the Fukushima plume, atmospheric activities of the related artificial nuclides were compared to those of the main natural radionuclides in ambient particulate, and found to be lower by over one order of magnitude. Radiation doses referable to Fukushima, maximized for a whole year occurrence at the highest activity level observed at our stations in the weeks affected by the Japanese plume, were estimated at 1.1 μSv/year.

  13. Variation of geochemical risk associated with the use of ophiolitic washing mud as refilling material in a basalt quarry of the Northern Apennine (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voltaggio, M.; Spadoni, M.

    2007-10-01

    Ophiolitic sequences in Northern Apennines are usually exploited as source of raw material for civil engineering works. Grinding procedures of basalts imply the production of dusts with relatively high concentration of PHES. This paper studied the increase of geochemical risk when washing mud produced at Sasso di Castro quarry site (Tuscany) is reused as rock keeper in a near dismissed quarry and highlighted geochemical fractionation produced on the base of different mineral hardness. Co, Cr, Ni and V concentration measured in washing mud were higher than the limits fixed by the Italian law but compatible with background values. The mobility of these four elements during future weathering processes were estimated by considering the element transfer coefficients and assuming weathered rocks and soils as two different natural analogues of the future state of washing mud. The future concentration was estimated by considering the average lifetime of mineral grains calculated through their dissolution rate, molar volume and grain diameter. The variations of geochemical concentrations were used to estimate the percentage increase of the geochemical risk at the displacement place. After 50 years the associated geochemical risk is still considerably lower than the probability to be damaged by a single landslide event.

  14. Highly extended terrains, lateral segmentation of the substratum, and basin development: The middle-late Miocene Radicondoli Basin (inner northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Andrea; Liotta, Domenico

    2008-09-01

    This paper deals with the evolution of sedimentary basins not delimited by normal faults, with a substratum characterized by an upward concave shape and with infilling sediments synclinally deformed. We describe the middle-late Miocene Radicondoli Basin, representing an example of such bowl-shaped basins. Its tectonic origin is controversial, being related both to compression and extension; these opposite interpretations bear significant consequences on the geodynamic context in which the inner northern Apennines developed during the middle-late Miocene. The results of our structural studies, carried out in the substratum and infilling sediments, indicate that the Radicondoli Basin is an example of a hanging wall basin developed in an extensional setting. Extensional tectonics determined the lateral segmentation of the substratum competent levels (i.e., Tuscan Nappe and Verrucano Group) and the consequent collapse of overlying less competent levels (i.e., the Ligurian units) with the formation of a bowl-shaped tectonic depression. Here, the syntectonic sediments (Serravallian-late Messinian) are deformed in a large syncline, characterized by minor gravity-driven folds, with vergences toward the depocenter and traces of their axial planes parallel to the basin margins. This paper highlights the role of the competence contrast during the postcollisional tectonic evolution and the influence of substratum lateral segmentation for the accommodation of syntectonic sediments.

  15. Flares in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis in Northern Italy: Characteristics and Predictors in a Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Restuccia, Giovanna; Boiardi, Luigi; Cavazza, Alberto; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Muratore, Francesco; Cimino, Luca; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Crescentini, Filippo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the frequency, timing, and characteristics of flares in a large cohort of Italian patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to identify factors at diagnosis able to predict the occurrence of flares. We evaluated 157 patients with biopsy-proven transmural GCA diagnosed and followed at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for whom sufficient information was available from the time of diagnosis until at least 4 years of follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (36.5%) experienced ≥1 flares. Fifty-one (46.4%) of the 110 total flares (88 relapses and 22 recurrences) were experienced during the first 2 years after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone ≤ 10 mg/day (82.9%), whereas only 3.4% of relapses occurred for doses ≥ 25 mg/day. Polymyalgia rheumatica (46.5%) and cranial symptoms (41.9%) were the most frequent manifestations at the time of the first relapse. Cumulative prednisone dose during the first year and total cumulative prednisone dose were significantly higher in flaring patients compared with those without flares (7.8 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.4 g, P = 0.02; 15.5 ± 8.9 vs 10.0 ± 9.2 g, P = 0.0001, respectively). The total duration of prednisone treatment was longer in flaring patients (58 ± 44 vs 30 ± 30 months, P = 0.0001).Patients with disease flares had at diagnosis more frequently systemic manifestations (P = 0.02) and fever ≥ 38°C (P = 0.02), significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.05), more frequent presence at temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens of giant cells (P = 0.04) and intraluminal acute thrombosis (P = 0.007), and more moderate/severe arterial inflammation (P = 0.009) compared with those without flares. In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38 °C (hazard ratio 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.32, P = 0.03) and the severity of inflammatory infiltrate (moderate

  16. The influence of lithology, land cover, road network and slope gradient in the landslides triggered during the period November 2008 - February 2009 in northern Tuscany (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, Samuele; Mucci, Alessandra; Casagli, Nicola

    2010-05-01

    In the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia (Tuscany, Central Italy) 650 landslides (mainly shallow rapid slides and debris flows) were registered by Civil Protection during the period spanning from November 2008 to February 2009. During that period both provinces were struck by widespread precipitations: in November three distinct brief but very intense events brought the monthly precipitation well above the mean value, while the month of December was conversely characterized by heavy and prolonged precipitations whose cumulative amount doubled the monthly mean value. During January and February brief and intense precipitations struck again diffusively the whole studied area. As a consequence of such a prolonged period of abundant rainfall, hundreds of landslides occurred in the provinces of Lucca and Pistoia damaging private and public buildings, assets and infrastructures. The state of emergency was declared by the National Civil Protection from December to February. Rainfall has been without doubt the triggering factor of the landslides, but can some predisposing feature be identified? The answer is decisive for improving risk assessments and for developing effective emergency plans for civil protection purposes. For example, rainfall thresholds can be easily used to set up warning systems that can forecast the time of occurrence of landslides but such methods have a very coarse spatial resolution: the identification of predisposing elements could be helpful to identify the most risky locations in order to reduce the spatial uncertainty. From the Provincial and Regional Civil Protection archives many information about the occurred landslides were gathered and organized into a geographic database making use of a GIS system. Data include the exact location and day of occurrence of the landslides and their type. By means of a GIS analysis, the landslides database was superimposed to various thematic maps (geology, land cover, road network, slope gradient) in order to

  17. Flares in Biopsy-Proven Giant Cell Arteritis in Northern Italy: Characteristics and Predictors in a Long-Term Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Restuccia, Giovanna; Boiardi, Luigi; Cavazza, Alberto; Catanoso, Mariagrazia; Macchioni, Pierluigi; Muratore, Francesco; Cimino, Luca; Aldigeri, Raffaella; Crescentini, Filippo; Pipitone, Nicolò; Salvarani, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the frequency, timing, and characteristics of flares in a large cohort of Italian patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) and to identify factors at diagnosis able to predict the occurrence of flares. We evaluated 157 patients with biopsy-proven transmural GCA diagnosed and followed at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for whom sufficient information was available from the time of diagnosis until at least 4 years of follow-up. Fifty-seven patients (36.5%) experienced ≥1 flares. Fifty-one (46.4%) of the 110 total flares (88 relapses and 22 recurrences) were experienced during the first 2 years after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone ≤ 10 mg/day (82.9%), whereas only 3.4% of relapses occurred for doses ≥ 25 mg/day. Polymyalgia rheumatica (46.5%) and cranial symptoms (41.9%) were the most frequent manifestations at the time of the first relapse. Cumulative prednisone dose during the first year and total cumulative prednisone dose were significantly higher in flaring patients compared with those without flares (7.8 ± 2.4 vs 6.7 ± 2.4 g, P = 0.02; 15.5 ± 8.9 vs 10.0 ± 9.2 g, P = 0.0001, respectively). The total duration of prednisone treatment was longer in flaring patients (58 ± 44 vs 30 ± 30 months, P = 0.0001).Patients with disease flares had at diagnosis more frequently systemic manifestations (P = 0.02) and fever ≥ 38°C (P = 0.02), significantly lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.05), more frequent presence at temporal artery biopsy (TAB) specimens of giant cells (P = 0.04) and intraluminal acute thrombosis (P = 0.007), and more moderate/severe arterial inflammation (P = 0.009) compared with those without flares. In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38 °C (hazard ratio 2.14; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.32, P = 0.03) and the severity of inflammatory infiltrate (moderate

  18. Benthic fluxes of cadmium, lead, copper and nitrogen species in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow, Italy.

    PubMed

    Zago, C; Capodaglio, G; Ceradini, S; Ciceri, G; Abelmoschi, L; Soggia, F; Cescon, P; Scarponi, G

    2000-02-10

    Trace heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Cu) and nitrogen species (N-NO3, N-NO2 and N-NH4) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 4 days, in a coastal marine station located in the northern Adriatic Sea in front of the River Po outflow. An in situ benthic chamber, equipped with electronic devices for monitoring and adjustment of oxygen and pH and with a temperature detector, was used. The benthic chamber experiment enabled study of the temporal trend of metals and nutrients when oxygen concentration varied in a controlled environment. Although particular care was devoted to chamber deposition and parameter control, sediment resuspension occurred at the beginning of the experiment and O2 fluctuations were observed during the course of the experiment. Pb concentration was affected by both resuspension and oxic conditions in bottom water, which prevented determination of any reasonable Pb flux value. Cd and Cu, not influenced by oxygen fluctuations, reached an equilibrium phase in a short period with initial positive fluxes from sediment of 0.68 (S.D. = 0.07) and 6.9 (S.D. = 5.6) pmol cm(-2) h(-1), respectively. With regard to nitrogen species, the highest positive flux was that of N-NH4 (10.5, S.D. = 2.4, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) whose concentration increased in the chamber, while nitrate concentration (initial flux of -5.7, S.D. = 1.5, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)) immediately decreased after the beginning of the experiment. Nitrite concentration was almost constant throughout the experiment and its flux was generally low (initial flux 0.1, S.D. = 0.9, nmol cm(-2) h(-1)). PMID:10696718

  19. Regional uplift and local tectonic deformation recorded by the Quaternary marine terraces on the Ionian coast of northern Calabria (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucci, Luigi; Cinti, Francesca R.

    1998-06-01

    The setting of a flight of marine terraces along a 65-km-long section of the Ionian coast of northern Calabria is the result of the interaction between interglacial sea levels, regional uplift, and local fault-related elevation changes. Seven terraces with corresponding palaeoshoreline angles at elevations ranging from 12 m to ˜420 m were recognised by aerial photo interpretation and field surveying. The terraces were correlated to the oxygen isotope stages 1, 5a, 5c, 5e, 7, 9, 15, which correspond to the 7, 81, 102, 124, 215, 330 and ˜600 ka highstands of the palaeosea-level curve. The ˜600-ka-long regional ascent of the terraces took place at an average uplift rate of 0.67 mm/yr; this value slightly but progressively increases southward along the coastline. The elevation of the strandlines is related to the activity of tectonic structures. Three cases were analysed, allowing us: (1) to recognise the height anomalies of the terraces on the Sibari plain as the result of cumulated coseismic deformation caused by the normal Castrovillari fault, and on this basis calculate a minimum slip rate and a mean recurrence time for a single event of deformation; (2) to exclude the presence of significant vertical deformations and consequently activity on the easternmost section of the normal Pollino fault; and (3) to hypothesise the presence of an hitherto unknown active fault responsible for the strong vertical displacements of the flight of terraces near the river Avena. Finally, we find the ratio of the rate of regional uplift to the average rates of local tectonic deformation to be 2 to 3 : 1.

  20. Emergence of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131 (ST131) and ST3948 with KPC-2, KPC-3 and KPC-8 carbapenemases from a Long-Term Care and Rehabilitation Facility (LTCRF) in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Aurora; Caltagirone, Mariasofia; Bitar, Ibrahim; Nucleo, Elisabetta; Spalla, Melissa; Fogato, Elena; D'Angelo, Roberto; Pagani, Laura; Migliavacca, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the study was to characterize KPC-producing Escherichia coli (KPC-Ec) clinical isolates among a Northern Italy Long-Term Care and Rehabilitation Facility (LTCRF) residents. Thirteen consecutive non repeated MDR E. coli isolates showing ertapenem Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) >0.5 mg/L, collected during the period March 2011 - May 2013 from ASP "Redaelli" inpatients, were investigated. The bla KPC/CTX-M/SHV/TEM/OXA genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. KPC-Ec isolates underwent phylotyping, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) profiling. Incompatibility groups analysis and conjugation were also performed. Eleven out of 13 isolates, resulted bla KPC-type positive, were consistently resistant to third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and trimethoprim-sulphametoxazole (84.6 %), retaining susceptibility to colistin (EUCAST guidelines). At least n = 4/11 of KPC-Ec patients received ≥48 h of meropenem therapy. Sequencing identified 9 bla KPC-2, 1 bla KPC-3 and 1 bla KPC-8 determinants. KPC-Ec plasmids belonged to IncF group (FIIk replicon); conjugation confirmed bla KPC/TEM-1/OXA-9 genes transferability for 10 KPC-Ec. Although three pulsotypes (A, B, C) were identified, all KPC-Ec belonged to phylogenetic group B2. Clone B (B-B5) caused an outbreak of infection involving nine inpatients at five wards. Rep-PCR showed relatedness for seven representative KPC-Ec isolates. Here we report a LTCRF outbreak caused by a ST131-B2 E. coli associated with bla KPC-2 and bla KPC-8 genes, and the emergence of the new ST3948. Elderly people with co-morbidities are at risk for ST131 colonization. KPC-Ec clones local monitoring appears essential both to avoid their spreading among healthcare settings, and to improve therapeutic choices for LTCRF residents. PMID:26810233

  1. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Smiraglia, D; Ceccarelli, T; Bajocco, S; Perini, L; Salvati, L

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  2. Seismic sources and stress transfer interaction among axial normal faults and external thrust fronts in the Northern Apennines (Italy): A working hypothesis based on the 1916-1920 time-space cluster of earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Corti, Giacomo; Donne, Dario Delle; Sani, Federico; Piccardi, Luigi; Vannucci, Gianfranco; Genco, Riccardo; Martelli, Luca; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    In this study we analyse the main potential seismic sources in some axial and frontal sectors of the Northern Apennines, in Italy. This region was hit by a peculiar series of earthquakes that started in 1916 on the external thrust fronts near Rimini. Later, in 1917-1921, seismicity (up to Mw ≈ 6.5) shifted into the axial zone and clearly migrated north-westward, along the belt of active normal faults. The collection of fault-slip data focused on the active normal faults potentially involved in this earthquake series. The acquired data allowed us to better characterize the geometry and kinematics of the faults. In a few instances, the installation of local seismic networks during recent seismic sequences allowed the identification of the causative faults that are hinted to be also responsible for past earthquakes, particularly in the Romagna region and north-eastern Mugello. The Coulomb stress changes produced by the historical earthquakes generally brought closer to failure all the faults that supposedly caused the main seismic events of 1916-1921. However, the stress change magnitude is generally small and thus the static stress interaction among the main seismic sources is not supported by a significant seismic correlation. Significant stress change loading may be instead inferred for the triggering of a number of seismic events on neighbouring normal faults by the Garfagnana 1920 earthquake. In addition, the computation of the seismic stress changes suggests that seismic events with magnitude ≥ 6 may transmit stresses from the axial normal faults to specific external thrusts and vice versa. It is possible that a correlation may be made between loading applied by the major 1917-1920 extensional ruptures and the increased seismicity on the distal external thrusts.

  3. Unraveling Landscape Complexity: Land Use/Land Cover Changes and Landscape Pattern Dynamics (1954-2008) in Contrasting Peri-Urban and Agro-Forest Regions of Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiraglia, D.; Ceccarelli, T.; Bajocco, S.; Perini, L.; Salvati, L.

    2015-10-01

    This study implements an exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics and a change detection analysis of land use and population density to assess landscape dynamics (1954-2008) in two physiographic zones (plain and hilly-mountain area) of Emilia Romagna, northern Italy. The two areas are characterized by different landscape types: a mixed urban-rural landscape dominated by arable land and peri-urban settlements in the plain and a traditional agro-forest landscape in the hilly-mountain area with deciduous and conifer forests, scrublands, meadows, and crop mosaic. Urbanization and, to a lesser extent, agricultural intensification were identified as the processes underlying landscape change in the plain. Land abandonment determining natural forestation and re-forestation driven by man was identified as the process of change most representative of the hilly-mountain area. Trends in landscape metrics indicate a shift toward more fragmented and convoluted patterns in both areas. Number of patches, the interspersion and juxtaposition index, and the large patch index are the metrics discriminating the two areas in terms of landscape patterns in 1954. In 2008, mean patch size, edge density, interspersion and juxtaposition index, and mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance were the metrics with the most different spatial patterns in the two areas. The exploratory data analysis of landscape metrics contributed to link changes over time in both landscape composition and configuration providing a comprehensive picture of landscape transformations in a wealthy European region. Evidence from this study are hoped to inform sustainable land management designed for homogeneous landscape units in similar socioeconomic contexts.

  4. The Pb-rich sulfide veins in the Boccassuolo ophiolite: Implications for the geochemical evolution of hydrothermal activity across the ocean-continent transition in the Ligurian Tethys (Northern-Apennine, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garuti, Giorgio; Zaccarini, Federica; Scacchetti, Maurizio; Bartoli, Omar

    2011-06-01

    Galena bearing sulfide veins have been discovered coexisting with Fe-Cu-Zn dominated veins in the hydrothermal stockwork of the Boccassuolo ophiolite (External Ligurides, Northern Apennine, Italy). The galena-rich veins cut across a volcanic pile composed of pillow lava flows, pillow breccia, and ophiolitic sandstone. Bulk-ore analyses indicate significant enrichment in Pb giving raise to mantle normalized Pb-Ag-Au-Zn-Cu patterns with unusual negative slope, in contrast with the average flat pattern of most sulfide deposits in the Internal Liguride ophiolites which reflect the Fe-Cu-Zn assemblage of ophiolite-hosted Volcanic-associated Massive Sulfide (VMS) deposits all over the world. A wide literature shows that, in contrast with the Internal Ligurides, plutonic and volcanic rocks of the External Ligurides display less depleted and even enriched geochemical characters, not consistent with common oceanic crust at mid oceanic ridges (MOR), but probably originated in the ocean-continent transition of the Adria continental margin. In this geodynamic context, pillow basalts become locally enriched in Pb with high Pb/Cu ratios, and other crustal-compatible elements such as Mo and U. The Pb enrichment observed in the veins Boccassuolo is interpreted to be a result of leaching of such anomalous volcanics forming the ophiolitic substrate. The case of Boccassuolo supports the conclusion that the geochemical character of hydrothermal activity evolved from Cu-Zn rich in MOR-type assemblages of the Internal Ligurides, towards composition enriched in Pb in the External Liguride domain, representing the transition from the Ligurian ocean to the Adria continental margin.

  5. Coupled organic and carbonate δ13C records of the late Triassic and early Jurassic in northern Italy: implications for carbon cycling during the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    A large protracted positive carbon isotope excursion has been observed in the lowermost Jurassic following the end-Triassic mass extinction. However, the lack of paired records from carbonate rocks (δ13Ccarb) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) and limited biostratigraphic constraints leave open the possibility that variations in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg are not correlative and do not represent a shift in the δ13C of the global carbon pool. Consequently, the long term carbon cycle behavior following the end-Triassic mass extinction remains incompletely understood. Here we present the first extended, coupled δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg records of the uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic from stratigraphic sections in the Lombardy Basin of northern Italy. The large positive excursion previously observed in the carbonates also occurs in the organics from the same samples, but with a smaller magnitude. Because few post-depositional mechanisms affect the isotopic composition of Ccarb and Corg in similar ways, the correspondence of the two curves presents strong support for a primary origin for the large positive isotopic excursion. The more muted response of the organics is consistent with variation in the fractionation between carbonates and organic carbon, mixing of contemporaneous organic matter with extrabasinal organic carbon of a constant isotopic composition, or some combination of the two. In either case, the occurrence of the positive excursion in multiple locations globally in both carbonates and organic matter is best explained by a change in the isotopic value of the global carbon reservoir. The elevated δ13C values and increased magnitude of the difference between the carbonates and organics is consistent with the predicted biogeochemical consequences of heightened pCO2. The coincidence of the extinction and carbon cycle disturbance with emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province suggests that volatiles derived from its emplacement were the likely

  6. A 3-D velocity model for earthquake location from combined geological and geophysical data: a case study from the TABOO near fault observatory (Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latorre, Diana; Lupattelli, Andrea; Mirabella, Francesco; Trippetta, Fabio; Valoroso, Luisa; Lomax, Anthony; Di Stefano, Raffaele; Collettini, Cristiano; Chiaraluce, Lauro

    2014-05-01

    Accurate hypocenter location at the crustal scale strongly depends on our knowledge of the 3D velocity structure. The integration of geological and geophysical data, when available, should contribute to a reliable seismic velocity model in order to guarantee high quality earthquake locations as well as their consistency with the geological structure. Here we present a 3D, P- and S-wave velocity model of the Upper Tiber valley region (Northern Apennines) retrieved by combining an extremely robust dataset of surface and sub-surface geological data (seismic reflection profiles and boreholes), in situ and laboratory velocity measurements, and earthquake data. The study area is a portion of the Apennine belt undergoing active extension where a set of high-angle normal faults is detached on the Altotiberina low-angle normal fault (ATF). From 2010, this area hosts a scientific infrastructure (the Alto Tiberina Near Fault Observatory, TABOO; http://taboo.rm.ingv.it/), consisting of a dense array of multi-sensor stations, devoted to studying the earthquakes preparatory phase and the deformation processes along the ATF fault system. The proposed 3D velocity model is a layered model in which irregular shaped surfaces limit the boundaries between main lithological units. The model has been constructed by interpolating depth converted seismic horizons interpreted along 40 seismic reflection profiles (down to 4s two way travel times) that have been calibrated with 6 deep boreholes (down to 5 km depth) and constrained by detailed geological maps and structural surveys data. The layers of the model are characterized by similar rock types and seismic velocity properties. The P- and S-waves velocities for each layer have been derived from velocity measurements coming from both boreholes (sonic logs) and laboratory, where measurements have been performed on analogue natural samples increasing confining pressure in order to simulate crustal conditions. In order to test the 3D velocity

  7. New morpho-stratigraphic constraints for the evolution of the alluvial fan system along the northern slopes of the Taburno-Camposauro Mountains (Calore River basin, Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Natalia; Amato, Vincenzo; Aucelli, Pietro P. C.; Cesarano, Massimo; Filocamo, Francesca; Petrosino, Paola; Rosskopf, Carmen M.; Valente, Ettore; Giralt, Santiago; Casciello, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Calore River Valley is a morphostructural depression located in the inner sector of the Campanian Apennine, between the Taburno-Camposauro and the Matese carbonate massifs. The river is the main left tributary of the Volturno River, it has a meandering channel partially structural-controlled. Numerous morphotectonic clues and historical seismicity data suggest that this part of the Apennine chain was particularly active during the late-Quaternary. In detail, the valley is E-W oriented and presents an asymmetry of the opposed valley slopes. The left side, corresponding to the northern flank of the Camposauro massif, is characterized by a steep slope (70°-35°), partially controlled by a ~E-W oriented fault system, and by a wide less-inclined piedmont aggradation zone. The latter started growing since middle Pleistocene, with the deposition of alluvial fans and slope deposits over the well cemented early Pleistocene breccias of Laiano Synthem. The alluvial fan deposition has been active until present giving rise to three main generations of alluvial fans. The right side of the valley, instead, is characterized by seven orders of fluvial terraces, both of erosional and depositional origin. The quaternary morpho-stratigraphic evolution of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces has been strongly conditioned by the interaction of tectonic phases and climatic variations. A detailed geomorphological study (1:5.000 in scale) was carried out with the aim to map the main depositional and erosional fluvial landforms and to identify the main tectonic lineaments of the area. A detailed field survey allowed to better define the stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental context in which the alluvial deposits developed and also to find chrono-stratigraphic markers. Tephra-stratigraphic analyses were performed on pyroclastic deposits interbedded into the alluvial fan and fluvial successions. At the moment the age of the first generation of alluvial fans is still under

  8. Mineralogy and chemical composition of VMS deposits of northern Apennine ophiolites, Italy: evidence for the influence of country rock type on ore composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccarini, F.; Garuti, G.

    2008-09-01

    In the ophiolites of the Italian northern Apennines, mantle rocks were exposed on the seafloor and eroded prior to the extrusion of pillow basalt and the deposition of pelagic sediments. Various types of VMS deposits occur at different stratigraphic positions in the ophiolite sequence. Stockwork-vein and seafloor-stratiform ore bodies are associated with serpentinized mantle peridotite and serpentinite breccia. A second group of sulfide deposits consist of crosscutting stockwork or conformable stratabound ore bodies emplaced into the pillow basalt, and seafloor-stratiform deposits located at the top of the volcanic pile, in contact with the sedimentary cover. Geochemical and mineralogical differences are observed in the ore and gangue assemblages of the deposits that were formed before the outflow of pillow basalt, and those precipitated during and after basalt extrusion. Compared with basalt-hosted sulfide deposits, the ores associated with serpentinite have a higher Cu/Zn ratio due to a low modal proportion of sphalerite and are enriched in the compatible elements Ni, Cr, and Mg. The Co and Ni of the ores reflect those of pyrite. The Co/Ni ratios of pyrite range from 0.29 to 1.79 (av. = 0.74) in serpentinite-hosted deposits and from 1.09 to 8.0 (av. = 2.59) in basalt-hosted deposits. The composition of chlorite varies from Cr-rich, Mg-clinochlore, in serpentinite-hosted deposits, to Fe-clinochlore with relatively high Mn contents, in basalt-hosted deposits. The sulfides in serpentinite contain accessory chromite that is compositionally similar to chromian spinels from abyssal peridotites. The observed geochemical variations among the various ore types are due to the interaction of the ore-forming fluids with different types of country rock (ultramafic vs. mafic), which involves hydrothermal leaching of metals from the substrate, rock-fluid reactions at the site of ore deposition and the mechanical transfer of detrital material from the country rock to the ore

  9. Time Trend Analysis of Cancer‏ Incidence in Caspian Sea, 2004 – 2009: A Population-based Cancer Registries Study (northern Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Salehiniya, Hamid; Ghobadi Dashdebi, Sakineh; Rafiemanesh, Hosein; Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Abdollah; Enayatrad, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a major public health problem in the world. In Iran especially after a transition to a dynamic and urban community, the pattern of cancer has changed significantly. An important change occurred regarding the incidence of cancer at the southern shores of the Caspian Sea, including Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan province. This study was designed it investigate the epidemiology and changes in trend o